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Sample records for luminol chemiluminescence reaction

  1. Catalysis by manganese (III) 8-hydroxyquinolinates of the chemiluminescent reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinichenko, I.E.; Matveeva, E.Y.; Pilipenko, A.T.

    1985-09-01

    This paper examines the kinetics of the reaction of luminol with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in the presence of Mn (III) 8-hydroxyquinolinate according to the data of measurements of the chemiluminescence intensity and the yield of light in this reaction. A reaction mechanism was proposed, providing for the oxidation of luminol by complexes of Mn (IV) that are formed in the decoposition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  2. Sensitive chemiluminescence determination of thirteen cephalosporin antibiotics with luminol-copper(II) reaction.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianxiu; Li, Hong

    2010-10-01

    A new chemiluminescence reaction, the luminol-Cu(2+) reaction, was investigated for the determination of thirteen (13) cephalosporin antibiotics, namely cefalexin, cefadroxil, cefradine, cefazolin sodium, cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime sodium, cefoperazone sodium, ceftriaxone sodium, ceftazidime, cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride, cefixime, and cefpodoxime. It was found that, without adding any special oxidant, strong chemiluminescent (CL) signal could be produced from the reaction of the alkaline luminol with the above-mentioned antibiotics in the presence of Cu(2+). The experimental conditions for the reaction were carefully optimized with flow-injection mode. The detection limits are 0.3 ng/mL cefalexin, 3 ng/mL cefadroxil, 0.3 ng/mL cefradine, 0.02 μg/mL cefazolin sodium, 0.8 ng/mL cefaclor, 0.02 μg/mL cefuroxime axetil, 5 ng/mL cefotaxime sodium, 0.02 μg/mL cefoperazone sodium, 0.8 ng/mL ceftriaxone sodium, 1 ng/mL ceftazidime, 0.08 ng/mL cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride, 0.8 ng/mL cefixime, and 2 ng/mL cefpodoxime. The proposed method was validated by direct application to commercial formulations and spiked milk samples containing cefradine. A possible reaction mechanism is also discussed. PMID:20925986

  3. Steric Enhancement of the Chemiluminescence of Luminols.

    PubMed

    Griesbeck, Axel G; Díaz-Miara, Yrene; Fichtler, Robert; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Sampedro, Diego

    2015-07-01

    A surprising 20-fold increase in chemiluminescence efficiency was observed for dialkyl luminol derivatives in comparison with the parent compound. This effect could be a direct consequence of steric gearing which facilitates the transition from the intermediate endoperoxide to the electronically excited phthalate. Mechanistic aspects of this process have been supported by computational calculations (CASPT2//CASSCF). PMID:26041370

  4. Determination of cysteine and glutathione based on the inhibition of the dinuclear Cu(II)-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Ehsani, Mahjoobeh; Khajvand, Tahereh; Golchoubian, Hamid; Rezaee, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    The catalyzed luminol chemiluminescent reaction has received a great amount of attention because of its high sensitivity and low background signal which make the reaction an attractive analytical chemistry tool. The present study, introduces the beneficial catalytic effects of dinuclear Cu(II) complex [Cu2L2(TAE)]X2, where TAE = tetraacetylethane; L = N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine and X = ClO4 on the luminol chemiluminescent reaction as a novel probe for the determination of glutathione (GSH) and L-cysteine (CySH) in human serum and urine. The [Cu2L2(TAE)]X2 has exhibited highly efficient catalytic activity of luminol CL as an artificial peroxidase model at pH as low as 7.5 in water in the presence of H2O2ṡGSH and CySH can induce a sharp decrease in CL intensity from the [Cu2L2(TAE)]X2-catalyzed luminol system. Under the selected experimental conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentrations of GSH and CySH in the range of 1.0 × 10-7-1.0 × 10-4 M, with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 2.7 × 10-8 and 6.8 × 10-8 M and RSD < 4.2% (n = 7) for GSH and CySH, respectively.

  5. Determination of phenol by flow-injection with chemiluminescence detection based on the hemin-catalysed luminol-hydrogen peroxide reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenwen; Cao, Wei; Liu, Weihua; Du, Kang; Gong, Pixue

    2012-01-01

    This study established a novel flow injection (FI) methodology for the determination of phenol in aqueous samples based on luminol chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The method was based on the inhibition that phenol caused on the hemin-catalysed chemiluminescence reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution. Optimum conditions and possible mechanisms have been investigated. The linear range was 2.0 × 10 -9 to 4.0 × 10 -7 g mL -1 for phenol. The proposed method is sensitive with a detection limit of 4.0 × 10 -10 g mL -1. The relative standard deviation for 11 measurements was 2.3% for 1.0 × 10 -7g mL -1 phenol. The method was applied for the determination of phenol in waste water samples. The results obtained compared well with those by an official method.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Luminol Persulphate Chemiluminescence in Aqueous Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, V. M.; More, P. S.; Khollam, Y. B.; Sonone, R. S.; Kondawar, S. B.; Koinkar, Pankaj

    The chemiluminescence (CL) emission spectra of luminol were recorded using Fuss spectrograph in different aqueous aliphatic amines using sodium persulphate alone and mixture with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. The CL emission spectra after resolution showed two emission bands at 425 and 455 nm. The CL mechanism was explained on the basis of two exited state species formed during oxidation of luminol. The CL of luminol is found to be very weak as persulphate slowly produced oxygen. The glow become intense with time as more and more oxygen is made available for oxidation of luminol. The mixture of hydrogen peroxide and sodium persulphate is found to be more effective in producing intense and long lived CL glow for luminol. The CL emission band of luminol by using sodium persulphate and mixture with hydrogen peroxide is explained on the basis of formation of exited singlet and triplet state of 3-aminophthalate ion (3-APA). The shorter wavelength emission band of 425 nm is found to be very weak in intensity as compared to longer wavelength emission band of 455 nm. Thus phosphoresce is favored in case of persulphate CL of luminol.

  7. Towards chemiluminescence detection in micro-sequential injection lab-on-valve format: a proof of concept based on the reaction between Fe(II) and luminol in seawater.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hugo M; Grand, Maxime M; Ruzicka, Jaromir; Measures, Christopher I

    2015-02-01

    Micro-sequential injection lab-on-valve (µSI-LOV) is a well-established analytical platform for absorbance and fluorescence based assays but its applicability to chemiluminescence detection remains largely unexplored. In this work, we describe a novel fluidic protocol and two distinct strategies for photon collection that enable chemiluminescence detection using µSI-LOV for the first time. To illustrate this proof of concept, we selected the reaction between Fe(II) and luminol and developed a preliminary protocol for Fe(II) determinations in acidified seawater. The optimized fluidic strategy consists of holding 100 µL of the luminol reagent in a confined zone of the LOV and then displacing it with 50 µL of sample while monitoring the chemiluminescent product. Detection is achieved using two strategies: one based on a bifurcated optical fiber and the other based on a customized detection window created by mounting a photomultiplier tube atop of the LOV device. We show that detection is possible using both strategies but that the window strategy yields significantly enhanced sensitivity (355×) due to the larger detection area. In our final experimental conditions and using window detection, it was possible to achieve a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 nmol L(-1) and to quantify Fe(II) in acidified seawater samples up to 20.00 nmol L(-1) with high precision (RSD<6%). These analytical features combined with the long-term stability of luminol solution and the full automation and low reagent consumption make this approach a promising analytical tool for shipboard analysis of Fe(II). The intrinsic capacity of the LOV to operate at a low microliter level and to handle solid phases also opens up a new avenue for chemiluminescence applications. Moreover, this contribution shows that LOV can be a universal platform for optical detection, capable of absorbance, fluorescence and luminescence measurements in a single instrument setup. PMID:25435235

  8. Effects of neopterin-derivatives on H2O2-induced luminol chemiluminescence: mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Murr, C; Baier-Bitterlich, G; Fuchs, D; Werner, E R; Esterbauer, H; Pfleiderer, W; Wachter, H

    1996-01-01

    Neopterin, 6-D-erythro-1',2',3'-trihydroxypropyl-pterin, and its dihydroform, 7,8-dihydro-neopterin, are synthesized by human monocytes/macrophages upon stimulation by interferon-gamma. In the presence of iron chelator complexes neopterin enhances hydrogen peroxide-induced luminol chemiluminescence at neutral or slightly alkaline pH (7.5). In contrast, 7,8-dihydroneopterin scavenges chemiluminescence independently from the pH value and iron. In this study, we explored in more detail the mechanism possibly involved: analysis of the reaction products shows that 7,8-dihydroneopterin is oxidized and degraded to 7,8-dihydroxanthopterin and xanthopterin, whereas the neopterin molecule is not chemically altered during the chemiluminescence reaction. Investigations of the neopterin-induced effect show that mannitol, a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals, does not alter the enhancing effect of neopterin. L-histidine, which scavenges singlet oxygen almost as effective as hydroxyl radicals, reduces the enhancing effect of neopterin. However, singlet oxygen was not detectable during the reaction by measuring monomol light emission (1270 nm). When replacing hydrogen peroxide by 3-morpholinosydnonimine, a generator of hydroxyl radicals, or naphthalene-endoperoxide, a generator of singlet oxygen, in the luminol chemiluminescence assay, neopterin shows no enhancing effect irrespective of the presence of iron-(III)-EDTA. The data suggest that neopterin enhances hydrogen peroxide-induced luminol chemiluminescence in the presence of iron-(III)-EDTA by formation of a catalytic complex that seems to favor the formation of oxygen intermediates which derive from hydrogen peroxide and react with luminol. PMID:8886794

  9. Enhancing effect of hydrazine on chemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, M.; Tiwari, A.; Brahme, N.; Kher, R. S.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2013-05-01

    Enhancement in chemiluminescence (CL) signals was obtained when an aqueous alkaline solution of hydrazine was mixed with a luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. The CL intensity is a linear function of hydrazine concentration over a range of 1-10 μg/ml. Several variables on the CL response were examined for the determination of optimum conditions for the system. A possible mechanism of the CL reaction is also discussed.

  10. Luminol-silver nitrate chemiluminescence enhancement induced by cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenbing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yuming

    2011-01-01

    CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) could stimulate the weak chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol and AgNO(3), resulting in a strong CL emission. The UV-visible spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra and TEM images of the investigated system revealed that AgNO(3) was reduced by luminol to Ag in the presence of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs and the formed Ag covered the surface of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, resulting in CoFe(2)O(4)-Ag core-shell nanoparticles. Investigation of the CL reaction kinetics demonstrated that the reaction among luminol, AgNO(3) and CoFe(2)O(4) NPs was fast at the beginning and slowed down later. The CL spectra of the luminol - AgNO(3) - CoFe(2)O(4) NPs system indicated that the luminophor was still an electronically excited 3-aminophthalate anion. A CL mechanism has been postulated. When the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs were injected into the mixture of luminol and AgNO(3), they catalyzed the reduction of AgNO(3) by luminol to produce luminol radicals and Ag, which immediately covered the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs to form CoFe(2)O(4)-Ag core-shell nanoparticles, and the luminol radicals reacted with the dissolved oxygen, leading to a strong CL emission. With the continuous deposition of Ag on the surface of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, the catalytic activity of the core-shell nanoparticles was inhibited and a decrease in CL intensity was observed and also a slow growth of shell on the nanoparticles. PMID:21400653

  11. Study on the chemiluminescence behavior of bovine serum albumin with luminol and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua; Chen, Donghua; Wang, Zhuming

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, the luminescence behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and luminol was first studied by flow injection chemiluminescence (CL). It was found that the hyperchromic effect of luminol in the presence of BSA led to the acceleration of the electrons transferring rate of excited 3-aminophthalate, which greatly enhanced the CL intensity of luminol/dissolved oxygen reaction. The increments of CL intensity were proportional to the concentrations of BSA with a linear range from 0.01 to 7 nmol L -1. It was also found that azithromycin could inhibit the CL intensity of luminol/BSA reaction. The decrements of CL intensity were logarithm over the concentrations of azithromycin ranging from 0.1 to 700 ng mL -1. At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min -1, a complete analytical process, which included sampling and washing, could be performed within 30 s with relative standard deviations of less than 3.1%. This proposed method was successfully applied in assaying azithromycin in pharmaceutical and human serum samples with recoveries from 91.0 to 104.3%. The possible luminescence mechanism of luminol/BSA/azithromycin reaction was discussed in detail by CL, UV and fluorescence methods.

  12. The effect of electrode material on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, J.E.; Johnson, D.C. ); Engstrom, R.C. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on the oxidation of luminol and its concomitant electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) which were studied at several electrode materials by voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The ECL intensity (I{sub ECL}) was inversely related to the activity of the electrodes. The lowest I{sub ECL}) was measured when luminol was oxidized to 3-aminophthalate (n {approx equal}4 eq mol{sup {minus}1}) at a nearly mass-transport limited rate at glassy carbon. The ECL kinetics were studied and the order of the reaction with respect to luminol was 3/2 at concentrations to ca. 1 mM when O{sub 2} was the coreactant. In the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the ECL reaction was first order with respect to luminol. A reaction mechanism is proposed that is consistent with the inetic data and the inverse relationship between electrode activity and I{sub ECL}. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to imaging the spatial distribution of current density at electrode surfaces, including that of PbO{sub 2} films activated by adsorbed Bi(V). A value of 6.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} was determined for the diffusion coefficient of luminol in 0.1M NaOH.

  13. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of dihydralazine sulfate in serum using luminol and diperiodatocuprate (III) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunyan; Zhang, Zhujun; Wang, Jinli

    2010-01-01

    A novel flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of dihydralazine sulfate (DHZS) is described. The method is based on the reaction of luminol and diperiodatocuprate (K 2[Cu(H 2IO 6)(OH) 2], DPC) in alkaline medium to emit CL, which is greatly enhanced by DHZS. The possible CL mechanism was first proposed based on the kinetic characteristic, CL spectrum and UV spectra. The optimum condition for the CL reaction was in detail studied using flow-injection system. The experiments indicated that under optimum condition, the CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of DHZS in the range of 7.0 × 10 -9 to 8.6 × 10 -7 g mL -1 with a detection limit (3 σ) of 2.1 × 10 -9 g mL -1. The proposed method had good reproducibility with the relative standard deviation 3.1% ( n = 7) for 5.2 × 10 -8 g mL -1 of DHZS. This method has the advantages of simple operation, fast response and high sensitivity. The special advantage of the system is that very low concentration of luminol can react with DPC catalyzed by DHZS to get excellent experiment results. And CL cannot be observed nearly when luminol with same concentration reacts with other oxidants, so luminol-DPC system has higher selectivity than other luminol CL systems. The method has been successfully applied to determine DHZS in serum.

  14. Determination of ferric iron chelators by high-performance liquid chromatography using luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Tomoko; Imura, Yuki; Suzuki, Michio; Yoshimura, Etsuro

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential element for higher plants, and its acquisition and transportation is one of the greatest limiting factors for plant growth because of its low solubility in normal soil pHs. Higher plants biosynthesize ferric iron [Fe(III)] chelator (FIC), which solubilizes the iron and transports it to the rhizosphere. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) post-column method has been developed for the analysis of FICs using the luminol/H2O2 system for chemiluminescence (CL) detection. A size-exclusion column was the most suited in terms of column efficiency and CL detection efficiency. Mixing of the luminol with H2O2 in a post-column reaction was feasible, and a two-pump system was used to separately deliver the luminol and H2O2 solutions. The luminol and H2O2 concentrations were optimized using Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-citrate (Cit) solutions as analytes. A strong CL intensity was obtained for Fe(III)-Cit when EDTA was added to the luminol solution, probably because of an exchange of Cit with EDTA after separation on the HPLC column; CL efficiency was much higher for Fe(III)-EDTA than for Fe(III)-Cit with the luminol/H2O2 system. The present method can detect minute levels of Fe(III)-FICs; the detection limits of Fe(III)-EDTA, Fe(III)-Cit and Fe(III)-nicotianamine were 0.77, 2.3 and 1.1pmol, respectively. PMID:26874881

  15. Magnetic modulation of the chemiluminescence intensity in the oxidation of luminol by potassium ferricyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Tribel', M.M.; Frankevich, E.L.; Leksin, A.N.; Morozov, A.K.

    1986-04-01

    This paper attempts the experimental detection and investigation of the magnetic field-dependent radical steps in the oxidation of luminol by potassium ferricyanide. It was found that it is in fact possible to affect the chemiluminescence yield by the use of a low intensity magnetic field (ca 100 Oe) and to relate the observed effect to a hyperfine interaction in the radical pairs formed during the reaction. Solutions of LH/sub 2/ and K/sub 3/Fe (CN)/sub 6/ in alkaline aqueous solution (0.1 M NaOH) were delivered continuously through a mixer into an optical cuvette. A block diagram of the equipment is shown. The chemiluminescent light was directed through a light guide to an FEU-79 photoamplifier, protected by a special shield from the action of scattered magnetic fields. The derivative of the magnetic effect was examined and it was established that there is no deviation from saturation of the magnetic effect up to 3.5 kOe. The results demonstrate that in the stages preceding the formation of light emitter an interaction occurs between two paramagnetic particles. It is also shown that it is in principle possible to record the ESR spectrum of these luminol radicals with respect to the chemiluminescence, using the reaction-yield-detected magnetic resonance method.

  16. Chemiluminescence determination of surfactant Triton X-100 in environmental water with luminol-hydrogen peroxide system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Aifang; Zhou, Baohui; Qiu, Chaokun; Ren, Hongmin

    2009-01-01

    Background The rapid, simple determination of surfactants in environmental samples is essential because of the extensive use and its potential as contaminants. We describe a simple, rapid chemiluminescence method for the direct determination of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether) in environmental water samples. The optimized experimental conditions were selected, and the mechanism of the Luminol-H2O2-Triton X-100 chemiluminesence system was also studied. Results The novel chemiluminescence method for the determination of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was based on the phenomenon that Triton X-100 greatly enhanced the CL signal of the luminol-H2O2 system. The alkaline medium of luminol and the pH value obviously affected the results. Luminol concentration and hydrogen peroxide concentration also affected the results. The optimal conditions were: Na2CO3 being the medium, pH value 12.5, luminol concentration 1.0 × 10-4 mol L-1, H2O2 concentration 0.4 mol L-1. The possible mechanism was studied and proposed. Conclusion Under the optimal conditions, the standard curve was drawn up and quotas were evaluated. The linear range was 2 × 10-4 g·mL-1-4 × 10-2 g·mL-1 (w/v), and the detection limit was 3.97 × 10-5 g·mL-1 Triton X-100 (w/v). The relative standard deviation was less than 4.73% for 2 × 10-2 g·mL-1 (w/v) Triton X-100 (n = 7). This method has been applied to the determination of Triton X-100 in environmental water samples. The desirable recovery ratio was between 96%–102% and the relative standard deviation was 2.5%–3.3%. The luminescence mechanism was also discussed in detail based on the fluorescence spectrum and the kinetic curve, and demonstrated that Triton X-100-luminol-H2O2 was a rapid reaction. PMID:19570217

  17. Luminol chemiluminescence biosensor for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in human blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kwang-Soo; Lee, JungHoon; Park, Jong-Myeon; Choi, Han Nim; Lee, Won-Yong

    2016-01-15

    Luminol chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor based on boronic acid modified gold substrate has been developed for the determination of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in human blood samples. In order to selectively capture HbA1c in sample, carboxy-EG6-undecanethiol was self-assembled on a gold thin-film substrate, followed by covalent coupling of 3-aminophenyl boronic acid (3-APBA). The captured HbA1c containing four iron heme groups plays as a catalyst for luminol CL reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and thus the luminol CL response is linearly proportional to the amount of HbA1c captured on the biosensor surface. The present biosensor showed linear dynamic range of HbA1c from 2.5% to 17.0%, which well covers the clinically important concentration range. In addition, the present biosensor exhibited negligible response to interfering species such as hemoglobin, fructose, and sorbitol. The present HbA1c biosensor was applied to the determination of HbA1c in human blood samples and the results were well agreed with that obtained with a conventional method. PMID:26298641

  18. Chemiluminescent detection of artemisinin. Novel endoperoxide analysis using luminol without hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Green, M D; Mount, D L; Todd, G D; Capomacchia, A C

    1995-03-31

    A novel method for artemisinin quantitation employing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection in the absence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is reported. After elution from the HPLC column, artemisinin is combined with an alkaline solution of hematin and luminol. The resulting CL signal is detected by use of a spectrofluorometer with the excitation lamp disabled, and is proportional to artemisinin concentration. The CL method was optimized and applied to the analysis of artemisinin in spiked human serum. CL in the absence of H2O2 or other known oxidizing species is remarkable since such oxidizers are usually required to produce CL from luminol under alkaline conditions. Artemisinin, a naturally occurring sesquiterpene, is one of several natural products that contain an endoperoxide functional group. Since H2O2 is not needed in the analysis, the endoperoxide moiety on artemisinin is implicated as a contributing source of superoxide radicals required for the light-producing reaction with luminol. PMID:7757205

  19. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of polyphenols using luminol-NaIO4-gold nanoparticles system.

    PubMed

    Li, Shifeng; Li, Xiangzi; Xu, Jing; Wei, Xianwen

    2008-03-15

    It was found that gold nanoparticles with different sizes could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-NaIO4 system in alkaline solution. The most intensive CL signals were obtained with gold nanoparticles in diameter of 4 nm and the CL intensity increased linearly with the concentration of gold nanoparticles. The studies of UV-vis spectra, CL spectra, effects of concentrations of luminol and periodate solution were carried out to explore the CL enhancement mechanism. Catechol, hydroquinone and resorcinol were found to inhibit the CL signals of the luminol-NaIO4 reaction catalyzed by gold nanoparticles, which made it applicable for the determination of these polyphenols. Under the selected experimental conditions, the detection limits (3sigma) were in the range of 2.1 x 10(-9) to 1.0 x 10(-10) g ml(-1), the relative standard deviation (R.S.D., n=11) were in the range of 1.7-2.9%. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of catechol in tap water and synthesized samples with satisfactory results. PMID:18371843

  20. Pharmacokinetic of pseudoephedrine in rat serum with luminol-pepsin chemiluminescence system by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Li, Yajuan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenghua

    2015-02-01

    Pepsin (Pep) accelerated the electron transferring rate of excited 3-aminophathlate and enhanced luminol-dissolved oxygen chemiluminescence (CL) intensity, and the flow injection (FI) luminol-Pep CL system was first developed. It was found that the CL intensity of luminol-Pep reaction could be remarkably inhibited by pseudoephedrine (PE); the decrement of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of PE concentration in the range of 0.1?100.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 nmol mL(-1) (3?). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), the complete process including washing and sampling was performed within 40 s, offering a sample throughput of 90 h(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to determining PE in rat serum for 18 h after intragastric administration with the elimination ratio of 42.34 % and recoveries from 90.3 to 110.6 %. The pharmacokinetic results showed that PE could be rapidly absorbed into serum with peak concentration (C max) of 1.45??0.18 g L(-1) at the time (T max) of 1.49??0.02 h; the absorption half-life (0.35??0.04 h), elimination half-life (1.86??0.24 h), the area under curve (109.81??6.03 mg L(-1) h(-1)), mean residence time (3.82??0.27 h), and elimination rate constant (2.26??0.23 L g(-1) h(-1)) in rats vivo were derived, respectively. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-Pep-PE reaction was discussed by FI-CL, fluorescence, and molecular docking (MD) methods. PMID:25427591

  1. Trace analysis of phosphorus in water by sorption preconcentration and luminol chemiluminescence

    PubMed

    Zui; Birks

    2000-04-01

    A new, highly sensitive chemiluminescence method for the determination of sub-ppb quantities of phosphorus in water is described. The method is based on sorption preconcentration of phosphorus as a yellow vanadomolybdophosphoric heteropoly acid (HPA) in the presence or absence of a cationic surfactant on a paper filter, followed by direct chemiluminescence detection of the phosphorus concentrate via reaction with an alkaline luminol solution. The molar ratio of cationic surfactant to HPA in the ion associate sorbed on the filter is 4:1. The detection limits for phosphorus are 0.02 microgram of P L-1 in the presence of surfactant and 0.1 microgram of P L-1 in the absence of surfactant for a sample volume of 150 mL. The calibration plot is linear from 0.06 to 1.7 micrograms of P L-1 in the presence of a surfactant, and the time required for analysis is 25 min. In the absence of surfactant, the selectivities against Si4+ and As5+ are 5 and 40 times greater than those for the standard colorimetric method based on the formation of the blue molybdophosphoric HPA. Applications of the method to the analyses of river water, seawater, and the turbine vapor condensate from a coal-fired power plant are described. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity advantage of the chemiluminescence technique can be combined with the magnesium-induced coprecipitation (MAGIC) method for a more selective measurement of soluble reactive phosphorus. PMID:10763271

  2. Iodophenol blue-enhanced luminol chemiluminescence and its application to hydrogen peroxide and glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dalong; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Yanjun; Fan, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we found that iodophenol blue can enhance the weak chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol-H2O2 system. With the aid of CL spectral, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral measurements and studies on the effects of various free radical scavengers on the iodophenol blue-enhanced luminol-H2O2 system, we speculated that iodophenol blue may react with H2O2 and oxygen to produce oxidizing radical species such as OH(•) and O2(•-) resulting the formation of (1)O2. The generated (1)O2 may react with luminol anion generating an unstable endoperoxide and subsequent 3-aminophthalate* (3-APA*). When the excited-state 3-APA returned to the ground-state, an enhanced CL was observed. Based on the H2O2 concentration dependence of the catalytic activity of iodophenol blue, a cheap, simple, sensitive CL assay for the determination of H2O2 was established. Under the optimum experimental conditions, a linear relationship between the relative CL intensity and H2O2 concentration in the range of 0.025-10 μM was obtained. As low as 14 nM H2O2 can be sensitively detected by using the proposed method. The relative standard deviation for 5, 1 and 0.25 μM H2O2 was 2.58%, 5.16% and 4.66%, respectively. By combining the glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalyzed oxidation reaction, CL detection of glucose was realized. The linear range of glucose detection was 0.1-30 μM with a detection limit of 0.06 μM. The proposed method has been applied to the detection of glucose in diluted serum. PMID:26695314

  3. Encapsulation of Hemin in Metal-Organic Frameworks for Catalyzing the Chemiluminescence Reaction of the H2O2-Luminol System and Detecting Glucose in the Neutral Condition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fenqiang; Lin, Yaolin; Zheng, Liyan; Lin, Xiaomei; Chi, Yuwu

    2015-06-01

    Novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based solid catalysts have been synthesized by encapsulating Hemin into the HKUST-1 MOF materials. These have been first applied in the chemiluminescence field with outstanding performance. The functionalized MOFs not only maintain an excellent catalytic activity inheriting from Hemin but also can be cyclically utilized as solid mimic peroxidases in the neutral condition. The synthesized Hemin@HKUST-1 composites have been used to develop practical sensors for H2O2 and glucose with wide response ranges and low detection limits. It was envisioned that catalyst-functionalized MOFs for chemiluminescence sensing would have promising applications in green, selective, and sensitive detection of target analytes in the future. PMID:25928385

  4. Diimine ligand as a novel chemiluminescence enhancer of luminol-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Smanmoo, Chaivat; Yamasuji, Mutsumi; Sagawa, Tomoko; Shibata, Takayuki; Kabashima, Tsutomu; Yuan, De-Qi; Fujita, Kahee; Kai, Masaaki

    2009-03-15

    A series of diimine ligands (DLs) have been synthesized and evaluated for their non-enzymatic chemiluminescence (CL) enhancement of isoluminol or luminol-containing compounds. Of the DLs, N,N'-bis(m-hydroxylbenzylidene)propylenediamine (DL 10) was found to greatly enhance their CLs approximately 40 folds for isoluminol, 10 folds for luminol and 6 folds for a luminol-containing polymer. The CL enhancement of the compounds was observed in the presence of CH(3)CN, H(2)O(2), tetra-n-propylammonium hydroxide (TPA), and Fe (III) ion. The possible mechanism of this CL enhancement was discussed on the basis of the chelate formation of the ligand and the metal ions. PMID:19159795

  5. Stimulation of alveolar macrophages by mineral dusts in vitro: luminol-dependent chemiluminescence study

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, V.; Wilhelm, J.; Brzak, P.; Hurych, J.

    1987-02-01

    Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) of normal (nonactivated) rabbit alveolar macrophages (AMs) was measured in suspension upon stimulation by various size fractions of one quartz dust sample or by various mineral dusts (quartz, corundum, anatas, and chrysotile asbestos as an example of fibrous dust). The CL-triggering capacity of the tested dusts was inhibited by their preincubation with autologous serum. The intensity of luminol-dependent CL induced by particulate dusts upon their action on AMs depended on the kind of dust, on the dust particle sizes, and on the ratio of the number of particles to the number of cells in a given suspension. The cytotoxicity and/or fibrogenicity of the dust and its capacity to trigger the luminol-dependent CL of nonadherent AMs were not directly correlated.

  6. [Active oxygen and anti-inflammatory drug: measurement by luminol dependent chemiluminescence].

    PubMed

    Mibu, H; Hasegawa, J; Niwa, M; Nozaki, M; Tsurumi, K; Fujimura, H

    1984-04-01

    The active oxygen produced from stimulated phagocytic cells emits luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) upon reaction with luminol. So the active oxygen was measured by using the CL and the results of this were compared with those by the LDH-NADH method. Moreover, effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on the generation of active oxygen were studied by both methods. Rat peritoneal and pleural exudated cells (PEEC and PLEC) emitted strong CL on incubation with zymosan, but that from rat whole blood cells was very weak. The effects of superoxide dismutase, catalase, NaN3 and L-ascorbic acid on the generation of active oxygen from rat phagocytic cells were different between CL and LDH-NADH methods. These discrepancies seem to be due to the different kinds of active oxygen that can be measured by both methods. Except for BW-755C, most of the NSAID had only a slight inhibitory effect on the generation of active oxygen measured by both methods, and the ex vivo effect was the same as that observed in vitro. It may be considered that NSAID decrease the phagocytic function of cells by non-specifically stabilizing the biological membrane and inhibit slightly the generation of active oxygen from phagocytes. On the other hand, the CL method could be performed not only in PEEC and PLEC, but also in whole blood cells. From these results, it was suggested that CL measurement can be used as a simple and valuable method for the detection of all types of active oxygen including superoxide anion radical and its metabolites and for testing cellular functions and drug actions on them. PMID:6745813

  7. Luminol-Based Chemiluminescent Signals: Clinical and Non-clinical Application and Future Uses

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Parvez; Idrees, Danish; Moxley, Michael A.; Corbett, John A.; Ahmad, Faizan; von Figura, Guido; Sly, William S.; Waheed, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) is an important method for quantification and analysis of various macromolecules. A wide range of CL agents such as luminol, hydrogen peroxide, fluorescein, dioxetanes and derivatives of oxalate, and acridinium dyes are used according to their biological specificity and utility. This review describes the application of luminol chemiluminescence (LCL) in forensic, biomedical, and clinical sciences. LCL is a very useful detection method due to its selectivity, simplicity, low cost, and high sensitivity. LCL has a dynamic range of applications, including quantification and detection of macro and micromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, and RNA. Luminol-based methods are used in environmental monitoring as biosensors, in the pharmaceutical industry for cellular localization and as biological tracers, and in reporter gene-based assays and several other immunoassays. Here, we also provide information about different compounds that may enhance or inhibit the LCL along with the effect of pH and concentration on LCL. This review covers most of the significant information related to the applications of luminol in different fields. PMID:24752935

  8. Effect of homocysteine on polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Mordente, A; Persichilli, S; Giardina, B; De Sole, P

    2000-01-01

    Homocysteine is a non-protein-forming sulphur amino acid that plays an important role in remethylation and trans-sulphuration processes. In recent years, a high plasma homocysteine concentration has been implied as a possible pathophysiological factor in atherosclerosis and artery and deep vein thrombosis, probably through generation of H(2)O(2), enhanced platelet activity and increased production of macrophage-derived tissue factor. Furthermore, an increase of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) activity mediated by homocysteine-generated H(2)O(2) has also been reported. Because some preliminary experimental results in our laboratory did not confirm this effect of homocysteine on PMNs, we investigated the effect of homocysteine on the activity of PMNs, measured by their luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Moreover, we also studied the effect of homocysteine in a luminol-hypochlorite chemiluminescent system. Our results clearly indicate that homocysteine at micromol/L concentrations (10-100 micromol/L) slightly inhibits neutrophil chemiluminescence, while it strongly inhibits the luminescence of the luminol-hypochlorite system. Therefore, the hypothesis that homocysteine induces an increase of H(2)O(2)-mediated neutrophil activity is not supported and, probably, the common opinion that views the H(2)O(2) generated by homocysteine as a possible mechanism for cardiovascular damage should be reconsidered. PMID:10931639

  9. Employment of 4-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenol as a signal enhancer of the chemiluminescent luminol-H2 O2 -horseradish peroxidase reaction for detection of hepatitis C virus in real samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Lili; Fu, Chuanyun; Wang, Yunshan; Sun, Shanhui

    2015-12-01

    Highly sensitive detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in serum is a key method for diagnosing and classifying the extent of HCV infection. In this study, a p-phenol derivative, 4-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenol (4-TRP), was employed as an efficient enhancer of the luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) chemiluminescence (CL) system for detection of HCV. Compared with a traditional enhancer, 4-TRP strongly enhanced CL intensity with the effect of prolonging and stabilizing light emission. The developed CL system was applied to detecting HCV core antigen (HCV-cAg) using a sandwich structure inside microwells. Our experimental results showed that there was good linear relationship between CL intensity and HCV-cAg concentration in the 0.6-3.6 pg/mL range (R = 0.99). The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.5-5.8% and 5.0-7.3%, respectively. In addition, sensitive determination of HCV-cAg in serum samples using the luminol-H2 O2 -HRP-4-TRP CL system was also feasible in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25820800

  10. A novel luminol chemiluminescent method catalyzed by silver/gold alloy nanoparticles for determination of anticancer drug flutamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Azizi, Seyed Naser; Heidarpour, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    It was found that silver/gold alloy nanoparticles enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-H2O2 system in alkaline solution. The studies of UV-Vis spectra, CL spectra, effects of concentrations luminol, hydrogen peroxide and silver/gold alloy nanoparticles solutions were carried out to explore the CL enhancement mechanism. Flutamide was found to quench the CL signals of the luminol-H2O2 reaction catalyzed by silver/gold alloy nanoparticles, which made it applicable for the determination of flutamide. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity is proportional to the concentration of the flutamide in solution over the range 5.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 mol L-1. Detection limit was obtained 1.2 × 10-8 mol L-1and the relative standard deviation (RSD) γ5%. This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of flutamide in commercial tablets. Box-Behnken experimental design is applied to investigate and validate the CL measurement parameters.

  11. Flow Injection Photosensitized Chemiluminescence of Luminol with Cu(II)-Rose Bengal: Mechanistic Approach and Vitamin A and C Determination

    PubMed Central

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul; Siddiqi, Abdul Rauf

    2014-01-01

    Rose Bengal photosensitized flow injection chemiluminescence method is reported using luminol-Cu(II) for the determination of vitamins A and C in pharmaceutical formulations. The reaction is based on the enhancement effect of analyte in the production of anion radicals of Rose Bengal (RB•−) which rapidly interact with dissolved oxygen and generate superoxide anions radicals (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (•OH) were produced via dismutation of H2O2 by catalyst (Cu2+). The generated superoxide anions radicals and hydroxyl radicals thus oxidize luminol in alkaline medium to generate strong chemiluminescence. The limit of detection (3s of the blank, n = 6) of vitamins A and C and RB was found to be 0.008, 0.005, and 0.05 μg mL−1, respectively. The sample throughput of 70 h−1 for vitamins A and C and 30 h−1 for RB was found. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05–15, 0.01–20, and 0.1–50 μg mL−1 for vitamins A and C and RB, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs; n = 3) in the range 1.6–3.6%. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulations and the results obtained were in good agreement with the labeled values. PMID:25614739

  12. Combining complement fixation and luminol chemiluminescence for ultrasensitive detection of avian influenza A rH7N9.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Shi, ZhuanZhuan; Li, ChangMing; Yu, Ling

    2016-03-01

    The complement fixation test (CFT) is a serological test that can be used to detect the presence of either a specific antibody or antigen to diagnose infections. In a conventional CFT, the assay result is determined by observing the clarity of the reaction solution or the sediment of red cells by the naked eye. Although the assay conditions are thereafter simplified, the sensitivity of the assay would be sacrificed due to the limitation of bulk observation. Inspired by the forensic scientists to examine blood at the scene of the crime, we rationally argued that the luminol chemiluminescence (CL) reaction could be applied in the CFT to sense physiological complement-mediated haemolytic phenomena for sensitive protein detection. The combination of the CFT and the luminol CL system was demonstrated in detection of rH7N9, a recombinant avian influenza virus protein. The testing can be accomplished within 2.5 h and the linear detection range covers 0.25 fg mL(-1) to 25 ng mL(-1). The feasibility of the CL based CFT in assaying a real biopsy was successfully demonstrated by specifically detecting rH7N9 and the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum. This new type of protein detection approach inherits the beauty of complement-mediated assay, such as being fast, and no protein immobilization, blocking and washing. In addition, the participation of luminol CL enables us to quantitatively analyse the intensity of a haemeolysis process, ameliorating the limitation of bulk observation in traditional CFT. It is anticipated that the luminol CL-CFT assay would be particularly suitable for investigation of small molecules, toxins, and short peptides. PMID:26863640

  13. Effect of some psychotropic drugs on luminol-dependent chemiluminescence induced by O2-, *OH, HOCl.

    PubMed

    Hadjimitova, Vera; Traykov, Trayko; Mileva, Milka; Ribarov, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    We studied antioxidant activity of six neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, levomepromazine, promethazine, trifluoperazine and thioridazine) and two antidepressants (imipramine and amitriptyline) in the range of concentration of 10(-7)-10(-4) M. We applied luminol-dependent chemiluminescence to test the ability of these drugs to scavenge the biologically relevant oxygen-derived species: hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hypochlorous acid in vitro. We found that the phenothiazines were powerful scavengers of hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Chlorprothixene, amitriptyline and imipramine had no scavenge activity to the superoxide radical. All drugs showed a moderate scavenger effect on hypochloric anion. PMID:12562096

  14. Determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical preparations by flow injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection based on the enhancement of the luminol-KMnO4 reaction in a micellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Juntao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanming

    2015-04-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of L-thyroxine in the presence of cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) surfactant micelles is developed. The method is based on the significant signal enhancement of L-thyroxine on the luminol-KMnO4 system in alkaline solution sensitized by CTMAB. Parameters affecting the reproducibility and CL detection were optimized systematically. Under the optimum conditions, the net CL intensity versus L-thyroxine concentration was linear in the range of 5.0 × 10-8-3.0 × 10-6 mol/L with the detection limit of 8.9 × 10-9 mol/L. The sample throughput is calculated to be 140 samples/h and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 13 replicate determination of 1.0 × 10-6L-thyroxine is 1.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 93.9-105.2%. This rapid, sensitive, and high throughput method would provide a new tool for L-thyroxine analysis.

  15. Determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical preparations by flow injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection based on the enhancement of the luminol-KMnO4 reaction in a micellar medium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Juntao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanming

    2015-04-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of L-thyroxine in the presence of cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) surfactant micelles is developed. The method is based on the significant signal enhancement of L-thyroxine on the luminol-KMnO4 system in alkaline solution sensitized by CTMAB. Parameters affecting the reproducibility and CL detection were optimized systematically. Under the optimum conditions, the net CL intensity versus L-thyroxine concentration was linear in the range of 5.0×10(-8)-3.0×10(-6) mol/L with the detection limit of 8.9×10(-9) mol/L. The sample throughput is calculated to be 140 samples/h and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 13 replicate determination of 1.0×10(-6) L-thyroxine is 1.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 93.9-105.2%. This rapid, sensitive, and high throughput method would provide a new tool for L-thyroxine analysis. PMID:25594210

  16. Determination of 2-methoxyestradiol by chemiluminescence based on luminol-KMnO4-CdTe quantum dots system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Bin; Wang, Tiantian; Han, Shuping; Cao, Xiaohui; Qu, Tiantian; Zhao, Feifei; Guo, Xinhong; Yao, Hanchun

    2015-02-01

    In this study, water-soluble CdTe quantum-dots (QDs) capped with glutathione (GSH) was synthesized. It was found that CdTe QDs could greatly enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the luminol-KMnO4 system in alkaline medium, and 4 nm CdTe QDs was used as catalysts to enhance the reaction sensitivity. The CL intensity of CdTe QDs-luminol-KMnO4 was strongly inhibited in the presence of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) and the relative CL intensity was in linear correlation with the concentration of 2-ME. Based on this inhibition, a novel CL method with a lower detection limit and wider linear range was developed for the determination of 2-ME. The detection limit of plasma samples was 3.07 × 10-10 g mL-1 with a relative standard deviation of 0.24% for 8.0 × 10-9 g mL-1 2-ME. The method was successfully applied for determination of 2-ME in plasma samples. The possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly.

  17. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of catecholamines based on their enhancing effects on the luminol-potassium periodate system.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Sun, Yuan Yuan; Lin, Xinhua; Cheng, Jinghua; Huang, Liying

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method using flow injection analysis is described for the determination of four catecholamines, dopamine, adrenaline, isoprenaline and noradrenaline, based on their greatly enhancing effects on the CL reaction of luminol-potassium periodate in basic solutions. The optimized chemical conditions for the chemiluminescence reaction were 1.0 x 10(-4) mol/L luminol and 1.0 x 10(-5) mol/L potassium periodate in 0.2 mol/L sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graphs relating the CL signal intensity (peak height) to the concentration of the analytes were curvilinear and they were suitable for determining dopamine, adrenaline, isoprenaline, and noradrenaline in the range 0.1-10 ng/mL, 0.1-100 ng/mL, 1-100 ng/mL and 5-50 ng/mL, respectively, with the relative standard deviations of 0.8-1.7%. The detection limits of the method are 0.02 ng/mL for dopamine, 0.01 ng/mL for adrenaline, 0.1 ng/mL for isoprenaline and 2.0 ng/mL for noradrenaline. The sampling frequency was calculated to be about 60/h. The selectivity of the method was good, because a series of common ions or excipients, such as K(+), Ba(2+), CO(3)(2-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), sodium citrate, sodium bisulphite, oxidate dopamine, starch, lactose, carbamide and gelatin, could not produce interference when their concentrations were 1000-fold than those of dopamine. The present method was successfully applied to the determination of the four catecholamines in pharmaceutical injections. PMID:16416506

  18. Application of silver nanoparticles to the chemiluminescence determination of cefditoren pivoxil using the luminol-ferricyanide system.

    PubMed

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; Aly, Fatma A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2015-02-01

    A new simple, accurate and sensitive sequential injection analysis chemiluminescence (CL) detection method for the determination of cefditoren pivoxil (CTP) has been developed. The developed method was based on the enhancement effect of silver nanoparticles on the CL signal arising from a luminol-potassium ferricyanide reaction in the presence of CTP. The optimum conditions relevant to the effect of luminol, potassium ferricyanide and silver nanoparticle concentrations were investigated. The proposed method showed linear relationships between relative CL intensity and the investigated drug concentration at the range 0.001-5000 ng/mL, (r = 0.9998, n = 12) with a detection limit of 0.5 pg/mL and quantification limit of 0.001 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation was 1.6%. The proposed method was employed for the determination of CTP in bulk drug, in its pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids such as human serum and urine. The interference of some common additive compounds such as glucose, lactose, starch, talc and magnesium stearate was investigated. In addition, the interference of some related cephalosporins was tested. No interference was recorded. The obtained sequential injection analysis-CL results were statistically compared with those from a reported method and did not show any significant differences. PMID:24850667

  19. Chemiluminescence studies between aqueous phase synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots and luminol-H2O2.

    PubMed

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Wu, Jerry J

    2016-08-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid capped Cadmium telluride quantum dots have been successfully synthesized via aqueous phase method. The products were well characterized by a number of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, and a corrected particle size analysis by the statistical treatment of several AFM measurements. Chemiluminescence experiments were performed to explore the resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and acceptor CdTe QDs. The combination of such donor and acceptor dramatically reduce the fluorescence while compared to pristine CdTe QDs without any exciting light source, which is due to the occurrence of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes. PMID:27131144

  20. Determination of nitrogen dioxide with a chemiluminescent aerosol detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mikuska, P.; Vecera, Z.

    1992-09-15

    A modified detector is described for use in the determination of nitrogen dioxide via reaction with luminol. Chemiluminescence of the aerosol particles formed by crossed streams of the analyte and an alkaline luminol solution was observed by a photomultiplier.

  1. How flavonoids inhibit the generation of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence by activated human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    'T Hart, B A; Ip Via Ching, T R; Van Dijk, H; Labadie, R P

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism by which (a panel of) flanonoids inhibit the production of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CLlum) by activated human neutrophils is subject to this study. CLlum is frequently used as a bio-assay to quantify the effect of xenobiotics on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Most of the flavonoids decreased CLlum by inhibition of ROS production by the cells. Four selected flavonoids (Taxifolin, Eriodictyol, Hesperetin and Luteolin), inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) release, while two of these (Taxifolin and Eriodictyol) strongly inhibited MPO activity. Because CLlum is a MPO-dependent process these activities might mask effects of the flavonoids on ROS production. Finally, our results provide evidence that essential determinants for inhibition of O2(-)-release are the OH-groups located in the B-ring of the flavonoid molecule. Flavonoids methylated at a single OH-group in the B-ring are only inhibitory when they react with activated neutrophils in the presence of myeloperoxidase. PMID:2155715

  2. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Bornick, R. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Marley, N. A.; Environmental Research

    1998-01-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) and nitrogen dioxide are important atmospheric air pollutants in the troposphere. These atmospheric nitrogen species are strongly coupled chemically by a clearly temperature-dependent equilibrium in the troposphere. A chemical method that can measure both nitrogen dioxide and PANs rapidly and with sub-part-per-billion detection is described that is based upon a modified luminol detection system coupled to a capillary gas chromatographic column by using helium as a carrier. The system can readily separate and detect nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxyproprionyl nitrate, and peroxybutyrl nitrate with detection limits in the low tens of parts per trillion with total analysis time of less than 1 min. Calibration of PAN by thermal decomposition to nitrogen dioxide is demonstrated with PAN detection sensitivities approximately 75% of the sensitivities observed for NO2 luminol detection by using helium as a carrier gas. The advantages of this method for simultaneous measurement of nitrogen dioxide and PANs over ozone chemiluminescent detection and electron capture detection are discussed, as well as potential applications of this method for heterogeneous surface chemistry studies of PANs and nitrogen dioxide and for tropospheric measurements.

  3. Effect of phenothiazines on activated macrophage-induced luminol-dependent chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Traykov, T; Hadjimitova, V; Goliysky, P; Ribarov, S

    1997-03-01

    The inhibitory effect of some phenothiazine neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, levomepromazine, thioridazine, promethazine and trifluoperazine) on the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to produce O2- during phagocytosis was investigated. The superoxide radical release was estimated by measuring the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). The effect of drugs was studied in the concentration range of 0.1-100 mumol/l. Additional experiments to determine the ability of the drugs to scavenge O2- were carried out. They included measuring the effect of phenothiazines on the luminol-dependent CL in systems with enzymatically (xanthine-xanthine oxidase) and non-enzymatically (KO2) generated O2-. The ability of phenothiazines to scavenge O2- was additionally tested by a "non-luminescence" method in which the superoxide concentration was determined spectrophotometrically by the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium to formazan. All drugs tested decreased significantly CL of stimulated macrophages at concentrations greater than 1 mumol/l. The C50 values were between 0.45 and 1.74 mumol/l. Also phenothiazines were found to act as scavengers of O2-. However, this effect occurred at significantly higher drug concentrations. The C50 values for 50% scavenging of O2- in systems with different sources of O2- were in the concentration range of 5-160 mumol/l. These results suggested that phenothiazines predominantly affected the ability of macrophages to produce O2- during phagocytosis. The findings may provide some insight into the untoward effects of the drugs tested. PMID:9290939

  4. The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on whole blood oxidative response as assessed by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differences between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on whole blood oxidative response using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL) are currently unknown in cattle. Luminol-dependent CL measures the amount of reactive oxygen species released from leukocytes a...

  5. Investigation of the radical step in the chemiluminescent oxidation of luminol by potassium ferricyanide in the presence of hydrogen peroxide with the aid of magnetic modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tribel', M.M.; Morozov, A.K.; Frankevich, E.L.

    1987-11-01

    A method employing magnetic modulation of the rate of the chemical reaction was previously applied with success to the establishment of the chemiluminescent reaction involving the oxidation of luminol (LH/sub 2/) by potassium ferricyanide K/sub 3/Fe-(CN)/sub 6/ in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (0.1 M NaOH). The purpose of the present work was to experimentally investigate the radical steps of the more complex chemiluminescent reaction involving the oxidation of LH/sub 2/ in the presence of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The action of the magnetic field on the reaction causes an increase in the intensity of the chemiluminescence. The dependence of the intensity of the chemiluminescence on the magnetic field strength has the form of a saturation curve. The hyperfine interaction of the electronic and nuclear spins of the recombining radicals create a possibility for the mixing of the singlet and triplet states of the radical pairs, which results in relative alteration of the populations of these states with the rate constant K/sub st/(H). An external magnetic field reduces this constant, causing an increase in the concentration of the LOH/sup 2 -/ radicals and, consequently, an increase in the output of light.

  6. Effect of aggregated silver nanoparticles on luminol chemiluminescence system and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yingying; Li, Baoxin; Xiu, Furong

    2014-07-01

    We found that after silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) aggregated, its catalytic activity on luminol CL reaction obviously changed, and the change characteristic was closely related to the sizes of AgNPs. UV-visible spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out to investigate the CL effect mechanism. The different CL responses of aggregated AgNPs with different size were suggested to be due to the two effects of quantum size and electron density in nanoparticle's conduction bands, and which one played a major role. The poisonous organic contaminants such as anilines, could induce the aggregation of AgNPs, were observed to affect effectively the luminol-H2O2-7 nm and 15 nm AgNPs CL systems and were detectable by use of a flow injection method with the enhanced or inhibited CL detection.

  7. Long-term chemiluminescence signal is produced in the course of luminol oxidation catalyzed by enhancer-independent peroxidase purified from Jatropha curcas leaves.

    PubMed

    Duan, Peipei; Cai, Feng; Luo, Yongting; Chen, Yangxi; Zou, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Isoenzyme c of horseradish peroxidase (HRP-C) is widely used in enzyme immunoassay combined with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this application, HRP-C activity measurement is usually based on luminol oxidation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, this catalysis reaction was enhancer dependent. In this study, we demonstrated that Jatropha curcas peroxidase (JcGP1) showed high efficiency in catalyzing luminol oxidation in the presence of H2O2. Compared with HRP-C, the JcGP1-induced reaction was enhancer independent, which made the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) simpler. In addition, the JcGP1 catalyzed reaction showed a long-term stable CL signal. We optimized the conditions for JcGP1 catalysis and determined the favorable conditions as follows: 50 mM Tris buffer (pH 8.2) containing 10 mM H2 O2, 14 mM luminol and 0.75 M NaCl. The optimum catalysis temperature was 30°C. The detection limit of JcGP1 under optimum condition was 0.2 pM. Long-term stable CL signal combined with enhancer-independent property indicated that JcGP1 might be a valuable candidate peroxidase for clinical diagnosis and enzyme immunoassay with CL detection. PMID:25511847

  8. Employment of bromophenol red and bovine serum albumin as luminol signal co-enhancer in chemiluminescent detection of sequence-specific DNA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Yingying; Zhao, Yanjun; Fan, Aiping

    2016-02-01

    Bromophenol red, known as chemical indicator, was found to act as a novel potent signal enhancer of the peroxidase-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescent (CL) reaction. It was found interestingly that bovine serum albumin (BSA) played a role in the enhanced chemiluminescent reaction (ECR). The addition of 2.5 mg mL(-1) BSA into bromophenol red-enhance CL system showed 36 times stronger CL signal than that without addition of BSA. Mechanism study showed that the luminophors in the ECR were still 3-aminophthalate ion in an excited state (3-APA*). In addition, singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and hydroxyl radical ((∙)OH) played a role in the ECR. The possible mechanism was discussed in the present study. The effect of pH, reaction time, and concentration of bromophenol red, BSA, luminol, and H2O2 on CL intensity of the peroxidase-catalyzed CL reaction was studied. The detection limit value (LOD) of HRP and streptavidin-modified HRP in the proposed ECR with bromophenol red and BSA was 0.20 ng mL(-1) and 0.05 ng mL(-1), respectively. This novel luminol-H2O2-HRP-bromophenol red-BSA CL system was applied to the CL detection of sequence-specific DNA based on a magnetic separation process. As low as 0.4 fmol of target DNA could be sensitively detected using the proposed CL system without any amplification process. The obtained results demonstrate very promising perspectives for using bromophenol red and BSA to improve the sensitivity of CL detection of sequence-specific DNA. In addition, this novel ECR system can also be generalized for CL immunoassay, CL western blotting, and so on. PMID:26653448

  9. Comparison of superoxide generation and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence with eosinophils and neutrophils from normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Shult, P A; Graziano, F M; Wallow, I H; Busse, W W

    1985-12-01

    Although eosinophilia is found in many allergic and hypersensitivity diseases, the function of the eosinophil is not clearly established. To evaluate and characterize this function, anticoagulated blood from normal subjects was separated into purified populations of both eosinophils and neutrophils by a modified method for Percoll gradients. With this separation procedure, highly purified populations of eosinophils (95.0% +/- 2.1%) and neutrophils (97.2% +/- 0.4%) were obtained. Functional response of these two isolated granulocyte cell types was measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) and superoxide generation to opsonized zymosan and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Both the eosinophil and neutrophil peak CL response and superoxide generation to zymosan (1 mg), in the presence of autologous serum (10%), were identical. In contrast, when PMA (10(-4) to 10(0) micrograms/ml) was the stimulant, eosinophil CL was at least twofold greater than the neutrophil light emission (1,595,741 +/- 122,435 cpm/5 X 10(5) cells vs. 765,448 +/- 24,171 cpm/5 X 10(5) cells; n = 6). This same differential in responsiveness was seen in superoxide generation. Thus, under certain conditions the eosinophil's respiratory burst may be greater than that of the neutrophil, and this differential in metabolic activity may contribute directly to the eosinophil's inflammatory potential. PMID:2999272

  10. CdTe quantum dots@luminol as signal amplification system for chrysoidine with chemiluminescence-chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinting sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Huimin; Li, Leilei; Wang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Jianbo; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) sensor based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) in CdTe quantum dots@luminol (CdTe QDs@luminol) nanomaterials combined with chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-MIP) for sensing chrysoidine was developed. CdTe QDs@luminol was designed to not only amplify the signal of CL but also reduce luminol consumption in the detection of chrysoidine. On the basis of the abundant hydroxy and amino, Cs and graphene oxide were introduced into the GM-MIP to improve the adsorption ability. The adsorption capacities of chrysoidine by both Cs/GM-MIP and non-imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-NIP) were investigated, and the CdTe QDs@luminol and Cs/GM-MIP were characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The proposed sensor can detect chrysoidine within a linear range of 1.0 × 10- 7 - 1.0 × 10- 5 mol/L with a detection limit of 3.2 × 10- 8 mol/L (3δ) due to considerable chemiluminescence signal enhancement of the CdTe quantum dots@luminol detector and the high selectivity of the Cs/GM-MIP system. Under the optimal conditions of CL, the CdTe QDs@luminol-Cs/GM-MIP-CL sensor was used for chrysoidine determination in samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 90-107%.

  11. CdTe quantum dots@luminol as signal amplification system for chrysoidine with chemiluminescence-chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinting sensor.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huimin; Li, Leilei; Wang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Jianbo; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-01-15

    A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) sensor based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) in CdTe quantum dots@luminol (CdTe QDs@luminol) nanomaterials combined with chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-MIP) for sensing chrysoidine was developed. CdTe QDs@luminol was designed to not only amplify the signal of CL but also reduce luminol consumption in the detection of chrysoidine. On the basis of the abundant hydroxy and amino, Cs and graphene oxide were introduced into the GM-MIP to improve the adsorption ability. The adsorption capacities of chrysoidine by both Cs/GM-MIP and non-imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-NIP) were investigated, and the CdTe QDs@luminol and Cs/GM-MIP were characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The proposed sensor can detect chrysoidine within a linear range of 1.0×10(-7) - 1.0×10(-5) mol/L with a detection limit of 3.2×10(-8) mol/L (3δ) due to considerable chemiluminescence signal enhancement of the CdTe quantum dots@luminol detector and the high selectivity of the Cs/GM-MIP system. Under the optimal conditions of CL, the CdTe QDs@luminol-Cs/GM-MIP-CL sensor was used for chrysoidine determination in samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 90-107%. PMID:26433339

  12. Luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, highly sensitive and selective detection of minocycline.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Peng, Rufang

    2014-11-14

    In this work, luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles (LuAuNPs) were used as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, sensitive and selective detection of minocycline (MC). The LuAuNPs were prepared by simple one-pot reduction of HAuCl₄ with luminol, which exhibited a good chemiluminescence (CL) activity owing to the presence of luminol molecules on their surface and surface plasmon resonance absorption. In the absence of MC, the color of LuAuNPs was wine red and their size was relatively small (∼25 nm), which could react with silver nitrate, producing a strong CL emission. Upon the addition of MC at acidic buffer solutions, the electrostatic interaction between positively charged MC and negatively charged LuAuNPs caused the aggregation of LuAuNPs, generating a purple or blue color. Simultaneously, the aggregated LuAuNPs did not effectively react with silver nitrate, producing a weak CL emission. The signal change was linearly dependent on the logarithm of MC concentration in the range from 30 ng to 1.0 μg for colorimetric detection and from 10 ng to 1.0 μg for CL detection. With colorimetry, a detection limit of 22 ng was achieved, while the detection limit for CL detection modality was 9.7 ng. PMID:25327146

  13. Luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, highly sensitive and selective detection of minocycline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Peng, Rufang

    2014-11-01

    In this work, luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles (LuAuNPs) were used as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, sensitive and selective detection of minocycline (MC). The LuAuNPs were prepared by simple one-pot reduction of HAuCl4 with luminol, which exhibited a good chemiluminescence (CL) activity owing to the presence of luminol molecules on their surface and surface plasmon resonance absorption. In the absence of MC, the color of LuAuNPs was wine red and their size was relatively small (˜25 nm), which could react with silver nitrate, producing a strong CL emission. Upon the addition of MC at acidic buffer solutions, the electrostatic interaction between positively charged MC and negatively charged LuAuNPs caused the aggregation of LuAuNPs, generating a purple or blue color. Simultaneously, the aggregated LuAuNPs did not effectively react with silver nitrate, producing a weak CL emission. The signal change was linearly dependent on the logarithm of MC concentration in the range from 30 ng to 1.0 μg for colorimetric detection and from 10 ng to 1.0 μg for CL detection. With colorimetry, a detection limit of 22 ng was achieved, while the detection limit for CL detection modality was 9.7 ng.

  14. Chemiluminescent Reactions Catalyzed by Nanoparticles of Gold, Silver, and Gold/Silver Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abideen, Saqib Ul

    Chemiluminescence (CL) reactions are catalyzed by metals nanoparticles, which display unique catalytic properties due to an increased surface area. The present study describes the catalytic effects of nanoparticles (NP) of silver, gold, and alloys of Au/Ag nanoparticles on the chemiluminescent reaction taking place between luminol and potassium ferricyanide. It was found that silver nanoparticles and alloy nanoparticles enhance the CL process when their sizes remained in the range of 30 nm to 50 nm. The data show that the intensity and rate of chemiluminescence were influenced by the mole fraction of gold and silver in the alloy. Data to this chemiluminescence reaction are modeled by a double exponential curve, which indicates that two competing processes are occurring.

  15. A new screening method to detect water-soluble antioxidants: acetaminophen (Tylenol) and other phenols react as antioxidants and destroy peroxynitrite-based luminol-dependent chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, K; Sacks, M; Qazi, N

    1998-01-01

    This study is based on a simple chemical interaction of peroxynitrite (O = N-O-O-) and luminol, which produces blue light upon oxidation. Since peroxynitrite has a half-life of about 1 s, a drug known as linsidomine (SIN-1) is used as a peroxynitrite generator. Peroxynitrite can oxidize lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Upon the stimulation of inflammation and/or infection, macrophages and neutrophils can be induced to produce large amounts of peroxynitrite, which can oxidize phenols and sulphhydryl-containing compounds. Therefore, phenols and sulphhydryls eliminate peroxynitrite. This is an example of the Yin-Yang hypothesis e.g. oxidation-reduction. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) can inhibit fever and some types of pain without being a particularly effective anti-inflammatory. Since it is a phenol, it could act as a nitration target for peroxynitrite. Then peroxynitrite, the possible cause of pain and elevated temperature, might be destroyed in the reaction. Acetaminophen is a phenolic compound which produces a clear inhibitory dose-response curve with peroxynitrite in its range of clinical effectiveness. Whether acetaminophen actually works as we suggest is to be proven. Three different types of reaction could decrease the amount of peroxynitrite: (a) interference with base-catalysed opening of the SIN-1 molecule; (b) destruction of one or both substances needed to form it--superoxide and/or nitric oxide; when the SIN-1 degrades to superoxide and nitric oxide, the former may be destroyed by superoxide dismutase (SOD); (c) peroxynitrite may react directly with phenols (mono-, di-, tri- and tetraphenols), possibly by nitration. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and 2-hydroxyestradiol (catechol estrogen) are potent inhibitors of luminol light emission. Epineprine, isoproterenol, pyrogallol, catechol and ascorbic acid (a classic antioxidant) are all inhibitors of luminol chemiluminescence. Isoproterenol, norepinephrine/and epinephrine first inhibit light but overall stimulate the light production. Initially, SIN-1 degrades to produce peroxynitrite, which reacts with luminol to produce blue light. If any of three catecholamines are present with the reaction that produces light, there is an initial inhibition of light production, and then a marked stimulation. A possible reason for this is that these catechols are oxidized and the metabolized phenol stimulates the production of light from luminol. Also, during oxidation of catecholamines superoxide is sometimes formed, which could stimulate production of peroxynitrite. This simple screening system is introduced to find useful antioxidants against peroxynitrite. PMID:9926361

  16. Study of the oscillation and luminol chemiluminescence in the H 2O 2-KSCN-CuSO 4-NaOH system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatisevi, Supavadee; Maisch, Steffen

    2010-10-01

    Oscillations in redox potential and chemiluminescence of the H 2O 2-KSCN-CuSO 4-NaOH system in the presence of luminol were examined. Parts of the mechanism proposed in the previous studies were evaluated by substitution of SCN - with CN -. The amplitude of the chemiluminescent oscillations was found to be strongly dependent on the initial luminol concentrations. In addition, the time-series ARMA (2;1)-analysis with Box-Jenkins algorithm were used to simulate the system and the result is well in accordance with the observed oscillations.

  17. Trace analysis of N-acetyl-L-cysteine using luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence system catalyzed by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Akhoondi, Reza

    2015-09-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) can inhibit the luminol-H2 O2 , reaction, which is catalyzed by silver nanoparticles. Based on this phenomenon a new method was developed for NAC determination. Under optimum conditions, a linear relationship between chemiluminescence intensity and NAC concentration was found in the range 0.034-0.98 µg/mL. The detection limit was 0.010 µg/mL (S/N =3), and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was <5% for 0.480 µg/mL NAC (n =5). This simple, sensitive and inexpensive method has been applied to measure the concentration of NAC in pharmaceutical tablets. PMID:25428294

  18. Sensitive assay of hexythiazox residue in citrus fruits using gold nanoparticles-catalysed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Khajvand, Tahereh; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

    2015-04-15

    A new sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) procedure for the detection of hexythiazox (HXTZ) is presented, based on the quenching effect of the HXTZ in the luminol-H2O2 system using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a catalyst. The Box-Behnken design matrix and response surface methodology (RSM) have been applied in designing the experiments for studying the interactive effects of the three most important variables pH, luminol, and H2O2 concentrations on the CL intensity of luminol catalysed by GNPs. Under the optimal conditions, the CL intensity was linear with HXTZ concentration in the range of 0.017-0.42 μg mL(-1), and the limit of detection (LoD) was 0.011 μg mL(-1). The procedure has been successfully applied to the detection of HXTZ residues in citrus fruits and water samples at trace levels. Mean recoveries obtained were between 84.0% and 95.3%, with a repeatability precision of <6%. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism of the inhibited CL intensity was discussed. PMID:25466053

  19. Nanoparticles based on quantum dots and a luminol derivative: implications for in vivo imaging of hydrogen peroxide by chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Sook; Deepagan, V G; You, Dong Gil; Jeon, Jueun; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jung Young; Lee, Doo Sung; Suh, Yung Doug; Park, Jae Hyung

    2016-03-01

    Overproduction of hydrogen peroxide is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as cancer and arthritis. To image hydrogen peroxide via chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer in the near-infrared wavelength range, we prepared quantum dots functionalized with a luminol derivative. PMID:26857551

  20. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

    1996-04-01

    Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

  1. Flow injection analysis of ketoprofen based on the order transform second chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Cao, Guiping; Ge, Chuanqin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores an order-transform-second-chemiluminescence (OTSCL) method combining the flow injection technique for the determination of ketoprofen. When ketoprofen solution was injected into the mixture after the end of the reaction of alkaline luminol and sodium periodate or sodium periodate solution was injected into the reaction mixture of ketoprofen and alkaline luminol, a new chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was initiated and strong CL signal was detected. A mechanism for the OTSCL has been proposed on the basis of the chemiluminescence kinetic characteristic, UV-visible absorption and chemiluminescent spectra. Under optimal experimental conditions, the CL response is proportional to the concentration of ketoprofen over the range of 2.0 × 10 -7 to 1.0 × 10 -5 mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9950 and a detection limit of 8.0 × 10 -9 mol/L (3 σ). The relative standard deviation for 11 repetitive determinations of 1.0 × 10 -6 mol/L ketoprofen is 2.9%. The utility of this method was demonstrated by determining ketoprofen in pharmaceutical formulations without interference from its potential impurities.

  2. Enhanced effect of aggregated gold nanoparticles on luminol chemiluminescence system and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yingying; Li, Baoxin

    2013-07-01

    Some organic compounds containing groups of OH, NH2, or SH, which could induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), were observed to enhance effectively the luminol-H2O2-2.6 nm AuNPs CL system. It was found that the aggregation of AuNPs was an important effect factor for the catalytic activity of AuNPs on luminol CL system. The aggregated AuNPs could effectively enhance luminol CL signal compared with the dispersed one. The enhanced effect was closely related to the sizes of AuNPs. Among the studied AuNPs with seven sizes, 2.6 nm AuNPs had the greatest enhancement effect on luminol CL system after its aggregation. The CL enhancement mechanism was investigated, and the marked enhancement of aggregated 2.6 nm AuNPs for luminol CL system was supposed to originate from the decrease of AuNPs' surface negative charge density compared to its dispersed state. For the luminol-H2O2-2.6 nm AuNPs CL system in the presence of organic compounds containing groups of OH, NH2, or SH, more than one factor played the role in influencing the CL intensity. It was found that the enhanced effect of aggregated 2.6 nm AuNPs induced by such organic compounds was much more significant than the inhibition effect of reducing groups of OH, NH2, or SH, which made it applicable for the determination of this kind of compounds.

  3. The use of the magnetic field effect for studying a chemiluminescent chemical reaction in aqueous solution. Reaction rate constants and lifetimes of intermediate molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triebel, Michael M.; Totrov, Maxim M.; Zorinyants, George E.; Frankevich, Eugene L.

    1993-11-01

    The phase shift magnetic field effect technique is applied for investigation of the chemiluminescent (ChL) reaction of luminol oxidation by potassium ferricyanide in aqueous alkali solution. The external modulated magnetic field changed the rate constant of recombination of luminol radicals. Rate constants of intermediate stages of the reaction are obtained: 10 8 M -1 s -1 for diazaquinone reaction with hydrogen peroxide, 2 X 10 6 M -1 s -1 for diazaquinone hydrolysis and 2 X 10 5 s -1 for the decomposition of hydroperoxide, which is a precursor of the light emitter.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Size and Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles by Direct Coupling Thin layer Chromatography with Catalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm were 38.4 μg L(-1), 35.9 μg L(-1) and 39.6 μg L(-1), with repeatabilities (RSD, n = 7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10 mg L(-1) samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples. PMID:27080702

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Size and Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles by Direct Coupling Thin layer Chromatography with Catalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm were 38.4 μg L−1, 35.9 μg L−1 and 39.6 μg L−1, with repeatabilities (RSD, n = 7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10 mg L−1 samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples. PMID:27080702

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Size and Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles by Direct Coupling Thin layer Chromatography with Catalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-04-01

    The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm were 38.4 μg L‑1, 35.9 μg L‑1 and 39.6 μg L‑1, with repeatabilities (RSD, n = 7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10 mg L‑1 samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples.

  7. Research and development of a luminol-carbon monoxide flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Adaption of the luminol-carbon monoxide injection system to a flowing type system is reported. Analysis of actual wastewater samples was carried out and revealed that bacteria can be associated with particles greater than 10 microns in size in samples such as mixed liquor. Research into the luminol reactive oxidation state indicates that oxidized iron porphyrins, cytochrome-c in particular, produce more luminol chemiluminescence than the reduced form. Correlation exists between the extent of porphyrin oxidation and relative chemiluminescence. In addition, the porphyrin nucleus is apparently destroyed under the current chemiluminescent reaction conditions.

  8. Determination of dissolved Fe(II) in seawater of the western North Pacific with luminol chemiluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, H.; Mase, A.; Gamo, T.; Nishioka, J.; Takeda, S.

    2010-12-01

    Determination of dissolved Fe(II) in seawater of the western North Pacific with luminol chemiluminescence method Hajime Obata, Akira Mase, Toshitaka Gamo (Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Japan), Jun Nishioka (Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Japan), Shigenobu Takeda (Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Japan) Speciation of iron in the ocean is now important topics because the bioavailability of iron depends on its chemical form in seawater. However, marine biogeochemical process of Fe(II) has not been fully investigated. In this study, we determined Fe(II) in seawaters using the luminol chemiluminescence method after acidifying the samples to pH 6(Hansard and Landing, 2009). The same samples collected in the western North Pacific were analyzed by the flow chemiluminescence methods with acidification to pH 6 and without acidification. The results with both methods were almost identical. Time variation of Fe(II) in seawater after acidifying the samples to pH 6 were examined in the western North Pacific and the Bering Sea. Within 10 minutes, variations of Fe(II) were small in the open ocean waters, whereas Fe(II) concentrations increased rapidly in surface waters collected in the Bering Sea. The acidification method is not always applicable for seawater samples, especially in the marginal sea. Surface distributions of Fe(II) in the western subarctic North Pacific were investigated by using a continuous clean sampling system for surface waters. The Fe(II) concentrations ranged from <9 to 42 pM, which were lower than those in previous studies (Roy et al., 2008). The variation of Fe(II) probably reflects the photoreduction process of Fe(III), slow oxidation of Fe(II) and differences of Fe(II) concentrations among water masses. In this study, we also examined the oxidation process of Fe(II) in seawater of the western North Pacific and the Bering Sea at some temperatures. The oxidation rates were slower in the Bering Sea than those in the western North Pacific, implying that the oxidation rates were controlled not only by water temperature but also by organic compounds, such as humic substances.

  9. [Action of Combined Magnetic Fields with a Very Weak Low-frequency Alternating Component on Luminol-dependent Chemiluminescence in Mammalian Blood].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V V; Yablokova, E N; Fesenko, E E

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the exposure of heparinized venous human blood diluted in phosphate buffer saline to extremely weak alternating magnetic fields of the ultralow-frequency (1 Hz, 600 nT; 4.4 Hz, 100 nT; 16.5 Hz, 160 nT) in combination with a collinear static magnetic field of 42 microT at physiological temperatures, causes a sharp 3-4 fold increase in its chemiluminescence after addition of luminol. PMID:26349217

  10. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxidase mimic-mediated chemiluminescence of aqueous luminol for sulfite in white wines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodan; He, Shaohui; Chen, Zhaohui; Huang, Yuming

    2013-01-30

    Recently, the intrinsic enzyme-like activity of nanoparticles (NPs) has become a growing area of interest. However, the analytical applications of the NP-based enzyme mimetic are mainly concentrated on their peroxidase-like activity; no attempts have been made to investigate the analytical applications based on the oxidase mimic activities of NPs. For the first time, we report that CoFe(2)O(4) NPs were found to possess intrinsic oxidase-like activity and could catalyze luminol oxidation by dissolved oxygen to produce intensified chemiluminescence (CL). The effect of sulfite on CoFe(2)O(4) NP oxidase mimic-mediated CL of aqueous luminol was investigated. It is very interesting that when adding sulfite to the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) system, the role of sulfite in the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite system depends on its concentration. At a relatively low concentration level, sulfite presents an inhibition effect on the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP system. However, it does have an enhancement effect at a higher concentration level. Investigations on the effect of the solution pH and luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NP concentrations on the kinetic characteristics of the studied CL system in the presence of trace sulfite suggested that the enhancement and inhibition of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system also depended on the solution pH. It seems that the concentrations of luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NPs did not influence the CL pathway. The possible mechanism of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system was also discussed. On this basis, a flow injection chemiluminescence method was established for the determination of trace sulfite in this study. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed system could respond down to 2.0 × 10(-8) M sulfite. The method has been applied to the determination of trace sulfite in white wine samples with satisfactory results. The results given by the proposed method are in good agreement with those given by the standard titration method. PMID:23289402

  11. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of cloxacillin in water samples and pharmaceutical preparation by using CuO nanosheets-enhanced luminol-hydrogen peroxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Iranifam, Mortaza; Fathinia, Mehrangiz; Nikravesh, Mina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (flow-CL) system was developed for the determination of cloxacillin sodium in environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparations. The method was based on the enhancement effect of cloxacillin sodium on the CL reaction of luminal-H2O2-CuO nanosheets (NSs) in alkaline medium. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized using a green sonochemical method. The physical properties of the synthesized CuO nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The influences of various experimental factors such as H2O2, NaOH, luminol and CuO nanosheets concentrations were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of cloxacillin sodium in the range of the 0.05-30.00 mg L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The corresponding detection limit (3σ) was calculated to be 0.026 mg L-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the developed method was 2.21% with 11 repeated measurements of 4.00 mg L-1 cloxacillin sodium. Also, a total analysis time per sample was 30 s which confirmed the rapidity of the proposed method. The analytical applicability of the proposed CL system was assessed by determining cloxacillin sodium in spiked environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparation. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of CL reaction was discussed.

  12. Enhancement of electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol by ascorbic acid at gold nanoparticle/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongping; Gao, Tingting; Zhou, Ying; Chu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle/graphene (GNP/GR) nanocomposite was one-pot synthesized from water soluble graphene and HAuCl4 by hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol was investigated at the GNP/GR modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GR/GCE) and the GNP modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GCE) in aqueous solution respectively. The results revealed that one strong anodic ECL peak could be observed at ∼0.8 V at two modified electrodes compared with that at the bare electrode. The intensity of the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE is weaker than that at the GNP/GCE, which should be due to the synergic effect of the enhancing effect of gold nanoparticles and the inhibiting effect of graphene on anodic luminol ECL. One strong cathodic ECL peak located at ∼-0.8 V could be observed at the GNP/GR/GCE but not at the GNP/GCE, which should be result from the adsorbed oxygen at the graphene film. In the presence of ascorbic acid, the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE was enhanced more than 8-times, which is more apparent than that at the GNP/GCE. Whereas, the cathodic ECL peak was seriously inhibited at the GNP/GR/GCE. The enhanced ECL intensity at the GNP/GR/GCE varied linearly with the logarithm of ascorbic acid concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10-9 mol L-1. The possible ECL mechanism was also discussed.

  13. Determination of iron in blood serum using flow injection with luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Waseem, A; Yaqoob, M; Nabi, A

    2004-01-01

    A simple and rapid fl ow injection method is reported for the determination of iron in blood serum after acid digestion with HNO3 and HClO4, based on luminol CL detection in the absence of added oxidant. The detection limit (3 s) was 1.0 nmol/L with a sample throughput of 120/h. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.001-1.0 micromol/L (r2 = 0.9974), with relative standard deviations (RSD) (n = 4) in the range 3.2-5%. The effect of interfering cations (Ca(II), Mg(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Fe(III)) and anions (Cl-, SO4(2-), HCO3-, NO3-, NO2-) were studied using a luminol CL system for Fe(II) determination. The method was applied to normal blood serum and the results (1.32 +/- 0.08-1.74 +/- 0.05 mg/L) were compared with those from a spectrophotometric reference method (1.34 +/- 0.06-1.80 +/- 0.10 mg/L), which agree fairly well with the overall reference range in blood. PMID:15558800

  14. The chemiluminescence determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide using luminol-AgNO3-silver nanoparticles system.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Shamsi, Javad; Barsang, Mehran Jam; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) was presented. It was found that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) could inhibit the CL of the luminol-AgNO3 system in the presence of silver nanoparticles in alkaline solution, which made it applicable for determination of 2-CEES. The presented method is simple, convenient, rapid and sensitive. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.0001-1ngmL(-1), with the correlation coefficient of 0.992; while the limit of detection (LOD), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, was 6×10(-6)ngmL(-1). Also, the relative standard deviation (RSD, n=5) for determination of 2-CEES (0.50ngmL(-1)) was 3.1%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of 2-CEES in environmental aqueous samples. PMID:25703367

  15. The chemiluminescence determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide using luminol-AgNO3-silver nanoparticles system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Shamsi, Javad; Barsang, Mehran Jam; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) was presented. It was found that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) could inhibit the CL of the luminol-AgNO3 system in the presence of silver nanoparticles in alkaline solution, which made it applicable for determination of 2-CEES. The presented method is simple, convenient, rapid and sensitive. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.0001-1 ng mL-1, with the correlation coefficient of 0.992; while the limit of detection (LOD), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, was 6 × 10-6 ng mL-1. Also, the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) for determination of 2-CEES (0.50 ng mL-1) was 3.1%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of 2-CEES in environmental aqueous samples.

  16. Alterations in luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence from nondiluted whole blood in the course of low-level laser therapy of angina pectoris patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeikov, Vladimir L.; Novikov, Cyril N.; Siuch, Natalia I.

    1997-05-01

    Addition of Luminol to nondiluted blood of healthy donors results in a short and weak increase of chemiluminescence (CL) from it. Contrary to that in 25 cases of stable angina pectoris the intensity of CL from blood of patients sharply increased upon addition of luminol exceeding that form healthy donors' blood 10-100-fold. 24 hours after the 3D intravenous low-level treatment CL burst in patients' blood in the presence of Luminol was in general significantly lower than before the beginning of the treatment. After the 7th treatment the pattern of CL kinetics was in most cases similar to that of healthy donors' blood. However, after the 10th treatment intensity of Luminol-enhanced CL usually increased and for blood of some patients even exceeded its values obtained before the treatment. Some correlation CL from nondiluted blood with neutrophil activity studied by NTB-test and plasma viscosity of same blood was noted. Using highly sensitive single photon counters it is possible to reveal abnormal levels of CL from no more than 0.1-0.2 ml of blood within 3-5 min.

  17. Aircraft measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates using luminol chemiluminescence with fast capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.; Drayton, P.J.

    1997-09-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) are important trace gas species associated with photochemical air pollution. The PANs are in thermal equilibrium with the peroxyacetyl radical and NO{sub 2}. Because PANs are trapped peroxy radicals, they are an important indicator species of the photochemical age of an air parcel, as well as being a means of long-range transporting of NO{sub 2}, leading to the formation of regional ozone and other oxidants. Typically, PANs are measured by using a gas chromatograph with electron-capture detection (ECD). Once automated, this method has been shown to be reliable and quite sensitive, allowing the levels of PANs to be measured at low parts per trillion in the troposphere. Unfortunately, a number of other atmospheric gases also have strong ECD signals or act as inferences and limit the speed in which the analysis can be completed. Currently, the shortest analysis time for PAN is approx. 5 minutes with ECD. The authors recent examined the luminol detection of NO{sub 2} and PANs using gas capillary chromatography for rapid monitoring of these important trace gases. Analysis of the PANs (PAN, PPN, and PBN) and NO{sub 2} in one minute has been demonstrated in laboratory studies by using this approach. Reported here are modifications of this instrument for aircraft operation and preliminary results from test flights taken near Pasco, Washington in August of 1997.

  18. Aircraft measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrates using luminol chemiluminescence with fast capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.; Steele, H.D.; Drayton, P.J.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Fast capillary gas chromatography with luminol detection has been used to make airborne measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). The analysis system allows for the simultaneous measurement of NO{sub 2} and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) with time resolution of less than 1 min, and improvement of a factor of 4--5 over previously reported methods using electron capture detection. Data presented were taken near Pasco, Washington, in August 1997, during a test flight onboard the US Department of Energy G-1 aircraft. The authors report measurements of NO{sub 2} in the boundary layer in a paper mill plume and a plume from a grass fire, in addition to analyses for free tropospheric NO{sub 2} and PAN. Ratios of PAN/NO{sub 2} were observed to increase with altitude (decreasing temperature) and to reach values of 2--4 above the boundary layer, consistent with the thermal equilibrium of the peroxyacetyl radical and NO{sub 2} and PAN. Estimates for the peroxyacetyl radical in the continental free troposphere, calculated from this equilibrium, were found to be in the range of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 5} molecules per cubic centimeter. These results demonstrate the application of this approach for airborne measurements of NO{sub 2} and PAN in a wide range of field study scenarios.

  19. Chitosan-induced Au/Ag nanoalloy dispersed in IL and application in fabricating an ultrasensitive glucose biosensor based on luminol-H₂O₂-Cu²⁺/IL chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Chaichi, M J; Alijanpour, S O

    2014-11-01

    A novel glucose biosensor based on the chemiluminescence (CL) detection of enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was constructed by one covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) in glutaraldehyde-functionalized glass cell. In following, chitosan-induced Au/Ag nanoparticles dispersed in ion liquid (IL) were synthesised and immobilized on it. Herein, chitosan molecules acted as both the reducing and stabilizing agent for the preparation of NPs and also, as a coupling agent GOD and Au/Ag alloy NPs. In addition to catalyze luminol CL reaction, these NPs offered excellent catalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide generation in enzymatic reaction between GOD and glucose. The used IL in fabrication of biosensor increased its stability. Also, IL alongside Cu(2+) accelerated enzymatic and CL reaction kinetic, and decreased luminol CL reaction optimum pH to 7.5 which would enable sensitive and precision determination of glucose. Under optimum condition, linear response range of glucose was found to be 1.0 × 10(-6)-7.5 × 10(-3)M, and detection limit was 4.0 × 10(-7)M. The CL biosensor exhibited good storage stability, i.e., 90% of its initial response was retained after 2 months storage at pH 7.0. The present CL biosensor has been applied satisfactory to analysis of glucose in real serum and urine samples. PMID:25086323

  20. Cobalt determination in natural waters using cation-exchange liquid chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, E.A.; Handy, B.; van Geen, A.

    1987-06-01

    A method has been developed for the analysis of cobalt in natural waters by cation-exchange liquid chromatography using chemiluminescence detection. Cobalt can be determined directly in freshwater samples on 500-..mu..L samples with a detection limit of 20 pmol/kg; larger samples provide proportionately lower detection limits. Seawater samples can be analyzed on 100-mL samples following APDC solvent extraction; the detection limit of this method is 5 pmol/kg. The precision of the method is +/- 5%. The method should also be applicable to the analysis of V, Cu, and Fe in natural waters. Equipment is low in cost and transportable and can be used in the field.

  1. Fast simultaneous determination of traces of Cu(II) and Co(II) in soils and sediments with the luminol/perborate chemiluminescent system.

    PubMed

    Pulgarín, José A Murillo; Bermejo, Luisa F García; Durán, Armando Carrasquero

    2013-01-01

    A flow injection analysis method based on ion chromatography and luminol chemiluminescence detection was used for the simultaneous determination of copper (II) and cobalt (II) trace levels in soils and sediments following microwave-assisted acid digestion. Detection was based on chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-perborate system in an alkaline medium, which is catalyzed by both transition metals. The concentration and pH of the eluent (oxalic acid) was found to affect CL intensities and retention times, both of which were inversely proportional to the oxalic acid concentration. The calibration curves for both metal ions were linear and allowed a limit of detection of 0.003 μg l(-1) for cobalt (II) and 0.014 μg l(-1) for cooper (II) to be calculated. The proposed method was successfully used to determine both metal ions in certified reference materials of stream and river sediments and soil samples. Based on the results, the determination is free of interferences from the usual concomitant ions. PMID:22392616

  2. Determination of hydrogen peroxide concentrations by flow injection analysis based on the enhanced chemiluminescent reaction using peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, S.A.; Vlasenko, S.B.; Osipov, A.P.; Eremina, I.D.; Egerov, A.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The technique of flow injection analysis was employed in the determination of hydrogen peroxide. The method was based on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which is catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase and enhanced by p-iodophenol. Hydrogen peroxide was linearly detected in the range 10{sup {minus}6}M-10{sup {minus}4}M by measuring the maximum intensity of light emitted. The detection limit is about 1 10{sup {minus}6}M hydrogen peroxide. Transition metal cations at millimolar concentrations do not have any interference on the determination of hydrogen peroxide by FIA based on the enhanced chemiluminescent reaction. This technique is relatively rapid and simple, and permits measurement of up to 80 samples/hr using generally available equipment.

  3. Development and optimization of an analytical method for the determination of Sudan dyes in hot chilli pepper by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line electrogenerated BrO- -luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yantu; Zhang, Zhujun; Sun, Yonghua

    2006-09-29

    The determination of four Sudan dyes by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was proposed. The method was based on the enhancement effect of Sudan dyes on the chemiluminescence reaction between luminol and BrO-, which was on-line electrogenerated by constant current electrolysis. The separation was carried out on Nucleosil RP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm, pore size, 100 A) at 35 degrees C. The mobile phase consisted of a V (methanol): V (0.2% aqueous formic acid) = 90:10 solution. At a flow-rate of 1.0 ml min(-1), the total run time was 25 min. The effects of several parameters on the HPLC resolution and CL emission were studied systematically. For the four Sudan dyes, the limits of detection (LOD) at a signal-to-noise of 3 ranged from 4 to 8 microg kg(-1) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) at a signal-to-noise of 10 ranged from 13 to 27 microg kg(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of intra-and inter-day precision were below 4.4%. The average recoveries for all four Sudan dyes (spiked at the levels of 1.0 and 1.5 mg kg(-1)) in chilli tomato sauce and hot chilli pepper ranged from 94% to 105%, and the relative standard deviations of the quantitative results were from 2.5 to 4.2%. The proposed method had been successfully applied to the determination of four Sudan dyes in hot chilli products. PMID:16919285

  4. An optimized, sensitive and stable reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle-luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence system and its potential analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Shuo; He, Da-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hong; Duan, Jia-Hua; Peng, Hong-Shang; Wu, Hong-Peng; Fu, Ming; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Xi-Qing

    2014-04-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) performance of luminol is improved using reduced graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nano-composites as catalyst. To prepare this catalyst, we propose a linker free, one-step method to in-situ synthesize rGO-AuNP nano-composites. Various measurements are utilized to characterize the resulting rGO-AuNP samples, and it is revealed that rGO could improve the stability and conductivity. Furthermore, we investigate the CL signals of luminal catalyzed by rGO-AuNP. Afterwards, the size effect of particle and the assisted enhancement effect of rGO are studied and discussed in detail. Based on the discussion, an optimal, sensitive and stable rGO-AuNP-luminon-H2O2 CL system is proposed. Finally, we utilize the system as a sensor to detect hydrogen peroxide and organic compounds containing amino, hydroxyl, or thiol groups. The CL system might provide a more attractive platform for various analytical devices with CL detection in the field of biosensors, bioassays, and immunosensors.

  5. Summary of activities and accomplishments. Volume IV. A proposal to develop a method for the detection of HE employing chemiluminescence reactions. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    This is the final and fourth quarter report for the study of high explosive (HE) detection by coupling the chemistry of HE with that of luminol reaction, a well-known chemiluminescence (CL) reaction. Our accomplishments include: success in coupling HE and CL chemistry reliably; the capability to use a micellized solvent to concentrate HE; and the basis for design instrumentation that may exhibit better sensitivity and lower levels of detection than that exhibited by the laboratory apparatus used for this study. On the basis of these results we are prepared to recommend further study.

  6. Luminol-based nitrogen dioxide detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, G.J.; Stedman, D.H.; Cantrell, C.A.; Damrauer, L.

    1983-05-01

    An instrument for the continuous detection of NO/sub 2/ in the sub-part-per-billion range is described. The instrument is based upon the chemiluminescent reaction between NO/sub 2/ in air and luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione) in alkaline solution. The present detector exhibits a 2-Hz response speed to changes of +/-20 ppB and a field detection limit of 30 parts per trillion. The instrumental technique has been expanded to measure NO by the catalytic oxidation of NO to NO/sub 2/ using CrO/sub 3/ on silica gel as the oxidizing agent; however, at low ambient NO concentrations some drift in the NO zero is observed. Interference from ambient O/sub 3/ is elimated by modification of the inlet system and luminol solution.

  7. Red-shifted emission from 1,2-dioxetane-based chemiluminescent reactions.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason Y; Gunpat, Joshua; Liu, Li; Edwards, Brooks; Christie, Alana; Xie, Xian-Jin; Kricka, Larry J; Mason, Ralph P

    2014-09-01

    Commercial chemiluminescent reagents emit across a broad portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (400-500 nm). A challenge to the use of chemiluminescence to monitor biological processes is the presence of interfering substances in the biological optical window. In the present study, longer wavelength emitting fluorophores (the organic dyes Alexa 568 and Alexa 647), and a semiconductor nanoparticle (QDOT800) were used to red-shift the emission from commercially available 1,2-dioxetane-based chemiluminescent substrate reactions. By adding non-conjugated fluorescent emitters into chemiluminescent reaction mixtures, an emission peak occurred at the predicted wavelength of the fluorescent emitter. The excitation and emission from QDOT800 was preserved in the presence of a 100 µm-thick glass barrier separating it from the chemiluminescent reaction components. The maximum tissue phantom penetration by QDOT800 emission was 8.5 mm; in comparison, the native chemiluminescent emission at 500 nm was unable to penetrate the thinnest tissue phantom of 2.5 mm. The described method for red-shifted emissions from chemiluminescent reactions does not require direct interaction between the chemiluminescent reaction and the fluorescent emitters. This suggests that the mechanism of chemiluminescent excitation of fluorophores and QDOT800 is not exclusive to chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer or sensitized chemiluminescence, but rather by broad energization from the native chemiluminescent emission. PMID:24760607

  8. Chemiluminescent reactions of the IVA elements: Dihalide formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosano, W. J.; Parson, J. M.

    1986-06-01

    Earlier work on chemiluminescent beam-gas reactions of Si, Ge, and Sn with F2 [W. J. Rosano and J. M. Parson, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 2696 (1983)] is extended to reactions with Br2, I2, ClF3, SF4, and SF6. In all of these new systems electronic emission is attributable exclusively to IVA dihalide products. Reaction of Sn with the diatomics most likely procedes by a two-step mechanism involving a highly vibrationally excited Sn monohalide intermediate. The polyatomic reactants, on the other hand, yield IVA difluoride products in a single collision. Radiation of the dihalides from the 3B1 state to the ground 1A1 state is consistent with the thermochemistry of these mechanisms. The dependence of the emission on the IVA atom velocity shows that energy barriers to reaction are small or nonexistent.

  9. Chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging on magnetic particles for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection based on ligation chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Zhang, Zhipeng; Dong, Ying; Wang, Zonghua

    2014-10-17

    A novel ligation chain reaction (LCR) methodology for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection was developed based on luminol-H2O2-horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme-fluorescein chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) imaging on magnetic particles. For LCR, four unique target-complement probes (X and X(⁎), YG and Y(⁎)) for the amplification of K-ras (G12C) were designed by modifying G-quadruplex sequence at 3'-end of YG and fluorescein at 5'-end of Y(⁎). After the LCR, the resulting products of XYG/X(⁎)Y(⁎) with biotin-labeled X(⁎) were captured onto streptavidin-coated magnetic particles (SA-MPs) via specific biotin-SA interaction, which stimulated the CRET reaction from hemin/G-quadruplex-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 CL system to fluorescein. By collecting signals by a cooled low-light CCD, a CRET imaging method was proposed for visual detection and quantitative analysis of SNP. As low as 0.86fM mutant DNA was detected by this assay, and positive mutation detection was achieved with a wild-type to mutant ratio of 10,000:1. This high sensitivity and specificity could be attributed to not only the exponential amplification and excellent discrimination of LCR but also the employment of SA-MPs. SA-MPs ensured the feasibility of the proposed strategy, which also simplified the operations through magnetic separation and separated the reaction and detection procedures to improve sensitivity. The proposed LCR-CRET imaging strategy extends the application of signal amplification techniques to SNP detection, providing a promising platform for effective and high-throughput genetic diagnosis. PMID:25461149

  10. Chemiluminescent imaging of transpired ethanol from the palm for evaluation of alcohol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kita, Kazutaka; Wang, Xin; Miyajima, Kumiko; Toma, Koji; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-05-15

    A 2-dimensional imaging system was constructed and applied in measurements of gaseous ethanol emissions from the human palm. This imaging system measures gaseous ethanol concentrations as intensities of chemiluminescence by luminol reaction induced by alcohol oxidase and luminol-hydrogen peroxide-horseradish peroxidase system. Conversions of ethanol distributions and concentrations to 2-dimensional chemiluminescence were conducted on an enzyme-immobilized mesh substrate in a dark box, which contained a luminol solution. In order to visualize ethanol emissions from human palm skin, we developed highly sensitive and selective imaging system for transpired gaseous ethanol at sub ppm-levels. Thus, a mixture of a high-purity luminol solution of luminol sodium salt HG solution instead of standard luminol solution and an enhancer of eosin Y solution was adapted to refine the chemiluminescent intensity of the imaging system, and improved the detection limit to 3 ppm gaseous ethanol. The highly sensitive imaging allows us to successfully visualize the emissions dynamics of transdermal gaseous ethanol. The intensity of each site on the palm shows the reflection of ethanol concentrations distributions corresponding to the amount of alcohol metabolized upon consumption. This imaging system is significant and useful for the assessment of ethanol measurement of the palmar skin. PMID:25445620

  11. Inhibition by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs of luminol-dependent human-granulocyte chemiluminescence and /sup 3/H FMLP binding. Effect of sulindac sulfide, indomethacin metabolite, and optical enantiomers (+) and (-) MK830

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, K.; Peden, D.; Van Dyke, C.; Jones, G.; Castranova, V.; Ma, J.

    1982-03-01

    A system is described to evaluate for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by means of luminol-dependent human-granulocyte chemiluminescence (CL) is described. The CL is produced using either opsonized zymosan (yeast cells) or the soluble chemotactic peptide f-Met-Leu-Phe as the perturbant of the granulocyte membrane. Using either system, the following drug effects 2 x 10(-5) M were noted: only sulindac sulfide, and not sulindac sulfone or sulindac, displayed marked inhibition of chemiluminescence, following the in vivo data regarding inflammatory effects. The 5-OH indomethacin metabolite was likewise inactive as an inhibitor of CL mirroring in vivo effects. MK(+)410, MK(-)830 and MK835 all showed approximately 50% inhibition of CL, displaying deviation from in vivo data. MK(+)830 markedly stimulated CL, 4-6 times the control (without drug), which is clearly different from its enantiomer, MK(-)830. The reasons for this behavior are unclear. However, receptor binding studies with /sup 3/H FMLP were accomplished in the presence and absence of the various drugs at 2 x 10(-5) M that were effective inhibitors of chemiluminescence (CL). Indomethacin, MK(-)830 and MK(+)410 had equivalent percent control binding and percent control CL. Sulindac sulfide and MK(+)835 both had higher percent control binding than percent control CL, with MK(+)835 displaying apparent increased numbers of available receptors relative to control. MK(+)830, which produces large increases in CL, produced a minor effect on percent control binding. A direct relationship between binding and CL does not exist with each drug. Chemiluminescence is dependent on ion movement and oxidative metabolism and is a secondary event to agonist-receptor occupation.

  12. Fast and sensitive chemiluminescence assay of aminophylline in human serum using luminol-diperiodatoargentate(III) system catalyzed by coated iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, B.; Ensafi, Ali A.; Zarei, L.

    2012-05-01

    The CL intensity of luminol-diperiodatoargentate(III) (DPA) system is strongly enhanced by addition of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) covered with C12E4. On injection of aminophylline into luminol-DPA-FeNPs system, the CL intensity is significantly increased. On this basis, a sensitive CL assay was developed for determination of AmP in human serum. FeNPs could catalyze the oxidation rate of luminol in the present of oxygen. Also, the CL intensity of luminol-DPA-FeNPs system is significantly increased in the presence of aminophylline (AmP). Based on this ruling, a sensitive CL assay was developed for determination of AmP in human serum. The influences of analytical variables on the CL signal were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions in the present of FeNPs, the CL intensity is linearly increased with AmP concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-8-2.0 × 10-6 mol L-1. The detection limit was 9.8 × 10-9 mol L-1 AmP and the relative standard deviation for ten parallel measurements of 8.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 AmP was also 4.8%. The proposed system was successfully applied to determine AmP in human serum samples.

  13. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, Abdus; Delincée, H.; Diehl, J. F.

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were >15 kGy for pepper and >20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method.

  14. A chemiluminescence method to detect hydroquinone with water-soluble sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangbin; Tang, Yuhai; Sun, Yang; Yu, Hua; Du, Wei; Fu, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    A water-soluble sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex with excellent catalytic properties was synthesized and demonstrated to greatly enhance the chemiluminescence signal of the hydrogen peroxide - luminol reaction. Coupled with flow-injection technique, a simple and sensitive chemiluminescence method was first developed to detect hydroquinone based on the chemiluminescence system of the hydrogen peroxide-luminol-sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex. Under optimal conditions, the assay exhibited a wide linear range from 0.1 to 10 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.05 ng mL(-1) for hydroquinone. The method was applied successfully to detect hydroquinone in tap-water and mineral-water, with a sampling frequency of 120 times per hour. The relative standard deviation for determination of hydroquinone was less than 5.6%, and the recoveries ranged from 96.8 to 103.0%. The ultraviolet spectra, chemiluminescence spectra, and the reaction kinetics for the peroxide-luminol-sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex system were employed to study the possible chemiluminescence mechanism. The proposed chemiluminescence analysis technique is rapid and sensitive, with low cost, and could be easily extended and applied to other compounds. PMID:26014972

  15. Development of a chemiluminescent and bioluminescent system for the detection of bacteria in wastewater effluent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Automated chemiluminescent and bioluminescent sensors were developed for continuous monitoring of microbial levels in wastewater effluent. Development of the chemiluminescent system included optimization of reagent concentrations as well as two new techniques which will allow for increased sensitivity and specificity. The optimal reagent concentrations are 0.0025 M luminol and 0.0125 M sodium perborate in 0.75N sodium hydroxide before addition of sample. The methods developed to increase specificity include (1) extraction of porphyrins from bacteria collected in a filter using 0.1N NaOH - 50 percent Ethanol, and (2) use of the specific reaction rate characteristics for the different luminol catalysts. Since reaction times are different for each catalyst, the reaction can be made specific for bacteria by measuring only the light emission from the particular reaction time zone specific for bacteria. Developments of the bioluminescent firefly luciferase system were in the area of flow system design.

  16. Chemiluminescence of enterococci isolates from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Andre, Philippe; Metzger, Catherine; Petey, Sophie; Muller, Daniel; Vidon, Dominique J-M

    2005-04-01

    All Enterococcus spp., isolated from environmental water samples (n=81), emitted a high chemiluminescence signal in the presence of luminol (10(-2) M). Kinetic studies of chemiluminescence show a close correlation between chemiluminescence and growth curves during the exponential phase, with a maximum chemiluminescence reached just before bacterial growth entered in the stationary phase. On the other hand, genera closely related to Enterococcus such as Streptococcus or Lactococcus produced a very weak chemiluminescent signal. Chemiluminescence of enterococci could therefore offer a rapid test, in aiding the identification of the genus Enterococcus and in the survey of the microbiological quality of water supplies. PMID:15796989

  17. Kinetics of CH radicals with O2: Evidence for CO chemiluminescence in the gas phase reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.

    2003-09-01

    The production of CO vis-uv-chemiluminescence has been observed for the first time when a trace amount of CHBr3 vapor was photodecomposed in a pulsed-photolysis reactor using a 248-nm laser under multiphoton-dissociation conditions in an excess of O2 in diluent helium or argon carrier gas at 298 K and in the pressure range 2-95 Torr. The time-resolved chemiluminescent traces due to vibronic emissions at several band positions in the CO(A-X), CO(a-X), and CO(d-a) systems, and in the (1-0) and (0-0) bands of the OH(A-X) system were observed to decay nonexponentially. Their integrated intensities all showed quadratic dependence on the photolysis fluence employed. The OH and CO chemiluminescence data can be best interpreted by postulating the occurrence of O2 reactions with the methylidyne radicals in two different electronic states, CH(X 2Π) and CH(a 4Σ-). The production of CO(A) and CO(d) in these reactions require the methylidyne radicals to be internally (vibrationally) excited. The decay kinetics of the chemiluminescence was investigated in the presence of various added substrates, the buffer gas pressure, and in conditions of excess added CH4, which allowed us to isolate and study the CH(a 4Σ-)+O2 reaction, since the CH(X 2Π) could rapidly be removed from the system. The reactions of highly internally excited brominated radical species such as CBr♯, CHBr♯, and CBr2♯ with O2, in principle, can also produce CO chemiluminescence, but are argued to be of negligible importance in the present CHBr3/O2 photolysis system.

  18. Investigation of a chemiluminescent system for the determination of ammonia by flow-injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, P.R.; Crouch, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    A novel system for the determination of ammonia based on the chemiluminescent reaction between hypochlorite and luminol is presented. The technique of flow injection analysis was employed to automate the system. Ammonia reacts with hypochlorite to form monochloramine in basic solution which decreases the observed chemiluminescence intensity. Several interferents are identified, and the reasons why they interfere are discussed. The effects of interferents are minimized through the use of a double-tube dialyzer where the ammonia is diffused across the dialyzer membrane into a recipient stream of hydrochloric acid.

  19. Selective chlorine dioxide determination using gas-diffusion flow injection analysis with chemiluminescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, D.A.; Gord, J.R.; Gordon, G.; Pacey, G.E.

    1986-06-01

    An automated chemiluminescent technique has been developed utilizing the advantages of gas-diffusion flow injection analysis. A gas-diffusion membrane separates the donor (sampling) stream from the acceptor (detecting) stream and removes ionic interferences. A novel chemiluminescence flow-through detector cell is used to measure the concentration of chlorine dioxide as a function of the intensity of the chemiluminescence produced from its reaction with luminol. The chemiluminescent reagent merges with the analyte directly in front of the photomultiplier tube in order to maximize the sensitivity of the system. The detection limit for chlorine dioxide is approximately 5 ppb. The method is over 1500 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than for chlorine on a mole basis. This method eliminates interference from iron and manganese compounds, as well as other oxychlorinated compounds such as chlorite ion and chlorate ion.

  20. Short-Time-Response measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate by fast capillary gas chromatography with luminol detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Drayton, P. J.

    2000-12-07

    The interaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in sunlight to produce photochemical smog has been well studied over the years. In the past, the workhorse for the measurement of NO{sub 2}and NO was the chemiluminescent reaction with ozone. This method has detection limits of approximately 0.5 ppb in most commercial instruments, but it cannot detect NO{sub 2} directly; the instrument detects NO and uses hot catalytic surfaces to decompose all other nitrogen oxides (including NO{sub 2}) to NO for detection (l). The main problem with the method is the inherent difficulty in detecting excited NO{sub 2}, which emits over a broad region beginning at approximately 660 nm and has a maximum at 1270 nm, thus requiring a red-shifted photomultiplier for detection. The use of luminol for direct chemiluminescent detection of NO{sub 2} was demonstrated to have greater inherent sensitivity (detection limits of 5 ppt) than the indirect ozone chemiluminescence detection (2). In the luminol system, a gas-liquid reaction leads to light emission with a maximum at approximately 425 nm, at the maximum sensitivity for most photomultiplier tubes. This emission is responsible for the increased detection sensitivities. The biggest problem with this method for direct measurement of NO{sub 2} has been interference due to other soluble oxidants, particularly peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs).

  1. Investigation and analytical application of the sulphide-hypobromite chemiluminescence reaction.

    PubMed

    Teckentrup, J; Klockow, D

    1981-09-01

    The results of an investigation of the sensitized and non-sensitized chemiluminescence reaction between sulphide and hypobromite in alkaline solution are presented. The reaction can be used for the determination of traces of sulphide at concentrations above 5 x 10(-8)M. For this purpose a special flow system is employed which includes coulometric generation of reagent, and photon-counting. The flow system can also be combined with a special microdistillation apparatus, making it possible to analyse impregnated filters such as are used for the collection of hydrogen sulphide from ambient air. PMID:18962976

  2. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  3. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  4. A new chemiluminescence method for the determination of nickel ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li Na; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2006-05-01

    A new chemiluminescence (CL) phenomenon described as the second-chemiluminescence (SCL) was observed and a strong CL signal was detected, when Ni(II) ion was injected into the mixture after the end of the reaction of potassium permanganate with alkaline luminol. The possible CL mechanism is proposed based on the kinetic curve of the CL reaction, CL spectra, UV-vis spectra and some other experiments. A flow-injection analysis for the determination of nickle(II) ion has been developed, based on the catalysis of nickel(II) ion on the CL reaction between potassium manganate produced on-line and luminol under alkaline condition. Under the optimum conditions, the SCL intensity is linear with the concentration of nickel(II) ion in the range of 8.0-200.0 μg l -1 and 0.2-2.0 mg l -1. The R.S.D. was 4.5% for 11 determinations of 250 μg l -1 nickel(II) ion and the detection limit (3 σ) for nickel(II) ion was 0.33 μg l -1. The method was applied to determine nickel(II) ion in synthetic samples with satisfactory results.

  5. [Flow injection analysis of trace amounts of doxycycline with inhibited chemiluminescence detection].

    PubMed

    Li, Nain-bing; Duan, Jian-ping; Chen, Hong-qing; Chen, Guo-nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of doxycycline (DC) based on the inhibition of chemiluminescence reaction of Luminol-KMnO4 by using DC in sodium hydroxide medium. Using different concentrations of KMnO4, a series of good linear regression equations of decreased chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of DC were obtained with different subsections in the concentration range of 0.005-5.0 microg x mL(-1). The detection limit (3sigma) is 2.0 x 10(-3) microg x mL(-1). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of DC in a pharmaceutical preparation. PMID:15768965

  6. Chemiluminescence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grayeski, M.L.

    1987-11-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) is observed when light is emitted from a chemical reaction. If the reaction occurs in a living system or is derived from one, the process is called bioluminescence (BL). Many articles describe clinical, biological, and environmental applications using both gas- and solution-phase CL reactions. Although the lack of commercially available instrumentation, reagents, and methodology has somewhat restricted the widespread use of CL, certain applications are common: the measurement of total microbial cell counts using the firefly reaction and the determination of oxides of nitrogen with a gas-phase chemiluminescent reaction involving ozone. This REPORT will discuss only a few of the most recent developments in CL using reactions in solution.

  7. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography-chemiluminescent detection of biogenic amines using N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol as derivatization reagent and trivalent copper chelate as chemiluminescence enhancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Xie, Haoyue; Fu, Zhifeng

    2012-03-16

    A facile, sensitive and universal method was established for analysis of biogenic amines using micellar electrokinetic chromatography coupled with chemiluminescent (CL) detection. It was found that diperiodatocuprate (III) (K(5)[Cu(HIO(6))(2)], DPC), a transition metal chelate at unstable high oxidation state, could effectively enhance the reaction between luminol-type compound and hydrogen peroxide, to produce very strong CL signal. In addition, triethylamine was found to be able to effectively improve the yield of the derivatization reaction between biogenic amines and a luminol-type derivatization reagent, N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI). Based on these facts, three biogenic amines were pre-column derivatized with ABEI, and post-column detected using high sensitive luminol-hydrogen peroxide-DPC CL system. Since the background was quite low, and the signal was quite strong, a considerable improved sensitivity was obtained. The presented method had been successfully applied to simultaneously analyze glycine, proline and phenylalanine with the detection limits (S/N=3) of 0.030 μmol L(-1), 0.23 μmol L(-1) and 0.21 μmol L(-1), respectively. To evaluate its potential application value, glycine in saliva and urine samples was detected using this method, and satisfied results were obtained. This approach can be further extended to detection of many other compounds such as peptides and drugs by using luminol-type derivatization reagent. PMID:22340535

  8. Chemiluminescence: An Illuminating Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which luminescence is observed during a reaction between sodium borohydride and trisbipyridalruthenium (III). Includes a discussion of the theory of chemiluminescence. (MLH)

  9. Three dimethoxy-substituted luminol derivatives: A comparative study using theoretical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bingchun; Liu, Cuilan; Liu, Yanhong; Liu, Erbao

    2015-02-01

    In this research, geometrical optimisation, Mulliken charge, molecular electrostatic potential, and the frontier molecular orbitals of three dimethoxy-substituted luminol derivatives were investigated by ab initio, density functional, and Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with a 6-311G (d, p) basis set in gas phase, water, and dimethylsulphoxide solution. The UV-vis spectra were calculated by time dependent density functional theory method. The properties of derivatives were compared with luminol at a molecular level to investigate the change induced by the methoxy group. The three derivatives were also compared with the aim of predicting the order of chemiluminescent efficiency. The results showed that methoxy substitution significantly changed the electronic and spectral properties of luminol. Among three derivatives, structure 2 was suggested to have the highest chemiluminescent efficiency. The results may shed some light on the design and selection of chemiluminescent reagents.

  10. Method of generating chemiluminescent light

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction that generates chemiluminescent light and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  11. Isoprinosine stimulates granulocyte chemiluminescence and inhibits monocyte chemiluminescence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Flø, R W; Naess, A; Albrektsen, G; Solberg, C O

    1994-04-01

    Isoprinosine may delay disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus infection, presumably through modulation of lymphocyte function. However, the influence of isoprinosine on phagocyte function is largely unknown. This study describes the effects of isoprinosine and azidothymidine on phagocyte chemiluminescence and migration. Incubation with isoprinosine concentrations of 250 micrograms/ml and above increased the chemiluminescence of granulocytes. Random migration of granulocytes was decreased at isoprinosine concentrations of 50 micrograms/ml and higher, but chemotaxis was not affected. Azidothymidine exerted no effect on the chemiluminescence or migration of granulocytes. For monocytes, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was reduced at isoprinosine concentrations of 250 micrograms/ml and above, whereas migration was not affected. These findings suggest that the immunomodulatory properties of isoprinosine may extend to phagocytic cells. This may be of significance in the treatment of immunodeficiency states. PMID:7516672

  12. Determination of trace amounts of iron in water by a chemiluminescence method

    SciTech Connect

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Bogoslovskaya, a T.A.; Terletskaya, A.V.

    1986-09-01

    The authors used the chemiluminescent oxidation reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide to determine iron in waters of various composition (neutral mine, artesian, and deionized waters). The oxidation reaction takes place in a weakly alkaline medium, and the catalyst is iron (III) activated by TETA and DETA. The iron content is evaluated from the intensity of the luminescence. The method is distinguished by its low detection limit (0.04 ng/ml), sufficient selectivity, stability of the luminescence with time, and accessibility of the reagents.

  13. Two techniques for eliminating luminol interference material and flow system configurations for luminol and firefly luciferase systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two methods for eliminating luminol interference materials are described. One method eliminates interference from organic material by pre-reacting a sample with dilute hydrogen peroxide. The reaction rate resolution method for eliminating inorganic forms of interference is also described. The combination of the two methods makes the luminol system more specific for bacteria. Flow system designs for both the firefly luciferase and luminol bacteria detection systems are described. The firefly luciferase flow system incorporating nitric acid extraction and optimal dilutions has a functional sensitivity of 3 x 100,000 E. coli/ml. The luminol flow system incorporates the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and the reaction rate resolution techniques for eliminating interference. The functional sensitivity of the luminol flow system is 1 x 10,000 E. coli/ml.

  14. Chemiluminescent detection systems of horseradish peroxidase employing nucleophilic acylation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Marzocchi, Ettore; Grilli, Stefano; Della Ciana, Leopoldo; Prodi, Luca; Mirasoli, Mara; Roda, Aldo

    2008-06-15

    The light output of the peroxidase-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescent oxidation reaction can be greatly increased by incorporating different enhancers. Such an increase is attributed to the preferential oxidation of the enhancer by peroxidase intermediates and the rapid formation of enhancer radicals that, in turn, quickly oxidize luminol to its radical anion. These enhancers, which include substituted phenols, substituted boronic acids, indophenols, and N-alkyl phenothiazines, behave as electron transfer mediators. A further, very significant increase in light output was also observed by the addition of nucleophilic acylation catalyst to the enhancer/luminol/oxidant substrate. The effect of the new component is general and applicable to many of the known enhancers but is much more remarkable in association with phenothiazine enhancers (up to 10-fold light output). The addition of a nucleophilic acylation catalyst to these substrates lowered the limit of detection for horseradish peroxidase from 50 to 8 amol. Similar improvements were observed in "sandwich" enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western blot assays. PMID:18394418

  15. Chemiluminescence and electrochemiluminescence detection of controlled drugs.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Jacqui L; Barrow, Colin J; Barnett, Neil W; Conlan, Xavier A; Hogan, Conor F; Francis, Paul S

    2011-03-01

    We review the determination of various controlled drugs (opioids, tranquilizers, stimulants, and hallucinogens) using flow-analysis methodologies (flow injection analysis, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and microfluidic devices) with chemiluminescence and electrochemiluminescence reagents such as luminol, diaryloxalates, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), permanganate, manganese(IV), and sulfite, for industrial, clinical, pharmaceutical, and forensic science applications. PMID:21154734

  16. Applications of capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection in clinical, environmental and food analysis. A review.

    PubMed

    Lara, Francisco J; Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2016-03-24

    This paper reviews the latest developments and analytical applications of chemiluminescence detection coupled to capillary electrophoresis (CE-CL). Different sections considering the most common CL systems have been included, such as the tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) system, the luminol and acridinium derivative reactions, the peroxyoxalate CL or direct oxidations. Improvements in instrumental designs, new strategies for improving both resolution and sensitivity, and applications in different fields such as clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food analysis have been included. This review covers the literature from 2010 to 2015. PMID:26944987

  17. Sonochemical synthesis of Cu2O nanocubes for enhanced chemiluminescence applications.

    PubMed

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Sivasankar, Thirugnanasambandam; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2016-03-01

    A facile one-step sonochemical synthesis of Cu2O nanocubes has been developed by ultrasound irradiation of copper sulfate in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone and ascorbic acid at pH 11. During sonication, the reaction between acoustic cavitation-generated radicals and CuSO4 produced Cu(OH)2 intermediate which then reacted with ascorbic acid to generate Cu2O nanocubes. The products were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, AFM and particle size analyzer. The prepared Cu2O nanocubes were found to be very effective for enhancing chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol-H2O2 system. PMID:26585019

  18. Two-phase flow cell for chemiluminescence and bioluminescence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, J.L.; Seitz, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach to two-phase CL (chemiluminescence) measurements is reported. A magnetically stirred reagent phase is separated from the analyte phase by a dialysis membrane so that only smaller molecules can go from one phase to the other. The system is designed so that the analyte phase flows through a spiral groove on an aluminum block that is flush against the dialysis membrane. As solution flows through the spiral grove, analyte diffuses into the reagent phase where it reacts to produce light. A simple model is developed to predict how this system will behave. Experimentally, the system is evaluated by using the luminol reaction catalyzed by peroxidase, the firefly reaction, and the bacterial bioluminescence reaction. 10 references, 4 tables, 6 figures.

  19. A Greener Chemiluminescence Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Osman; Donahue, Trisha M.; Mitchell, Miguel O.

    2011-01-01

    Because they are dramatic and intriguing, chemiluminescence demonstrations have been used for decades to stimulate interest in chemistry. One of the most intense chemiluminescent reactions is the oxidation of diaryl oxalate diesters with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a fluorescer. In typical lecture demonstrations, the commercially…

  20. A Greener Chemiluminescence Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Osman; Donahue, Trisha M.; Mitchell, Miguel O.

    2011-01-01

    Because they are dramatic and intriguing, chemiluminescence demonstrations have been used for decades to stimulate interest in chemistry. One of the most intense chemiluminescent reactions is the oxidation of diaryl oxalate diesters with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a fluorescer. In typical lecture demonstrations, the commercially

  1. Synchronization of oscillatory chemiluminescence with pulsed light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Shunsuke; Okano, Kunihiko; Asakura, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    A chemical oscillator, the H2O2-KSCN-CuSO4-NaOH system, generates an oscillatory chemiluminescence when luminol is added to this system. Attempts were made to synchronize the oscillatory chemiluminescence with pulsed light irradiation. A period of the chemical oscillation became shorter by the irradiation of white and blue color light, while the oscillatory behavior was scarcely influenced by the irradiation of red light. Pulsed red and white or blue lights were irradiated on either the non-luminol or luminol-added H2O2-KSCN-CuSO4-NaOH system. Synchronization of the chemical oscillation was achieved for 25-30 min in the luminol-added system.

  2. New method for monitoring nitric oxide in vivo using microdialysis sampling and chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Dachun; Evmiridis, Nick P.; Zhou, Yikai; Xu, Shunqing; Zhou, Huarong

    2001-09-01

    A new method employing a combination of micro dialysis sampling and chemiluminescence reaction was developed to monitor nitric oxide (NO) in vivo. A special probe was designed with an interference-free membrane to achieve a very high selectivity for NO. High sensitivity was achieved by optimizing the working system and improving the NO sampling time. This system was used in vivo to monitor blood and brain tissue in rats and rabbits. We have established that this system is sensitive enough to detect variations in NO production in difference physiological state. The system can detect NO in the linear range of 5nM-1(mu) M, with a detection limit of 1nM, and real NO concentrations in our experimental animals were found to be in the range of 1-5 nM or even less. Finally, the effects of body temperature, NO donors, Viagra, NO activators, NO cofactors, NO interference were investigated carefully in different physiological situations.

  3. Method and apparatus for eliminating luminol interference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffers, E. L.; Thomas, R. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing porphyrins from a fluid sample which are unrelated to the number of bacteria present in the sample and prior to combining the sample with luminol reagent to produce a light reaction is disclosed. The method involves a pre-incubation of the sample with a dilute concentration of hydrogen peroxide which inactivates the interfering soluble porphyrins. Further, by delaying taking a light measurement for a predetermined time period after combining the hydrogen peroxide-treated water sample with a luminol reagent, the luminescence produced by the reaction of the luminol reagent with ions present in the solution, being short lived, will have died out so that only porphyrins within the bacteria which have been released by rupturing the cells with the sodium hydroxide in the luminol reagent, will be measured. The measurement thus obtained can then be related to the concentration of live and dead bacteria in the fluid sample.

  4. Chemiluminescence immunoassay using magnetic nanoparticles with targeted inhibition for the determination of ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sumin; Lim, H B

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay with targeted inhibition was developed for the determination of toxins in food products. For sample treatment, amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized to extract target molecules, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tagged on an antibody was used as a label for CL reaction. In particular, amine-targeted inhibition using aldehyde, i.e., specifically capping the amine with an alkyl group, was developed for a non-specific extraction platform to lower background and improve signal-to-background ratio. For demonstration, ochratoxin A (OTA) was determined in rice using a lab-built drop-type chemiluminescence (DCL) system with luminol-H2O2 reagent. The obtained limit of detection was 1.39 pg mL(-1), which was about 7.3 times better than that of ELISA. Recovery of the method in the range of 87-99% was observed, which was compared with ELISA. PMID:26048840

  5. Continuous flow determination of carbon dioxide in water by membrane separation-chemiluminescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, T.; Ito, K.; Munemori, M.

    1988-10-01

    Carbon dioxide has been found to enhance the chemiluminescence of a luminol system. A determination method for carbon dioxide in water was developed by applying this reaction to a continuous flow membrane-separation system. Concentrations of carbon dioxide as low as 0.04 ..mu..g C/mL were determined. Membrane-separation effectively eliminated interferences from Co(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), and other ions which also enhance chemiluminescence. The relative standard deviation for this method was 2.8% (n=5) for 4.0 ..mu..g C/mL and the time required for the analysis of one sample was 3.0 min.

  6. Enhancement of the Chemiluminescence Response of Enzymatic Reactions by Plasmonic Surfaces for Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Biebele; Odukoya, Babatunde; Mohammed, Muzaffer; Aslan, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    We report the enhancement of chemiluminescence response of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in bioassays by plasmonic surfaces, which are comprised of (i) silver island films (SIFs) and (ii) metal thin films (silver, gold, copper, and nickel, 1 nm thick) deposited onto glass slides. A model bioassay, based on the interactions of avidin-modified HRP with a monolayer of biotinylated poly(ethylene-glycol)-amine, was employed to evaluate the ability of plasmonic surfaces to enhance chemiluminescence response of HRP. Chemiluminescence response of HRP in model bioassays were increased up to ~3.7-fold as compared to the control samples (i.e. glass slides without plasmonic nanoparticles), where the largest enhancement of the chemiluminescence response was observed on SIFs with high loading. These findings allowed us to demonstrate the use of SIFs (high loading) for the detection of a biologically relevant target protein (glial fibrillary acidic protein or GFAP), where the chemiluminescence response of the standard bioassay for GFAP was enhanced up to ~50% as compared to bioassay on glass slides. PMID:26582101

  7. Gold nanolabels for new enhanced chemiluminescence immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein based on magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Yan, Yameng; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shusheng

    2009-01-01

    Gold'n'beads: A chemiluminescence immunoassay for the sensitive and rapid determination of AFP has been developed, employing bromophenol blue as a novel chemiluminescence enhancer by taking advantages of easy separation by magnetic beads and signal amplification by gold nanoparticles based on a sandwich-type immunoreaction (see scheme).A novel and sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) has been developed by employing a new chemiluminescence (CL) enhancer, bromophenol blue (BPB), for the determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on magnetic beads (MBs) and colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with HRP-labeled anti-AFP antibodies. BPB, as a chemical indicator, was found to act as a novel and highly signal enhancer of the peroxidase-catalyzed CL reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide. After optimizing the CL reaction conditions, this new luminol-H(2)O(2)-HRP-BPB CL system was applied to a sandwich-type CLIA based on the magnetic separation and the amplification feature of AuNPs as HRP labels. A linear range was obtained when the concentrations of AFP were from 0.1 to 5.0 ng mL(-1) (R=0.9997) with the detection limit of 0.01 ng mL(-1) (3sigma), which is one order of magnitude lower than that obtained without using AuNPs, and much lower than that typically achieved by ELISA. The present method was successfully applied to the determination of AFP in human serum samples. The results indicated that this proposed protocol could be quite promising for the application in immunoassays. PMID:19291715

  8. Postmortem interval of skeletal remains through the detection of intraosseal hemin traces. A comparison of UV-fluorescence, luminol, Hexagon-OBTI®, and Combur® tests.

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Ebach, Sarah C; Birngruber, Christoph G; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-06-15

    With the goal of obtaining additional practically applicable methods for estimating the PMI of skeletal remains, 39 samples of human and 5 samples of domestic animal long bones with known PMI (PMI=1 to approximately 2000 years) were tested with two established methods (UV-fluorescence of a freshly sawn cross-section and the luminol test) and two screening tests (Hexagon-OBTI® test and Combur® test) that were being tried out in this context for the first time. The hypothesis underlying this experiment was the supposition that the PMI-related chemiluminescence of the luminol reaction for bone is based on the presence of persisting hemin from hemoglobin molecules in bone. Our results showed that lack of luminescence and reduced UV-fluorescence were more meaningful results for estimating PMI and excluding forensic relevance than a positive luminol reaction or strong UV-fluorescence, as both of the latter findings revealed the limitations of these methods in this particular context. Particularly for cases showing a positive luminol reaction, the use of additional absolute dating methods may be indicated. Against our expectations, both the Combur® test strips and the Hexagon-OBTI® test, which were both devised to demonstrate blood, delivered negative results for all samples. They are thus not suitable for estimating the PMI of skeletal remains. Future research will be necessary to elucidate whether the negative results obtained for these tests may be due to the poor solubility of potentially present hemoglobin or hemoglobin breakdown products in the Tris buffer used in this experiment. PMID:21237592

  9. Multiple signal amplification electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensors for sensitive protein kinase activity analysis and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zonghua; Yan, Zhiyong; Sun, Na; Liu, Yang

    2015-06-15

    A novel electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was built for the detection of kinase activity based on multiple signal amplification nanoprobes. In this strategy, the Xanthine oxidase (XOD) and 5'-phosphate group end DNA conjugated AuNPs was integrated with the phosphorylated peptide by Zr(4+). The XOD on gold nanoparticles can catalyze dissolved oxygen to produce H2O2 in the presence of hypoxanthine (HA) which acts as a coreactor for luminol ECL reaction. In addition, due to the excellent catalytic activity of gold nanoparticle toward luminol ECL reaction and its large surface area that can accommodate large number of XOD and DNA on the surface, the ECL signal of luminol was significantly amplified, affording a highly sensitive ECL analysis of kinase activity. The as-proposed biosensor presents a low detection limit of 0.09 U mL(-1) for protein kinase A (PKA) activity, wide linear range (from 0.1 to 10 U mL(-1)) and excellent stability even in serum samples. This biosensor can also be applied for quantitative kinase inhibitor evaluation. The robust ECL biosensor provides a valuable tool for the high throughput assay in the applications of clinic diagnostic and therapeutic. PMID:25682506

  10. Electrocatalysis of anodic, oxygen-transfer reactions at noble metal electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, J.E.

    1992-06-09

    Voltammetry at rotated disk and rotated ring-disk electrodes was applied to the study of several aspects of anodic, oxygen-transfer reactions at noble electrodes. Anodic reactions which involve the transfer of oxygen from H{sub 2}O to the oxidation products generally exhibit a voltammetric response characterized by severe kinetic limitations. Mechanistic studies were performed at noble electrodes in order to contrive strategies for improving the kinetics of these reactions. Competitive adsorption studies were used to devise an adsorption hierarchy for Au rotated disk electrodes. It was concluded that adsorption was a prerequisite for oxidations involving the transfer of oxygen present on the electrodes surface as adsorbed hydroxyl radicals. The electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol was studied at Au, Pt, Pd, glassy carbon, PbO{sub 2}, and Bi-doped PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The ECL intensity was determined to be inversely related to electrochemical activity for the oxidation of luminol. It was concluded that the oxygen-transfer oxidation of luminol to 3-aminophthalate ( n = 4 eq mol{sup {minus}1}) corresponded to the dark reaction, whereas the electron-transfer oxidation of luminol with n = 1 eq mol{sup {minus}1} initiated the chemiluminescent reaction in solution.

  11. Development and application of a luminol-based nitrogen dioxide detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    An instrument for the continuous measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) at all atmospheric concentration ranges and conditions was developed. The detector is based on the chemiluminescent reaction between 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione (luminol) and NO/sub 2/ in alkaline aqueous solution. Development included the optimization of the cell design and the solution composition. Sodium sulfite (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/) and methanol (CH/sub 3/OH) were added to the solution to improve sensitivity and specificity. The detector was favorably compared to two different instruments measuring NO/sub 2/ by NO + O/sub 3/ chemiluminescent and by a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry system. The detector has demonstrated a detection limit of 30 parts-per-trillion by volume (ppt) and a frequency response of 0.3 Hz. The instrument was operated for two one-month periods on Bermuda. The purpose was to study air masses from the East Coast of the United States after transport over the ocean. Average daily values were 400 ppt with values as low as 100 ppt measured. Other field experiments involved monitoring of NO/sub 2/ in ambient air in the range of 1 to 60 parts-per-billion by volume.

  12. Highly sensitive homogenous chemiluminescence immunoassay using gold nanoparticles as label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Cui, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Li, Baoxin

    2014-10-01

    Homogeneous immunoassay is becoming more and more attractive for modern medical diagnosis because it is superior to heterogeneous immunoassay in sample and reagent consumption, analysis time, portability and disposability. Herein, a universal platform for homogeneous immunoassay, using human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model analyte, has been developed. This assay relies upon the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on luminol-AgNO3 chemiluminescence (CL) reaction. The immunoreaction of antigen and antibody can induce the aggregation of antibody-functionalized AuNPs, and after aggregation the catalytic activity of AuNPs on luminol-AgNO3 CL reaction is greatly enhanced. Without any separation steps, a CL signal is generated upon addition of a trigger solution, and the CL intensity is directly correlated to the quantity of IgG. The detection limit of IgG was estimated to be as low as 3 pg/mL, and the sensitivity was better than that of the reported AuNPs-based CL immunoassay for IgG.

  13. Method of generating chemiluminescent light

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1986-03-11

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction that generates chemiluminescent light and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  14. Chemiluminescence in the reaction of ozone with 6-methyluracil in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimin, Yu. S.; Khairullina, L. R.; Kutlugil'dina, G. G.; Mustafin, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Chemiluminescence in the visible part of the spectrum during the oxidation of 6-methyluracil with ozone in aqueous solutions was found. The kinetics of variation of the luminescence intensity was studied in the temperature range 287-333 K, and the activation parameters of the process were determined.

  15. Flow injection assays with chemiluminescence and bioluminescence detection--a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S W; Price, D; Worsfold, P J

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews publications that combine the technique of flow injection (FI) with chemiluminescence (CL) and bioluminescence (BL) detection, from the earliest papers in 1979/80 to mid-1992, and refers exclusively to reactions occurring in solution. Air-segmented systems and liquid chromatography with CL detection are not considered unless FI has been used to pre-optimize the system. The applications have been categorized in terms of the type of CL reaction; there are separate entries for luminol, peroxyoxalate, other CL reactions and BL reactions. Each of the four sections includes a table of applications that lists the analyte, the nature of the reaction, the sample matrix and the limit of detection. PMID:8372703

  16. Chemiluminescent determination of acetylcholine, and continuous detection of its release from torpedo electric organ synapses and synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Israel, M; Lesbats, B

    1981-03-01

    A chemiluminescent procedure to determine acetylcholine is described. The enzyme choline oxidase recently purified, oxidises choline to betaine, the H(2)O(2) generated is continuously measured with the luminol-peroxidase chemiluminescent reaction for H(2)O(2). Other chemi or bioluminescent detectors for H(2)O(2) would probably work as well. The chemiluminescent step provides great sensitivity to the method which is slightly less sensitive than the leech bio-assay but much more sensitive than the frog rectus preparation. The specificity of the chemiluminescent method depends on the fact that choline oxidase receives its substrate only when acetylcholine is hydrolysed by acetylcholinesterase. The acetylcholine content of tissue extracts was determined with the chemiluminescent method, and with the frog rectus assay, the values found were very comparable. The chemiluminescent procedure was used to follow the release of acetylcholine from tissues. When a slice of electric organ is incubated with choline oxidase, luminol and peroxidase, KCl depolarization or electrical stimulation in critical experimental conditions triggered an important light emission, which was blocked in high Mg(2+). The venom of Glycera convoluta, known to induce a substantial transmitter release, was also found to trigger the light emission from tissue slices. Suspensions of synaptosomes release relatively large amounts of acetylcholine following Glycera venom action; this was confirmed with the chemiluminescent reaction. The demonstration that the light emission reflects the release of acetylcholine is supported by several observations. First, when the tissue is omitted no light emission is triggered after KCl or venom addition to the reagents. Second, the time course of the light emission record is very similar to the time course previously found for ACh release with radioactive methods. Third, if choline oxidase is omitted, or if acetylcholinesterase is inhibited by phospholine, the light emission is blocked, showing that the substance released has to be hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase and oxidised by choline oxidase to generate chemiluminescence. The procedure described has important potential applications since other transmitters can similarly be measured upon changing the oxidase. PMID:20487811

  17. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Robert J.; Bertoncello, Paolo; Keyes, Tia E.

    2009-07-01

    In electrogenerated chemiluminescence, also known as electrochemiluminescence (ECL), electrochemically generated intermediates undergo a highly exergonic reaction to produce an electronically excited state that then emits light. These electron-transfer reactions are sufficiently exergonic to allow the excited states of luminophores, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metal complexes, to be created without photoexcitation. For example, oxidation of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ in the presence of tripropylamine results in light emission that is analogous to the emission produced by photoexcitation. This review highlights some of the most exciting recent developments in this field, including novel ECL-generating transition metal complexes, especially ruthenium and osmium polypyridine systems; ECL-generating monolayers and thin films; the use of nanomaterials; and analytical, especially clinical, applications.

  18. Continuous measurement of nitrous acid (HONO) in indoor environment using a diffusion scrubber and chemiluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Hong, J.; Lee, J.; Cho, S.

    2006-12-01

    Recent study has demonstrated that the use of combustion appliances in indoor environments, e.g., gas stoves and heaters, results in significant concentrations of NO2 and nitrous acid (HONO). Indoor HONO is formed by both direct emissions from combustion processes and the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with water vapor on surfaces present indoors. In this study in-situ instrument was constructed for measuring HONO concentration in both indoor and outdoor environments, utilizing diffusion scrubber and peroxynitrite-induced luminol chemiluminescent methods. We measured the HONO concentration under the conditions existing in living room of an apartment, along with NO, NO2, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the sources, chemical transformation, and lifetimes of nitrogen oxides and HONO. Some experiments investigated the emissions and transformations of nitrogen species from operation of unvented or vented gas appliance. Measurement data of NO, NO2, and HONO will be reported, and formation pathway of the HONO under the experimental conditions will also be discussed. In addition to measurement of indoor HONO, comparison of HONO measurements by luminol chemiluminescence and annular denuder integrated samples was made in outdoor environment. HONO in ambient air was sampled with annular denuders (Teflon-coated PM2.5 cyclone inlet followed by two Na2CO3-coated denuders coupled in series) operated at 16.7 L/min. Acknowledgement This study was supported by grant No. (# R01-2005-000-10775-0) from the Basic Research Program of the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF).

  19. Lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence in articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rathakrishnan, C; Tiku, M L

    1993-08-01

    We were recently able to measure intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide within normal articular chondrocytes using the trapped indicator 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Further studies have shown that stimulated chondrocytes produce luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, suggesting that these cells produce hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen. In the present study, we have investigated the lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence response in normal articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes either in suspension or adhered to cover slips showed lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. There was a dose-dependent increase in chemiluminescence response when chondrocytes were incubated with soluble stimuli like phorbol-myristate-acetate, concanavalin A, and f-met-leu-phe. Catalase and the metabolic inhibitor, sodium azide, which inhibits the enzyme myeloperoxidase, had no inhibitory effect on lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence production. Only the antioxidant, superoxide dismutase, prevented lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence, indicating that this assay measures the production of superoxide anions by chondrocytes. We confirmed that chondrocytes release superoxide radicals using the biochemical assay of ferricytochrome c reduction. Since cartilage tissue is semi-transparent, we were able to measure chemiluminescence response in live cartilage tissue, showing that chondrocytes which are embedded within the matrix can also generate superoxide anion radicals. Reactive oxygen intermediates have been shown to play a significant role in the degradation of matrix in arthritis. Our previous and present studies suggest that oxygen radicals produced by chondrocytes may be an important mechanism by which chondrocytes induce cartilage matrix degradation. PMID:8397140

  20. Chemiluminescent determination of 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin and 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin in water and in air

    SciTech Connect

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Zui, O.V.; Terletskaya, A.V.

    1986-10-10

    It was found that 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DCDH) and 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethyl-hydantoin (DBDH) react with luminol in aqueous solutions and in organic solvents giving luminous radiation. The optimal conditions for the reaction have been found. A chemiluminescent method was developed for the determination of micro-quantities of DCDH and DBDH in aqueous solutions with detection limits of 0.2 and 4 ng/ml, respectively. The method was used for the analysis of the DBDH content in water and in air in production premises.

  1. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of imipramine in tablets, human plasma and urine samples based upon oxidation with singlet oxygen generated in N-bromosuccinimide-hydrogen peroxide reaction.

    PubMed

    Hao, Liang; DU, Jianxiu; Lu, Jiuru

    2007-05-01

    Singlet oxygen generated in a reaction between N-bromosuccinimide and hydrogen peroxide was used for the chemiluminescence oxidation of imipramine. A strong chemiluminescence signal was observed when imipramine was mixed with N-bromosuccinimide and hydrogen peroxide under an alkaline condition. The chemiluminescence signal was linearly dependent on the concentration of imipramine in the range of 0.01 - 1.0 mg/L. The detection limit was 0.005 mg/L imipramine and the relative standard deviation was 1.5% for a 0.4 mg/L imipramine solution in 11 repeated measurements. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of imipramine in tablets, human plasma and urine samples. PMID:17495408

  2. Serum and tissue antioxidant capacity in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia investigated using an enhanced chemiluminescent reaction.

    PubMed

    Cope, G; Thorpe, G; Holder, R; Luesley, D; Jordan, J

    1999-01-01

    Depleted antioxidant defence has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia. We determined the systemic and local antioxidant status of women with this condition. Thirty-four women with varying grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 25 patients who had been treated successfully with diathermy loop excision, and 56 women who had no evidence of cervical abnormality acted as controls. Total antioxidant capacity of serum and protein-free serum, and of neat and protein-free homogenized cervical punch biopsies were determined using enhanced chemiluminescence. Mean serum antioxidant capacity of patients with current neoplasia and treated patients was not significantly different from that of controls. However, mean antioxidant capacity of homogenized cervical tissue from women with neoplasia was significantly lower than control means (P < 0.005), while results for treated patients were intermediate between those from diseased and normal samples (P < 0.05). The enhanced chemiluminescence technique has potential as a suitable method for measuring total antioxidant capacity of cervical tissue, and warrants further investigations using other tissue types. Significant antioxidant depletion in cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia appears to be confined to the local cervical mucosa. PMID:10370766

  3. Chemiluminescent immunoassay of thyroxine enhanced by microchip electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    A homogenous chemiluminescent immunoassay of thyroxine (T4) enhanced by microchip electrophoresis separation has been developed. The method deployed the competitive immunoreaction of T4 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled T4 (HRP–T4) with anti-T4 mouse monoclonal antibody (Ab). HRP–T4 and the HRP–T4–Ab complex were separated and quantified by using microchip electrophoresis (MCE) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. Highly sensitive CL detection was achieved by means of HPR-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 reaction. Due to the effective MCE separation, the CL analytical signal was less prone to sample matrix interference. Under the selected assay conditions, the MCE separation was accomplished within 60 sec. The linear range for T4 were 5-250 nM with a detection limit of 2.2 nM (S/N = 3). The present method was successfully applied for the quantification of T4 in human serum samples. It was demonstrated that the present MCE-CL enhanced competitive immunoassay was quick, sensitive, and highly selective. It may serve as a tool for clinical analysis of T4 to assist diagnosis of thyroid gland functions. PMID:19961826

  4. Sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay of triclopyr by digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Aurora N; Sánchez, Francisco G; Baro, Enrique N; Díaz, Ana F G; Aguilar, Alfonso; Algarra, Manuel

    2012-08-15

    An image based detection of chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for the quantification of triclopyr has been developed. The immunoassay was an indirect competitive immunoassay with an anti-rabbit secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Chemiluminescence was produced by the luminol/H(2)O(2)/HRP reaction, detected by a monochrome video CCD camera and digitized with an Imagraph IC-PCI frame grabber using a custom program developed in C(++) (Microsoft Visual C(++) 6.0). Two main improvements are reported in the data processing software: the implementation of a circular mesh covering the perimeter of each well, eliminating diffuse light from the neighboring wells, and the use of volume (the integration of light intensity of all pixels that define a well) as an analytical signal instead of CL intensity or area (as usual in commercial plate readers) to improve precision for normalization of the total light output. The standard curve was produced for 0.01-10 ng/L triclopyr. The limit of detection was 0.8 ng/L and the variation coefficient was 3.07% (n=10, P=0.05). PMID:22841045

  5. Chemiluminescence determination of trimetazidine via inducing the aggregation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Quan, Jie; Du, Jianxiu; Liu, Mei

    2013-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method combined with flow injection analysis was developed for the determination of trimetazidine. Trimetazidine was found to significantly increase the CL signal arising from N-bromosuccinimide-luminol reaction in the presence of gold nanoparticles. The enhanced CL intensity was proportional to trimetazidine concentration in the range of 0.01-5.0 μg/mL, with a limit of detection (3 sb) of 6.7 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation was 2.8% for 11 repetitive measurements of 0.1 μg/mL trimetazidine solution. The practicality of the method was evaluated by determining trimetazidine in pharmaceutical formulations and in spiked human serum samples. Moreover, the possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed. PMID:23747432

  6. Chemiluminescence determination of trimetazidine via inducing the aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiao; Quan, Jie; Du, Jianxiu; Liu, Mei

    2013-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method combined with flow injection analysis was developed for the determination of trimetazidine. Trimetazidine was found to significantly increase the CL signal arising from N-bromosuccinimide-luminol reaction in the presence of gold nanoparticles. The enhanced CL intensity was proportional to trimetazidine concentration in the range of 0.01-5.0 μg/mL, with a limit of detection (3sb) of 6.7 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation was 2.8% for 11 repetitive measurements of 0.1 μg/mL trimetazidine solution. The practicality of the method was evaluated by determining trimetazidine in pharmaceutical formulations and in spiked human serum samples. Moreover, the possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed.

  7. A Fully Automated Sequential-Injection Analyser for Dual Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence/Amperometric Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the development of a dedicated, fully automated sequential-injection analysis (SIA) apparatus suitable for simultaneous electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) and amperometric detection. The instrument is composed of a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selection valve, a home-made potentiostat, a thin-layer electrochemical/optical flow-through cell, and a light detector. Control of the experimental sequence and simultaneous data acquisition of the light and the current intensities were performed in LabVIEW6.1. The CL reagents and the sample were first aspirated as distinct zones into the holding coil of the analyser and, then, delivered to the cell; during their travel, the individual zones mixed and the ECL reaction was initiated as soon as the mixed regents reached the cell. The utility of the analyser was demonstrated for the detection of oxalate and H 2 O 2 based on their ECL reactions with Ru ( bpy ) 3 2 and luminol, respectively. PMID:17671622

  8. A fully automated sequential-injection analyser for dual electrogenerated chemiluminescence/amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Economou, Anastasios; Nika, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the development of a dedicated, fully automated sequential-injection analysis (SIA) apparatus suitable for simultaneous electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) and amperometric detection. The instrument is composed of a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selection valve, a home-made potentiostat, a thin-layer electrochemical/optical flow-through cell, and a light detector. Control of the experimental sequence and simultaneous data acquisition of the light and the current intensities were performed in LabVIEW6.1. The CL reagents and the sample were first aspirated as distinct zones into the holding coil of the analyser and, then, delivered to the cell; during their travel, the individual zones mixed and the ECL reaction was initiated as soon as the mixed regents reached the cell. The utility of the analyser was demonstrated for the detection of oxalate and H2O2 based on their ECL reactions with Ru(bpy)32 and luminol, respectively. PMID:17671622

  9. Highly sensitive chemiluminescent detection of lead ion based on its displacement of potassium in G-Quadruplex DNAzyme.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Dong Mei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-08-21

    A simple and highly sensitive method for detecting lead ion (Pb(2+)) in biosamples was developed based on its displacement of potassium in G-Quadruplex DNAzyme, which can catalyze the luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) reaction. By introducing a G-rich DNA sequence, PS2.M, which can fold into a G-quadruplex when binding with hemin in the presence of K(+) and act as a superior horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mimicking-enzyme, we found this DNAzyme can effectively catalyze the H2O2-mediated oxidation of luminol, resulting in strong CL emission. The K(+)-stabilized G-quadruplex, upon the addition of Pb(2+), is transformed into a Pb(2+)-stabilized G-quadruplex with higher stability but poor DNAzyme activity, sharply decreasing the CL readout signal. With this, a simple and sensitive detection method for Pb(2+) in biosamples such as human hairs was developed with a linear range of 0.4-10 nM Pb(2+) and a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.06 nM. Owing to the introduction of G-quadruplex DNAzyme, which was employed not only as a sensing unit but also as a catalyst in the chemiluminescent assay, this method holds great potential for clinical plumbism diagnosis by testing hair. PMID:26165488

  10. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1987-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  11. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1987-01-06

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  12. Flow-through chemiluminescence sensor using immobilized oxidases for the selective determination of L-glutamate in a flow-injection system.

    PubMed

    Kiba, N; Ito, S; Tachibana, M; Tani, K; Koizumi, H

    2001-08-01

    A selective and sensitive chemiluminometric flow sensor for the determination of L-glutamate in serum, based on immobilized oxidases such as glutamate oxidase (GOD), uricase (UC) and peroxidase (POD), is described herein. The principle for the selective chemiluminometric detection for L-glutamate is based on coupled reactions of four sequentially aligned immobilized oxidases, UC/POD/GOD/POD in a flow cell. The immobilized UC was employed to decompose urate, which is one of the major interfering components in serum for a luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence reaction. The H2O2 produced from the UC reaction readily reacted with reducing components, such as ascorbate and glutathione, and then the excess H2O2 was decomposed by the immobilized POD. L-Glutamate in the sample plug was enzymatically converted to H2O2 with immobilized GOD. Subsequently, the peroxide reacts with luminol on the immobilized POD to produce chemiluminescence, proportional to glutamate concentration. The enzymes were immobilized on tresylated poly(vinyl alcohol beads). The immobilized enzymes were packed into TPFE tube (1.0 mm i.d. x 60 cm), in turn, and used as a flow cell. The sampling rate was 30 h-1. The calibration graph for L-glutamate is linear for 20 nM-5 microM; the detection limit (signal-to-noise = 3) is 10 nM. PMID:11708095

  13. Molecular beam chemiluminescence studies of the NO + O/sub 3/ reaction and modeling of global NO/sub 2/ distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, M.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a crossed molecular beam study of the chemiluminescent reaction NO + 0/sub 3/ ..-->.. NO/sub 2/ + 0/sub 2/ are discussed. The chemiluminescence as a function of collision energy and an excitation function were obtained using a translationally cooled supersonic NO beam. An investigation into the role of the internal energy states using an effusive NO beam and a supersonic O/sub 3/ beam has been presented. The results show that chemiluminescence enhancement occurs when high and low temperature NO experiments are compared. The role that other energy modes may have is discussed. The observed enhancement is consistent with the concept that the chemiluminescence cross section increases with NO molecular rotation for low J states. The second part discusses the role of NO/sub 2/ in preserving a global ozone balance. NO/sub 2/ vertical profiles based on Noxon's (1979) column measurements were derived. The method of instantaneous rates was used to calculate the rate of ozone production and destruction by O/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ on a grid that covered the entire globe. The results were presented as a function of altitude and latitude in contour plots.

  14. NO2 measurement by chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.; Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Compact device monitors specific chemiluminescent reaction of heated solid material such as 3,5 diaminobezoic or polyvinyl alcohol after contact with gas sample to detect and quantify nitrogen dioxide concentration.

  15. Determination of uric acid in human urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shulin; Wang, Jianshi; Ye, Fanggui; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2008-07-15

    A simple and sensitive method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection has been developed for the determination of uric acid (UA). The sensitive detection was based on the enhancement effect of UA on the CL reaction between luminol and potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]) in alkaline solution. A laboratory-built reaction flow cell and a photon counter were deployed for the CL detection. Experimental conditions for CL detection were studied in detail to achieve a maximum assay sensitivity. Optimal conditions were found to be 1.0 x 10(-4) M luminol added to the CE running buffer and 1.0 x 10(-4) M K3[Fe(CN)6] in 0.2 M NaOH solution introduced postcolumn. The proposed CE-CL assay showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation [RSD]=3.5%, n=11) and a detection limit of 3.5 x 10(-7) M UA (signal/noise ratio [S/N]=3). A linear calibration curve ranging from 6.0 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-5) M UA was obtained. The method was evaluated by quantifying UA in human urine and serum samples with satisfactory assay results. PMID:18445465

  16. Anamnestic chemiluminescence of murine spleen cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, L S; Kiel, J L

    1984-01-01

    The oxidative response of murine spleen cells to secondary exposure to antigen was determined by luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-pthalazinedione) amplified chemiluminescence, CL. BALB/cj and CBA/J mice were immunized with saline or an antigen solution of saline, luminol, and bovine serum albumin. Spleen cells were obtained from mice two and four days after immunization, and the CL response to in vitro antigenic exposure was measured for 35 minutes. At two days post-immunization, there was no difference in the CL of control and antigen-primed cells. By day four, the antigen-primed CL response differed significantly in both magnitude and time course from the primary antigen-stimulated response of the controls. This early development of differential CL response to antigenic challenge suggests a role for oxidative metabolic activity in the expression of the anamnestic immune response. PMID:6745991

  17. A novel chemiluminescence assay of mitoxantrone based on diperiodatocuprate(III) oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hanchun; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Wenyuan; Zeng, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-01-01

    A novel and strong chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol with diperiodatocuprate (K5[Cu(HIO6)2]) was observed in alkaline medium. After the addition of mitoxantrone (MTX) into this system, the CL intensity could be greatly inhibited by MTX. Based on the phenomenon, a sensitive CL method was established for analysis of MTX combining with flow injection technology. Under optimum experimental conditions, the CL intensity was linearly related to the logarithm concentration of MTX from 5.0 × 10-9-1.0 × 10-7 g/ml with the detection limit of 1.1 × 10-9 g/ml (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation was 1.2% for 5.0 × 10-8 g/ml of MTX. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of MTX in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. The possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly.

  18. Stimulus-response mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence biosensor for cocaine determination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhonghui; Tan, Yue; Xu, Kefeng; Zhang, Lan; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-01-15

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) based controlled release system had been coupled with diverse detection technologies to establish biosensors for different targets. Chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol/H2O2 owns the characters of simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity, but the targets of which are mostly focused on some oxidants or which can participate in a chemical reaction that yields a product with a role in the CL reaction. In this study, chemiluminescent detection technique had been coupled with mesoporous silica-based controlled released system for the first time to develop a sensitive biosensor for the target which does not cause effect to the CL system itself. Cocaine had been chosen a model target, the MSN support was firstly loaded with glucose, then the positively charged MSN interacted with negatively charged oligonucleotides (the aptamer cocaine) to close the mesopores of MSN. At the present of target, cocaine binds with its aptamer with high affinity; the flexible linear aptamer structured will become stems structured through currently well-defined non-Waston-Crick interactions and causes the releasing of entrapped glucose into the solution. With the assistant of glucose oxidase (GOx), the released glucose can react with the dissolved oxgen to produce gluconic acid and H2O2, the latter can enhance the CL of luminol in the NaOH solution. The enhanced CL intensity has a relationship with the cocaine concentration in the range of 5.0-60μM with the detection limit of 1.43μM. The proposed method had been successfully applied to detect cocaine in serum samples with high selectivity. The same strategy can be applied to develop biosensors for different targets. PMID:26278045

  19. Polymerase chain reaction coupling with magnetic nanoparticles-based biotin-avidin system for amplification of chemiluminescent detection signals of nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyang; He, Lei; He, Nongyue; Deng, Yan; Shi, Zhiyang; Wang, Hua; Li, Song; Liu, Hongna; Wang, Zhifei; Wang, Daxin

    2011-02-01

    A novel method was established through the detection of chemiluminescent signals of nucleic acid hybridization based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and PCR. 5' amino- modified specific probes were immobilized on the surface of silanized MNPs by Schiff reaction between amino and aldehyde group. The probes were used to capture the synthetic biotin-dUTP-labeled DNA fragments which were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then these complexes were bonded with streptavidin-modified alkaline phosphatase (SA-AP). Finally the chemiluminescent signals were detected by adding 3-(2'-spiroadamantane)- 4-methoxy -4-(3"-phosphoryloxy) phenyl-1, 2-dioxetane (AMPPD) which was the substrate reagent of AP. The concentration of probes which were immobilized on the surface of MNPs was studied, how to reduce the adsorption of SA-AP on the surface of MNPs was also researched. It was shown that 12.5 pmol of probes were immobilized on 1 mg of MNPs. Aldehyde-MNPs modified with probes could adsorb SA-AP, affecting the sensitivity of chemiluminescene consequently. Reduction of aldehyde group by sodium borohydride and blocking the bare position of MNPs with bovine serum albumin (BSA) could decrease the background of chemiluminescence, and this method has good specificity in detection of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. PMID:21456141

  20. Chemiluminescent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and interations with intact skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenich, Jennifer; Patrone, Julia; Kelly, Lisa; Benkoski, Jason; Le, Huong; Sample, Jennifer

    2009-08-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel nanoparticle formulation designed for skin penetration for the purpose of skin imaging. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), a drug delivery vehicle, were used as the matrix for targeted delivery of peroxide-sensitive chemiluminescent compounds to the epidermis. Luminol and oxalate were chosen as the chemiluminescent test systems, and a formulation was determined based upon non-toxic components, lotion-like properties, and longevity/visibility of a chemiluminescent signal. The luminescence lifetime was extended in the lipid formulation in comparison to the chemiluminescent system in solution. When applied to porcine skin, our formulation remained detectable relative to negative and positive controls. Initial MTT toxicity testing using HepG2 cells have indicated that this formulation is relatively non-toxic. This formulation could be used to image native peroxides present in tissue that may be indicative of skin disease.

  1. High-sensitivity chemiluminescence detection of cytokines using an antibody-immobilized CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Dong-Gu; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Kim, Sang-Hyo; Kim, Min-Gon

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we used a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with immobilizing antibodies on its surface to detect human cytokines, which are activators that mediate intercellular communication including expression and control of immune responses. The CMOS image sensor has many advantages over the Charge Couple Device, including lower power consumption, operation voltage, and cost. The photodiode, a unit pixel component in the CMOS image sensor, receives light from the detection area and generates digital image data. About a million pixels are embedded, and size of each pixel is 3 x 3 μm. The chemiluminescence reaction produces light from the chemical reaction of luminol and hydrogen peroxide. To detect cytokines, antibodies were immobilized on the surface of the CMOS image sensor, and a sandwich immunoassay using an HRP-labeled antibody was performed. An HRP-catalyzed chemiluminescence reaction was measured by each pixel of the CMOS image sensor. Pixels with stronger signals indicated higher cytokine concentrations; thus, we were able to measure human interleukin-5 (IL-5) at femtomolar concentrations.

  2. Organo-modified layered double hydroxide-catalyzed Fenton-like ultra-weak chemiluminescence for specific sensing of vitamin B₁₂ in egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; Rong, Wanqi; Lu, Chao; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-11-01

    In general, the chemiluminescence (CL) sensing of vitamin B12 is achieved by determining Co(II) liberated from acidified vitamin B12 by a luminol system. However, the luminol system for sensing vitamin B12 has poor selectivity due to serious interference from other metal ions. In this study, as a novel CL amplifier of the Co(II)+H2O2+OH(-) ultra-weak CL reaction (Fenton-like system), dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS)-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been applied to the specific determination of vitamin B12 by liberating Co(II). The CL intensity increased with increasing the concentration of vitamin B12 in a wide range from 1.0 ng mL(-1) to 5 μg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.57 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine vitamin B12 in egg yolk with simple procedures, shorter time and higher selectivity. Recoveries from spiked real samples were 96-103%. The results of the proposed method for sensing vitamin B12 in real samples were agreed with those obtained by the standard inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the CL sensing of vitamin B12 with high selectivity in the absence of luminol. PMID:25127574

  3. [Lymphocyte chemiluminescent activity under an iron overload of the body].

    PubMed

    Levina, A A; Tsvetaeva, N V; Minaeva, L M; Tsibul'skaia, M M; Shcherbinina, S P; Zavadenko, M A; Meshcheriakova, L M; Tokarev, Iu N

    1993-03-01

    Hyperferremia is shown to affect antioxidant system of the body, oxidation-reduction reactions in the cells seen as shifts in lymphocyte chemiluminescence. Dynamic changes in lymphocyte chemiluminescence reflect the level of hyperferremia. PMID:8020727

  4. Label-free, sensitivity detection of fibrillar fibrin using gold nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanfu; Liu, Jifeng; Liu, Ting; Li, Haibo; Xue, Qingwang; Li, Rui; Wang, Lei; Yue, Qiaoli; Wang, Shuhao

    2016-03-15

    A novel, label-free, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based chemiluminescence assay has been developed for the detection of fibrillar fibrin. The method relied on the interaction of fibrinogen (Fib) with AuNPs and the aggregated AuNPs induce a strong luminol-H2O2 chemiluminesecence (CL) signal. We prepared the 12-nm-diameter AuNPs which well dispersed in the solution. Fib was absorbed on the surface of AuNPs against the aggregation of AuNPs in 1.0M NaCl. Otherwise, Fib was catalyzed to form fibrillar fibrin in the presence of thrombin. The fibrin induced AuNPs aggregated in the presence of NaCl solution. The catalytic activity of aggregated AuNPs on the luminol-H2O2 CL reaction is greatly enhanced. This allows us to utilize the luminol-H2O2 CL system for quantitative analysis of thrombin, which was used to denote fibrosis degree of Fib. The assay showed a linear toward fibrillar fibrin concentration in the range of 2.7 × 10(-15)-2.7 × 10(-13)M with a correlation of 0.9920. The limit of detection for fibrin was experimentally determined to be 1 fM, based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3. Relative to conventional methods, this method offers the advantages of higher sensitivity and selectivity and lower cost, showing great potential for medical diagnosis. PMID:26397422

  5. Chemiluminescence detection of nine corticosteroids in liver.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Y; Fente, C; Mayo, S; Vázquez, B; Franco, C; Cepeda, A

    2000-11-01

    A method for the determination of nine corticosteroids in bovine liver was developed. The liquid-liquid extraction method consisted in the addition of sodium hydroxide to the tissue sample followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. After centrifugation, the extract was evaporated to dryness and the residue redissolved in acetonitrile. The removal of fats was performed with n-hexane and the acetonitrile layer was evaporated. Afterwards, analysis of the extracts was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection employing luminol as reagent. The recovery curves, performed at five spiking levels (different for each corticosteroid), showed that recoveries of at least 70.5% could be obtained from liver. The chemiluminescence detection gave satisfactory results with respect to sensitivity, and the LOQ ranged from 0.13 ppb for prednisolone to 8.40 ppb for betamethasone. The maximum mean RSD was 4.8% and 7.3% for intra- and inter-day assay, respectively. PMID:11193094

  6. Utility of gold nanoparticles in luminescence determination of trovafloxacin: comparison of chemiluminescence and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2015-12-01

    Two novel sensitive sequential injection chemiluminescence analysis and fluorescence methods for trovafloxacin mesylate detection have been developed. The methods were based on the enhancement effect of gold nanoparticles on luminol-ferricyanide-trovafloxacin and europium(III)-trovafloxacin complex systems. The optimum conditions for both detection methods were investigated. The chemiluminescence signal was emitted due to the enhanced effect of gold nanoparticles on the reaction of luminol-ferricyanide-trovafloxacin in an alkaline medium. The response was linear over a concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-2)  mol/L (%RSD = 1.3), (n = 9, r = 0.9991) with a detection limit of 1.7 × 10(-10)  mol/L (S/N = 3). The weak fluorescence intensity signal of the oxidation complex of europium(III)-trovafloxacin was strongly enhanced by gold nanoparticles and detected at λex  = 330 and λem  = 540 nm. Fluorescence detection enabled the determination of trovafloxacin mesylate over a linear range of 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-3)  mol/L (%RSD = 1.2), (n = 6, r = 0.9993) with a detection limit of 3.3 × 10(-9)  mol/L. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of the studied drug in its bulk form and in pharmaceutical preparations. The results were treated statistically and compared with those obtained from other reported methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25873565

  7. Simple chamber facilitates chemiluminescent detection of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marts, E. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    Test chamber enables rapid estimation of bacteria in a test sample through the reaction of luminol and an oxidant with the cytochrome C portion of certain species of bacteria. Intensity of the light emitted in the reaction is a function of the specific bacteria in the test sample.

  8. Chemi-luminescence measurements of hyperthermal Xe+/Xe2+ + NH3 reactions.

    PubMed

    Prince, Benjamin D; Steiner, Colby P; Chiu, Yu-Hui

    2012-04-14

    Luminescence spectra are recorded for the reactions of Xe(+) + NH(3) and Xe(2+) + NH(3) at energies ranging from 11.5 to 206 eV in the center-of-mass (E(cm)) frame. Intense features of the luminescence spectra are attributed to the NH (A (3)Π(i)-X (3)Σ(-)), hydrogen Balmer series, and Xe I emission observable for both primary ions. Evidence for charge transfer products is only found through Xe I emission for both primary ions and NH(+) emission for Xe(2+) primary ions. For both primary ions, the absolute NH (A-X) cross section increases with collision energy before leveling off at a constant value, approximately 9 × 10(-18) cm(2), at about 50 eV while H-α emission increases linearly with collision energy. The nascent NH (A) populations derived from the spectral analysis are found to be independent of collision energy and have a constant rotational temperature of 4200 K. PMID:22502525

  9. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of nitrofurazone in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids based on oxidation by singlet oxygen generated in N-bromosuccinimide-hydrogen peroxide reaction.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianxiu; Hao, Liang; Li, Yinhuan; Lu, Jiuru

    2007-01-16

    A simple flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was proposed for the determination of nitrofurazone. Strong CL signal was generated during the reaction of nitrofurazone with H(2)O(2) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) in alkaline condition. The CL signal was proportional to the nitrofurazone concentration in the range 1.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-5) g mL(-1). The detection limit was 2 x 10(-8) g mL(-1) nitrofurazone and the relative standard deviation was less than 4% (6.0 x 10(-6) g mL(-1) nitrofurazone, n=11). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of nitrofurazone in compound furacillin nasal drops, human plasma and urine samples. The CL reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly. Singlet oxygen generated in the reaction between H(2)O(2) and NBS was suggested to be participated in the CL reaction. PMID:17386480

  10. A sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay for point-of-care testing of repaglinide in natural dietary supplements and serum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yufen; Song, Zhaorui; Dong, Yaqing; Yin, Yongmei; Eremin, Sergei A; Meng, Meng; Xi, Rimo

    2015-03-01

    For point-of-care testing of the illegal fortification of repaglinide (Rep) in natural dietary supplements, a competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) was established, using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-H2O2 system for signal amplification. Polyclonal antibodies for Rep were produced via immunization technique. Following optimization of the enzyme reaction time and concentrations of antibody and coating antigen, the method showed a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.0 ng/mL in PBS and limit of detection (LOD) of 8.3 ng/mL in serum and 6.0 ng/mL in blank tablets. When applied in natural dietary supplements, the method provided results consistent with those from HPLC, suggesting that the proposed method could be used for rapid screening of Rep in natural dietary supplements and detecting Rep in serum after administration. PMID:25656849

  11. An automated chemiluminescence test for diagnosis of leukocytospermia.

    PubMed

    Leino, L; Virkkunen, P

    1991-08-01

    A new rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) test was developed for the analysis of leucocytes in semen. Opsonized zymosan induced luminol-dependent CL of diluted (1:500) semen was measured in samples from 64 fertile and infertile men with or without leukocytospermia, using an automated luminometer set-up. The white-blood-cell (WBC) count in semen was determined using a conventional leucocyte-peroxidase staining method. A good linear correlation (r = 0.932) was observed between the seminal white-blood-cell number and the CL response. The coefficients of inter-assay variations for the CL method were 9.6% and 1.8% for semen samples with 0.3 x 10(6) WBC ml-1 and 3.2 x 10(6) WBC ml-1, respectively. The results also suggest that the previously reported inhibitory effect of seminal plasma on CL activity of human phagocytes is due to the quenching of light-producing reactions and that this can be circumvented by using appropriate semen dilution. It is concluded that the simple and high-capacity CL test is an especially convenient method for routine diagnosis of leukocytospermia. PMID:1879961

  12. Photofragmentation of nitro-based explosives with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Monterola, Maria Pamela P; Smith, Benjamin W; Omenetto, Nicolò; Winefordner, James D

    2008-08-01

    A simple, fast, reliable, sensitive and potentially portable explosive detection device was developed employing laser photofragmentation (PF) followed by heterogeneous chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The PF process involves the release of NO(x(x = 1,2)) moieties from explosive compounds such as TNT, RDX, and PETN through a stepwise excitation-dissociation process using a 193 nm ArF laser. The NO(x(x = 1,2)) produced upon PF is subsequently detected by its CL reaction with basic luminol solution. The intensity of the CL signal was detected by a thermoelectrically cooled photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency and negligible dark current counts. The system was able to detect trace amounts of explosives in various forms in real time under ambient conditions. Detection limits of 3 ppbv for PETN, 2 ppbv for RDX, and 34 ppbv for TNT were obtained. It was also demonstrated that the presence of PETN residue within the range of 61 to 186 ng/cm(2) can be detected at a given signal-to-background ratio of 10 using a few microjoules of laser energy. The technique also demonstrated its potential for the direct analysis of trace explosive in soil. An LOD range of 0.5-4.3 ppm for PETN was established, which is comparable to currently available techniques. PMID:18551285

  13. Effect of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke on peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; Giardina, B; De Sole, P

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoke induces a vast cohort of deleterious effects on biological structures. In the present paper, the effect of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke on the activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied. Although the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke inhibits the luminol oxidation catalysed by horseradish peroxidase, it strongly interacts with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibits their phorbol-induced chemiluminescence in the presence of either luminol or lucigenin. The results indicate that at least some of the components of the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke may strongly interfere with polymorphonuclear cells, contributing to the deleterious effects of smoke products. PMID:10862145

  14. Fiber-Optic Chemiluminescent Biosensors for Monitoring Aqueous Alcohols and Other Water Quality Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verostko, Charles E. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); DeHart, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Wheeler, Richard R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A "reagentless" chemiluminescent biosensor and method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide, ethanol and D-glucose in water is disclosed. An aqueous stream is basified by passing it through a solid phase base bed. Luminol is then dissolved in the basified effluent at a controlled rate. Oxidation of the luminol is catalyzed by the target chemical to produce emitted light. The intensity of the emitted light is detected as a measure of the target chemical concentration in the aqueous stream. The emitted light can be transmitted by a fiber optic bundle to a remote location from the aqueous stream for a remote reading of the target chemical concentration.

  15. A Facile and Effective Chemiluminescence Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Arthur G.; Turro, Nicholas J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a chemiluminescence system which can be used to demonstrate the effects of certain factors which affect the rate of reaction (temperature, concentration, catalysis, solvent, etc.), and to perform experiments relevant to the mechanism of the system. (SLH)

  16. Online detection of reactive oxygen species in ultraviolet (UV)-Irradiated nano-TiO2 suspensions by continuous flow chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dabin; Zhao, Lixia; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhang, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play very important roles in the photocatalytic reactions of semiconductors. Using a continuous flow chemiluminescence (CFCL) system, we developed three methods for the selective, sensitive, and online detection of O2(• -), •OH, and H2O2 generated during ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of nano-TiO2 suspensions. TiO2 nanoparticles were irradiated in a photoreactor and pumped continuously into a detection cell. To detect O2(• -), luminol was mixed with TiO2 before it entered the detection cell. For the detection of short-lived •OH, phthalhydrazide was added into the photoreactor to capture •OH, and then mixed with H2O2/K5Cu(HIO6)2 to produce chemiluminescence (CL). To detect H2O2, an irradiated TiO2 suspension was kept in darkness for 30 min, and then mixed with luminol/K3Fe(CN)6 to produce CL. The selectivity of each method for a particular ROS was verified by using specific ROS scavengers. For a given ROS, a comparison between CL and conventional method showed good agreement for a series of TiO2 concentrations. The sensitivity of CL method was approximately 3-, 1200-, and 5-fold higher than the conventional method for O2(• -), •OH, and H2O2, respectively. To demonstrate the utility of the methods, ROS in three different types of TiO2 suspensions was detected by CFCL. It was found that photodegradation efficiency of Rhodamine B correlated the best (R(2) > 0.95) with the amount of photogenerated •OH, implying that •OH was the major oxidant in Rhodamine B photodegradation reaction. CFCL may provide a convenient tool for the studies on the reaction kinetics of ROS-participated decomposition of environmental contaminants. PMID:25275618

  17. Highly sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensor in profiling protein kinase activity and inhibition using a multifunctional nanoprobe.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ru-Ping; Xiang, Cai-Yun; Zhao, Hui-Fang; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2014-02-17

    We presented a novel electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for monitoring the activity and inhibition of protein kinases based on signal amplification using enzyme-functionalized Au NPs nanoprobe. In this design, the biotin-DNA labeled glucose oxidase/Au NPs (GOx/Au NPs/DNA-biotin) nanoprobes, prepared by conjugating Au NPs with biotin-DNA and GOx, were bound to the biotinylated anti-phosphoserine labeled phosphorylated peptide modified electrode surface through a biotin-avidin interaction. The GOx assembled on the nanoprobe can catalyze glucose to generate H2O2 in the presence of O2 while the ECL reaction occurred in the luminol ECL biosensor. At a higher concentration of kinase, there are more nanoprobes on the electrode, which gives a higher amount of GOx at the electrode interface and thus higher electrocatalytic efficiency to the luminol ECL reaction. Therefore, the activity of protein kinases can be monitored by ECL with high sensitivity. Protein kinase A (PKA), an important enzyme in regulation of glycogen, sugar, and lipid metabolism in the human body, was used as a model to confirm the present proof-of-concept strategy. The as-proposed biosensor presents high sensitivity, low detection limit of 0.013 U mL(-1), wide linear range (from 0.02 to 40 U mL(-1)), and excellent stability. Moreover, this biosensor can also be used for quantitative analysis of kinase inhibition. On the basis of the inhibitor concentration dependent ECL signal, the half-maximal inhibition value IC50 of ellagic acid, a typical PKA inhibitor, was estimated, which is in agreement with those obtained using the conventional kinase assay. The simple and sensitive biosensor is promising in developing a high-through assay of in vitro kinase activity and inhibitor screening for clinic diagnostic and drug development. PMID:24491761

  18. CE with chemiluminescence detection for the determination of thyroxine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaomei; Li, Shuting; Lu, Xin; Zhao, Shulin

    2014-04-01

    A sensitive and rapid approach to perform thyroxine (T4) assay by CE with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed. The sensitive detection was based on the enhancement effect of T4 on the CL reaction between luminol and potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ) in alkaline solution. A laboratory-built reaction flow cell and a photon counter were deployed for the CL detection. Experimental conditions for CL detection were studied in detail to achieve maximum assay sensitivity. Optimal conditions were found to be 5.0 × 10(-4) M luminol added to the CE running buffer and 9.2 × 10(-5) M KMnO4 in 0.072 M NaOH solution introduced postcolumn. In the optimized experimental conditions, the linear range for T4 detection was 6.0 × 10(-8) -6.0 × 10(-6) M, with the detection limit of 2.0 × 10(-8) M (S/N = 3). Six human serum samples from healthy subjects, hyperthyroid patients and hypothyroid patients were analyzed by the presented method. The serum level of T4 in healthy subjects was found be 9.0 × 10(-8) M, whereas the T4 level was found to be 15.6 × 10(-8) M in hyperthyroid patients and 1.3 × 10(-8) M in hypothyroid patients. The results suggested a potential application of the proposed assay in rapid primary diagnosis of diseases such as hyperthyroid and hypothyroid. PMID:24375501

  19. Determination of tetracycline, chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline by flow injection with inhibitory chemiluminescence detection using copper(II) as a probe ion.

    PubMed

    Han, Suqin; Liu, Erbao; Li, Hua

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an indirect flow-injection (FI) method for the determination of the tetracycline drugs (TCs), tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC), using copper(II) as a probe ion. The method was based on the inhibition caused by these TCs to the copper(II)-catalysed chemiluminescence (CL) reaction between luminol and H(2)O(2). The CL reaction was induced on-line and injection of the sample produced negative peaks as a result of the copper(II) complexation or displacement by the analytes. The height of the peaks was proportional to the drug concentration in the sample. The choice of the catalyst ion, the concentration of luminol, H(2)O(2) and copper(II) are discussed. The linear range was 3.6 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-5), 1.1 x 10(-7)-1.0 x 10(-5) and 1.9 x 10(-7)-1.0 x 10(-5) mol/L for TC, CTC and OTC, respectively. The detection limit was 5.0 x 10(-9) mol/L for TC, 1.0 x 10(-8) mol/L for CTC and 2.0 x 10(-8) mol/L for OTC (3sigma), respectively. The method was applied to the determination of TCs in pharmaceutical preparations and human urine with recoveries in the range 95-105%. PMID:16416504

  20. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of pans with luminol chemilumnescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.; Bornick, R.; Chen, Yu-Harn; Marley, N.

    1996-12-31

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) are important air pollutants in tropospheric chemistry. PANs are known to be potent phytotoxins at low ppb concentrations and are lachrymators. They can also transport the more reactive nitrogen dioxide long distances, because they are in equilibrium with that NO{sub x} species. Since PANs are trapped peroxyradicals, they are a direct measure of the peroxyradical levels and the of {open_quotes}photochemical age{close_quotes} of an air parcel. The PANs are typically measured in the atmosphere by using electron capture detection methods. These methods suffer from large background signals and detector responses to oxygen and water vapor. This paper describes the combination of a capillary gas chromatographic column with a modified luminol chemiluminescent nitrogen dioxide detector (Scintrex, Luminox) for rapid and sensitive detection of nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxypropionyl nitrate, and peroxybutyryl nitrate. Detection limits for this approach in the low tens of parts per trillion have been observed with total analysis times of less than three minutes. We will discuss the potential application of this method to other compounds, particularly, organonitrates, in a pyrolysis system and/or with ozone addition to the sampling streams.

  1. Enhanced electrochemiluminescence from luminol at multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with palladium nanoparticles: a novel route for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor and a glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Behzad; Bozorgzadeh, Somayyeh

    2011-07-01

    Incorporation of palladium nanoparticles on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and modification of glassy carbon electrode with the prepared nano-hybrid material led to the fabrication of a novel electrode. The modified electrode showed attractive electrocatalytic activity and sensitizing effect on luminol-O(2) and luminol-H(2)O(2) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) reactions at neutral media. The sensitized luminol-O(2) and luminol-H(2)O(2) reactions were successfully applied for the ECL determination of dissolved O(2) and glucose, respectively. Under the optimal conditions for luminol-O(2) system, the ECL signal intensity of luminol was linear with the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the range between 0.08 and 0.94 mM (r=0.9996) and for luminol-H(2)O(2) system, the ECL signal intensity of luminol was linear with the concentration of glucose in the range between 0.1 and 1000 μM (r=0.9998). The limits of detection (S/N=3) for dissolved oxygen and glucose were 0.02 mM and 54 nM, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for repetitive measurements of 0.50 mM oxygen (n=10) and 10 μM glucose (n=30) were 3.5% and 0.3%, respectively. Also, under the optimal conditions for luminol-H(2)O(2) system, the ECL signal intensity of luminol was linear with the concentration of H(2)O(2) in the range between 1 nM and 0.45 mM (r=0.9997). The limit of detection (S/N=3) for H(2)O(2) detection was 0.5 nM and the relative standard deviation for repetitive measurements of 10 μM H(2)O(2) (n=10) was 0.8%. PMID:21641423

  2. Controllable copper deficiency in Cu2-xSe nanocrystals with tunable localized surface plasmon resonance and enhanced chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, Shao Qing; Wang, Dong Mei; Gao, Ming Xuan; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2014-08-01

    Copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (CuCNCs) as a type of semiconductor that can also act as efficient catalysts are rarely reported. Herein, we study water-soluble size-controlled Cu2-xSe nanocrystals (NCs), which are copper deficient and could be prepared by a redox reaction with the assistance of surfactants. We found them to have strong near-infrared localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties originating from the holes in the valence band, and also catalytic activity of more than a 500-fold enhancement of chemiluminescence (CL) in a luminol-H2O2 system. Investigations into the mechanisms behind these results showed that the high concentration of free carriers in Cu2-xSe NCs, which are derived from their high copper deficiencies that make Cu2-xSe NCs both good electron donors and acceptors with high ionic mobility, could greatly enhance the catalytic ability of Cu2-xSe NCs to facilitate electron-transfer processes and the decomposition of H2O2 into OH&z.rad; and O2&z.rad;-, which are the commonly accepted key intermediates in luminol CL enhancement. Thus, it can be concluded that controllable copper deficiencies that are correlated with their near-infrared LSPR are critically responsible for the effective catalysis of Cu2-xSe NCs in the enhanced CL.Copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (CuCNCs) as a type of semiconductor that can also act as efficient catalysts are rarely reported. Herein, we study water-soluble size-controlled Cu2-xSe nanocrystals (NCs), which are copper deficient and could be prepared by a redox reaction with the assistance of surfactants. We found them to have strong near-infrared localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties originating from the holes in the valence band, and also catalytic activity of more than a 500-fold enhancement of chemiluminescence (CL) in a luminol-H2O2 system. Investigations into the mechanisms behind these results showed that the high concentration of free carriers in Cu2-xSe NCs, which are derived from their high copper deficiencies that make Cu2-xSe NCs both good electron donors and acceptors with high ionic mobility, could greatly enhance the catalytic ability of Cu2-xSe NCs to facilitate electron-transfer processes and the decomposition of H2O2 into OH&z.rad; and O2&z.rad;-, which are the commonly accepted key intermediates in luminol CL enhancement. Thus, it can be concluded that controllable copper deficiencies that are correlated with their near-infrared LSPR are critically responsible for the effective catalysis of Cu2-xSe NCs in the enhanced CL. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures for XRD, XPS, UV absorption, chemiluminescent spectra, SEM and TEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02294g

  3. Application of chemiluminescence to monitoring of trace atmospheric species

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhardt, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the development of analytical instrumentation based on gas phase chemiluminescence for the monitoring of nitric acid, methyl nitrate, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and total acidity. Nitric acid was converted to NO and NO{sub 2} by a 400 C glass beads converter and the resulting NO{sub 2} was monitored by a luminol-based detector. A CrO{sub 3} converter was used to convert the NO generated in the system to NO{sub 2} to lower the detection limit of the instrument. The detection limit of the configuration was 0.30 ppb of nitric acid. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO{sub 2} were separated and detected with a novel gas chromatographic system which did not require compressed gas cylinder. Air that has been scrubbed by passing it over FeSO{sub 4} was used as the carrier gas which eliminates the need for any compressed gas cylinders. The detection limits for the instrument (PAN-GC) were 0.12 ppb for PAN and 0.20 ppb for NO{sub 2}. Methyl nitrate was separated from PAN and NO{sub 2} using a modified version of the PAN-GC. A 200 C quartz converter inserted between the end of the column and the detector in the PAN-GC, converts methyl nitrate and PAN into NO{sub 2} for detection by the luminol-based detector. The detection limits are 0.30 ppb for PAN, 0.30 ppb for methyl nitrate, and 0.20 ppb for NO{sub 2} The development of a total acidity detector based on the reaction of O and F atoms with hydrazoic acid (HN{sub 3}) was also carried out. Several methods for converting atmospheric acidity to HN{sub 3} were tested. These included packed bed, coated filters, and denuder methods. The system was calibrated with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid and the characterization of the response to various organic acids was investigated. The detection limits for nitric acid and for hydrochloric acid were 0.51 ppb and 0.63 ppb, respectively.

  4. [Molecular imprinting-flow injection chemiluminescence method for determination of doxycycline hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Cheng-Li; Lei, Jian-Du; Ma, Tong-Sen; Ma, Guang-Hui; Su, Zhi-Guo; Chao, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Doxycycline hydrochloride can enhance the chemiluminescence of potassium ferricyanide and luminol in alkaline medium. So a molecular imprinting-flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of doxycycline hydrochloride was established by using doxycycline hydrochloride-imprinted polymers as recognition material and potassium ferricyanide and luminol as detection system. Doxycycline hydrochloride-imprinted polymer was synthesized using methacrylic acid as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker. The linear range is 9.0 x 10(-7)-6.0 x 10(-5) g x mL(-1) and the detection limit is 3.2 x 10(-7) g x mL(-1). The relative standard deviation for 6.0 X 10(-6) g x mL(-1) of doxycycline hydrochloride was 3.5% (n = 9). This method has been successfully applied to the determination of doxycycline hydrochloride in tablets and in urine samples. PMID:19798931

  5. Determination of oxygen radical production in spondyloarthropathies by whole blood chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Ristola, M; Leirisalo-Repo, M; Repo, H

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen derived free radicals are considered to play an important part in the development of inflammation. A whole blood chemiluminescence assay was used to study N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine induced oxygen radical production in subjects with ankylosing spondylitis or previous yersinia arthritis. In luminol enhanced chemiluminescence, the subjects with previous yersinia arthritis showed significantly increased initial activation (at one minute), whereas the subjects with ankylosing spondylitis showed decreased responses at both the initial activation and at peak activation (at two to three minutes). This finding gives credence to the view that, in terms of oxygen radical production, the pathogenesis of yersinia arthritis is different from that of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:1772293

  6. Cupric oxide nanoparticles-enhanced chemiluminescence method for measurement of β-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Iranifam, Mortaza; Khabbaz Kharameh, Merhnaz

    2015-08-01

    A simple, sensitive cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for the measurement of β-lactam antibiotics, including amoxicillin and cefazolin sodium. The method was based on suppression of the CuO NPs-luminol-H2O2 CL reaction by β-lactam antibiotics. Experimental parameters that influenced the inhibitory effect of the antibiotic drugs on the CL system, such as NaOH (mol/L), luminol (µmol/L), H2O2 (mol/L) and CuO NPs (mg/L) concentrations, were optimized. Calibration graphs were linear and had dynamic ranges of 1.0 × 10(-6) to 8.0 × 10(-6) mol/L and 3.0 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-3) mol/L for amoxicillin and cefazolin sodium, respectively, with corresponding detection limits of 7.9 × 10(-7) mol/L and 1.8 × 10(-5) mol/L. The relative standard deviations of five replicate measurements of 5.0 × 10(-6) amoxicillin and 5 × 10(-4) cefazolin sodium were 5.43 and 5.01%, respectively. The synthesized CuO NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM). The developed approach was exploited successfully to measure antibiotics in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25363440

  7. Portable centrifugal analyzer for the determination of rapid reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Bauer, M.L.; McCracken, R.; Mrochek, J.E.

    1980-02-01

    A portable centrifugal analyzer prototype is capable of rapidly initiating reactions and monitoring 17 optical channels as they rotate past a stationary photodetector. An advanced rotor drive permits transfer of discretely loaded sample and reagent into a cuvette within 60 ms. Various rotor designs have been employed to ensure effieicnt mixing concurrent with solution transfer, thus permitting absorbance or luminescence measurements to be made almost immediately after solution contract. Dye-dillution studies have been used to investigate transfer and mixing efficiencies. Rotor designs with parallel access for sample and reagent into the cuvette were found to promote efficient mixing during liquid transfer. The hypochlorite-luminol chemiluminescent reaction served to demonstrate the utility of the system for performing rapid kinetic analyses. Appropriate adjustment of reaction conditions allows first-order reaction half-lives as short as 0.04 s to be measured. 13 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Multifunctional reduced graphene oxide trigged chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer: Novel signal amplification strategy for photoelectrochemical immunoassay of squamous cell carcinoma antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2016-05-15

    Herein, a photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay is constructed for squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) detection using zinc oxide nanoflower-bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) composites as photoactive materials and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as signal labels. Horseradish peroxidase is used to block sites against nonspecific binding, and then participated in luminol-based chemiluminescence (CL) system. The induced CL emission is acted as an inner light source to excite photoactive materials, simplifying the instrument. A novel signal amplification strategy is stem from rGO because of the rGO acts as an energy acceptor, while luminol serves as a donor to rGO, triggering the CL resonance energy transfer phenomenon between luminol and rGO. Thus, the efficient CL emission to photoactive materials decreases. Furthermore, the signal amplification caused by rGO labeled signal antibodies is related to photogenerated electron-hole pairs: perfect matching of energy levels between rGO and Bi2S3 makes rGO a sink to capture photogenerated electrons from Bi2S3; the increased steric hindrance hinders the electron donor to the surface of Bi2S3 for reaction with the photogenerated holes. On the basis of the novel signal amplification strategy, the proposed immunosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance for PEC detection of SCCA, ranging from 0.8 pg mL(-1) to 80 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.21 pg mL(-1). Meanwhile, the designed signal amplification strategy provides a general format for future development of PEC assays. PMID:26686924

  9. PMMA microreactor for chemiluminescence detection of Cu (II) based on 1,10-Phenanthroline-hydrogen peroxide reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueye; Shen, Jienan; Li, Tiechuan

    2016-01-01

    A microreactor for the chemiluminescence detection of copper (II) in water samples, based on the measurement of light emitted from the copper (II) catalysed oxidation of 1,10-phenanthroline by hydrogen peroxide in basic aqueous solution, is presented. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was chose as material for fabricating the microreactor with mill and hot bonding method. Optimized reagents conditions were found to be 6.3 × 10(-5)mol/L 1,10-phenanthroline, 1.5 × 10(-3)mol/L hydrogen peroxide, 7.0 × 10(-2)mol/L sodium hydroxide and 2.4 × 10(-5)mol/L Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium Bromide (CTMAB). In the continuous flow injection mode the system can perform fully automated detection with a reagent consumption of only 3.5 μL each time. The linear range of the Cu (II) ions concentration was 1.5 × 10(-8) mol/L to 1.0 × 10(-4) mol/L, and the detection limit was 9.4 × 10(-9)mol/L with the S/N ratio of 4. The relative standard deviation was 3.0 % for 2.0 × 10(-6) mol/L Cu (II) ions (n = 10). The most obvious features of the detection method are simplicity, rapidity and easy fabrication of the microreactor. PMID:26788016

  10. Chemiluminescence detection of a protein through the aptamer-controlled catalysis of a porphyrin probe.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenying; Zhang, Qingfeng; Zhou, Huipeng; Chen, Jian; Li, Yongxin; Zhang, Cuiyun; Yu, Cong

    2015-08-18

    Sensitive and selective protein detection based on the aptamer-controlled noncovalent porphyrin probe self-assembly is reported for the first time. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a predominant biomarker in cancer angiogenesis. In this work, a positively charged porphyrin probe, manganese(III) meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinum-4-yl)porphyrin (Mn-PyP), was prepared. Using it as a catalyst, a label-free chemiluminescence (CL) turn-on approach for sensitive VEGF detection is developed. Mn-PyP could catalyze the luminol CL reaction. The VEGF aptamer could induce aggregation of Mn-PyP. As a result, the Mn-PyP-catalyzed CL reaction is efficiently suppressed. Upon the addition of VEGF, the specific binding of VEGF to the aptamer weakens the interactions between the aptamer and Mn-PyP. The Mn-PyP monomers are released, and a turn-on CL signal is thus detected. Our method is quite sensitive; 50 pM of VEGF could be easily detected. It is also very selective against other proteins. Our assay provides an aptamer-based efficient way for protein quantification. PMID:26214035

  11. Ultrasensitive determination of DNA sequences by flow injection chemiluminescence using silver ions as labels.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lichun; Liu, Xiuhui; Zhou, Min; Ma, Yongjun; Wu, Guofan; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2014-10-27

    We presented a new strategy for ultrasensitive detection of DNA sequences based on the novel detection probe which was labeled with Ag(+) using metallothionein (MT) as a bridge. The assay relied on a sandwich-type DNA hybridization in which the DNA targets were first hybridized to the captured oligonucleotide probes immobilized on Fe3O4@Au composite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and then the Ag(+)-modified detection probes were used to monitor the presence of the specific DNA targets. After being anchored on the hybrids, Ag(+) was released down through acidic treatment and sensitively determined by a coupling flow injection-chemiluminescent reaction system (Ag(+)-Mn(2+)-K2S2O8-H3PO4-luminol) (FI-CL). The experiment results showed that the CL intensities increased linearly with the concentrations of DNA targets in the range from 10 to 500 pmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 3.3 pmol L(-1). The high sensitivity in this work may be ascribed to the high molar ratio of Ag(+)-MT, the sensitive determination of Ag(+) by the coupling FI-CL reaction system and the perfect magnetic separation based on Fe3O4@Au composite MNPs. Moreover, the proposed strategy exhibited excellent selectivity against the mismatched DNA sequences and could be applied to real samples analysis. PMID:25263118

  12. A novel chemiluminescence from the reaction of singlet oxygen with β-diketonates of europium(III), neodymium(III) and ytterbium(III).

    PubMed

    Kazakov, Dmitri V; Safarov, Farit E

    2014-12-01

    Decomposition of 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene endoperoxide, which is the source of singlet oxygen, in the presence of β-diketonates of europium(III), neodymium(III) and ytterbium(III) is accompanied by bright chemiluminescence (CL) in visible and near infra-red spectral region due to characteristic emission from the lanthanides at λmax = 615 and 710 nm ((5)D0→(7)F2 and (5)D0→(7)F4 transitions of Eu(3+)), 900 nm ((4)F3/2→(4)I9/2 transition of Nd(3+)) and 1000 nm ((2)F5/2→(2)F7/2 transition of Yb(3+)). Singlet oxygen is the key intermediate responsible for the observed CL, which is presumably generated by the reaction of (1)O2 with ligands of the complexes. The CL phenomenon discovered herein paves the way towards the development of lanthanide-based CL probe for (1)O2. PMID:25358493

  13. Sensitive and selective determination of fluvoxamine maleate using a sensitive chemiluminescence system based on the alkaline permanganate-Rhodamine B-gold nanoparticles reaction.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Javad; Amjadi, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    A high-yield chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the alkaline permanganate-Rhodamine B reaction was developed for the sensitive determination of fluvoxamine maleate (Flu). Rhodamine B is oxidized by alkaline KMnO4 and a weak CL emission is produced. It was demonstrated that gold nanoparticles greatly enhance this CL emission due to their interaction with Rhodamine B molecules. It is also observed that sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, can strongly increase this enhancement. In addition, it was demonstrated that a notable decrease in the CL intensity is observed in the presence of Flu. This may be related to Flu oxidation with KMnO4 . There is a linear relationship between the decrease in CL intensity and the Flu concentration over a range of 2-300 µg/L. A new simple, rapid and sensitive CL method was developed for the determination of Flu with a detection limit (3s) of 1.35 µg/L. The proposed method was used for the determination of Flu in pharmaceutical and urine samples. PMID:25214010

  14. Chemiluminescent chemical sensors for inorganic and organic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.E.; Rose-Pehrsson, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Chemiluminescent, chemical sensors for inorganic and organic vapors are being investigated via the immobilization of 3-aminophthalhydrazide (luminol) within hydrogels and polymeric, sorbent coatings. The films are supported behind a teflon membrane and positioned in front of a photomultiplier tube, permitting the sensitive detection of numerous toxic vapors. Some selectivity has been tailored into these devices by careful selection of the polymer type, pH and metal catalyst incorporated within the film. The incorporation of luminol and Fe(3) within a polyvinylalcohol hydrogel gave a film with superior sensitivity toward NO{sub 2} (detection limit of 0.46 ppb and a response time on the order of seconds). The use of the hydrogel matrix helped eliminate humidity problems associated with other polymeric films. Other chemiluminescent thin films prepared have demonstrated the detection of ppb levels of SO{sub 2}(g) and hydrazine, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}(g). Recently, the authors have begun investigating the incorporation of a heated Pt filament into the inlet line as a pre-oxidative step prior to passage of the gas stream across the teflon membrane. This has permitted the sensitive detection of ppm levels of CCl{sub 4}(g), CHCl{sub 3}(g) and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(g).

  15. Metal-nanoparticle-involved chemiluminescence and its applications in bioassays.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Liu, Danqing; Cui, Hua

    2014-09-01

    Chemiluminescence-based bioassays have become increasingly important in clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food safety fields owing to their high sensitivity, wide linear range, and simple instrumentation. During the past decade, it has been found that metal nanoparticles can initiate various liquid-phase chemiluminescence reactions as catalysts, reductants, energy acceptors, and nanosized reaction platforms owing to their unique optical, catalytic, and surface properties and chemical reactivity, which are very important for chemiluminescence bioassays based on metal nanoparticles as nanoprobes or a nanointerface. In this article, we summarize recent progress in metal-nanoparticle-initiated liquid-phase chemiluminescence, including reaction systems, mechanisms, and their applications in chemiluminescence-based bioassays, especially for immunoassays, DNA assays, aptamer-based assays, high-performance liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis analysis, and flow injection analysis. PMID:24908408

  16. Fast gas chromotography with luminol detection for measurement of nitrogen dioxide and PANs.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Drayton, P. J.

    1999-09-30

    Fast capillary gas chromatography has been coupled to a luminol-based chemiluminescence detection system for the rapid monitoring of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates. A first-generation instrument was described recently (Gaffney et al., 1998). This system is capable of monitoring nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs; to and including the C4 species) with 1-min time resolution. This is an improvement by a factor of five over gas chromatography methods with electron capture detection. In addition, the luminol method is substantially less expensive than laser fluorescent detection or mass spectroscopic methods. Applications in aircraft-based research have been published electronically and will appear shortly in Environmental Science and Technology (Gaffney et al., 1999a). An improved version of the instrument that has been designed and built makes use of a Hammamatsu photon-counting system. Detection limits of this instrumentation are at the low tens of ppt. The range of the instrument can be adjusted by modifying sampling volumes and detection counting times. A review of past work and of recent application of the instrumentation to field measurements of nitrogen dioxide and PANs is presented. The data clearly indicate that the luminol approach can determine the target species with time resolution of less than 1 min. Examples of applications for estimation of peroxyacetyl radical concentrations and nitrate radical formation rates are also presented. This instrumentation can further be used for evaluation of surfaces for loss of nitrogen dioxide and PANs, phenomena of possible importance for sampling interfaces and chamber wall design. Our high-frequency field data clearly indicate that the ''real world'' is not well mixed and that turbulent mixing and plume-edge chemistries might play an important role in urban- and regional-scale interactions. Dynamic flow systems might be required to evaluate such effects in new-generation chamber studies.

  17. MOBILE SOURCE NOX MONITOR, HYDROGEN-ATOM DIRECT CHEMILUMINESCENCE METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analyzer was developed for measuring motor vehicle NOx (NO and NO2) emissions based on the chemiluminescence reaction of NO and NO2 with hydrogen atoms. This eliminated the need for an NO2 to NO converter as required with ozone chemiluminescence for NOx analysis. The hydrogen-...

  18. Balancing single- and multi-reference correlation in the chemiluminescent reaction of dioxetanone using the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenman, Loren; Mazziotti, David A.

    2011-05-01

    Direct computation of energies and two-electron reduced density matrices (2-RDMs) from the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation (ACSE) [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 143002 (2006)], it is shown, recovers both single- and multi-reference electron correlation in the chemiluminescent reaction of dioxetanone especially in the vicinity of the conical intersection where strong correlation is important. Dioxetanone, the light-producing moiety of firefly luciferin, efficiently converts chemical energy into light by accessing its excited-state surface via a conical intersection. Our previous active-space 2-RDM study of dioxetanone [L. Greenman and D. A. Mazziotti, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164110 (2010)] concluded that correlating 16 electrons in 13 (active) orbitals is required for realistic surfaces without correlating the remaining (inactive) orbitals. In this paper we pursue two complementary goals: (i) to correlate the inactive orbitals in 2-RDMs along dioxetanone's reaction coordinate and compare these results with those from multireference second-order perturbation theory (MRPT2) and (ii) to assess the size of the active space—the number of correlated electrons and orbitals—required by both MRPT2 and ACSE for accurate energies and surfaces. While MRPT2 recovers very different amounts of correlation with (4,4) and (16,13) active spaces, the ACSE obtains a similar amount of correlation energy with either active space. Nevertheless, subtle differences in excitation energies near the conical intersection suggest that the (16,13) active space is necessary to determine both energetic details and properties. Strong electron correlation is further assessed through several RDM-based metrics including (i) total and relative energies, (ii) the von Neumann entropy based on the 1-electron RDM, as well as the (iii) infinity and (iv) squared Frobenius norms based on the cumulant 2-RDM.

  19. Glucocorticosteroids and in vitro effects on chemiluminescence of isolated bovine blood granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Hoeben, D; Burvenich, C; Massart-Leën, A M

    1998-08-01

    The effects of glucocorticosteroids on respiratory burst of bovine granulocytes were studied in vitro by means of (1) chemiluminescence (luminol-dependent, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated), (2) a cell-free chemiluminescence assay, and (3) a myeloperoxidase assay. Significant effects on cellular chemiluminescence were only observed at the highest, not obtainable in vivo, concentration for all drugs except betamethasone. Prednisolone induced inhibition at therapeutic doses. Also, flumethasone and dexamethasone induced significant inhibition at lower concentrations. In the cell-free assay, all glucocorticosteroids, except betamethasone, inhibited chemiluminescence at high concentrations. None of the glucocorticosteroids tested affected myeloperoxidase activity. The results indicated that the drugs do not affect NADPH-oxidase activity. The adverse effects may be due to scavenging of free oxygen radicals, or to interference with the interaction between luminol and the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system. It can be concluded that most glucocorticosteroids show no adverse effects on the respiratory burst of bovine granulocytes in vitro at therapeutical concentrations. PMID:9754921

  20. Direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassays based on gold-coated magnetic particles for detection of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaohui; Fang, Xiangyi; Yao, Manwen; Yang, Yucong; Li, Junfeng; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Linyu

    2016-02-01

    Direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA) based on gold-coated magnetic nanospheres (Au-MNPs) were developed for rapid analysis of chloramphenicol (CAP). The Au-MNPs were modified with carboxyl groups and amino groups by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and cysteamine respectively, and then were respectively conjugated with CAP base and CAP succinate via an activating reaction using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). NSP-DMAE-NHS, a new and effective luminescence reagent, was employed to label anti-CAP antibody (mAb) as a tracer in direct CLIA for CAP detection using a 'homemade' luminescent measurement system that was set up with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a photon counting unit linked to a computer. The sensitivities and limits of detection (LODs) of the two methods were obtained and compared according to the inhibition curves. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) values of the two methods were about 0.044 ng/mL and 0.072 ng/mL respectively and LODs were approximately 0.001 ng/mL and 0.006 ng/mL respectively. To our knowledge, they were much more sensitive than any traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ever reported. Moreover, the new luminescence reagent NSP-DMAE-NHS is much more sensitive and stable than luminol and its derivatives, contributing to the sensitivity enhancement. PMID:26031849

  1. Selectivity and potential interference from phenolic compounds in chemiluminescence methods for the determination of synephrine.

    PubMed

    Francis, Paul S; Brown, Allyson J; Bellomarino, Sara A; Taylor, Amelia M; Slezak, Teo; Barnett, Neil W

    2009-01-01

    Three recently reported chemiluminescence methods (based on reactions with alkaline luminol and hexacyanoferrate(III); acidic cerium(IV) and rhodamine B; and acidic permanganate with polyphosphates) for the determination of synephrine were re-evaluated in terms of their selectivity towards this analyte in comparison to other phenolic compounds. A fourth reagent system, acidic soluble manganese(IV) and formaldehyde, was also examined. Each set of reagents was sensitive towards synephrine (limits of detection were 3 x 10(-9), 5 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-8) and 1 x 10(-8) mol/L, respectively) but also responded with numerous other phenolic compounds, including some that are present in citrus fruit extracts, dietary supplements and/or biological fluids. It is therefore recommended that the determination of synephrine in these matrices should incorporate physical separation of sample components (e.g. chromatography or electrophoresis). In more general terms, this study illustrates that accurate percentage recoveries for an analyte in spiked samples (without validation against another analytical method) are insufficient to confirm the analytical utility of new flow-injection analysis (FIA) procedures. PMID:18785612

  2. Aqueous chemiluminescent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, Arthur Gaudens (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to novel water-soluble esters of oxalic acid, and to compositions that are useful for generating chemiluminescent emission by reacting said esters of oxalic acid with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of water and a fluorescent compound, and to a process for generating chemiluminescent emission by using said compositions.

  3. A hot-spot-active magnetic graphene oxide substrate for microRNA detection based on cascaded chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Sai; Chen, Min; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Herein, a cascaded chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (C-CRET) process was demonstrated from horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 to fluorescein and further to graphene oxide (GO) when HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein was in close proximity to the GO surface. The proposed C-CRET system was successfully implemented to construct three modes of C-CRET hot-spot-active substrates (modes I, II and III) by covalently immobilizing HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein-labeled hairpin DNAs (hot-spot-generation probes) on magnetic GO (MGO), resulting in a signal ``off'' state due to the quenching of the luminol/H2O2/HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein CRET system by GO. Upon the introduction of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122), the targets (mode I) or the new triggers that were generated through a strand displacement reaction (SDR) initiated by miRNA-122 (modes II and III) hybridized with the loop domains of hairpin probes on MGO to form double-stranded (modes I and II) or triplex-stem structures (mode III), causing an ``open'' configuration of the hairpin probe and a CRET signal ``on'' state, thus achieving sensitive and selective detection of miRNA-122. More importantly, the substrate exhibited excellent controllability, reversibility and reproducibility through SDR and magnetic separation (modes II and III), especially sequence-independence for hairpin probes in mode III, holding great potential for the development of a versatile platform for optical biosensing.Herein, a cascaded chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (C-CRET) process was demonstrated from horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 to fluorescein and further to graphene oxide (GO) when HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein was in close proximity to the GO surface. The proposed C-CRET system was successfully implemented to construct three modes of C-CRET hot-spot-active substrates (modes I, II and III) by covalently immobilizing HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein-labeled hairpin DNAs (hot-spot-generation probes) on magnetic GO (MGO), resulting in a signal ``off'' state due to the quenching of the luminol/H2O2/HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein CRET system by GO. Upon the introduction of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122), the targets (mode I) or the new triggers that were generated through a strand displacement reaction (SDR) initiated by miRNA-122 (modes II and III) hybridized with the loop domains of hairpin probes on MGO to form double-stranded (modes I and II) or triplex-stem structures (mode III), causing an ``open'' configuration of the hairpin probe and a CRET signal ``on'' state, thus achieving sensitive and selective detection of miRNA-122. More importantly, the substrate exhibited excellent controllability, reversibility and reproducibility through SDR and magnetic separation (modes II and III), especially sequence-independence for hairpin probes in mode III, holding great potential for the development of a versatile platform for optical biosensing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sequences of RNA and DNA used in this study, relationship of the proposed three modes, CRET mechanism of the luminol/H2O2/HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein system, calculation of the surface coverage of hairpin probe I-1 on MGO, control experiment, comparison between different modes for microRNA detection, and advantages of the proposed strategy. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06603k

  4. Sensitive electrochemiluminescence detection for CA15-3 based on immobilizing luminol on dendrimer functionalized ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinya; Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2015-01-15

    In this study, we constructed a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for sensitive and selective detection of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) by using polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-functionalized ZnO nanorods (ZNs-PAMAM) as carriers. PAMAM dendrimers with hyper-branched and three-dimensional structure were used as linked reagents for co-immobilization of luminol and CA15-3 detection antibody on the ZNs to prepare the signal probe. In addition, ZNs could hasten the decomposition of H2O2 to generate various reactive oxygen species (ROSs) which accelerated the ECL reaction of luminol with amplified ECL intensity. Compared with luminol in the detection solution, the ECL efficiencies of luminol could be improved by immobilizing luminol on the electrode due to the smaller distance between luminescence reagent and the electrode surface. Moreover, the electrodepositing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the bare glass carbon electrode (GCE) with enhanced surface area could capture a large amount of primary anti-CA15-3 to improve the sensitivity of the immunosensor. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a wide linear range of 0.1-120 U mL(-1) was acquired with a relatively low detection limit of 0.033 U mL(-1) (S/N=3) for CA15-3. PMID:25051535

  5. Sensitive determination of positional isomers of benzenediols in human urine by boronate affinity capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zian; Sun, Xiaobo; Hu, Wenli; Yin, Yuqing; Chen, Guonan

    2014-04-01

    A boronate ACE coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for sensitive determination of three isomeric benzenediols, which was based on the principle of an inhibited effect of borate complexation on the CL reaction between luminol and potassium hexacyanoferrate (K3 Fe(CN)6 ) in alkaline solution. The effects of some important factors on CE separation and CL intensity were systemically investigated. Baseline separation of isomeric benzenediols including o-benzenediol, m-benzenediol, and p-benzenediol was achieved by using a mobile phase of 40 mmol/L glycine-NaOH buffer at pH 9.4 containing 0.8 mmol/L luminol and 0.4 mol/L 4-iodophenylboronic acid. The calibration curves of the analytes by plotting the peak height against corresponding concentration were linear over the range of 4.5 × 10(-8) ∼ 4.5 × 10(-5) mol/L for p-benzenediol, 6.8 × 10(-8) ∼ 2.7 × 10(-5) mol/L for m-benzenediol, and 9.0 × 10(-8) ∼ 4.5 × 10(-5) mol/L for o-benzenediol. The corresponding detection limits for p-, m-, and o-benzenediols were 2.8 × 10(-8) mol/L (68 amol), 3.2 × 10(-8) mol/L (108.4 amol), and 3.7 × 10(-8) mol/L (125.8 amol; S/N = 3), respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of trace benzenediols in spiked human urine sample and the recoveries were >97.2%. Our primary result demonstrated the proposed CE-CL method has great potential for biomarker determination in clinical diagnosis. PMID:24115126

  6. Applications of Chemiluminescence in the Teaching of Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Tomasz; Slupska, Roksana; Baj, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a single-session laboratory experiment devoted to teaching the principles of factorial experimental design. Students undertook the rational optimization of a luminol oxidation reaction, using a two-level experiment that aimed to create a long-lasting bright emission. During the session students used only simple glassware and

  7. Applications of Chemiluminescence in the Teaching of Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Tomasz; Slupska, Roksana; Baj, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a single-session laboratory experiment devoted to teaching the principles of factorial experimental design. Students undertook the rational optimization of a luminol oxidation reaction, using a two-level experiment that aimed to create a long-lasting bright emission. During the session students used only simple glassware and…

  8. Technical note: The effects of Bluestar(®) and luminol when used in conjunction with tetramethylbenzidine or phenolphthalein.

    PubMed

    Luedeke, Makayla; Miller, Emily; Sprague, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    There are numerous presumptive tests available in the forensic science field to help identify the presence of blood. While many articles are available on the effects of Bluestar(®) and luminol and potential interactions with subsequent DNA identification, the research field falls short in identifying the effects these two presumptive tests may have on subsequent presumptive tests used to help identify blood. To rectify this ongoing issue in the forensic science field, the chemiluminescence methods of Bluestar(®) and luminol for the detection of blood at a crime scene were tested for their effects when used in conjunction with tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) or phenolphthalein (PT) at the forensic science laboratory. Six different substrates (untreated wood, pressure treated wood, ceramic tile, shag carpet, cement block, and cotton clothing) were stained with varying dilutions (range 1:1 to 1:100,000) of blood. Neither luminol nor Bluestar(®) affect the results of PT or TMB tests at blood dilutions equal to or less than 1:100. However, interactions did occur between agents and substrates with blood dilutions 1:1000 or greater. Bluestar(®) was the only presumptive test that can detect blood dilutions of 1:100,000 on some substrates and luminol was inclusive on pressure treated wood. These findings suggests that forensic science laboratory personal need to know and understand the details of how the blood was detected by the crime scene investigator and the substrate on which the blood was obtained from for their preparation of presumptive blood testing with PT or TMB. PMID:26990564

  9. Study on the proteins-luminol binding by use of luminol as a fluorescence probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xili; Song, Zhenghua

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a new mathematical equation of lg(F0 - F)/F = 1/nlg[P] + 1/nlgKa, which was used to obtain interaction parameters (the binding constant Ka and the number of binding sites n) between the protein and the small molecule ligand by using the ligand as a fluorescence (FL) probe, was constructed for the first time. The interaction parameters between myoglobin, catalase, lysozyme, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and luminol were obtained by this equation with luminol used as a FL probe, showing that the binding constants Ka were 8.78 × 105, 4.47 × 105, 4.21 × 104 and 3.95 × 104 respectively, and the number of binding sites n approximately equaled to 1.0 for myoglobin, catalase, and 2.0 for lysozyme, BSA. The interactions of ferritin, ovalbumin, aldolase, chymotrypsinogen and ribonuclease with luminol were also studied by this method. The binding constants Ka were at 104-105 level, and the number of binding sites n mostly approximately equaled to 2.0. The binding ability of luminol to the studied proteins followed the pattern: myoglobin > aldolase > ferritin > ovalbumin > catalase > ribonuclease > lysozyme > BSA > chymotrypsinoge.

  10. Chemi-luminescence measurements of hyperthermal Xe{sup +}/Xe{sup 2+}+ NH{sub 3} reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, Benjamin D.; Steiner, Colby P.; Chiu, Yu-Hui

    2012-04-14

    Luminescence spectra are recorded for the reactions of Xe{sup +}+ NH{sub 3} and Xe{sup 2+}+ NH{sub 3} at energies ranging from 11.5 to 206 eV in the center-of-mass (E{sub cm}) frame. Intense features of the luminescence spectra are attributed to the NH (A {sup 3}{Pi}{sub i}-X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}), hydrogen Balmer series, and Xe I emission observable for both primary ions. Evidence for charge transfer products is only found through Xe I emission for both primary ions and NH{sup +} emission for Xe{sup 2+} primary ions. For both primary ions, the absolute NH (A-X) cross section increases with collision energy before leveling off at a constant value, approximately 9 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}, at about 50 eV while H-{alpha} emission increases linearly with collision energy. The nascent NH (A) populations derived from the spectral analysis are found to be independent of collision energy and have a constant rotational temperature of 4200 K.

  11. Flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay based on resin beads, enzymatic amplification and a novel monoclonal antibody for determination of Hg(2+).

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingxia; Chen, Mengting; Dong, Tiantian; Zhao, Kang; Deng, Anping; Li, Jianguo

    2015-09-21

    In the present work, a simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay was developed for the determination of mercury(II) ion (Hg(2+)) based on carboxylic resin beads, a novel specific monoclonal antibody (McAb) and HRP enzyme-amplification. Resin beads with carboxyl groups were creatively employed as supports for immobilizing more coating antigen through acylamide bonds. With a competitive-type assay mode, the Hg(2+) in solution competed with the immobilized coating antigen for the limited McAb. Then, the second antibody labeled with HRP was introduced, and an effectively increased CL was obtained, which was ascribed to the catalytic activity of HRP for the luminol-PIP-H2O2 reaction. With increasing concentration of Hg(2+), the CL of this system decreases because less HRP is present in the CL reaction. At optimal conditions, the CL signal displayed a good linear relation toward Hg(2+) in the range of 0.05-200 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.015 ng mL(-1). The immunosensor possessed high specificity, acceptable accuracy and reproducibility, and was examined in real samples with favorable results. This immunoassay will have intriguing application prospects for the determination of other heavy metal ions and environmental contaminants. PMID:26244170

  12. Tested Demonstrations. A Chemiluminescence Demonstration - Oxalyl Chloride Oxidation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilber, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive, effective chemiluminescence demonstration requires minimal preparation. It is based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an appropriate fluorescent sensitizer. The reaction mechanism is not completely understood. (BB)

  13. A Chemiluminescence Detector for Ozone Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, H.; And Others

    An ozone detector was built and evaluated for its applicability in smog chamber studies. The detection method is based on reaction of ozone with ethylene and measurement of resultant chemiluminescence. In the first phase of evaluation, the detector's response to ozone was studied as a function of several instrument parameters, and optimum…

  14. Biological water quality monitoring using chemiluminescent and bioluminescent techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Automated chemiluminescence and bioluminescence sensors were developed for the continuous monitoring of microbial levels in water supplies. The optimal chemical procedures were determined for the chemiluminescence system to achieve maximum sensitivity. By using hydrogen peroxide, reaction rate differentiation, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and carbon monoxide pretreatments, factors which cause interference were eliminated and specificity of the reaction for living and dead bacteria was greatly increased. By employing existing technology with some modifications, a sensitive and specific bioluminescent system was developed.

  15. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of sudan I in hot chilli sauce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhong; Song, Zhenghua; Dong, Faxin; Zhang, Lin

    2007-02-01

    A chemiluminescence method based on the luminol-H2O2 system with flow injection technology was proposed for the determination of sudan I in hot chilli sauce. It was found that sudan I could enhance chemiluminescence intensity generated from the luminol-H2O2 system. The increment of chemiluminescence intensity was proportional to the concentration of sudan I, giving a calibration graph linear over the concentration from 10 pg mL-1 to 7 ng mL-1 (R 2 = 0.9980) with the detection limit of 3 pg mL-1 (3sigma) and the quantification limit of 7.5 pg mL-1. At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1, one analysis cycle, including sampling and washing, could be accomplished in 60 s with a relative standard deviation of <5.0%. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of sudan I in Pixian douban, Golden Mark guilin chilli sauce, and Golden Mark satay sauce, and the recovery was 90.6-110.0%. PMID:17263450

  16. [Chemiluminescence spectroscopic analysis of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion processes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-feng; Yao, Ming-fa; Jin, Chao; Zhang, Peng; Li, Zhe-ming; Zheng, Zun-qing

    2010-10-01

    To study the combustion reaction kinetics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) under different port injection strategies and intake temperature conditions, the tests were carried out on a modified single-cylinder optical engine using chemiluminescence spectroscopic analysis. The experimental conditions are keeping the fuel mass constant; fueling the n-heptane; controlling speed at 600 r x min(-1) and inlet pressure at 0.1 MPa; controlling inlet temperature at 95 degrees C and 125 degrees C, respectively. The results of chemiluminescence spectrum show that the chemiluminescence is quite faint during low temperature heat release (LTHR), and these bands spectrum originates from formaldehyde (CH2O) chemiluminescence. During the phase of later LTHR-negative temperature coefficient (NTC)-early high temperature heat release (HTHR), these bands spectrum also originates from formaldehyde (CH2O) chemiluminescence. The CO--O* continuum is strong during HTHR, and radicals such as OH, HCO, CH and CH2O appear superimposed on this CO--O* continuum. After the HTHR, the chemiluminescence intensity is quite faint. In comparison to the start of injection (SOI) of -30 degrees ATDC, the chemiluminescence intensity is higher under the SOI = -300 degrees ATDC condition due to the more intense emissions of CO--O* continuum. And more radicals of HCO and OH are formed, which also indicates a more intense combustion reaction. Similarly, more intense CO--O* continuum and more radicals of HCO and OH are emitted under higher intake temperature case. PMID:21137383

  17. Tyrosine-Specific Chemical Modification with in Situ Hemin-Activated Luminol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Kosuke; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-20

    Tyrosine-specific chemical modification was achieved using in situ hemin-activated luminol derivatives. Tyrosine residues in peptide and protein were modified effectively with N-methylated luminol derivatives under oxidative conditions in the presence of hemin and H2O2. Both single and double modifications of the tyrosine residue occurred in the reaction of angiotensin II with N-methylated luminol derivative 9. Tyrosine-specific chemical modification of the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) revealed that the surface-exposed tyrosine residues were selectively modified with 9. We succeeded in the functionalization of several proteins using azide-conjugated compound 18 using alkyne-conjugated probes by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) or dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO)-mediated copper-free click chemistry. This tyrosine-specific modification was orthogonal to conventional lysine modification by N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester, and dual functionalization by fluorescence modification of tyrosine residues and PEG modification of lysine residues was achieved without affecting the modification efficiency. PMID:26356088

  18. A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography:Chemiluminescence Method for Potential Determination of Vardenafil in Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Di, Youjun; Zhao, Min; Nie, Yingchun; Wang, Fei; Lv, Jiagen

    2011-01-01

    A flow method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) seperation and chemiluminescence (CL) detection for sensitive vardenafil analysis in dietary supplements was developed. The vardenafil separation was achieved on a C18 column at 30°C using ethanol-H3PO4 and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA) aqueous solution (25 : 75, v/v%) as mobile phase. The followed continuous CL detection was conducted based on the strong CL enhancement by the presence of vardenafil to luminol-K3Fe(CN)6 reaction in alkaline medium. At the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the vardenafil retention time (tR) was 6.4 min. Factors that affected the HPLC resolution and CL detection were studied and optimized. The calibration curve obtained for vardenafil standard was linear in concentration range of 8.0 × 10−7 ~ 1.0 × 10−4 mol/L. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of intraday and interday precision were less than 3.5%. The proposed method was applied to the vardenafil determination in oral liquid, wine, and capsule samples. PMID:21331172

  19. A novel [Ag(NH3)2]+ probe for chemiluminescent imaging detection of proteins after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Baeyens, Willy R G; Delanghe, Joris R; Huang, Zhi; Huang, Guangming; Ouyang, Jin

    2007-08-01

    The development of a novel [Ag(NH3)2]+ probe chemiluminescence (CL)-based imaging method for the detection of various proteins after PAGE is described. The detection is based upon the probe [Ag(NH3)2]+ catalyzing the CL reaction of the luminol-potassium persulfate system. The proposed method detects various proteins labeled by [Ag(NH3)2]+ and expands the application scope to SDS gels. It also detects proteins directly in polyacrylamide gels, without tedious transferring procedures. Furthermore, successful identification of proteins by peptide mass profiling using ionization MS was easily performed, and no pretreatments of gel prior to digestion are needed. Detection limits for standard marker proteins match CBB-R250 staining and the linear dynamic range is superior to CBB-R250 staining and silver staining. The CL imaging conditions, including luminescent reagents, silver ion concentration, the ammonia-controlled system and the washing reagents parameters have also been optimized. PMID:17610207

  20. Antioxidant activity of bisabolol: inhibitory effects on chemiluminescence of human neutrophil bursts and cell-free systems.

    PubMed

    Braga, Pier Carlo; Dal Sasso, Monica; Fonti, Elena; Culici, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory reactions are closely interrelated, and increasing attention is being given to the search for new synthetic or natural antioxidant agents, capable of reducing ROS and consequent inflammation. It has been claimed that bisabolol (a monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol) has an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activity, but this has almost exclusively been investigated using chemical or biochemical tests. We studied the ability of bisabolol to interfere with ROS production (luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, LACL) during human PMN respiratory bursts induced by both corpusculate(Candida albicans)and soluble stimulants (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, fMLP). LACL was also used to test cell-free systems (SIN-1 and H2O2/HOCl(-) systems) in order to investigate the presence of scavenging activity. After C. albicans stimulation, significant concentration-dependent LACL inhibition was observed at bisabolol concentrations ranging from 7.7 to 31 microg/ml; after the fMLP stimulus, significant LACL inhibition was observed at bisabolol concentrations ranging from 3.8 to 31 microg/ml. A similar effect was observed in the SIN-1 and H2O2/HOCl(-) systems. These findings draw the attention to the possible medical use of bisabolol as a means of improving the antioxidant network and restoring the redox balance by antagonising oxidative stress. PMID:19096233

  1. Quinones as novel chemiluminescent probes for the sensitive and selective determination of biothiols in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Elgawish, Mohamed Saleh; Kishikawa, Naoya; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2015-12-21

    Altered plasma aminothiol concentrations are thought to be a valuable risk indicator and are interestingly utilized for routine clinical diagnosis and for the monitoring of various metabolic disorders and human diseases, and accordingly there is a need for an accurate and reliable assay capable of simultaneously determining aminothiols including glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), homocysteine (Hcys), and cysteine (Cys) in human plasma. Herein, a highly sensitive, selective, and very fast HPLC-chemiluminescence (HPLC-CL) coupled method is reported, exploiting for the first time the strong nucleophilicity and high reactivity of aminothiols toward quinones for a CL assay. The unique redox-cycling capability of quinone and/or Michael addition adducts, thioether-quinone conjugates, was utilized to establish a novel analytical method based on the reaction of adducts with dithiothreitol (DTT) to liberate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are detected by using a luminol-CL assay. Specimen preparation involved the derivatization of aminothiols with menadione (MQ) for 5 minutes at room temperature. A unique green chemistry synthesis of thioether-quinones in HEPES buffer (pH 8.5) was introduced by using our reaction methodology without needing any hazardous organic solvent or catalyst. The aminothiol-MQ adducts were separated using solid-phase extraction followed by isocratic elution on an ODS column. Linearity was observed in the range of 2.5-500, 5-500, 10-1500, and 20-2000 nM with detection limits (S/N of 3) of 3.8, 4.2, 8, and 16 (fmol per injection) for GSH, NAC, Hcys, and Cys, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the selective determination of aminothiols in human plasma from healthy people and patients with rheumatic arthritis and diabetes mellitus. The obtained results postulated the usefulness of our method for investigating the relationship between aminothiol metabolism and related human disorders. PMID:26535414

  2. Chemiluminescence in activated human neutrophils: role of buffers and scavengers.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, I; Misgav, R; Gibbs, D F; Varani, J; Kohen, R

    1993-06-01

    Human neutrophils (PMNs) suspended in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), which are stimulated either by polycation-opsonized streptococci or by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), generate nonamplified (CL), luminol-dependent (LDCL), and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (LUCDCL). Treatment of activated PMNs with azide yielded a very intense CL response, but only a small LDCL or LUCDCL responses, when horse radish peroxidase (HRP) was added. Both CL and LDCL depend on the generation of superoxide and on myeloperoxidase (MPO). Treatment of PMNs with azide followed either by dimethylthiourea (DMTU), deferoxamine, EDTA, or detapac generated very little CL upon addition of HRP, suggesting that CL is the result of the interaction among H2O2, a peroxidase, and trace metals. In a cell-free system practically no CL was generated when H2O2 was mixed with HRP in distilled water (DW). On the other hand significant CL was generated when either HBSS or RPMI media was employed. In both cases CL was markedly depressed either by deferoxamine or by EDTA, suggesting that these media might be contaminated by trace metals, which catalyzed a Fenton-driven reaction. Both HEPES and Tris buffers, when added to DW, failed to support significant HRP-induced CL. Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) chelates of Mn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, and Co2+ very markedly enhanced CL induced by mixtures of H2O2 and HRP when distilled water was the supporting medium. Both HEPES and Tris buffer when added to DW strongly quenced NTA-metal-catalyzed CL. None of the NTA-metal chelates could boost CL generation by activated PMNs, because the salts in HBSS and RPMI interfered with the activity of the added metals. CL and LDCL of activated PMNs was enhanced by aminotriazole, but strongly inhibited by diphenylene iodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase) by azide, sodium cyanide (CN), cimetidine, histidine, benzoate, DMTU and moderately by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and by deferoxamine LUCDCL was markedly inhibited only by SOD but was boosted by CN. Taken together, it is suggested that CL generated by stimulated PMNs might be the result of the interactions among, NADPH oxidase, (inhibitable by diphenylene iodonium), MPO (inhibitable by sodium azide), H2O2 probably of intracellular origin (inhibitable by DMTU but not by catalase), and trace metals that contaminate salt solutions. The nature of the salt solutions employed to measure CL in activated PMNs is critical. PMID:8392491

  3. Electrophoresis-chemiluminescence detection of phenols catalyzed by hemin.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lu; Zhu, Jinkun; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2014-09-01

    Based on the catalytic activity of hemin, an efficient biocatalyst, an indirect capillary electrophoresis-chemiluminescence (CE-CL) detection method for phenols using a hemin-luminol-hydrogen peroxide system was developed. Through a series of static injection experiments, hemin was found to perform best in a neutral solution rather than an acidic or alkaline medium. Although halide ions such as Br(-) and F(-) could further enhance the CL signal catalyzed by hemin, it is difficult to apply these conditions to this CE-CL detection system because of the self-polymerization of hemin, as it hinders the CE process. The addition of concentrated ammonium hydroxide to an aqueous/dimethyl sulfoxide solution of hemin-luminol afforded a stable CE-CL baseline. The indirect CE-CL detection of five phenols using this method gave the following limits of detections: 4.8 × 10(-8) mol/L (o-sec-butylphenol), 4.9 × 10(-8) mol/L (o-cresol), 5.4 × 10(-8) mol/L (m-cresol), 5.3 × 10(-8) mol/L (2,4-dichlorophenol) and 7.1 × 10(-8) mol/L (phenol). PMID:24115262

  4. Tailoring Catalytic Activity of Pt Nanoparticles Encapsulated Inside Dendrimers by Tuning Nanoparticle Sizes with Subnanometer Accuracy for Sensitive Chemiluminescence-Based Analyses.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyojung; Ju, Youngwon; Kim, Joohoon

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report the size-dependent catalysis of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) having well-defined sizes over the range of 1-3 nm with subnanometer accuracy for the highly enhanced chemiluminescence of the luminol/H2O2 system. This size-dependent catalysis is ascribed to the differences in the chemical states of the Pt DENs as well as in their surface areas depending on their sizes. Facile and versatile applications of the Pt DENs in diverse oxidase-based assays are demonstrated as efficient catalysts for sensitive chemiluminescence-based analyses. PMID:27032992

  5. Electrochemiluminescence of luminol on a platinum-nanoparticle-modified indium tin oxide electrode in neutral aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomei; Lin, Zhijie; Cai, Zhiming; Chen, Xi; Oyama, Munetaka; Wang, Xiaoru

    2009-04-01

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of luminol on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) was investigated in a neutral aqueous solution using the conventional cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. Experimental results indicated that the ECL behaviors of luminol on the PtNPs modified electrode showed significant difference from those on the bare ITO or bulk platinum electrodes. Five ECL peaks were found at 0.60, 0.92, 0.70, -0.44 and -1.16 V versus a saturated calomel electrode (SCE), respectively. The ECL peaks were found to depend on the reaction medium conditions including the type of electrolyte, pH value, the presence or absence of O2 and the different kinds of nanoparticles, as well as the scan direction and range of the applied potential. Furthermore, ECL peaks at -0.44 and -1.16 V could only be obtained on the PtNPs/ITO electrode. The surface state of the electrode was characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A mechanism for luminol ECL on the PtNPs/ITO electrode was proposed. The excellent ECL properties of luminol on the PtNPs/ITO electrode in the neutral medium revealed a great potential for analytical applications to biological samples. PMID:19437984

  6. Sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay for E. coli O157:H7 detection with signal dual-amplification using glucose oxidase and laccase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Tan, Chen; Fei, Ruihua; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Yonggang

    2014-01-21

    A novel, sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay for Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection with signal dual-amplification using glucose oxidase (GOx) and laccase was investigated. The method was based on the characterization of a luminol-H2O2-laccase reaction. Compared with the horseradish peroxidase-based biosensor, laccase exhibited high catalytic activity in strong alkaline medium, which was compatible with the luminol system. The capture antibody was immobilized onto the magnetic bead (MB) surfaces. The detection antibody was linked with GOx through biotin-avidin recognition. Accordingly, the bioconjugation of MB-caputure antibody- E. coli O157:H7-detection antibody-GOx catalyzed the substrate glucose, thereby generating H2O2. E. coli O157:H7 was then detected by measuring the CL intensity after H2O2 formation. Under optimal conditions, the calibration plot obtained for E. coli O157:H7 was approximately linear from 4.3 × 10(3) colony-forming unit (CFU) mL(-1) to 4.3 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1), and the total assay time was <2.0 h without any enrichment. The limit of detection for the assay was 1.2 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1) (3σ), which was considerably lower than that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (1.0 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1)) (3σ). A series of repeatability measurements of using 1.7 × 10(4) CFU mL(-1) E. coli O157:H7 exhibited reproducible results with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.5% (n = 11). Moreover, the proposed method was successfully used to detect E. coli O157:H7 in synthetic samples (spring water, apple juice, and skim milk), which indicated its potential practical application. This protocol can be applied in various fields of study. PMID:24405233

  7. A hot-spot-active magnetic graphene oxide substrate for microRNA detection based on cascaded chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Chen, Min; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying

    2015-02-28

    Herein, a cascaded chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (C-CRET) process was demonstrated from horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 to fluorescein and further to graphene oxide (GO) when HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein was in close proximity to the GO surface. The proposed C-CRET system was successfully implemented to construct three modes of C-CRET hot-spot-active substrates (modes I, II and III) by covalently immobilizing HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein-labeled hairpin DNAs (hot-spot-generation probes) on magnetic GO (MGO), resulting in a signal "off" state due to the quenching of the luminol/H2O2/HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein CRET system by GO. Upon the introduction of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122), the targets (mode I) or the new triggers that were generated through a strand displacement reaction (SDR) initiated by miRNA-122 (modes II and III) hybridized with the loop domains of hairpin probes on MGO to form double-stranded (modes I and II) or triplex-stem structures (mode III), causing an "open" configuration of the hairpin probe and a CRET signal "on" state, thus achieving sensitive and selective detection of miRNA-122. More importantly, the substrate exhibited excellent controllability, reversibility and reproducibility through SDR and magnetic separation (modes II and III), especially sequence-independence for hairpin probes in mode III, holding great potential for the development of a versatile platform for optical biosensing. PMID:25644330

  8. Intensification of chemiluminescence in the inhibited oxidation of oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolayevskii, A.N.; Filippenko, T.A.; Sergovskaya, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    Chemiluminescence is intensified upon the addition of inhibitors (phloroglucinol, p-phenylenediamine, hydroquinone) to oxidized sunflower oil. The formation of a further source of chemiluminescence is explained by reactions of the oxidized oil and the inhibitors. Oxidation initiated by azoisobutyronitrile of sunflower oil using atmospheric oxygen was performed at 70/sup 0/C in chlorobenzene solution; 9,10-dibromoanthracene was the luminescence activator. 4 figures.

  9. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence

    EPA Science Inventory

    •The proposed new FRM measurement principle for ozone is based on quantitative measurement of the chemiluminescence emission from the gas-phase reaction of ozone in an air sample with nitric oxide (NO).•The chemiluminescence from the NO-O3 reaction (with excess NO) is p...

  10. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed new FRM measurement principle for ozone is based on quantitative measurement of the chemiluminescence emission from the gas-phase reaction of ozone in an air sample with nitric oxide (NO).The chemiluminescence from the NO-O3 reaction (with excess NO) is p...

  11. Differential stimulation of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and arachidonic acid metabolism in rat peritoneal neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Cullinan, C.A.; Berkenkopf, J.W.; Weichman, B.M.

    1986-03-05

    Phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA) induced the production of radical oxygen species (ROS) from rat peritoneal neutrophils as assessed by CL. ROS generation occurred in a time- (maximum at 13.5 min) and dose- (concentration range of 1.7-498 nM) related fashion. However, 166 nM PMA did not induce either cyclooxygenase (CO) or lipoxygenase (LPO) product formation by 20 min post-stimulation. Conversely, A23187, at concentrations between 0.1 and 10 ..mu..M, stimulated both pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, but had little or no effect upon ROS production. When suboptimal concentrations of PMA (5.5 nM) and A23187 (0.1-1 ..mu..M) were coincubated with the neutrophils, a synergistic ROS response was elicited. However, arachidonic acid metabolism in the presence of PMA was unchanged relative to A12187 alone. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited both PMA-induced CL (IC/sub 50/ = 0.9 ..mu..M) and A23187-induced arachidonic acid metabolism (IC/sub 50/ = 1.7 ..mu..M and 6.0 ..mu..M for LPO and CO, respectively). The mixed LPO-CO inhibitor, BW755C, behaved in a qualitatively similar manner to NDGA, whereas the CO inhibitors, indomethacin, piroxicam and naproxen had no inhibitory effect on ROS generation at concentrations as high as 100 ..mu..M. These results suggest that NDGA and BW755C may inhibit CL and arachidonic acid metabolism by distinct mechanisms in rat neutrophils.

  12. On the structure of luminol sodium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybakov, V. B.; Chernyshev, V. V.; Paseshnichenko, K. A.; Sheludyakov, V. D.; Belyakov, N. G.; Boziev, R. S.; Mochalov, V. N.; Storozhenko, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    The structures of Tamerit® ( A) and Galavit® ( B) pharmaceutical preparations have been solved by X-Ray single crystal and powder diffraction. These are luminol sodium salts possessing immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. It is shown that Tamerit® ( A) is a hydrated salt, while Galavit® ( B) is a mixture of two polymorphic modifications ( B1 and B2) of anhydrous salt. Compound A is crystallized in a monoclinic system: a = 8.3429(4) Å, b = 22.0562(11) Å, c = 5.2825(2) Å, β = 99.893(3)°, V = 957.59(8) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. P21/ c. Compound B1 is crystallized in a monoclinic system: a = 14.7157(18), b = 3.7029(19), c = 16.0233(15) Å, β = 116.682(13)°, V = 780.1(4) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. P21/ c. Compound B2 is crystallized in an orthorhombic system: a = 27.7765(15) Å, b = 3.3980(19) Å, c = 8.1692(19) Å, V = 771.0(5) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. Pna21. The absence of phase transitions between the B1 and B2 polymorphs has been established by differential scanning calorimetry.

  13. Label-free chemiluminescent aptasensor for platelet-derived growth factor detection based on exonuclease-assisted cascade autocatalytic recycling amplification.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Luo, Baoyu; Ye, Jiayan; Wang, Zonghua

    2014-12-15

    Here an exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted cascade autocatalytic recycling amplification (Exo-CARA) strategy is proposed for label-free chemiluminescent (CL) detection of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) by taking advantage of both recognition property of aptamer and cleavage function of Exo III. Functionally, this system consists of a duplex DNA (aptamer-blocker hybrid), two kinds of hairpin structures (MB1 and MB2), and Exo III. Upon recognizing and binding with PDGF-BB, aptamer folds into a close configuration, which initiates the proposed Exo-CARA reaction (Recyclings I→II→III→II). Finally, numerous "caged" G-quadruplex sequences on DNAzyme1 and DNAzyme2 release that intercalate hemin to catalyze the oxidation of luminol by H2O2 to generate an amplified CL signal, achieving excellent specificity and high sensitivity with a detection limit of 6.8×10(-13) M PDGF-BB. The proposed strategy has the advantages of simple design, isothermal conditions, homogeneous reaction without separation and washing steps, effective-cost without the need of labeling, and high amplification efficiency, which might be a universal and promising protocol for the detection of a variety of biomolecules whose aptamers undergo similar conformational changes. PMID:25016251

  14. Chemiluminescence detection for microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs).

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenrong; Zhang, Chunsun; Liu, Feifei; Liu, Min

    2015-10-15

    In this work, we report the first demonstration of chemiluminescence (CL) detection for microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs). Wax screen-printing is used to make cloth channels or chambers, and enzyme-catalyzed CL reactions are imaged using an inexpensive charge coupled device (CCD). We first evaluate the relationship between the wicking rate and the length/width of cloth channel. For our device, the channel length and width between the loading and detection chambers are optimized to be 10mm and 3mm. Thus, the detection procedure can be accomplished in about 15s on a cloth-based device (15 × 30 mm(2)) by using 25-μL sample spotted on it. Next, several parameters affecting cloth-based CL intensity are studied, including exposure time, pH, and concentrations of luminol and enzyme. Under optimal conditions, a linear relationship is obtained between CL intensity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in the range of 0.5-5mM with a detection limit of 0.46 mM. Finally, the utility of cloth-based CL is demonstrated for determination of H2O2 residues in meat samples. On our device, the chicken meat soaked for 6h with 3% H2O2 can be detected. Moreover, the supernatant of grinded meat sample can be directly applied, without need for other treatments. We believe that μCADs with CL detection could provide a new platform of rapid and low-cost assays for use in areas such as food detection and environmental monitoring. PMID:25974173

  15. Sensitive competitive flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for IgG using gold nanoparticle as label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Honglan; Shangguan, Li; Liang, Lin; Ling, Chen; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2011-11-01

    A sensitive competitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL-FIA) immunoassay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) was developed using gold nanoparticle as CL label. In the configuration, anti-IgG antibody was immobilized on a glass capillary column surface by 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde to form immunoaffinity column. Analyte IgG and gold nanoparticle labeled IgG were passed through the immunoaffinity column mounted in a flow system and competed for the surface-confined anti-IgG antibody. CL emission was generated from the reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Au (III), generated from chemically oxidative dissolution of gold nanoparticle by an injection of 0.10 mol L -1 HCl-0.10 mol L -1 NaCl solution containing 0.10 mmol L -1 Br 2. The concentration of analyte IgG was inversely related to the amount of bound gold nanoparticle labeled IgG and the CL intensity was linear with the concentration of analyte IgG from 1.0 ng mL -1 to 40 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10 -10 g mL -1. The whole assay time including the injections and washing steps was only 30 min for one sample, which was competitive with CL immunoassays based on a gold nanoparticle label and magnetic separation. This work demonstrates that the CL immunoassay incorporation of nanoparticle label and flow injection is promising for clinical assay with sensitivity and high-speed.

  16. Quantitative assessment of rabbit alveolar macrophage function by chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.

    1985-08-01

    Rabbit alveolar macrophages (RAM) were cultured for 24 hr with concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 ..mu..g/ml of vanadium oxide (V/sub 2/O/sub 5/), a known cytotoxic agent, or with high-molecular-weight organic by-products from coal gasification processes. After culture the cells were harvested and tested for functional capacity using three types of indicators: (1) luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL), which quantitatively detects photon emission due to respiratory burst activity measured in a newly designed instrument with standardized reagents; (2) the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium-saturated polyacrylamide beads, a semiquantitative measure of respiratory burst activity; and (3) phagocytic efficiency, defined as percentage of cells incorporating immunoglobulin-coated polyacrylamide beads. Chemiluminescence declined linearly with increasing concentrations of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ over the dose range tested. Dye reduction and phagocytic efficiency similarly decreased with increasing V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ concentration, but were less sensitive indicators of functional impairment than CL as measured by the amount required to reduce the response to 50% of untreated cells. The effect of coal gasification condensates on RAM function varied, but in general these test also indicated that the CL response was the most sensitive indicator.

  17. Microflow injection potassium bioassay based on G-quadruplex DNAzyme-enhanced chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Song, Lifang; Pan, Xiaoyan; Shen, Hong; Yu, Yaling

    2014-12-01

    By taking advantage of microflow injection chemiluminescence analysis, we developed a distinctive microfluidic bioassay method based on G-Quadruplex DNAzyme-enhanced chemiluminescence for the determination of K(+) in human serum. AGRO100, the G-rich oligonucleotide with high hemin binding affinity was primarily selected as a K(+) recognition element. In the presence of K(+), AGRO100 folded into G-quadruplex and bound hemin to form DNAzyme, which catalyzed the oxidation of luminol by H2 O2 to produce chemiluminescence. The intensity of chemiluminescence increased with the K(+) concentration. In the study, the DNAzyme showed both long-term stability and high catalytic activity; other common cations at their physiological concentration did not cause notable interference. With only 6.7 × 10(-13) mol of AGRO100 consumption per sample, a linear response of K(+) ranged from 1 to 300 µmol/L, the concentration detection limit 0.69 µmol/L (S/N = 3) and the absolute detection limit 1.38 × 10(-12) mol were obtained. The precision of 10 replicate measurements of 60 µmol/L K(+) was found to be 1.72% (relative standard deviation). The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by analyzing real human serum samples. PMID:24851824

  18. CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical DNA biosensor via enhanced chemiluminescence excitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yang; Lei, Jianping; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work developed a CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of DNA under the enhanced chemiluminescence excitation of luminol catalyzed by hemin-DNA complex. The CdS/MoS2 photocathode was prepared by the stepwise assembly of MoS2 and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on indium tin oxide (ITO), and achieved about 280% increasing of photocurrent compared to pure CdS QDs electrode due to the formation of heterostructure. High photoconversion efficiency in the photoelectrochemical system was identified to be the rapid spatial charge separation of electron-hole pairs by the extension of electron transport time and electron lifetime. In the presence of target DNA, the catalytic hairpin assembly was triggered, and simultaneously the dual hemin-labeled DNA probe was introduced to capture DNA/CdS/MoS2 modified ITO electrode. Thus the chemiluminescence emission of luminol was enhanced via hemin-induced mimetic catalysis, leading to the physical light-free photoelectrochemical strategy. Under optimized conditions, the resulting photoelectrode was proportional to the logarithm of target DNA concentration in the range from 1 fM to 100 pM with a detection limit of 0.39 fM. Moreover, the cascade amplification biosensor demonstrated high selectivity, desirable stability and good reproducibility, showing great prospect in molecular diagnosis and bioanalysis. PMID:26476013

  19. Detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee using chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eun-Jung; Mun, Hyoyoung; Kim, Su-Ji; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Min-Gon

    2016-03-01

    We report a chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptasensor for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in roasted coffee beans. The aptamer sequences used in this study are 5'-DNAzyme-Linker-OTA aptamer-3'-dabcyl. Dabcyl at the end of the OTA aptamer region plays as a quencher in CRET aptasensor. When hemin and OTA are added, the dabcyl-labeled OTA aptamer approaches to the G-quadruplex-hemin complex by formation of the G-quadruplex-OTA complex. The G-quadruplex-hemin complexes possess horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-like activity, and therefore, the HRP-mimicking DNAzyme (HRPzyme) catalyzes peroxidation in the presence of luminol and H2O2. Resonance energy transfer between luminol (donor) and dabcyl (acceptor) enables quenching of chemiluminescence signals. The signal decreases with increasing the concentration of OTA within the range of 0.1-100ngmL(-1) (limit of detection 0.22ngmL(-1)), and the level of recovery of the respective 1ngmL(-1) and 10ngmL(-1) spiked coffee samples was 71.5% and 93.3%. These results demonstrated the potential of the proposed method for OTA analysis in diverse foods. PMID:26471659

  20. Analytical applications of nanomaterials in electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Bertoncello, Paolo; Stewart, Alasdair J; Dennany, Lynn

    2014-09-01

    This critical review covers the use of carbon nanomaterials (single-wall carbon nanotubes, multi-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon quantum dots), semiconductor quantum dots, and composite materials based on the combination of the aforementioned materials, for analytical applications using electrogenerated chemiluminescence. The recent discovery of graphene and related materials, with their optical and electrochemical properties, has made possible new uses of such materials in electrogenerated chemiluminescence for biomedical diagnostic applications. In electrogenerated chemiluminescence, also known as electrochemiluminescence (ECL), electrochemically generated intermediates undergo highly exergonic reactions, producing electronically excited states that emit light. These electron-transfer reactions are sufficiently exergonic to enable the excited states of luminophores, including metal complexes, quantum dots and carbon nanocrystals, to be generated without photoexcitation. In particular, this review focuses on some of the most advanced and recent developments (especially during the last five years, 2010-2014) related to the use of these novel materials and their composites, with particular emphasis on their use in medical diagnostics as ECL immunosensors. PMID:25002332

  1. Microwave-triggered chemiluminescence with planar geometrical aluminum substrates: theory, simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Previte, Michael J R; Geddes, Chris D

    2007-05-01

    Previously we combined common practices in protein detection with chemiluminescence, microwave technology, and metal-enhanced chemiluminescence to demonstrate that we can use low power microwaves to substantially increase enzymatic chemiluminescent reaction rates on particulate silvered substrates. We now describe the applicability of continuous aluminum metal substrates to potentially further enhance or "trigger" enzymatic chemiluminescence reactions. Furthermore, our results suggest that the extent of chemiluminescence enhancement for surface and solution based enzyme reactions critically depends on the surface geometry of the aluminum film. In addition, we also use FDTD simulations to model the interactions of the incident microwave radiation with the aluminum geometries used. We demonstrate that the extent of microwave field enhancement for solution and surface based chemiluminescent reactions can be ascribed to "lightning rod" effects that give rise to different electric field distributions for microwaves incident on planar aluminum geometries. With these results, we believe that we can spatially and temporally control the extent of triggered chemiluminescence with low power microwave (Mw) pulses and maximize localized microwave triggered metal-enhanced chemiluminescence (MT-MEC) with optimized planar aluminum geometries. Thus we can potentially further improve the sensitivity of immunoassays with significantly enhanced signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:17404821

  2. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus by enhanced chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Hornsleth, A; Aaen, K; Gundestrup, M

    1988-01-01

    The horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of luminol was used in a chemiluminescence avidin-biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ABE) to detect respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rotavirus (ROV). This CL-ABE was carried out in a new apparatus constructed for the photographic registration of the light emission produced. When measured in a spectrophotometer, the light emission produced by the oxidation of luminol showed a peak emission at 425 nm. The chemiluminescence output reached maximum within 1 min after the initiation of luminol oxidation and diminished to one-half of maximum emission within 8 min. When titrations of purified ROV by avidin-biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ABE) were monitored by CL-ABE and by conventional orthophenylenediamine (OPD) staining (OPD-ABE), the detection limits were 0.01 and 0.04 ng of ROV protein, respectively. Similar titrations of purified RSV gave detection limits of 0.2 and 0.8 ng of RSV protein by CL-ABE and OPD-ABE, respectively. When 26 RSV-positive samples of nasopharyngeal secretions (NPS) were titrated by CL-ABE and by OPD-ABE, the mean titers obtained were 737 and 254, respectively. When 19 ROV-positive fecal samples were titrated by CL-ABE and by OPD-ABE, the mean titers obtained were 82,000 and 29,000, respectively. When samples of NPS from 123 infants and children with acute lower respiratory disease were tested for the presence of RSV, 31 NPS samples were RSV positive by CL-ABE, and 29 of these 31 NPS samples were RSV positive by OPD-ABE. Images PMID:2835387

  3. Sensitive and selective chemiluminescence assay for hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate using nanoparticle-based catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhujun; Tao, Liang; Gao, Miao

    2013-04-01

    The catalytic properties of cubiform Co3O4 nanoparticles, α-Fe2O3 nanorods, and NiO nanoparticles were studied using both microarray method and FI-CL method. These nanoarticles exhibit high specific catalytic effects on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of the luminol-H2O2 system in alkaline solution compared with other common catalysts. A reaction mechanism is described. It provides new insights into the application of nanoparticle materials. The CL method based on the use of the Co3O4 nanoparticles is ultrasensitive and particularly selective. Therefore, it was applied to the analysis of H2O2 which can be determined in the concentration range from 1.0 nM to 1000 nM, with a detection limit of 0.3 nM. The relative standard deviation is 2.1% at 0.1 μM of H2O2 (for n = 11). The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace quantities of H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) where it is a mediator of oxidative stress and a promising biomarker for diagnosing. The assay requires a small sample and no incubation time, and has an analytical runtime of <1 min. It is timesaving and suitable for larger studies. The levels of H2O2 in EBC are found to be elevated in healthy subjects (average = 0.54 nM), rheum subjects (average = 0.24 nM), and feverish subjects (average = 0.16 nM). Our data suggested that the average H2O2 concentration of EBC from feverish subjects was significantly higher than healthy subjects and rheumatic subjects.

  4. Chemiluminescent Detection of Enzymatically-Produced Hydrogen Sulfide: Substrate Hydrogen Bonding Influences Selectivity for H2S over Biological Thiols

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, T. Spencer; Pluth, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now recognized as an important biological regulator and signaling agent that is active in many physiological processes and diseases. Understanding the important roles of this emerging signaling molecule has remained challenging, in part due to the limited methods available for detecting endogenous H2S. Here we report two reaction-based ChemiLuminescent Sulfide Sensors, CLSS-1 and CLSS-2, with strong luminescence responses toward H2S (128-, 48-fold, respectively) and H2S detection limits (0.7 ± 0.3, 4.6 ± 2.0 μM, respectively) compatible with biological H2S levels. CLSS-2 is highly selective for H2S over other reactive sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen species (RSONs) including GSH, Cys, Hcy, S2O32−, NO2−, HNO, ONOO−, and NO. Despite its similar chemical structure, CLSS-1 displays lower selectivity toward amino acid-derived thiols than CLSS-2. The origin of this differential selectivity was investigated using both computational DFT studies and NMR experiments. Our results suggest a model in which amino acid binding to the hydrazide moiety of the luminol-derived probes provides differential access to the reactive azide in CLSS-1 and CLSS-2, thus eroding the selectivity of CLSS-1 for H2S over Cys and GSH. Based on its high selectivity for H2S, we used CLSS-2 to detect enzymatically-produced H2S from isolated cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) enzymes (p < 0.001) and also from C6 cells expressing CSE (p < 0.001). CLSS-2 can readily differentiate between H2S production in active CSE and CSE inhibited with β-cyano alanine (BCA) in both isolated CSE enzymes (p < 0.005) and in C6 cells (p < 0.005). In addition to providing a highly sensitive and selective reaction-based tool for chemiluminescent H2S detection and quantification, the insights into substrate-probe interactions controlling the selectivity for H2S over biologically-relevant thiols may guide the design of other selective H2S detection scaffolds. PMID:24093945

  5. Phagocytic and chemiluminescent responses of mouse peritoneal macrophages to living and killed Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, T.; Blumenstock, E.; Kanegasaki, S.

    1981-06-01

    In the presence of luminol, resident as well as thioglycolate-induced and immunized macrophages emitted chemiluminescence more efficiently when the cells were exposed to living Salmonella typhimurium than when they were exposed to the same bacterium killed by ultraviolet light or heat. This phenomenon was observed whether or not the bacterium was opsonized. The different response to living and killed bacteria was also found with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morganii, and Enterobacter aerogenes, but not with Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Propionibacterium acnes. The results suggest that macrophages respond better to living, motile bacteria than to nonmotile or killed bacteria. The experimental results obtained with motility mutants of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa confirm that macrophages exposed to the motile bacteria emit chemiluminescence more efficiently and ingest the motile bacteria at a much faster rate than the nonmotile bacteria.

  6. Chemiluminescent lateral-flow immunoassays by using in-situ synthesis of CdS NW photosensor.

    PubMed

    An, Byoung-Gi; Kim, Hong-Rae; Kang, Min-Jung; Park, Jae-Gwan; Chang, Young Wook; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2016-07-13

    A hypersensitive CdS nanowire (NW) photosensor was fabricated by an in-situ synthesis process that involved the direct synthesis of CdS NWs on an interdigitated electrode (IDE). Analysis of the photoresponse properties showed that the newly synthesized photosensor had enhanced sensitivity and a highly reproducible photoresponse compared to photosensors prepared from CdS NW suspensions. The NW photosensor was applied to measure the chemiluminescence of luminol, and the sensitivity was compared to a commercial photosensing system. Finally, the feasibility of the CdS NW photosensor for the application to the medical diagnosis of the human hepatitis B surface antigen (hHBsAg) was demonstrated using a lateral-flow immunoassay with a chemiluminescent signal band. PMID:27237842

  7. Determination Co 2+ in vitamin B 12 based on enhancement of 2-(4-substituted-phenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole and H 2O 2 chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Zhang, Yumin; Kang, Jing; Tang, Jieli; Zhang, Yihua

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, three kinds of imidazole derivatives, 2-(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole (MDFI), 2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole (NDFI), and 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole (t-BDFI) were synthesized. In an alkaline medium, the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of imidazole derivatives with H 2O 2 has been investigated. It was also found that MDFI/H 2O 2 and t-BDFI/H 2O 2 systems gave strong CL. When Co 2+ was added into the two CL systems, the CL intensity was remarkably enhanced. In the optimum conditions, the CL intensity is linearly related to the logarithm of concentration of Co 2+. The linear ranges are 5 × 10 -9-2.5 × 10 -7 mol/L for MDFI/H 2O 2 system and 5 × 10 -9-2.5 × 10 -7 mol/L for t-BDFI/H 2O 2 system, and the corresponding detection limits are 1.2 × 10 -9 mol/L and 1.1 × 10 -9 mol/L, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of Co 2+ in vitamin B 12 injection. Furthermore, the CL mechanism was also discussed.

  8. Chemiluminescence and bioluminescence microbe detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Chappelle, E.; Picciolo, G. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Thomas, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Automated biosensors for online use with NASA Water Monitoring System employs bioluminescence and chemiluminescence techniques to rapidly measure microbe contamination of water samples. System eliminates standard laboratory procedures requiring time duration of 24 hours or longer.

  9. CHEMILUMINESCENCE MEASUREMENT OF REACTIVITY WEIGHTED ETHYLENE-EQUIVALENT HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reactive hydrocarbon analyzer (RHA), based on the chemiluminescent reaction of hydrocarbons with oxygen atoms, is used to provide a rapid indication of reactivity weighted hydrocarbon mass in automobile exhaust. Samples are reported by their ethylene-equivalent concentration--t...

  10. Flow injection analysis of organic peroxide explosives using acid degradation and chemiluminescent detection of released hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Zakaria, Philip; Guijt, Rosanne; Macka, Mirek; Dicinoski, Greg; Breadmore, Michael; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2015-10-01

    The applicability of acid degradation of organic peroxides into hydrogen peroxide in a pneumatically driven flow injection system with chemiluminescence reaction with luminol and Cu(2+) as a catalyst (FIA-CL) was investigated for the fast and sensitive detection of organic peroxide explosives (OPEs). The target OPEs included hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and methylethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). Under optimised conditions maximum degradations of 70% and 54% for TATP and HMTD, respectively were achieved at 162 µL min(-1), and 9% degradation for MEKP at 180 µL min(-1). Flow rates were precisely controlled in this single source pneumatic pressure driven multi-channel FIA system by model experiments on mixing of easily detectable component solutions. The linear range for detection of TATP, HMTD and H2O2 was 1-200 µM (r(2)=0.98-0.99) at both flow rates, while that for MEKP was 20-200 µM (r(2)=0.97) at 180 µL min(-1). The detection limits (LODs) obtained were 0.5 µM for TATP, HMTD and H2O2 and 10 µM for MEKP. The detection times varied from 1.5 to 3 min in this FIA-CL system. Whilst the LOD for H2O2 was comparable with those reported by other investigators, the LODs and analysis times for TATP and HMTD were superior, and significantly, this is the first time the detection of MEKP has been reported by FIA-CL. PMID:26078148

  11. Chemiluminescent Probes for Imaging H2S in Living Animals†

    PubMed Central

    Cao, J.; Lopez, R.; Thacker, J.M.; Moon, J.Y.; Jiang, C.; Morris, S.N.S.; Bauer, J.H.; Tao, P.; Mason, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous mediator of human health and disease, but precise measurement in living cells and animals remains a considerable challenge. We report the total chemical synthesis and characterization of three 1,2-dioxetane chemiluminescent reaction-based H2S probes, CHS-1, CHS-2, and CHS-3. Upon treatment with H2S at physiological pH, these probes display instantaneous light emission that is sustained for over an hour with high selectivity against other reactive sulphur, oxygen, and nitrogen species. Analysis of the phenol/phenolate equilibrium and atomic charges has provided a generally applicable predictive model to design improved chemiluminescent probes. The utility of these chemiluminescent reagents was demonstrated by applying CHS-3 to detect cellularly generated H2S using a multi-well plate reader and to image H2S in living mice using CCD camera technology. PMID:25709805

  12. Inhibition of phagocytosis and chemiluminescence in human leukocytes by a lipid soluble factor in normal tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, T S; Hurd, R E; Chopra, I J; Stevens, P; Solomon, D H; Young, L S

    1984-01-01

    Homogenates of normal rat tissues inhibited several functional parameters of normal human peripheral blood leukocytes, including luminol-dependent chemiluminescence induced by both soluble (phorbol myristate acetate) and particulate (Escherichia coli) stimuli; in vitro uptake of radiolabeled E. coli; and in vitro phagocytosis and killing of E. coli. The doses of rat tissue protein that caused a 50% inhibition of leukocyte chemiluminescence were ca. 6.2 micrograms for small intestine, 83 micrograms for kidney; 100 micrograms for heart; 132 micrograms for liver, 190 micrograms for skeletal muscle, and 307 micrograms for brain. The putative phagocytosis inhibitor (PI) in rat liver was more plentiful in particulate fractions than in the cytosol. The PI activity in the original or Miranol-solubilized rat liver homogenate was nondialyzable, and it was reduced substantially by heating at 90 degrees C for 30 min but not at 56 degrees C for 30 min. It was unaffected by aprotinin, a potent inhibitor of proteolytic activity. Treatment of tissues with trypsin did not reduce PI activity, whereas treatment with phospholipase A2 clearly increased it. The bulk (up to 88%) of PI in rat liver or small intestine could be extracted by lipid solvents, e.g., diethyl ether. Purified fatty acids were potent inhibitors of leukocyte chemiluminescence; other lipids had little or no inhibiting activity. The various data suggest that (i) normal tissues contain a potent PI and (ii) that the PI is a lipid moiety. PMID:6389349

  13. Detection of synthetic corticosteroids in bovine urine by chemiluminescence high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, B I; Feás, X; Lolo, M; Fente, C A; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A

    2005-01-01

    The development of a black market of chemical cocktails for illegal growth promotion in food-producing animals includes substances that are potentially dangerous for human health, such as synthetic corticosteroids. The potential presence of these residues in food makes it necessary to develop rapid and sensitive analytical methodologies to detect such substances, preferably in live animals before they arrive at the market. A chemiluminescence (CL) detection method for the determination of four synthetic corticosteroids (prednisolone, betamethasone, dexamethasone and flumethasone) in bovine urine has been developed. The proposed system, which does not need any derivatization procedure, offers an easy method well suited for routine research. Urine samples were homogenized with methanol:water (50:50, v/v) and centrifuged. The upper layer was collected and Strata X cartridges were used for cleaning up. The purified residues were evaporated to dryness and then redissolved in the mobile phase. Analysis of the extracts was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection, employing luminol as the CL reagent. The recovery curves, obtained at four spiking levels (different for each corticosteroid), showed that recoveries of at least 70% could be obtained for urine. The chemiluminescence detection procedure afforded satisfactory results with respect to sensitivity and the LOD and LOQ, taken as the first point of the regression curve, ranged from 4 ppb to 65 ppb. The maximum mean RSD was below 13% and below 15% for intra- and inter-day assay, respectively, in all cases. PMID:15924320

  14. Effect of aqueous cigarette smoke extract on the chemiluminescence kinetics of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and on their glycolytic and phagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; Minucci, A; Stasio, E D; Carlino, P; Pagliari, G; Giardina, B; Sole, P D

    2001-01-01

    Water-soluble extracts of cigarette smoke are easily formed in some body compartments, such as saliva or fluid lining alveolar spaces, and can act on both cellular and extracellular compartments. In this paper we have analysed the effect of aqueous smoke extract on some metabolic and functional aspects of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In particular, the following cellular aspects were studied: chemiluminescence, glycolysis, membrane fluidity and microscopic interaction with zymosan particles. While chemiluminescence and glycolytic activity are highly inhibited, no effect of smoke extract on membrane fluidity was observed. Moreover, the response of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was significantly delayed, while that of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence was anticipated. Furthermore, the phagocytic ability of neutrophils pretreated with aqueous smoke extract was also significantly hindered. All these results might indicate that the finely tuned activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is somehow hampered by the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke in a way which makes these cells less effective against bacteria and more noxious towards surrounding tissues. PMID:11590703

  15. A novel polydopamine-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer method for microRNA detection coupling duplex-specific nuclease-aided target recycling strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2016-06-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, play significant regulatory roles in regulating gene expression and become as biomarkers for disease diagnostics and therapeutics. In this work, we have coupled a polydopamine (PDA) nanosphere-assisted chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) platform and a duplex-specific nuclease (DSN)-assisted signal amplification strategy to develop a novel method for specific miRNA detection. With the assistance of hemin, luminol, and H2O2, the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking G-rich sequence in the sensing probe produces chemiluminescence, which is quickly quenched by the CRET effect between PDA as energy acceptor and excited luminol as energy donor. The target miRNA triggers DSN to partially degrade the sensing probe in the DNA-miRNA heteroduplex to repeatedly release G-quadruplex formed by G-rich sequence from PDA for the production of chemiluminescence. The method allows quantitative detection of target miRNA in the range of 80pM-50nM with a detection limit of 49.6pM. The method also shows excellent specificity to discriminate single-base differences, and can accurately quantify miRNA in biological samples, with good agreement with the result from a commercial miRNA detection kit. The procedure requires no organic dyes or labels, and is a simple and cost-effective method for miRNA detection for early clinical diagnosis. PMID:26866561

  16. A novel sandwich electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Amin; Xiang, Hongkun; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Weiwei; Yuan, Enhui; Huang, Chusen; Jia, Nengqin

    2016-01-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres (Ag@BSA-luminol) for ultrasensitive detection of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) has been developed. Herein, magnetic carbon nanotubes (MAGCNTs) decorated with polyethylenimine (PEI) was used to construct the base of the immunosensor. MAGCNTs with prominent electrical conductivity and high surface area could be beneficial for promoting the electron transfer and loading plenty of primary antibodies (Ab1) via glutaraldehyde (GA). Meanwhile, the magnetic property of MAGCNTs makes it easy to be attached to the surface of magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE) through magnetism interaction, which provides an outstanding platform for this immunosensor. Moreover, Ag@BSA microspheres with large surface area, good stability, and excellent biocompatibility were desirable candidates for effective cross-link of CA19-9 detection antibodies (Ab2). A more interesting thing was that ELISA color reaction was used as an ultrasensitive strategy for identifying Ab2 was successfully coated on Ag@BSA with the naked eye. Additionally, we immobilized the luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA to prepare the target immunosensor. Immobilization of luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA could decrease the distance between luminophores and the electrode surface, leading to great enhancement of the ECL intensity of luminol in the present of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under the optimal conditions, the intensity of the ECL immunosensor increased linearly with the logarithm of CA19-9 concentration in a wide linear range from 0.0005 to 150UmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0002UmL(-1) (S/N=3). All the results suggested the prepared CA19-9 immunosensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and good specificity. The developed method opened a new avenue to clinical bioassay. PMID:26319163

  17. Chemiluminescence: a sensitive detection system in in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Musiani, M; Pasini, P; Zerbini, M; Roda, A; Gentilomi, G; Gallinella, G; Venturoli, S; Manaresi, E

    1998-01-01

    Chemiluminescence is the light emission produced by a chemical reaction in which chemically excited molecules decay to the ground state. The phenomenon is utilized in various analytical techniques in which small amounts of analytes or enzymes can be detected and quantified by measurement of the light emitted by bio- or chemiluminescent reactions. Recently chemiluminescence has been proposed as a valid alternative to radioactive or colorimetric methods in in situ hybridization assays, in which target nucleic acids are localized by labeled probes inside individual cells with the preservation of cell morphology. Chemiluminescence in situ hybridization is performed using probes that are detected using enzymes with their appropriate chemiluminescent substrates. The luminescent signal from the hybrid formation is detected, analysed and measured with a high performance low light level imaging apparatus connected to an optical microscope and to a personal computer for quantitative image analysis. Generally, the instrumental system to detect positive signals after in situ hybridization operates in three steps: firstly tissue structures and cells are recorded in transmitted light then the luminescent signal is measured with an optimized photon accumulation; and then, after a computer elaboration of the luminescent signal with pseudocolors corresponding to the light intensity, an overlay of the two images on the screen provided by the transmitted light and by the luminescent signal allows the spatial distribution of the labeled probe to be localized and evaluated. The main advantages of chemiluminescence in situ hybridization are mainly the sensitivity, the quantification of the data, the objectivity of the evaluation and the digital imaging of the results. The chemiluminescence in situ hybridization assay, which can be applied to cell smears, archival frozen and paraffin embedded tissue samples, can be a useful tool for a sensitive and specific diagnosis of viral infections and for the detection and study of specific genic sequences inside the cells. The use of the chemiluminescent in situ hybridization assay is also promising for an estimation and quantification of nucleic acids present in tissue samples or cellular smears and for imaging gene expression in cells. PMID:9476653

  18. Silver nanoparticle-based chemiluminescent sensor array for pesticide discrimination.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Xu, Bo; Li, Wenhao; Yu, Haili

    2015-03-25

    In this work, we developed a simple, facile, and highly sensitive nanoparticle-based chemiluminescent (CL) sensor array for the discrimination of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. This CL sensor array is based on simultaneous utilization of the triple-channel properties of the luminol-functionalized silver nanoparticle (Lum-AgNP) and H2O2 CL system containing CL intensity, the time for CL emissions to appear, and the time to reach the CL peak value, which are able to be measured via a single experiment. The triple-channel properties can be simultaneously altered after interaction with pesticides, producing distinct CL response patterns as "fingerprints" related to each specific pesticide, which was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) to generate a clustering map. Using this sensor array, five organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, including dimethoate, dipterex, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and carbofuran, have been well-distinguished at a concentration of 24 μg/mL. A total of 20 unknown pesticide samples have been successfully identified with an accuracy of 95%. The simple strategy of this study is expected to promote the development of functionalized nanomaterial-based sensor arrays. PMID:25751408

  19. Stimulus specific effect of ibuprofen on chemiluminescence of sheep neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Tahamont, M.V.; Margiotta, M.; Gee, M.H.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have shown that pretreatment with ibuprofen inhibits free radical release from complement stimulated neutrophils. To further examine the effect of ibuprofen on neutrophil free radical release, they stimulated neutrophils with the synthetic peptide, FMLP, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), or zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP). Pure (>95%), viable (>95%) sheep neutrophils (2 x 10/sup 6/) were placed in HEPES buffer, luminol, drug or vehicle and stimulated in the luminometer with one of the stimuli. The chemiluminescence (CL) response was recorded and the drug treated samples were compared to vehicle treated controls. Ibuprofen had a dose dependent effect on CL in ZAP stimulated neutrophils. At the highest dose (10/sup -2/M) these cells produced only 37 +/- 7% of the CL response observed in the control cells. In contrast, at the same dose, ibuprofen did not significantly attenuate CL seen in FMLP stimulated cells, with these cells producing 79 +/- 7% of the control cells; nor did ibuprofen effect PMA stimulated CL, as these cells produced a CL response that was 85 +/- 8% of the control cells. Ibuprofen appears to have a stimulus specific effect on free radical release in activated neutrophils. It is also apparent that ibuprofen inhibits complement stimulated free radical release by some mechanism independent of its cyclooxygenase inhibitory effect.

  20. 3D-printed and CNC milled flow-cells for chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Spilstead, Kara B; Learey, Jessica J; Doeven, Egan H; Barbante, Gregory J; Mohr, Stephan; Barnett, Neil W; Terry, Jessica M; Hall, Robynne M; Francis, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    Herein we explore modern fabrication techniques for the development of chemiluminescence detection flow-cells with features not attainable using the traditional coiled tubing approach. This includes the first 3D-printed chemiluminescence flow-cells, and a milled flow-cell designed to split the analyte stream into two separate detection zones within the same polymer chip. The flow-cells are compared to conventional detection systems using flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with the fast chemiluminescence reactions of an acidic potassium permanganate reagent with morphine and a series of adrenergic phenolic amines. PMID:24881540

  1. Comparison of chemiluminescence methods for analysis of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehrman, R.; Amme, M.; Cachoir, C.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of alpha radiolysis influence on the chemistry of geologically disposed spent fuel demands analytical methods for radiolytic product determination at trace levels. Several chemiluminescence methods for the detection of radiolytic oxidants hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are tested. Two of hydrogen peroxide methods use luminol, catalyzed by either μ-peroxidase or hemin, one uses 10-methyl-9-(p-formylphenyl)-acridinium carboxylate trifluoromethanesulfonate and one potassium periodate. All recipes are tested as batch systems in basic conditions. For hydroxyl radical detection luminophores selected are 3-hydroxyphthalic hydrazide and rutin. Both methods are tested as batch systems. The results are compared and the applicability of the methods for near-field dissolution studies is discussed.

  2. Developments and Applications of Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Sensors Based on Micro- and Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hazelton, Sandra G.; Zheng, Xingwang; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun; Pierce, David T.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of recent developments and applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) for sensors are described. While tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)-ruthenium(II) and luminol have dominated and continue to pervade the field of ECL-based sensors, recent work has focused on use of these lumophores with micro- and nanomaterials. It has also extended to inherently luminescent nanomaterials, such as quantum dots. Sensor configurations including microelectrode arrays and microfluidics are reviewed and, with the recent trend toward increased use of nanomaterials, special attention has been given to sensors which include thin films, nanoparticles and nanotubes. Applications of ECL labels and examples of label-free sensing that incorporate nanomaterials are also discussed.

  3. Simultaneous speciation of iron(II) and iron(III) by ion chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Chieh; Jian, Yu-Ling; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Yak, Hwa-Kwang

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on a method for the speciation of iron in aqueous samples by the simultaneous analysis of divalent and trivalent iron ions with ion chromatography equipped with chemiluminescence detection (IC-CLD). Ferrous and ferric ions are first chelated by pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) to form complexed anions, and separated by a mixed-bed ion-exchange column. The separated complexed ions are then detected with a CLD system containing luminol and hydrogen peroxide in a basic solution. This luminescence system has a linear dynamic range of ca. 3 orders of magnitude, with method detection limits as low as 7 g L(-1) for Fe(II) and 3 g L(-1) for Fe(III), measured in the simultaneous detection mode. This system resists interferences from common cations such as Cd, Ca, Cr, Cu, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Evaluation by analyzing real samples shows that this method is rapid, accurate, sensitive, and selective. PMID:22878635

  4. A paper-based chemiluminescence device for the determination of ofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Yumei; Li, Huifang; Zhao, Mei; Lai, Zesheng; Li, Baoxin

    2015-02-01

    Paper-based devices are biodegradable and have been used in diagnosis and environmental analysis field. In this work, a wax-printed paper-based analytical device combined with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence (CL) system for the determination of ofloxacin (OFLX) was presented. It was based on the enhancement of CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-OFLX system by AgNPs. Wax-printing fabrication technique was used to make the simple circle shaped paper device and large scale chips can be fabricated at the same time. Under the selected experimental conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentration of OFLX in the range from 1.0 × 10-9 g/mL to 1.0 × 10-6 g/mL with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10-10 g/mL. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of OFLX in eyedrop samples.

  5. Magnetic bead-sensing-platform-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer and its immunoassay application.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guoxin; Zhao, Shulin; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Jing; Ye, Fanggui

    2012-03-20

    A competitive immunoassay based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) on the magnetic beads (MBs) is developed for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). In this protocol, carboxyl-modified MBs were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled goat antihuman IgG (HRP-anti-IgG) and incubated with a limited amount of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled human IgG to immobilize the antibody-antigen immune complex on the surface of the MBs, which was further incubated with the target analyte (human IgG) for competitive immunoreaction and separated magnetically to remove the supernatant. The chemiluminescence (CL) buffer (containing luminol and H(2)O(2)) was then added, and the CRET from donor luminol to acceptor FITC in the immunocomplex on the surface of MBs occured immediately. The present protocol was evaluated for the competitive immunoassay of human IgG, and a linear relationship between CL intensity ratio (R = I(425)/I(525)) and human IgG concentration in the range of 0.2-4.0 nM was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.9965. The regression equation was expressed as R = 1.9871C + 2.4616, and a detection limit of 2.9 × 10(-11) M was obtained. The present method was successfully applied for the detection of IgG in human serum. The results indicate that the present protocol is quite promising for the application of CRET in immunoassays. It could also be developed for detection of other antigen-antibody immune complexes by using the corresponding antigens and respective antibodies. PMID:22339489

  6. Review of Chemiluminescence as an Optical Diagnostic Tool in High Pressure Unstable Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Tristan L.

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of optical absorption on line-of-sight integrated chemiluminescence measurements in high pressure rockets. The use of chemiluminescent emissions has been used in the past in an effort to characterise the flame reaction zone and the corresponding heat release, however most efforts have been with low pressure or atmospheric flames. Chemiluminescent measurements have been used in the case of the Continuously Variable Resonant Combustor (CVRC) in an attempt to validate a CFD simulation of the same system, although the CVRC operates at a higher pressure. For higher pressure flames it is unclear if such measurements are valid. To bridge the gap between the experimental and numerical data a spectroscopic model was created to study the validity of chemiluminescent based measurements in the CVRC. It was found that the CVRC combustion medium is optically opaque for the chemiluminescent emissions produced by OH* and optically transparent for the chemiluminescent emissions produced by CH*. Unfortunately, the emissions produced by CH* are largely influenced by the emissions produced by CO 2*. As such, both OH* and CH* are poor indicators of the heat release in the CVRC and therefore chemiluminescence measurements are not useful in validating the CVRC CFD simulation.

  7. Chemiluminescence Study on Thermal Degradation of Aircraft Tire Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, G. D.; Stanford, T. B.; Nathan, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Since the autoxidative process accounts in part for the degradation of rubber, including aircraft tires, it was felt that a study of the chemiluminescence from unsaturated elastomers could contribute significantly to an understanding of the degradation mechanism. The study revealed similarities in chemiluminescence behavior between four elastomers which were investigated, and it shows that similar oxidation mechanisms occur. Oxidative chemiluminescence was observed from purified samples of cis-1,4-polybutadiene, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, trans-polypentenamer, and 1,2-polybutadiene in an oxygen atmosphere at 25-150 C. The elastomer samples were placed in a 600 watt oven which is equipped with gas inlets for introducing any desired atmosphere. Chemiluminescence emission from the samples was focused with a two inch quartz lens onto the detector of a 12" photomultiplier which is connected to a photon counter. A strip-chart recorder, connected to the counter, permitted automatic data collection. Diagrams of the apparatus are included. The chemical reactions which occurred from the thermal decomposition of the polymer samples are described, and results (and tabulated data) are discussed.

  8. CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

  9. Modeling and analysis of chemiluminescence sensing for syngas, methane and Jet-A combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nori, Venkata Narasimham

    Flame chemiluminescence has received increasing attention for its potential sensor and diagnostic applications in combustors. A number of studies have used flame chemiluminescence to monitor flame status, and combustor performance. While most of these studies have been empirical in nature, chemiluminescence modeling has the potential to provide a better understanding of the chemiluminescence processes and their dependence on various combustion operating conditions. The primary objective of this research was to identify and validate the important chemiluminescence reaction mechanisms for OH*, CH* and CO2 *. To this end, measurements were performed at various operating conditions, primarily in laminar, premixed flames, fueled with methane, syngas (H 2/CO) and Jet-A. The results are compared to 1-d laminar flame simulations employing the chemiluminescence mechanisms. The secondary objective was to use the experiments and validated chemiluminescence reaction mechanisms to evaluate the usefulness of flame chemiluminescence as a combustion diagnostic, particularly for heat release rate and equivalence ratio. The validation studies were able to identify specific mechanisms for OH*, CH* and CO2* that produced excellent agreement with the experimental data in most cases. The mechanisms were able to predict the variation of the chemiluminescence signals with equivalence ratio but not with pressure and reactant preheat. The reasons causing this disagreement could be due to the inaccuracies in the basic chemical mechanism used in the simulations, lack of accurate quenching data (for CH*), thermal excitation (for OH*) and radiative trapping (for OH* and CO2*) and interference from the emissions of other species (such as HCO and H2O), for CO2*. Regarding the utility of chemiluminescence for sensing, a number of observations can be made. In syngas-air flames, CO2* is a reasonable heat release rate marker, at least for very lean conditions. OH* shows some advantage in atmospheric-pressure methane and Jet-A flames in general, while CH* is advantageous at high pressure and very lean conditions at atmospheric pressure. The CO 2*/OH* intensity ratio is not useful for sensing equivalence ratio in syngas flames, except maybe at very lean conditions. However, the CH*/OH* signal ratio is a promising approach for sensing equivalence ratio at low or very high pressure conditions in hydrocarbon flames. Thermal excitation and self-absorption processes for OH* chemiluminescence can become important for combustors operating at high pressure, high preheat and near stoichiometric conditions. Background subtracted chemiluminescence signals are recommended for sensing purposes.

  10. Electrochemiluminescence of luminol enhanced by the synergetic catalysis of hemin and silver nanoparticles for sensitive protein detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinya; Chai, Yaqin; Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-04-15

    A novel and ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor, which was based on the amplifying ECL of luminol by hemin-reduced graphene oxide (hemin-rGO) and Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated reduced graphene oxide (Ag-rGO), was constructed for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). For this proposed sandwich-type ECL immunosensor, Au nanoparticles electrodeposited (DpAu) onto hemin-rGO (DpAu/hemin-rGO) constructed the base of the immunosensor. DpAu had outstanding electrical conductivity to promote the electron transfer at the electrode interface and had good biocompatibility to load large amounts of primary antibody (Ab1), which provided an excellent platform for this immunosensor. Moreover, AgNPs and glucose oxidase (GOD) functionalized graphene labeled secondary antibody (Ag-rGO-Ab2-GOD) was designed as the signal probe for the sandwiched immunosensor. Not only did the hemin-rGO improve the electron transfer of the electrode surface, but hemin also further amplified the ECL signal of luminol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). With the aid of Ag-rGO-Ab2-GOD, enhanced signal was obtained by in situ generation of H2O2 and catalysis of AgNPs to ECL reaction of the luminol-H2O2 system. The as-prepared ECL immunosensor exhibited excellent analytical property for the detection of CEA in the range from 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 160 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 pg mL(-1) (SN(-1)=3). PMID:24240164

  11. Automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for a nonionic surfactant using a recycled spinning-pausing controlled washing procedure on a compact disc-type microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuai; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-02-01

    A fully automated and integrated chemiluminescence immunoassay, carried out on a compact disc (CD)-type microfluidic platform, for the detection of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APnEOs) is described. The pattern of the CD-type microchip was designed so as to permit the sequential solution delivery of the sample solution, the washing solution and the luminol solution, which are required in the chemiluminescence immunoassay process, along with a designed rotation program for spinning the CD-type microchip. The procedure for flowing the washing solution, the volume of which was limited on the CD-type microchip, was optimized by using a recycled spinning-pausing rotation program to overcome the non-specific adsorption of the horseradish peroxidase labeled APnEOs at the detection area. The detection limit of the immunoassay is about 10 ppb. PMID:25435234

  12. G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based chemiluminescence biosensing platform based on dual signal amplification for label-free and sensitive detection of protein.

    PubMed

    Zou, Pei; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Hongyong; Wu, Jun; Zhu, Feifan; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-15

    Detection of ultralow concentration of specific protein plays a key role in biotechnological applications and medical diagnostics. In this study, we demonstrate an amplified chemiluminescence biosensing platform for sensitive detection of protein. The biosensing platform ingeniously combines target-catalyzed hairpin assembly and Exo III-assisted signal amplification. A catalytic G-quadruplex-hemin DNAzyme is further employed to stimulate the generation of chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol and H2O2. These designs together allow a high sensitivity for the biotarget, human α-thrombin, resulting in a detection limit of 0.92pM, and it is much lower than previous reported studies. In addition, the proposed biosensing platform is versatile. By conjugating with various recognition units, it could be employed to sensitive detect various DNA-binding proteins and might find wide applications in biomedical fields. PMID:26686920

  13. Chemiluminescence from arylcarbene oxidation: Phenylchlorocarbene and (2-chlorophenyl)carbene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Wolfŕam W.

    Chemiluminescence is observed in the thermal reaction of phenylchlorocarbene or (2-chlorophenyl)carbene and O 2, matrix-isolated in Ar. The chemiluminescence spectra closely match the phosphorescence of the corresponding carbonyl compounds. The reactivity of both carbenes towards O 2 is very different. Singlet carbene phenylchlorocarbene reacts thermally only slowly with O 2 up to 60 K. The oxidation products phenylchloroformate, benzoyl chloride and O( 3P) are mainly formed photochemically on irradiation of the diazirine precursor. Triplet carbene (2-chlorophenyl)carbene reacts readily with O 2 at cryogenic temperatures to give mostly 2-chlorobenzaldehyde- O-oxide. The carbonyl-O-oxide is photochemically easily cleaved to give 2-chlorobenzaldehyde and O( 3P). The reaction step leading to carbonyl compounds in their excited states is in both carbene oxidations the recombination of the free carbene and O( 3P).

  14. Ozone chemiluminescent detection of olefins: Potential applications for real-time measurements of natural hydrocarbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Cunningham, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    A chemiluminescence analyzer has been constructed that takes advantage of the temperature dependence of the ozone-hydrocarbon reaction. When operated at a temperature of 170 C, the analyzer functions as a total nonmethane hydrocarbon analyzer with sensitivities 10--1,000 times better than a conventional FID. However, with operation at varying temperatures, the chemiluminescent signal reflects the differences in rates of reaction of the hydrocarbons with ozone. Preliminary studies at room temperature indicated that the relative rates of reaction of isoprene, {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, and limonene with ozone correlated with the observed chemiluminescence signal. When hydrocarbons are grouped in classes of similar structure, their rates of reaction with electrophilic atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH, O{sub 3}, NO{sub 3}) can be correlated with each other. By varying the temperature of the reaction chamber, the chemiluminescence analyzer can be tuned to more reactive classes of hydrocarbons. Therefore, the chemiluminescence analyzer has the ability to determine atmospheric hydrocarbon concentrations as a function of class and will also provide a measure of the atmospheric reactivity of the hydrocarbons.

  15. Investigation of singlet oxygen generation in Vit C-Cu2+ -LDL system by chemiluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Xing, Da; Tan, Shici; Tang, Yonghong; He, Yonghong

    2002-04-01

    In this study, by chemiluminescence method using a Cypridina luciferin analog, 2-methyl-6-(p-methoxyphenyl)-3,7- dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-one (MCLA), as a selective and sensitive chemiluminescence probe, singlet oxygen (1O2) formation was observed in the vit C- LDL-Cu2+ reaction system. Another experimental evidence for the generation of 1O2 was the quenching effect of sodium azide (NaN3) on vit C-induced chemiluminescence in the reaction mixture of LDL- Cu2+-MCLA. Analysis based on the experimental results indicated the plausible reaction mechanism is that vit C converts Cu2+ to its reduced state and vit C becomes vit C radical itself, thereby stimulating the formation of peroxyl radicals, and bimolecular reaction of peroxyl radicals results in 1O2 production in the above systems.

  16. Novel FIA chemiluminescence fiber optic biosensor for urinary and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Maurice V.; Luong, J. H. T.

    1993-05-01

    A chemiluminescence fiber optic biosensor system coupled to FIA was developed to measure glucose in bodily fluids. Glucose oxidase was immobilized on a preactivated nylon membrane and attached to the tip of a fiber optic bundle. This enzyme acts on (beta) -D-glucose to produce hydrogen peroxide which was then reacted with luminol in the presence of ferricyanide to produce a light signal. The sensitivity of the biosensor was determined to be 32 +/- 0.65 nV (mu) M-1 with a minimum detectable level of 5 (mu) M. The addition of a glucose oxidase column with a higher enzyme loading improved the sensitivity by at least 25-fold thus permitting the measurement of the lower glucose levels found in urine. The enzyme membrane could be reused for at least 50 analyses while the glucose oxidase column could be reused for over 500 analyses without losing the original activity. Endogenous ascorbate and urate usually present in urine samples which interfere with the chemiluminescence signal were effectively retained by an upstream ion exchange column. When applied for the determination of urinary and blood glucose levels, the results obtained compared well with those of the widely accepted hexokinase assay.

  17. Enhanced competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for the trace detection of insecticide triazophos.

    PubMed

    Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Gui, Wenjun; Shi, Xiaomei; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Guonian

    2012-05-01

    A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for triazophos was developed, which was based on the anti-THHe IgG monoclonal antibody and a heterogeneous enzyme tracer (THHu-HRP). Several components of chemiluminescent enhanced solution (CES) were optimized. The results showed that 1 mM of p-iodo-phenol, 0.625 mM of luminol, and 4 mM of H(2)O(2) had the best performance. Based on the study of CES, the influence of several factors (assay buffer, blocking substance, and solvent) on the immunoassay was investigated. The sensitivity for detection, IC(50) value was 0.87 ng/mL at a practical working concentration range between 0.04 ng/mL and 5 ng/mL and the limit of detection for triazophos was 0.063 ng/mL. The average recovery of triazophos added to lettuce, carrot, apple, water, and soil were 78.71%, 67.52%, 118.3%, 117.2%, and 122.0%, respectively. Finally, comparison between the methods of CLEIA and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrum (HPLC-MS/MS) was performed. The results obtained from CLEIA were in agreement with those of HPLC-MS/MS. PMID:22490114

  18. A magnetic particles-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid detection of ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Li; Ren, Hong-Lin; Li, Yan-Song; Hu, Pan; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Yan, Dong-Ming; Hui, Qi; Liu, Dong; Lin, Chao; Liu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Yan-Yan; Lu, Shi-Ying

    2014-08-15

    Egg allergy is an important public health and safety concern, so quantification and administration of food or vaccines containing ovalbumin (OVA) are urgently needed. This study aimed to establish a rapid and sensitive magnetic particles-chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MPs-CLEIA) for the determination of OVA. The proposed method was developed on the basis of a double antibodies sandwich immunoreaction and luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence system. The MPs served as both the solid phase and separator, the anti-OVA MPs-coated polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) were used as capturing antibody, and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) was taken as detecting antibody. The parameters of the method were evaluated and optimized. The established MPs-CLEIA method had a linear range from 0.31 to 100ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.24ng/ml. The assays showed low reactivities and less than 5% of intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation (CVs), and the average recoveries were between 92 and 97%. Furthermore, the developed method was applied in real samples analysis successfully, and the correlation coefficient with the commercially available OVA kit was 0.9976. Moreover, it was more rapid and sensitive compared with the other methods for testing OVA. PMID:24769049

  19. Using a large area CMOS APS for direct chemiluminescence detection in Western blotting electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Michela; Newcombe, Jane; Anaxagoras, Thalis; Allinson, Nigel M.; Wells, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Western blotting electrophoretic sequencing is an analytical technique widely used in Functional Proteomics to detect, recognize and quantify specific labelled proteins in biological samples. A commonly used label for western blotting is Enhanced ChemiLuminescence (ECL) reagents based on fluorescent light emission of Luminol at 425nm. Film emulsion is the conventional detection medium, but is characterized by non-linear response and limited dynamic range. Several western blotting digital imaging systems have being developed, mainly based on the use of cooled Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) and single avalanche diodes that address these issues. Even so these systems present key drawbacks, such as a low frame rate and require operation at low temperature. Direct optical detection using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Active Pixel Sensors (APS)could represent a suitable digital alternative for this application. In this paper the authors demonstrate the viability of direct chemiluminescent light detection in western blotting electrophoresis using a CMOS APS at room temperature. Furthermore, in recent years, improvements in fabrication techniques have made available reliable processes for very large imagers, which can be now scaled up to wafer size, allowing direct contact imaging of full size western blotting samples. We propose using a novel wafer scale APS (12.8 cm×13.2 cm), with an array architecture using two different pixel geometries that can deliver an inherently low noise and high dynamic range image at the same time representing a dramatic improvement with respect to the current western blotting imaging systems.

  20. Quantification of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in oranges and mandarins by chemiluminescent ELISA.

    PubMed

    Vdovenko, Marina M; Stepanova, Alexandra S; Eremin, Sergei A; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Uskova, Natalia A; Yu Sakharov, Ivan

    2013-11-15

    Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was developed. Varying the concentrations of monoclonal anti-2,4-D-antibody and the conjugate of soybean peroxidase and 2,4-D the conditions of ELISA performance were optimised. The chemiluminescent method based on peroxidase-catalysed oxidation of luminol was applied to measure the enzyme activity of the conjugate. A mixture of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)propane-1-sulfonate and 4-morpholinopyridine was used as potent enhancer of chemiluminescence signal. It was shown that the values of the lower detection limit, IC50 and the working range were 1.5, 64.0, and 6.5-545ng/mL, respectively. The recovery values of CL-ELISA from 10 spiked samples of oranges (n=5) and mandarins (n=5) cultivated in green house without use of 2,4-D and containing different 2,4-D concentrations (10-300ng/mL) were ranged from 92% to 104% that indicated on the absence of matrix effect for the fruit extracts of interest. Determination of 2,4-D in peel of five oranges and five mandarins purchased from stores in Vietnam showed that 2,4-D content in oranges fruits (79-104μg/kg) was significantly higher than that in mandarins (1.66-2.82μg/kg). PMID:23790860

  1. Highly sensitive luminol electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on ZnO nanoparticles and glucose oxidase decorated graphene for cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yinfeng; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Niu, Huan; Cao, Yaling; Liu, Huijing; Bai, Lijuan; Yuan, Yali

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we reported a sandwiched luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor using ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) decorated graphene as labels and in situ generated hydrogen peroxide as coreactant. In order to construct the base of the immunosensor, a hybrid architecture of Au nanoparticles and graphene by reduction of HAuCl(4) and graphene oxide (GO) with ascorbic acid was prepared. The resulted hybrid architecture modified electrode provided an excellent platform for immobilization of antibody with good bioactivity and stability. Then, ZnONPs and GOD functionalized graphene labeled secondary antibody was designed for fabricating a novel sandwiched ECL immunosensor. Enhanced sensitivity was obtained by in situ generating hydrogen peroxide with glucose oxidase and the catalysis of ZnONPs to the ECL reaction of luminol-H(2)O(2) system. The as-prepared ECL immunosensor exhibited excellent analytical property for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the range from 10 pg mL(-1) to 80 ng mL(-1) and with a detection limit of 3.3 pg mL(-1) (SN(-1)=3). The amplification strategy performed good promise for clinical application of screening of cancer biomarkers. PMID:22938618

  2. Unchanged NADPH Oxidase Activity in Nox1-Nox2-Nox4 Triple Knockout Mice: What Do NADPH-Stimulated Chemiluminescence Assays Really Detect?

    PubMed

    Rezende, Flávia; Löwe, Oliver; Helfinger, Valeska; Prior, Kim-Kristin; Walter, Maria; Zukunft, Sven; Fleming, Ingrid; Weissmann, Norbert; Brandes, Ralf P; Schröder, Katrin

    2016-03-01

    NADPH oxidases of the Nox family are considered important sources of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This conclusion is, in part, based on the ability of NADPH to elicit a chemiluminescence signal in tissue/cell homogenates or membrane preparations in the presence of enhancers such as lucigenin, luminol, or L012. However, the ability of these particular assays to specifically detect Nox activity and Nox-derived ROS has not been proven. In this study, we demonstrate that combined knockout of the three main Nox enzymes of the mouse (Nox1-Nox2-Nox4 triple knockout) had no impact on NADPH-stimulated chemiluminescence signals in the aorta, heart, and kidney homogenates. In the NADPH-stimulated membrane assays, no effect of in vivo angiotensin II pretreatment or deletion of Nox enzymes was observed. In in vitro studies in HEK293 cells, the overexpression of Nox5 or Nox4 markedly increased ROS production in intact cells, whereas overexpression of Nox5 or Nox4 had no influence on the signal in membrane assays. In contrast, overexpression of nitric oxide synthase or cytochrome P450 enzymes resulted in an increased chemiluminescence signal in isolated membranes. On the basis of these observations, we propose the hypothesis that NADPH-stimulated chemiluminescence-based membrane assays, as currently used, do not reflect Nox activity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 392-399. PMID:25906178

  3. Neutrophil Leukocyte: Combustive Microbicidal Action and Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil leukocytes protect against a varied and complex array of microbes by providing microbicidal action that is simple, potent, and focused. Neutrophils provide such action via redox reactions that change the frontier orbitals of oxygen (O2) facilitating combustion. The spin conservation rules define the symmetry barrier that prevents direct reaction of diradical O2 with nonradical molecules, explaining why combustion is not spontaneous. In burning, the spin barrier is overcome when energy causes homolytic bond cleavage producing radicals capable of reacting with diradical O2 to yield oxygenated radical products that further participate in reactive propagation. Neutrophil mediated combustion is by a different pathway. Changing the spin quantum state of O2 removes the symmetry restriction to reaction. Electronically excited singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*) is a potent electrophilic reactant with a finite lifetime that restricts its radius of reactivity and focuses combustive action on the target microbe. The resulting exergonic dioxygenation reactions produce electronically excited carbonyls that relax by light emission, that is, chemiluminescence. This overview of neutrophil combustive microbicidal action takes the perspectives of spin conservation and bosonic-fermionic frontier orbital considerations. The necessary principles of particle physics and quantum mechanics are developed and integrated into a fundamental explanation of neutrophil microbicidal metabolism. PMID:26783542

  4. Chemiluminescent Oscillating Demonstrations: The Chemical Buoy, the Lighting Wave, and the Ghostly Cylinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prypsztejn, Hernan E.; Mulford, Douglas R.; Stratton, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Oscillating reactions have been extensively used in chemical demonstrations. They involve several chemical concepts about kinetics, catalysts, and thermodynamics. The spontaneous cyclic color change of a solution is an attraction in any educational-level course. Chemiluminescent reactions are also among the most fascinating demonstrations and have…

  5. Chemiluminescent Oscillating Demonstrations: The Chemical Buoy, the Lighting Wave, and the Ghostly Cylinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prypsztejn, Hernan E.; Mulford, Douglas R.; Stratton, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Oscillating reactions have been extensively used in chemical demonstrations. They involve several chemical concepts about kinetics, catalysts, and thermodynamics. The spontaneous cyclic color change of a solution is an attraction in any educational-level course. Chemiluminescent reactions are also among the most fascinating demonstrations and have

  6. A rapid chemiluminescent method for quantitation of human DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, P S; Varlaro, J; Reynolds, R

    1992-01-01

    A sensitive and simple method for the quantitation of human DNA is described. This method is based on probe hybridization to a human alpha satellite locus, D17Z1. The biotinylated probe is hybridized to sample DNA immobilized on nylon membrane. The subsequent binding of streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase to the bound probe allows for chemiluminescent detection using a luminol-based reagent and X-ray film. Less than 150 pg of human DNA can easily be detected with a 15 minute exposure. The entire procedure can be performed in 1.5 hours. Microgram quantities of nonhuman DNA have been tested and the results indicate very high specificity for human DNA. The data on film can be scanned into a computer and a commercially available program can be used to create a standard curve where DNA quantity is plotted against the mean density of each slot blot signal. The methods described can also be applied to the very sensitive determination of quantity and quality (size) of DNA on Southern blots. The high sensitivity of this quantitation method requires the consumption of only a fraction of sample for analysis. Determination of DNA quantity is necessary for RFLP and many PCR-based tests where optimal results are obtained only with a relatively narrow range of DNA quantities. The specificity of this quantitation method for human DNA will be useful for the analysis of samples that may also contain bacterial or other non-human DNA, for example forensic evidence samples, ancient DNA samples, or clinical samples. Images PMID:1408822

  7. Characterization of chemiluminescence from singlet oxygen under laminar flow conditions in a micro-channel and its quenching with beverages.

    PubMed

    Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Fukumoto, Kazuaki; Nakajima, Riichiro; Yamashita, Kenichi; Maeda, Hideaki

    2007-04-30

    Singlet oxygen was generated by reaction of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide in a micro-channel. The two reagent solutions were delivered into the micro-channel by a syringe pump, providing a laminar flow liquid-liquid interface. The chemiluminescence from the singlet oxygen was emitted in the collapse of the interface due to molecular diffusion under laminar flow conditions. The chemiluminescence intensity was observed continuously and stably for each combination of reagents fed into the micro-channel; while, in the normal batch-type reactor the chemiluminescence peaks from singlet oxygen were observed within ca. 5s. The features of the chemiluminescence emitted under laminar flow conditions were examined by changing the concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide; the concentrations of 2.5mM sodium hypochlorite and 7.5mM hydrogen peroxide provided highest chemiluminescence intensities without bubble formation. Also, the effects of beverages, such as green tea, coffee, white wine, red wine, and sake (rice wine), on the chemiluminescence intensity as well as the concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide were examined. The chemiluminescence intensities observed with addition of the beverages to the reagents decreased in the following orders; green tea>coffee>red wine>rice wine>white wine (being added to sodium hypochlorite); coffee>white wine>green tea>red wine>rice wine (being added to hydrogen peroxide). It was found that coffee decreased the chemiluminescence intensity (ca. 33% chemiluminescence decrease) without altering the concentrations of sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide. The cause of the decrease in chemiluminescence with coffee is discussed. PMID:19071662

  8. Ultrasensitive immunoassay based on a pseudobienzyme amplifying system of choline oxidase and luminol-reduced Pt@Au hybrid nanoflowers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zhuo, Ying; Liao, Ni; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-12-01

    A multi-functional luminol-reduced Pt@Au hybrid flower-like nanocomposite (luminol-Pt@AuNF) which not only acts as an efficient signal probe but also constitutes a pseudobienzyme amplifying system with choline oxidase (ChOx) was firstly synthesized and applied to the construction of a solid-state luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) detection. PMID:25313990

  9. Chemiluminescence system for direct determination and mapping of ultra-trace metal impurities on a silicon wafer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Romertta; Sung, Y I; Lee, J S; Lim, H B

    2010-11-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) system which consumed low sample and reagent volumes in the microlitre range was developed for direct determination and mapping of ultra-trace metal contaminants on solid surfaces, such as silicon wafers or flat display panels. The analytical result of the system was confirmed with ICP-MS. The system was composed of a scanner, sensor and a wafer moving stage. The scanner, with a scanning tip made of 0.03'' i.d. PTFE tubing, was used to collect metal impurities on the wafer surface with 5 μL of scanning solution. A coaxial sensing head of about 13 mm o.d. and 110 mm height was designed both to inject a luminescent reagent of luminol-H(2)O(2) mixture and to collect the luminescence light resulting from the reaction with metal ions of Co(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+). Due to the almost zero background, an extremely low limit of detection of 20.8 pg/mL for Co(2+) in 1% hydrofluoric acid (HF) was obtained from the calibration curve. In order to map the spatial distribution of the impurities, 11 cross sections of a Co-contaminated wafer were selected and scanned individually with a diluted HF solution. A contaminant level of 1.45-7.11 × 10(11) atoms cm(-2) was obtained for each section with an average of 4.21 × 10(11) atoms cm(-2), which was similar to the analytical result of 5.48 × 10(11) atoms cm(-2) obtained from vapor phase deposition-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (VPD-ICP-MS). Although this CL system does not have selectivity for each specific metal ion, its high sensitivity facilitates the monitoring and mapping of metal impurities of Co, Fe, Cu, etc. on the wafer directly and it can be used as an on-line inspection sensor for the first time in the semiconductor industry. PMID:20871885

  10. Chemiluminescence from bamboo shoot cut.

    PubMed

    Totsune, H; Nakano, M; Inaba, H

    1993-08-16

    Bamboo shoot cut emitted weak light, which could be visualized with a two dimensional imaging system. A water extract of bamboo shoot contained tyrosine (a major component of total amino acids), bityrosine and peroxidase. Bamboo shoot peroxidase-H2O2-tyrosine system also emitted weak light with maxima at 490nm, 530nm and longer wavelength, identical to that in horseradish peroxidase-H2O2 system. Judging from these results, chemiluminescence from bamboo shoot cut might be originated from excited species generated by enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine and bityrosine. PMID:8394697

  11. A novel strategy for synthesis of hollow gold nanosphere and its application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xia; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-10-01

    Well-distributed hollow gold nanospheres (Aushell@GOD) (20 ± 5 nm) were synthesized using the glucose oxidase (GOD) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde as a template. A glucose biosensor was prepared based on Aushell@GOD nanospheres for catalyzing luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL). Firstly, chitosan was modified in a glassy carbon electrode which offered an interface of abundant amino-groups to assemble Aushell@GOD nanospheres. Then, glucose oxidase was adsorbed on the surface of Aushell@GOD nanospheres via binding interactions between Aushell and amino groups of GOD to construct a glucose biosensor. The Aushell@GOD nanospheres were investigated with TEM and UV-vis. The ECL behaviors of the biosensor were also investigated. Results showed that, the obtained Aushell@GOD nanospheres exhibited excellent catalytic effect towards the ECL of luminol-H2O2 system. The response of the prepared biosensor to glucose was linear with the glucose concentration in the range of 1.0 μM to 4.3mM (R=0.9923) with a detection limit of 0.3 μM (signal to noise=3). This ECL biosensor exhibited short response time and excellent stability for glucose. At the same time the prepared ECL biosensor showed good reproducibility, sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:25059123

  12. Aptamer-based detection and quantitative analysis of human immunoglobulin E in capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ming; Cao, Jun-Tao; Liu, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zhou, Min; Huang, Ke-Jing; Chen, Yong-Hong; Ren, Shu-Wei

    2015-10-01

    A novel aptamer-based CE with chemiluminescence (CL) assay was developed for highly sensitive detection of human immunoglobulin E (IgE). The IgE aptamer was conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form AuNPs-aptamer that could specifically recognize the IgE to produce an AuNPs-aptamer-IgE complex. The mixture of the AuNPs-aptamer-IgE complex and the unbounded AuNPs-aptamer could be effectively separated by CE and sensitively detected with luminol-H2 O2 CL system. By taking the advantage of the excellent catalytic behavior of AuNPs on luminol-H2 O2 CL system, the ultrasensitive detection of IgE was achieved. The detection limit of IgE is 7.6 fM (S/N = 3) with a linear range from 0.025 to 250 pM. Successful detection of IgE in human serum samples was demonstrated and the recoveries of 94.9-103.2% were obtained. The excellent assay features of the developed approach are its specificity, sensitivity, adaptability, and very small sample consumption. Our design provides a methodology model for determination of rare proteins in biological samples. PMID:26095306

  13. Microfluidic enzyme immunosensors with immobilised protein A and G using chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Yakovleva, Julia; Davidsson, Richard; Bengtsson, Martin; Laurell, Thomas; Emnéus, Jenny

    2003-10-30

    Affinity proteins were covalently immobilised on silicon microchips with overall dimensions of 13.1 x 3.2 mm, comprising 42 porous flow channels of 235 microm depth and 25 microm width, and used to develop microfluidic immunosensors based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP), catalysing the chemiluminescent oxidation of luminol/p-iodophenol (PIP). Different hydrophilic polymers with long flexible chains (polyethylenimine (PEI), dextran (DEX), polyvinyl alcohol, aminodextran) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) were employed for modification of the silica surfaces followed by attachment of protein A or G. The resulting immunosensors were compared in an affinity capture assay format, where the competition between the labelled antigen and the analyte for antibody-binding sites took place in the bulk of the solution. The formed immunocomplexes were then trapped by the microchip affinity capture support and the amount of bound tracer was monitored by injection of luminol, PIP and H2O2. All immunosensors were capable of detecting atrazine at the sub-microg l(-1) level. The most sensitive assays were obtained with PEI and DEX polymer modified supports and immobilised protein G, with limits of detection of 0.006 and 0.010 microg l(-1), and IC50 values of 0.096 and 0.130 microg l(-1), respectively. The protein G based immunosensors were regenerated with 0.4 M glycine-HCl buffer pH 2.2, with no loss of activity observed for a storage and operating period of over 8 months. To estimate the applicability of the immunosensors to the analysis of real samples, PEI and DEX based protein G microchips were used to detect atrazine in surface water and fruit juice, spiked with known amounts of the atrazine, giving recovery values of 87-102 and 88-124% at atrazine fortification levels of 0.5-3 and 80-240 microg l(-1), respectively. PMID:14558995

  14. Switch-on fluorescence scheme for antibiotics based on a magnetic composite probe with aptamer and hemin/G-quadruplex coimmobilized nano-Pt-luminol as signal tracer.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yang-Bao; Gan, Ning; Ren, Hong-Xia; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Chen, Yinji

    2016-01-15

    A selective and facile fluorescence "switch-on" scheme is developed to detect antibiotics residues in food, using chloramphenicol (CAP) as model, based on a novel magnetic aptamer probe (aptamer-Pt-luminol nanocomposite labeled with hemin/G-quadruplex). Firstly, the composite probe is prepared through the immuno-reactions between the capture beads (anti-dsDNA antibody labeled on magnetic Dynabeads) and the nanotracer (nano-Pt-luminol labeled with double-strand aptamer, as ds-Apt, and hemin/G-quadruplex). When the composite probe is mixed with CAP, the aptamer preferentially reacted with CAP to decompose the double-strand aptamer to ssDNA, which cannot be recognized by the anti-dsDNA antibody on the capture probes. Thus, after magnetic separation, the nanotracer can be released into the supernatant. Because the hemin/G-quadruplex and PtNPs in nanotracer can catalyze luminol-H2O2 system to emit fluorescence. Thus a dual-amplified "switch-on" signal appeared, of which intensity is proportional to the concentration of CAP between 0.001 and 100ng mL(-1) with detection limit of 0.0005ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). Besides, our method has good selectivity and was employed for CAP detection in real milk samples. The results agree well with those from conventional gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The switch-on signal is produced by one-step substitution reaction between aptamer in nanotracer and target. When the analyte is changed, the probe can be refabricated only by changing the corresponding aptamer. Thus, all features above prove our strategy to be a facile, feasible and selective method in antibiotics screening for food safety. PMID:26592610

  15. Analytical Applications of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W. (Editor); Picciolo, G. L. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Bioluminescence and chemiluminescence studies were used to measure the amount of adenosine triphosphate and therefore the amount of energy available. Firefly luciferase - luciferin enzyme system was emphasized. Photometer designs are also considered.

  16. HALOCARBON INTERFERENCES IN CHEMILUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS OF NOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anomalous NOx responses were observed when halocarbons were irradiated in the presence of oxides of nitrogen. Interferences to chemiluminescent NOx monitor using heated carbon converter were studied for phosgene, tri-chloroacetyl chloride, chloroform, chlorine, and hydrochloric a...

  17. Evaluation and Comparison of Chemiluminescence and UV Photometric Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O3) that may be p...

  18. Flame Chemiluminescence Rate Constants for Quantitative Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luque, Jorge; Smith, Gregory P.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Crosley, David R.; Weiland, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Absolute excited state concentrations of OH(A), CH(A), and C2(d) were determined in three low pressure premixed methane-air flames. Two dimensional images of chemiluminescence from these states were recorded by a filtered CCD camera, processed by Abel inversion, and calibrated against Rayleigh scattering, Using a previously validated 1-D flame model with known chemistry and excited state quenching rate constants, rate constants are extracted for the reactions CH + O2 (goes to) OH(A) + CO and C2H + O (goes to) CH(A) + CO at flame temperatures. Variations of flame emission intensities with stoichiometry agree well with model predictions.

  19. Applications of Nanomaterials in Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Honglan; Peng, Yage; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2009-01-01

    Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (also called electrochemiluminescence and abbreviated ECL) involves the generation of species at electrode surfaces that then undergo electron-transfer reactions to form excited states that emit light. ECL biosensor, combining advantages offered by the selectivity of the biological recognition elements and the sensitivity of ECL technique, is a powerful device for ultrasensitive biomolecule detection and quantification. Nanomaterials are of considerable interest in the biosensor field owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, which have led to novel biosensors that have exhibited high sensitivity and stability. Nanomaterials including nanoparticles and nanotubes, prepared from metals, semiconductor, carbon or polymeric species, have been widely investigated for their ability to enhance the efficiencies of ECL biosensors, such as taking as modification electrode materials, or as carrier of ECL labels and ECL-emitting species. Particularly useful application of nanomaterials in ECL biosensors with emphasis on the years 2004-2008 is reviewed. Remarks on application of nanomaterials in ECL biosensors are also surveyed. PMID:22389624

  20. Speciation of As(III)/As(V) in water samples by a magnetic solid phase extraction based on Fe₃O₄/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide nano-hybrid followed by chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Talleb, Zeynab

    2014-10-01

    A novel magnetic solid phase extraction method was developed for the speciation of As(III)/As(V) in aqueous solutions utilizing Fe3O4-doped Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) as a nano-sorbent. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of As(V) by Fe3O4/Mg-Al LDH nano-hybrid prior to determination by a chemiluminescence (CL) technique. The CL route involves the oxidation of luminol by vanadomolybdoarsenate heteropoly acid in a basic media. Since the existing cations cannot be adsorbed by positively charged layers of the LDH and other potentially interferent anions had no considerable effect on the CL reaction, it provides a very selective and sensitive determination approach for As(V). The determination of total arsenic and hence indirectly As(III) involve the pre-oxidation of As(III) to As(V) by a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide. Several factors affecting the extraction and determination of the analyte were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 5.0-5000 ng L(-1). The limit of detection and enrichment factor was 2.0 ng L(-1) and 80, respectively. The method was validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (NIST SRM 1643e), and successfully applied to the speciation of arsenic in several water samples with recoveries in the range of 93.3-106.7% for the spiked samples. PMID:25059142

  1. Chemiluminescence Detection of Nitric Oxide from Roots, Leaves, and Root Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wany, Aakanksha; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Kumari, Aprajita; Gupta, Shika; Mishra, Sonal; Jaintu, Ritika; Pathak, Pradeep K; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2016-01-01

    NO is a free radical with short half-life and high reactivity; due to its physiochemical properties it is very difficult to detect the concentrations precisely. Chemiluminescence is one of the robust methods to quantify NO. Detection of NO by this method is based on reaction of nitric oxide with ozone which leads to emission of light and amount of light is proportional to NO. By this method NO can be measured in the range of pico moles to nano moles range. Using direct chemiluminescence method, NO emitted into the gas stream can be detected whereas using indirect chemiluminescence oxidized forms of NO can also be detected. We detected NO using purified nitrate reductase, mitochondria, cell suspensions, and roots; detail measurement method is described here. PMID:27094407

  2. A kinetic study of the enhancement of solution chemiluminescence of glyoxylic acid oxidation by manganese species.

    PubMed

    Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Abdel-Mageed, Amal; Agater, Irena B; Jewsbury, Roger A

    2015-08-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the enhancement of solution chemiluminescence, the kinetics of the decay of the oxidant and the chemiluminescence emission were followed for oxidations by permanganate, manganese dioxide sol and Mn(3+) (aq) of glyoxylic acid, using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. Results are reported for the glyoxylic acid oxidized under pseudo first-order conditions and in an acidic medium at 25?C. For permanganate under these conditions, the decay is sigmoidal, consistent with autocatalysis, and for manganese dioxide sol and Mn(3+) it is pseudo first order. The effects of the presence of aqueous formaldehyde and Mn(2+) were observed and a fit to a simple mechanism is discussed. It is concluded that chemiluminescent enhancement in these systems is best explained by reaction kinetics. PMID:25223402

  3. Storable, thermally activated, near-infrared chemiluminescent dyes and dye-stained microparticles for optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumes, Jeffrey M.; Gassensmith, Jeremiah J.; Giblin, Jay; Lee, Jung-Jae; White, Alexander G.; Culligan, William J.; Leevy, W. Matthew; Kuno, Masaru; Smith, Bradley D.

    2010-12-01

    Imaging techniques are a vital part of clinical diagnostics, biomedical research and nanotechnology. Optical molecular imaging makes use of relatively harmless, low-energy light and technically straightforward instrumentation. Self-illuminating, chemiluminescent systems are particularly attractive because they have inherently high signal contrast due to the lack of background emission. Currently, chemiluminescence imaging involves short-lived molecular species that are not stored but are instead generated in situ, and they typically emit visible light, which does not penetrate far through heterogeneous biological media. Here, we describe a new paradigm for optical molecular imaging using squaraine rotaxane endoperoxides, interlocked fluorescent and chemiluminescent dye molecules that have a squaraine chromophore encapsulated inside a macrocycle endoperoxide. Squaraine rotaxane endoperoxides can be stored indefinitely at temperatures below -20 °C, but upon warming to body temperature they undergo a unimolecular chemical reaction and emit near-infrared light that can pass through a living mouse.

  4. A simple and compact smartphone accessory for quantitative chemiluminescence-based lateral flow immunoassay for salivary cortisol detection.

    PubMed

    Zangheri, Martina; Cevenini, Luca; Anfossi, Laura; Baggiani, Claudio; Simoni, Patrizia; Di Nardo, Fabio; Roda, Aldo

    2015-02-15

    We have developed a simple and accurate biosensor based on a chemiluminescent (CL)-lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) method integrated in a smartphone to quantitatively detect salivary cortisol. The biosensor is based on a direct competitive immunoassay using peroxidase-cortisol conjugate, detected by adding the chemiluminescent substrate luminol/enhancer/hydrogen peroxide. The smartphone camera is used as light detector, for image acquisition and data handling via a specific application. We 3D-printed simple accessories to adapt the smartphone. The system comprises a cartridge, which houses the LFIA strip, and a smartphone adaptor with a plano-convex lens and a cartridge-insertion slot. This provides a mini-darkbox and aligned optical interface between the camera and the LFIA membrane for acquiring CL signals. The method is simple and fast, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/mL. It provides quantitative analysis in the range of 0.3-60 ng/mL, which is adequate for detecting salivary cortisol in the clinically accepted range. It could thus find application in the growing area of home-self-diagnostic device technology for clinical biomarker monitoring, overcoming the current difficulties in achieving sensitive and quantitative information with conventional systems taking the advantage of smartphone connectivity and the enhanced performance of the included camera. PMID:25194797

  5. Chemiluminescent method for detection of eutrophication sources by estimation of organic amino nitrogen and ammonium in water.

    PubMed

    Meseguer-Lloret, S; Molins-Legua, C; Verdú-Andrés, J; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2006-11-01

    An automatic method has been developed for the estimation of organic amino nitrogen (CH2-NH) and ammonium in water samples. We propose a continuous flow system in which nitrogen compounds react with hypochlorite reagent to produce chloramines. Subsequently, the mixture is mixed with luminol, generating a chemiluminescence signal. The signal emission at 425 nm, registered as a function of time, decreases as nitrogen concentration increases, due to the decrease on hypochlorite concentration. A large number of nitrogen compounds have been assayed and their sensitivities compared, in milligrams per liter nitrogen. The ammonium calibration graph, expressed as N, can be used for most of the assayed compounds. The linear interval was 0.24-4 mg L(-1) N, with the detection limit 0.07 mg L(-1) N. The chemiluminescence method was applied to the analysis of several kinds of real water samples, natural, lake, irrigation ditch, fountain, residual, and seawater in order to detect possible sources of eutrophication. The accuracy (% relative error) and precision were satisfactory, with mean values of 5 +/- 4 and 3 +/- 2, respectively. This procedure has been used to estimate nitrogen content in samples before and after Kjeldahl treatment. In the same samples, the N found for the untreated samples provided a good estimation of the N Kjeldahl. Sixty samples per hour can be analyzed, and the procedure can also be used for in situ monitoring. PMID:17073419

  6. Comparison of Chemiluminescence vs. Infrared Techniques for Detection of Fetuin-A in Saliva.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Suresh T; Graff, Emily; Judd, Robert L; Kothari, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The western blotting technique for transfer and detection of proteins, named following the discovery of southern and northern blotting for DNA- and RNA-blotting, respectively, has traditionally relied on the use of X-ray films to capture chemiluminescence. Recent advancements use super-cooled charge coupled devices (CCD) cameras to capture both chemiluminescence and fluorescence images, which exhibit a greater dynamic range compared to traditional X-ray film. Chemiluminescence detected by a CCD camera records photons and displays an image based on the amount of light generated as a result of a dynamic chemical reaction. Fluorescent detection with a CCD camera, on the other hand, is measured in a static state. Despite this advantage, researchers continue to widely use chemiluminescent detection methods due to the generally poor performance of fluorophores in the visible spectrum. Infrared imaging systems offer a solution to the dynamic reactions of chemiluminescence and the poor performance of fluorophores detected in the visible spectrum, by imaging fluorophores in the infrared spectrum. Infrared imaging is static, has a wide linear range, high sensitivity, and reduced autofluorescence and light scatter. A distinct advantage of infrared imaging is the ability to detect two target proteins simultaneously on the same blot which increases accuracy of quantification and comparison, while minimizing the need for stripping and reprobing. Here, we compare the methodology for chemiluminescent (UVP BioChemi) and infrared (UVP Odyssey) detection of salivary total and phosphorylated fetuin-A, a multifunctional protein associated with cardio-metabolic risk, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these methodologies. PMID:26139281

  7. Human saliva-based quantitative monitoring of clarithromycin by flow injection chemiluminescence analysis: a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua

    2014-02-01

    Human saliva quantitative monitoring of clarithromycin (CLA) by chemiluminescence (CL) with flow injection analysis was proposed for the first time, which was based on the quenching effect of CLA on luminol-bovine serum albumin (BSA) CL system with a linear range from 7.5 × 10(-4) to 2.0 ng/ml. This proposed approach, offering a maximum sample throughput of 100 h(-1), was successfully applied to the quantitative monitoring of CLA levels in human saliva during 24 h after a single oral dose of 250 mg intake, with recoveries of 95.2 ∼ 109.0% and relative standard deviations lower than 6.5 % (N = 7). Results showed that CLA reached maximum concentration of 2.28 ± 0.02 μg/ml at approximately 3 h, and the total elimination ratio was 99.6 % in 24 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters including absorption rate constant (0.058 ± 0.006 h(-1)), elimination rate constant (0.149 ± 0.009 h(-1)) and elimination half-life time (4.66 ± 0.08 h) were obtained. A comparison of human saliva and urine monitoring was also given. The mechanism study of BSA-CLA interaction revealed the binding of CLA to BSA is an entropy driven and spontaneous process through hydrophobic interaction, with binding constant K BSA-CLA of 4.78 × 10(6) l/mol and the number of binding sites n of 0.82 by flow injection-chemiluminescence model. Molecular docking analysis further showed CLA might be in subdomain IIA of BSA, with K BSA-CLA of 6.82 × 10(5) l/mol and ΔG of -33.28 kJ/mol. PMID:24166104

  8. STUDY OF INTERFERENCES IN OZONE UV AND CHEMILUMINESCENCE MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to examine interferences and other measurement anomalies in chemiluminescence and ultraviolet ozone monitors. revious results had shown that there was a positive deviation in the chemiluminescence monitors and no direct interference with ultraviolet monitors...

  9. Selective Detection of Neurotransmitters by Fluorescence and Chemiluminescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ziqiang Wang; Edward S. Yeung

    2001-08-06

    In recent years, luminescence imaging has been widely employed in neurochemical analysis. It has a number of advantages for the study of neuronal and other biological cells: (1) a particular molecular species or cellular constituent can be selectively visualized in the presence of a large excess of other species in a heterogeneous environment; (2) low concentration detection limits can be achieved because of the inherent sensitivity associated with fluorescence and chemiluminescence; (3) low excitation intensities can be used so that long-term observation can be realized while the viability of the specimen is preserved; and (4) excellent spatial resolution can be obtained with the light microscope so subcellular compartments can be identified. With good sensitivity, temporal and spatial resolution, the flux of ions and molecules and the distribution and dynamics of intracellular species can be measured in real time with specific luminescence probes, substrates, or with native fluorescence. A noninvasive detection scheme based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymatic assay combined with microscopy was developed to measure the glutamate release in cultured cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The enzyme reaction is very specific and sensitive. The detection limit with CCD imaging is down to {micro}M levels of glutamate with reasonable response time. They also found that chemiluminescence associated with the ATP-dependent reaction between luciferase and luciferin can be used to image ATP at levels down to 10 nM in the millisecond time scale. Similar imaging experiments should be feasible in a broad spectrum of biological systems.

  10. Dual-signal amplification strategy for ultrasensitive chemiluminescence detection of PDGF-BB in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun-Tao; Wang, Hui; Ren, Shu-Wei; Chen, Yong-Hong; Liu, Yan-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Many efforts have been made toward the achievement of high sensitivity in capillary electrophoresis coupled with chemiluminescence detection (CE-CL). This work describes a novel dual-signal amplification strategy for highly specific and ultrasensitive CL detection of human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) using both aptamer and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified gold nanoparticles (HRP-AuNPs-aptamer) as nanoprobes in CE. Both AuNPs and HRP in the nanoprobes could amplify the CL signals in the luminol-H2 O2 CL system, owing to the excellent catalytic behavior of AuNPs and HRP in the CL system. Meanwhile, the high affinity of aptamer modified on the AuNPs allows detection with high specificity. As proof-of-concept, the proposed method was employed to quantify the concentration of PDGF-BB from 0.50 to 250 fm with a detection limit of 0.21 fm. The applicability of the assay was further demonstrated in the analysis of PDGF-BB in human serum samples with acceptable accuracy and reliability. The result of this study exhibits distinct advantages, such as high sensitivity, good specificity, simplicity, and very small sample consumption. The good performances of the proposed strategy provide a powerful avenue for ultrasensitive detection of rare proteins in biological sample, showing great promise in biochemical analysis. PMID:26031509

  11. Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chemiluminescence immunodevice with the signal amplification strategy for sensitive detection of human immunoglobin G.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifang; Zhao, Mei; Liu, Wei; Chu, Weiru; Guo, Yumei

    2016-01-15

    A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chemiluminescence (CL) immunodevice for sensitive detection of human immunoglobin G (IgG) with the signal amplification strategy was developed in this work. The immunodevice was prepared by covalently immobilizing capture antibodies (Abs) on the silanized microchannel of microfluidic chip. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with a high molar ratio of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used as an Ab label for signal amplification. Using a sandwich immunoassay, the multi-HRP conjugated AuNPs can catalyze the luminol-H2O2 CL system to achieve the high sensitivity. In addition, the double spiral flow-channel was adopted here, which can still contribute to the high sensitivity. Based on signal amplification strategy, the performance of human IgG tests revealed a lower detection limit (DL) of 0.03ng/mL and showed an increase of 7.4-fold in detection sensitivity compared to a commercial Ab-HRP conjugation. This microfluidic immunodevice can provide an alternative approach for sensitive detection of human IgG in the field of clinic diagnostic and therapeutic. PMID:26592629

  12. Determination of melamine by flow injection analysis based on chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hua-Jin; Yang, Ran; Wang, Qing-Wen; Li, Jian-Jun; Qu, Ling-Bo

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, based upon the phenomenon that melamine can obviously enhance the CL signal of the luminol-H(2)O(2) system in basic medium, a simple, rapid and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method for the determination of melamine has been developed. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range for the determination of melamine was 0.2-80μgmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.12μgmL(-1) calculated as proposed by IUPAC and a relative standard deviation of 3.26% for 11 solutions of 10μgmL(-1) melamine on the same day. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to determine melamine in milk-based products and satisfactory results were obtained without interferences from the sample matrix. Moreover, one assay produce takes only 25s and the minimum sampling rate is about 120 samplesh(-1), which indicated that the FI-CL method was suitable for high throughput and real-time melamine analysis. PMID:23140744

  13. Low-level chemiluminescent analysis of nondiluted human blood reveals its dynamic system properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeikov, Vladimir L.; Novikov, Cyril N.; Vilenskaya, Natalia D.

    1999-01-01

    Lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence [(LC- CL) and (LM-CL)] in nondiluted human blood was studied. LM-CL was low in fresh blood and disappeared after its storage for 3 h, though the respiratory burst (RB) stimulated in blood was followed by high intensity and long- lasting LM-CL. LC-CL was high in fresh blood and was steadily increasing with blood storage. Blood dilution with saline resulted in LC-CL attenuation and LM-CL elevation. LC-CL did not depend on air supply to blood, while LM-CL elevation during RB needed constant blood aeration. The results suggest that besides a well-known mechanism of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils during RB, another process of electron excited state generation reflected by LC-CL operates in blood. It needs blood integrity for its manifestation and uses oxygen supplied by erythrocytes. Dynamic system properties of blood were revealed also in experiments with blood transfer from one sample to another in the course of RB. Highly nonlinear changes of CL intensity both in a `donor' and in a `recipient' sample resulted in strong differences in CL levels in two samples, one of which was prepared by blood subtraction, and another by blood addition. We suggest that CL data from measurements on nondiluted blood may be informative of integrative properties of blood tissue in addition to its being a measure of some sort of oxidative metabolism in it.

  14. A simple and rapid chemiluminescence aptasensor for acetamiprid in contaminated samples: Sensitivity, selectivity and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yingying; Xiu, Fu-Rong; Zheng, Minfeng; Li, Baoxin

    2016-09-15

    Ultralow concentration and selective detection of pesticide residue is important to evaluate the environmental and biological pollution and the threat to human health which single component pesticide can bring. Herein, we report an amplified chemiluminescence (CL) sensing platform for ultrasensitive and selective acetamiprid (widely used pesticide) detection. It is based on aptamer's high binding affinity to target and the relevance between AuNPs' morphology and its catalytic effect to stimulate the generation of CL in the presence of H2O2 and luminol. Moreover, AuNPs morphological slight change induced by aptamers' conformation during targets binding could lead to the significant change of catalytic properties. Therefore, the proposed sensing platform for pesticide residue exhibited a high sensitivity toward acetamiprid with a detection limit of 62pM, which was about 100-fold lower than that of other aptamer-based sensor for acetamiprid detection. Because of the intrinsic specificity of aptamer's recognization, this sensing platform has high selectivity. So, this sensing platform provides a label-free and cost-effective approach for sensitive and selective detection of single component pesticide residue. More importantly, this CL method was successfully used to determine acetamiprid in real contaminated samples. PMID:27131997

  15. Gold nanorods-enhanced rhodamine B-permanganate chemiluminescence and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Javad; Amjadi, Mohammad; Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-04-01

    A novel enhanced chemiluminescence system was developed by applying gold nanorods (Au NRs) as catalysts in rhodamine B-permanganate reaction. Au NRs with three different aspect ratios were synthesized by seed mediated growth method and characterized by UV-Vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that Au NRs have much higher catalytic effect than spherical nanoparticles on rhodamine B-permanganate chemiluminescence reaction. Among various sizes of Au NRs, those with average aspect ratio of 3.0 were found to have the most remarkable catalytic activity. As an analytical application of the new chemiluminescence system, albumin as a model protein was quantified based on its interaction with NRs. Albumin binds to Au NRs active surfaces and inhibits their catalytic action and therefore decreases the intensity of chemiluminescence. This diminution effect is linearly related to the concentration of the human and bovine serum albumin over the ranges of 0.45-90 and 0.75-123 nmol L-1, respectively with the corresponding limits of detection of 0.18 and 0.30 nmol L-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of albumin in human and bovine serum samples.

  16. Plant tissue-based chemiluminescence flow biosensor for determination of unbound dopamine in rabbit blood with on-line microdialysis sampling.

    PubMed

    Li, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhujun; Jin, Yan

    2002-06-01

    A novel plant tissue-based chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor for dopamine combined with flow injection analysis is presented in this paper. The potato roots act as molecular recognition elements. Dopamine is oxidized by oxygen under the catalysis of polyphenol oxidase in the tissue column to produce hydrogen peroxide, which can react with luminol in the presence of peroxidase of potato tissue to generate CL signal. The CL emission intensity was linear with dopamine concentration in the range of 1x10(-5)-1x10(-7) g/ml and the detection limit was 5.3x10(-8) g/ml (3sigma) with a relative standard deviation of 1.7%. Combined with microdialysis sampling, the biosensor was applied to monitor the variation of dopamine level in the blood of rabbit after the administration of dopamine to demonstrate the favorable resolution and reliability of the system for in vivo on-line monitoring. PMID:11959481

  17. Probing Force with Mechanobase-Induced Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Clough, Jess M; Balan, Abidin; van Daal, Tom L J; Sijbesma, Rint P

    2016-01-01

    Mechanophores capable of releasing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC), a strong base, are combined with triggerable chemiluminescent substrates to give a novel system for mechanically induced chemiluminescence. The mechanophores are palladium bis-NHC complexes, centrally incorporated in poly(tetrahydrofuran) (pTHF). Chemiluminescence is induced from two substrates, adamantyl phenol dioxetane (APD) and a coumaranone derivative, upon sonication of dilute solutions of the polymer complex and either APD or the coumaranone. Control experiments with a low molecular weight Pd complex showed no significant activation and the molecular weight dependence of the coumaranone emission supports the mechanical origin of the activation. The development of this system is a first step towards mechanoluminescence at lower force thresholds and catalytic mechanoluminescence. PMID:26663819

  18. CuO nanosheets-enhanced flow-injection chemiluminescence system for determination of vancomycin in water, pharmaceutical and human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, A. R.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Iranifam, M.; Fathinia, M.; Hanifehpour, Y.; Joo, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive CuO nanosheets (NSs) amplified flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system, luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets, was developed for determination of the vancomycin hydrochloride for the first time. It was found that vancomycin could efficiently inhibit the CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets system in alkaline medium. Under the optimum conditions, the inhibited CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of vancomycin over the ranges of 0.5-18.0 and 18.0-40.0 mg L-1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.1 mg L-1. The precision was calculated by analyzing samples containing 5.0 mg L-1 vancomycin (n = 11) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.8%. Also, a high injection throughput of 120 sample h-1 was obtained. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized by a sonochemical method. Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed to characterize the CuO nanosheets. The method was successfully employed to determine vancomycin hydrochloride in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum.

  19. Chemiluminescence Study of the Autoxidation of cis-1,4-Polyisoprene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, G. David; Nathan, Richard A.; Golub, Morton A.

    1978-01-01

    The free-radical mechanism for the autoxidation of cis-1,4-polyisoprene (natural rubber or its synthetic counterpart) has been investigated extensively. An important feature of this mechanism, and indeed also of the autoxidation of hydrocarbons generally, is that it is a chain process propagated by alkyl and peroxy radicals and terminated through bimolecular reactions involving these same radicals. In the usual oxidation situation, that is, at all oxygen pressures greater than a few torr, the alkyl radicals are rapidly converted to peroxy radicals, and the termination step proceeds almost exclusively through the latter radicals. The bimolecular decay of the peroxy radicals is accompanied by a weak emission of light or chemiluminescence. Kinetic evidence is consistent with an electronically excited ketone produced in the termination reaction as the source of the emission. The first observation of chemiluminescence from the oxidative degradation of polymers was reported by Ashby, who dealt mainly with polypropylene but made passing mention of several other polymers. Subsequently, a number of papers have appeared dealing with oxidative chemiluminescence from a variety of polymers. In this paper we report the first detailed study of the chemiluminescence emitted in the autoxidation of cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The chemiluminescence technique is extremely sensitive and can follow rates of oxidation that are too slow to be measured conveniently by other means. This work thus offered the potential of throwing new light on the autoxidation of cis-1,4-polyisoprene, especially in the very early stages or under ambient conditions where conventional spectroscopic procedures are rather insensitive.

  20. Experimental and numerical study of chemiluminescent species in low-pressure flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathrotia, T.; Riedel, U.; Seipel, A.; Moshammer, K.; Brockhinke, A.

    2012-06-01

    Chemiluminescence has been observed since the beginning of spectroscopy, nevertheless, important facts still remain unknown. Especially, reaction pathways leading to chemiluminescent species such as OH∗, CH∗, C2^{*}, and CO2^{*} are still under debate and cannot be modeled with standard codes for flame simulation. In several cases, even the source species of spectral features observed in flames are unknown. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in chemiluminescence, since it has been shown that this radiation can be used to determine flame parameters such as stoichiometry and heat release under some conditions. In this work, we present a reaction mechanism which predicts the OH∗, CH∗ (in A- and B-state), and C2^{*} emission strength in lean to fuel-rich stoichiometries. Measurements have been performed in a set of low-pressure flames which have already been well characterized by other methods. The flame front is resolved in these measurements, which allows a comparison of shape and position of the observed chemiluminescence with the respective simulated concentrations. To study the effects of varying fuels, methane flame diluted in hydrogen are measured as well. The 14 investigated premixed methane-oxygen-argon and methane-hydrogen-oxygen-argon flames span a wide parameter field of fuel stoichiometry ( ϕ=0.5 to 1.6) and hydrogen content (H2 vol%=0 to 50). The relative comparison of measured and simulated excited species concentrations shows good agreement. The detailed and reliable modeling for several chemiluminescent species permits correlating heat release with all of these emissions under a large set of flame conditions. It appears from the present study that the normally used product of formaldehyde and OH concentration may be less well suited for such a prediction in the flames under investigation.

  1. Illustrating Chemiluminescence with Siloxene Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Ray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the nature of light-producing reactions and provides a procedure for demonstrating chemical luminescence using siloxene indicator. Indicates source of this chemical and safety precautions. (SK)

  2. Chemiluminescence determination of folic acid by a flow injection analysis assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Lee, Sang Hak; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Eldesoky, Gaber E.

    2013-03-01

    A flow injection (FI) method is reported for the determination of folic acid by chemiluminescence method. This method is based on the reaction of folic acid with Ru(bipy)32+ and Ce(IV) to produce chemiluminescence. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 2.5 10-5-3.1 10-7 mol/L with a detection limit of 2.3 10-8 mol/L (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation of 1.0 10-6 mol/L folic acid was found 3.5% (n = 11). The influences of potential interfering substances were studied. The recovery was higher than 95.3%. The method was accurate, sensitive, and effective for assay of folic acid. This CL method was successfully applied to the determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. The mechanism of CL reaction was also studied.

  3. Actinometric measurement of j(O3-O(1D)) using a luminol detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bairai, Solomon T.; Stedman, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    The photolysis frequency of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms has been measured by means of a chemical actinometer using a luminol based detector. The instrument measures j(O3-O(1D)) with a precision of 10 percent. The data collected in winter and spring of 1991 is in agreement with model predictions and previously measured values. Data from a global solar radiometer can be used to estimate the effects of local cloudiness on j(O3-O(1D)).

  4. [A comparison of the Bluestar and luminol effectiveness in bloodstain detection].

    PubMed

    łuczak, Sylwia; Woźniak, Marcin; Papuga, Marta; Stopińiska, Katarzyna; Sliwka, Karol

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two chemical agents--Bluestar and luminol--in detection of bloodstains. The experiments were performed to test for bloodstain detection sensitivity, chemical stability and to investigate the effect of both reagents on DNA typing. During this study, the authors prepared serial dilutions (1:2 to 1:10 000 000) of fresh blood, as well as dilutions of 25-year old blood on Whatman 3MM blotting paper. Additional dilutions of fresh blood were spotted on a glass surface. The experiments showed very similar results for both investigated reagents, although the Bluestar solution proved to be more stable (at least 7 days after the preparation) as compared to luminol (stable for not more than 24 hours). Both reagents showed a higher sensitivity for diluted bloodstains on a glass surface than for similar stains on filter paper. The investigators also demonstrated that multiplex amplification of DNA was feasible after Bluestar or luminol treatment, although the detected bloodstains might be too diluted to allow for effective DNA extraction and amplification. PMID:17249372

  5. Luminol electrochemiluminescence for the analysis of active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guangzhong; Zhou, Junyu; Tian, Chunxiu; Jiang, Dechen; Fang, Danjun; Chen, Hongyuan

    2013-04-16

    A luminol electrochemiluminescence assay was reported to analyze active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells. The cellular membrane cholesterol was activated by the exposure of the cells to low ionic strength buffer or the inhibition of intracellular acyl-coA/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). The active membrane cholesterol was reacted with cholesterol oxidase in the solution to generate a peak concentration of hydrogen peroxide on the electrode surface, which induced a measurable luminol electrochemiluminescence. Further treatment of the active cells with mevastatin decreased the active membrane cholesterol resulting in a drop in luminance. No change in the intracellular calcium was observed in the presence of luminol and voltage, which indicated that our analysis process might not interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Single cell analysis was performed by placing a pinhole below the electrode so that only one cell was exposed to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). Twelve single cells were analyzed individually, and a large deviation on luminance ratio observed exhibited the cell heterogeneity on the active membrane cholesterol. The smaller deviation on ACAT/HMGCoA inhibited cells than ACAT inhibited cells suggested different inhibition efficiency for sandoz 58035 and mevastatin. The new information obtained from single cell analysis might provide a new insight on the study of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. PMID:23527944

  6. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol on titania nanotubes functionalised indium tin oxide glass for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Xiao, Changbin; Tu, Yifeng

    2015-10-01

    The titania nanotubes (TiNTs) had been immobilised onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass to intensify the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. The morphology, structure and properties such as specific surface area and transmittance of synthesised TiNTs were characterised. The results indicated that the TiNTs was several hundred nanometres in length with the diameter of 20 nm. In flow injection analysis (FIA) mode, the TiNTs dramatically enhanced the ECL emission of luminol for about 25 multiple, meanwhile decreased the requirement of buffer pH and exciting potential. The ECL emission of luminol on functionalised ITO electrode has sensitive response toward hydrogen peroxide, and extraordinarily responsive toward the antioxidant. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL emission exhibited a linear response within the concentration range from 0.1 mg L(-1) to 30 mg L(-1) and an absolute detection limit of 1.65×10(-10) g of resveratrol. The gross antioxidant activity of blueberry and kiwi were determined with satisfactory recoveries. PMID:26078133

  7. A study of common interferences with the forensic luminol test for blood.

    PubMed

    Quickenden, T I; Creamer, J I

    2001-01-01

    A wide range of domestic and industrial substances that might be mistaken for haemoglobin in the forensic luminol test for blood were examined. The substances studied were in the categories of vegetable or fruit pulps and juices; domestic and commercial oils; cleaning agents; an insecticide; and various glues, paints and varnishes. A significant number of substances in each category gave luminescence intensities that were comparable with the intensities of undiluted haemoglobin, when sprayed with the standard forensic solution containing aqueous alkaline luminol and sodium perborate. In these cases the substance could be easily mistaken for blood when the luminol test is used, but in the remaining cases the luminescence intensity was so weak that it is unlikely that a false-positive test would be obtained. In a few cases the brightly emitting substance could be distinguished from blood by a small but detectable shift of the peak emission wavelength. The results indicated that particular care should be taken to avoid interferences when a crime scene is contaminated with parsnip, turnip or horseradish, and when surfaces coated with enamel paint are involved. To a lesser extent, some care should be taken when surfaces covered with terracotta or ceramic tiles, polyurethane varnishes or jute and sisal matting are involved. PMID:11512147

  8. Egg-Citing! Isolation of Protoporphyrin IX from Brown Eggshells and Its Detection by Optical Spectroscopy and Chemiluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Michelle L.; Miller, Tyson A.; Bruckner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective laboratory experiment is described that extracts protoporphyrin IX from brown eggshells. The porphyrin is characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. A chemiluminescence reaction (peroxyoxalate ester fragmentation) is performed that emits light in the UV region. When the porphyrin extract is added as a fluor…

  9. Egg-Citing! Isolation of Protoporphyrin IX from Brown Eggshells and Its Detection by Optical Spectroscopy and Chemiluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Michelle L.; Miller, Tyson A.; Bruckner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective laboratory experiment is described that extracts protoporphyrin IX from brown eggshells. The porphyrin is characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. A chemiluminescence reaction (peroxyoxalate ester fragmentation) is performed that emits light in the UV region. When the porphyrin extract is added as a fluor

  10. Advances in the use of acidic potassium permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent: a review.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Jacqui L; Barnett, Neil W; Barrow, Colin J; Francis, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    We review the analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence published since our previous comprehensive review in mid-2007 to early 2013. This includes a critical evaluation of evidence for the emitting species, the influence of additives such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde, sulfite, thiosulfate, lanthanide complexes and nanoparticles, the development of a generalized reaction mechanism, and the use of this chemistry in pharmaceutical, clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications. PMID:24356216

  11. Chemiluminescence spectra of small molecules containing sulfur, selenium, and tellurium

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.D. )

    1989-04-01

    To help identify a novel emission feature extending from 550 nm to 880 nm produced in the gas-phase reaction of F{sub 2} with CS{sub 2}, the reaction of F{sub 2} with CSe{sub 2} has been studied. This reaction yields a previously observed emission feature from SeF(A) extending from 500 nm to 870 nm and a banded feature between 350 and 500 nm that resembles fluorescence from Se{sub 2}(A) but requires further analysis. An apparently new, broad feature extending from 600 nm to the near IR appears by itself under certain reaction conditions. This broad feature is unresolved at 0.1 nm resolution and is not very useful in understanding the F{sub 2}/CS{sub 2} feature. Reactions of F{sub 2} with CH{sub 3}XCH{sub 3}, where X=Se, Se{sub 2}, Te, and Te{sub 2}, are being studied as sources for emission spectra of CH{sub 2}Se and CH{sub 2}Te. Fruitful chemical trends and analogies are being exploited in effort to identify new spectra of hard-to-study small molecules in chemiluminescence.

  12. Chemiluminescence determination of ferulic acid by flow-injection analysis using cerium(IV) sensitized by rhodamine 6G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ju Peng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2008-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of ferulic acid based on the chemiluminescence reaction of ferulic acid with rhodamine 6G and ceric sulfate in sulphuric acid medium. Strong chemiluminescence signal was observed when ferulic acid was injected into the acidic ceric sulfate solution in a flow-cell. The present method allowed the determination of ferulic acid in the concentration range of 8.0 × 10 -6 to 1.0 × 10 -4 mol l -1 and the detection limit for ferulic acid was 8.7 × 10 -9 mol l -1. The relative standard deviation was 2.4% for 10 replicate analyses of 1.0 × 10 -5 mol l -1 ferulic acid. The proposed method was applied to the determination of ferulic acid in Taita Beauty Essence samples with satisfactory results.

  13. Temperature-dependent ozone chemiluminescence: A new approach for hydrocarbon monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.; Gaffney, J.

    1996-12-31

    Ozone chemiluminescent reactions have been used for some time to detect oxides of nitrogen, ozone, and olefins in air quality studies. Current procedures use non-methane hydrocarbon analyzers based on the flame ionization detector (FID), which quantitate total non-methane hydrocarbons but do not differentiate between the wide variety of volatile organic classes and oxygenates. The other methodology that has been used, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), can measure a variety of individual hydrocarbon species and classes, but it is costly, time-consuming, and labor intensive and is not amenable to real-time measurements. Presented here is preliminary research aimed at the development of an alternative to FID and GC/MS: the ozone chemiluminescent detector (OCD) for measurement of a variety of hydrocarbon species and classes by use of the temperature dependence of ozone chemiluminescent reactions. Responses for various hydrocarbon classes obtained with an OCD operated at 170 C or the FID were compared. The results indicate that the OCD detector responds like a total carbon detector at this temperature, with sensitivities 10-100 times higher than those of a FID. Use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reaction and prereactors will apparently make a real-time hydrocarbon analyzer based on this approach feasible for determination of high-, moderate-, and low-reactivity hydrocarbon levels in ambient air. The OCD approach may be very useful in determining oxygenate emissions from motor vehicles, particularly alternative fuels. The OCD may also be useful in monitoring of ambient air for natural hydrocarbon emissions.

  14. Portable chemiluminescence detector for nickel carbonyl

    SciTech Connect

    Hikade, D.A.; Stedman, D.H.; Walega, J.G.

    1984-08-01

    This article describes a portable chemiluminescent detector for Ni(CO)/sub 4/ containing two innovative components, a self-contained carbon monoxide source which provides a greater degree of portability and a thermal differentiator to improve selectivity. The instrument is capable of measuring parts-per-billion levels of Ni(CO)/sub 4/, Fe(CO)/sub 5/, and NO. The instrument was used to measure carbonyl concentrations in the field and in cigarette smoke.

  15. Detection of autoantibodies using chemiluminescence technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Michael; Bentow, Chelsea; Serra, Josep; Fritzler, Marvin J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Context: Although autoantibody detection methods such as indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been available for many years and are still in use the innovation of fast, fully automated instruments using chemiluminescence technology in recent years has led to rapid adoption in autoimmune disease diagnostics. In 2009, BIO-FLASH, a fully automated, random access chemiluminescent analyzer, was introduced, proceeded by the development of the QUANTA Flash chemiluminescent immunoassays (CIA) for autoimmune diagnostics. Objective: To summarize the evolution of CIAs for the detection of autoantibodies and to review their performance characteristics. Methods: Pubmed was screened for publications evaluating novel QUANTA Flash assays and how they compare to traditional methods for the detection of autoantibodies. In addition, comparative studies presented at scientific meetings were summarized. Results: Several studies were identified that compared the novel CIAs with conventional methods for autoantibody detection. The agreements ranged from moderate to excellent depending on the assay. The studies show how the CIA technology has enhanced the analytical and clinical performance characteristics of many autoantibody assays supporting both diagnosis and follow-up testing. Conclusion: CIA has started to improve the diagnostic testing of autoantibodies as an aid in the diagnosis of a broad range of autoimmune diseases. PMID:26525648

  16. Chemiluminescence-based detection: principles and analytical applications in flowing streams and in immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Baeyens, W R; Schulman, S G; Calokerinos, A C; Zhao, Y; García Campaña, A M; Nakashima, K; De Keukeleire, D

    1998-09-01

    The present paper provides the principles of chemiluminescence (CL) and its powerful applications in analytical chemistry, mainly in the area of flow injection analysis, column liquid chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic separating systems, and its potential in immunoassays. CL is light produced by a chemical reaction. The most common advantages of chemiluminescent reactions are the relatively simple instrumentation required, the very low detection limits and wide dynamic ranges, which have contributed to the interest of CL detection in flow injection analysis, high performance liquid chromatography, including miniaturized systems, and, most recently, the exploding area of capillary electrophoresis. The latter powerful microanalytical separation technique offers high numbers of theoretical plates and relatively short analysis times requiring only small sample volumes, the migrating system comprising aqueous buffer solutions. In non-isotopic immunoassays, covering a great variety of applications in human and veterinary medicine, forensic medicine, agriculture and food industry, the radioisotope is replaced by a fluorescence or chemiluminescent label. The use of CL as a detection principle permits quantitative determination of various compounds at low concentrations. Disadvantages of the CL-based technique may include lack of sufficient selectivity and sensitivity to various physicochemical factors. PMID:9884186

  17. Chemiluminescent Nanomicelles for Imaging Hydrogen Peroxide and Self-Therapy in Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Luzhong; Gao, Jian; Wu, Wei; Hu, Yong; Jiang, Xiqun

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a signal molecule of the tumor, and its overproduction makes a higher concentration in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. Based on the fact that peroxalates can make chemiluminescence with a high efficiency in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, we developed nanomicelles composed of peroxalate ester oligomers and fluorescent dyes, called peroxalate nanomicelles (POMs), which could image hydrogen peroxide with high sensitivity and stability. The potential application of the POMs in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer was also investigated. It was found that the PDT-drug-loaded POMs were sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, and the PDT drug could be stimulated by the chemiluminescence from the reaction between POMs and hydrogen peroxide, which carried on a self-therapy of the tumor without the additional laser light resource. PMID:21765637

  18. Interferences in the chemiluminescent measurement of NO and NO2 emissions from combustion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, R. D.; Sawyer, R. F.; Schefer, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Two factors which may affect the quantification of NO and NO2 concentrations when using chemiluminescent analysis are investigated. The first is the dependence of the chemiluminescent intensity on competing third body quenching reactions. Relative quenching efficiencies are determined as a function of third body concentration for six different species which are common products of combustion. A mathematical expression is derived which allows calculation of the actual concentration of NO given the indicated concentration of NO and the concentrations of the important third bodies. An example calculation is presented. The second factor which is investigated involves the conversion of low molecular weight nitrogen containing species, other than NO2, in commercial NOx converters. Conversion efficiencies for six species were determined using a commercial stainless steel catalyst at 923 K.

  19. Rapid determination of vitamin B12 concentration with a chemiluminescence lab on a chip.

    PubMed

    Lok, Khoi Seng; Abdul Muttalib, Siti Zubaidah binte; Lee, Peter Peng Foo; Kwok, Yien Chian; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the rapid determination of vitamin B(12) concentration in a continuous-flow lab-on-a-chip system. This new method is based on luminol-peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) assays for the detection of cobalt(II) ions in vitamin B(12) molecules. The lab-on-a-chip device consisted of two passive micromixers acting as microreactors and a double spiral microchannel network serving as an optical detection region. This system could operate in two modes. In the first mode, samples are acidified and evaluated directly in the microchip. In the second mode, samples are treated externally by acidification prior to detection in the microchip. In the first mode, the linear range obtained was between 1.00 ng ml(-1) to 10 μg ml(-1), R(2) = 0.996, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.23 to 2.31% (n = 5) and a limit of detection (lod) of 0.368 pg ml(-1). The minimum sample volume required and the analytical time were 30 μl and 3.6 s, respectively. In the second mode, the linear range obtained was between 0.10 ng ml(-1) to 10 μg ml(-1), R(2) = 0.994, with the RSD of 0.90 to 2.32% (n = 6) and a lod of 0.576 pg ml(-1). The minimum sample and the analytical time required were 50 μl and 6 s, respectively. The lab on a chip working in mode II was successfully used for the determination of vitamin B(12) concentrations in nutritional supplemental tablets and hen egg yolks. PMID:22513799

  20. Combined effects of pentachlorophenol and salinity stress on chemiluminescence activity in two species of abalone.

    PubMed

    Martello, L B; Tjeerdema, R S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of pentachlorophenol (PCP) combined with salinity stress on hemocyte microbicidal activity was examined in two species of abalone. Microbicidal phagocytic function was determined in red (Haliotis rufescens) and black (Haliotis cracherodii) abalone after in vivo exposure to 25, 35 and 45 per thousand seawater salinity plus 1.2 mg/l PCP using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Red and black abalone exposures of 3.5 and 6.5 h, respectively, were based on species-specific metabolic endpoints (MEPs) derived from previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) data. Endpoints examined include total CL (CL(total)), peak CL (CL(max)), and the time to reach peak CL (T(max)). Overall, black abalone CL was significantly greater than red abalone CL particularly at ambient and high salinities. High salinity alone had a dramatic effect on red abalone whereas black abalone demonstrated few salinity effects. While the addition of PCP stimulated CL(max) and CL(total) among red abalone at ambient and high salinities, PCP exposure inhibited CL(max) at each salinity and inhibited CL(total) at ambient salinity among black abalone. Black abalone generally did not demonstrate effects of PCP within the 3.5 h exposure period except at high salinity plus PCP, which caused a reduction of CL(total). T(max) was greatly increased after PCP exposure at each salinity among red abalone but did not effect T(max) at any salinity tested among black abalone. No lysozyme activity was detected among red or black abalone after exposure to any of four different target particles tested either in the presence or absence of PCP. Overall, PCP in combination with salinity stress causes a modulation in the production of reactive oxygen species and this modulation varies between abalone species. Agents that decrease CL activity in hemocytes may reduce the antimicrobial potential of these cells thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious disease. PMID:11090895

  1. A molecularly imprinted polymer based a lab-on-paper chemiluminescence device for the detection of dichlorvos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Yumei; Luo, Jing; Kou, Juan; Zheng, Hongyan; Li, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhujun

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based lab-on-paper device with chemiluminescence (CL) detection of dichlorvos (DDV) was designed. With the circle-shaped device, the MIP layer with certain depth was synthesized and adsorbed on the paper surface and DDV can be selectively imprinted on it. The adsorption and washing procedures can be achieved well on the paper-based chip. The paper-based device was fabricated by a simple cutting method and many chips can be made at the same time. On the basis of DDV enhancing CL of luminol-H2O2 greatly, the proposed MIP based lab-on-paper CL device showed better selectivity to DDV and it has been applied to the determination of DDV in vegetables in the range of 3.0 ng/mL-1.0 ?g/mL with the detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL. This study has made a successful attempt in the development of highly selective and sensitive monitoring of DDV in real samples and will provide a new approach for sensitive and specific assay in environmental monitoring. PMID:25659812

  2. Molecularly imprinted polymer grafted paper-based multi-disk micro-disk plate for chemiluminescence detection of pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shoumei; Ge, Lei; Li, Long; Yan, Mei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2013-12-15

    The detection of pesticides has attracted considerable attention in numerous fields, such as environmental monitoring and food safety. Although traditional sensors for pesticides have been widely explored due to their high sensitivity and specificity, it is still challenging to develop a low-cost, portable, fast, and easy-to-use detection method for the public use at home or in the field. To address these challenges, herein, we report a novel paper-based molecular imprinted polymer (MIP)-grafted multi-disk micro-disk plate (P-MIP-MMP) for sensitive and specific chemiluminescence (CL) detection of pesticides through an indirect competitive assay using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a proof-of-concept analyte. The MIP-grafted paper disks were prepared by a simple in situ polymerization of MIP layer on the surface of cellulose fibers in paper. The quantification mechanism of this P-MIP-MMP is based on a competition between free 2,4-D and tobacco peroxidase (TOP) labeled 2,4-D and the enzyme catalyzed CL emission from the luminol-TOP-H2O2 CL system. At optimal conditions, this P-MIP-MMP can detect 2,4-D at the concentration of femtomolar level. This approach provided a powerful protocol for simple, low-cost, rapid, and high-throughput detection of pesticides in real samples with satisfactory results for use in areas such as food inspection and environmental monitoring. PMID:23871875

  3. Assessment of biological activity of immunoglobulin preparations by using opsonized micro-organisms to stimulate neutrophil chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, C S; Stanley, P J; Cole, P J

    1985-01-01

    We have used the ability of opsonised bacteria to stimulate luminol enhanced chemiluminescence of human neutrophils to examine the opsonic capabilities of normal and hypogammaglobulinaemic sera for four common bacterial pathogens. Preparations of human immunoglobulin modified for i.v. use have then been compared with unmodified Cohn Fraction II for their effectiveness in improving opsonization when added to antibody deficient sera in vitro. Hypogammaglobulinaemic sera exhibited impaired opsonisation of Haemophilus influenzae, and severely antibody deficient sera also opsonized Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa poorly. The opsonization of these organisms was improved by Cohn Fraction II, and by pH 4 and beta-propionolactone treated immunoglobulins, in descending order of effectiveness. Pepsin digested immunoglobulin was inactive, and in some cases impaired opsonic capacity. The opsonisation of Staphylococcus aureus by hypogammaglobulinaemic sera was near normal, and was not improved by any immunoglobulin. This technique, which assesses biological activity of immunoglobulin, is useful in comparing preparations, and may help to establish appropriate dosage and frequency for intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy. PMID:3930107

  4. Contrasting effects of Mycoplasma fermentans and M. felis on the viability and chemiluminescence response of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, A; Miles, R J; Richards, L

    1993-05-15

    Trypan blue exclusion was used to estimate the viability of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in the presence of Mycoplasma felis and two strains of M. fermentans (PG18 and incognitus). The competence of PMNL to mount a respiratory burst when challenged with the mycoplasmas was also monitored by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Both un-opsonised and non-immune human serum opsonised M. felis cells had little effect on PMNL viability. In contrast, PMNL viability was reduced markedly by un-opsonised cells of M. fermentans strain incognitus and, to a lesser extent, strain PG18, and opsonisation of these mycoplasmas further enhanced killing. Death of PMNL in the presence of M. fermentans was not associated with the autonomous production of active oxygen species during the respiratory burst as M. felis induced a high CL response from PMNL, whereas that induced by M. fermentans strain incognitus was significantly lower. M. fermentans may invade mammalian cells and it is suggested that the mechanism of PMNL death could be related to the ability of M. fermentans to penetrate host cell membranes. PMID:8339908

  5. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Spray Dried Extracts of Psidium guajava Leaves by DPPH and Chemiluminescence Inhibition in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. R. V.; Azzolini, A. E. C. S.; Martinez, M. L. L.; Souza, C. R. F.; Lucisano-Valim, Y. M.; Oliveira, W. P.

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β-cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH• method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells. PMID:24822200

  6. Assessment of antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts of Psidium guajava leaves by DPPH and chemiluminescence inhibition in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M R V; Azzolini, A E C S; Martinez, M L L; Souza, C R F; Lucisano-Valim, Y M; Oliveira, W P

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β -cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH(•) method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells. PMID:24822200

  7. In vitro inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its major components on chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves and its major constituents, crypto-chlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, were investigated on the respiratory burst of human whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. The chemotactic migration of PMNs was also investigated using the Boyden chamber technique. The ethanol extract demonstrated inhibitory activities on the oxidative burst and the chemotactic migration of PMNs. Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, crypto-chlorogenic acid, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, isolated from the extract, expressed relatively strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of PMNs with IC50 values of 4.1, 6.7 and 7.0 microM, respectively, comparable with that of aspirin. They also demonstrated strong inhibition of chemotatic migration of PMNs with IC50 values of 9.5, 15.9 and 18.2 microM, respectively. The results suggest that M. oleifera leaves could modulate the immune response of human phagocytes, linking to its ethnopharmacological use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The immunomodulating activity of the plant was mainly due to its major components. PMID:24427941

  8. A molecularly imprinted polymer based a lab-on-paper chemiluminescence device for the detection of dichlorvos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Yumei; Luo, Jing; Kou, Juan; Zheng, Hongyan; Li, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhujun

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based lab-on-paper device with chemiluminescence (CL) detection of dichlorvos (DDV) was designed. With the circle-shaped device, the MIP layer with certain depth was synthesized and adsorbed on the paper surface and DDV can be selectively imprinted on it. The adsorption and washing procedures can be achieved well on the paper-based chip. The paper-based device was fabricated by a simple cutting method and many chips can be made at the same time. On the basis of DDV enhancing CL of luminol-H2O2 greatly, the proposed MIP based lab-on-paper CL device showed better selectivity to DDV and it has been applied to the determination of DDV in vegetables in the range of 3.0 ng/mL-1.0 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL. This study has made a successful attempt in the development of highly selective and sensitive monitoring of DDV in real samples and will provide a new approach for sensitive and specific assay in environmental monitoring.

  9. Silver nanoparticle enhanced chemiluminescence method for the determination of nitrazepam.

    PubMed

    Han, Suqin; Li, Xia; Wei, Bei

    2014-01-01

    We report on a simple and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method to determine nitrazepam. This method is based on the fact that rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) enhanced the weak CL emission of the reaction of hexacyanoferrate with nitrazepam, and that it was further enhanced by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The effects of the concentrations of K3Fe(CN)6, Rh6G, AgNPs and NaOH on the CL reaction were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of nitrazepam in the range from 1.0 nM to 10.0 μM. The detection limit (3σ) was at 0.1 nM. The relative standard deviation was 2.1% (at a 0.1 μM concentration and for n = 11). The method was successfully applied to the determination of nitrazepam in Coca-Cola beverage, urine and plasma, and the recovery was 98 - 103%. We also considered the possible CL reaction mechanism. PMID:24717660

  10. Luminol-dependent photoemission from single neutrophil stimulated by phorbol ester and calcium ionophore--role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Suematsu, M.; Oshio, C.; Miura, S.; Suzuki, M.; Houzawa, S.; Tsuchiya, M.

    1988-08-30

    Luminol-dependent photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated single neutrophil was visually investigated by using an ultrasensitive photonic image intensifier microscope. Neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (0.1 microgram/ml) alone produced a negligible level of photonic activities in the presence of luminol (10 micrograms/ml). The additional application of 0.1 microM Ca2+ ionophore A23187 induced explosive changes of photonic burst corresponding to the distribution of neutrophils, and these photonic activities were gradually spread to extracellular space. Sodium azide, which prevents myeloperoxidase activity, inhibited Ca2+ ionophore-induced photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated neutrophil. These findings suggest a prerequisite role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase release in luminol-dependent photoemission from stimulated neutrophils.

  11. Menadione-catalyzed luminol luminescent assay as a novel evaluation method of ethanol tolerance in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashoji, Shiro

    2009-02-01

    In this study, ethanol inhibited the growth and glucose-induced proton release of yeast cells in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, ethanol tolerance of menadione-catalyzed luminol luminescence by yeast cells increased with increasing ethanol concentrations in the growth medium. The intracellular reduced-form nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) concentration also increased with increasing ethanol concentrations in the medium and was enough to maintain constant menadione-catalyzed luminol luminescence. These facts suggest that the menadione-catalyzed luminol luminescent assay depending on a NADH:quinone reductase and NADH generation system is useful as a new evaluation assay for assessing the vitality of ethanol-stressed yeast cells, whereas the glucose-induced proton release assay is expected to be useful for the evaluation of cell growth under ethanol stress. PMID:19028448

  12. On the interaction of luminol with human serum albumin: Nature and thermodynamics of ligand binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyon, N. Shaemningwar; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2010-09-01

    The mechanism and thermodynamic parameters for the binding of luminol (LH 2) with human serum albumin was explored by steady state and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. It was shown that out of two possible LH 2 conformers present is solution, only one is accessible for binding with HSA. The thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy (Δ H) and entropy (Δ S) change corresponding to the ligand binding process were also estimated by performing the experiment at different temperatures. The ligand replacement experiment with bilirubin confirms that LH 2 binds into the sub-domain IIA of the protein.

  13. Molecular Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Chemiluminescence Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Powe, Aleeta; Das, Susmita; Lowry, Mark; El-Zahab, Bilal; Fakayode, Sayo; Geng, Maxwell; Baker, Gary A; Wang, Lin; McCarroll, Matthew; Patonay, Gabor; Li, Min; Aljarrah, Mohannad; Neal, Sharon; Warner, Isiah M

    2010-01-01

    This review covers the 2 year period since our last review (1) from January 2008 through December 2009. A computer search of Chemical Abstracts provided most of the references for this review. A search for documents written in English containing the terms fluorescence or phosphorescence or chemiluminescence published in 2008-2009 resulted in more than 100 000 hits. An initial screening reduced this number to approximately 23 000 publications that were considered for inclusion in this review. Key word searches of this subset provided subtopics of manageable size. Other citations were found through individual searches by the various authors who wrote a particular section of this review.

  14. Chemiluminescence of BO{sub 2} to map the creation of thermal NO in flames

    SciTech Connect

    Maligne, D. ||; Cessou, A.; Stepowski, D.

    2009-02-15

    The aim of this study is to detect and map the local conditions that generate thermal NO in flames. According to the Zeldovich mechanism, the formation of NO comes from the local conjunction of a high concentration of atomic oxygen and a temperature above a critical high level imposed by the high activation energy of the rate-limiting reaction. The green light emitted when a flame is seeded with boron salts is a chemiluminescence from the BO{sup *}{sub 2} that is chemically formed in its excited state when BO reacts with atomic oxygen. As the rate of this oxidation is also strongly increasing with temperature, the chemiluminescence of BO{sub 2} depends on the concentration of atomic oxygen and on the temperature in a way similar to the formation rate of thermal NO. This double analogy suggests the possibility of an experimental in situ simulation of the formation rate of thermal NO or at least the use of the chemiluminescence of BO{sub 2} to map the sites where thermal NO is being created. Spectroscopic experiments and comparisons with numerical simulations have been performed to test the feasibility of this technique in laminar premixed and diffusion methane/air flames. The agreement is good except in the burnt gases of fuel-rich flames. Imaging strategies with different spectral filters have been developed in the same flames to overcome the problem of interference from soot radiation in diffusion flames. (author)

  15. Reagentless chemiluminescence-based fiber optic sensors for regenerative life support in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; DeHart, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The initial feasibility demonstration of a reagentless chemiluminescence based fiber optic sensor technology for use in advanced regenerative life support applications in space and planetary outposts is described. The primary constraints for extraterrestrial deployment of any technology are compatibility with microgravity and hypogravity environments; minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and minimal use of expendables due to the great expense and difficulty inherent to resupply logistics. In the current research, we report the integration of solid state flow through modules for the production of aqueous phase reagents into an integrated system for the detection of important analytes by chemiluminescence, with fiber optic light transmission. By minimizing the need for resupply expendables, the use of solid phase modules makes complex chemical detection schemes practical. For the proof of concept, hydrogen peroxide and glucose were chosen as analytes. The reaction is catalyzed by glucose oxidase, an immobilized enzyme. The aqueous phase chemistry required for sensor operation is implemented using solid phase modules which adjust the pH of the influent stream, catalyze the oxidation of analyte, and provide the controlled addition of the luminophore to the flowing aqueous stream. Precise control of the pH has proven essential for the long-term sustained release of the luminophore. Electrocatalysis is achieved using a controlled potential across gold mesh and gold foil electrodes which undergo periodic polarity reversals. The development and initial characterization of performance of the reagentless fiber optic chemiluminescence sensors are presented in this paper.

  16. Selective and Sensitive Chemiluminescence Determination of MCPB: Flow Injection and Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Meseguer-Lloret, Susana; Torres-Cartas, Sagrario; Catalá-Icardo, Mónica; Gómez-Benito, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Two new chemiluminescence (CL) methods are described for the determination of the herbicide 4-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy) butyric acid (MCPB). First, a flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method is proposed. In this method, MCPB is photodegraded with an ultraviolet (UV) lamp and the photoproducts formed provide a great CL signal when they react with ferricyanide in basic medium. Second, a high-performance liquid chromatography chemiluminescence (HPLC-CL) method is proposed. In this method, before the photodegradation and CL reaction, the MCPB and other phenoxyacid herbicides are separated in a C18 column. The experimental conditions for the FI-CL and HPLC-CL methods are optimized. Both methods present good sensitivity, the detection limits being 0.12 µg L(-1) and 0.1 µg L(-1) (for FI-CL and HPLC-CL, respectively) when solid phase extraction (SPE) is applied. Intra- and interday relative standard deviations are below 9.9%. The methods have been satisfactorily applied to the analysis of natural water samples. FI-CL method can be employed for the determination of MCPB in simple water samples and for the screening of complex water samples in a fast, economic, and simple way. The HPLC-CL method is more selective, and allows samples that have not been resolved with the FI-CL method to be solved. PMID:26903566

  17. Chemiluminescent aptasensor capable of rapidly quantifying Escherichia Coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Khang, Juna; Kim, Danial; Chung, Kang Wook; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-15

    Cost-effective and easy-to-use biosensor was developed for the rapid quantification and monitoring of Escherichia (E.) Coli O157:H7 in sample using E. Coli O157:H7 aptamer, graphene oxide (GO)/iron nanocomposites, and guanine chemiluminescence detection. E. Coli O157:H7 aptamer-conjugated 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) with excellent specificity captured E. Coli O157:H7 in a sample when the mixture was incubated for 1h at 37°C. Free E. Coli O157:H7 aptamers remaining in sample after the incubation were removed with GO/iron nanocomposites based on the principle of π-π stacking interaction between free aptamer and GO/iron nanocomposites. Then, E. Coli O157:H7 bound with aptamer-conjugated 6-FAM in sample emitted strong light when guanine chemiluminescent reagents (e.g., 3,4,5-trimethoxylphenylglyoxal hydrate, Tetra-n-propylammonium hydroxide) were added in the sample. The strength of light emitted in guanine chemiluminescence reaction was proportionally enhanced with the increase of E. Coli O157:H7 concentration. The limit of detection (LOD) of biosensor capable of quantifying E. Coli O157:H7 with good accuracy, precision, and reproducibility was as low as 4.5×10(3)cfu/ml. We expect that the rapid analytical system can be applied in the field of food safety as well as public health. PMID:26592593

  18. Self-assembly of organogels via new luminol imide derivatives: diverse nanostructures and substituent chain effect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Luminol is considered as an efficient sycpstem in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) measurements for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, new luminol imide derivatives with different alkyl substituent chains were designed and synthesized. Their gelation behaviors in 26 solvents were tested as novel low molecular mass organic gelators. It was shown that the length and number of alkyl substituent chains linked to a benzene ring in gelators played a crucial role in the gelation behavior of all compounds in various organic solvents. Longer alkyl chains in molecular skeletons in present gelators are favorable for the gelation of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope observations revealed that the gelator molecules self-assemble into different micro/nanoscale aggregates from a dot, flower, belt, rod, and lamella to wrinkle with change of solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations and hydrophobic forces, depending on the alkyl substituent chains in molecular skeletons. The present work may give some insight to the design and characteristic of new versatile soft materials and potential ECL biosensors with special molecular structures. PMID:23758979

  19. Self-assembly of organogels via new luminol imide derivatives: diverse nanostructures and substituent chain effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Tifeng; Huang, Qinqin; Zhang, Qingrui; Xiao, Debao; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming

    2013-06-01

    Luminol is considered as an efficient sycpstem in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) measurements for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, new luminol imide derivatives with different alkyl substituent chains were designed and synthesized. Their gelation behaviors in 26 solvents were tested as novel low molecular mass organic gelators. It was shown that the length and number of alkyl substituent chains linked to a benzene ring in gelators played a crucial role in the gelation behavior of all compounds in various organic solvents. Longer alkyl chains in molecular skeletons in present gelators are favorable for the gelation of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope observations revealed that the gelator molecules self-assemble into different micro/nanoscale aggregates from a dot, flower, belt, rod, and lamella to wrinkle with change of solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations and hydrophobic forces, depending on the alkyl substituent chains in molecular skeletons. The present work may give some insight to the design and characteristic of new versatile soft materials and potential ECL biosensors with special molecular structures.

  20. Visible chemiluminescence and electroluminescence of porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenkamp, E. A.; Bressers, P. M. M. C.; Kelly, J. J.

    1993-04-01

    The visible luminescence of porous silicon electrodes is reported. Both n-type and p-type material show similar characteristics. Three potential ranges can be distinguished. At open-circuit potential in the presence of certain strong oxidizing agents, e.g. Ce 4+ and MnO -4, emission due to chemiluminescence (CL) occurs. At negative potential in the range of H 2 evolution, hole injection by a strong oxidizing agent, e.g. H 2O 2 and S 2O 2-8, results in electroluminescence (EL). The intensities of CL and EL depend on the applied potential. When porous silicon is anodically oxidized, emission also occurs; this is probably due to CL. Because of the close resemblance of the luminescence of porous silicon to the photo- and chemiluminescence of siloxene, the emission from porous silicon is ascribed to the presence of siloxene or siloxene-like groups. The porous layer can be described as a discrete semiconductor with a large band-gap.

  1. A ratiometric electrochemiluminescence detection for cancer cells using g-C3N4 nanosheets and Ag-PAMAM-luminol nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin-Zhu; Hao, Nan; Feng, Qiu-Mei; Shi, Hai-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a dual-signaling electrochemiluminescence (ECL) ratiometric sensing approach for the detection of HL-60 cancer cells was reported for the first time. G-C3N4 nanosheets and Ag-PAMAM-luminol nanocomposits (Ag-PAMAM-luminol NCs) were prepared and served as reductive-oxidative and oxidative-reductive ECL emitters respectively. DNA probe functionalized Ag-PAMAM-luminol NCs would hybridize with aptamers modified onto magnetic beads. In the presence of HL-60 cells, the aptamer would conjugate with the target cell and release Ag-PAMAM-luminol NCs. After magnetic separation, released Ag-PAMAM-luminol NCs would hybridize with capture DNA on g-C3N4 nanosheets. ECL from g-C3N4 nanosheets coated on ITO electrode at -1.25 V (vs SCE) could be quenched by Ag-PAMAM-luminol NCs due to the resonance energy transfer (RET) from g-C3N4 nanosheets to Ag NPs. Meanwhile, Ag-PAMAM-luminol brought the ECL signal of luminol at +0.45 V (vs SCE). Thus, the concentration of HL-60 cancer cells could be quantified by both the quenching of ECL from g-C3N4 nanosheets and the enhancement of ECL from luminol. By measuring the ratio of ECL intensities at two excitation potentials, this approach could achieve sensitive and reliable detection for cancer cells in a wide range from 200 cells/mL to 9000 cells/mL with the detection limit of 150 cells (S/N=3). PMID:26397417

  2. Differential effects of luminol, nickel, and arsenite on the rejoining of ultraviolet light and alkylation-induced DNA breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Lee-Chen, S.F.; Yu, C.T.; Wu, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    When Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with ultraviolet (UV) light or methyl methane-sulfonate (MMS), a large number of DNA strand breaks could be detected by alkaline elution. These strand breaks gradually disappeared if the treated cells were allowed to recover in a drug-free medium. The presence of nickel or arsenite during the recovery incubation retarded the disappearance of UV-induced strand breaks, whereas the disappearance of MMS-induced strand breaks was retarded by the presence of arsenite or of luminol, a new inhibit for poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase. Luminol, however, had no apparent effect on the repair of UV-induced DNA strand breaks, and nickel had no effect on the repair of MMS-induced DNA strand breaks. When UV- or MMS-treated cells were incubated in cytosine arabinofuranoside (AraC) plus hydroxyurea (HU), a large amount of low molecular weight DNA was detected by alkaline sucrose sedimentation. The molecular weight of these DNAs increased if the cells were further incubated in a drug-free medium. This rejoining of breaks in cells pretreated with UV plus AraC and HU was inhibited by nickel and by arsenite, but not by luminol. The rejoining of breaks in cells pretreated with MMS plus AraC and HU was inhibited by luminol and by arsenite, but not by nickel. These results suggest that different enzymes may be used in DNA resynthesis and/or ligation during the repairing of UV- and MMS-induced DNA strand breaks, and that nickel, luminol, and arsenite may have differential inhibitory effects on these enzymes. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. CHEMILUMINESCENT CHEMI-IONIZATION: Ar* + Ca AND THE CaAr+ EMISSION SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Dennis C.; Winn, John S.

    1980-09-01

    A flowing afterglow chemiluminescence apparatus has been used to analyze visible fluorescence in the Ar* ({sup 3}P{sub 2}{sup o}) + Ca ({sup 1}S{sub 0}) reaction. The rate constants for production of Ca{sup +} ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}{sup o}) and Ca{sup +} ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}{sup o}) were measured to be 1.6 x 10{sup -10} cm{sup 3}-molecule{sup -1} sec{sup -1} and 3.2 x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} sec{sup -1}, respectively. These results demonstrate a transfer of the total electronic angular momentum polarization in Ar* tothe excited ion levels. The molecular band spectrum of the associative ionization product CaAr{sup +} (A{sup 2}{Pi}) was observed. Molecular fluorescence constituted 14% of the total fluorescence from all ion products. This spectrum was analyzed with a model (exp-Z4) potential, yielding, for the ground state, {Chi}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}, R{sub e} = 2.8 {angstrom}, {omega}''{sub e} = 87 cm{sup -1}, and D''{sub e} = 1000 cm{sup -1}, and, for the A{sup 2}{Pi} state, R{sub e} = 2.6 {angstrom}, {omega}'{sub e} = 200 cm{sup -1}, and D'{sub e} = 4900 cm{sup -1}. The nascent internal state distribution in CaAr{sup +} is found to consist of a fairly narrow range of high vibrational levels. The analysis of spectra from chemiluminescent reaction is a well established technique for elucidating the product state distributions of elementary processes. In this paper, they use the analysis of the chemiluminescent chemi-ionization reactions between metastable argon atoms and calcium atoms to expose the dynamics of associative ionization (AI) and to measure the branching ratios for chemi-ionization into more than one product channel.

  4. Free Radical Production in Immune Cell Systems Induced by Ti, Ti6Al4V and SS Assessed by Chemiluminescence Probe Pholasin Assay

    PubMed Central

    P. Cachinho, Sandra C.; Pu, Fanrong

    2012-01-01

    The oxidative burst of human blood cells in the presence of different metal materials was investigated using chemiluminescence assay. Commercial pure titanium (Ti), titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), and stainless steel 316L (SS) in particulate form with <20 μm in size were used. The effect of particulate materials opsonisation on the upregulation of the respiratory burst production by blood cells was also assessed. The largest chemiluminescence response was achieved after simultaneous injection of the stimulants fMLP+PMA. Moreover, Ti and SS induced a greater inflammatory reaction compared to Ti6Al4V, since the respiratory burst mounted was higher for both materials after opsonisation treatment. These results suggest that in vitro chemiluminescence response and respiratory burst measurements proved to be composition and treatment dependent. PMID:22778739

  5. Detection of vitamin C-induced singlet oxygen formation in oxidized LDL using MCLA as a chemiluminescence probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Xing, Da

    2002-01-01

    In this study, it was observed that addition of vitamin C (vit C) to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) by cupric ions (Cu2+) could result in the formation of singlet oxygen (1O2). In experiments, 1O2 was detected by chemiluminescence method using a Cypridina luciferin analog, 2-methyl-6-(p-methoxyphenyl)-3, 7-dihydroimidazo [1, 2-a] pyrazin-3-one (MCLA), as a selective and sensitive chemiluminescence probe. Additional experimental evidence for the formation of 1O2 came from the quenching effect of sodium azide (NaN3) on vit C-induced chemiluminescence in the reaction mixture of LDL-Cu(2+)-MCLA. Analysis based on the experimental results demonstrated the plausible reaction mechanism is that vit C first converts Cu2+ to its reduced state and vit C becomes vit C radical itself, thereby stimulating the formation of peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals, and bimolecular reaction of peroxyl radicals results in 1O2 production in the systems studied. PMID:11958126

  6. Portable device based on chemiluminescence lensless imaging for personalized diagnostics through multiplex bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Roda, Aldo; Mirasoli, Mara; Dolci, Luisa Stella; Buragina, Angela; Bonvicini, Francesca; Simoni, Patrizia; Guardigli, Massimo

    2011-04-15

    A simple and versatile analytical device designed to perform, even simultaneously, different types of bioassays has been developed and optimized. A transparent microfluidics-based reaction chip, where analytes were quantitatively detected by means of biospecific reactions and chemiluminescence detection, was placed in contact with a thermoelectrically cooled CCD sensor through a fiber optic taper. Such a lensless contact imaging configuration combined adequate spatial resolution and high light collection efficiency within a small size portable device. The miniaturization of the reaction chamber ensured short analysis times (in the minutes range), while the use of chemiluminescence detection provided wide signal dynamic range and high detectability, down to attomole levels of protein and femtomole levels of nucleic acid analytes. A model hybrid panel test was realized by combining an enzyme assay for alkaline phosphatase activity, a nucleic acid hybridization assay for Parvovirus B19 DNA, and an immunoassay for horseradish peroxidase as a model antigen. The successful simultaneous quantification of the three targets demonstrated that a range of analytes, from enzymes to antigens, antibodies, and nucleic acids, can be measured in a single run, thus enabling the realization of a complete, personalized diagnostic panel test for early diagnosis of a given disease and patient follow-up. PMID:21434620

  7. Kinetic-spectrometric three-dimensional chemiluminescence as an effective analytical tool. Application to the determination of benzo(a)pyrene.

    PubMed

    Pulgarín, José Antonio Murillo; Bermejo, Luisa F García; García, M Nieves Sánchez; Robles, Ignacio Sánchez-Ferrer

    2011-04-01

    Kinetic and spectroscopic methods were used in combination in this work to develop a new analytical tool for use in chemiluminescence detection processes. Specifically, time-resolved chemiluminescence was used jointly with a stopped-flow assembly in order to monitor the chemiluminescence produced in the oxidation of bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl)oxalate (DNPO) by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Recording of successive two-dimensional spectra during the emission process and treating the acquired spectral data with dedicated software allows the obtainment of three-dimensional chemiluminescence spectra, a result of the joint use of two analytical techniques. Thus, using a flow cell specifically designed for direct coupling to the charge-coupled device (CCD) detector increases the emission intensity without the need for fibre optics. Also, using dedicated software to process the acquired two-dimensional spectra affords a comprehensive kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of the chemiluminescence signal via the three-dimensional spectrum previously obtained. The analytical potential of this new tool was assessed by application to the chemiluminescent reaction between a peroxyoxalate and an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide); the reaction is induced by benzo(a)pyrene, which was used to determine this polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in an organic solvent. A linear calibration graph was obtained between 0.5 and 20 mg L(-1). The limit of detection found to be 3.97 μg L(-1) and a relative standard error of 0.64% and a relative standard deviation of 1.87% were obtained. The results reached testify to the usefulness of the proposed analytical tool for simple determinations and its potential for the resolution of complex mixtures or determinations in complex matrices. PMID:21458634

  8. Aqueous nitrite ion determination by selective reduction and gas phase nitric oxide chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, A. J.; Barkley, R. M.; Sievers, R. E.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An improved method of flow injection analysis for aqueous nitrite ion exploits the sensitivity and selectivity of the nitric oxide (NO) chemilluminescence detector. Trace analysis of nitrite ion in a small sample (5-160 microL) is accomplished by conversion of nitrite ion to NO by aqueous iodide in acid. The resulting NO is transported to the gas phase through a semipermeable membrane and subsequently detected by monitoring the photoemission of the reaction between NO and ozone (O3). Chemiluminescence detection is selective for measurement of NO, and, since the detection occurs in the gas-phase, neither sample coloration nor turbidity interfere. The detection limit for a 100-microL sample is 0.04 ppb of nitrite ion. The precision at the 10 ppb level is 2% relative standard deviation, and 60-180 samples can be analyzed per hour. Samples of human saliva and food extracts were analyzed; the results from a standard colorimetric measurement are compared with those from the new chemiluminescence method in order to further validate the latter method. A high degree of selectivity is obtained due to the three discriminating steps in the process: (1) the nitrite ion to NO conversion conditions are virtually specific for nitrite ion, (2) only volatile products of the conversion will be swept to the gas phase (avoiding turbidity or color in spectrophotometric methods), and (3) the NO chemiluminescence detector selectively detects the emission from the NO + O3 reaction. The method is free of interferences, offers detection limits of low parts per billion of nitrite ion, and allows the analysis of up to 180 microL-sized samples per hour, with little sample preparation and no chromatographic separation. Much smaller samples can be analyzed by this method than in previously reported batch analysis methods, which typically require 5 mL or more of sample and often need chromatographic separations as well.

  9. Lab-on-valve system integrating a chemiluminescent entity and in situ generation of nascent bromine as oxidant for chemiluminescent determination of tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Xu, Ying; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2006-08-15

    A novel configuration of a lab-on-valve (LOV) system was fabricated and applied for chemiluminescence (CL) detection by integrating a demountable Z-type flow cell onto the LOV unit. A bismuthate immobilized microcolumn was incorporated in one port of the LOV for in situ oxidation of KBr and generation of bromine as oxidant for the bromine-hydrogen peroxide-tetracycline (TC) chemiluminescent reaction. The nascent bromine reacts with hydrogen peroxide and produces a weak CL signal, the intensity of which was significantly enhanced in the presence of TC following an energy-transfer mechanism. A novel procedure for tetracycline quantification was therefore developed based on the present system. When compared with the reported flow injection-CL methods for TC, this procedure not only provided an improved detection limit of 2.0 microg L(-)(1) but also minimized sample and reagent consumption. A linear range of 6.0-10 000 microg L(-)(1) was derived along with RSD values of 5.9 (at the concentration level of quantification limit) and 2.2% (at 50 microg L(-)(1)), and a sampling frequency of 120 h(-)(1) was achieved. The system was validated with a National Standard Procedure (GB/T 18932.4-2002, HPLC with UV detection) by measuring TC contents in commercial milk samples. PMID:16906738

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by enhanced chemiluminescence detection for the standardization of estrogenic miroestrol in Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn

    2015-08-01

    Miroestrol (ME) is a potent phytoestrogen from the P. candollei tuberous root. It has been approved for use in clinical trials due to its beneficial effect on disorders associated with estrogen deficiency. To ensure medical efficacy and safety, high performance analytical methods for ME analysis are required to standardize products from the P. candollei root. An enhanced chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ECL-ELISA) was developed and validated using a polyclonal antibody against ME and a chemiluminescent system of luminol-H2 O2 -horseradish peroxidase-4-(1-imidazolyl) phenol. The ECL-ELISA system exhibited linearity over a concentration range of 0.31-10.00 ng mL(-1) , for which the relative standard variation (%RSD) was less than 10% for both intra- and interplate determinations. The ECL-ELISA is reliable for the determination of ME as reflected by the high recovery percentage (101.22-103.06%). As a comparative analysis, the ME content in each sample determined by ECL-ELISA was correlated with high coefficients of determination with colorimetric ELISA (R(2)  = 0.998) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (R(2)  = 0.998) methods. The ECL-ELISA method could be applied to all of the commercial products containing P. candollei root, when the products contain between 0.706 ± 0.046 and 13.123 ± 0.794 µg g(-1) dry wt. of ME. This method is useful as a high performance analytical method for the quantity control of ME in raw materials and end products at both the research and industrial levels. PMID:25363375

  11. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting. PMID:25400895

  12. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of novel lophine derivatives as chemiluminescent in vitro activators for detection of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Elitsa; Kaloyanova, Stefka; Deligeorgiev, Todor; Lesev, Nedyalko

    2015-12-01

    The overproduction of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been proved as a basic damage mechanism and cause for oxidative stress. Their measurement is often hindered by the low signal. This could be resolved with the application of luminescent probes (lophines, luminol, lucigenin, etc.). The focus of this study is to synthesize and describe the spectral properties and physicochemical characteristics of lophine and its derivatives as new chemiluminescent in vitro activators. The prepared luminophores are analogues of lophine. Their absorption maxima are in the range 329-340 nm, with good-to-high extinction coefficients. Their spectral properties are measured in methanol and buffer solutions with pH 3.5, 7.4 and 8.5. Same conditions were applied in the systems for chemiluminescent assay in vitro: (1) Fenton's (Fe(2+)+H2O2) for the generation of ·OH and -OH species, (2) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), (3) Iron (II) sulfate (FeSO4), (4) Glutathione-peroxidase, monitoring the deactivation of H2O2, (5) Ascorbic acid-Fenton's reagent: Vit.C appears a strong oxidant, generating free-radical products when applied in higher than physiological concentrations, (6) Reduced α-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-phenazine methosulfate-for the generation of superoxide radicals (O2 (·-)). Lophine and all novel compounds do not alter the kinetics, except of the dimethyl amino substituted derivative (4-(3a,11b-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylaniline) in the glutathione-peroxidase system, at pH 8.5. Same derivative showed a comparable or higher activity than Lucigenin and Rhodamine 6G. In neutral and acidic medium, in the Fenton's system, Rhodamine 6G was the most appropriate probe. In alkaline pH and oxidant H2O2, Lucigenin induced a signal twice as strong as the signal compared to all other activators. PMID:26224302

  13. Urea Monitor Based on Chemiluminescence and Electrolysis as a Marker for Dialysis Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Masahiro; Okabayashi, Tohru; Ishimaru, Teppei; Hayashi, Kunihito; Hori, Jun'ya; Yamamoto, Isao; Nakagawa, Masuo

    We have developed a practical urea monitor based on a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of urea and hypobromous acid produced by electrolysis of sodium bromide (NaBr) for measuring urea concentration in spent dialysate at set intervals. A reagent containing 4×10-2 M hypobromous acid is produced by electrolysis of an electrolyte containing 5.9 M NaBr and 0.2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Chemiluminescence is emitted by injection of spent hemodialysis fluid (0.11 ml) into the reagent, and the CL-intensity is measured by a photomultiplier tube using the photon counting technique. The CL-intensity is proportional to the 0.9th power of the urea concentration between 7×10-4 and 2×10-2 M. The urea monitor can determine the urea concentration in spent dialysate samples collected from the waste line of a dialyzer, and the time for the intermittent measurements including the cleaning cycle of the reaction chamber is 3 min. The urea concentrations measured by the monitor are in close agreement with those measured by the conventional enzyme colorimetric method using urease for the spent dialysate collected during a hemodialysis treatment, and the correlation coefficient is 0.93.

  14. A chemiluminescence flow immunosensor based on a porous monolithic metacrylate and polyethylene composite disc modified with protein G.

    PubMed

    Jain, Seema Rani; Borowska, Ewa; Davidsson, Richard; Tudorache, Madalina; Pontn, Einar; Emnus, Jenny

    2004-03-15

    A generic, fast, sensitive and new type of flow immunosensor has been developed. The basis is a monolithic porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) polymer disc modified with protein G, placed in a fountain type flow cell compartment, in close proximity to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Analyte and HRP labelled analyte derivative (tracer) compete for anti-analyte antibody binding sites. The mixture is then injected into the flow immunosensor system where the formed analyte- and tracer-antibody complexes are trapped by the monolithic protein G disc. The amount of bound tracer, inversely related to the concentration of analyte in the sample, is determined in a second step by injection of luminol, p-iodophenol and H2O2, generating enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). A third and final step is need for regeneration of the protein G disc so that a new analysis cycle can take place. The performance of the disc immunosensor system was compared with a one step continuous flow injection immunoassay (FIIA) system, using the same reagents and a protein G column, in terms of assay sensitivity and influence of matrix effects from various water samples (millipore-, tap- and surface water). The detection limit for the analyte atrazine in PBS and surface water (SW) was 0.208 +/- 0.004 microg l(-1) (PBS) and 0.59 +/- 0.120 microg l(-1) (SW) for the FIIA and 0.033 +/- 0.003 microg l(-1) (PBS) and 0.038+/-0.003 microg l(-1) (SW) for the disc immunosensor. Statistical comparison of the two systems shows that the disc immunosensor results were significantly less influenced by the sample matrix, which is explained by the fact that the sample in the FIIA arrives simultaneously with the matrix to the detector, whereas these are separated in time in the disc immunosensor system. PMID:15128098

  15. Antioxidant activity of hyaluronic acid investigated by means of chemiluminescence of equine neutrophil bursts and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Braga, P C; Dal Sasso, M; Lattuada, N; Greco, V; Sibilia, V; Zucca, E; Stucchi, L; Ferro, E; Ferrucci, F

    2015-02-01

    Activated neutrophils (PMNs), the ROS/RNS released by PMNs and the derived inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of human inflammatory airway diseases. Similar diseases are also present in horses which suffer from recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) and inflammatory airway diseases (IAD). Hyaluronic acid (HA) plays numerous roles in modulating inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to examine whether a preparation of HA (MW 900 000 Da) interferes with ROS/RNS during the course of equine PMN respiratory bursts, and to establish the lowest concentration at which it still has antioxidant activity by means of luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (LACL). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was also used to investigate the direct antiradical activity of HA. The hydroxyl radical was significantly scavenged in a concentration-dependent manner at HA concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 0.16 mg/mL. Superoxide anion, Tempol radical and the ABTS(•+) were significantly inhibited at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 0.62 mg/mL. The LACL of stimulated equine neutrophils showed that HA induced a statistically significant concentration-effect reduction from 5 mg/mL to 1.25 mg/mL. These findings were confirmed also when l-Arg was added to investigate the inhibition of the resulting peroxynitrite anion. Our findings indicate that, in addition to the human use, HA can also be used to antagonize the oxidative stress generated by free radicals in horses peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In order to achieve therapeutic concentrations, a direct aerosol administration to horses with horse respiratory diseases can be considered, as this route of application is also recommended in human medicine. PMID:25066541

  16. Mechanism of neutrophil chemiluminescence induced by wheat germ agglutinin: partial characterization of the antigens recognized by wheat germ agglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, Y.; Iwata, J.; Ohashi, T.

    1984-11-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) stimulated neutrophils to produce significant levels of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Since WGA is known to bind N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oligomers and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), we attempted to determine which binding property of WGA is essential for induction of CL. The succinylated form of WGA (SuWGA), which is no longer able to bind NANA, was still able to induce CL. N-Acetylglucosamine at a concentration of 20 mmol/L almost completely inhibited WGA-induced CL production by neutrophils, whereas bovine submaxillary gland mucin, a potent blocker of NANA binding of WGA, failed to inhibit CL production. Lectins with the GlcNAc-binding property were examined for their ability to induce CL. Those that have higher valences and have a tendency to bind GlcNAc oligomers in the internal portion of glycoconjugates were able to induce CL, whereas those that have low valences and bind terminal GlcNAc of glycoconjugates failed to induce CL even at high concentrations. Attempts were made to characterize the neutrophil membrane proteins recognized by WGA. Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of 25,000 daltons were identified by a 50 mmol/L GlcNAc elution of WGA gels loaded with /sup 125/I-labeled neutrophil membrane proteins. Elution with 500 mumol/L GlcNAc trimer produced several glycoproteins of different molecular weights in addition to the glycoproteins of 25,000 daltons. /sup 125/I-labeled WGA and SuWGA were used for autoradiographic analysis of cell extracts of the neutrophils separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. WGA recognized multiple glycoproteins of different molecular weights, whereas SuWGA bound only a few of them. Glycoproteins of 25,000 daltons, probably corresponding to those identified by 50 mmol/L GlcNAc elution, were also recognized.

  17. Hairpin assembly-triggered cyclic activation of a DNA machine for label-free and ultrasensitive chemiluminescence detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Qiu, Hongdeng; Zhang, Mingliang; Gu, Tongnian; Shao, Shijun; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-06-15

    DNA plays important regulatory roles in many life activities. Here, we have developed a novel label-free, ultrasensitive and specific chemiluminescence (CL) assay protocol for DNA detection based on hairpin assembly-triggered cyclic activation of a DNA machine. The system involves two hairpin structures, H1 and H2. Firstly, a target DNA binds with and opens the hairpin structure of H1. Then, H2 hybridizes with H1 and displaces the target DNA, which is used to trigger another new hybridization cycle between H1 and H2, leading to the generation of numerous H1-H2 complexes. The generated H1-H2 complexes are further activated with the help of polymerase and nicking enzyme, continuously yielding a large amount of G-riched DNA fragments. The G-riched DNA fragment products interact with hemin to form the activated HRP-mimicking DNAzymes that can catalyze the oxidation of luminol by H2O2 to produce strong CL signal resulting in an amplified sensing process. Our newly proposed homogeneous assay enables the quantitative measurement of p53 DNA (as a model) with a detection limit of 0.85 fM, which is at least 5 orders of magnitude lower than that of traditional unamplified homogeneous optical approaches. Moreover, this assay exhibits high discrimination ability even against a single base mismatch. In addition, this strategy is also capable of detecting p53 DNA in complex biological samples. The proposed sensing approach might hold a great promise for further applications in biomedical research and early clinical diagnosis. PMID:25638797

  18. Chemiluminescence assay for oxidatively modified myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Vuletich, J L; Osawa, Y

    1998-12-15

    Treatment of myoglobin with H2O2 results in covalent alteration of the heme prosthetic group, in part, to protein-bound adducts. These protein-bound heme adducts are known to be redox active and are suspected to participate in oxidative tissue injury. In the course of our studies on the toxicological role of these heme adducts, we sought to develop a sensitive assay for their detection and quantitation. We have discovered that protein-bound heme adducts, due to their inherent peroxidase activity, can be detected with the use of enhanced chemiluminescence detection reagents, following SDS-PAGE and electroblotting. The assay is specific for protein-bound heme adducts as we have identified conditions where noncovalently bound hemes are completely dissociated from the protein during electrophoresis. Signal intensity was quantified by laser densitometry and found to be linear over a concentration range of 0.44-22 pmol of protein-bound heme adduct, which represented a 20-fold greater sensitivity than the currently available HPLC method. Moreover, we have identified tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine as a thiol reducing agent that does not interfere with the detection of the heme-mediated peroxidase activity. The current method may be utilized to identify heme-binding regions of proteins in addition to the detection of oxidatively modified myoglobin. PMID:9882417

  19. Photoinduced chemiluminescence determination of carbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Catalá-Icardo, M; Meseguer-Lloret, S; Torres-Cartas, S

    2016-05-11

    A liquid chromatography method with post-column photoinduced chemiluminescence (PICL) detection is proposed for the simultaneous determination of eight carbamate pesticides, namely aldicarb, butocarboxim, ethiofencarb, methomyl, methiocarb, thiodicarb, thiofanox and thiophanate-methyl. After chromatographic separation, quinine (sensitizer) was incorporated and the flow passed through an UV lamp (67 s of irradiation time) to obtain the photoproducts, which reacted with acidic Ce(iv) and provided a CL emission. The PICL method showed great selectivity for carbamate pesticides containing sulphur in their chemical structure. A solid-phase extraction process increased sensitivity (LODs ranging from 0.06 to 0.27 ng mL(-1)) and allowed the carbamate pesticides in surface and ground water samples to be determined, with recoveries in the range 87-110% (except for thiophanate-methyl, whose recoveries were between 60 and 75%). The intra- and inter-day precision was evaluated, with RSD ranging from 1.1 to 7.5% and from 2.6 to 12.3%, respectively. A discussion about the PICL mechanism is also included. PMID:27079156

  20. A new dual immunoassay for tumor markers based on chemiluminescence signal amplification by magnetic mesoporous silica and enzyme modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiehua; Chu, Pengfei; Wei, Zhijing

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive dual immunoassay was proposed for the determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) based on signal amplification. Monoclonal antibodies immobilized on magnetic mesoporous silica particles (Fe(3)O(4)/SiO(2)) were prepared as the primary probe. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled antibodies co-coated with HRP on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used as the secondary probe to achieve signal amplification. HRP tags were retained in the flow cells after a sandwich immunoassay. By controlling two switches on the two channels, chemiluminescent substrates were injected orderly man way, and then signals for CEA and AFP were sequentially detected by HRP-luminol-H(2)O(2). Due to the increased amount of HRP on AuNPs and the increased amount of monoclonal antibodies on Fe(3)O(4)/SiO(2), the signals were largely amplified. Under the optimal conditions, CEA and AFP could be detected in the linear ranges of 1.0 - 80 and 1.0 - 75 ng mL(-1) with detection limits of 0.25 and 0.5 ng mL(-1), respectively. PMID:22232219

  1. Preparation of polyclonal antibodies for nateglinide (NTG) and development of a sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay to detect NTG in tablets and serum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Song, Zhaorui; Dong, Yaqing; Wang, Yufen; Tong, Zhongsheng; Deng, Chuan; Yin, Yongmei; Meng, Meng; Xi, Rimo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared polyclonal antibodies against anti-diabetic drug nateglinide (NTG), and established a sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) to detect NTG in tablets and serum. Two kinds of immunogens were synthesized using ethylcarbodiimide (EDC)/hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and carbonyldiimidazole (CDI)/4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as coupling reagents respectively. When activated by EDC/NHS, more molecules of NTG coupled with carrier protein in immunogens. A horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-H2O2 system with p-iodophenol enhancement was applied in the CLIA analysis. The antibodies in EDC/NHS group showed higher titer, sensitivity and wider detection linear range than those in CDI/DMAP group, and were chosen for next studies. The developed CLIA assay exhibited good selectivity towards NTG among structually similar analogs. The method could detect as low as 0.35ngmL(-1) NTG in buffer, 2.1ngmL(-1) NTG in serum and 0.84ngmL(-1) NTG in tablets. The CLIA method provided consistent results with HPLC method (r=0.9986) in determination of NTG from 5.0 to 400µgmL(-1). The CLIA method could detect 78 samples in one assay, and the samples need only dilution in pretreatment. As a summary, this research offers a sensitive assay for high-throughout screening of NTG in formulation control and pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:26695294

  2. Application of horse-radish peroxidase linked chemiluminescence to determine the production mechanism of Shiga-like toxins by E. coli O157:H7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Uknalis, Joseph; Gehring, Andrew; He, Yiping

    2007-09-01

    A sandwiched immunoassay consisting of toxin capture by immunomagnetic beads (IMB) and toxin detection by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) linked chemiluminescence was used to follow the production of Shiga-like toxins (SLT) by E. coli O157:H7. The intensity of luminescence generated by the oxidation of luminol-liked compounds was used to represent the concentration of toxins produced. The time-course of SLT production by E. coli O157:H7 under different conditions was investigated. In pure culture, optimal generation of SLT showed a significant delay than the steady state of cell growth. In mixed cultures of SLT producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-SLT producing E. coli K-12 strain, the production of toxins was substantially decreased. However, the growth of E. coli O157:H7 was not affected by the presence of K-12 strain. This decrease in SLT production was also observed in radiation-sterile ground beef. In regular ground beef that might contain numerous other bacteria, the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in EC media was not significantly affected but the lowered production of SLT was observed. The results showed that mechanism of inducing SLT production was complex with both the growth time and growth environment could influence SLT production. The addition of homo-serine lactone to the growth media enhanced the production of SLT. Thus, possibly cell-cell communication may have a role in SLT production by E. coli O157:H7.

  3. A new strategy for the detection of adenosine triphosphate by aptamer/quantum dot biosensor based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zi-Ming; Yu, Yong; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-09-21

    We designed an aptasensor for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET). An adenosine aptamer was cut into two pieces of ssDNA, which were attached to quantum dots (QDs) and horse radish peroxidase (HRP), respectively. They could reassemble into specific structures in the presence of ATP and then decrease the distance of HRP and QDs. ATP detection can be easily realized according to the fluorescent intensity of QDs, which is excited by CRET between luminol and QDs. Results show that the concentration of ATP is linear relation with the fluorescent intensity of the peak of QDs emission and the linear range for the linear equation is from 50 μM to 231 μM and the detection limit was 185 nM. When the concentration of ATP was 2 mM, the efficiency of CRET is 13.6%. Good specificity for ATP had been demonstrated compared to thymidine triphosphate (TTP), cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), when 1 mM of each was added, respectively. This method needs no external light source and can avoid autofluorescence and photobleaching, and ATP can be detected selectively, specifically, and sensitively in a low micromolar range, which means that the strategy reported here can be applicable to the detection of several other target molecules. PMID:22832507

  4. Enhanced chemiluminescence CdSe quantum dots by histidine and tryptophan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Morteza; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Jarrahi, Afsaneh; Vaezi, Zahra; Mizani, Farhang; Faridbod, Farnoush

    2014-11-01

    The enhancing effect of histidine and tryptophan on chemiluminescence (CL) of CdSe quantum dots (QDs)-H2O2 system was studied. This reaction is based on the catalytic effect of amino acids, causing a significant increase in the light emission, as a result of the reaction of quantum dots (QDs) with hydrogen peroxide. In the optimum conditions, this method was satisfactorily described by linear calibration curve in the range of 0.66-35.5 μM and 0.83-35.1 μM for histidine and tryptophan, respectively. The effect of various parameters such as concentration of CdSe QDs, concentration of H2O2 and concentration of imidazole on the intensity of CL system were studied. The main experimental advantage of the proposed method is it's selective to two amino acids compared with other amino acids.

  5. Chemiluminescence detection of cannabinoids and related compounds with acidic potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Holland, Brendan J; Francis, Paul S; Li, Bingshan; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Adcock, Jacqui L; Barnett, Neil W; Conlan, Xavier A

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of chemiluminescence from the reaction of cannabinoids with acidic potassium permanganate, which we have applied to the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of cannabidiol (CBD) in industrial-grade hemp. The intensities of the light-producing reactions with two commercially available cannabinoid standards were compared to that of seven model phenolic analytes. Resorcinol, representing the parent phenolic moiety of the cannabinoid class, was shown to react with the permanganate reagents in a manner more similar to phenol than to its hydroxyphenol positional isomers, pyrocatechol and hydroquinone. Alkyl substituents on the phenolic ring, however, have a considerable impact on emission intensity that is dependent upon the position of the groups and the composition of the permanganate reagent. This analytical approach has potential for the determination of other cannabinoids including Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol in drug-grade cannabis. PMID:22461321

  6. Feasibility of chemiluminescence as photodynamic therapy dosimetor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yanfang; Xing, Da; Zhong, Xueyun; Zhou, Jin; Luo, Shiming; Chen, Qun

    2006-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes light energy of a proper wavelength to activate a pre-administered photosensitizer in a target tissue to achieve a localized treatment effect. Current treatment protocol of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is defined by empirical values such as irradiation light fluence, fluence rate and the amount of administered photosensitizer. It is well known that Singlet oxygen is the most important cytotoxic agent responsible for PDT biological effects. An in situ monitoring of singlet oxygen production during PDT would provide a more accurate dosimeter for PDT. The presented study has investigated the feasibility of using Fhioresceinyl Cypridina Luciferin Analog (FCLA), a singlet oxygen specific chemiluminescence (CL) probe, as a dosimetric tool for PDT. Raji lymphoma cell suspensions were sensitized with Photofrin (R) of various concentrations and irradiated with 635 nm laser light at different fluence rates. FCLA-CL from singlet oxygen produced by the treatment was measured, in real time, with a photon multiplier tube (PMT) system, and linked to the cytotoxicity resulting from the treatment. We have observed that the CL intensity of FCLA is dependent on the PDT treatment parameters. After each PDT treatment and CL measurement, the irradiated cells were evaluated by MIT assay for their Viability. The results show that the cell viability is highly related to the accumulated CL. With 10 II quencher, we confirmed that the CL was mainly related to PDT produced 10 II The results suggest that the FCLA-CL system can be an effective means in measuring PDT 1O II production and may provide an alternative dosimetry technique for PDT.

  7. Directional surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence from nickel thin films: Fixed angle observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberg, Micah; Aslan, Kadir; Hortle, Elinor; Geddes, Chris D.

    2009-04-01

    Directional surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence (SPCC) from nickel thin films is demonstrated. Free-space and angular-dependent SPCC emission from blue, green and turquoise chemiluminescent solutions placed onto nickel thin films attached to a hemispherical prism were measured. SPCC emission was found to be highly directional and preferentially p-polarized, in contrast to the unpolarized and isotropic chemiluminescence emission. The largest SPCC emission for all chemiluminescence solutions was observed at a fixed observation angle of 60°, which was also predicted by theoretical Fresnel calculations. It was found that nickel thin films did not have a catalytic effect on chemiluminescence emission.

  8. Carbon nanostructures as catalytic support for chemiluminescence of sulfur compounds in a molecular emission cavity analysis system.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Maleki, Norouz; Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi; Koleini, Mohammad Mehdi

    2009-06-30

    The effect of different substrates including stainless steel, activated carbon, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), fullerenes (C60, C70, etc.) and SWCNTs doped with iron and palladium nanoparticles were compared for catalytic chemiluminescence reaction of sulfur compounds in a flame-containing cavity of molecular emission cavity analysis (MECA) system. Different forms of CNT substrates were fabricated using electric arc-discharge method. The blue emission of excited S2 was monitored using a CCD camera. The results demonstrate that, due to the high surface area, plenty of basal planes, high thermal conductivity, and high flexibility of the carbon nanostructure as appropriate support, carbon nanostructures play an important role in catalytic chemiluminescence emission of sulfur compounds in MECA. Moreover, the presence of metallic nanoparticles doped on carbon nanostructures enhances their catalytic effect. The results revealed that under similar conditions, SWCNTs/Pd doped nanoparticles, SWCNTs/Fe doped nanoparticles, SWCNTs, MWCNTs and fullerenes have the most catalytic effects on chemiluminescence of sulfur compounds, respectively. PMID:19463563

  9. Chemiluminescence detection of MDMA in street drug samples using tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III).

    PubMed

    Theakstone, Ashton G; Smith, Zoe M; Terry, Jessica M; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    Tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence was investigated for the detection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and several related compounds in street drug samples. Optimization using flow injection analysis showed that the selectivity of the reagent can be targeted towards the detection of secondary amines by altering the pH of the reaction environment. The greater selectivity of this mode of detection, compared to UV-absorbance, reduces the probability of false positive results from interfering compounds. The detection limit for MDMA under these conditions was 0.48 μM. A HPLC method incorporating post-column tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection was applied to the determination of MDMA in five street drug samples. The results obtained were in good agreement with quantification performed using traditional UV-absorbance detection, which demonstrates the viability of this method for confirmatory analysis of drug samples. This is the first report of tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence for the detection of MDMA and related amphetamine derivatives. PMID:25755176

  10. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  11. Photoluminescence, chemiluminescence and anodic electrochemiluminescence of hydrazide-modified graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongqiang; Dai, Ruiping; Dong, Tongqing; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2014-09-01

    Single-layer graphene quantum dots (SGQDs) were refluxed with hydrazine (N2H4) to prepare hydrazide-modified SGQDs (HM-SGQDs). Compared with SGQDs, partial oxygen-containing groups have been removed from HM-SGQDs. At the same time, a lot of hydrazide groups have been introduced into HM-SGQDs. The introduced hydrazide groups provide HM-SGQDs with a new kind of surface state, and give HM-SGQDs unique photoluminescence (PL) properties such as blue-shifted PL emission and a relatively high PL quantum yield. More importantly, the hydrazide-modification made HM-SGQDs have abundant luminol-like units. Accordingly, HM-SGQDs exhibit unique and excellent chemiluminescence (CL) and anodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL). The hydrazide groups of HM-SGQDs can be chemically oxidized by the dissolved oxygen (O2) in alkaline solutions, producing a strong CL signal. The CL intensity is mainly dependent on the pH value and the concentration of O2, implying the potential applications of HM-SGQDs in pH and O2 sensors. The hydrazide groups of HM-SGQDs can also be electrochemically oxidized in alkaline solutions, producing a strong anodic ECL signal. The ECL intensity can be enhanced sensitively by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The enhanced ECL intensity is proportional to the concentration of H2O2 in a wide range of 3 μM to 500 μM. The detection limit of H2O2 was calculated to be about 0.7 μM. The results suggest the great potential applications of HM-SGQDs in the sensors of H2O2 and bio-molecules that are able to produce H2O2 in the presence of enzymes.Single-layer graphene quantum dots (SGQDs) were refluxed with hydrazine (N2H4) to prepare hydrazide-modified SGQDs (HM-SGQDs). Compared with SGQDs, partial oxygen-containing groups have been removed from HM-SGQDs. At the same time, a lot of hydrazide groups have been introduced into HM-SGQDs. The introduced hydrazide groups provide HM-SGQDs with a new kind of surface state, and give HM-SGQDs unique photoluminescence (PL) properties such as blue-shifted PL emission and a relatively high PL quantum yield. More importantly, the hydrazide-modification made HM-SGQDs have abundant luminol-like units. Accordingly, HM-SGQDs exhibit unique and excellent chemiluminescence (CL) and anodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL). The hydrazide groups of HM-SGQDs can be chemically oxidized by the dissolved oxygen (O2) in alkaline solutions, producing a strong CL signal. The CL intensity is mainly dependent on the pH value and the concentration of O2, implying the potential applications of HM-SGQDs in pH and O2 sensors. The hydrazide groups of HM-SGQDs can also be electrochemically oxidized in alkaline solutions, producing a strong anodic ECL signal. The ECL intensity can be enhanced sensitively by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The enhanced ECL intensity is proportional to the concentration of H2O2 in a wide range of 3 μM to 500 μM. The detection limit of H2O2 was calculated to be about 0.7 μM. The results suggest the great potential applications of HM-SGQDs in the sensors of H2O2 and bio-molecules that are able to produce H2O2 in the presence of enzymes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images of SGQDs and HM-SGQDs (Fig. S1), FT-IR spectra of SGQDs and HM-SGQDs (Fig. S2), UV-vis and PL emission spectra of R-SGQDs (Fig. S3), cathodic ECL responses of SGQD, R-SGQDs and HM-SGQDs (Fig. S4), and the pH effect on the anodic ECL responses of HM-SGQDs (Fig. S5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02539c

  12. Peroxynitrous-acid-induced chemiluminescence detection of nitrite based on Microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Xiong; Lin, Yitong; Zheng, Yongzan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2016-07-01

    A chemiluminescent method for nitrite detection was developed on microfluidic chip. Carbon dots-NaNO2(-) acidified H2O2 system was adopted. Chemiluminescence (CL) spectrum of this system was detected. The radiative recombination of hole-injected and electron-injected carbon dots explained their CL property. Spiral microchannels were designed on the microfluidic chip to allow enough reaction time for the carbon dots-NaNO2-acidified H2O2 system. Carbon dots and NaNO2 were premixed in the branch microchannel, then, the mixture reacted with acidified H2O2 in spiral microchannels. Concentrations of H2SO4 and H2O2, dilution ratio of carbon dots in H2O and flow rate were optimized to obtain the best CL signals. The approach presented satisfactory linear relationship between NaNO2 concentration and CL intensity. The tolerance of metal ions in determination of 1×10(-5)M nitrite was analyzed. The nitrites in water and beverage samples were successfully analyzed on the microfluidic chip with good repeatability. The data were well accordance with the results obtained from GB 5009.33(-) 2010. This microfluidic CL detection method is believed to be a simple, automatic and agent-save approach for inorganic ion analysis. PMID:27154650

  13. Determination of oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/) in cigarette smoke by chemiluminescent analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Gill, B.E.

    1980-05-01

    The successful application of a commercial chemiluminescent No/sub x/ analyzer to the determination of oxides of nitrogen in cigarette smoke is reported. Individual puffs of the smoke vapor phase are rapidly diluted in an air stream before introduction into the analyzer. This acts to both reduce quenching of the chemiluminescent response by CO/sub 2/ and to prevent side reactions of the NO/sub x/ with vapor phase organic constituents. Sweeping the dilute smoke through a reduced silver-ion exchange resin bed removed a substantial positive interference from hydrogen cyanide. A range of deliveries of 3 to 47 ..mu..mol of NO/sub x/ per cigarette was observed for nine types of experimental cigarettes. Statistically significant differences between NO/sub x/ and NO levels (NO/sub x/ - NO = NO/sub 2/) in smoke were observed in only one type of cigarette, presumably due to large cigarette-to-cigarette variability in constituent deliveries. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Multiwell cartridge with integrated array of amorphous silicon photosensors for chemiluminescence detection: development, characterization and comparison with cooled-CCD luminograph.

    PubMed

    Mirasoli, Mara; Nascetti, Augusto; Caputo, Domenico; Zangheri, Martina; Scipinotti, Riccardo; Cevenini, Luca; de Cesare, Giampiero; Roda, Aldo

    2014-09-01

    We propose a disposable multiwell microcartridge with integrated amorphous silicon photosensors array for bio- and chemiluminescence-based bioassays, where the enzymatic reactions and the detection unit are coupled on the same glass substrate. Each well, made in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) unit, hosts an enzymatic reaction that is monitored by one photosensor of the array. Photosensors were characterized in terms of their dark current background noise and response to different wavelengths of visible light in order to determine their suitability as detection devices for chemical luminescent phenomena. Calibration curves of the photosensors' response to different luminescent systems were then evaluated by using the chemiluminescent reactions catalyzed by alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase and the bioluminescent reaction catalyzed by firefly luciferase. Limits of detection in the order of attomoles for chemiluminescence enzymes and femtomoles for luciferase and sensitivities in the range between 0.007 and 0.1 pA pmol(-1) L were reached. We found that, without the need of cooling systems, the analytical performances of the proposed cartridge are comparable with those achievable with state-of-the-art thermoelectrically cooled charge-coupled device-based laboratory instrumentation. In addition, thanks to the small amount of generated output data, the proposed device allows the monitoring of long-lasting reactions with significant advantages in terms of data-storage needs, transmission bandwidth, ease of real-time signal processing and limited power consumption. Based on these results, the operation in model bioanalytical assays exploiting luminescent reactions was tested demonstrating that a-Si:H photosensors arrays, when integrated with PDMS microfluidic units, provide compact, sensitive and potentially low-cost microdevices for chemiluminescence and bioluminescence-based bioassays with a wide range of possible applications for in-field and point-of-care bio-analyses. PMID:24965161

  15. Development of a new procedure for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations employing chemiluminescence and a multicommuted flow analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Lima, Manoel J A; Fernandes, Ridvan N; Tanaka, Auro A; Reis, Boaventura F

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a new technique for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations, implemented by employing multicommuted flow analysis. The analytical procedure was based on the reaction between hypochlorite and captopril. The remaining hypochlorite oxidized luminol that generated electromagnetic radiation detected using a homemade luminometer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this reaction has been exploited for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical products, offering a clean analytical procedure with minimal reagent usage. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure was confirmed by analyzing a set of pharmaceutical formulations. Application of the paired t-test showed that there was no significant difference between the data sets at a 95% confidence level. The useful features of the new analytical procedure included a linear response for captopril concentrations in the range 20.0-150.0 µmol/L (r = 0.997), a limit of detection (3σ) of 2.0 µmol/L, a sample throughput of 164 determinations per hour, reagent consumption of 9 µg luminol and 42 µg hypochlorite per determination and generation of 0.63 mL of waste. A relative standard deviation of 1% (n = 6) for a standard solution containing 80 µmol/L captopril was also obtained. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26136382

  16. Chemiluminescence. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning several forms of chemiluminescence, including stress-induced, laser-induced, and electrogenerated. Air pollution measurement instrumentation is described, and measurements of hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, vinyl chloride, and other atmospheric contaminants are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DOCUMENT FOR THE CHEMILUMINESCENCE MEASUREMENT OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas phase chemiluminescence has been designated as the reference measurement principle for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the ambient atmosphere. Continuous analyzers based on this measurement principle may be calibrated with NO2 either from the gas phase titration ...

  18. Scanning laser vibrometry and luminol photomicrography to map cavitational activity around ultrasonic scalers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felver, Bernhard; King, David C.; Lea, Simon C.; Price, Gareth J.; Walmsley, A. Damien

    2008-06-01

    Ultrasonic dental scalers are clinically used to remove deposits from tooth surfaces. A metal probe, oscillating at ultrasonic frequencies, is used to chip away deposits from the teeth. To reduce frictional heating, water flows over the operated probe in which a bi-product, cavitation, may be generated. The aim of this study is characterise probe oscillations using scanning laser vibrometry and to relate the recorded data to the occurrence of cavitation that is mapped in the course of this research. Scanning laser vibrometry (Polytec models 300-F/S and 400-3D) was used to measure the movement of various designs of operating probes and to locate vibration nodes / anti-nodes at different generator power settings and contact loads (100g and 200g). Cavitation mapping was performed by photographing the emission from a luminol solution with a digital camera (Artemis ICX285). The scaler design influences the number and location of vibration node / anti-node points. For all ultrasonic probes, the highest displacement amplitude values were recorded at the tip. The highest amounts of cavitation around the probes were recorded at the second anti-node measured from the tip. Broad, beaver-tale shaped probes produced more cavitation than slim shaped ones. The design also influences the amount of inertial cavitation around the operated instrument. The clinical relevance is that broad, beaver-tale shaped probes are unlikely to reach subgingival areas of the tooth. Further research is required to design probes that will be clinically superior to cleaning this area of the tooth.

  19. A new chemiluminescence method for determination of clonazepam and diazepam based on 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichi, M. J.; Alijanpour, S. O.

    2014-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) reaction, Benzodiazepines-H2O2-1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper, for determination of clonazepam and diazepam at nanogram per milliliter level in batch-type system have been described. The method relies on the catalytic effect of 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper on the chemiluminescence reaction of Benzodiazepines, the oxidation of Benzodiazepines with hydrogen peroxide in natural medium. The influences of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, the ratio of 1-Ethyl-3 Methylimidazolium ethylsulfate concentration to copper ion, the type of buffer and the concentration of CL reagents were investigated. Under the optimum condition, the proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of these drugs in tablets and urine without the interference of their potential impurities.

  20. Peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence enhanced by oligophenylenevinylene fluorophores in the presence of various surfactants.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshiya, Jiro; Takigawa, Setsuko

    2014-11-01

    The effect of several surfactants on peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) using oligophenylenevinylene fluorophores was investigated. Among several oligophenylenevinylenes consisting of stilbene units, linearly conjugated ones, such as distyrylbenzene and distyrylstilbene, effectively enhanced PO-CL efficiency. Various effects of anionic, cationic, amphoteric and non-ionic surfactants on the CL efficiency of PO-CL were determined using three oxalates and the distyrylbenzene fluorophore. Anionic and non-ionic surfactants effectively enhanced CL efficiency, in contrast to the negative effect of cationic and amphoteric surfactants. Non-ionic surfactants were also effective in CL reactions of oxalates bearing dodecyl ester groups by the hydrophobic interaction between their alkyl chains. Considering these results, the surfactants not only increase the concentrations of water-insoluble interacting species in the hydrophobic micelle cores, but also control rapid degradation of the oxalates by alkaline hydrolysis. PMID:24425305

  1. Plasmonic luminescent core-shell nanocomposites-enhanced chemiluminescence arising from the decomposition of peroxomonosulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Xue, Wei; Lu, Chao; Li, Hai-fang; Zheng, Yongzan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-12-01

    A core-shell structure of plasmonic luminescent nanocomposite, Ni@SiO2@FITC@SiO2 (NSFS) combining the stable luminescence of fluorophore with the excellent plasmonic property of metal nanomaterials, has been synthesized through layer-by-layer assembly. The effect of NSFS on the ultraweak chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) was explored for the first time. It was found that the CL intensity from the decomposition of peroxomonosulfite was significantly enhanced by NSFS. The mechanism of the nanocomposite-enhanced CL was revealed as the coupling of chemically induced excited states of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with surface plasmons of Ni nanoparticles based on studies of CL emission spectra, electron spin resonance spectra, extinction spectra and fluorescence spectra. The work sheds new light on the characteristics of the versatile materials and gives us new insight into the optical properties of fluorophores.

  2. Chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay based on Pt nanoparticle with peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Min; Jung, Ha-Wook; Chang, Young Wook; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-01

    A lateral flow immunoassay (LF-immunoassay) with an enhanced sensitivity and thermostability was developed by using Pt nanoparticles with a peroxidase activity. The Pt nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate reduction method, and the peroxidase activity of Pt nanoparticles was optimized by adjusting reaction conditions. The peroxidase activity was estimated by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics model with TMB as a chromogenic substrate. The kinetics parameters of KM and Vmax were calculated and compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The thermal stability of the Pt nanoparticles was compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) according to the storage temperature and long-term storage period. The feasibility of lateral flow immunoassay with a chemiluminescent signal band was demonstrated by the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a model analyte, and the sensitivity was determined to be improved by as much as 1000-fold compared to the conventional rapid test based on colored gold-colloids. PMID:25467480

  3. Contrasting electrogenerated chemiluminescence for a dissolved and surface-attached carbazole thiophene cyanoacrylate dye.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B; Parkinson, B A

    2014-09-10

    The electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of a carbazole thiophene cyanoacrylate dye ((2-cyano-3-[5"'-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-3',3",3"',4-tetra-n-hexyl-[2,2',5',2",5",2"']-quarter-thiophenyl-5yl]acrylate) = MK-2) has been investigated in solution, where the maximum ECL wavelength occurs at 640 nm, and in a thin film on an ITO surface, where the ECL is substantially red-shifted to 730 nm. The ECL intensity for the solution annihilation reaction is relatively weak, whereas a much higher ECL intensity is measured with oxalate as a co-reactant. This result is attributed to the two Nernstian reversible oxidation waves of the thiophene moiety of MK-2, whereas the reduction is stabilized by the unblocked carbazole and cyanoacrylate groups. PMID:25123214

  4. Potassium permanganate-glutaraldehyde chemiluminescence system catalyzed by gold nanoprisms toward selective determination of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim

    2016-02-01

    Gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) are shown to exert a positive effect on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of permanganate aldehydes. Interestingly, between various shapes examined, Au nanoprisms have the highest beneficial effect. This effect is even more notable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the NP shapes and sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that iron(III) ions can slightly increase CL emission of this system. This intensification is very effective in the presence of fluoride ions (F(-)). These observations form the basis of the method for the high sensitive determination of F(-) in the 6-1200 nmol L(-1) concentration range, with a detection limit of 2.1 nmol L(-1). The proposed method has good precision and was satisfactorily used in the selective determination of low concentrations of fluoride ion in real samples. PMID:26110514

  5. Plasmonic luminescent core-shell nanocomposites-enhanced chemiluminescence arising from the decomposition of peroxomonosulfite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Xue, Wei; Lu, Chao; Li, Hai-fang; Zheng, Yongzan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-12-01

    A core-shell structure of plasmonic luminescent nanocomposite, Ni@SiO2@FITC@SiO2 (NSFS) combining the stable luminescence of fluorophore with the excellent plasmonic property of metal nanomaterials, has been synthesized through layer-by-layer assembly. The effect of NSFS on the ultraweak chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) was explored for the first time. It was found that the CL intensity from the decomposition of peroxomonosulfite was significantly enhanced by NSFS. The mechanism of the nanocomposite-enhanced CL was revealed as the coupling of chemically induced excited states of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with surface plasmons of Ni nanoparticles based on studies of CL emission spectra, electron spin resonance spectra, extinction spectra and fluorescence spectra. The work sheds new light on the characteristics of the versatile materials and gives us new insight into the optical properties of fluorophores. PMID:23973578

  6. Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence of Mo/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/(PMe/sub 3/)/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, J.; Zietlow, T.C.; Hopkins, M.D.; Fan, F.R.F.; Gray, H.B.; Bard, A.J.

    1986-07-31

    The electrochemical behavior and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ecl) of Mo/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/(PMe/sub 3/)/sub 4/ in tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile solutions have been investigated. Oxidation to the +1 cation and reduction to the -1 anion occur in quasi-reversible and reversible cyclic voltammetric waves, respectively. The oxidation product undergoes a subsequent chemical reaction, while the reduction product is stable. Emission is produced by the electron-transfer reaction between the +1 and -1 species; this emission is characteristic of /sup 1/(deltadelta/sup */) Mo/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/(PMe/sub 3/)/sub 4/ with emission lambda/sub max/ 680 nm. The ecl efficiency (photons produced per electron consumed) is 0.002. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence has been observed in acetonitrile solution by the reaction of electrogenerated Mo/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/(PMe/sub 3/)/sub 4//sup -/ with the strongly oxidizing intermediate, SO/sub 4//sup -/, generated by reduction of S/sub 2/O/sub 8//sup 2 -/.

  7. Whole and strip nitrocellulose membrane as well as a new-line-immunoblotting of antigen using the chemiluminescence technique.

    PubMed

    Dorri, Yaser; Khalili, Ali W; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of techniques in the scientific world that researchers use to detect specific antigens. One such technique that has provided many advantages over typical immunochemical staining is chemiluminescence. The emission of visible radiation by compounds once exposed to sunlight has been known for centuries and currently is the main principle for chemiluminescence. Here, we introduce three different chemiluminescence techniques that are widely used in immunodetection of antigens: (a) whole membrane chemiluminescence detection, (b) strip membrane chemiluminescence detection, and (c) new line blotting chemiluminescence. PMID:19378079

  8. Gas-phase chemiluminescence and chemi-ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fontijn, A.

    1985-01-01

    The phenomena of chemiluminescence (or more broadly chemi-excitation) and chemi-ionization have major similarities from a fundamental kinetic and dynamic point of view. However, since the former has primarily been investigated using optical spectroscopic techniques and the latter largely by mass spectroscopic (and other gaseous electronic) methods, the two phenomena have apparently never, explicitly been discussed together in one volume. In addition to a number of review articles on each individual subject, several meetings and books have had chemiluminescence and bioluminescence as their theme and those have been dominated by condensed phase work. On the other hand, chemi-ionization is often discussed in the contest of gaseous electronics, plasma chemistry and combustion. It is the goal of this book to present a more unified understanding of the two phenomena.

  9. Ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence tomography in biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kikuchi, Naoto; Sato, Akihiro

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports ultrasound-assisted optical imaging of chemiluminescent probes in biological tissue. A focused low power ultrasound sonochemically enhances a peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (CL) that involves indocyanine green (ICG) as luminescent pigments. By scanning the focus, it produces tomographic images of CL in scattering media. The authors demonstrate imaging using a slab of porcine muscle measuring 50×50×75mm, in which a capsuled CL reagent is embedded at 25mm depth. Spatial resolution of imaging and concentration characteristics of CL reagents to enhanced CL intensity are also studied to evaluate the potential for use in bio-imaging applications with exploring the CL enhancement mechanisms. CL enhancement ratio, defined as the ratio of ultrasonically enhanced CL intensity to the base intensity without ultrasound irradiation, was found to be constant even in varying ICG and oxidizer concentrations, implying to be applicable for quantitative determination of these molecules. PMID:26964918

  10. In Vivo Chemiluminescent Imaging Agents for Nitroreductase and Tissue Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian; Campbell, James; Liu, Li; Mason, Ralph P; Lippert, Alexander R

    2016-05-01

    Tissue oxygenation is a driving parameter of the tumor microenvironment, and hypoxia can be a prognostic indicator of aggressiveness, metastasis, and poor response to therapy. Here, we report a chemiluminescence imaging (CLI) agent based on the oxygen-dependent reduction of a nitroaromatic spiroadamantane 1,2-dioxetane scaffold. Hypoxia ChemiLuminescent Probe 2 (HyCL-2) responds to nitroreductase with ∼170-fold increase in luminescence intensity and high selectivity for enzymatic reductase versus other small molecule reductants. HyCL-2 can image exogenous nitroreductase in vitro and in vivo in living mice, and total luminescent intensity is increased by ∼5-fold under low oxygen conditions. HyCL-2 is demonstrated to report on tumor oxygenation during an oxygen challenge in H1299 lung tumor xenografts grown in a murine model as independently confirmed using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) imaging of hemoglobin oxygenation. PMID:27054463

  11. Electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on multifunctional luminol-capped AuNPs@Fe3O4 nanocomposite for the detection of mucin-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Xi; Zhuo, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a novel and multifunctional nanocomposite of luminol capped gold modified Fe3O4 (Lu-AuNPs@Fe3O4) was utilized as the carrier of secondary antibody (Ab2) to fabricate a sandwiched electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of mucin-1 (MUC1). Herein, the luminol capped gold nanoparticles (Lu-AuNPs) were synthesized with HAuCl4 and luminol by the help of NaBH4 at room temperature, and then Lu-AuNPs were adsorbed on the Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to form the nanocomposite of Lu-AuNPs@Fe3O4 via electrostatic interaction. Fe3O4 MNPs in Lu-AuNPs@Fe3O4 exhibited excellent conductivity and admirable catalytic activity in H2O2 decomposition, which could enhance the ECL efficiency of luminol-H2O2 system. In addition, the substrates of gold coated ZnO nanoparticles (AuNPs@ZnO), providing large specific surface areas for primary antibody (Ab1) capturing, were modified on the electrode. As a result, a wide linear range of 7 orders of magnitude from 10 fg/mL to 10 ng/mL was obtained with an ultralow detection limit of 4.5 fg/mL for MUC1. PMID:25950936

  12. A dual-potential electrochemiluminescence ratiometric approach based on graphene quantum dots and luminol for highly sensitive detection of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui-Fang; Liang, Ru-Ping; Wang, Jing-Wu; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2015-08-14

    A novel Au NP mediated dual-potential ECL ratiometric approach for highly sensitive protein kinase activity and inhibition assay has been developed based on the simultaneous decrease of cathodic ECL from GQDs and enhancement of anodic ECL from luminol in the same bioanalysis. PMID:26160048

  13. Electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer between an emitter electrochemically generated by luminol as the donor and luminescent quantum dots as the acceptor and its biological application.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Li, Mingyue; Sun, Yuming; Li, Jun; Sun, Li; Zou, Guizheng; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jin, Wenrui

    2011-08-01

    Novel electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECRET) between an emitter electrochemically generated by luminol as the donor and luminescent quantum dots as the acceptor is investigated. The ECRET technique can be used to study the interactions and conformational changes of proteins. PMID:21637886

  14. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of isoluminol and acridinium esters in flow injection analysis and HPLC. [HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography)

    SciTech Connect

    Littig, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) is the process in which electrochemically generated reactants undergo high energy electron transfer reactions in solution to generate excited state molecules which relax to the ground state with emission of light. This research focused on the study and application of the electrogenerated chemiluminescence reactions of isoluminol and acridinium esters. Initial research involved the ECL reaction of an isoluminol derivative, 4-isothiocyanatophythalhydrazide (ILITC). The derivative was synthesized and characterized prior to use as a label for amino acid determination. Chromatographic separation of ILITC-amino acids preceded the ECL detection. A drastic reduction in ECL efficiency was observed upon coupling of ILITC to the amino acid analytes. Experiments suggested that although an ILITC-amino acid coupling reaction occurs, the resultant product has lost CL activity. Additional studies illustrated a correlation between CL activity and the conditions used to couple ILITC to the analyte. In spite of difficulties associated with loss of CL activity, the ECL determination of ILITC-amino acids (1 nmol) and the feasibility of on-line analyte derivatization were demonstrated. The ECL reaction of acridinium esters was studied and shown to proceed via the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide. In further fundamental studies of the acridinium ester decomposition reactions, kinetic parameters associated with this decay were determined and applied in a model for pH optimization. The use of ECL for the determination of acridinium ester-labeled species was demonstrated via the successful quantitation (to 50 fmol) of lysine labeled with a hydroxysuccinimide acridinium ester. Instrumental configurations for use of ECL detection in immunoassay were validated; however, loss of ECL signal in the presence of BSA and human TSH antibodies hindered application of acridinium ester ECL detection to model immunoassay reactions.

  15. Chemiluminescent visualization of superoxide generated by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Masui, S; Majima, T; Nakamura, K; Ito-Kuwa, S; Takeo, K; Aoki, S

    2004-10-01

    The high toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) suggested a possible role in the pathogenicity of human pathogenic fungi. We previously reported a chemiluminescence method for measuring ROS generation in Candida albicans. In the present study, we attempted to visualize the ROS, superoxide anion radical (O2-), generated by paraquat (PQ)-stimulated C. albicans using methyl-Cypridina-luciferin analog (MCLA) as a chemiluminescence probe. Colonies of a wild-type C. albicans parent strain and its respiration-deficient mutant grown on agar plates were overlaid with a mixture of PQ and MCLA solutions. MCLA-dependent light emission from the colonies was recorded with a Hamamatsu ultralow-light-imaging apparatus with a CCD camera in a light-tight box. In the wild-type strain, marginal regions of growing colonies were strongly illuminated. The light emission from the colonies was extinguished by superoxide dismutase (SOD), proving that the light emission was strictly due to the superoxide anion. However, colonies of the respiration-deficient mutant poorly generated superoxide. Chemiluminecence measurements by a luminometer showed vigorous superoxide generation by the exponential phase cells of the parent strain but weak generation by the stationary phase cells. In the mutant, superoxide generation was weak compared with the parent strain. These results indicate that expansion of the colonies was due to the actively respiring cells located in the marginal regions. To our knowledge, the present report is the first chemiluminescent visualization of ROS including superoxide generated by C. albicans. PMID:15552644

  16. Determination of oxytetracycline by flow injection with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liangqia; Xie, Zenghong; Bian, Xintong; Lin, Xucong; Zhang, Weilin; Liu, Xiaohua; Chen, Guonan

    2005-01-01

    A flow-injection chemiluminescent method for the determination of oxytetracycline was developed. The method is based on an enhancement by oxytetracycline of the chemiluminescence light emission of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium (II), generated by the continuous oxidation of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium (II) by cerium (IV) sulphate in sulphuric acid. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear over the range 1.0 x 10(-7)-1.0 x 10(-5) g/mL for oxytetracycline with the linear equation: DeltaINT = 148.77 x C + 0.6637 (R2 = 0.9994). The detection limit was 4.52 x 10(-8) g/mL. The proposed method was also successfully used to determine oxytetracycline in pharmaceutical formulations. The mean recovery of determination of oxytetracycline was 92.73%. A mechanism for the chemiluminescence enhancement by oxytetracycline of tris(2,2'-bipyridine)-ruthenium (II) and cerium (IV) sulphate system is also proposed. PMID:15924315

  17. Determination of puerarin in biological samples and its application to a pharmacokinetic study by flow-injection chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ran; Wang, Qingwen; Zeng, Huajin; Qin, Zao; Li, Jianjun; Qu, Lingbo

    2011-01-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection-chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method has been developed for the determination of puerarin, based on the fact that puerarin can greatly inhibit CL of the luminol-H₂O₂-haemoglobin system. The inhibition of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of the concentration of puerarin in the range 0.08-10.0 μg/mL (r²  = 0.9912). The limit of detection was 0.05 μg/mL (3σ) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 1.0 μg/mL (n = 11) of puerarin solution was 1.4%. Coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) as the sample pretreatment, the determination of puerarin in biological samples and a preliminary pharmocokinetic study of puerarin in rats were performed. The recoveries for plasma and urine at three different concentrations were 89.2-110.0% and 91.4-104.8%, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of puerarin in plasma of rat coincides with the two-compartment open model. The T(½α) , T(½β) , CL/F, V(Z/F), AUC(₀₋t), MRT₀₋∞, T(max) and C(max) were 0.77 ± 0.21 h, 7.55 ± 2.64 h, 2.43 ± 1.02 L/kg/h, 11.40 ± 3.45 L/kg, 56.67 ± 10.65 mg/h/L, 5.04 ± 2.78 h, 1.00 ± 0.35 h and 19.70 ± 4.67 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:21547999

  18. Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2011-09-07

    Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.

  19. Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruping; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Zhao; Liu, Guohua

    2013-11-01

    We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1-30 ng mL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL(-1). The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the "diagnostic gray zone" of serum f-PSA levels (4-10 ng mL(-1)). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL(-1)). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum. PMID:24139579

  20. High-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging of ignition through a shock tube end-wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troutman, V. A.; Strand, C. L.; Campbell, M. F.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Miller, V. A.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2016-03-01

    A high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging diagnostic was developed to image the structure and homogeneity of combustion events behind reflected shock waves in the Stanford Constrained Reaction Volume Shock Tube. An intensified high-repetition-rate imaging system was used to acquire images of OH* chemiluminescence (near 308 nm) through a fused quartz shock tube end-wall window at 10-33 kHz during the combustion of n-heptane (21 % O2/Ar, φ = 0.5). In general, the imaging technique enabled observation of the main ignition event in the core of the shock tube that corresponded to typical markers of ignition (e.g., pressure rise), as well as localized ignition near the wall that preceded the main core ignition event for some conditions. Case studies were performed to illustrate the utility of this novel imaging diagnostic. First, by comparing localized wall ignition events to the core ignition event, the temperature homogeneity of the post-reflected shock gas near the end-wall was estimated to be within 0.5 % for the test condition presented (T=1159 hbox {K}, P=0.25 hbox {MPa}). Second, the effect of a recession in the shock tube wall, created by an observation window, on the combustion event was visualized. Localized ignition was observed near the window, but this disturbance did not propagate to the core of the shock tube before the main ignition event. Third, the effect of shock tube cleanliness was investigated by conducting tests in which the shock tube was not cleaned for multiple consecutive runs. For tests after no cleaning was performed, ignition events were concentrated in the lower half of the shock tube. In contrast, when the shock tube was cleaned, the ignition event was distributed around the entire circumference of the shock tube; validating the cleaning procedure.

  1. Chemiluminescence of CdTe nanocrystals catalyzed by sodium hexametaphosphate and its sensitive application for determination of estrogens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lun; Yuan, Fei; Chen, Hong-Qi; Ling, Bo; Xu, Juan

    2012-06-01

    A novel flow injection nanocrystals (NCs) chemiluminescence (CL) analysis method has been established for the determination of estradiol, estriol and estrone based on the enhancement of CdTe NCs-KMnO(4) CL reaction catalyzed by sodium hexametaphosphate. Glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe nanocrystals were synthesized in aqueous medium, and the CdTe NCs emitted at around 555 nm was selected as the light emitter in CdTe NCs-KMnO(4) chemiluminescence (CL) system. It has been found that sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) enhanced the CL of the CdTe NCs-KMnO(4) system and estrogens increased these CL signals again in near neutral solution. UV-visible spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and CL spectra were used to characterize CdTe nanoparticles and investigate the mechanism of the CL reaction. On the basis of the enhancement, a novel flow-injection CL method has been established for the determination of estrogens. Under the optimum experimental conditions, three linear relationships were obtained. The method described is simple, sensitive, and has been successfully utilized for the determination of estrogens in tap water samples. PMID:22387679

  2. Chemiluminescence of CdTe nanocrystals catalyzed by sodium hexametaphosphate and its sensitive application for determination of estrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lun; Yuan, Fei; Chen, Hong-Qi; Ling, Bo; Xu, Juan

    2012-06-01

    A novel flow injection nanocrystals (NCs) chemiluminescence (CL) analysis method has been established for the determination of estradiol, estriol and estrone based on the enhancement of CdTe NCs-KMnO4 CL reaction catalyzed by sodium hexametaphosphate. Glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe nanocrystals were synthesized in aqueous medium, and the CdTe NCs emitted at around 555 nm was selected as the light emitter in CdTe NCs-KMnO4 chemiluminescence (CL) system. It has been found that sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) enhanced the CL of the CdTe NCs-KMnO4 system and estrogens increased these CL signals again in near neutral solution. UV-visible spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and CL spectra were used to characterize CdTe nanoparticles and investigate the mechanism of the CL reaction. On the basis of the enhancement, a novel flow-injection CL method has been established for the determination of estrogens. Under the optimum experimental conditions, three linear relationships were obtained. The method described is simple, sensitive, and has been successfully utilized for the determination of estrogens in tap water samples.

  3. The molecular dynamics of atmospheric reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information about the chemistry of the upper atmosphere took the form of quantitative data concerning the rate of reaction into specified states of product vibration, rotation and translation for exothermic reaction, as well as concerning the rate of reaction from specified states of reagent vibration, rotation and translation for endothermic reaction. The techniques used were variants on the infrared chemiluminescence method. Emphasis was placed on reactions that formed, and that removed, vibrationally-excited hydroxyl radicals. Fundamental studies were also performed on exothermic reactions involving hydrogen halides.

  4. A novel selenium nanoparticles-enhanced chemiluminescence system for determination of dinitrobutylphenol.

    PubMed

    Iranifam, M; Fathinia, M; Sadeghi Rad, T; Hanifehpour, Y; Khataee, A R; Joo, S W

    2013-03-30

    A novel selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs)-amplified chemiluminescence (CL) reaction, Se NPs-potassium permanganate-dinitrobutylphenol (DNBP), for the determination of DNBP at gram per milliliter level is described. In the present study, it was found that direct reaction of DNBP with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in the acidic mediums elicited light emission, which was greatly enhanced by selenium nanoparticles. Under optimum conditions, the CL intensity is linearly related to the concentration of DNBP in the range of 1.0×10(-7)-8.0×10(-5)g mL(-1) with a detection limit (3σ) of 3.1×10(-8) g mL(-1). The relative standard deviation for 11 determinations of 2.5×10(-5) gm L(-1) DNBP is 2.07%. The Se NPs were prepared by the chemical hydrothermal method. It was found that catalytic properties of Se NPs were higher than those of microparticles (MPs). In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the Se NPs. Appropriate sensitivity, selectivity and precision were among notable features of the proposed method. The method was successfully applied to the determination of DNBP in the water samples of different origins. Moreover, the possible mechanism for the new CL reaction was also discussed. PMID:23598221

  5. Aggregation-induced structure transition of protein-stabilized zinc/copper nanoclusters for amplified chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Ling; Li, Haifang; Li, Jianzhang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2015-02-24

    A stable, water-soluble fluorescent Zn/Cu nanocluster (NC) capped with a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was synthesized and applied to the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. A significantly amplified chemiluminescence (CL) from the accelerated decomposition of peroxymonocarbonate (HCO4(-)) by the nanosluster was observed. The CL reaction led to a structure change of BSA and aggregation of Zn/Cu NCs. In the presence of H2O2, Zn/Cu-S bonding between BSA scaffolds and the encapsulated Zn/Cu@BSA NC was oxidized to form a disulfide product. Zn/Cu@BSA NCs were prone to aggregate to form larger nanoparticles without the protection of scaffolds. It is revealed that the strong CL emission was initiated from the catalysis of Zn/Cu@BSA NC and the surface plasmon coupling of the formed Zn/Cu nanoparticles in a single chemical reaction. This amplified CL was successfully exploited for selective sensing of hydrogen peroxide in environmental samples. PMID:25647180

  6. Dot blot chemiluminescence assay for studying food protein binding to small intestinal brush border membranes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bolte, G; Knauss, M; Metzdorf, I; Stern, M

    1997-06-01

    Interactions of food proteins with the apical membrane of small intestinal epithelial cells can influence enterocytic antigen handling. For studying these interactions in vitro, isolated brush border membrane vesicles are a widely accepted model. In order to improve measurement of food protein binding, we developed a sensitive dot blot chemiluminescence assay. This assay comprises immobilization of membrane vesicles on nitrocellulose, detection of bound biotinylated food proteins by a peroxidase-catalyzed chemiluminescence reaction, and densitometric quantitation of signal intensities. By using this assay, saturation of brush border membrane binding of food proteins (gliadin peptides, alpha-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin) was demonstrated. Inhibition studies indicated components of specific membrane binding of gliadin peptides, alpha-casein and beta-lactoglobulin, whereas aggregation tendency of ovalbumin interfered with inhibition experiments. Maximal binding intensities of gliadin peptides (22.2 +/- 1.2 densitometric units (d.u.)/microgram membrane protein), alpha-casein (27.9 +/- 1.7 d.u./microgram) and ovalbumin (21.3 +/- 1.6 d.u./microgram) were comparable to sugar-specific lectin binding (range from 23.4 to 35.1 d.u./microgram), in contrast to significantly less binding of beta-lactoglobulin (6.8 +/- 0.6 d.u./microgram). The dot blot chemiluminescence assay is appropriate for characterizing interactions between food proteins and brush border membranes. Its sensitivity makes investigation of pathological membrane alterations possible. Besides, it might be useful for any studies defining ligand-membrane interactions. PMID:9314097

  7. Development of magnetic particle-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the detection of 17beta-estradiol in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tian-Bing; Wang, Xu; Jin, Hui; Liang, Shu-Xuan; Lin, Jin-Ming; Li, Zhen-Jia

    2009-09-01

    In the present work, a simple, fast, and highly sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for 17beta-estradiol (E2) in environmental water samples was developed, using magnetic particles (MPs) labeled with secondary antibody as both the immobilization matrix and the separation tools. The specific anti-E2 polyclonal antibody (PcAb) was produced against a conjugate of estradiol-bovine serum albumin. The specificity of the anti-E2 antibody was studied. The results showed that the antibody did not cross-react with the structurally related endocrine-disrupting compounds, including estrone, ethinyl E2, estriol, E2-17-glucuronide, E2-3-sulfate-17-glucuronide, androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone. The water samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction using C18 cartridges for the removal of matrix effects. Several physicochemical parameters including the dilution ratios of E2-6-horseradish peroxidase conjugate and anti-E2 PcAb, immunoreaction time, volume of chemiluminescent substrate and MPs, chemiluminescence reaction time, and pH of assay solution were studied and optimized. At optimal experimental conditions, it was found that the proposed method exhibited high performance with detection limit of 2.0 pg/mL, linear range of 20-1,200 pg/mL, and total assay time of 45 min. Both inter- and intra-assay coefficient of variation were less than 10%. The average recoveries of three different spiked concentration samples ranged from 86.3% to 108%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of E2 in river, waste, and tap water, and showed a good correlation with the commercially available radioimmunoassay kit. PMID:18841499

  8. Crystallochemiluminescence of solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, A. P.; Nekrasova, L. P.; Gornakova, A. S.; Shikunova, I. A.

    2014-09-01

    It is shown that the chemiluminescence intensity from luminol solutions reaches a maximum when the latter are crystallized. This phenomenon is explained by the complex dynamics of the phase transition, chemical reactions, and degradation of electronic excitation energy. Luminescence of new type, called crystallochemiluminescence, is revealed.

  9. Immunoblotting of Antigens: Whole, Strip, and New-Line Nitrocellulose Membrane Immunoblotting Using the Chemiluminescence Technique.

    PubMed

    Dorri, Yaser

    2015-01-01

    Antigen detection is a well-known tool in the scientific world that is used by clinicians and researchers to detect specific antigens in diagnosing diseases or for other medical/environmental discoveries. Antigen detection is introduced in various forms over the past decades. These techniques are often evaluated by their sensitivity, accuracy, and ease of use. One technique that has provided many advantages over typical immunochemical staining is the use of chemiluminescence. This technique has been used in various scientific fields, anywhere from clinical diagnosis to environmental research. The emission of visible radiation by compounds once exposed to sunlight has been known for centuries and currently is the main principle for chemiluminescence. Here, we introduce three different chemiluminescence techniques that are widely used in immunodetection of antigens: (a) whole membrane chemiluminescence detection, (b) strip membrane chemiluminescence detection, and PMID:26139257

  10. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence immunosensor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac based on Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianping; Xu, Qian; Wei, Xiaoping; Hao, Zaibin

    2013-02-20

    A highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for Cry1Ac was fabricated. The primary antibody anti-Cry1Ac was immobilized onto core-shell structural Fe(3)O(4)@Au nanoparticles. The antigen and glucose-oxidase-labeled secondary antibody were then successively combined to form sandwich-type immunocomplexes through a specific interaction. The magnetic particles loaded with sandwich immune complexes were attracted to a magnet-controlled glass carbon electrode (GCE) by an external magnet applied on top of the GCE. ECL was generated by the reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide derived from the enzymatic reaction in the presence of glucose. The sensors exhibited high sensitivity and a wide linear range for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac detection from 0 to 6 ng/mL, as well as a detection limit of 0.25 pg/mL (S/N = 3). The sensor is one of the most sensitive sensors for Cry1Ac, which can be easily renewed and conveniently used. PMID:23317307

  11. Low-level chemiluminescence of hydroperoxide-supplemented cytochrome c

    PubMed Central

    Cadenas, Enrique; Boveris, Alberto; Chance, Britton

    1980-01-01

    Ferricytochrome c showed low-level chemiluminescence, with a light-emission measured of about 1×103–3×103 counts/s, when supplemented with organic hydroperoxides. Tertiary hydroperoxides (cumene hydroperoxide and t-butyl hydroperoxide) showed a saturation behaviour at about 5mm-hydroperoxide, whereas primary hydroperoxides showed a quadratic dependence on the hydroperoxide concentration. Chemiluminescence depended linearly on cytochrome c concentration, and optimal light-emission was observed at [t-butyl hydroperoxide]/[ferricytochrome c] ratios of 160–500. Hydroperoxide-supplemented ferricytochrome c consumed O2 at a rate of 1.0μmol/min per μmol of cytochrome c; the rate of O2 uptake was linearly related to the concentration of cytochrome c. The Soret absorption band of ferricytochrome c decreased about 64% after incubation with t-butyl hydroperoxide, whereas the 530nm band was almost totally abolished. Light-emission was (a) inhibited competitively by cyanide. (b) inhibited by singlet-oxygen quenchers (e.g. β-carotene), scavengers (e.g. dimethylfuran) and traps (e.g. histidine and tryptophan) and (c) increased by singlet-oxygen-chemiluminescence enhancer 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]-octane. Superoxide dismutase had no effect on the present system. The participation of free radicals is suggested by the effect of the radical trap 2,5-di-t-butylquinol. Singlet-oxygen dimol emission seems to be mainly responsible for the observed light-emission; a mechanism that can account for the major part of the present experimental observations is proposed. PMID:6250533

  12. Selective determination of acenaphthylene by flow injection analysis with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Lee, Sang Hak

    2007-11-30

    A simple, rapid flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method has been developed for selective determination of acenaphthylene (ACY), based on the CL produced in the reaction of tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) (Ru(bipy)3(3+)) and ACY in an acidic buffer solution. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear over the range 5.0 x 10(-3) to 4.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) for ACY. The detection limit (S/N=3) was 2.0 x 10(-7)mol L(-1) and the relative standard deviation of 10 replicate measurements was 2.3% for 5.0 x 10(-5)mol L(-1) of ACY. Selectivity of CL reaction of ACY from other 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated by flow injection method. The method was applied to determine the ACY content in soil. PMID:18371639

  13. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from PbS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liangfeng; Bao, Lei; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Bartnik, Adam C; Zhong, Yu-Wu; Reed, Jason C; Pang, Dai-Wen; Abruña, Héctor D; Malliaras, George G; Wise, Frank W

    2009-02-01

    We report the first observation of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) from PbS quantum dots (QDs). Different ECL intensities are observed for different ligands used to passivate the QDs, which indicates that ECL is sensitive to surface chemistry, with the potential to serve as a powerful probe of surface states and charge transfer dynamics in QDs. In particular, passivation of the QD surfaces with trioctylphosphine (TOP) increases ECL intensity by 3 orders of magnitude when compared to passivation with oleic acid alone. The observed overlap of the ECL and photoluminescence spectra suggests a significant reduction of deep surface trap states from the QDs passivated with TOP. PMID:19115964

  14. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using ProteinA-bacterial magnetite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Sato, Rika; Kamiya, Shinji; Tanaka, Tsuyosi; Takeyama, Haruko

    1999-04-01

    Bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) which have ProteinA expressed on their surface were constructed using magA which is a key gene in BMP biosynthesis in the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum sp. AMB-1. Homogenous chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using antibody bound ProteinA-BMP complexes was developed for detection of human IgG. A good correlation between the luminescence yield and the concentration of human IgG was obtained in the range of 1-10 3 ng/ml.

  15. High sensitivity arsenic analyzer based on liquid-reagent-free hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection for on-site water analysis.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abul; Jodai, Takuma; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Wakuda, Kazuo; Toda, Kei

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a portable and reliable instrument based on manual hydride generation and subsequent ozone induced chemiluminescence analysis was developed and optimized for measurement of aqueous arsenic in drinking water. The aim was to develop a system for use in the field in villages in developing countries where water treatment systems have been installed. Consequently, it is beneficial that the system could be operated without reagent solutions or purified water. Arsenic trihydride (arsine) was generated by reaction with solid acid and solid borohydride, and then introduced to a chemiluminescence cell where the arsine was mixed with ozone to generate chemiluminescence. The measurement could be repeated with the throughput of 60 times h(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.4 µg L(-1). The measurable arsenic concentration was up to 1 mg L(-1) for 2 mL samples. The system was evaluated for analysis of natural water samples, and the obtained data agreed well with those from ICP-MS and sequential hydride generation flow analysis. We expect this small and inexpensive instrument will be used in developing countries. PMID:21747182

  16. High specific activity chemiluminescent and fluorescent markers: their potential application to high sensitivity and 'multi-analyte' immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Ekins, R; Chu, F; Micallef, J

    1989-07-01

    The sensitivities of immunoassays relying on conventional radioisotopic labels (i.e. radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) permit the measurement of analyte concentrations above ca 10(7) molecules/ml. This limitation primarily derives, in the case of 'competitive' or 'limited reagent' assays, from the 'manipulation errors arising in the system combined with the physicochemical characteristics of the particular antibody used; however, in the case of 'non-competitive' systems, the specific activity of the label may play a more important constraining role. It is theoretically demonstrable that the development of assay techniques yielding detection limits significantly lower than 10(7) molecules/ml depends on: (1) the adoption of 'non-competitive' assays designs; (2) the use of labels of higher specific activity than radioisotopes; (3) highly efficient discrimination between the products of the immunological reactions involved. Chemiluminescent and fluorescent substances are capable of yielding higher specific activities than commonly used radioisotopes when used as direct reagent labels in this context, and both thus provide a basis for the development of 'ultra-sensitive', non-competitive, immunoassay methodologies. Enzymes catalysing chemiluminescent reactions or yielding fluorescent reaction products can likewise be used as labels yielding high effective specific activities and hence enhanced assay sensitivities. A particular advantage of fluorescent labels (albeit one not necessarily confined to them) lies in the possibility they offer of revealing immunological reactions localized in 'microspots' distributed on an inert solid support. This opens the way to the development of an entirely new generation of 'ambient analyte' microspot immunoassays permitting the simultaneous measurement of tens or even hundreds of different analytes in the same small sample, using (for example) laser scanning techniques. Early experience suggests that microspot assays with sensitivities surpassing that of isotopically based methodologies can readily be developed. PMID:2801243

  17. Determination of vitamin B6 using an optimized novel TCPO-indolizine-H2O2 chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Chaichi, M J; Ehsani, M; Asghari, S; Behboodi, V

    2014-12-01

    Indolizine derivatives are of great interest as fluorescent emitters for peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence. The reaction of peroxyoxalates such as bis-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) with H2O2 can transfer energy to fluorescer via the formation of dioxetanedione intermediate. Four indolizine derivatives were used as a novel fluorescer in the chemiluminescence (CL) systems in this study. The relationship between CL intensity and the concentration of fluorescer, peroxyoxalate, sodium salicylate and hydrogen peroxide was investigated. Optimum conditions were obtained for four fluorescers and it was found that the indolizine can be used as an efficient green fluorescence emitter. Vitamin B6 induces a sharp decrease in the CL intensity of the TCPO-hydrogen peroxide-sodium salicylate system. A simple, rapid and sensitive CL method for the determination of vitamin B6 has been developed. The results showed a linear relationship between vitamin B6 concentration and peroxyoxalate CL intensity in the range 7.0 × 10(-8) -1.0 × 10(-4) . A detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-8) M and relative standard deviation (RSD) of < 4.5% were obtained. PMID:24976299

  18. Evaluation of Single Column Trapping/Separation and Chemiluminescence Detection for Measurement of Methanethiol and Dimethyl Sulfide from Pig Production

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Toda, Kei; Obata, Tomoaki; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds are considered to be important odorants from pig production due to their low odor threshold values and low solubility in slurry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of a portable method with a single silica gel column for trapping/separation coupled with chemiluminescence detection (SCTS-CL) for measurement of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to evaluate the trapping/separation. The silica gel column used for the SCTS-CL efficiently collected hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The measurement of methanethiol by SCTS-CL was clearly interfered by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide found in pig production, and a removal of hydrogen sulfide was necessary to obtain reliable results. Air samples taken from a facility with growing-finishing pigs were analyzed by SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and a gas chromatograph with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD) to evaluate the SCTS-CL. The difference between the concentrations of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide measured with SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and GC-SCD was below 10%. In conclusion, the SCTS-CL is a portable and low-cost alternative to the commercial methods that can be used to measure methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. PMID:22997603

  19. Dye/peroxalate aggregated nanoparticles with enhanced and tunable chemiluminescence for biomedical imaging of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Deok; Lim, Chang-Keun; Singh, Ajay; Koh, Joonseok; Kim, Jungahn; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Sehoon

    2012-08-28

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is an endogenous molecule that plays diverse physiological and pathological roles in living systems. Here we report multimolecule integrated nanoprobes with the enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) response to H(2)O(2) that is produced in cells and in vivo. This approach is based on the nanoscopic coaggregation of a dye exhibiting aggregation-enhanced fluorescence (AEF) with a H(2)O(2)-responsive peroxalate that can convert chemical reaction energy into electronic excitation. The coaggregated CL nanoparticles (FPOA NPs) with an average size of ~20 nm were formulated by aqueous self-assembly of a ternary mixture of a surfactant (Pluronic F-127) and concentrated hydrophobic dye/peroxalte payloads. Spectroscopic studies manifest that FPOA NPs as a reagent-concentrated nanoreactor possess the signal enhancement effect by AEF, as well as the optimized efficiencies for H(2)O(2) peroxalate reaction and subsequent intraparticle energy transfer to the dye aggregates, to yield greatly enhanced CL generation with a prolonged lifetime. It is shown that the enhanced CL signal thereby is capable of detecting intracellular H(2)O(2) overproduced during immune response. We also demonstrate that the densely integrated nature of FPOA NPs facilitates further intraparticle CL energy transfer to a low-energy dopant to red shift the spectrum toward the biologically more transparent optical window, which enables the high-sensitivity in vivo visualization of H(2)O(2) associated with early stage inflammation. PMID:22747065

  20. Method for detecting pollutants. [through chemical reactions and heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.; Conway, E. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for detecting and measuring trace amounts of pollutants of the group consisting of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in a gaseous environment. A sample organic solid material that will undergo a chemical reaction with the test pollutant is exposed to the test environment and thereafter, when heated in the temperature range of 100-200 C., undergoes chemiluminescence that is measured and recorded as a function of concentration of the test pollutant. The chemiluminescence of the solid organic material is specific to the pollutant being tested.

  1. Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2004-01-01

    A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

  2. Fully Automated Quantification of Insulin Concentration Using a Microfluidic-Based Chemiluminescence Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Liu, Zhu; Tung, Steve; Dong, Zaili; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    A fully automated microfluidic-based detection system for the rapid determination of insulin concentration through a chemiluminescence immunoassay has been developed. The microfluidic chip used in the system is a double-layered polydimethylsiloxane device embedded with interconnecting micropumps, microvalves, and a micromixer. At a high injection rate of the developing solution, the chemiluminescence signal can be excited and measured within a short period of time. The integral value of the chemiluminescence light signal is used to determine the insulin concentration of the samples, and the results indicate that the measurement is accurate in the range from 1.5 pM to 391 pM. The entire chemiluminescence assay can be completed in less than 10 min. The fully automated microfluidic-based insulin detection system provides a useful platform for rapid determination of insulin in clinical diagnostics for diabetes, which is expected to become increasingly important for future point-of-care applications. PMID:25824205

  3. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for the determination of sulfamethoxydiazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Yan, Nali; Qu, Lingbo; Zhang, Hongquan

    2011-10-01

    Sulfamethoxydiazine (SMD), which is often used for animal disease treatment, is harmful to human health. No SMD residue should be detected in food in some countries, such as USA and Japan. Therefore, it is significant to develop a high-throughput, high-sensitivity and accurate method for the determination of the content of SMD in food. In this paper, chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for quantification of SMD. For this method, the limit of detection was 3.2 pg/ml, the linear range was from 10 to 2000 pg/ml, the within-day and inter-day precision were below 13% and below 18%, respectively, and the recovery was from 85% to 105%. Milk and egg were selected as samples to be examined with this method, and the result indicated that this CLEIA method was suitable for screening and quality control of food.

  4. Chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND) to measure kinetic aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Kestranek, Aimee; Chervenak, Andrew; Longenberger, Justin; Placko, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Solubility is the dose-limiting property for in vitro studies, and therefore is a critical physicochemical property to measure in drug discovery. Solubility data can be used to guide lead optimization, troubleshoot erratic bioassay results, and identify potential downstream liabilities such as insufficient solubility for bioassays or oral bioavailability. Typically, early in vitro studies are performed using library compounds prepared as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) stock solutions, resulting in in vitro test solutions containing DMSO at low concentration (<5% v/v). Since DMSO can affect the apparent solubility, it is desirable to obtain solubility data under conditions mimicking the in vitro study. Kinetic solubility (from DMSO stock solutions) is often preferred over thermodynamic solubility (from dry powder) in early drug discovery. The protocols in this article describe a general procedure for assessing kinetic aqueous solubility of early drug discovery compounds using a miniaturized shake flask method with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND). PMID:24391097

  5. Ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Meador, Michael A.; Morales, Wilfredo

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin film microoxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing .001 M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period, or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity was inversely proportional to test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  6. Chemiluminescent Detection of Enzymatically Produced H2S

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, T. Spencer; Pluth, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule. To better understand the multifaceted biological roles of H2S, the development of selective and sensitive biocompatible assays for H2S is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by these challenges, our laboratory is developing new methods to further detect and monitor biological H2S. Here, we describe in detail our recent advances in the development and the use of chemiluminescence-based H2S sensors to assist other investigators with use of these chemical tools. We highlight the use of these tools use by displaying their selectivity and high sensitivity toward H2S and provide examples of assays we have developed to detect enzymatically produced H2S. PMID:25725517

  7. Transient OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging of Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Jeffrey; Sevilla, Cristhian; Smolke, Jennifer; Sung, Aaron; Chen, Kelvin; Smith, Owen; Karagozian, Ann

    2011-11-01

    This study focuses on combustion of liquid fuel droplets during exposure to external acoustic disturbances generated as standing waves within a closed acoustic waveguide. During such acoustic excitation, the mean flame orientation is observed to be dependent on the droplet's location relative to the pressure node (PN), and is consistent with the sign of a theoretical acoustic acceleration acting on the burning system. Yet experimentally estimated acoustic accelerations, measured from the degree of mean flame deflection, differ substantially in a quantitative sense from those predicted by theory.Phase-locked OH* chemiluminescence imaging reveals a deflected flame which oscillates in position relative to the droplet, with the largest degree of oscillation near the PN. A range of acoustic forcing frequencies and droplet locations are used to investigate flame movement over multiple acoustic cycles. The degree of flame oscillation, mean flame deflection angle, and fuel droplet burning rate all correlate with one another for different relative positions of the droplet. Supported by AFOSR.

  8. Application of a Chemiluminescence Detector for the Measurement of Total Oxides of Nitrogen and Ammonia in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgeson, J. A.; Bell, J. P.; Rehme, K. A.; Krost, K. J.; Stevens, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    By means of the thermal conversion of nitrogen dioxide to the nitric oxide, the chemiluminescent nitric oxide monitor, based on the nitric oxide plus ozone reaction, may be used for monitoring nitrogen dioxide plus nitric oxide (NO(x)). Under conditions previously described, ammonia is also converted to nitric oxide and therefore interferes. A metal surface, gold wool or stainless steel, operated at two different temperatures has been used to convert only nitrogen dioxide or nitrogen dioxide plus ammonia. Quantitative conversion of nitrogen dioxide to nitric oxide has been obtained at temperatures as low as 200 C. Conversion of ammonia is effected at temperatures of 300 C or higher. By the addition of a converter the basic nitric oxide monitor may be used for measuring NO(x) or NO(x) plus ammonia. As an alternate mode, for a fixed high temperature, a specific scrubber is described for removing NH3 without affecting NO2 concentrations.

  9. Feasibility study for rocket ozone measurements in the 50 to 80 km region using a chemiluminescent technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, P.

    1973-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the feasibility of increasing sensitivity for ozone detection. The detection technique employed is the chemiluminescent reaction of ozone with a rhodamine-B impregnated disk. Previously achieved sensitivities are required to be increased by a factor of about 20 to permit measurements at altitudes of 80 km. Sensitivity was increased by using a more sensitive photomultiplier tube, by increasing the gas velocity past the disk, by different disk preparation techniques, and by using reflective coatings in the disk chamber and on the uncoated side of the glass disk. Reflective coatings provided the largest sensitivity increase. The sum of all these changes was a sensitivity increased by an estimated factor of 70, more than sufficient to permit measurement of ambient ozone concentrations at altitudes of 80 km.

  10. SO 32--based chemiluminescence in unbuffered solution with ClO 2 as oxidant and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoxin; Deng, Qingwen; Xu, Chunli

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, SO 32--chemiluminescence (CL) system in unbuffered solution with ClO 2 as oxidant is proposed. ClO 2 could oxidize sulfite in unbuffered solution to produce CL emission, and riboflavin could sensitize the ClO 2-SO 32--based CL system. The ClO 2-SO 32--riboflavin CL reaction was chosen as a model system and explored the possibility of SO 32--based CL system in unbuffered solution. Compared with the reported SO 32--based CL system in strong acid media, the proposed CL system owns its advantages. Combined with flow-injection analysis, the proposed CL system was applied to measurement of riboflavin in pharmaceuticals.

  11. Simple and sensitive method for determination of glycoalkaloids in potato tubers by high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Saito, Keiitsu; Niina, Nobumitsu; Yamazaki, Shigeo; Tanaka, Youichi

    2005-12-23

    A novel, simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the potato glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, based on the chemiluminescent reaction of tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) has been developed. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 5 ng/ml-10 microg/ml for both alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. The detection limits of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine were 1.2 and 1.3 ng/ml, respectively. This method was successfully applied to a potato tuber sample without cleanup, pre-concentration, and derivatization steps. The recoveries (mean +/- standard deviation, %) of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine spiked in tuber pith at 10 microg/g (n = 6) were 101.0 +/- 4.4% and 103.6 +/- 7.1%, respectively. PMID:16194544

  12. Copy Number Variation Analysis by Ligation-Dependent PCR Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles and Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Gen; Zeng, Yu; Yang, Haowen; Fan, Jing; Jin, Lian; Liu, Hongna; Deng, Yan; Li, Song; Zeng, Xin; Elingarami, Sauli; He, Nongyue

    2015-01-01

    A novel system for copy number variation (CNV) analysis was developed in the present study using a combination of magnetic separation and chemiluminescence (CL) detection technique. The amino-modified probes were firstly immobilized onto carboxylated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and then hybridized with biotin-dUTP products, followed by amplification with ligation-dependent polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After streptavidin-modified alkaline phosphatase (STV-AP) bonding and magnetic separation, the CL signals were then detected. Results showed that the quantification of PCR products could be reflected by CL signal values. Under optimum conditions, the CL system was characterized for quantitative analysis and the CL intensity exhibited a linear correlation with logarithm of the target concentration. To validate the methodology, copy numbers of six genes from the human genome were detected. To compare the detection accuracy, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and MNPs-CL detection were performed. Overall, there were two discrepancies by MLPA analysis, while only one by MNPs-CL detection. This research demonstrated that the novel MNPs-CL system is a useful analytical tool which shows simple, sensitive, and specific characters which are suitable for CNV analysis. Moreover, this system should be improved further and its application in the genome variation detection of various diseases is currently under further investigation. PMID:25553099

  13. Copy number variation analysis by ligation-dependent PCR based on magnetic nanoparticles and chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Gen; Zeng, Yu; Yang, Haowen; Fan, Jing; Jin, Lian; Liu, Hongna; Deng, Yan; Li, Song; Zeng, Xin; Elingarami, Sauli; He, Nongyue

    2015-01-01

    A novel system for copy number variation (CNV) analysis was developed in the present study using a combination of magnetic separation and chemiluminescence (CL) detection technique. The amino-modified probes were firstly immobilized onto carboxylated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and then hybridized with biotin-dUTP products, followed by amplification with ligation-dependent polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After streptavidin-modified alkaline phosphatase (STV-AP) bonding and magnetic separation, the CL signals were then detected. Results showed that the quantification of PCR products could be reflected by CL signal values. Under optimum conditions, the CL system was characterized for quantitative analysis and the CL intensity exhibited a linear correlation with logarithm of the target concentration. To validate the methodology, copy numbers of six genes from the human genome were detected. To compare the detection accuracy, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and MNPs-CL detection were performed. Overall, there were two discrepancies by MLPA analysis, while only one by MNPs-CL detection. This research demonstrated that the novel MNPs-CL system is a useful analytical tool which shows simple, sensitive, and specific characters which are suitable for CNV analysis. Moreover, this system should be improved further and its application in the genome variation detection of various diseases is currently under further investigation. PMID:25553099

  14. Chemiluminescence arising from the decomposition of peroxymonocarbonate and enhanced by CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Ling; Lin, Zhen; Guo, Guangsheng; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2010-09-23

    CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped with mercaptoacetic acid were applied to the hydrogen peroxide-sodium hydrogen carbonate chemiluminescence (CL) system. The CL emission intensity was significantly enhanced by different sizes of CdTe QDs. Peroxymonocarbonate (HCO(4)(-)) was formed in the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, which was a reactive oxygen species. Decomposition of HCO(4)(-) generated superoxide ion radical (·O(2)(-)) and hydroxide radical (·OH). The enhanced CL was induced by the excited CdTe QDs, which could be produced from the combination of hole (oxidized QDs (h(+))) and electron (reduced QDs (e(-))) injected QDs. Radical scavengers and organic reagents such as nitro blue tetrazolium chloride (NBT), cytochrome c, sodium azide, ascorbic acid, thiourea, tert-butanol, and dimethyl sulphoxide were used to study the emitting species. The intermediate hydroxide radical and superoxide ion were key species for producing hole and electron-injected QDs. Four emitters such as (1)O(2), (O(2))(2)*, (CO(2))(2)* and CdTe* were detected in the CL system. The mechanism was discussed based on the CL emission spectra, electron spin resonance spectra, fluorescence spectra, and UV-vis absorption spectra. The CL properties of CdTe QDs will be helpful to study semiconductor nanocrystals and will open new avenues for the application of QDs in many fields, such as chemistry, biology, microbiology, and biochemistry. PMID:20738136

  15. Near-Infrared Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence from Aqueous Soluble Lipoic Acid Au Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tanyu; Wang, Dengchao; Padelford, Jonathan W; Jiang, Jie; Wang, Gangli

    2016-05-25

    Strong electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) is detected from dithiolate Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) in aqueous solution under ambient conditions. A novel mechanism to drastically enhance the ECL is established by covalent attachment of coreactants N,N-diethylethylenediamine (DEDA) onto lipoic acid stabilized Au (Au-LA) clusters with matching redox activities. The materials design reduces the complication of mass transport between the reactants during the lifetime of radical intermediates involved in conventional ECL generation pathway. The intracluster reactions are highly advantageous for applications by eliminating additional and high excess coreactants otherwise needed. The enhanced ECL efficiency also benefits uniquely from the multiple energy states per Au cluster and multiple DEDA ligands in the monolayer. Potential step and sweeping experiments reveal an onset potential of 0.78 V for oxidative-reduction ECL generation. Multifolds higher efficiency is found for the Au clusters alone in reference to the standard Rubpy with high excess TPrA. The ECL in near-IR region (beyond 700 nm) is highly advantageous with drastically reduced interference signals over visible ones. The features of ECL intensity responsive to electrode potential and solution pH under ambient conditions make Au-LA-DEDA clusters promising ECL reagents for broad applications. The strategy to attach coreactants on Au clusters is generalizable for other nanomaterials. PMID:27172252

  16. Three-minute-long chemiluminescent immunoassay using dually accelerated immunoreaction by infrared heating and passive mixing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Yang, Zhanjun; Yan, Feng; Xu, Yueming; Ju, Huangxian

    2009-05-15

    A rapid chemiluminescent (CL) immunoassay method was developed by integrating a newly designed infrared-radiation technique with a pressure-driven fluidic system. The fluidic system combined a three-dimensional helical glass tube for rapid mixing of immunoreagents with two spiral glass tubes for magnetic separation and CL detection, respectively. The mixture passively formed in the helical glass tube could be quickly heated and kept at about 37 degrees C by the infrared radiation. The immunoreaction could be finished within 90 s due to the dual acceleration by the improved mass transport and enhanced reaction kinetics. The horseradish peroxidase-labeled sandwich immunocomplex formed on paramagnetic particles was then separated by a permanent magnet and mixed with CL substrate in a long spiral tube, and the detection mixture was immediately injected through another spiral tube in front of the photomultiplier for collecting the CL signal. Using alpha-fetoprotein as a proof-of-principle analyte, the immunoassay could be completed within 3 min with a linear calibration range of 0.2-90 microg/L. This programmable method showed acceptable detection and fabrication reproducibility and good accuracy, indicating a promise of automated high-throughput clinical application. PMID:19323531

  17. Silver nanoparticles enhanced flow injection chemiluminescence determination of gatifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked urine sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh mohammad; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Alothman, Zeid A.; Mohsin, Kazi

    2015-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been utilized for the enhanced chemiluminogenic estimation of fluoroquinolone antibiotic gatifloxacin. It has been found that the weak chemiluminescence intensity produced from the reaction between calcein and KMnO4 can further be strengthened by the addition of silver nanoparticles in the presence of gatifloxacin. This phenomenon has been exploited to the quantitative determination of gatifloxacin. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range of 8.9 × 10-9-4.0 × 10-6 M, while the limits of detections were found to be 2.6 × 10-9 M with correlation coefficient value (r2) 0.9999. The relative standard deviation calculated from six replicate measurements (1.0 × 10-4 M gatifloxacin) was 1.70%. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations and the results obtained were in reasonable agreement with the amount labeled on the formulations. The proposed method was also used for the determination of gatifloxacin in spiked urine samples with satisfactory results. No interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations have been found.

  18. Rare cell chemiluminescence detection based on aptamer-specific capture in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Wei, Huibin; Lin, Zhen; Mao, Sifeng; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2011-10-15

    An aptamer-based "sandwich" approach combined with the chemiluminescence (CL) analysis was developed for the capture and detection of rare cells on a microfluidic chip. Aptamers were immobilized on microfluidic channels to achieve capture and isolation of the specific cells from a cell mixture. The capture efficiency for target cells was more than 70% with the purity greater than 97%, when the content of the target cells was between 0.5% and 10% in the initial cell mixture. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modified with aptamers were then added in to bind on the cells and trigger a CL reaction. A satisfactory linearity of the log/log calibration curve between the CL intensity and the number of target cells was observed with a low detection limit of 30 target cells in a 3 μL cell mixture. Spiked whole blood samples were also used to verify the practicality of the present method. This work demonstrated the potential application of the cheap and rapid CL detection into the early diagnosis of cancers. PMID:21856143

  19. Iron stimulation of chemiluminescence by microsomes and purified NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Puntarulo, S.; Clejan, L.; Palakodety, R.; Cederbaum, A.I.

    1987-05-01

    Low level chemiluminescence (CL) was measured as an assay of the steady state level of production of oxygen radicals during microsomal electron transfer. In the presence of an NADPH-generating system, antioxidant-sensitive CL was observed with isolated rat liver microsomes. Depending on the nature of the chelating agent, ferric iron markedly affected this CL. For example, ferric-EDTA inhibited, whereas ferric-ADP stimulated CL. This response to iron chelators was identical to that found when measuring microsomal lipid peroxidation, but was opposite to the catalytic effectiveness of ferric-chelates in stimulating microsomal generation of hydroxyl radicals. Similar studies were conducted with purified NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase in the presence of t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). No CL was observed in the absence of added iron. The addition of ferric-EDTA or ferric-detapac stimulated production of CL, whereas ferric chloride or ferric-ATP has little or no effect. This pattern of response to iron chelates is opposite to that found with the microsomes. CL was inhibited by catalase and OH scavengers such as ethanol and DMSO but not by superoxide dismutase. Thus, CL by the reductase system appears to involve the generation of OH via a Fenton-type of reaction, and subsequent interaction of OH with t-BOOH to produce excited species.

  20. Automatic chemiluminescence-based determination of carbaryl in various types of matrices.

    PubMed

    Pulgarín, José Antonio Murillo; Molina, Aurelia Alañón; López, Pablo Fernández

    2006-01-15

    Carbaryl, a modern pesticide widely used for both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes, was determined from the chemiluminescence produced in its reaction with Ce(IV) in a nitric acid medium containing rhodamine 6G as sensitizer, using flow-injection techniques. A straightforward automatic method based on measurements peak height and peak area, which are directly proportional to the carbaryl concentration, was thus developed. Calibration graphs are linear over the concentration range from 50 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection, as determined according to Clayton, is 45.6 and 28.7 ng mL(-1) for peak height and peak area measurements, respectively. The relative standard deviation for 10 samples was less than 1.4% with both types of measurements. Two commercial formulations containing carbaryl were analysed using both types of measurements, which provided acceptable recovery values. Solid-phase extraction was used to concentrate and separate the analyte from the matrix. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of spiked water samples as well as in soil and grain samples. The proposed method exhibited a high selectivity no other pesticide containing the naphthalene group such as antu, napropamide or naftalam, etc., was found to interfere with the determination of carbaryl. PMID:18970361

  1. Study on sensing strategy and performance of a microfluidic chemiluminescence aptazyme sensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiwang; Shen, Haihui; Shen, Hong; Sun, Yue; Song, Lifang

    2016-04-01

    Aptamers are analogous to antibodies in their range of target recognition. G-quadruplex DNAzymes exhibit peroxidase-like activity toward certain specific reactions. Despite aptazyme sensors, based on aptarmer and DNAzyme conjugates, have the potential to replace many conventional immune-biosensors; the mechanism concerning high background interference has scarcely been discussed. In this work, by taking a couple of aptazyme sensors with oligonucleotide sequences of adenosine aptamer and CatG4 DNAzyme, the sensing strategy dealing with the thermodynamic equilibrium of the functional oligonucleotide distribution had been studied. Oligonucleotide arrangement and cation condition were found important in modulating the shifting between Watson-Crick duplex and Hoogsteen G-quadruplex, which ultimately influenced sample and background signals. Notably, benefit from the microfluidic chemiluminescence detection, the developed aptazyme sensor achieved an absolute detection limit of 12pmol adenosine with just 2μL of pretreated sample solution consumption and satisfactory selectivity. The results have implication for better design of aptazyme sensor in the future. PMID:26838440

  2. A High Sensitivity Micro Format Chemiluminescence Enzyme Inhibition Assay for Determination of Hg(II)

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Kanchanmala; Mishra, Rupesh K.; Bhand, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific enzyme inhibition assay based on alcohol oxidase (AlOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for determination of mercury Hg(II) in water samples has been presented. This article describes the optimization and miniaturization of an enzymatic assay using a chemiluminescence reaction. The analytical performance and detection limit for determination of Hg(II) was optimized in 96 well plates and further extended to 384 well plates with a 10-fold reduction in assay volume. Inhibition of the enzyme activity by dissolved Hg(II) was found to be linear in the range 5–500 pg·mL−1 with 3% CV in inter-batch assay. Due to miniaturization of assay in 384 well plates, Hg(II) was measurable as low as 1 pg·mL−1 within 15 min. About 10-fold more specificity of the developed assay for Hg(II) analysis was confirmed by challenging with interfering divalent metal ions such as cadmium Cd(II) and lead Pb(II). Using the proposed assay we could successfully demonstrate that in a composite mixture of Hg(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), inhibition by each metal ion is significantly enhanced in the presence of the others. Applicability of the proposed assay for the determination of the Hg(II) in spiked drinking and sea water resulted in recoveries ranging from 100–110.52%. PMID:22163555

  3. Evaluation of glycophenotype in prostatic neoplasm by chemiluminescent assay

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; de Lima, Luiza Rayanna Amorim; Cavalcanti, Carmelita de Lima Bezerra; Lira, Mariana Montenegro de Melo; da Silva, Maria da Paz Carvalho; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Júnior, Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the glycophenotype in normal prostate, bening prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa) tissues by a chemiluminescent method. Concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) lectins were conjugated to acridinium ester (lectins-AE). These conjugates remained capable to recognize their specific carbohydrates. Tissue samples were incubated with lectins-AE. The chemiluminescence of the tissue-lectin-AE complex was expressed in relative light units (RLU). Transformed tissues (0.25 cm2 by 8 µm of thickness) showed statistical significant lower α-D-glucose/mannose (BPH: 226,931 ± 17,436; PCa: 239,520 ± 12,398) and Gal-β(1-3)-GalNAc (BPH: 28,754 ± 2,157; PCa: 16,728 ± 1,204) expression than normal tissues (367,566 ± 48,550 and 409,289 ± 22,336, respectively). However, higher α-L-fucose expression was observed in PCa (251,118 ± 14,193) in relation to normal (200,979 ± 21,318) and BHP (169,758 ± 10,264) tissues. It was observed an expressive decreasing of the values of RLU by inhibition of the interaction between tissues and lectins-AE using their specific carbohydrates. The relationship between RLU and tissue area showed a linear correlation for all lectin-AE in both transformed tissues. These results indicated that the used method is an efficient tool for specific, sensitive and quantitative analyses of prostatic glycophenotype. PMID:25120756

  4. "Supramolecular circuitry": three chemiluminescent, Cucurbit[7]uril-controlled on/off switches.

    PubMed

    Masson, Eric; Shaker, Yasser M; Masson, Jean-Pierre; Kordesch, Martin E; Yuwono, Citra

    2011-08-01

    Three Cucurbit[7]uril-controlled chemiluminescent on/off switches based on the lucigenin motif have been synthesized. Light emission is triggered upon addition of sodium peroxide, interrupted or dimmed in the presence of Cucurbit[7]uril, and restored upon injection of a competitive guest. The process, which can be mimicked by a simple resistor-capacitor circuit, is rationalized by examining the role of the macrocyclic host on the network of equilibria involved in the chemiluminescent process. PMID:21710978

  5. Evaluation of UVA-induced oxidative stress using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bo; Xing, Da; Zhu, Debin

    2005-02-01

    Oxidative stress is mainly mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evaluation of oxidative stress is helpful for choosing an appropriate method to protect the organism from the oxidative damage. In this study, a highly sensitive and simple chemiluminescence method is presented for the evaluation of radiation-induced oxidative stress in human peripheral lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were irradiated by ultraviolet radiation (320-400nm, UVA) with different doses. The ROS generated by the lymphocytes was detected by chemiluminescence method, using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence probe 2-methyl-6-(p-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-α] pyrazin-3-one (MCLA). The cell viability was detected with Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). The malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), a parameter that is taken as evidence of oxidative stress, were measured too. The results show that both chemiluminescence intensity, cell mortality and MDA concentration of lymphocytes grow with the increase of UVA dose range from 0.5 to 8 J/cm2, while the TAC decreases. There exists a positive relationship between cell oxidative damage degree and the chemiluminescence intensity of lymphocytes. This highly sensitive chemiluminescence method would potentially provide an easy way to evaluate the level of UVA-induced oxidative stress readily, sensitively and rapidly

  6. Optical tomography of fluorophores in dense scattering media based on ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Masaki Kikuchi, Naoto; Sato, Akihiro

    2015-01-12

    This letter proposes and demonstrates ultrasound-combined optical imaging in dense scattering media. A peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system that includes fluorophores to chemically excite the pigment is stimulated by ultrasound irradiation with power of less than 0.14 W/cm{sup 2}. Using focused ultrasound, the chemiluminescence is selectively spatially enhanced, which leads to imaging of the pigment when embedded in a light-scattering medium via scanning of the focal point. The ultrasonically enhanced intensity of the chemiluminescence depends on the base intensity of the chemiluminescence without the applied ultrasound irradiation, which thereby enables quantitative determination of the fluorophore concentration. The authors demonstrate the potential of this method to resolve chemiluminescent targets in a dense scattering medium that is comparable to biological tissue. An image was acquired of a chemiluminescent target that included indocyanine green as the fluorophore embedded at a depth of 20 mm in an Intralipid-10% 200 ml/l solution scattering medium (the reduced scattering coefficient was estimated to be approximately 1.3 mm{sup −1}), indicating the potential for expansion of this technique for use in biological applications.

  7. On-Chip Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification on Flow-Based Chemiluminescence Microarray Analysis Platform for the Detection of Viruses and Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kunze, A; Dilcher, M; Abd El Wahed, A; Hufert, F; Niessner, R; Seidel, M

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an on-chip isothermal nucleic acid amplification test (iNAAT) for the multiplex amplification and detection of viral and bacterial DNA by a flow-based chemiluminescence microarray. In a principle study, on-chip recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) on defined spots of a DNA microarray was used to spatially separate the amplification reaction of DNA from two viruses (Human adenovirus 41, Phi X 174) and the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, which are relevant for water hygiene. By establishing the developed assay on the microarray analysis platform MCR 3, the automation of isothermal multiplex-amplification (39 °C, 40 min) and subsequent detection by chemiluminescence imaging was realized. Within 48 min, the microbes could be identified by the spot position on the microarray while the generated chemiluminescence signal correlated with the amount of applied microbe DNA. The limit of detection (LOD) determined for HAdV 41, Phi X 174, and E. faecalis was 35 GU/μL, 1 GU/μL, and 5 × 10(3) GU/μL (genomic units), which is comparable to the sensitivity reported for qPCR analysis, respectively. Moreover the simultaneous amplification and detection of DNA from all three microbes was possible. The presented assay shows that complex enzymatic reactions like an isothermal amplification can be performed in an easy-to-use experimental setup. Furthermore, iNAATs can be potent candidates for multipathogen detection in clinical, food, or environmental samples in routine or field monitoring approaches. PMID:26624222

  8. Real time imaging of live cell ATP leaking or release events by chemiluminescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yun

    2008-12-18

    The purpose of this research was to expand the chemiluminescence microscopy applications in live bacterial/mammalian cell imaging and to improve the detection sensitivity for ATP leaking or release events. We first demonstrated that chemiluminescence (CL) imaging can be used to interrogate single bacterial cells. While using a luminometer allows detecting ATP from cell lysate extracted from at least 10 bacterial cells, all previous cell CL detection never reached this sensitivity of single bacteria level. We approached this goal with a different strategy from before: instead of breaking bacterial cell membrane and trying to capture the transiently diluted ATP with the firefly luciferase CL assay, we introduced the firefly luciferase enzyme into bacteria using the modern genetic techniques and placed the CL reaction substrate D-luciferin outside the cells. By damaging the cell membrane with various antibacterial drugs including antibiotics such as Penicillins and bacteriophages, the D-luciferin molecules diffused inside the cell and initiated the reaction that produces CL light. As firefly luciferases are large protein molecules which are retained within the cells before the total rupture and intracellular ATP concentration is high at the millmolar level, the CL reaction of firefly luciferase, ATP and D-luciferin can be kept for a relatively long time within the cells acting as a reaction container to generate enough photons for detection by the extremely sensitive intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. The result was inspiring as various single bacterium lysis and leakage events were monitored with 10-s temporal resolution movies. We also found a new way of enhancing diffusion D-luciferin into cells by dehydrating the bacteria. Then we started with this novel single bacterial CL imaging technique, and applied it for quantifying gene expression levels from individual bacterial cells. Previous published result in single cell gene expression quantification mainly used a fluorescence method; CL detection is limited because of the difficulty to introduce enough D-luciferin molecules. Since dehydration could easily cause proper size holes in bacterial cell membranes and facilitate D-luciferin diffusion, we used this method and recorded CL from individual cells each hour after induction. The CL light intensity from each individual cell was integrated and gene expression levels of two strain types were compared. Based on our calculation, the overall sensitivity of our system is already approaching the single enzyme level. The median enzyme number inside a single bacterium from the higher expression strain after 2 hours induction was quantified to be about 550 molecules. Finally we imaged ATP release from astrocyte cells. Upon mechanical stimulation, astrocyte cells respond by increasing intracellular Ca{sup 2+} level and releasing ATP to extracellular spaces as signaling molecules. The ATP release imaged by direct CL imaging using free firefly luciferase and D-luciferin outside cells reflects the transient release as well as rapid ATP diffusion. Therefore ATP release detection at the cell surface is critical to study the ATP release mechanism and signaling propagation pathway. We realized this cell surface localized ATP release imaging detection by immobilizing firefly luciferase to streptavidin beads that attached to the cell surface via streptavidin-biotin interactions. Both intracellular Ca{sup 2+} propagation wave and extracellular ATP propagation wave at the cell surface were recorded with fluorescence and CL respectively. The results imply that at close distances from the stimulation center (<120 {micro}m) extracellular ATP pathway is faster, while at long distances (>120 {micro}m) intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling through gap junctions seems more effective.

  9. Direct visualization of diffusion convection phenomena at liquid solid interfaces by the use of a chemiluminescent enzymatic immobilized system.

    PubMed

    Dimicoli, J L; Nakache, M; Pronneau, P

    1982-01-01

    A new method is developed for direct visualization of the local mass transfer at solid liquid interfaces. Peroxidase is immobilized by entrapment in a polyacrylamide gel coating the interior surface of a glass tube. The reaction of oxidation of luminol by H2O2 catalyzed by this enzyme involves light emission. Furthermore at low H2O2 concentration (less than or equal to 5. x 10(-5) M), this reaction is controlled by the diffusion of H2O2 from the bulk flow to the wall, as evidenced by the Re1/3 dependence of the light flux V measured in the laminar case. It is possible in these conditions to directly relate V as measured at each point of the wall, to the local properties of the flow : (i) a decrease of V is always observed when moving downstream from the input of the tube, but it is much more pronounced for laminar flows than for turbulent ones, as theoretically expected; (ii) the sensitivity of the method has been tested for evaluating the diffusion convection phenomena at the wall downstream from a stenosis. Furthermore the local hydrodynamic properties have been characterized by measuring through pulsed Doppler velocimetry the velocity of the moving liquid phase as a function of the position in the flow. The data obtained show the presence of a maximum of V in the vicinity of the reattachment point of the liquid streamlines at the wall. This constitutes the first experimental confirmation of calculations on diffusion convection phenomena downstream from stenoses. These first experiments show one the ability of the method to detect the local properties of the parietal mass transfer phenomena, as a function of the geometry of the wall and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the flow. PMID:6212089

  10. Flow-injection chemiluminescence analysis for sensitive determination of atenolol using cadmium sulfide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-03-15

    A sensitive, rapid and simple flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the light emitted from KMnO4-cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) reaction in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in acidic medium was developed as a CL probe for the sensitive determination of atenolol. Optical and structural features of CdS QDs capped with l-cysteine, which synthesized via hydrothermal approach, were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB was remarkably enhanced in the presence of trace level of atenolol. Under optimum experimental conditions, there is a linear relationship between the increase in CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB system and atenolol concentration in a range of 0.001 to 4.0mgL(-1) and 4.0 to 18.0mgL(-1), with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.0010mgL(-1). A possible mechanism for KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB-atenolol CL reaction is proposed. To prove the practical application of the KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB CL method, the method was applied for the determination of atenolol in spiked environmental water samples and commercial pharmaceutical formulation. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) technique was utilized for determination of atenolol. PMID:26724494

  11. Vortex configuration flow cell based on low-temperature cofired ceramics as a compact chemiluminescence microsystem.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-García, Núria; Puyol, Mar; Azevedo, Carlos M; Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia S; Villuendas, Francisco; Gongora-Rubio, M R; Seabra, A C; Alonso, Julián

    2008-07-15

    The integration of optical detection methods in continuous flow microsystems can highly extend their range of application, as long as some negative effects derived from their scaling down can be minimized. Downsizing affects to a greater extent the sensitivity of systems based on absorbance measurements than the sensitivity of those based on emission ones. However, a careful design of the instrumental setup is needed to maintain the analytical features in both cases. In this work, we present the construction and evaluation of a simple miniaturized optical system, which integrates a novel flow cell configuration to carry out chemiluminescence (CL) measurements using a simple photodiode. It consists of a micromixer based on a vortex structure, which has been constructed by means of the low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) technology. This mixer not only efficiently promotes the CL reaction due to the generated high turbulence but also allows the detection to be carried out in the same area, avoiding intensity signal losses. As a demonstration, a flow injection system has been designed and optimized for the detection of cobalt(II) in water samples. It shows a linear response between 2 and 20 microM with a correlation of r > 0.993, a limit of detection of 1.1 microM, a repeatability of RSD = 12.4%, and an analysis time of 17 s. These results demonstrate the suitability of the proposal to the determination of compounds involved in CL reactions by means of an easily constructed versatile device based on low-cost instrumentation. PMID:18547060

  12. One-pot synthesis of GO/AgNPs/luminol composites with electrochemiluminescence activity for sensitive detection of DNA methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui-Fang; Liang, Ru-Ping; Wang, Jing-Wu; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2015-01-15

    DNA methyltransferases catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the target adenine or cytosine, eventually inducing the DNA methylation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Herein, we developed a novel electrochemiluminescence biosensor to quantify DNA adenine methylation (Dam) methyltransferase (MTase) employing signal amplification of GO/AgNPs/luminol composites to enhance the assay sensitivity. The method was developed by designing a capture probe DNA, which was immobilized on gold electrode surface, to hybridize with azide complementary DNA to form the azide-terminated dsDNA. Then, alkynyl functionalized GO/AgNPs/luminol composites as the signal probe were immobilized to azide-terminated dsDNA modified electrode via click chemistry, resulting in a high electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal. Once the DNA hybrid was methylated (under catalysis of Dam MTase) and further cleaved by Dpn I endonuclease (a site-specific endonuclease recognizing the duplex symmetrical sequence of 5'-G-Am-T-C-3'), GO/AgNPs/luminol composites release from the electrode surface to the solution, leading to significant reduction of the ECL signal. The change of the ECL intensity is related to the methylation status and MTase activity, which forms the basis of MTase activity assay and site-specific methylation determination. This novel strategy can be further used as a universal method for other transferase determination by designing various transferase-specific DNA sequences. In addition, this method can be used for the screening of antimicrobial drugs and has a great potential to be further applied in early clinical diagnosis. PMID:25129507

  13. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes with a nonisotopic polymerase chain reaction-coupled ligase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, M; Barany, F; Batt, C A

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay for the specific detection of Listeria monocytogenes (M. Wiedmann, J. Czajka, F. Barany, and C. A. Batt, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:3443-3447, 1992) has been modified for detection of the LCR products with a nonisotopic readout. When a chemiluminescent or a colorimetric substrate for the nonisotopic detection of the LCR products was used, the PCR-coupled LCR gave a sensitivity of 10 CFU of L. monocytogenes. The detection method with the chemiluminescent substrate Lumi-Phos 530 permitted detection of the LCR products in less than 3 h, so that the whole assay can be completed within 10 h. Images PMID:8368859

  14. The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez

    2013-01-01

    Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a “slow- release devises” capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

  15. A low budget luminometer for sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Porakishvili, N; Fordham, J L; Charrel, M; Delves, P J; Lund, T; Roitt, I M

    2000-02-01

    We have designed a simple luminometer based on a reasonably priced Peltier-cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, housed in a light-tight box, with straightforward lens imaging and a simple platform for a microtitre or other assay format. The quantitative readout of the CCD image is recorded on a PC using customised software. The instrument can be assembled in a standard university workshop for under pound3000, compared with the cheapest commercial instruments retailing at pound10,000 and above. Consistent with the general view on chemiluminescent assays, the sensitivity is 10-100 times greater than that obtained with parallel ELISA's using a chromogenic substrate. A unique feature of the CCD format is that it enables assays to be carried out on arrays of minidots and even nanodots of antigen on the floor of each microtitre well. This permits direct comparison and standardisation of reactivity of a single sample against several antigens and economy in the use of reagents, test sample and technician time; finger-prick samples of blood can be analysed. The instrument should have widespread applicability in developing countries and, indeed, in any laboratories with hard-pressed budgets. PMID:10669767

  16. Detection and quantitation of heme-containing proteins by chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Dorward, D W

    1993-03-01

    A commercial assay for chemiluminescence (CL) has recently been developed for visualizing horseradish peroxidase-conjugated probes for antibodies and nucleic acids. To assess the utility of CL for detecting the peroxidase activity of other heme-containing proteins, the sensitivity of CL and a standard chromogenic stain for visualizing heme-proteins in SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoretic gels were compared. The ability of these systems to visualize heme-proteins on electroblots and dot blots was also examined. The chromogenic stain, which uses 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine for a dye, and CL had equal sensitivity in electrophoretic gels. Both assays were affected by 2-mercaptoethanol in the solubilization buffer. In blotting assays, CL was 10- to 10,000-fold more sensitive for detecting samples including cytochrome C and blood. Quantities of protein requiring 18 h to detect by staining were visualized in minutes by CL. Scintillation spectroscopy of CL emitted by blood, urine containing supplemental blood, or urine from a patient with hematuria resulted in a linear relationship between peroxidase activity and concentration, allowing for quantitation of blood over a broad range of concentrations. These results indicate that CL can rapidly detect and quantitate heme-proteins and may facilitate both basic studies of heme-proteins and clinical and forensic analyses of blood. PMID:8470793

  17. Chemiluminescence of lucigenin is dependent on experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Hyrsl, Pavel; Lojek, Antonin; Ciz, Milan; Kubala, Lukas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of experimental conditions such as light radiation and temperature on chemiluminescence (CL) of 10(-2)-10(-5) mol/L lucigenin dissolved in various types of solvents. Irradiation by UV light (280, 297, 313 or 400 nm) induced a significant increase in CL of lucigenin dissolved in borate buffer. This effect was the most obvious for 10(-2)-10(-3) mol/L lucigenin. All wavelengths used had a similar effect. UV irradiation did not induce changes in the CL activity of lucigenin dissolved in dH2O or in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Different results for various solvents were not dependent on pH. The CL activity of 10(-2) mol/L and 10(-3) mol/L lucigenin dissolved in borate buffer increased depending on the solution temperature (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 37 degrees C or 40 degrees C) already at the beginning of the analysis, with a further increase during 16 h incubation period. It can be summarized that temperatures higher than 25 degrees C and intensive light irradiation are among those factors which significantly affect the result of analysis when lucigenin is used as a luminophor. PMID:15098204

  18. Synthesis and properties of chemiluminescent acridinium ester labels with fluorous tags.

    PubMed

    Natrajan, Anand; Wen, David; Sharpe, David

    2014-06-21

    Acridinium dimethylphenyl esters are highly sensitive chemiluminescent labels that are used in clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered with alkaline peroxide in the presence of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). CTAC compresses emission times of these labels to <5 seconds and also increases overall light yield 3-4 fold. The observed enhancement in acridinium ester chemiluminescence (light yield) is quite sensitive to the polarity of the micellar interface. In the current study, we report the synthesis of new acridinium ester labels with fluorous tags of varying fluorine content and their chemiluminescence in the presence of cationic micelles of CTAC, anionic micelles of sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO) as well as mixed micelles of CTAC and SPFO. These studies indicate that in the presence of the mixed micelle system of CTAC and SPFO and at low mole fractions of SPFO, polarity of the mixed micelle interface is lower than that of CTAC leading to a greater enhancement of chemiluminescence for both fluorinated acridinium esters as well as a structurally analogous but non-fluorinated acridinium ester. Chemiluminescence stability of the fluorinated acridinium esters was either comparable to or better than the stability of the non-fluorinated acridinium ester. Non-specific binding to paramagnetic microparticles was higher for fluorinated acridinium esters requiring a surfactant wash to reduce their non-specific binding to the same extent as that observed for the non-fluorinated acridinium ester. PMID:24788381

  19. Chemiluminescent Diagnostics of Free-Radical Processes in an Abiotic System and in Liver Cells in the Presence of Nanoparticles Based on Rare-Earth Elements nReVO4:Eu3+ (Re = Gd, Y, La) and CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenko, E. A.; Kavok, N. S.; Klochkov, V. K.; Malyukin, Yu. V.

    2014-11-01

    We have used luminol-dependent chemiluminescence with Fenton's reagent to study the effect of nanoparticles based on rare-earth elements of different sizes and shapes on free-radical processes in abiotic and biotic cell-free systems, and also in isolated cells in vitro. We have estimated the effects of rare-earth orthovanadate nanoparticles of spherical (GdYVO4:Eu3+, 1-2 nm), spindle-shaped (GdVO4:Eu3+, 25 ×8 nm), and rod-shaped (LaVO4:Eu3+, 57 × (6-8) nm) nanoparticles and spherical CeO2 nanoparticles (sizes 1-2 nm and 8-10 nm). We have shown that in contrast to the abiotic system, in which all types of nanoparticles exhibit antiradical activity, in the presence of biological material, extra-small spherical (1-2 nm) nanoparticles of both types exhibit pro-oxidant activity, and also enhance pro-oxidant induced oxidative stress (for the pro-oxidants hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide). The effect of rare-earth orthovanadate spindle and rod shaped nanoparticles in this system was neutral; a moderate antioxidant effect was exhibited by 8-10 nm CeO2 nanoparticles.

  20. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid and sensitive determination of enrofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Wu, Yongjun; Yu, Songcheng; Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B.

    With alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-adamantane (AMPPD) system as the chemiluminescence (CL) detection system, a highly sensitive, specific and simple competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was developed for the measurement of enrofloxacin (ENR). The physicochemical parameters, such as the chemiluminescent assay mediums, the dilution buffer of ENR-McAb, the volume of dilution buffer, the monoclonal antibody concentration, the incubation time, and other relevant variables of the immunoassay have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection linear range of 350-1000 pg/mL and the detection limit of 0.24 ng/mL were provided by the proposed method. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% for both intra and inter-assay precision. This method has been successfully applied to determine ENR in spiked samples with the recovery of 103%-96%. It showed that CLEIA was a good potential method in the analysis of residues of veterinary drugs after treatment of related diseases.

  1. Screening test for rapid food safety evaluation by menadione-catalysed chemiluminescent assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Yoshikawa, Naoko; Kirihara, Masayuki; Tsuneyoshi, Toshihiro

    2013-06-15

    The chemiluminescent assay of menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells was proposed to be useful for rapid food safety evaluation. The tested foods were extracted with water, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide, and each extract was incubated with NIH3T3, Neuro-2a and HepG2 cells for 4h. Menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells exposed to each extract was determined by the chemiluminescent assay requiring only 10 min, and the viability of the cells was estimated as percentage based on H2O2 production by intact cells. In this study the cytotoxicity of food was rated in order of inhibitory effect on H2O2 production by intact cells. The well known natural toxins such as Fusarium mycotoxin, tomato toxin tomatine, potato toxin solanine and marine toxins terodotoxin and brevetoxin could be detected by the above chemiluminescent assay. PMID:23497869

  2. Intrinsic Chemiluminescence Generation during Advanced Oxidation of Persistent Halogenated Aromatic Carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Mao, Li; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Huang, Chun-Hua; Gao, Hui-Ying; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquitous distribution coupled with their carcinogenicity has raised public concerns on the potential risks to both human health and the ecosystem posed by the halogenated aromatic compounds (XAr). Recently, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been increasingly favored as an "environmentally-green" technology for the remediation of such recalcitrant and highly toxic XAr. Here, we show that AOPs-mediated degradation of the priority pollutant pentachlorophenol and all other XAr produces an intrinsic chemiluminescence that directly depends on the generation of the extremely reactive hydroxyl radicals. We propose that the hydroxyl radical-dependent formation of quinoid intermediates and electronically excited carbonyl species is responsible for this unusual chemiluminescence production. A rapid, sensitive, simple, and effective chemiluminescence method was developed to quantify trace amounts of XAr and monitor their real-time degradation kinetics. These findings may have broad biological and environmental implications for future research on this important class of halogenated persistent organic pollutants. PMID:26009932

  3. Laboratory Studies of FeO and NiO Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogerakis, K. S.; Bartlett, N. C.; Copeland, R. A.; Slanger, T. G.

    2013-12-01

    Although the terrestrial nightglow spectrum has been studied for over a century, new identifications of spectral features continue to be made. Recently, FeO* continuum emissions in the mesosphere were identified by comparison of results from the OSIRIS spectrometer to existing laboratory spectra [1]. This discovery has sparked a renewal of interest in the reactions of meteoric metals with mesospheric gases [2,3], and has motivated the current study. We report laboratory-based chemiluminescence spectra from the reactions Fe + O3 and Ni + O3 produced under various conditions. Iron and nickel vapor was prepared in a vacuum cell using laser ablation at 248 and 800 nm in the presence of ozone. Emission spectra from FeO* and NiO* were recorded in the region of 450-700 nm using a commercial fiber-coupled spectrometer and compared to previous results using different methods. Knowledge of the excited-state production efficiency of Fe + O3 → FeO* + O2 and the analogous reaction with Ni is critical in modeling upper atmospheric dynamics of meteoric metal layers. The only relevant experimental study in the literature for iron oxide is from West and Broida [4], who reported a yield of approximately 2% at around 1 Torr, in stark contrast with the 100% efficiency used in relevant model calculations [5]. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Aeronomy Program under grant AGS-0637433. References 1. W.F.J. Evans, R.L. Gattinger, T.G. Slanger, D.V. Saran, D.A. Degenstein, and E.J. Llewellyn, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22105 (2010). 2. D.V. Saran, T.G. Slanger, W. Feng, and J.M.C. Plane, J. Geophys. Res. 116, D12303 (2011). 3. R.L. Gattinger, W.F.J. Evans, and E.J. Llewellyn, Canadian Journal of Physics 89, 869 (2011). 4. J.B. West and H.P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2566 (1975 ). 5. C.S. Gardner, J.M.C. Plane, W.L. Pan, T. Vondrak, B.J. Murray, and X.Z. Chu, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10302 (2005).

  4. A sensitive determination method for mexiletine derivatized with dansyl chloride in rat plasma utilizing a HPLC peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence detection system.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, A; Kanda, S; Imai, K

    1992-01-01

    A sensitive determination method for a non-fluorescent anti-arrhythmic drug, mexiletine, in rat plasma is presented utilizing a HPLC peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) detection system. After an internal standard (4-methylmexiletine, 4.35 pmol) and 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution were added to 5 microL rat plasma, the solution was poured onto an Extrelut 1 column. Both mexiletine and the internal standard were eluted with diethy ether and then the eluate was evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in 0.2 M borate buffer (pH 8.5) and mixed with dansyl chloride (75 nmol) in acetronitrile. After standing of 90 min at room temperature, 0.5 N HCl was added to the reaction mixture to stop the reaction and a 2/45 aliquot of the mixture was subjected to a HPLC PO-CL detection system using bis(4-nitro-2(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxycarbonyl)phenyl) oxalate (TDPO) and hydrogen peroxide. The calibration curve for mexiletine in rat plasma was linear over the range 20-100 ng/mL plasma (20.6-103 fmol/injection). The detection limit (S/N = 2) was 1.0 fmol over the whole procedure. The method was applied to the measurement of the time courses of plasma mexiletine concentration after oral administration of the drug [25 mg (115.9 mumol)/kg] to rats. PMID:1525485

  5. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts. PMID:26803763

  6. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence:Supplemental Material for CASAC AMMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ApproachPer suggestion made by CASAC AMMS members during the April 3, 2014 conference call on the Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence, ORD has performed additional data analysis activities to explain and mitigate scatter observed in the co...

  7. Evaluation of endotoxin (LPS) activity in bovine blood using neutrophil dependent chemiluminescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a neutrophil chemiluminescence-based assay for the measurement of LPS stimulatory activity in bovine whole blood. The assay is based on the capacity for LPS to trigger the respiratory oxidative burst activity (RBA) of autologous neutroph...

  8. First ozone profiles measured with electrochemical and chemiluminescent sondes, developed in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuyaguintsev, Anatoly M.; Perov, Stanislav P.; Ryabov, Youry A.

    1994-01-01

    Results obtained with experimental balloon electrochemical and chemiluminescent ozonesondes are summarized and estimated as quite satisfactory. The average normalization factor for the electrochemical ozonesonde obtained in 1991 at four Soviet balloon routine network stations is 1.069+.073 (in 17 flights). Some ozone profiles obtained in summer 1991 at Volgograd are discussed together with corresponding meteorological data.

  9. Development and optimization of an integrated capillary-based opto-microfluidic device for chemiluminescence quantitative detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honrado, Carlos; Dong, Tao

    2014-12-01

    A capillary-action driven device amenable for integration of organic photodiodes (OPDs) was developed for monitoring parallel chemiluminescence (CL) reactions. Device characterization was conducted using finite element method (FEM) simulations. Definition of the simulation setup, dimensional optimization of the reaction chamber and overall geometrical characterization of the microfluidic device were the main simulation results. Furthermore, a non-uniform filling process was observed during the final simulation of the capillary device. Validation of this result and the proposed capillary-driven filling process was later confirmed by experimental results. Experimental testing performed on a single chamber defined an optimal exposure time to the luminescent substrate of 5 min, indicating a quick analyte detection time. Further tests using one chamber presented a linear relation between the signal-to-noise ratio and increasing concentrations of the protein used. A measured limit of detection of 28 nM was obtained for streptavidin. Regarding the tests performed on the whole device, acceptable values of 39 s ± 5 s were obtained for the luminescent substrate total filling times. Also, the microfluidic device showed the capability to perform a quantitative detection of the occurring CL reactions. Weaker optical signals, due to the occurrence of CL reactions, were detected in the chambers with a later filling process, as predicted by simulation results. Notwithstanding these results, the capillary-based device is promising for quantitative detection of proteins in future point-of-care systems, presenting an unprompted filling process and parallel quantitative detection capability.

  10. Laser-saturated fluorescence of nitric oxide and chemiluminescence measurements in premixed ethanol flames

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Carla S.T.; Barreta, Luiz G.; Sbampato, Maria E.; dos Santos, Alberto M.

    2010-11-15

    In this study, nitric oxide laser-saturated fluorescence (LSF) measurements were acquired from premixed ethanol flames at atmospheric pressure in a burner. NO-LSF experimental profiles for fuel-rich premixed ethanol flames ({phi} = 1.34 and {phi} = 1.66) were determined through the excitation/detection scheme of the Q{sub 2}(26.5) rotational line in the A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{pi} (0,0) vibronic band and {gamma}(0,1) emission band. A calibration procedure by NO doping into the flame was applied to establish the NO concentration profiles in these flames. Chemiluminescent emission measurements in the (0, 0) vibronic emission bands of the OH{sup *} (A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{pi}) and CH{sup *}(A{sup 2}{delta} - X{sup 2}{pi}) radicals were also obtained with high spatial and spectral resolution for fuel-rich premixed ethanol flames to correlate them with NO concentrations. Experimental chemiluminescence profiles and the ratios of the integrated areas under emission spectra (A{sub CH*}/A{sub CH*}(max.) and A{sub CH*}/A{sub OH*}) were determined. The relationships between chemiluminescence and NO concentrations were established along the premixed ethanol flames. There was a strong connection between CH{sup *} radical chemiluminescence and NO formation and the prompt-NO was identified as the governing mechanism for NO production. The results suggest the optimum ratio of the chemiluminescence of two radicals (A{sub CH*}/A{sub OH*}) for NO diagnostic purposes. (author)

  11. Analysis of oral lesion biopsies identified and evaluated by visual examination, chemiluminescence and toluidine blue.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J B; Silverman, S; Epstein, J D; Lonky, S A; Bride, M A

    2008-06-01

    Conventional visual examination and palpation remains the gold-standard for the identification of oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the adjunctive value of a chemiluminescent light source (ViziLite, Zila Pharmaceuticals, Phoenix, Arizona) and application of pharmaceutical grade toluidine blue (TBlue(630), Zila Pharmaceuticals, Phoenix, Arizona) to further assess lesions identified during the conventional oral soft tissue examination. Lesions deemed clinically suspicious by visual examination under incandescent light were further assessed under chemiluminescence and then application of toluidine blue stain. Differences between the conventional visual examination and chemiluminescent examination were noted on four characteristics which may aid in lesion identification. Tissue retention of toluidine blue stain was documented. Each suspicious lesion was biopsied and diagnosed based upon routine histopathology. Both adjunctive exams were evaluated by comparing the histologic diagnosis. The additive value of toluidine blue stain retention was assessed in lesions diagnosed as "serious pathology" defined as severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and squamous cell carcinoma. Ninety-seven clinically suspicious lesions in 84 patients were identified. The chemiluminescent exam improved the brightness and/or sharpness of margin in 61.8% of identified lesions. Biopsied lesions with toluidine blue stain retention reduced the false positive rate by 55.26% while maintaining a 100% negative predictive value (NPV). Chemiluminescence was shown to increase the brightness and margins of mucosal lesions in a majority of cases and therefore may assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under traditional visual examination. Toluidine blue stain retention was associated with a large reduction in biopsies showing benign histology (false positive biopsy results), while maintaining a 100% NPV for the presence of severe dysplasia or cancer. Practitioners may consider use of these adjuncts in practice, however the results presented are based upon experienced providers in referral centers for mucosal disease or cancer centers and therefore positive findings may be an indication for referral to experienced providers. PMID:17996486

  12. Characterization of the oxidant generation by inflammatory cells lavaged from rat lungs following acute exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Esterline, R.L.; Bassett, D.J.; Trush, M.A.

    1989-06-15

    Following exposure to 2 ppm ozone for 4 hr, two distinct effects on rat lung inflammatory cell oxidant generation were observed. TPA- and opsonized zymosan-stimulated superoxide production by the inflammatory cell population was found to be maximally inhibited 24 hr following ozone exposure. In contrast, luminol-amplified chemiluminescence increased 24 hr following ozone exposure, coinciding with an increase in the percentage of neutrophils and myeloperoxidase in the inflammatory cell population. Supporting the involvement of myeloperoxidase in the enhanced oxidant-generating status of these cells, the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence was found to be azide-, but not superoxide dismutase-inhibitable. Additionally, this cell population was found to generate taurine chloramines, a myeloperoxidase-dependent function which was absent prior to the ozone exposure and also demonstrated enhanced activation of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol to its light-emitting dioxetane intermediate. Addition of myeloperoxidase to control alveolar macrophages resulted in enhanced luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, taurine chloramine generation, and enhanced chemiluminescence from benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol demonstrating that, in the presence of myeloperoxidase, alveolar macrophages are capable of supporting myeloperoxidase-dependent reactions. The possibility of such an interaction occurring in vivo is suggested by the detection of myeloperoxidase activity in the cell-free lavagates of ozone-exposed rats. These studies suggest that neutrophils recruited to ozone-exposed lungs alter the oxidant-generating capabilities in the lung which could further contribute to lung injury or to the metabolism of inhaled xenobiotics.

  13. A novel immunochromatographic assay based on a time-resolved chemiluminescence strategy for the multiplexed detection of ractopamine and clenbuterol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Su, Xiaoxiao; Ouyang, Hui; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng

    2016-04-21

    A novel multiplexed immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on a time-resolved chemiluminescence (CL) strategy was developed for quantitative detection of β-agonists, by utilizing ractopamine (RAC) and clenbuterol (CLE) as the models. Different from conventional multiplexed ICA methods which usually require two or more test lines, this strategy was developed for detection of two β-agonists by using only one test line on the nitrocellulose membrane. In this study, horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase were used as the signal probes to label RAC antibody and CLE antibody, respectively. The two CL reactions with flash type and glow type kinetics characteristics were triggered simultaneously by injecting the coreactants, then the signals for RAC and CLE detections were recorded at 3 s and 300 s after coreactants injection, respectively. Owing to the utilization of CL detection, this protocol showed ideal sensitivity for quantitation. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for RAC and CLE were 0.17 ng mL(-1) and 0.067 ng mL(-1) (S/N = 3), respectively. The whole assay process can be accomplished within 20 min without complicated sample pretreatment. The proposed method was successfully applied for the detection of RAC and CLE in spiked swine urine. It opens up a new pathway for designing a low cost, time-efficiency and multiplexed strategy for rapid screening and field assay. PMID:27026603

  14. Development of a wireless, self-sustaining damage detection sensor system based on chemiluminescence for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, K. S. C.

    2014-03-01

    A novel application of chemiluminescence resulting from the chemical reaction in a glow-stick as sensors for structural health monitoring is demonstrated here. By detecting the presence of light emitting from these glow-sticks, it is possible to develop a low-cost sensing device with the potential to provide early warning of damage in a variety of engineering applications such as monitoring of cracks or damage in concrete shear walls, detecting of ground settlement, soil liquefaction, slope instability, liquefaction-related damage of underground structure and others. In addition, this paper demonstrates the ease of incorporating wireless capability to the sensor device and the possibility of making the sensor system self-sustaining by means of a renewable power source for the wireless module. A significant advantage of the system compared to previous work on the use of plastic optical fibre (POF) for damage detection is that here the system does not require an electrically-powered light source. Here, the sensing device, embedded in a cement host, is shown to be capable of detecting damage. A series of specimens with embedded glow-sticks have been investigated and an assessment of their damage detection capability will be reported. The specimens were loaded under flexure and the sensor responses were transmitted via a wireless connection.

  15. Silver nanoparticles enhanced a novel TCPO-H2O2-safranin O chemiluminescence system for determination of 6-mercaptopurine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biparva, Pourya; Abedirad, Seyed Mohammad; Kazemi, Sayed Yahya

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with first attempt to introduce safranin O as the fluorophore for peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system. The reaction of bis-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) with H2O2 catalyzed by silver nanoparticles can transfer energy to safranin O via the formation of dioxetanedione intermediate and emits orange-red light. The relationship between CL intensity and the concentration of TCPO, fluorophore, hydrogen peroxide and nanocatalyst was investigated. The Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, particle size analyzer and UV-spectroscopy. Moreover, the system was applied successfully to detect a drug, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in pharmaceuticals. Under optimum conditions, a linear working range for 6-MP concentrations from 5.5 10-7 to 5.5 10-5 mol L-1 (r > 0.9831, n = 6) was obtained with a detection limit of 1.6 10-7 mol L-1. The relative standard deviation for 6 repetitive determinations was less than 3.8% and recoveries of 98% and 103% were obtained.

  16. Enhanced chemiluminescent detection scheme for trace vapor sensing in pneumatically-tuned hollow core photonic bandgap fibers.

    PubMed

    Stolyarov, Alexander M; Gumennik, Alexander; McDaniel, William; Shapira, Ofer; Schell, Brent; Sorin, Fabien; Kuriki, Ken; Benoit, Gilles; Rose, Aimee; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel

    2012-05-21

    We demonstrate an in-fiber gas phase chemical detection architecture in which a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction is spatially and spectrally matched to the core modes of hollow photonic bandgap (PBG) fibers in order to enhance detection efficiency. A peroxide-sensitive CL material is annularly shaped and centered within the fiber's hollow core, thereby increasing the overlap between the emission intensity and the intensity distribution of the low-loss fiber modes. This configuration improves the sensitivity by 0.9 dB/cm compared to coating the material directly on the inner fiber surface, where coupling to both higher loss core modes and cladding modes is enhanced. By integrating the former configuration with a custom-built optofluidic system designed for concomitant controlled vapor delivery and emission measurement, we achieve a limit-of-detection of 100 parts per billion (ppb) for hydrogen peroxide vapor. The PBG fibers are produced by a new fabrication method whereby external gas pressure is used as a control knob to actively tune the transmission bandgaps through the entire visible range during the thermal drawing process. PMID:22714227

  17. Flow-Injection Determination of Thiabendazole Fungicide in Water Samples Using a Diperiodatocuprate(III)-Sulfuric Acid-Chemiluminescence System.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Munawar, Nusrat; Nabi, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) with a flow-injection method is reported for the determination of thiabendazole (TBZ) fungicide based on its enhancement effect on diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC)-sulfuric acid-CL system. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 1 - 2000 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9999, n = 8) with a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.3 μg L(-1). The injection throughput was 160 h(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 4) of 1.1 - 2.9% in the concentration range studied. The experimental variables e.g., reagents concentrations, flow rates, sample volume, and PMT voltage were optimized, and the potential interferences were investigated individually. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TBZ in water samples showing good agreement and recovery in the range of 92 ± 2.2 - 108 ± 3% (n = 3) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME). The possible CL reaction mechanism for DPC-sulfuric acid-TBZ is also discussed. PMID:26960615

  18. Smart CuS Nanoparticles as Peroxidase Mimetics for the Design of Novel Label-Free Chemiluminescent Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhanjun; Cao, Yue; Li, Juan; Lu, Mimi; Jiang, Zhikang; Hu, Xiaoya

    2016-05-18

    In the present work, a novel label-free chemiluminescent (CL) immunoassay method was designed by employing smart CuS nanoparticles (CuSNPs) as peroxidase mimetics. The CuSNPs were synthesized through a simple coprecipitation method, and showed high catalytic activity and stability. This efficient label-free CL immunoassay could be easily achieved through a simple strategy. First, CuSNPs dispersed in chitosan were modified on the epoxy-functionalized glass slide to form a solid CL signal interface. Streptavidin was then used to functionalize CuSNPs to capture the biotinylated antibody, further producing a sensing interface. After online incubation with antigen molecules, the formed antibody-antigen complex on the biosensing substrate could prevent the diffusion channel of CL substrate toward the signal interface, and restrained the mimic enzyme-catalyzed CL reaction, finally resulting in the decrease of CL signals of the assay system. Compared to the label-based CL immunoassay, the proposed label-free assay mode is more simple, cheap and fast. Using a model analyte alpha-fetoprotein, the label-free CL immunoassay method had a linear range of 0.1-60 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 0.07 ng/mL. Moreover, the peroxidase mimetic-based label-free CL immunoassay system showed good specificity, acceptable repeatability, and good accuracy. The study provided a promising strategy for the development of highly efficient label-free CL immunoassay system. PMID:27137349

  19. In vitro effect of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on chemiluminescent response of pronephros cells isolated from Tilapia, oreochromis aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Low, K.W.; Sin, Y.M.

    1995-12-01

    Phagocytosis is a basic immunological function of mononuclear phagocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This process is a major defence mechanism in fish which involves recognition and killing of pathogenic microorganisms. It has been reported that phagocytic cells consume more oxygen and release several reactive oxygen species (ROS) during phagocytosis. This {open_quote}respiratory burst{close_quote} was first quantified by measuring the chemiluminescence (CL) emitted from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and later in fish phagocytes. The oxygen intermediates responsible for this CL reaction include O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, {center_dot}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which are also the major bactericidal agents in phagocytes{prime} oxygen-dependent killing process. Therefore, CL response can be used as an indicator of phagocytosis. This study is designed to examine the individual effects of mercury and selenium and also their possible interaction on CL response of fish pronephros phagocytes, because a defect in phagocytosis may predispose fish to diseases. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensing method for the discrimination of DNA hydroxymethylation and assay of the β-glucosyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huiping; Ma, Shangxian; Li, Yan; Qi, Honglan; Ning, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-05-15

    An electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensing method for highly sensitive discrimination of DNA hydroxymethylation and assay of the β-glucosyltransferase (β-GT) activity was developed. The ECL biosensing electrode was fabricated by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/Nafion film, and then, tris(2, 2'-ripyridine) dichlororuthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) was electrostatically adsorbed into the AuNPs/Nafion film, finally, the hydroxymethylated double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA)-tagged with ferrocene was self-assembled onto the surface of the AuNPs. When β-GT and uridine diphosphoglucose (UDP-Glu) were introduced, the hydroxymethylcytosine residues within 5'-CCGG-3' of ds-DNA on the biosensing electrode were glucosylated. After the glucosylated biosensing electrode was treated by MspI endonuclease, the unglucosylated hydroxymethylcytosine was cleaved, leading to the quencher leaving the electrode, resulting in an increased ECL signal. For the ECL biosensing method, it showed an extremely low detection limit of 0.04U/mL for β-GT, and offered a good discrimination toward cytosine, 5-methylcytosine, and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. This work demonstrates that the combination of the enzyme-linkage reactions with the highly sensitive ECL method is a promising strategy for the discrimination of DNA hydroxymethylation, assay of the activity of β-GT, and evaluation of the capability of inhibitors for the β-GT. PMID:26700581