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Sample records for luminous high-redshift quasars

  1. High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1996-01-01

    The report for this period includes three papers: 'Associated Absorption at Low and High Redshift'; 'Strong X-ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar: PHL5200'; and 'ASCA and ROSAT X-ray Spectra of High-Redshift Radio-Loud Quasars'. The first gives examples from both low and high redshift for combining information on absorbing material in active galactic nuclei from both x-ray and the UV. The second presents ASCA observations of the z = 1.98 prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO): PHL 5200, detected with both the solid-state imaging spectrometers and the gas imaging spectometers. The third paper presents results on the x-ray properties of 9 high-redshift radio-loud quasars observed by ASCA and ROSAT, including ASCA observations of S5 0014+81 (z = 3.38) and S5 0836+71 (z = 2.17) and ROSAT observations of PKS 2126-158.

  2. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Kaspi, Shai; Vignali, Cristian; Lira, Paulina; Gibson, Robert R.

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  3. Dusty Quasars at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine

    2016-09-01

    A population of quasars at z ˜ 2 is determined based on dust luminosities νL ν (7.8 μm) that includes unobscured, partially obscured, and obscured quasars. Quasars are classified by the ratio νL ν (0.25 μm)/νL ν (7.8 μm) = UV/IR, assumed to measure obscuration of UV luminosity by the dust that produces IR luminosity. Quasar counts at rest-frame 7.8 μm are determined for quasars in the Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey using 24 μm sources with optical redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) or infrared redshifts from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. Spectral energy distributions are extended to far-infrared wavelengths using observations from the Herschel Space Observatory Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), and new SPIRE photometry is presented for 77 high-redshift quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It is found that unobscured and obscured quasars have similar space densities at rest-frame 7.8 μm, but the ratio L ν (100 μm)/L ν (7.8 μm) is about three times higher for obscured quasars than for unobscured, so that far-infrared or submillimeter quasar detections are dominated by obscured quasars. We find that only ˜5% of high-redshift submillimeter sources are quasars and that existing 850 μm surveys or 2 mm surveys should already have detected sources at z ˜ 10 if quasar and starburst luminosity functions remain the same from z = 2 until z = 10.

  4. High redshift quasars and high metallicities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    1997-01-01

    A large-scale code called Cloudy was designed to simulate non-equilibrium plasmas and predict their spectra. The goal was to apply it to studies of galactic and extragalactic emission line objects in order to reliably deduce abundances and luminosities. Quasars are of particular interest because they are the most luminous objects in the universe and the highest redshift objects that can be observed spectroscopically, and their emission lines can reveal the composition of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the universe when it was well under a billion years old. The lines are produced by warm (approximately 10(sup 4)K) gas with moderate to low density (n less than or equal to 10(sup 12) cm(sup -3)). Cloudy has been extended to include approximately 10(sup 4) resonance lines from the 495 possible stages of ionization of the lightest 30 elements, an extension that required several steps. The charge transfer database was expanded to complete the needed reactions between hydrogen and the first four ions and fit all reactions with a common approximation. Radiative recombination rate coefficients were derived for recombination from all closed shells, where this process should dominate. Analytical fits to Opacity Project (OP) and other recent photoionization cross sections were produced. Finally, rescaled OP oscillator strengths were used to compile a complete set of data for 5971 resonance lines. The major discovery has been that high redshift quasars have very high metallicities and there is strong evidence that the quasar phenomenon is associated with the birth of massive elliptical galaxies.

  5. A cosmic web filament revealed in Lyman-α emission around a luminous high-redshift quasar.

    PubMed

    Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Arrigoni-Battaia, Fabrizio; Prochaska, J Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F; Madau, Piero

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of structure formation in the Universe predict that galaxies are embedded in a 'cosmic web', where most baryons reside as rarefied and highly ionized gas. This material has been studied for decades in absorption against background sources, but the sparseness of these inherently one-dimensional probes preclude direct constraints on the three-dimensional morphology of the underlying web. Here we report observations of a cosmic web filament in Lyman-α emission, discovered during a survey for cosmic gas fluorescently illuminated by bright quasars at redshift z ≈ 2.3. With a linear projected size of approximately 460 physical kiloparsecs, the Lyman-α emission surrounding the radio-quiet quasar UM 287 extends well beyond the virial radius of any plausible associated dark-matter halo and therefore traces intergalactic gas. The estimated cold gas mass of the filament from the observed emission-about 10(12.0 ± 0.5)/C(1/2) solar masses, where C is the gas clumping factor-is more than ten times larger than what is typically found in cosmological simulations, suggesting that a population of intergalactic gas clumps with subkiloparsec sizes may be missing in current numerical models. PMID:24463517

  6. High Energy Continuum of High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion with the RXTE team at GSFC showed that a sufficiently accurate background subtraction procedure had now, been derived for sources at the flux level of PKS 2126-158. However this solution does not apply to observations carried out before April 1997, including our observation. The prospect of an improved solution becoming available soon is slim. As a result the RXTE team agreed to re-observe PKS2126-158. The new observation was carried out in April 1999. Quasi-simultaneous optical observations were obtained, as Service observing., at the 4-meter Anglo-Australian Telescope, and ftp-ed from the AAT on 22April. The RXTE data was processed in late June, arriving at SAO in early July. Coincidentally, our collaborative Beppo-SAX observation of PKS2126-158 was made later in 1999, and a GTO Chandra observation (with which we are involved) was made on November 16. Since this gives us a unique monitoring data for a high redshift quasar over a broad pass-band we are now combining all three observations into a single comprehensive study Final publication of the RXTE data will thus take place under another grant.

  7. Leveraging Spitzer's Legacy: Quasars and Feedback at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon; Anderson, Scott; Bauer, Franz; Deo, Rajesh; Fan, Xiaohui; Gallagher, Sarah; Myers, Adam; Strauss, Michael; Zakamska, Nadia

    2009-04-01

    Recent research efforts to understand the evolution of galaxies and quasars are beginning to form a consistent picture. Galaxies and their supermassive black holes grow through mergers, but with decreasing characteristic mass scales over time. Much less, however, is known about the evolution of galaxies at high redshifts and the role played by energy injection from the onset of active black hole growth. Understanding these events requires investigating a statistically significant number of high-redshift quasars and crossing the L* boundary in luminosity. To construct an appropriate data set requires both relatively wide-areas (to find these rare objects) and moderate-depth imaging (to probe below L* in luminosity). Unfortunately, existing optical and MIR surveys fail to meet both of these requirements. Furthermore, both optical and MIR quasar selection are blindest at the most crucial redshifts. Here we propose to address these gaps with targeted IRAC observations of a few hundred high-redshift quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Such a sample will enable the construction of a proper training set for the discovery of 2.5quasars through combined optical+MIR (from IRAC channels 1 and 2) selection methods that overcome the limitations inherent to optical and MIR selection alone. By concentrating on SDSS Stripe 82, with sensitivity of i~23, we will learn how to identify high-redshift quasars in other fields over a large range in luminosity. With this knowledge, we will crack open the high-z quasar discovery space within existing IRAC legacy surveys (SWIRE, XFLS, Bootes, COSMOS). With a large sample of high-redshift quasars spanning a large range in luminosity, we can turn the quasar luminosity function and quasar clustering analysis into tools for distinguishing between different evolutionary models and feedback prescriptions. In all, we will observe 330 SDSS quasars using 307 pointings/AORs, totaling 48.5 hours of IRAC time.

  8. Infrared/optical energy distributions of high redshifted quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Oke, J. B.; Matthews, K.; Lacy, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 microns were combined with visual spectrophotometry of 21 quasars having redshifts z or = 2.66. The primary result is that the rest frame visual/ultraviolet continua of the high redshift quasars are well described by a sum of a power law continuum with slope of approximately -0.4 and a 3000 A bump. The rest frame visual/ultraviolet continua of these quasars are quite similar to that of 3C273, the archetype of low redshift quasars. There does not appear to be any visual/ultraviolet properties distinguishing high redshift quasars selected via visual or radio techniques.

  9. X-ray spectral evolution of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    At z approx. equals 3, the x-ray spectra of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are different. High-redshift radio-quiet quasars either have large absorbing columns, N(sub H), and steeper power law spectral indices, alpha(sub epsilon), than low redshift quasars, or no absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s. In contrast, the radio-loud quasars at high redshift have substantial absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s to low redshift quasars. Implications for the interpretation of the evolution of the luminosity function of quasars are discussed. If the absorption arises outside the central engine for both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, then radio-quiet quasars differ from the radio-loud quasars in that their emitted power law spectrum has evolved with redshift. We argue that this favors models where quasars are numerous and short-lived, rather than rare and long-lived.

  10. Close companions to two high-redshift quasars

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; Strauss, Michael A.; Haiman, Zoltàn; Richards, Gordon T.; Jiang, Linhua; Schneider, Donald P.

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i {sub AB} = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW{sub 0} ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ∼ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ∼4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y {sub AB} = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i {sub 775} – Y {sub 105} color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short.

  11. Probabilistic Selection of High-redshift Quasars with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Masafusa

    High-redshift quasars are an important probe of the distant Universe. They enable observational studies of the early growth of supermassive blackholes, cosmic reionization, chemical enrichment of host galaxies, and so on. Through pioneering optical and near-infrared wide-area surveys such as the SDSS and the VIKING Survey, about one hundred quasars have been found at z > 6 (e.g., Fan et al. (2006b), Venemans et al. (2013)). However, its current small sample size and the fact that most of them are the most luminous (M 1450 <~ -24) population in this epoch prevents one from constraining statistics on high-redshift quasars, namely quasar luminosity function (QLF), and redshift evolution of IGM neutral fraction. Thus, discovery of large number of z > 6 quasars, especially low-luminous or z > 7 quasars, is highly desired for further understanding of the early universe. We are now starting a new ground-breaking survey of high-redshift (z > 6) quasars using the exquisite imaging data provided by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) Survey. Thanks to its extremely wide coverage and its high sensitivity thorough five optical bands (1,400 deg2 to the depth of r ~ 26 in HSC-Wide layer), it is one of the most powerful contemporary surveys that makes it possible for us to increase the number of z > 6 quasars by almost an order of magnitude, i.e., 300 at z ~ 6 and 50 at z ~ 7, based on the current estimate of the QLF at z > 6 by Willott et al. (2010b). One of the biggest challenges in z > 6 quasar candidate selection is contamination of Galactic brown dwarfs, which have the same point-like appearance as and similarly red colors to the quasars. To overcome this issue and maximize the selection efficiency, we apply a double-layered approach to the HSC survey products, namely combination of two probabilistic selections: SED-fitting and Bayesian selection. In particular, we have developed a template SED fitting method optimized to high-redshift quasars

  12. Early Star Formation and High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Matthias; Peterson, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    We are investigating for a sample of about 30 high-redshift quasars, with redshifts up to z=6, the gas chemical metallicity based on emission line ratios and employing the FeII UV/MgII line ratio, we probe the differential metal enrichment timescale between iron and alpha-elements at these early epochs. The quasars show enhanced solar metallicities ( 5 times solar) in their broad emission-line region and no indication of a metallicity evolution up to redshifts z=6. The measured FeII UV/MgII ratios range from 3 to 5, typical for high redshift quasars, with a weighted mean of about 4. However, there is a weak tendency for a lower mean ratio at z>4.7. For the first time, we will compare the gas metallicity and the FeII UV/MgII ratio for high redshift quasars. In concert, the gas metallicity, the FeII UV/MgII ratio, and model-based estimated time scales for enriching the gas and building up the super-massive black holes suggest that a violent episode of star formation and the main growth of the black hole occur roughly contemporaneously beginning at redshifts z = 8 to 13. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant HST-GO-10792 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  13. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    SciTech Connect

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher; McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui; Greiner, Jochen; Price, Paul

    2012-06-15

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i{sub P1} dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z{sub P1} magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, and a black hole mass of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Ly{beta} peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i{sub P1} dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z{sub P1} dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  14. The dust emission of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipski, C.; Meisenheimer, K.

    2012-07-01

    The detection of powerful near-infrared emission in high redshift (z > 5) quasars demonstrates that very hot dust is present close to the active nucleus also in the very early universe. A number of high-redshift objects even show significant excess emission in the rest frame NIR over more local AGN spectral energy distribution (SED) templates. In order to test if this is a result of the very high luminosities or redshifts, we construct mean SEDs from the latest SDSS quasar catalogue in combination with MIR data from the WISE preliminary data release for several redshift and luminosity bins. Comparing these mean SEDs with a large sample of z > 5 quasars we could not identify any significant trends of the NIR spectral slope with luminosity or redshift in the regime 2.5 < z lesssim 6 and 1045 < νLν (1350Å) lesssim 1047 erg/s. In addition to the NIR regime, our combined Herschel and Spitzer photometry provides full infrared SED coverage of the same sample of z > 5 quasars. These observations reveal strong FIR emission (LFIR gtrsim 1013 Lodot) in seven objects, possibly indicating star-formation rates of several thousand solar masses per year. The FIR excess emission has unusally high temperatures (T~65K) which is in contrast to the temperature typically expected from studies at lower redshift (T~45K). These objects are currently being investigated in more detail.

  15. X-RAY ABSORPTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eitan, Assaf; Behar, Ehud E-mail: behar@physics.technion.ac.il

    2013-09-01

    The soft X-ray photoelectric absorption of high-z quasars has been known for two decades, but has no unambiguous astrophysical context. We construct the largest sample to date of 58 high-redshift quasars (z > 0.45) selected from the XMM-Newton archive based on a high photon count criterion (>1800). We measure the optical depth {tau} at 0.5 keV and find that 43% of the quasars show significant absorption. We aim to find which physical parameters of the quasars, e.g., redshift, radio luminosity, radio loudness, or X-ray luminosity, drive their observed absorption. We compare the absorption behavior with redshift with the pattern expected if the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) is responsible for the observed absorption. We also compare the absorption with a comparison sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows. Although the z > 2 quasar opacity is consistent with diffuse IGM absorption, many intermediate-z (0.45 < z < 2) quasars are not sufficiently absorbed for this scenario, and are appreciably less absorbed than GRBs. Only 10/37 quasars at z < 2 are absorbed, and only 5/30 radio-quiet quasars are absorbed. We find a weak correlation between {tau} and z, and an even weaker correlation between {tau} and radio luminosity. These findings lead to the conclusion that although a diffuse IGM origin for the quasar absorption is unlikely, the optical depth does seem to increase with redshift, roughly as (1 + z){sup 2.2{+-}0.6}, tending to {tau} Almost-Equal-To 0.4 at high redshifts, similar to the high-z GRBs. This result can be explained by an ionized and clumpy IGM at z < 2, and a cold, diffuse IGM at higher redshift. If, conversely, the absorption occurs at the quasar, and owing to the steep L{sub x} {proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 7.1{+-}0.5} correlation in the present sample, the host column density scales as N{sub H}{proportional_to}L{sub x}{sup 0.7{+-}0.1}.

  16. Far-Infrared Line Emission from High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Cox, P.; Hunter, T. R.; Malhotra, S.; Phillips, T. G.; Yun, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent millimeter and submillimeter detections of line emission in high redshift objects have yielded new information and constraints on star formation at early epochs. Only CO transitions and atomic carbon transitions have been detected from these objects, yet bright far-infrared lines such as C+ at 158 microns and N+ at 205 microns should be fairly readily detectable when redshifted into a submillimeter atmospheric window. We have obtained upper limits for C+ emission &om two high redshift quasars, BR1202-0725 at z=4.69 and BRI1335-0415 at z=4.41. These limits show that the ratio of the C+ line luminosity to the total far-infrared luminosity is less than 0.0l%, ten times smaller than has been observed locally. Additionally, we have searched for emission in the N+ 205 micron line from the Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, and detected emission in CO J=7-6. The N+ emission is found to be below the amount predicted based on comparison to the only previous detection of this line, in the starburst galaxy M82.

  17. BINARY QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT. I. 24 NEW QUASAR PAIRS AT z {approx} 3-4

    SciTech Connect

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Myers, Adam D.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Glikman, Eilat; Mahabal, Ashish; Fan Xiaohui; Martin, Crystal L.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shankar, Francesco

    2010-08-20

    The clustering of quasars on small scales yields fundamental constraints on models of quasar evolution and the buildup of supermassive black holes. This paper describes the first systematic survey to discover high-redshift binary quasars. Using color-selection and photometric redshift techniques, we searched 8142 deg{sup 2} of Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data for binary quasar candidates, and confirmed them with follow-up spectroscopy. Our sample of 27 high-redshift binaries (24 of them new discoveries) at redshifts 2.9 < z < 4.3 with proper transverse separations 10 kpc < R{sub perpendicular} < 650 kpc increases the number of such objects known by an order of magnitude. Eight members of this sample are very close pairs with R{sub perpendicular} < 100 kpc, and of these close systems four are at z>3.5. The completeness and efficiency of our well-defined selection algorithm are quantified using simulated photometry and we find that our sample is {approx}50% complete. Our companion paper uses this knowledge to make the first measurement of the small-scale clustering (R < 1 h {sup -1} Mpc comoving) of high-redshift quasars. High-redshift binaries constitute exponentially rare coincidences of two extreme (M {approx}> 10{sup 9} M {sub sun}) supermassive black holes. At z {approx} 4, there is about one close binary per 10 Gpc{sup 3}, thus these could be the highest sigma peaks, the analogs of superclusters, in the early universe.

  18. Can quasars photoionize the intergalactic medium at high redshift?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meiksin, Avery; Madau, Piero

    1993-01-01

    The reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) by quasar sources at high redshift are discussed. The integrated UV background from observed QSO's, taking into account the hydrogen opacity associated with intervening Ly-alpha clouds and Lyman limit systems are computed. It is noted that the published data appear to indicate a significant underdensity of absorption systems in the Ly-alpha forest with column densities N(sub HI) greater than 10(exp 15) cm(sup -2). This deficit results in a reduction of the opacity of the universe by a factor of 1.5-3 at z = 3-5 relative to previous estimates. The QSO contribution to the metagalactic flux at the Lyman edge may be as large as J(sub 912)(z) is approximately 6((1 + z)/4.5)(sup 0.5) x 10(exp -22) erg cm(sup -2) s(sup -1) Hz(sup -1) sr(sup -1) for q(sup o) = O, and slightly lower for q(sub o) = 1/2. For a density of the diffuse component of the IGM of omega(sub D)(h(sub 50)(sup 2)) less than 0.025, QSO's could photoionize a smooth IGM sufficiently to satisfy the constraints imposed by the Gunn-Peterson effect. The epoch of reionization could be as recent as z is approximately greater than 5. As a result, neutral patches of IGM would be detectable in the spectra of high redshift quasars. The patches would appear as absorption line systems with typical column densities of 10(exp 19) - 10(exp 20) cm(sup -2), and velocity widths of 100 - 1000 km s(sup -1).

  19. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-10-10

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus.

  20. A stellar feedback origin for neutral hydrogen in high-redshift quasar-mass haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Feldmann, Robert; Quataert, Eliot; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Murray, Norman

    2016-09-01

    Observations reveal that quasar host haloes at z ˜ 2 have large covering fractions of cool dense gas (≳60 per cent for Lyman limit systems within a projected virial radius). Most simulations have so far failed to explain these large observed covering fractions. We analyse a new set of 15 simulated massive haloes with explicit stellar feedback from the FIRE project, covering the halo mass range Mh ≈ 2 × 1012 - 1013 M⊙ at z = 2. This extends our previous analysis of the circum-galactic medium of high-redshift galaxies to more massive haloes. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback is not included in these simulations. We find Lyman limit system covering fractions consistent with those observed around quasars. The large H I covering fractions arise from star formation-driven galactic winds, including winds from low-mass satellite galaxies that interact with cosmological filaments. We show that it is necessary to resolve these satellite galaxies and their winds to reproduce the large Lyman limit system covering fractions observed in quasar-mass haloes. Our simulations predict that galaxies occupying dark matter haloes of mass similar to quasars but without a luminous AGN should have Lyman limit system covering fractions comparable to quasars.

  1. Absorption in X-ray spectra of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Wilkes, Belinda; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Bechtold, Jill

    1994-01-01

    We present evidence that X-ray absorption is common in high-redshift quasars. We have studied six high-redshift (z approximately 3) quasars with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) of which four are in directions of low Galactic N(sub H). Three out of these four show excess absorption, while only three in approximately 50 z approximately less than 0.4 quasars do, indicating that such absorption must be common, but not ubiquitous, at high redshifts, and that the absorbers must lie at z greater than 0.4. The six quasars were: S5 0014+81, Q0420-388, PKS 0438-436, S4 0636+680. PKS 2000-330, PKS 2126-158, which have redshifts between 2.85 and 3.78. PKS 0438-436 and PKS 2126-158 show evidence for absorption above the local Galactic value at better than 99.999% confidence level. If the absorber is at the redshift of the quasar, then values of N(sub H) = (0.86(+0.49, -0.28)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm for PKS 0438-436, and N(sub H) = (1.45(+1.20, -0.64)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/ sq cm for PKS 2126-158, are implied, assuming solar abundances. The spectrum of S4 0636+680 also suggests the presence of a similarly large absorption column density at the 98% confidence level. This absorption reverses the trend for the most luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) to have the least X-ray absorption, so a new mechanism is likely to be responsible. Intervening absorption due to damped Lyman(alpha) systems is a plausible cause. We also suggest, as an intrinsic model, that intracluster material, e.g., a cooling flow, around the quasar could account for both the X-ray spectrum and other properties of these quasars. All the quasars are radio-loud and three are gigahertz peaked (two of the three showing absorption). No excess absorption above the Galactic value is seen toward Q0420-388. This quasar has two damped Lyman(alpha) systems at z = 3.08. The limit on the X-ray column density implies a low ionization fraction, N(H I)/N(H) approximately greater than 4 x 10(exp -3) (3

  2. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with high-redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calverley, Alexander Peter

    2011-11-01

    Clues about the timing of reionization and the nature of the ionizing sources responsible are imprinted in the ionization and thermal state of the IGM. In this thesis, I use high-resolution quasar spectra in conjunction with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations to probe the IGM at high redshift, focusing on the ionization and thermal state of the gas. After reionization, the ionization state of the IGM is set by the intensity of the ultraviolet background (UVB), quantified by the hydrogen photoionization rate, Γ_bkg. At high redshifts this has been estimated by measuring the mean flux in the Lyα forest, and scaling Γ_bkg in simulations such that the simulated mean flux matches the observed value. In Chapter 3 I investigate whether the precision of these estimates can be improved by using the entire flux probability distribution function (PDF) instead of only the mean flux. Although I find it cannot improve the precision directly, the flux PDF can potentially be used to constrain other sources of error in observational estimates of Γ_bkg, and so may increase the precision indirectly. The ionizing output of a quasar will locally dominate over the UVB, and this leads to enhanced transmission bluewards of the quasar Lyα line, known as the proximity effect. In Chapter 4 I present the first measurements of Γ_bkg at z > 5 from the proximity effect. The UVB intensity declines smoothly with redshift over 4.6 < z < 6.4, implying a smooth evolution in the mean free path of ionizing photons. This suggests that reionization ends at z > 6.4. There is a drop in Γ_bkg by roughly a factor of five, which corresponds to a drop in the ionizing emissivity by about a factor of two. Such a redshift evolution in the emissivity cannot continue to much higher redshift without reionization failing to complete, which suggests that reionization cannot have ended much higher than z = 6.4. Estimates of Γ_bkg from the proximity effect and the mean flux are generally discrepant

  3. Infrared to x-ray spectral energy distributions of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed 14 quasars with z greater than 2.8 with the ROSAT-PSPC, and detected 12 of them, including the z=4.11 quasar 0000-263. We present the first x-ray spectrum of a radio quiet quasar with z greater than 3, 1946+768. Its x-ray spectrum is consistent with a power law with spectral index alpha(sub E)=1.8(sup +2.1, sub -1.4) and no evidence for absorption in excess of the galactic column (alpha(sub E)=1.00(sup +0.28, sub -0.32) assuming N(sub H)=N(sub H)(Gal)). A Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) hardness ratio is used to constrain the x-ray spectral properties of the quasars for which there were less than 100 photons detected. For the radio quiet quasars, (alpha(sub E)) approximately equals 1.2, if one assumes that there is no absorption in excess of the galactic column. We combine the x-ray data with new ground based optical and near-IR spectrophotometry obtained at the Steward 2.3 m and Multiple Mirror Telescope, and data from the literature. The spectral energy distributions are compared to those of low redshift objects. For the radio quiet quasars with z greater than 2.5, the mean (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.8. This is larger than the mean for quasars with z less than 2.5, but consistent with the expected value for quasars with the high optical luminosities of the objects in this sample. For the radio-loud quasars, (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.4, independent of redshift. This is smaller than the expected value for the optically luminous, high redshift objects in this sample, if they are mostly GHz peaked radio sources and hence comparable to steep-spectrum, compact radio sources at lower redshift. Finally, we compare the spectral energy distributions of two representative objects to the predicted spectrum of a thin accretion disk in the Kerr geometry, and discuss the uncertainties in deriving black hole masses and mass accretion rates.

  4. Clustering of High Redshift (z>2.9) Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Fan, Xiaohui; Richards, Gordon T.; Hall, Patrick B.; Schneider, Donald P.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thakar, Anirudda R.; Berk, Daniel E.Vanden; Anderson, Scott F.; Bahcall, Neta A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-30

    We study the two-point correlation function of a uniformly selected sample of 4,428 optically selected luminous quasars with redshift 2.9 {le} z {le} 5.4 selected over 4041 deg{sup 2} from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We fit a power-law to the projected correlation function w{sub p}(r{sub p}) to marginalize over redshift space distortions and redshift errors. For a real-space correlation function of the form {zeta}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}}, the fitted parameters in comoving coordinates are r{sub 0} = 15.2 {+-} 2.7 h{sup -1} Mpc and {gamma} = 2.0 {+-} 0.3, over a scale range 4 {le} r{sub p} {le} 150 h{sup -1} Mpc. Thus high-redshift quasars are appreciably more strongly clustered than their z {approx} 1.5 counterparts, which have a comoving clustering length r{sub 0} {approx} 6.5 h{sup -1} Mpc. Dividing our sample into two redshift bins: 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and z {ge} 3.5, and assuming a power-law index {gamma} = 2.0, we find a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 16.9 {+-} 1.7 h{sup -1} Mpc for the former, and r{sub 0} = 24.3 {+-} 2.4 h{sup -1} Mpc for the latter. Strong clustering at high redshift indicates that quasars are found in very massive, and therefore highly biased, halos. Following Martini & Weinberg, we relate the clustering strength and quasar number density to the quasar lifetimes and duty cycle. Using the Sheth & Tormen halo mass function, the quasar lifetime is estimated to lie in the range 4 {approx} 50 Myr for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5; and 30 {approx} 600 Myr for quasars with z {ge} 3.5. The corresponding duty cycles are 0.004 {approx} 0.05 for the lower redshift bin and 0.03 {approx} 0.6 for the higher redshift bin. The minimum mass of halos in which these quasars reside is 2-3 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and 4-6 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with z {ge} 3.5; the effective bias factor b{sub eff} increases with redshift, e.g., b

  5. Serendipitous Discovery of an Extended X-Ray Jet without a Radio Counterpart in a High-redshift Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simionescu, A.; Stawarz, Ł.; Ichinohe, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Jamrozy, M.; Siemiginowska, A.; Hagino, K.; Gandhi, P.; Werner, N.

    2016-01-01

    A recent Chandra observation of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 585 has led to the discovery of an extended X-ray jet associated with the high-redshift background quasar B3 0727+409, a luminous radio source at redshift z = 2.5. This is one of only few examples of high-redshift X-ray jets known to date. It has a clear extension of about 12″, corresponding to a projected length of ∼100 kpc, with a possible hot spot located 35″ from the quasar. The archival high resolution Very Large Array maps surprisingly reveal no extended jet emission, except for one knot about 1.″4 from the quasar. The high X-ray to radio luminosity ratio for this source appears consistent with the \\propto {(1+z)}4 amplification expected from the inverse Compton radiative model. This serendipitous discovery may signal the existence of an entire population of similar systems with bright X-ray and faint radio jets at high redshift, a selection bias that must be accounted for when drawing any conclusions about the redshift evolution of jet properties and indeed about the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes and active galactic nuclei in general.

  6. High-redshift quasars and the supermassive black hole mass budget: constraints on quasar formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, J. M.; Somerville, R. S.; Fabian, A. C.

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the constraints on models of supermassive black hole (SMBH) and quasar formation obtainable from two recent observational developments: the discovery of luminous quasars at z~ 6, and estimates of the local mass density of SMBHs. If ~90 per cent of this mass was accreted at redshifts z<~ 3, as suggested by the observed quasar luminosity functions, these joint constraints pose a challenge for models, which must account for the observed luminous quasar population at z~ 6 within a very limited `mass budget'. We investigate a class of models based within the hierarchical structure formation scenario, in which major mergers lead to black hole formation and fuelling, and the resulting quasars shine at their Eddington-limited rate until their fuel is exhausted. We show that the simplest such model, in which a constant fraction of the gas within the halo is accreted in each major merger, cannot satisfy both constraints simultaneously. When this model is normalized to reproduce the number density of luminous quasars at z~ 6, the mass budget is grossly exceeded owing to an overabundance of lower-mass SMBHs. We explore a range of modifications to the simple model designed to overcome this problem. We show that both constraints can be satisfied if the gas accretion fraction scales as a function of the halo virial velocity. Similar scalings have been proposed in order to reproduce the local M•-σ relation. Successful models can also be constructed by restricting the formation of seed black holes to redshifts above zcrit~ 11.5 or to haloes above a velocity threshold vcrit~ 55 km s-1, or assuming that only a fraction of major mergers result in formation of a seed SMBH. We also briefly discuss the issue of trying to assume a `universal M•-σ relation' within the framework of simple Press-Schechter models, and further show that a fixed universal relation between SMBH mass and host halo mass is unlikely.

  7. X-Ray Absorption of High- Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, Ehud; Eitan, Assaf

    2012-09-01

    Soft X-ray absorption of high-z quasars has been known for more than a decade, but its astrophysical context remains a mystery. In order to better understand this absorption, we have constructed the largest to date high-S/N sample of high-z quasars (z > 0.5) from the XMM-Newton archive. We find that generally, z<2 and radio quiet objects provide only upper limits for the 0.5 keV optical depth (tau). Thus, we use censored statistics methods to seek correlations between tau and other quasar parameters. We find a dramatic increase of tau with z [(1+z)^{2.5}], although the correlation is rather weak. The correlation of tau with radio luminosity (or loudness) is even weaker. We also compare the absorption behavior with redshift with a large sample of GRBs, and with the pattern expected if the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) is responsible for the observed absorption. We find that although the z > 2 quasar opacity is consistent with a diffuse IGM effect and with the high-z GRB opacities, absorption of intermediate z (0.5 < z < 2) quasars is too low for this scenario, which leads to the conclusion that a simple IGM origin for this absorption is unlikely.

  8. Intergalactic Helium Absorption toward High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Fardal, Mark A.; Shull, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the z(q) = 3.286 quasar Q0302-003 (Jakobsen et at. 1994) and the z(q) = 3.185 quasar Q1935-67 by Tytler (1995) show absorption edges at the redshifted wavelength of He II 304 A. A key goal is to distinguish between contributions from discrete Ly-alpha forest clouds and a smoothly distributed intergalactic medium (IGM). We model the contributions from each of these sources of He II absorption, including the distribution of line Doppler widths and column densities, the 'He II proximity effect' from the quasar, and a self-consistent derivation of the He II opacity of the universe as a function of the spectrum of ionizing sources, with the assumption that both the clouds and the IGM are photoionized. The He II edge can be fully accounted for by He II line blanketing for reasonable distributions of line widths and column densities in the Ly-alpha forest, provided that the ionizing sources have spectral index alpha(s) greater than 1.5, and any He II proximity effect is neglected. Even with some contribution from a diffuse IGM, it is difficult to account for the edge observed by Jakobsen et al. (1994) with a 'hard' source spectrum (alpha(s) less than 1.3). The proximity effect modifies the relative contributions of the clouds and IGM to tau(He II) near the quasar (z approx. less than z(q)) and markedly increases the amount of He II absorption required. This implies, for example, that to account for the He II edge with line blanketing alone, the minimum spectral index alpha(s) must be increased from 1.5 to 1.9. We demonstrate the need for higher resolution observations that characterize the change in transmission as z approaches z(q) and resolve line-free gaps in the continuum. We set limits on the density of the diffuse IGM and suggest that the IGM and Ly-alpha clouds are likely to be a significant repository for dark baryons.

  9. A Systematic Meta-Survey of High Redshift Quasars Probing their Environments and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobeille, Doug B. P.

    We have constructed a meta-survey of 298 quasars in the window from 7 to 17.5 hours in right ascension and 0 to 65 degrees in declination. These quasars span three decades of total power and redshifts from 0.158 to 5.284. All sources had a flux density of greater than 70 mJy at 1.4 GHz. At redshifts z > 2.5 our sample is complete. It is also complete for z < 1 and P Tot1:4 > 1027.55 W/Hz. Our quasar sample is built from archival Very Large Array (VLA) observations, as well as three observations in 2007 and 2008. This sample represents one of the most complete meta-surveys to date of the high redshift universe. In the 1980's, two competing groups (Ne, Gower and Hutchings, and Barthel, Miley, and Lonsdale) investigated the high redshift universe, seeking to investigate the dependence of largest linear size (LLS) and bending angles on redshift, core power, and extended power. Using our sample we test the differing results of these groups and build our own model of source evolution with redshift and power. We also seek a relationship between bending angles and core dominance, modeling this dependence on the thoughts of Orr & Browne showing that projected bending angles grow as the angle to the line of sight approaches the intrinsic bending angle of the quasar. We will also present an additional component of our high redshift quasar observations seeking arcsecond scale jets to be observed with the space based Chandra x-ray telescope. These observations will be used to investigate the nature of x-ray emission from the knots of kiloparsec jets in the high redshift universe.

  10. The environments of high-redshift radio galaxies and quasars: probes of protoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, Álvaro A.; Fanidakis, Nikos; Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-03-01

    We use the GALFORM semi-analytical model to study high-density regions traced by radio galaxies and quasars at high redshifts. We explore the impact that baryonic physics has upon the properties of galaxies in these environments. Star-forming emission-line galaxies (Ly α and H α emitters) are used to probe the environments at high redshifts. Radio galaxies are predicted to be hosted by more massive haloes than quasars, and this is imprinted on the amplitude of galaxy overdensities and cross-correlation functions. We find that Ly α radiative transfer and active galactic nucleus feedback indirectly affect the clustering on small scales and also the stellar masses, star formation rates and gas metallicities of galaxies in dense environments. We also investigate the relation between protoclusters associated with radio galaxies and quasars, and their present-day cluster descendants. The progenitors of massive clusters associated with radio galaxies and quasars allow us to determine an average protocluster size in a simple way. Overdensities within the protoclusters are found to correlate with the halo descendant masses. We present scaling relations that can be applied to observational data. By computing projection effects due to the wavelength resolution of modern spectrographs and narrow-band filters, we show that the former have enough spectral resolution to map the structure of protoclusters, whereas the latter can be used to measure the clustering around radio galaxies and quasars over larger scales to determine the mass of dark matter haloes hosting them.

  11. Five New High-Redshift Quasar Lenses from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Strauss, Michael A.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Schneider, Donald P.; Becker, Robert H.; Bahcall, Neta A.; York, Donald G.

    2008-09-08

    We report the discovery of five gravitationally lensed quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). All five systems are selected as two-image lensed quasar candidates from a sample of high-redshift (z > 2.2) SDSS quasars. We confirmed their lensing nature with additional imaging and spectroscopic observations. The new systems are SDSS J0819+5356 (source redshift z{sub s} = 2.237, lens redshift z{sub l} = 0.294, and image separation {theta} = 4.04 inch), SDSS J1254+2235 (z{sub s} = 3.626, {theta} = 1.56 inch), SDSS J1258+1657 (z{sub s} = 2.702, {theta} = 1.28 inch), SDSS J1339+1310 (z{sub s} = 2.243, {theta} = 1.69 cin), and SDSS J1400+3134 (z{sub s} = 3.317, {theta} = 1.74 inch). We estimate the lens redshifts of the latter four systems to be z{sub l} = 0.4-0.6 from the colors and magnitudes of the lensing galaxies. We find that the image configurations of all systems are well reproduced by standard mass models. Although these lenses will not be included in our statistical sample of z{sub s} < 2.2 lenses, they expand the number of lensed quasars which can be used for high-redshift galaxy and quasar studies.

  12. PKS 0483-436 - A high-redshift quasar with strong X-ray absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Lawrence, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    The first X-ray spectrum of a high-redshift (z = 2.85) quasar is reported. The Rosat PSPC spectrum of PKS 0438-436, covering 0.3-9 keV in the quasar's rest frame, reveals unexpected absorption of about 1 x 10 exp 22/sq cm, assuming it occurs at the source. Only one other high-luminosity quasar (of greater than about 50 observed by Einstein) shows significant absorption in its X-ray spectrum. Of the common line-of-sight absorbers, only highly ionized Ly-alpha forest clouds may be able to explain this amount of absorption. Candidates for an intrinsic absorber are discussed. Absorption at about 1 keV (rest frame) is due primarily to heavy elements. (O, Ne, Mg, Si, S) raising the possibility of measuring early universe abundances via X-ray absorption in this and like quasars. PKS 0438-436 may be a high-redshift member of a population of quasars which can contribute to the X-ray background above 2 keV, without being detectable by previous imaging missions.

  13. Bayesian High-redshift Quasar Classification from Optical and Mid-IR Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Myers, Adam D.; Peters, Christina M.; Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Chase, Greg; Ross, Nicholas P.; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; Lacy, Mark; McGreer, Ian D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Riegel, Ryan N.

    2015-08-01

    We identify 885,503 type 1 quasar candidates to i≲ 22 using the combination of optical and mid-IR photometry. Optical photometry is taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III: Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-III/BOSS), while mid-IR photometry comes from a combination of data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) “AllWISE” data release and several large-area Spitzer Space Telescope fields. Selection is based on a Bayesian kernel density algorithm with a training sample of 157,701 spectroscopically confirmed type 1 quasars with both optical and mid-IR data. Of the quasar candidates, 733,713 lack spectroscopic confirmation (and 305,623 are objects that we have not previously classified as photometric quasar candidates). These candidates include 7874 objects targeted as high-probability potential quasars with 3.5\\lt z\\lt 5 (of which 6779 are new photometric candidates). Our algorithm is more complete to z\\gt 3.5 than the traditional mid-IR selection “wedges” and to 2.2\\lt z\\lt 3.5 quasars than the SDSS-III/BOSS project. Number counts and luminosity function analysis suggest that the resulting catalog is relatively complete to known quasars and is identifying new high-z quasars at z\\gt 3. This catalog paves the way for luminosity-dependent clustering investigations of large numbers of faint, high-redshift quasars and for further machine-learning quasar selection using Spitzer and WISE data combined with other large-area optical imaging surveys.

  14. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data. II. The Spring Equatorial Stripe

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Anderson, Scott F.; Voges, Wolfgang; Margon, Bruce; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series aimed at finding high-redshift quasars from five-color (u{sup '} g{sup '} r{sup '} i{sup '} z{sup '}) imaging data taken along the Celestial Equator by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) during its commissioning phase. In this paper, we present 22 high-redshift quasars (z>3.6) discovered from {approx}250 deg2 of data in the spring Equatorial Stripe, plus photometry for two previously known high-redshift quasars in the same region of the sky. Our success rate in identifying high-redshift quasars is 68%. Five of the newly discovered quasars have redshifts higher than 4.6 (z=4.62, 4.69, 4.70, 4.92, and 5.03). All the quasars have i{sup *} <20.2 with absolute magnitude - 28.8quasars show unusual emission and absorption features in their spectra, including an object at z=4.62 without detectable emission lines, and a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar at z=4.92. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society.

  15. A POPULATION OF X-RAY WEAK QUASARS: PHL 1811 ANALOGS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Hall, Patrick B.; Gibson, Robert R.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Richards, Gordon T.; Shemmer, Ohad; Just, Dennis W.

    2011-07-20

    We report the results from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 10 type 1 quasars selected to have unusual UV emission-line properties (weak and blueshifted high-ionization lines; strong UV Fe emission) similar to those of PHL 1811, a confirmed intrinsically X-ray weak quasar. These quasars were identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at high redshift (z {approx} 2.2); eight are radio quiet while two are radio intermediate. All of the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, without exception, are notably X-ray weak by a mean factor of {approx}13. These sources lack broad absorption lines and have blue UV/optical continua, supporting the hypothesis that they are intrinsically X-ray weak like PHL 1811 itself. However, their average X-ray spectrum appears to be harder than those of typical quasars, which may indicate the presence of heavy intrinsic X-ray absorption. Our sample of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs supports a connection between an X-ray weak spectral energy distribution and PHL 1811-like UV emission lines; this connection provides an economical way to identify X-ray weak type 1 quasars. The fraction of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs in the radio-quiet quasar population is estimated to be {approx}< 1.2%. We have investigated correlations between relative X-ray brightness and UV emission-line properties (e.g., C IV equivalent width and blueshift) for a sample combining our radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, PHL 1811 itself, and typical type 1 quasars. These correlation analyses suggest that PHL 1811 analogs may have extreme wind-dominated broad emission-line regions. Observationally, the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs appear to be a subset ({approx}30%) of radio-quiet weak-line quasars (WLQs). The existence of a subset of quasars in which high-ionization 'shielding gas' covers most of the broad emission-line region (BELR), but little more than the BELR, could potentially unify the PHL 1811 analogs and WLQs. The two radio-intermediate PHL 1811 analogs are X

  16. Reionisation and High-Redshift Galaxies: The View from Quasar Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, George D.; Bolton, James S.; Lidz, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Determining when and how the first galaxies reionised the intergalactic medium promises to shed light on both the nature of the first objects and the cosmic history of baryons. Towards this goal, quasar absorption lines play a unique role by probing the properties of diffuse gas on galactic and intergalactic scales. In this review, we examine the multiple ways in which absorption lines trace the connection between galaxies and the intergalactic medium near the reionisation epoch. We first describe how the Ly α forest is used to determine the intensity of the ionising ultraviolet background and the global ionising emissivity budget. Critically, these measurements reflect the escaping ionising radiation from all galaxies, including those too faint to detect directly. We then discuss insights from metal absorption lines into reionisation-era galaxies and their surroundings. Current observations suggest a buildup of metals in the circumgalactic environments of galaxies over z ~ 6 to 5, although changes in ionisation will also affect the evolution of metal line properties. A substantial fraction of metal absorbers at these redshifts may trace relatively low-mass galaxies. Finally, we review constraints from the Ly α forest and quasar near zones on the timing of reionisation. Along with other probes of the high-redshift Universe, absorption line data are consistent with a relatively late end to reionisation (5.5 ≲ z ≲ 7); however, the constraints are still fairly week. Significant progress is expected to come through improved analysis techniques, increases in the number of known high-redshift quasars from optical and infrared sky surveys, large gains in sensitivity from next-generation observing facilities, and synergies with other probes of the reionisation era.

  17. A high-redshift IRAS galaxy with huge luminosity - Hidden quasar or protogalaxy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Oliver, S. J.; Taylor, A. N.; Lawrence, A.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Hacking, P. B.; Conrow, T.

    1991-01-01

    An emission line galaxy with the enormous far-IR luminosity of 3 x 10 to the 14th solar has been found at z = 2.286. The spectrum is very unusual, showing lines of high excitation but with very weak Lyman-alpha emission. A self-absorbed synchrotron model for the IR energy distribution cannot be ruled out, but a thermal origin seems more plausible. A radio-quiet quasar embedded in a very dusty galaxy could account for the IR emission, as might a starburst embedded in 1-10 billion solar masses of dust. The latter case demands so much dust that the object would probably be a massive galaxy in the process of formation. The presence of a large amount of dust in an object of such high redshift implies the generation of heavy elements at an early cosmological epoch.

  18. Chandra Observations of 12 Luminous Red Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, T; Lacy, M; Gregg, M D; Becker, R H

    2005-03-11

    The authors present results of a study of 12 dust-reddened quasars with 0.4 < z < 2.65 and reddenings in the range 0.15 < E(B-V) < 1.7. They obtained ACIS-S X-ray spectra of these quasars, estimated the column densities towards them, and hence obtained the gas:dust ratios in the material obscuring the quasar. They detect all but one of the red quasars in the X-rays. Even though there is no obvious correlation between the X-ray determined column densities of the sources and their optical color or reddening, all of the sources show absorbed X-ray spectra. When they correct the luminosity for absorption, they can be placed among luminous quasars; therefore their objects belong to the group of high luminosity analogues of the sources contributing to the X-ray background seen in deep X-ray observations. Such sources are also found in serendipitous shallow X-ray surveys. There is a hint that the mean spectral slope of the red quasar is higher than that of normal, unobscured quasars, which could be an indication for higher accretion rates and/or an evolutionary effect. They investigate the number density of these sources compared to type 2 AGN based on the X-ray background and estimate how many moderate luminosity red quasars may be found in deep X-ray fields.

  19. Multi-frequency investigation of the parsec- and kilo-parsec-scale radio structures in high-redshift quasar PKS ;1402+044

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Gurvits, L. I.; Lobanov, A. P.; Frey, S.; Hong, X.-Y.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: We investigate the frequency-dependent radio properties of the jet of the luminous high-redshift (z=3.2) radio quasar PKS 1402+044 (J1405+0415) by means of radio interferometric observations. Methods: The observational data were obtained with the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) at 1.6 and 5 GHz, supplemented by other multi-frequency observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA; 2.3, 8.4, and 15 GHz) and the Very Large Array (VLA; 1.4, 5, 15, and 43 GHz). The observations span a period of 7 years. Results: We find that the luminous high-redshift quasar PKS 1402+044 has a pronounced “core-jet” morphology from the parsec to the kilo-parsec scales. The jet shows a steeper spectral index and lower brightness temperature with increasing distance from the jet core. The variation of brightness temperature agrees well with the shock-in-jet model. Assuming that the jet is collimated by the ambient magnetic field, we estimate the mass of the central object as ~10^9~M_⊙. The upper limit of the jet proper motion of PKS 1402+044 is 0.03 mas yr-1 (~3c) in the east-west direction.

  20. Weak Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-line Regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-10-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ = 1.91+0.24 -0.22, which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  1. WEAK LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: EXTREMELY HIGH ACCRETION RATES OR ANEMIC BROAD-LINE REGIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-10-20

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad H{beta} line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H{beta}-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L {sub Edd}=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of {Gamma} = 1.91{sup +0.24} {sub -0.22}, which supports the virial L/L {sub Edd} determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  2. A New Method to Obtain the Broad Line Region Size of High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.

    2014-10-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio UV spectra for eight quasars at z ~ 3 obtained with Very Large Telescope/FORS. The spectra enable us to analyze in detail the strong and weak emission features in the rest frame range 1300-2000 Å of each source (C III] λ1909, Si III] λ1892, Al III λ1860, Si II λ1814, C IV λ1549 and blended Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402). The flux ratios Al III λ1860/Si III] λ1892, C IV λ1549/Al III λ1860, Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402/Si III] λ1892 and Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402/C IV λ1549 strongly constrain ionizing photon flux and metallicity through the use of diagnostic maps built from CLOUDY simulations. The radius of the broad line region is then derived from the ionizing photon flux applying the definition of the ionization parameter. The r BLR estimate and the width of a virial component isolated in prominent UV lines yields an estimate of black hole mass. We compare our results with previous estimates obtained from the r BLR-luminosity correlation customarily employed to estimate the black hole masses of high redshift quasars. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program ID 078.B-0109(A).

  3. A new method to obtain the broad line region size of high redshift quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W. E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es

    2014-10-10

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio UV spectra for eight quasars at z ∼ 3 obtained with Very Large Telescope/FORS. The spectra enable us to analyze in detail the strong and weak emission features in the rest frame range 1300-2000 Å of each source (C III] λ1909, Si III] λ1892, Al III λ1860, Si II λ1814, C IV λ1549 and blended Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402). The flux ratios Al III λ1860/Si III] λ1892, C IV λ1549/Al III λ1860, Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402/Si III] λ1892 and Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402/C IV λ1549 strongly constrain ionizing photon flux and metallicity through the use of diagnostic maps built from CLOUDY simulations. The radius of the broad line region is then derived from the ionizing photon flux applying the definition of the ionization parameter. The r {sub BLR} estimate and the width of a virial component isolated in prominent UV lines yields an estimate of black hole mass. We compare our results with previous estimates obtained from the r {sub BLR}-luminosity correlation customarily employed to estimate the black hole masses of high redshift quasars.

  4. Optical Variability and Classification of High Redshift (3.5 < z < 5.5) Quasars on SDSS Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSayyad, Yusra; McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Connolly, Andrew J.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Becker, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown promise in combining optical colors with variability to efficiently select and estimate the redshifts of low- to mid-redshift quasars in upcoming ground-based time-domain surveys. We extend these studies to fainter and less abundant high-redshift quasars using light curves from 235 sq. deg. and 10 years of Stripe 82 imaging reprocessed with the prototype LSST data management stack. Sources are detected on the i-band co-adds (5σ: i ~ 24) but measured on the single-epoch (ugriz) images, generating complete and unbiased lightcurves for sources fainter than the single-epoch detection threshold. Using these forced photometry lightcurves, we explore optical variability characteristics of high redshift quasars and validate classification methods with particular attention to the low signal limit. In this low SNR limit, we quantify the degradation of the uncertainties and biases on variability parameters using simulated light curves. Completeness/efficiency and redshift accuracy are verified with new spectroscopic observations on the MMT and APO 3.5m. These preliminary results are part of a survey to measure the z~4 luminosity function for quasars (i < 23) on Stripe 82 and to validate purely photometric classification techniques for high redshift quasars in LSST.

  5. Luminous compact blue galaxies in the local Universe: A key reference for high-redshift studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castander, F. J.; Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are high surface brightness starburst galaxies, bluer than a typical Sbc and brighter than ˜0.25Lstar. LCBGs have evolved more than any other galaxy class in the last ˜8 Gyr, and are a major contributor to the observed enhancement of the UV luminosity density of the Universe at z≤1. Despite the key role LCBGs may play in galaxy evolution, their statistical properties are still largely unknown. We have selected a complete sample of ˜25 LCBGs within 100 Mpc, after investigating over 106 nearby galaxies from the DR1 of the SDSS database. This sample, although small, provides an excellent reference for comparison with current and future surveys of similar galaxies at high redshift, including the population of Lyman-break galaxies. We present preliminary results of this study using 3D spectroscopic observations obtained over a very wide range in wavelength, using WIYN/DENSEPAK in the optical, FISICA in the infrared, and the VLA at cm wavelengths.

  6. Bayesian Multiscale Analysis of X-Ray Jet Features in High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, A.; Kashyap, V.; Stein, N.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet’s relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. We implement a sophisticated Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) (Esch et al. 2004; Conners & van Dyk 2007), to analyze jet features in 11 Chandra images of high redshift quasars (z ~ 2 - 4.8). Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. We measured the ratios of the X-ray and radio luminosities of the detected features and found that they are consistent with the CMB radiation relationship. We derived a range of the bulk lorentz factor (Γ) for detected jet features under the CMB jet emission model. There is no discernible trend of Γ with redshift within the sample. The efficiency of the X-ray emission between the detected jet feature and the corresponding quasar also shows no correlation with redshift. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. We thank Teddy Cheung for providing the VLA radio images. Connors, A., & van Dyk, D. A. 2007, Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy IV, 371, 101 Esch, D. N., Connors, A., Karovska, M., & van Dyk, D. A. 2004, ApJ, 610, 1213

  7. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  8. Unusual high-redshift radio broad absorption-line quasar 1624+3758

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, C. R.; Carballo, R.; Holt, J.; Vigotti, M.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Mack, K.-H.; Perley, R. A.

    2005-07-01

    We present observations of the most radio-luminous broad absorption-line (BAL) quasar known, 1624+3758, at redshift z= 3.377. The quasar has several unusual properties. (1) The FeII UV191 1787-Åemission line is very prominent. (2) The BAL trough (BALnicity index 2990 km s-1) is detached by 21000 km s-1 and extends to velocity v=-29000 km s-1. There are additional intrinsic absorbers at -1900 and -2800 km s-1. (3) The radio rotation measure of the quasar, 18350 rad m-2, is the second highest known. The radio luminosity is P1.4GHz= 4.3 × 1027 W Hz-1 (H0= 50 km s-1 Mpc-1, q0= 0.5) and the radio loudness is R*= 260. The radio source is compact and the radio spectrum is GHz-peaked, consistent with it being relatively young. The width of the CIV emission line, in conjunction with the total optical luminosity, implies a black hole mass MBH~ 109Msolar, L/LEddington~ 2. The high Eddington ratio and the radio-loudness place this quasar in one corner of Boroson's two-component scheme for the classification of active galactic nuclei, implying a very high accretion rate, and this may account for some of the unusual observed properties. The v=-1900km s-1 absorber is a possible Lyman-limit system, with N(HI) = 4 × 1018 cm-2, and a covering factor of 0.7. A complex mini-BAL absorber at v=-2200 to -3400 km s-1 is detected in each of CIV, NV and OVI. The blue and red components of the CIV doublet happen to be unblended, allowing both the covering factor and optical depth to be determined as a function of velocity. Variation of the covering factor with velocity dominates the form of the mini-BAL, with the absorption being saturated (e-τ~ 0) over most of the velocity range. The velocity dependence of the covering factor and the large velocity width imply that the mini-BAL is intrinsic to the quasar. There is some evidence of line-locking between velocity components in the CIV mini-BAL, suggesting that radiation pressure plays a role in accelerating the outflow.

  9. Hard X-Ray Detection of the High Redshift Quasar 4C 71.07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malizia, A.; Bassani, L.; Dean, A. J.; McCollough, M. L.; Stephen, J. B.; Zhang, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    BATSE/OSSE observations of the high redshift quasar 4C 71.07 indicate that this is the brightest and furthest AGN so far detected 20 keV. BATSE Earth occultation data have been used to search for emission from 4C 71.07 from nearly 3 years of observation. The mean source flux over the- whole period in the BATSE energy range 20-100 keV is (13.2 +/- 1.06) x 10(exp -11) erg/square cm/s corresponding to a luminosity of 2 x 10(exp 48 erg/s. The BATSE light curve over the 3 years of observations shows several flare-like events, one of which (in January 1996) is associated with an optical flare (R=16.1) but with a delay of 55 days. The OSSE/BATSE spectral analysis indicates that the source is characterized by a flat power spectrum (Gamma is approximately 1.1- 1.3) when in a low state: this spectral form is consistent within errors with the ASCA and ROSAT spectra. This means that the power law observed from 0.1 to 10 keV extends up to at least 1 MeV but steepens soon after to meet EGRET high energy data. BATSE data taken around the January 1996 flare suggests that the spectrum could be steeper when the source is in a bright state. The upsilon-F-upsilon representation of the source is typical of a low frequency peaked/ gamma- ray dominated blazar, with the synchrotron peak in the mm-FIR band and the Compton peak in the MeV band. The BATSE and OSSE spectral data seem to favour a model in which the high energy - flux is due to the sum of the synchrotron self-Compton and the external Compton contributions: this is also supported by the- variability behaviour of the source.

  10. A high-redshift quasar absorber without C IV. A galactic outflow caught in the act?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Anne; Richter, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a very unusual sub-damped Lyman α (sub-DLA) system at redshift z = 2.304 towards the quasar Q 0453-423, based on high signal-to-noise (S/N), high-resolution spectral data obtained with VLT/UVES. With a neutral hydrogen column density of log N(H i) = 19.23 and a metallicity of -1.61 as indicated by [O i/H i] the sub-DLA mimics the properties of many other optically thick absorbers at this redshift. A very unusual feature of this system is, however, the lack of any C iv absorption at the redshift of the neutral hydrogen absorption, although the relevant spectral region is free of line blends and has very high S/N. Instead, we find high-ion absorption from C iv and O vi in another metal absorber at a velocity more than 220 km s-1 redwards of the neutral gas component. We explore the physical conditions in the two different absorption systems using Cloudy photoionisation models. We find that the weakly ionised absorber is dense and metal-poor while the highly ionised system is thin and more metal-rich. The absorber pair towards Q 0453-423 mimics the expected features of a galactic outflow with highly ionised material that moves away with high radial velocities from a (proto)galactic gas disk in which star-formation takes place. We discuss our findings in the context of C iv absorption line statistics at high redshift and compare our results to recent galactic-wind and outflow models.

  11. Size of HII Regions Around High Redshift Quasars vs Intergalactic Medium Neutral Hydrogen Fraction at z~6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, A.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Choudury, T. S.

    2006-08-01

    We discuss the robustness of constraints on the intergalactic medium neutral hydrogen fraction inferred from the extent of HII regions of high redshift quasars by means of their absorption spectra. We have combined state-of-art SPH and 3D Radiative Transfer (RT) simulations to extract a sample of mock quasar spectra and we have analyzed such a sample with a procedure commonly adopted in real observations. Our analysis shows that the size of the quasar HII regions measured in quasar spectra strongly underestimate the real HII extent, as a result of absorption by residual neutral hydrogen inside the HII region and red damping wing absorption produced by HI just outside the HII region. We demonstrate that, even an idealized large sample of observed spectra -with negligible uncertainties on the quasars parameters (ie. lifetime, luminosity)- is compatible with a surrounding IGM whose mean IGM neutral hydrogen fraction can range freely in the interval [0.05,1] . We conclude, that our current knowledge of the re-ionization process is not accurate enough to allow a direct conversion of the quasars HII region extent into a value for the mean IGM ionization fraction. Finally, we propose a statistical method which could allow to extract such information from a large sample of quasar spectra at z>6.

  12. Properties of high-redshift Lyman-alpha clouds. I - Statistical analysis of the Schneider-Schmidt-Gunn quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Press, William H.; Rybicki, George B.; Schneider, Donald P.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for statistical analysis of the Lyman-alpha forest in high-redshift quasars are developed, and applied to the low-resolution (25 A) spectra of 29 of the 33 quasars in the Schneider-Schmidt-Gunn sample. We extrapolate each quasar's continuum shortward of Lyman-alpha emission, then consider each spectral bin of each quasar to be an (approximately) independent measurement of the absorption due to the Lyman-alpha clouds. With several thousand such measurements thus available, we can obtain good determinations of some interesting properties of clouds in the redshift range 2.5-4.3 without actually resolving any single cloud. We find that the mean absorption increases with z approximately as a power law (1 + z) exp (gamma + 1) with gamma = 2.46 +/- 0.37. The mean ratio of Lyman-alpha to Lyman-beta absorption in the clouds is 0.476 +/- 0.054. We also detect, and obtain ratios, for Lyma-gamma, delta, and possibly epsilon.

  13. The Hyperluminous Infrared Quasar 3C 318 and Its Implications for Interpreting Sub-MM Detections of High-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Jarvis, Matt J.

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the compact steep-spectrum radio source 3C 318 which shows it to be a quasar at redshift z = 1.574 (the z = 0.752 value previously reported is incorrect). 3C 318 is an IRAS, ISO and SCUBA source so its new redshift makes it the most intrinsically luminous far-infrared (FIR) source in the 3C catalogue (there is no evidence of strong gravitational lensing effects). Its bolometric luminosity greatly exceeds the 10(exp 13) solar luminosity level above which an object is said to be hyperluminous. Its spectral energy distribution (SED) requires that the quasar heats the dust responsible for the FIR flux, as is believed to be the case in other hyperluminous galaxies, and contributes (at the greater than 10% level) to the heating of the CIA dust responsible for the sub-mm emission. We cannot determine whether a starburst makes an important contribution to the heating of the coolest dust, so evidence for a high star-formation rate is circumstantial being based on the high dust, and hence gas, C-1 mass required by its sub-mm detection. We show that the current sub-mm and FIR data available for the highest-redshift radio galaxies are consistent with SEDs similar to that of 3C 318. This indicates that at least some of this population may be detected in the sub-mm because of dust heated by the quasar nucleus, and that interpreting sub-mm detection as evidence for very high (approx. less than 1000 solar mass/yr) star-formation rates may not always be valid. We show that the 3C318 quasar is slightly reddened (A(sub v) approx. = 0.5), the most likely cause of which is SMC-type dust in the host galaxy. If very distant radio galaxies are reddened in a similar way then we show that only slightly greater amounts of dust could obscure the quasars in these sources. We speculate that the low fraction of quasars amongst the very high redshift (z approx. greater than 3) objects in low-frequency radio-selected samples is the result of

  14. Bayesian analysis of X-ray jet features of the high redshift quasar jets observed with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay; Stein, Nathan; Cheung, Chi C.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet's relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. Results from Chandra X-ray and multi-frequency VLA imaging observations of a sample of 11 high- redshift (z > 2) quasars with kilo-parsec scale radio jets are reported. The sample consists of a set of four z ≥ 3.6 flat-spectrum radio quasars, and seven intermediate redshift (z = 2.1 - 2.9) quasars comprised of four sources with integrated steep radio spectra and three with flat radio spectra.We implement a Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) , to analyze jet features in the X-ray images of the high redshift quasars. Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. Significant detections are based on the upper bound p-value test based on LIRA simulations. The X-ray and radio properties of this sample combined are examined and compared to lower-redshift samples.This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. Work is also supported by the Chandra grant GO4-15099X.

  15. A Search for Moderate-redshift Survivors from the Population of Luminous Compact Passive Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Larson, Kirsten; Mann, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    From a search of a ~2400 deg2 region covered by both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey databases, we have attempted to identify galaxies at z ~ 0.5 that are consistent with their being essentially unmodified examples of the luminous passive compact galaxies found at z ~ 2.5. After isolating good candidates via deeper imaging, we further refine the sample with Keck moderate-resolution spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive-optics imaging. For four of the five galaxies that so far remain after passing through this sieve, we analyze plausible star-formation histories based on our spectra in order to identify galaxies that may have survived with little modification from the population formed at high redshift. We find two galaxies that are consistent with having formed >~ 95% of their mass at z > 5. We attempt to estimate masses both from our stellar population determinations and from velocity dispersions. Given the high frequency of small axial ratios, both in our small sample and among samples found at high redshifts, we tentatively suggest that some of the more extreme examples of passive compact galaxies may have prolate morphologies. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  16. XMM-Newton analysis of a newly discovered, extremely X-ray luminous galaxy cluster at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoelken, S.; Schrabback, T.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters, the largest virialized structures in the universe, provide an excellent method to test cosmology on large scales. The galaxy cluster mass function as a function of redshift is a key tool to determine the fundamental cosmological parameters and especially measurements at high redshifts can e.g. provide constraints on dark energy. The fgas test as a direct cosmological probe is of special importance. Therefore, relaxed galaxy clusters at high redshifts are needed but these objects are considered to be extremely rare in current structure formation models. Here we present first results from an XMM-Newton analysis of an extremely X-ray luminous, newly discovered and potentially cool core cluster at a redshift of z=0.9. We carefully account for background emission and PSF effects and model the cluster emission in three radial bins. Our preliminary results suggest that this cluster is indeed a good candidate for a cool core cluster and thus potentially of extreme value for cosmology.

  17. A search for moderate-redshift survivors from the population of luminous compact passive galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Larson, Kirsten; Mann, Andrew W. E-mail: hsshih@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: amann@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-01-10

    From a search of a ∼2400 deg{sup 2} region covered by both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey databases, we have attempted to identify galaxies at z ∼ 0.5 that are consistent with their being essentially unmodified examples of the luminous passive compact galaxies found at z ∼ 2.5. After isolating good candidates via deeper imaging, we further refine the sample with Keck moderate-resolution spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive-optics imaging. For four of the five galaxies that so far remain after passing through this sieve, we analyze plausible star-formation histories based on our spectra in order to identify galaxies that may have survived with little modification from the population formed at high redshift. We find two galaxies that are consistent with having formed ≳ 95% of their mass at z > 5. We attempt to estimate masses both from our stellar population determinations and from velocity dispersions. Given the high frequency of small axial ratios, both in our small sample and among samples found at high redshifts, we tentatively suggest that some of the more extreme examples of passive compact galaxies may have prolate morphologies.

  18. Discovery of extreme [O III] λ5007 Å outflows in high-redshift red quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakamska, Nadia L.; Hamann, Fred; Pâris, Isabelle; Brandt, W. N.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Villforth, Carolin; Wylezalek, Dominika; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2016-07-01

    Black hole feedback is now a standard component of galaxy formation models. These models predict that the impact of black hole activity on its host galaxy likely peaked at z = 2-3, the epoch of strongest star formation activity and black hole accretion activity in the Universe. We used XSHOOTER on the Very Large Telescope to measure rest-frame optical spectra of four z ˜ 2.5 extremely red quasars with infrared luminosities ˜1047 erg s-1. We present the discovery of very broad (full width at half max = 2600-5000 km s-1), strongly blueshifted (by up to 1500 km s-1) [O III] λ5007 Å emission lines in these objects. In a large sample of type 2 and red quasars, [O III] kinematics are positively correlated with infrared luminosity, and the four objects in our sample are on the extreme end in both [O III] kinematics and infrared luminosity. We estimate that at least 3 per cent of the bolometric luminosity in these objects is being converted into the kinetic power of the observed wind. Photo-ionization estimates suggest that the [O III] emission might be extended on a few kpc scales, which would suggest that the extreme outflow is affecting the entire host galaxy of the quasar. These sources may be the signposts of the most extreme form of quasar feedback at the peak epoch of galaxy formation, and may represent an active `blow-out' phase of quasar evolution.

  19. Errata: A Wide-Field Multicolor Survey for High-Redshift Quasars, Z >= 2.2. III. The Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Stephen J.; Hewett, Paul C.; Osmer, Patrick S.

    1995-01-01

    In the paper "A Wide-Field Multicolor Survey for High-Redshift Quasars, z >= 2.2. III. The Luminosity Function" by Stephen. Warren, Paul C. Hewett and Patrick S. Osmer (ApJ, 421,412 [1994]), two equations should be corrected: On page 419, column one, line 11, the expression following the words "the error,, should have an opening parenthesis just before the integral sign, to read: [{SIGMA} 1/({integral} ρ(z)dV_a_)^2^]^1/2^. On page 421, equation (15) is missing the asterisk (*) in the M_c_^*^ term just prior to (β + 1); that is, the exponent in the second term the denominator should read: 0.4(M_c_ - M_c_^*^)(β + 1). The authors wish to draw these errors to the attention of any readers who will be using the expression and equation.

  20. The compact radio structure of the high-redshift quasar OQ172

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Gu, M.; Gurvits, L. I.

    2016-02-01

    The GHz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) quasar OQ172 (J1445+0958) has an extremely high rest-frame rotation measure (RM > 20 000 rad m-2) and an RM gradient in its inner nucleus. Its jet observed with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is strongly bent along an arc spanning > 100 pc. Near infrared (NIR) spectra reveal an unusually large [O III] line width which suggests a large mass within the NLR and/or strong interactions between the emerging jet and the dense material therein. We present our VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) and Multi-frequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observation of the GPS quasar OQ172. The observations will help us to explore the VLBI radio properties and to better understand the circumnuclear environment of OQ172.

  1. Weak Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rate Sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad

    2011-10-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has recently discovered a remarkable group of ~80 quasars at z=2.2-5.9 with extremely weak emission lines in their rest-frame UV spectra. We propose to extend our XMM-Newton observations of such sources and obtain imaging spectroscopy of four quasars of this class with a total exposure time of 165 ks, providing ~1000 photons per source. This will enable an accurate measurement of the hard-X-ray photon index required for a robust determination of the accretion rate in each source. Steep spectral slopes will indicate that high accretion rates may be responsible for the intrinsic weakness of the UV emission lines. The proposed observations will lead to new insights about the accretion process and broad emission line formation in all active galactic nuclei.

  2. Weak Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rate Sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad

    2010-10-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has recently discovered a remarkable group of ~80 quasars at z=2.2-5.9 with extremely weak emission lines in their rest-frame UV spectra. We propose to extend our XMM-Newton observations of such sources and obtain imaging spectroscopy of four quasars of this class with a total exposure time of 165 ks, providing ~1000 photons per source. This will enable an accurate measurement of the hard-X-ray photon index required for a robust determination of the accretion rate in each source. Steep spectral slopes will indicate that high accretion rates may be responsible for the intrinsic weakness of the UV emission lines. The proposed observations will lead to new insights about the accretion process and broad emission line formation in all active galactic nuclei.

  3. Weak Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rate Sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad

    2013-10-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has discovered a remarkable group of ~100 quasars with extremely weak emission lines in their rest-frame optical-UV spectra. We propose to extend our XMM-Newton observations of such sources and obtain imaging spectroscopy of six quasars of this class with a total exposure time of 128 ks, providing ~1000 photons per source. This will enable an accurate measurement of the hard-X-ray photon index required for a robust determination of the accretion rate in each source. Steep spectral slopes will indicate that high accretion rates may be responsible for the intrinsic weakness of the optical-UV emission lines. The proposed observations will lead to new insights about the accretion process and broad emission line formation in all active galactic nuclei.

  4. Spectral Evolution in High Redshift Quasars from the Final BOSS Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Trey; Bautista, Julian; Dawson, Kyle; Harris, David; Kamble, Vikrant; Mariappan, Vivek; Suzuki, Nao

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study of the spectral variations in a sample of 102,150 quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III). After mitigating selection effects and Malmquist bias over the redshift range 2.1 ≤ z ≤ 3.5, we create high signal-to-noise composite spectra binned by luminosity, spectral index, and redshift. We use these composite spectra to inspect the variations in quasar properties as a function of each of these three parameters. We confirm the traditional Baldwin effect (i.e. the anti-correlation of CIV equivalent width and luminosity) and identify physical trends associated with spectral index and redshift. In this poster, we will present these results with a particular focus on the clear spectroscopic signature that we find in redshift evolution.

  5. Weak-Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-Line Regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Anderson, S. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, A. M.; Fan, X.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Plotkin, R. M.; Richards, G. T.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z=3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z=3.49. In both sources we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and we place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black-hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/LEdd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ=1.91+0.24-0.22which supports the virial L/LEdd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad-emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad-emission line region properties.

  6. Searching High-Redshift Large-Scale Structures: Photometry of Four Fields around Quasar Pairs at z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E. S.; Santos, W. A.; de Oliveira, C. Mendes; West, M.

    2007-09-01

    We have studied the photometric properties of four fields around the high-redshift quasar pairs QP 1310+0007, QP 1355-0032, QP 0110-0219, and QP 0114-3140 at z~1 with the aim of identifying large-scale structures (galaxy clusters or groups) around them. This sample was observed with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectograph (GMOS) at the Gemini North and South telescopes in the g', r', i', and z' bands, and our photometry is complete to a limiting magnitude of i'~24 mag (corresponding to ~M*i'+2 at the redshift of the pairs). Our analysis reveals that QP 0110-0219 shows very strong and QP 1310+0007 and QP 1355-0032 show some evidence for the presence of rich galaxy clusters in direct vicinity of the pairs. On the other hand, QP 0114-3140 could be an isolated pair in a poor environment. This work suggest that z~1 quasar pairs are excellent tracers of high-density environments, and the same technique may be useful to find clusters at higher redshifts.

  7. Morphological Properties and AGN Content of High Redshift Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  8. The luminous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission features: Applications to high redshift galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath Vernon

    (corrected for attenuation using the mono-chromatic rest-frame 24um emission), with a tight scatter of 0.15 dex. The scatter is comparable to that between SFRs derived from the Paalpha and dust-corrected Halpha emission lines, implying the PAH features may be as accurate a SFR indicator as the Hydrogen recombination lines. Because the PAH features are so bright, our PAH SFR calibration enables an efficient way to measure SFRs in distant galaxies with JWST to SFRs as low as ~10 M; yr-1 to z >~ 2. We use Spitzer/IRS observations of PAH features in lensed star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 3 to demonstrate the utility of the PAHs to derive SFRs as accurate as those available from Paalpha. Chapter 4 is the application of the PAH SFRs for galaxies with AGN to demonstrate the reliability for studies of the co-evolution of star-formation and SMBH accretion. We present a study of the contribution from star-formation in galaxies of varying AGN activity (from pure star-forming galaxies to quasars) as a function of total IR luminosity using a sample of 220 galaxies. We use mid-IR spectroscopy from the Spitzer/IRS and photometry from the MIPS mum, 70mum and 160mum bands with partial coverage of the sample with the Herschel 160mum band for the quasars. The contribution from star-formation to the total IR luminosity implied by the PAH emission decreases with increasing IR luminosity. We find a similar result to previous studies for the correlation between SFR, i.e. PAH luminosity, and AGN luminosity for quasars of LSF [special characters omitted] for the 11.3mum PAH feature only (which has been shown to be the most reliable PAH feature in the vicinity of AGN). This may indicate the PAH luminosity remains a reliable tracer of the SFR for galaxies with strong AGN contributions (i.e. quasars), as we did not subtract off the AGN component before measuring the SFR from the PAH luminosity.

  9. Quasars as the formation sites of high-redshift ellipticals: a signature in the `associated' absorption-line systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, A.; Gratton, R.

    1997-03-01

    Published data on the average metallicities and abundance ratios for absorption-line systems in high-redshift quasars suggest that a dichotomy may exist between the chemical composition of damped Lyman alpha (Lyalpha) systems (interpreted as intervening galaxies in the QSO line of sight) and the z_abs~=z_em absorption- line systems associated with the quasar. Intervening systems have smaller than solar metallicities, whereas associated absorbers have solar or greater than solar metallicities and small N/C ratios. While these results have to be confirmed by more precise abundance determinations, we argue that they may be explained by an early phase of efficient metal enrichment occurring only in the close environment of high-z QSOs, and characterized by an excess type-II supernova (SNII) activity. This is reminiscent of the SNII phase required to explain the abundance ratios (favouring alpha- over Fe-group elements) observed in the intracluster (IC) medium of local galaxy clusters. We explore the following scenario, to be tested by forthcoming observations of QSO absorption lines using very large optical telescopes. (a) Well-studied damped- Lyalpha, Lyalpha and metal lines in intervening systems trace only part of the history of metal production in the Universe - the one concerning slowly star-forming discs or dwarf irregulars. (b) The complementary class of early-type and bulge-dominated galaxies formed quickly (at z>~4-5) through a huge episode of star formation favouring high-mass stars. (c) The nucleus of the latter is the site of the subsequent formation of a quasar, which partly hides from view the dimmer host galaxy. (d) The products of a galactic wind, following the violent episode of star formation in the host galaxy and metal pollution of the IC medium in the forming cluster, could be directly observable in the z_abs~=z_em associated absorption systems on the QSO line of sight.

  10. Large-scale environmental bias of the high-redshift quasar line-of-sight proximity effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partl, A. M.; Müller, V.; Yepes, G.; Gottlöber, S.

    2011-08-01

    We analyse the overionization or proximity zone of the intergalactic matter around high-redshift quasars in a cosmological environment. In a box of 64 h-1 Mpc base length, we employ high-resolution dark-matter-only simulations with 10243 particles. For estimating the hydrogen temperature and density distribution, we use the effective equation of state by Hui & Gnedin. Hydrogen is assumed to be in photoionization equilibrium with a model background flux which is fitted to recent observations of the redshift dependence of the mean optical depth and the transmission flux statistics. At the redshifts z= 3, 4 and 4.8, we select model quasar positions at the centre of the 20 most massive haloes and 100 less massive haloes identified in the simulation box. From each assumed quasar position, we cast 100 random lines of sight for two box length, including the changes in the ionization fractions by the high-resolution quasar (QSO) flux field, and derive mock Lyman α spectra. The proximity effect describes the dependence of the mean normalized optical depth ξ=τeff, QSO/τeff, Lyα as a function of the ratio of the ionization rate by the QSO to that of the background field, ω=ΓQSO/ΓUVB, that is, the profile ξ= (1 +ω/a)-0.5, where a strength parameter a is introduced. The strength parameter measures the deviation from the theoretical background model and is used to quantify any influence of the environmental density field. We improve the statistical analysis of the profile fitting in employing a moving average to the profile. We reproduce an unbiased measurement of the proximity effect which is not affected by the host halo mass. The scatter between the different lines of sight and different quasar host positions increases with decreasing redshift, σlog a≈ 0.08, 0.20 and 0.36 for z= 4.8, 4 and 3, respectively. Around the host haloes, we find only a slight average overdensity in the proximity zone at comoving radii of 1 < rc < 10 h-1 Mpc. However, a clear power

  11. The Luminous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features: Applications to High Redshift Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath; Papovich, Casey

    2015-08-01

    We provide a new robust star-formation rate (SFR) calibration using the luminosity from polycyclic aromatic hydrogen (PAH) molecules. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR; 3-19μm), mitigating dust extinction, and they are very luminous, containing 5-10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. We derive the calibration of the PAH luminosity as a SFR indicator using a sample of 105 star-forming galaxies covering a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000μm) = 109 - 1012 L⊙ and redshift 0 < z < 0.6. The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the dust-corrected Hα luminosity (using the sum of the Hα and rest-frame 24μm luminosity from Kennicutt et al. 2009), with tight scatter of ~0.15 dex, comparable to the scatter in the dust-corrected Hα SFRs and Paα SFRs. We show this relation is sensitive to galaxy metallicity, where the PAH luminosity of galaxies with Z < 0.7 Z⊙ departs from the linear SFR relationship but in a behaved manor. We derive for this a correction to galaxies below solar metallicity. As a case study for observations with JWST, we apply the PAH SFR calibration to a sample of lensed galaxies at 1 < z < 3 with Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) data, and we demonstrate the utility of PAHs to derive SFRs as accurate as those available from any other indicator. This new SFR indicator will be useful for probing the peak of the SFR density of the universe (1 < z < 3) and for studying the coevolution of star-formation and supermassive blackhole accretion contemporaneously in a galaxy.

  12. The Luminous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features: Applications to High Redshift Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath V.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, significant work has been applied to calibrating emission from the ultra-violet, nebular emission lines, far-infrared, X-ray and radio as tracers of the star-formation rate (SFR) in distant galaxies. Understanding the exact rate of star-formation and how it evolves with time and galaxy mass has deep implications for how galaxies form. The co-evolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion is one of the key problems in galaxy formation theory. But, many of these SFR indicators are influenced by SMBH accretion in galaxies and result in unreliable SFRs. Utilizing the luminous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, I provide a new robust SFR calibration using the luminosity emitted from the PAHs at 6.2μm, 7.7μm and 11.3μm to solve this. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR; 5-25μm) mitigating dust extinction, containing on average 5-10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. I use a sample of 105 star-forming galaxies covering a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000μm) = 109 - 1012 L⊙ and redshift 0 < z < 0.4, with mid-IR spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and data covering other SFR indicators (Hα emission and rest-frame 24μm continuum emission). The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the Hα luminosity (corrected for attenuation using the mono-chromatic rest-frame 24μm emission), with a tight scatter of <0.15 dex. The scatter is comparable to that between SFRs derived from the Paα and dust-corrected Hα emission lines. We present a case study in advance of JWST, which will be capable of measuring SFRs (from 8μm rest-frame photometry, i.e. PAHs) in distant galaxies (z ≤ 2) with JWST/MIRI to SFRs as low as ~10 M⊙yr-1, because the PAH features are so bright. We use Spitzer/IRS observations of PAH features in lensed star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 3 to demonstrate the utility of the PAHs to derive SFRs that agree with

  13. OBSCURATION BY GAS AND DUST IN LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Usman, S. M.; Murray, S. S.; Hickox, R. C.; Brodwin, M.

    2014-06-10

    We explore the connection between absorption by neutral gas and extinction by dust in mid-infrared (IR) selected luminous quasars. We use a sample of 33 quasars at redshifts 0.7 < z ≲ 3 in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes multiwavelength survey field that are selected using Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera colors and are well-detected as luminous X-ray sources (with >150 counts) in Chandra observations. We divide the quasars into dust-obscured and unobscured samples based on their optical to mid-IR color, and measure the neutral hydrogen column density N {sub H} through fitting of the X-ray spectra. We find that all subsets of quasars have consistent power law photon indices Γ ≈ 1.9 that are uncorrelated with N {sub H}. We classify the quasars as gas-absorbed or gas-unabsorbed if N {sub H} > 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} or N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}, respectively. Of 24 dust-unobscured quasars in the sample, only one shows clear evidence for significant intrinsic N {sub H}, while 22 have column densities consistent with N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. In contrast, of the nine dust-obscured quasars, six show evidence for intrinsic gas absorption, and three are consistent with N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. We conclude that dust extinction in IR-selected quasars is strongly correlated with significant gas absorption as determined through X-ray spectral fitting. These results suggest that obscuring gas and dust in quasars are generally co-spatial, and confirm the reliability of simple mid-IR and optical photometric techniques for separating quasars based on obscuration.

  14. SALT Longslit Spectroscopy of Luminous Obscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainline, Kevin; Hickox, R. C.; Greene, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    It has been thought that the processes which might trigger quasar activity within a galaxy might produce an accretion phase that is obscured by gas and dust, after which, powerful outflows may exhaust or expel this gas, allowing for observations of classical unobscured "type 1" quasars (e.g., Hopkins et al. 2008). We can test this through observations of obscured quasars, including those selected in the optical from the SDSS (Zakamska et al. 2003; Reyes et al. 2008). The recent release of mid-IR data from WISE Data Release 1 provides mid-IR information on this sample, which can be used to understand the total AGN power in these systems. An initial study of the SEDs of these objects finds that they span a wide range in the ratio of L_12 micron to L_[OIII], indicating that some objects may be significantly obscured even on the kpc scales of the [OIII]-emitting narrow-line region. We use SALT RSS longslit spectroscopy to explore the extent and kinematics of the narrow-line region of a sample of IR-bright type 2 QSOs following the methodology from Greene et al. (2011) and Liu et al. (2009). These spectra allow us to explore the nature of highly IR-bright systems relative to their relatively IR-faint counterparts.

  15. High-energy properties of the high-redshift flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the γ-ray and X-ray properties of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306 at redshift z = 2.345. A strong γ-ray flare from this source was detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite in 2013 January, reaching on January 20 a daily peak flux of (301 ± 36) × 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1 in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range. This flux corresponds to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (1.5 ± 0.2) × 1050 erg s-1, comparable to the highest values observed by a blazar so far. During the flare the increase of flux was accompanied by a significant change of the spectral properties. Moreover significant flux variations on a 6-h time-scale were observed, compatible with the light crossing time of the event horizon of the central black hole. The broad-band X-ray spectra of PKS 2149-306 observed by Swift-XRT and NuSTAR are well described by a broken power-law model, with a very hard spectrum (Γ1 ˜ 1) below the break energy, at E break = 2.5-3.0 keV, and Γ2 ˜ 1.4-1.5 above the break energy. The steepening of the spectrum below ˜3 keV may indicate that the soft X-ray emission is produced by the low-energy relativistic electrons. This is in agreement with the small variability amplitude and the lack of spectral changes in that part of the X-ray spectrum observed between the two NuSTAR and Swift joint observations. As for the other high-redshift FSRQ detected by both Fermi-LAT and Swift-BAT, the photon index of PKS 2149-306 in hard X-ray is 1.6 or lower and the average γ-ray luminosity higher than 2 × 1048 erg s-1.

  16. Physical properties of luminous dust-poor quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, Myungshin E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-12-20

    We identify and characterize a population of luminous, dust-poor quasars at 0 < z < 5 that is photometrically similar to objects previously found at z > 6. This class of active galactic nuclei is known to show little IR emission from dusty structure, but it is poorly understood in terms of number evolution and dependence on physical quantities. To better understand the properties of these quasars, we compile a rest-frame UV to IR library of 41,000 optically selected type 1 quasars with L {sub bol} > 10{sup 45.7} erg s{sup –1}. After fitting the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with accretion disk and dust components, we find 0.6% of our sample to be hot dust-poor, with rest-frame 2.3 μm to 0.51 μm flux density ratios of –0.5 dex or less. The dust-poor SEDs are blue in the UV-optical and weak in the mid-IR, such that their accretion disks are less obscured and the hot dust emission traces that of warm dust down to the dust-poor regime. At a given bolometric luminosity, dust-poor quasars are lower in black hole mass and higher in Eddington ratio than general luminous quasars, suggesting that they are in a rapidly growing evolutionary state in which the dust-poor phase appears as a short or rare phenomenon. The dust-poor fraction increases with redshift, and possible implications for their evolution are discussed.

  17. BROAD-LINE REGION PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN EXTREME POPULATION A QUASARS: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE CENTRAL BLACK HOLE MASS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W. E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es

    2012-09-20

    We describe a method for estimating physical conditions in the broad-line region (BLR) for a significant subsample of Seyfert 1 nuclei and quasars. Several diagnostic ratios based on intermediate (Al III {lambda}1860, Si III] {lambda}1892) and high (C IV {lambda}1549, Si IV {lambda}1397) ionization lines in the UV spectra of quasars are used to constrain density, ionization, and metallicity of the emitting gas. We apply the method to two extreme Population A quasars-the prototypical NLSy1 I Zw 1 and higher z source SDSS J120144.36+011611.6. Under assumptions of spherical symmetry and pure photoionization we infer BLR physical conditions: low ionization (ionization parameter <10{sup -2}), high density (10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}), and significant metal enrichment. Ionization parameter and density can be derived independently for each source with an uncertainty that is less than {+-}0.3 dex. We use the product of density and ionization parameter to estimate the BLR radius and derive an estimation of the virial black hole mass (M{sub BH}). Estimates of M{sub BH} based on the 'photoionization' analysis described in this paper are probably more accurate than those derived from the mass-luminosity correlations widely employed to compute black hole masses for high-redshift quasars.

  18. MEAN SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS FOR LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Mehta, Sajjan S.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2013-05-01

    We explore the mid-infrared (mid-IR) through ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 119,652 luminous broad-lined quasars with 0.064 < z < 5.46 using mid-IR data from Spitzer and WISE, near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIDSS, optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and UV data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The mean SED requires a bolometric correction (relative to 2500 A) of BC{sub 2500A} =2.75 {+-} 0.40 using the integrated light from 1 {mu}m-2 keV, and we further explore the range of bolometric corrections exhibited by individual objects. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the mean SED on various parameters, particularly the UV luminosity for quasars with 0.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 and the properties of the UV emission lines for quasars with z {approx}> 1.6; the latter is a possible indicator of the strength of the accretion disk wind, which is expected to be SED-dependent. Luminosity-dependent mean SEDs show that, relative to the high-luminosity SED, low-luminosity SEDs exhibit a harder (bluer) far-UV spectral slope ({alpha}{sub UV}), a redder optical continuum, and less hot dust. Mean SEDs constructed instead as a function of UV emission line properties reveal changes that are consistent with known Principal Component Analysis trends. A potentially important contribution to the bolometric correction is the unseen extreme UV (EUV) continuum. Our work suggests that lower-luminosity quasars and/or quasars with disk-dominated broad emission lines may require an extra continuum component in the EUV that is not present (or much weaker) in high-luminosity quasars with strong accretion disk winds. As such, we consider four possible models and explore the resulting bolometric corrections. Understanding these various SED-dependent effects will be important for accurate determination of quasar accretion rates.

  19. Constraints on cold dark matter theories from observations of massive x-ray-luminous clusters of galaxies at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luppino, G. A.; Gioia, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of a gravitational lensing survey of distant, X-ray selected Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) clusters of galaxies, we have studied six X-ray-luminous (L(sub x) greater than 5 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) clusters at redshifts exceeding z = 0.5. All of these clusters are apparently massive. In addition to their high X-ray luminosity, two of the clusters at z approximately 0.6 exhibit gravitationally lensed arcs. Furthermore, the highest redshift cluster in our sample, MS 1054-0321 at z = 0.826, is both extremely X-ray luminous (L(sub 0.3-3.5keV)=9.3 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) and exceedingly rich with an optical richness comparable to an Abell Richness Class 4 cluster. In this Letter, we discuss the cosmological implications of the very existence of these clusters for hierarchical structure formation theories such as standard Omega = 1 CDM (cold dark matter), hybrid Omega = 1 C + HDM (hot dark matter), and flat, low-density Lambda + CDM models.

  20. COMPLETE IONIZATION OF THE NEUTRAL GAS: WHY THERE ARE SO FEW DETECTIONS OF 21 cm HYDROGEN IN HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, S. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2012-11-10

    From the first published z {approx}> 3 survey of 21 cm absorption within the hosts of radio galaxies and quasars, Curran et al. found an apparent dearth of cool neutral gas at high redshift. From a detailed analysis of the photometry, each object is found to have a {lambda} = 1216 A continuum luminosity in excess of L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}, a critical value above which 21 cm has never been detected at any redshift. At these wavelengths, and below, hydrogen is excited above the ground state so that it cannot absorb in 21 cm. In order to apply the equation of photoionization equilibrium, we demonstrate that this critical value also applies to the ionizing ({lambda} {<=} 912 A) radiation. We use this to show, for a variety of gas density distributions, that upon placing a quasar within a galaxy of gas, there is always an ultraviolet luminosity above which all of the large-scale atomic gas is ionized. While in this state, the hydrogen cannot be detected or engage in star formation. Applying the mean ionizing photon rate of all of the sources searched, we find, using canonical values for the gas density and recombination rate coefficient, that the observed critical luminosity gives a scale length (3 kpc) similar that of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the Milky Way, a large spiral galaxy. Thus, this simple yet physically motivated model can explain the critical luminosity (L {sub 912} {approx} L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}), above which neutral gas is not detected. This indicates that the non-detection of 21 cm absorption is not due to the sensitivity limits of current radio telescopes, but rather that the lines of sight to the quasars, and probably the bulk of the host galaxies, are devoid of neutral gas.

  1. New Limit on the Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Fine-Structure Constant Using High Redshifts of Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, T. D.

    2015-03-01

    Highly precise measurements on the light from distant quasars can served as a powerful tool to test the possible spatial and temporal variations of the fine-structure constant α = e 2 /c during the evolution of the Universe. Here we set a limit on the possible cosmological space-time variations of α by comparing transitions in the absorption lines of the SiIV doublet observed in the early Universe with those mesured in the laboratory. The weighted mean value of the α-variation derived from our analysis over the redshift range 2.0 ≤ cps≤ 3.7 is Δα/α (-0.53 ± 0.72) ×10-5. This result improves the constraint on Δα/α by a factor of ~ seven compared to the published results in the literature.

  2. Black Hole Mass Estimates and Rapid Growth of Supermassive Black Holes in Luminous z ~ 3.5 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard; Wang, Ran; Bian, Fuyan

    2015-02-01

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the Hβ λ4861 and Mg II λ2798 lines for 32 luminous quasars with 3.2 < z < 3.9 using the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope and the Large Binocular Telescope. We find that the Mg II FWHM is well correlated with the Hβ FWHM, confirming itself as a good substitute for the Hβ FWHM in the black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 Å well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å and the broad emission line luminosities (Hβ and Mg II). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the Hβ and Mg II lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the Mg II line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable Hβ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the z ~ 3.5 quasars in our sample have black hole masses 1.90 × 109 M ⊙ <~ M BH <~ 1.37 × 1010 M ⊙, with a median of ~5.14 × 109 M ⊙ and are accreting at Eddington ratios between 0.30 and 3.05, with a median of ~1.12. Assuming a duty cycle of 1 and a seed black hole mass of 104 M ⊙, we show that the z ~ 3.5 quasars in this sample can grow to their estimated black hole masses within the age of the universe at their redshifts.

  3. BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES AND RAPID GROWTH OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN LUMINOUS z ∼ 3.5 QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard; Wang, Ran; Bian, Fuyan

    2015-02-01

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the Hβ λ4861 and Mg II λ2798 lines for 32 luminous quasars with 3.2 < z < 3.9 using the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope and the Large Binocular Telescope. We find that the Mg II FWHM is well correlated with the Hβ FWHM, confirming itself as a good substitute for the Hβ FWHM in the black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 Å well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å and the broad emission line luminosities (Hβ and Mg II). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the Hβ and Mg II lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the Mg II line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable Hβ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in our sample have black hole masses 1.90 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} ≲ M {sub BH} ≲ 1.37 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, with a median of ∼5.14 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and are accreting at Eddington ratios between 0.30 and 3.05, with a median of ∼1.12. Assuming a duty cycle of 1 and a seed black hole mass of 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, we show that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in this sample can grow to their estimated black hole masses within the age of the universe at their redshifts.

  4. MOLECULAR GAS IN LENSED z >2 QUASAR HOST GALAXIES AND THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR GALAXIES WITH LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.

    2011-04-01

    We report the detection of luminous CO(J = 2{yields}1), CO(J = 3{yields}2), and CO(J = 4{yields}3) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars B1938+666 (z = 2.059), HE 0230-2130 (z = 2.166), HE 1104-1805 (z = 2.322), and B1359+154 (z = 3.240), using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. B1938+666 was identified in a 'blind' CO redshift search, demonstrating the feasibility of such investigations with millimeter interferometers. These galaxies are lensing-amplified by factors of {mu}{sub L} {approx_equal} 11-170, and thus allow us to probe the molecular gas in intrinsically fainter galaxies than currently possible without the aid of gravitational lensing. We report lensing-corrected intrinsic CO line luminosities of L'{sub CO} = 0.65-21x10{sup 9} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}, translating to H{sub 2} masses of M(H{sub 2}) = 0.52-17 x 10{sup 9} ({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M{sub sun}. To investigate whether or not the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in luminous quasars substantially contributes to L{sub FIR}, we study the L'{sub CO}-L{sub FIR} relation for quasars relative to galaxies without a luminous AGN as a function of redshift. We find no substantial differences between submillimeter galaxies and high-z quasars, but marginal evidence for an excess in L{sub FIR} in nearby low-L{sub FIR} AGN galaxies. This may suggest that an AGN contribution to L{sub FIR} is significant in systems with relatively low gas and dust content, but only minor in the most far-infrared-luminous galaxies (in which L{sub FIR} is dominated by star formation).

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Images of Nearby Luminous Quasars. 2; Results for Eight Quasars and Tests of the Detection Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1995-01-01

    Observations with the Wide-Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented for eight intrinsically luminous quasars with redshifts between 0.16 and 0.29. These observations, when combined with a similar HST study of the quasar PKS 2349-014, show that luminous nearby quasars exist in a variety of environments. Seven companion galaxies brighter than M(V) = 16.5 (H(sub 0) = 100 km s(sup -1) Mpc(sup -1), Omega(sub 0) = 1.0) lie within a projected distance of 25 kpc of the quasars; three of the companions are located closer than 3'' (6 kpc projected distance) from the quasars, well within the volume that would be enclosed by a typical L* host galaxy. The observed association of quasars and companion galaxies is statistically significant and may he an important element in the luminous-quasar phenomenon. Apparent host galaxies are detected for three of the quasars: PG 1116+215, 3C 273, and PG 1444+407; the hosts have an average absolute magnitude of about 0.6 mag brighter than L*. The agreement between the previously published major-axis directions in ground-based images and in the present HST images of 3C 273 and PG 1444+407 constitutes important evidence supporting the reality of these candidate host galaxies. Upper limits are placed on the visual-band brightnesses of representative galactic hosts for all the quasars. These limits are established by placing galaxy images obtained with HST underneath the quasars and measuring at what faintness level the known galaxies are detected. On average, the HST spirals would have been detected if they were as faint as 1 mag below L*, and the early-type galaxies could have been detected down to a brightness level of about L*, where L* is the Schechter characteristic luminosity of field galaxies. Smooth, featureless galaxy models (exponential disks or de Vaucouleurs profiles) are fitted to the residual light after a best-fitting point source is subtracted from the quasar images. The results show that smooth spiral

  6. COMPARING SINGLE-EPOCH VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATORS FOR LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yue; Liu Xin

    2012-07-10

    Single-epoch virial black hole (BH) mass estimators utilizing broad emission lines have been routinely applied to high-redshift quasars to estimate their BH masses. Depending on the redshift, different line estimators (H{alpha}, H{beta}, Mg II {lambda}2798, C IV {lambda}1549) are often used with optical/near-infrared spectroscopy. Here, we use a homogeneous sample of 60 intermediate-redshift (z {approx} 1.5-2.2) Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars with optical and near-infrared spectra covering C IV through H{alpha} to investigate the consistency between different single-epoch virial BH mass estimators. We critically compare rest-frame UV line estimators (C IV {lambda}1549, C III] {lambda}1908, and Mg II {lambda}2798) with optical estimators (H{beta} and H{alpha}) in terms of correlations between line widths and between continuum/line luminosities, for the high-luminosity regime (L{sub 5100} > 10{sup 45.4} erg s{sup -1}) probed by our sample. The continuum luminosities of L{sub 1350} and L{sub 3000}, and the broad-line luminosities are well correlated with L{sub 5100}, reflecting the homogeneity of quasar spectra in the rest-frame UV-optical, among which L{sub 1350} and the line luminosities for C IV and C III] have the largest scatter in the correlation with L{sub 5100}. We found that the Mg II FWHM correlates well with the FWHMs of the Balmer lines and that the Mg II line estimator can be calibrated to yield consistent virial mass estimates with those based on the H{beta}/H{alpha} estimators, thus extending earlier results on less luminous objects. The C IV FWHM is poorly correlated with the Balmer line FWHMs, and the scatter between the C IV and H{beta} FWHMs consists of an irreducible part ({approx}0.12 dex), and a part that correlates with the blueshift of the C IV centroid relative to that of H{beta}, similar to earlier studies comparing C IV with Mg II. The C III] FWHM is found to correlate with the C IV FWHM, and hence is also poorly correlated with the H

  7. MEASUREMENT OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION SIZE IN A LUMINOUS MACHO QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chelouche, Doron; Daniel, Eliran; Kaspi, Shai E-mail: shai@wise.tau.ac.il

    2012-05-10

    We measure the broad emission line region (BLR) size of a luminous, L {approx} 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, high-z quasar using broadband photometric reverberation mapping. To this end, we analyze {approx}7.5 years of photometric data for MACHO 13.6805.324 (z {approx_equal} 1.72) in the B and R MACHO bands and find a time delay of 180 {+-} 40 days in the rest frame of the object. Given the spectral-variability properties of high-z quasars, we associate this lag with the rest-UV iron emission blends. Our findings are consistent with a simple extrapolation of the BLR size-luminosity relation in local active galactic nuclei to the more luminous, high-z quasar population. Long-term spectroscopic monitoring of MACHO 13.6805.324 may be able to directly measure the line-to-continuum time delay and test our findings.

  8. UNIFICATION OF LUMINOUS TYPE 1 QUASARS THROUGH C IV EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Gordon T.; Kruczek, Nicholas E.; Deo, Rajesh P.; Kratzer, Rachael M.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hewett, Paul C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Shen, Yue

    2011-05-15

    Using a sample of {approx}30,000 quasars from the 7th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we explore the range of properties exhibited by high-ionization, broad emission lines, such as C IV {lambda}1549. Specifically, we investigate the anti-correlation between continuum luminosity and emission-line equivalent width (the Baldwin Effect (BEff)) and the 'blueshifting' of the high-ionization emission lines with respect to low-ionization emission lines. Employing improved redshift determinations from Hewett and Wild, the blueshift of the C IV emission line is found to be nearly ubiquitous, with a mean shift of {approx}810 km s{sup -1} for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars and {approx}360 km s{sup -1} for radio-loud (RL) quasars. The BEff is present in both RQ and RL samples. We consider these phenomena within the context of an accretion disk-wind model that is modulated by the nonlinear correlation between ultraviolet and X-ray continuum luminosity. Composite spectra are constructed as a function of C IV emission-line properties in an attempt to reveal empirical relationships between different line species and the continuum. Within a two-component disk+wind model of the broad emission-line region (BELR), where the wind filters the continuum seen by the disk component, we find that RL quasars are consistent with being dominated by the disk component, while broad absorption line quasars are consistent with being dominated by the wind component. Some RQ objects have emission-line features similar to RL quasars; they may simply have insufficient black hole (BH) spin to form radio jets. Our results suggest that there could be significant systematic errors in the determination of L{sub bol} and BH mass that make it difficult to place these findings in a more physical context. However, it is possible to classify quasars in a paradigm where the diversity of BELR parameters is due to differences in an accretion disk wind between quasars (and over time); these differences are

  9. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: A COMPARISON WITH LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Myers, Adam D.; Zheng Zheng; Hickox, Ryan E-mail: schatte1@uwyo.edu

    2013-09-10

    We perform halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of high-redshift (z {approx} 1.2) X-ray-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the XMM-COSMOS field measured by Allevato et al. The HOD parameterization is based on low-luminosity AGNs in cosmological simulations. At the median redshift of z {approx} 1.2, we derive a median mass of 1.02{sub -0.23}{sup +0.21} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} h{sup -1} M{sub sun} for halos hosting central AGNs and an upper limit of {approx}10% on the AGN satellite fraction. Our modeling results indicate (at the 2.5{sigma} level) that X-ray AGNs reside in more massive halos compared to more bolometrically luminous, optically selected quasars at similar redshift. The modeling also yields constraints on the duty cycle of the X-ray AGN, and we find that at z {approx} 1.2 the average duration of the X-ray AGN phase is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the quasar phase. Our inferred mean occupation function of X-ray AGNs is similar to recent empirical measurements with a group catalog and suggests that AGN halo occupancy increases with increasing halo mass. We project the XMM-COSMOS 2PCF measurements to forecast the required survey parameters needed in future AGN clustering studies to enable higher precision HOD constraints and determinations of key physical parameters like the satellite fraction and duty cycle. We find that N {sup 2}/A {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} deg{sup -2} (with N the number of AGNs in a survey area of A deg{sup 2}) is sufficient to constrain the HOD parameters at the 10% level, which is easily achievable by upcoming and proposed X-ray surveys.

  10. HOST GALAXIES OF LUMINOUS TYPE 2 QUASARS AT z {approx} 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xin; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Krolik, Julian H.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2009-09-10

    We present deep Gemini GMOS optical spectroscopy of nine luminous quasars at redshifts z {approx} 0.5, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey type 2 quasar sample. Our targets were selected to have high intrinsic luminosities (M{sub V} < -26 mag) as indicated by the [O III] {lambda}5007 A emission-line luminosity (L[{sub OIII}]). Our sample has a median black hole mass of {approx}10{sup 8.8} M{sub sun} inferred assuming the local M {sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation and a median Eddington ratio of {approx}0.7, using stellar velocity dispersions {sigma}{sub *} measured from the G band. We estimate the contamination of the stellar continuum from scattered quasar light based on the strength of broad H{beta}, and provide an empirical calibration of the contamination as a function of L {sub [OIII]}; the scattered-light fraction is {approx}30% of L{sub 5100} for objects with L {sub [OIII]} = 10{sup 9.5} L{sub sun}. Population synthesis indicates that young poststarburst populations (<0.1 Gyr) are prevalent in luminous type 2 quasars, in addition to a relatively old population (>1 Gyr) which dominates the stellar mass. Broad emission complexes around He II {lambda}4686 A with luminosities up to 10{sup 8.3} L{sub sun} are unambiguously detected in three out of the nine targets, indicative of Wolf-Rayet (WR) populations. Population synthesis shows that {approx}5 Myr poststarburst populations contribute substantially to the luminosities (>50% of L{sub 5100}) of all three objects with WR detections. We find two objects with double cores and four with close companions. Our results may suggest that luminous type 2 quasars trace an early stage of galaxy interaction, perhaps responsible for both the quasar and the starburst activity.

  11. Studying AGN Feedback with Galactic Outflows in Luminous Obscured Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ai-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Feedback from Active galactic nuclei (AGN) has been proposed as an important quenching mechanism to suppress star formation in massive galaxies. We investigate the most direct form of AGN feedback - galactic outflows - in the most luminous obscured AGN (L>10^45 erg/s) from the SDSS sample in the nearby universe (z<0.2). Using ALMA and Magellan observations to target molecular and ionized outflows, we find that luminous AGN can impact the dynamics and phase of the galactic medium, and confirm the complex multi-phase and multi-scaled nature of the feedback phenomenon. In particular, we found that most of these luminous AGN hosts ionized outflows. The outflow size, velocity, and energetics correlate with the AGN luminosity, and can be very extended (r > 10 kpc) and fast (v > 1000 km/s) for the most luminous ones. I end with presenting a new technique to find extended ionized outflows using broadband imaging surveys, and to characterize their occurrence rate, morphology, size distribution, and their dependence on the AGN luminosity. This technique will open a new window for feedback studies in the era of large-scale optical imaging surveys, e.g., HSC and then LSST.

  12. Star formation rates in luminous quasars at 2 < z < 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Kathryn; Farrah, Duncan; Schulz, Bernhard; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Viero, Marco; Anderson, Nick; Béthermin, Matthieu; Chapman, Scott; Clements, David L.; Cooray, Asantha; Efstathiou, Andreas; Feltre, Anne; Hurley, Peter; Ibar, Eduardo; Lacy, Mark; Oliver, Sebastian; Page, Mathew J.; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Petty, Sara M.; Pitchford, Lura K.; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, Myrto; Vieira, Joaquin; Wang, Lingyu

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation rates (dot{{M}}_s) and AGN properties in optically selected type 1 quasars at 2 < z < 3 using data from Herschel and the SDSS. We find that dot{{M}}_s remains approximately constant with redshift, at 300 ± 100 M⊙ yr-1. Conversely, dot{{M}}_s increases with AGN luminosity, up to a maximum of ˜ 600 M⊙ yr-1, and with C IV FWHM. In context with previous results, this is consistent with a relation between dot{{M}}_s and black hole accretion rate (dot{{M}}_{bh}) existing in only parts of the z-dot{{M}}s-dot{{M}}_{bh} plane, dependent on the free gas fraction, the trigger for activity, and the processes that may quench star formation. The relations between dot{{M}}_s and both AGN luminosity and C IV FWHM are consistent with star formation rates in quasars scaling with black hole mass, though we cannot rule out a separate relation with black hole accretion rate. Star formation rates are observed to decline with increasing C IV equivalent width. This decline can be partially explained via the Baldwin effect, but may have an additional contribution from one or more of three factors; Mi is not a linear tracer of L2500, the Baldwin effect changes form at high AGN luminosities, and high C IV EW values signpost a change in the relation between dot{{M}}_s and dot{{M}}_{bh}. Finally, there is no strong relation between dot{{M}}_s and Eddington ratio, or the asymmetry of the C IV line. The former suggests that star formation rates do not scale with how efficiently the black hole is accreting, while the latter is consistent with C IV asymmetries arising from orientation effects.

  13. SIX MORE QUASARS AT REDSHIFT 6 DISCOVERED BY THE CANADA-FRANCE HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Delorme, Philippe; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Reyle, Celine; Albert, Loic; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; McLure, Ross J.

    2009-03-15

    We present imaging and spectroscopic observations for six quasars at z {>=} 5.9 discovered by the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS). The CFHQS contains subsurveys with a range of flux and area combinations to sample a wide range of quasar luminosities at z {approx} 6. The new quasars have luminosities 10-75 times lower than the most luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at this redshift. The least luminous quasar, CFHQS J0216-0455 at z = 6.01, has absolute magnitude M {sub 1450} = -22.21, well below the likely break in the luminosity function. This quasar is not detected in a deep XMM-Newton survey showing that optical selection is still a very efficient tool for finding high-redshift quasars.

  14. The Most Luminous Object in the Universe: Shrouded Quasar or Proto-Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.

    1999-01-01

    We have used ASCA to observe the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724, which is identified with a galaxy at a redshift of 2.286. When first discovered, it was believed to be the most luminous object in the universe. Subsequent HST images have established that it is gravitationally-lensed by a foreground cluster. It is still a very powerful object, but not extraordinarily so. Observations at other wavebands have not established whether it is a dust-shrouded quasar or a young, massive galaxy in the process of formation. Since quasars are strong emitters of hard X-rays, while proto-galaxies would not be, and since the opacity of gas and dust is relatively small in the energy regime probed by ASCA (3 to 30 keV in the galaxy rest frame), we undertook these observations to search for a heavily shrouded quasar that might be invisible at lower energies. However, the observations did not detect any emission from this object. This either means that the galaxy is in fact powered by a starburst or that the putative quasar is located behind a very high column density of absorbing gas (N_H > 10(exp 25)/sq cm), so that not even hard X-rays are transmitted. A hidden quasar should be visible in reflected light in X-ray data of higher sensitivity. Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory or ESA's XMM are required to settle the matter. No publication resulted from our null result.

  15. Host Galaxies of Luminous Type 2 Quasars at z ~ 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Krolik, Julian H.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2009-09-01

    We present deep Gemini GMOS optical spectroscopy of nine luminous quasars at redshifts z ~ 0.5, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey type 2 quasar sample. Our targets were selected to have high intrinsic luminosities (MV < -26 mag) as indicated by the [O III] λ5007 Å emission-line luminosity (L [O III]). Our sample has a median black hole mass of ~108.8 M sun inferred assuming the local M BH-σ* relation and a median Eddington ratio of ~0.7, using stellar velocity dispersions σ* measured from the G band. We estimate the contamination of the stellar continuum from scattered quasar light based on the strength of broad Hβ, and provide an empirical calibration of the contamination as a function of L [O III]; the scattered-light fraction is ~30% of L 5100 for objects with L [O III] = 109.5 L sun. Population synthesis indicates that young poststarburst populations (<0.1 Gyr) are prevalent in luminous type 2 quasars, in addition to a relatively old population (>1 Gyr) which dominates the stellar mass. Broad emission complexes around He II λ4686 Å with luminosities up to 108.3 L sun are unambiguously detected in three out of the nine targets, indicative of Wolf-Rayet (WR) populations. Population synthesis shows that ~5 Myr poststarburst populations contribute substantially to the luminosities (>50% of L 5100) of all three objects with WR detections. We find two objects with double cores and four with close companions. Our results may suggest that luminous type 2 quasars trace an early stage of galaxy interaction, perhaps responsible for both the quasar and the starburst activity. Based, in part, on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada

  16. Non-steller light from high-redshift radiogalaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlings, Steve; Eales, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    With the aid of a new IRCAM image of 3C356, researchers question the common assumption that radiosource-stimulated starbursts are responsible for the extended optical emission aligned with radio structures in high-redshift radiogalaxies. They propose an alternative model in which the radiation from a hidden luminous quasar is beamed along the radio axis and illuminates dense clumps of cool gas to produce both extended narrow emission line regions and, by Thomson scattering, extended optical continua. Simple observational tests of this model are possible and necessary if we are to continue to accept that the color, magnitude and shape evolution of radiogalaxies are controlled by the active evolution of stellar populations.

  17. INFRARED CLASSIFICATION AND LUMINOSITIES FOR DUSTY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THE MOST LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine; Houck, James; Barry, Donald; Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2012-12-20

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic measurements from the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on Spitzer are given for 125 hard X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs; 14-195 keV) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample and for 32 AGNs with black hole masses (BHMs) from reverberation mapping. The 9.7 {mu}m silicate feature in emission or absorption defines an infrared AGN classification describing whether AGNs are observed through dust clouds, indicating that 55% of the BAT AGNs are observed through dust. The mid-infrared dust continuum luminosity is shown to be an excellent indicator of intrinsic AGN luminosity, scaling closely with the hard X-ray luminosity, log {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m)/L(X) = -0.31 {+-} 0.35, and independent of classification determined from silicate emission or absorption. Dust luminosity scales closely with BHM, log {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m) = (37.2 {+-} 0.5) + 0.87 log BHM for luminosity in erg s{sup -1} and BHM in M{sub Sun }. The 100 most luminous type 1 quasars as measured in {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m) are found by comparing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optically discovered quasars with photometry at 22 {mu}m from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), scaled to rest frame 7.8 {mu}m using an empirical template determined from IRS spectra. The most luminous SDSS/WISE quasars have the same maximum infrared luminosities for all 1.5 < z < 5, reaching total infrared luminosity L{sub IR} = 10{sup 14.4} L{sub Sun }. Comparing with dust-obscured galaxies from Spitzer and WISE surveys, we find no evidence of hyperluminous obscured quasars whose maximum infrared luminosities exceed the maximum infrared luminosities of optically discovered quasars. Bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} estimated from rest-frame optical or ultraviolet luminosities are compared to L{sub IR}. For the local AGN, the median log L{sub IR}/L{sub bol} = -0.35, consistent with a covering factor of 45% for the absorbing dust clouds. For the SDSS/WISE quasars, the median log L

  18. Jansky VLA Imaging of Heavily Obscured, Luminous Quasars at Redshifts ~2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapp, Adam; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Patil, Palavi; Whittle, Mark; Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    We present JVLA A and B array observations in X-band (8-12 GHz) of a sample of radio powerful, bolometrically luminous, but optically obscured quasars. The quasars were selected using a cross-match between WISE mid-IR sources brighter than 7 mJ at 22 mu and NVSS and/or FIRST radio surveys, with a further constraint that the sources were optically faint. The survey aims to select young quasars with young radio sources at redshifts z ~ 1-3. Ultimately, we wish to study the role that radio jets play in quasar driven feedback. Our VLA observations provide fundamental information on radio source size, structure, power and spectral index, all of which shed light on the properties of the young radio source. We will present images and data on 155 objects from our primary sample WISE-NVSS sample of 156.The majority of sources are found to be compact, steep-spectrum, and sub-galactic in scale, with a significant minority of resolved doubles, triples, and core-jets. Using radio data at other wavelengths taken from the literature, we use SED fits to identify or constrain the turn-over frequencies. Combining size and turn-over frequency, the majority of the sources are found to be CSS, GPS or HFPs, consistent with young radio source ages.

  19. Galaxy evolution. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456.

    PubMed

    Nardini, E; Reeves, J N; Gofford, J; Harrison, F A; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Matzeu, G A; Walton, D J; Behar, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Matt, G; Miller, J M; O'Brien, P T; Stern, D; Turner, T J; Ward, M J

    2015-02-20

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution. PMID:25700515

  20. C IV and C III] reverberation mapping of the luminous quasar PG 1247+267

    SciTech Connect

    Trevese, D.; Saturni, F. G.; Perna, M.; Dadina, M.

    2014-11-10

    So far the masses of about 50 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been measured through the reverberation mapping technique (RM). Most measurements have been performed for objects of moderate luminosity and redshift, based on Hβ, which is also used to calibrate the scaling relation that allows single-epoch (SE) mass determination based on AGN luminosity and the width of different emission lines. Due to the complex structure and gas dynamics of the relevant emission region, the SE masses obtained from the C IV(1549 Å) line show a large spread around the mean values. Direct RM measures of C IV exist for only six AGNs of low luminosity and redshift, and only one luminous quasar. Since 2003, we have collected photometric and spectroscopic observations of PG1247+267, the most luminous quasar ever analyzed for RM. We provide light curves for the continuum and for C IV(1549 Å) and C III](1909 Å), and measures of the reverberation time lags based on the SPEAR method. The sizes of the line emission regions assume a ratio of R {sub C} {sub III]}/R {sub C} {sub IV} ∼ 2, similar to the case of Seyfert galaxies, indicating for the first time a similar ionization stratification in a luminous quasar and low-luminosity nuclei. Due to the relatively small size of the broad line region and the relatively narrow line widths, we estimate a small mass and an anomalously high Eddington ratio. We discuss the possibility that either the shape of the emission region or an amplification of the luminosity caused by gravitational lensing may be partly responsible for the result.

  1. Metals at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitjean, Patrick

    The amount of metals present in the Universe and its cosmological evolution is a key issue for our understanding of how star formation proceeds from the collapse of the first objects to the formation of present day galaxies. We discuss here recent results at the two extremes of the density scale. 1. Part of the tenuous intergalactic medium (IGM) revealed by neutral hydrogen absorptions in the spectra of remote quasars (the so-called Lyman-α forest) contains metals. This is not surprising as there is a close interplay between the formation of galaxies and the evolution of the IGM. The IGM acts as the baryonic reservoir from which galaxies form, while star formation in the forming galaxies strongly influences the IGM by enrichment with metals and the emission of ionizing radiation. The spatial distribution of metals in the IGM is largely unknown however. The possibility remains that metals are associated with the filaments and sheets of the dark matter spatial distribution where stars are expected to form, whereas the space delineated by these features remains unpolluted. 2. Damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems observed in the spectra of high-redshift quasars are considered as the progenitors of present-day galaxies. Indeed, the large neutral hydrogen column densities observed and the presence of metals imply that the gas is somehow closely associated with regions of star formation. The nature of the absorbing objects is unclear however. It is probable that very different objects contribute to this population of absorption systems. Here we concentrate on summarizing the properties of the gas: presence of dust in small amount; nucleosynthesis signature and lack of H_2 molecules. The presence of H_2 molecules has been investigated in the course of a mini-survey with UVES at the VLT. The upper limits on the molecular fraction, f = 2N(H_2)/(2N(H_2)+N(HI)), derived in eight systems are in the range 1.2 ×10^-7 - 1.6 × 10^-5. There is no evidence in this sample for any

  2. Detection of CO(1 to 0) emission from infrared quasars and luminous Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N. Z.; Zensus, A.; Soifer, B. T.; Wilson, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    CO(1 to 0) emission has been detected from the infrared quasar IRAS 07598+6508 and the luminous Seyfert galaxies IRAS 08572+3915 and Markarian 463 with the IRAM 30-m telescope. These objects were selected from a complete list of warm ultraluminous IRAS sources. The maximum redshift observed was 0.149 (cz = 44.621 km/s , IRAS 07598+6508). Assuming the same empirical relationship between CO brightness and H2 surface mass density as has been found for giant molecular clouds in the Milky Way, the mass of H2 gas in these objects is in the range 0.7 - 6 x 10 to the 10th solar masses, more than 2 - 20 times the H2 content of the Galaxy. The infrared and molecular gas properties of these galaxies are similar to other 'warm' ultraluminous infrared galaxies such as Mrk 231, and the UV-excess quasar Mrk 1014. It is suggested that objects such as these represent an important link in the evolution of ultraluminous infrared galaxies into UV-excess quasars.

  3. Photometric Properties of the Most Massive High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Brant; Li, Yuexing; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2007-09-01

    We calculate the observable properties of the most massive high-redshift galaxies in the hierarchical formation scenario where stellar spheroid and supermassive black hole growth are fueled by gas-rich mergers. Combining high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the hierarchical formation of a z~6 quasar, stellar population synthesis models, template active galactic nucleus (AGN) spectra, prescriptions for interstellar and intergalactic absorption, and the response of modern telescopes, the photometric evolution of galaxies destined to host z~6 quasars is modeled at redshifts z~4-14. These massive galaxies, with enormous stellar masses of M*~1011.5-1012 Msolar and star formation rates of SFR~103-104 Msolar yr-1 at z>~7, satisfy a variety of photometric selection criteria based on Lyman break techniques, including V-band dropouts at z>~5, i-band dropouts at z>~6, and z-band dropouts at z>~7. The observability of the most massive high-redshift galaxies is assessed and compared with a wide range of existing and proposed photometric surveys, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)/Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), National Optical Astronomy Observatory Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS), UKIRT Infared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Shallow Survey, Ultradeep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), Dark Universe Explorer (DUNE), Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS), Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Massive stellar spheroids descended from z~6 quasars will likely be detected at z~4 by existing surveys, but owing to their low number densities the discovery of quasar progenitor galaxies at z>7 will likely require future surveys of large portions of the sky (>~0.5%) at wavelengths λ>~1 μm. The detection of rare, starbursting, massive galaxies at redshifts z>~6 would provide support for the

  4. DENSE MOLECULAR GAS EXCITATION AT HIGH REDSHIFT: DETECTION OF HCO{sup +}(J = 4 {yields} 3) EMISSION IN THE CLOVERLEAF QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Walter, Fabian; Carilli, Christopher L.; Cox, Pierre; Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl M.; Bertoldi, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of HCO{sup +}(J = 4 {yields} 3) emission in the Cloverleaf Quasar at z = 2.56, using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. HCO{sup +} emission is a star formation indicator similar to HCN, tracing dense molecular hydrogen gas (n(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) within star-forming molecular clouds. We derive a lensing-corrected HCO{sup +}(J = 4 {yields} 3) line luminosity of L'{sub HCO}{sup +}{sub (4-3)} = (1.6 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 9}, ({mu}{sub L}/11){sup -1} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}, which corresponds to only 48% of the HCO{sup +}(J = 1 {yields} 0) luminosity, and {approx}<4% of the CO(J = 3 {yields} 2) luminosity. The HCO{sup +} excitation thus is clearly subthermal in the J = 4 {yields} 3 transition. Modeling of the HCO{sup +} line radiative transfer suggests that the HCO{sup +} emission emerges from a region with physical properties comparable to that exhibiting the CO line emission, but 2x higher gas density. This suggests that both HCO{sup +} and CO lines trace the warm, dense molecular gas where star formation actively takes place. The HCO{sup +} lines have only {approx}2/3 the width of the CO lines, which may suggest that the densest gas is more spatially concentrated. In contrast to the z = 3.91 quasar APM 08279+5255, the dense gas excitation in the Cloverleaf is consistent with being purely collisional, rather than being enhanced by radiative processes. Thus, the physical properties of the dense gas component in the Cloverleaf are consistent with those in the nuclei of nearby starburst galaxies. This suggests that the conditions in the dense, star-forming gas in active galactic nucleus-starburst systems at early cosmic times like the Cloverleaf are primarily affected by the starburst itself, rather than the central active black hole.

  5. DES J0454–4448: Discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reed, S. L.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = –26.5) quasar DES J0454–4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H i near zone size of 4.1+1.1–1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i–z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightestmore » of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i–z and z–Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.« less

  6. DES J0454–4448: Discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S. L.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = –26.5) quasar DES J0454–4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H i near zone size of 4.1+1.1–1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i–z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i–z and z–Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  7. DES J0454-4448: discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Becker, G. D.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Martini, P.; Ostrovski, F.; Rauch, M.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J.; Merritt, K.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A.; Romer, K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = -26.5) quasar DES J0454-4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H I near zone size of 4.1_{-1.2}^{+1.1} proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i-z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ˜300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i-z and z-Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ˜ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ˜5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50-100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3-10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  8. A Constraint on Quasar Clustering at z = 5 from a Binary Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.; Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a quasar pair at z = 5 separated by 21″. Both objects were identified as quasar candidates using simple color selection techniques applied to photometric catalogs from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Spectra obtained with the MMT present no discernible offset in redshift between the two objects; on the other hand, there are clear differences in the emission line profiles and in the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions that strongly disfavor the hypothesis that they are gravitationally lensed images of a single quasar. Both quasars are surprisingly bright given their proximity (a projected separation of ˜135 kpc), with i = 19.4 and i = 21.4. Previous measurements of the luminosity function demonstrate that luminous quasars are extremely rare at z = 5 the existence of this pair suggests that quasars have strong small-scale clustering at high redshift. Assuming a real-space correlation function of the form ξ(r) ∝ (r/r0)-2, this discovery implies a correlation length of r0 ≳ 20h-1 Mpc, consistent with a rapid strengthening of quasar clustering at high redshift as seen in previous observations and predicted by theoretical models where feedback effects are inefficient at shutting down black hole growth at high redshift. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  9. Determination of the coronal properties of a very luminous quasar at z=1.77

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammoun, E.; Risaliti, G.; Celotti, A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an analysis of the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the extremely luminous (L_{X}>10^{46} {erg/s}) radio-quiet quasar QSO B2202-209, at redshift {z}=1.77. At this redshift, the shift of the high-energy cutoff in the observer frame compensates for the relative faintness of the source, allowing an estimate of the coronal temperature analogous to the ones done for local, low luminosity but very bright AGN. Assuming a Comptonisation model, we estimated the coronal temperature to be kT_{e}=130_{-7.4}^{+7.9} keV and kT_{e}=136_{-8.7}^{+8.4} keV for a spherical and a slab geometry, respectively. The coronal temperature is comparable to the ones derived for local AGN, despite a difference of more than two orders of magnitude in X-ray luminosity and black hole mass.

  10. Determination of the coronal properties of a very luminous quasar at z=1.77

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammoun, E.; Risaliti, G.; Celotti, A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an analysis of the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the extremely luminous (L_{X}>10^{46} {erg/s}) radio-quiet quasar QSO B2202-209, at redshift {z}=1.77. At this redshift, the shift of the high-energy cutoff in the observer frame compensates for the relative faintness of the source, allowing an estimate of the coronal temperature analogous to the ones done for local, low luminosity but very bright AGN. Assuming a Comptonisation model, we estimated the coronal temperature to be kT_{e}=130_{-7.4}^{+7.9} {keV} and kT_{e}=136_{-8.7}^{+8.4} {keV} for a spherical and a slab geometry, respectively. The coronal temperature is comparable to the ones derived for local AGN, despite a difference of more than two orders of magnitude in X-ray luminosity and black hole mass.

  11. The Powerful Black Hole Wind in the Luminous Quasar PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele; Gofford, Jason; Harrison, Fiona; Risaliti, Guido; Braito, Valentina; Costa, Michele; Matzeu, Gabriele; Walton, Dom; Behar, Ehud; O'Brien, P. T.; Turner, Tracey J.; Ward, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Here broadband X-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456 are presented, as part of simultaneous campaign covering five NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations during 2013-2014. The spectra show a persistent iron K-shell absorption profile in all of the observations, measured at 9 keV in the quasar rest frame, which demonstrates the presence of gas outflowing at about one third of the speed of light. Both the outflow emission and absorption components are spectrally resolved into a broad P-Cygni like profile, with the width of the profile corresponding to a FWHM velocity width of 35000 km/s. The flux of the iron K emission also responds directly to the hard X-ray continuum level, as measured in the NuSTAR data. The wind profile and response time makes it possible to measure the aperture and radial location of this wind, and thus to determine its total mass-loss rate and mechanical power. The observed wind stream starts at a radius of approximately 100 gravitational radii and spreads over a solid angle of at least 2 pi Steradian, and carries a kinetic power in excess of 1046 erg/s, enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy co-evolution.

  12. High redshift GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-09-01

    The Swift mission has opened a new, high redshift window on the universe. In this review we provide an overview of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science, describe the Swift mission, discuss high-z GRBs and tools for high-z studies, and look forward at future capabilities. A new mission concept - Lobster - is described that would monitor the X-ray sky at order of magnitude higher sensitivity than current missions.

  13. High Redshift GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The Swift mission has opened a new, high redshift window on the universe. In this review we provide an overview of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science, describe the Swift mission, discuss high-z GRBs and tools for high-z studies, and look forward at future capabilities. A new mission concept - Lobster - is described that would monitor the X-ray sky at order of magnitude higher sensitivity than current missions.

  14. Mid-infrared luminous quasars in the GOODS-Herschel fields: a large population of heavily obscured, Compton-thick quasars at z ≈ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Daddi, E.; Kocevski, D. D.; McIntosh, D. H.; Stanley, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Elbaz, D.; Harrison, C. M.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Xue, Y. Q.

    2016-02-01

    We present the infrared (IR) and X-ray properties of a sample of 33 mid-IR luminous quasars (νL6 μm ≥ 6 × 1044 erg s-1) at redshift z ≈ 1-3, identified through detailed spectral energy distribution analyses of distant star-forming galaxies, using the deepest IR data from Spitzer and Herschel in the GOODS-Herschel fields. The aim is to constrain the fraction of obscured, and Compton-thick (CT, NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) quasars at the peak era of nuclear and star formation activities. Despite being very bright in the mid-IR band, ≈30 per cent of these quasars are not detected in the extremely deep 2 and 4 Ms Chandra X-ray data available in these fields. X-ray spectral analysis of the detected sources reveals that the majority (≈67 per cent) are obscured by column densities NH > 1022 cm-2; this fraction reaches ≈80 per cent when including the X-ray-undetected sources (9 out of 33), which are likely to be the most heavily obscured, CT quasars. We constrain the fraction of CT quasars in our sample to be ≈24-48 per cent, and their space density to be Φ = (6.7 ± 2.2) × 10-6 Mpc-3. From the investigation of the quasar host galaxies in terms of star formation rates (SFRs) and morphological distortions, as a sign of galaxy mergers/interactions, we do not find any direct relation between SFRs and quasar luminosity or X-ray obscuration. On the other hand, there is tentative evidence that the most heavily obscured quasars have, on average, more disturbed morphologies than the unobscured/moderately obscured quasar hosts, which preferentially live in undisturbed systems. However, the fraction of quasars with disturbed morphology amongst the whole sample is ≈40 per cent, suggesting that galaxy mergers are not the main fuelling mechanism of quasars at z ≈ 2.

  15. Gas reservoir of a hyper-luminous quasar at z = 2.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feruglio, C.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.; Krips, M.; Brusa, M.; Daddi, E.; Gavignaud, I.; Maiolino, R.; Piconcelli, E.; Sargent, M.; Vignali, C.; Zappacosta, L.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Understanding the relationship between the formation and evolution of galaxies and their central super-massive black holes (SMBH) is one of the main topics in extragalactic astrophysics. Links and feedback may reciprocally affect both black hole and galaxy growth. Aims: Observations of the CO line at the main epoch of galaxy and SMBH assembly (z = 2-4) are crucial to investigating the gas mass, star formation, and accretion onto SMBHs, and the effect of AGN feedback. Potential correlations between AGN and host galaxy properties can be highlighted by observing extreme objects. Methods: We targeted CO(3-2) in ULAS J1539+0557, a hyper-luminous quasar (Lbol > 1048 erg/s) at z = 2.658, selected through its unusual red colour in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (ULAS). Results: We find a molecular gas mass of 4.1 ± 0.8 × 1010 M⊙, by adopting a conversion factor α = 0.8 M⊙ K-1 km s-1 pc2, and a gas fraction of ~0.4-0.1, depending mostly on the assumed source inclination. We also find a robust lower limit to the star-formation rate (SFR = 250-1600 M⊙/yr) and star-formation efficiency (SFE = 25-350 L⊙/(K km s-1 pc2) by comparing the observed optical-near-infrared spectral energy distribution with AGN and galaxy templates. The black hole gas consumption timescale, M(H2) /Ṁacc, is ~160 Myr, similar to or higher than the gas consumption timescale. Conclusions: The gas content and the star formation efficiency are similar to those of other high-luminosity, highly obscured quasars, and at the lower end of the star-formation efficiency of unobscured quasars, in line with predictions from AGN-galaxy co-evolutionary scenarios. Further measurements of the (sub)mm continuum in this and similar sources are mandatory to obtain a robust observational picture of the AGN evolutionary sequence. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  16. High redshift QSOs and the x ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Impey, Chris

    1993-01-01

    ROSAT pointed observations were made of 9 QSO's from the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS). The LBQS is based on machine measurement of objective prism plates taken with the UK Schmidt Telescope. Software has been used to select QSO's by both color and by the presence of spectral features and continuum breaks. The probability of detection can be calculated as a function of magnitude, redshift and spectral features, and the completeness of the survey can be accurately estimated. Nine out of 1040 QSO's in the LBQS have z greater than 3. The observations will provide an important data point in the X-ray luminosity function of QSO's at high redshift. The QSO's with z greater than 3 span less than a magnitude in M(sub B), so can be combined as a homogeneous sample. This analysis is only possible with a sample drawn from a large and complete catalog such as the LBQS. Four of the 9 QSO's that were observed with the ROSAT PSPC for this proposal were detected, including one of the most luminous X-ray sources ever observed. The April 1992 version of the PROS DETECT package was used to reduce the data. The results have been used to search for evolution of the X-ray properties of QSO's in redshift. The 9 QSO's lie in the range -28.7 less than M(sub B) less than -27.8. When combined with data for 16 QSO's in a similar luminosity range at lower redshift correlations with luminosity and redshift can be separated out. The LBQS sample also yields a new constraint on the contribution of high redshift QSO's to the X-ray background. An initial requirement is knowledge of the X-ray properties (alpha(sub OX)) as a function of redshift. Integration over the evolving luminosity function of the LBQS then gives the QSO contribution to the source counts.

  17. The XMM deep survey in the CDF-S. IX. An X-ray outflow in a luminous obscured quasar at z ≈ 1.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignali, C.; Iwasawa, K.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Lanzuisi, G.; Ranalli, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Mainieri, V.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Carrera, F. J.; Fritz, J.; Brusa, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Bauer, F. E.; Fiore, F.; Tombesi, F.

    2015-11-01

    In active galactic nuclei (AGN)-galaxy co-evolution models, AGN winds and outflows are often invoked to explain why super-massive black holes and galaxies stop growing efficiently at a certain phase of their lives. They are commonly referred to as the leading actors of feedback processes. Evidence of ultra-fast (v ≳ 0.05c) outflows in the innermost regions of AGN has been collected in the past decade by sensitive X-ray observations for sizable samples of AGN, mostly at low redshift. Here we present ultra-deep XMM-Newton and Chandra spectral data of an obscured (NH≈ 2 × 1023 cm-2), intrinsically luminous (L2-10 keV≈ 4 × 1044 erg s-1) quasar (named PID352) at z ≈ 1.6 (derived from the X-ray spectral analysis) in the Chandra Deep Field-South. The source is characterized by an iron emission and absorption line complex at observed energies of E ≈ 2-3 keV. While the emission line is interpreted as being due to neutral iron (consistent with the presence of cold absorption), the absorption feature is due to highly ionized iron transitions (FeXXV, FeXXVI) with an outflowing velocity of , as derived from photoionization models. The mass outflow rate - ~2 M⊙ yr-1 - is similar to the source accretion rate, and the derived mechanical energy rate is ~9.5 × 1044 erg s-1, corresponding to 9% of the source bolometric luminosity. PID352 represents one of the few cases where indications of X-ray outflowing gas have been observed at high redshift thus far. This wind is powerful enough to provide feedback on the host galaxy.

  18. Rest-frame optical properties of luminous, radio-selected broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnoe, Jessie C.; Ganguly, R.; Brotherton, M. S.; DiPompeo, M. A.

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX spectra of eight moderate-redshift (z = 0.7-2.4), radio-selected (log R* ≈ 0.4-1.9) broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. The spectra cover the rest-frame optical band. We compare the optical properties of these quasars to those of canonically radio-quiet (log R* ≲ 1) BAL quasars at similar redshifts and to low-redshift quasars from the Palomar-Green catalogue. As with previous studies of BAL quasars, we find that [O III] λ5007 is weak, and optical Fe II emission is strong, a rare combination in canonically radio-loud (log R* ≳ 1) quasars. With our measurements of the optical properties, particularly the Balmer emission-line widths and the continuum luminosity, we have used empirical scaling relations to estimate black hole masses and Eddington ratios. These lie in the range (0.4-2.6) × 109 M⊙ and 0.1-0.9, respectively. Despite their comparatively extreme radio properties relative to most BAL quasars, their optical properties are quite consistent with those of radio-quiet BAL quasars and dissimilar to those of radio-loud non-BAL quasars. While BAL quasars generally appear to have low values of [O III] λ5007/Fe II an extreme of `Eigenvector 1', the Balmer line widths and Eddington ratios do not appear to significantly differ from those of unabsorbed quasars at similar redshifts and luminosities.

  19. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Shen Yue; Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel; Myers, Adam D.; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2013-05-10

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M{sub 1450} < -26) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data covering {approx}6000 deg{sup 2}, then extend to lower luminosities (M{sub 1450} < -24) with newly discovered, faint z {approx} 5 quasars selected from 235 deg{sup 2} of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 < z < 5.1 quasars that is highly complete, with 73 spectroscopic identifications out of 92 candidates. Our color selection method is also highly efficient: of the 73 spectra obtained, 71 are high-redshift quasars. These observations reach below the break in the luminosity function (M{sub 1450}{sup *}{approx}-27). The bright-end slope is steep ({beta} {approx}< -4), with a constraint of {beta} < -3.1 at 95% confidence. The break luminosity appears to evolve strongly at high redshift, providing an explanation for the flattening of the bright-end slope reported previously. We find a factor of {approx}2 greater decrease in the number density of luminous quasars (M{sub 1450} < -26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate {approx}30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  20. Host Galaxies of Luminous Quasars: Structural Properties and the Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Marsha J.; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2008-10-01

    We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements in the host galaxies of ten luminous quasars (MV < -23) using the Ca H&K lines in off-nuclear spectra. We combine these data with effective radii and magnitudes from the literature to place the host galaxies on the fundamental plane (FP) where their properties are compared with other types of galaxies. We find that the radio-loud (RL) QSO hosts have similar properties to massive elliptical galaxies, while the radio-quiet (RQ) hosts are more similar to intermediate-mass galaxies. The RL hosts lie at the upper extreme of the FP due to their large velocity dispersions (langσ*rang = 321 km s-1), low surface brightness (langμ e (r)rang = 20.8 mag arcsec-2), and large effective radii (langRe rang = 11.4 kpc), and have langM *rang = 1.5 × 1012 M sun and langM/Lrang = 12.4. In contrast, properties of the RQ hosts are langσ*rang = 241 km s-1, langM *rang = 4.4 × 1011 M sun, and M/L ~ 5.3. The distinction between these galaxies occurs at σ*~ 300 km s-1, Re ~ 6 kpc, and corresponding M * ~ 5.9 ± 3.5 × 1011 M sun. Our data support previous results that Palomar-Green QSOs are related to gas-rich galaxy mergers that form intermediate-mass galaxies, while RL QSOs reside in massive early-type galaxies, most of which also show signs of recent mergers or interactions. Previous authors have drawn these conclusions by using estimates of the black hole mass and inferring host galaxy properties from that, while here we have relied purely on directly measured host galaxy properties.

  1. Quasars as Probes of Cosmological Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Daniel

    Quasars are the most luminous non-transient sources in the epoch of cosmological reionization (which ended a billion years after the Big Bang, corresponding to a redshift of z ≃ 5), and are powerful probes of the inter-galactic medium at that time. This review covers current efforts to identify high-redshift quasars and how they have been used to constrain the reionization history. This includes a full description of the various processes by which neutral hydrogen atoms can absorb/scatter ultraviolet photons, and which lead to the Gunn-Peterson effect, dark gap and dark pixel analyses, quasar near zones and damping wing absorption. Finally, the future prospects for using quasars as probes of reionization are described.

  2. The relationship between variable and polarized optical spectral components of luminous type 1 non-blazar quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    Optical spectropolarimetry by Kishimoto et al. (2004, MNRAS, 354, 1065) has shown that several luminous type 1 quasars show a strong decrease of the polarized continuum flux in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of λ < 4000 Å. In the literature, this spectral feature is interpreted as evidence of the broadened hydrogen Balmer absorption edge imprinted on the accretion disk thermal emission due to the disk atmospheric opacity effect. On the other hand, quasar flux variability studies have shown that the variable continuum component in UV-optical spectra of quasars, which is considered to be a good indicator of the intrinsic spectral shape of the accretion disk emission, generally has a significantly flat spectral shape throughout the near-UV to optical spectral range. To examine whether the disk continuum spectral shapes revealed as the polarized flux and as the variable component spectra are consistent with each other, we carry out multi-band photometric monitoring observations for a sample of four polarization-decreasing quasars of Kishimoto et al.'s (4C 09.72, 3C 323.1, Ton 202, and B2 1208+32) to derive the variable component spectra and compare the spectral shape of them with that of the polarized flux spectra. Contrary to expectation, we confirm that the two spectral components of these quasars have totally different spectral shapes, in that the variable component spectra are significantly bluer compared to the polarized flux spectra. This discrepancy between two spectrals shape may imply either (1) the decrease of polarization degree in the rest-frame UV wavelengths is not indicating the Balmer absorption edge feature but is induced by some unknown (de)polarization mechanisms, or (2) the UV-optical flux variability is occurring preferentially at the hot inner radii of the accretion disk and thus the variable component spectra do not reflect the whole accretion disk emission.

  3. The relationship between variable and polarized optical spectral components of luminous type 1 non-blazar quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2016-08-01

    Optical spectropolarimetry by Kishimoto et al. (2004, MNRAS, 354, 1065) has shown that several luminous type 1 quasars show a strong decrease of the polarized continuum flux in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of λ < 4000 Å. In the literature, this spectral feature is interpreted as evidence of the broadened hydrogen Balmer absorption edge imprinted on the accretion disk thermal emission due to the disk atmospheric opacity effect. On the other hand, quasar flux variability studies have shown that the variable continuum component in UV-optical spectra of quasars, which is considered to be a good indicator of the intrinsic spectral shape of the accretion disk emission, generally has a significantly flat spectral shape throughout the near-UV to optical spectral range. To examine whether the disk continuum spectral shapes revealed as the polarized flux and as the variable component spectra are consistent with each other, we carry out multi-band photometric monitoring observations for a sample of four polarization-decreasing quasars of Kishimoto et al.'s (4C 09.72, 3C 323.1, Ton 202, and B2 1208+32) to derive the variable component spectra and compare the spectral shape of them with that of the polarized flux spectra. Contrary to expectation, we confirm that the two spectral components of these quasars have totally different spectral shapes, in that the variable component spectra are significantly bluer compared to the polarized flux spectra. This discrepancy between two spectral shapes may imply either (1) the decrease of polarization degree in the rest-frame UV wavelengths is not indicating the Balmer absorption edge feature but is induced by some unknown (de)polarization mechanisms, or (2) the UV-optical flux variability is occurring preferentially at the hot inner radii of the accretion disk and thus the variable component spectra do not reflect the whole accretion disk emission.

  4. New observations directly measuring the full continuous sizes of high redshift damped Lya systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Jeff; O'Meara, John

    2016-01-01

    The formation and evolution of galaxies requires large reservoirs of cold, neutral gas. The damped Lyman-α systems (DLAs), seen in absorption towards distant quasars and gamma ray bursts, are predicted to be the dominant reservoirs for this gas. Detailed properties of DLAs have been studied extensively for decades with great success. However, their size, fundamental in understanding their nature, has remained elusive, as quasar and gamma ray burst sightlines only probe comparatively tiny areas of the foreground DLAs. Here, we introduce a new approach to measure the full extent of DLAs in the sightlines to extended background sources. We present the discovery of z ~ 2 DLAs with column densities as high as log N(HI) = 21.1 ±0.4 cm-2 covering 90-100% of the luminous extent of background galaxies. Estimates of the sizes of the background galaxies range from a minimum of a few kpc2, to ˜100 kpc2, and demonstrate that high-column density neutral gas can span continuous areas 108-1010 times larger than previously explored in quasar or gamma ray burst sightlines. The DLAs are from our pilot survey that searches Lyman break and Lyman continuum galaxies at high redshift. The low luminosities, large sizes, and mass contents (~106-109 M⊙) implied by the early data suggest that DLAs contain the necessary fuel for galaxies, with many systems consistent with relatively massive, low-luminosity primeval galaxies.

  5. Very high redshift radio galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W.J.M., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) provide unique targets for the study of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters at very high redshifts. We discuss how efficient HzRG samples ae selected, the evidence for strong morphological evolution at near-infracd wavelengths, and for jet-induced star formation in the z = 3 800 HzRG 4C41 17

  6. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of Luminous, Heavily Obscured, WISE-selected Quasars at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, D.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Boggs, S. E.; Bridge, C.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Del Moro, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Gandhi, P.; Griffith, R. L.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Jarrett, T. H.; Koss, M.; Lake, S.; LaMassa, S. M.; Luo, B.; Tsai, C.-W.; Urry, C. M.; Walton, D. J.; Wright, E. L.; Wu, J.; Yan, L.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-10-01

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ~ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 - 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ~1000 so-called "W1W2-dropouts" across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ~ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL ν(6 μm) ~ 6 × 1046 erg s-1 and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L bol ~ 1014 L ⊙. The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ~ 4 × 1045 erg s-1 for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N H <= 1024 cm-2. In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f 3-24 keV <~ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f 0.5-10 keV ~ 5 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f 0.5-10 keV ~ 7 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N H >~ 1024 cm-2. The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population of heavily obscured, extremely luminous AGNs would not conform to the standard paradigm of a receding torus, in which more luminous quasars are less likely to be

  7. Current and Future X-ray Studies of High-Redshift AGNs and the First Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Niel

    2016-01-01

    X-ray observations of high-redshift AGNs at z = 4-7 have played a critical role in understanding the physical processes at work inthese objects as well as their basic demographics. Since 2000, Chandra and XMM-Newton have provided new X-ray detections for more than 120 such objects, and well-defined samples of z > 4 AGNs now allow reliable X-ray population studies. Once luminosity effectsare considered, the basic X-ray continuum properties of most high-redshift AGNs appear remarkably similar to those of local AGNs, although there are some notable apparent exceptions (e.g., highly radio-loud quasars). Furthermore, the X-ray absorption found in some objects has been used as a diagnostic of outflowing winds and circumnuclear material. Demographically, the X-ray data now support an exponential decline in the number density of luminous AGNs above z ~ 3, and quantitative space-density comparisons for optically selected and X-ray selected quasars indicate basic statistical agreement.The current X-ray discoveries point the way toward the future breakthroughs that will be possible with, e.g., Athena and the X-raySurveyor. These missions will execute powerful blank-field surveys to elucidate the demographics of the first growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs), including highly obscured systems, up to z ~ 10. They will also carry out complementary X-ray spectroscopic and variability investigations of high-redshift AGNs by targeting the most-luminous z = 7-10 quasars found in wide-field surveys by, e.g., Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST. X-ray spectroscopic and variability studies of the X-ray continuum and reflection signatures will help determine Eddington ratios and disk/corona properties; measuring these will clarify how the first quasars grew so quickly. Furthermore, absorption line/edge studies will reveal how outflows from the first SMBHs influenced the growth of the first galaxies. I will suggest some efficient observational strategies for Athena and the X-ray Surveyor.

  8. DES J0454-4448: discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Becker, G. D.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Martini, P.; Ostrovski, F.; Rauch, M.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J.; Merritt, K.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A.; Romer, K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = -26.5) quasar DES J0454-4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H I near zone size of 4.1+1.1-1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i-z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i-z and z-Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  9. Pushing the Limits: High Redshift Fermi-LAT Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Gasparrini, Dario; Lott, Benoit; Cutini, Sara; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    High-redshift blazars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) are of great astrophysical import as they are extreme objects whose energetics remain a mystery. Such blazars are intrinsically interesting since they inform us about the evolution of gamma-ray blazars and are, by definition, some of the more luminous blazars in the LAT sample. They are also an excellent tool to study the EBL and thus the gamma-ray horizon. We present the latest high redshift blazar detections in the LAT and discuss some of their implications.

  10. A luminous quasar at a redshift of z = 7.085.

    PubMed

    Mortlock, Daniel J; Warren, Stephen J; Venemans, Bram P; Patel, Mitesh; Hewett, Paul C; McMahon, Richard G; Simpson, Chris; Theuns, Tom; Gonzáles-Solares, Eduardo A; Adamson, Andy; Dye, Simon; Hambly, Nigel C; Hirst, Paul; Irwin, Mike J; Kuiper, Ernst; Lawrence, Andy; Röttgering, Huub J A

    2011-06-30

    The intergalactic medium was not completely reionized until approximately a billion years after the Big Bang, as revealed by observations of quasars with redshifts of less than 6.5. It has been difficult to probe to higher redshifts, however, because quasars have historically been identified in optical surveys, which are insensitive to sources at redshifts exceeding 6.5. Here we report observations of a quasar (ULAS J112001.48+064124.3) at a redshift of 7.085, which is 0.77 billion years after the Big Bang. ULAS J1120+0641 has a luminosity of 6.3 × 10(13)L(⊙) and hosts a black hole with a mass of 2 × 10(9)M(⊙) (where L(⊙) and M(⊙) are the luminosity and mass of the Sun). The measured radius of the ionized near zone around ULAS J1120+0641 is 1.9 megaparsecs, a factor of three smaller than is typical for quasars at redshifts between 6.0 and 6.4. The near-zone transmission profile is consistent with a Lyα damping wing, suggesting that the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium in front of ULAS J1120+0641 exceeded 0.1. PMID:21720366

  11. THE PROPERTIES OF QUASAR HOSTS AT THE PEAK OF THE QUASAR ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Falomo, Renato; Decarli, Roberto; Treves, Aldo; Uslenghi, Michela; Scarpa, Riccardo E-mail: renato.falomo@oapd.inaf.i E-mail: aldo.treves@uninsubria.i E-mail: riccardo.scarpa@gtc.iac.e

    2009-10-01

    We present near-infrared imaging obtained with ESO VLT/ISAAC of a sample of 16 low luminosity radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) at the epoch around the peak of the quasar activity (2 < z < 3), aimed at investigating their host galaxies. For 11 quasars, we are able to detect the host galaxies and derive their properties, while for the other 5 quasars, upper limits to the host luminosity are estimated. The luminosities of the host galaxies of RQQs at high redshift are in the range of those of massive inactive elliptical galaxies. This work complements our previous systematic study of quasar hosts aimed to trace the cosmological luminosity evolution of the host galaxies up to z approx 2 and extends our pilot study of a few luminous quasars at z > 2. The luminosity trend with a cosmic epoch resembles that observed for massive inactive galaxies, suggesting a similar star formation history. In particular, both quasar host galaxies and massive inactive galaxies appear mostly assembled already at the peak age of the quasar activity. This result is of key importance for testing the models of joint formation and evolution of galaxies and their active nuclei.

  12. Rest-frame Optical Properties of Luminous 1.5 < Z < 3.5 Quasars: The Hβ-[O iii] Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    We study the rest-frame optical properties of 74 luminous ({L}{{bol}}={10}46.2-48.2 {erg} {{{s}}}-1), 1.5\\lt z\\lt 3.5 broad-line quasars with near-IR (JHK) slit spectroscopy. Systemic redshifts based on the peak of the [O iii] λ5007 line reveal that redshift estimates from the rest-frame UV broad emission lines (mostly Mg ii) are intrinsically uncertain by ˜ 200 {km} {{{s}}}-1 (measurement errors accounted for). The overall full-width-at-half-maximum of the narrow [O iii] line is ˜ 1000 {km} {{{s}}}-1 on average. A significant fraction of the total [O iii] flux (˜40%) is in a blueshifted wing component with a median velocity offset of ˜ 700 {km} {{{s}}}-1, indicative of ionized outflows within a few kpc from the nucleus; we do not find evidence of significant [O iii] flux beyond ˜ 10 {{kpc}} in our slit spectroscopy. The [O iii] line is noticeably more asymmetric and weaker than that in typical less luminous low-z quasars. However, when matched in quasar continuum luminosity, low-z quasars have similar [O iii] profiles and strengths as these high-z systems. Therefore the exceptionally large width and blueshifted wing, and the relatively weak strength of [O iii] in high-z luminous quasars are mostly a luminosity effect rather than redshift evolution. The Hβ-[O iii] region of these high-z quasars displays a similar spectral diversity and Eigenvector 1 correlations with anti-correlated [O iii] and optical Fe ii strengths, as seen in low-z quasars; but the average broad Hβ width is larger by 25% than typical low-z quasars, indicating more massive black holes in these high-z systems. These results highlight the importance of understanding [O iii] in the general context of quasar parameter space in order to understand quasar feedback in the form of [O iii] outflows. The calibrated one-dimensional near-IR spectra are made publicly available, along with a composite spectrum.

  13. An Ultra-luminous Quasar at z = 5.363 with a Ten Billion Solar Mass Black Hole and a Metal-rich DLA at z ∼ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Yang, Jinyi; Cai, Zheng; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Wang, Ran; McGreer, Ian D.; Ho, Luis C.; Kim, Minjin; Yang, Qian; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-luminous quasar J030642.51+185315.8 (hereafter J0306+1853) at redshift 5.363, which hosts a supermassive black hole with {M}{BH}=(1.07+/- 0.27)× {10}10 {M}ȯ . With an absolute magnitude {M}1450=-28.92 and a bolometric luminosity {L}{bol}∼ 3.4× {10}14{L}ȯ , J0306+1853 is one of the most luminous objects in the early universe. It is not likely to be a beamed source based on its small flux variability, low radio loudness, and normal broad emission lines. In addition, a z=4.986 damped Lyα system (DLA) with [{{M}}/{{H}}]=-1.3+/- 0.1, among the most metal-rich DLAs at z≳ 5, is detected in the absorption spectrum of this quasar. This ultra-luminous quasar puts strong constraints on the bright end of the quasar luminosity function and massive end of the black hole mass function. It will provide a unique laboratory for the study of BH growth and the co-evolution between a BH and the host galaxy with multi-wavelength follow-up observations. The future high-resolution spectra will give more insight into the DLA and other absorption systems along the line of sight of J0306+1853.

  14. Searches for High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, R.

    In recent years, the technique of Lyman break imaging has proven very effective at identifying large numbers of galaxies at high redshifts through deep multicolour imaging (Steidel et al 1996b; Steidel et al 1999). The combination of an intrinsic break in the spectra of star-forming galaxies below the rest-frame wavelength of Lyman-alpha and attenuation by intervening HI systems on the line of sight to high redshifts makes for a pronounced drop in the flux of high redshift galaxies between 912 Å and 1216 Å in the rest-frame. At redshifts z> 3, the break is shifted sufficiently far into the optical window accessible to ground-based telescopes for galaxies at such redshift to be distinguished from the foreground galaxy population through photometry alone. Through modelling of the expected colours of a wide range of galaxy types, ages and redshifts, taking into account the effects of reddening (Calzetti, Kinney and Storchi-Bergmann 1994) and intergalactic attenuation (Madau 1995), we assess the likely colours of high redshift galaxies and determine the redshift ranges most effectively probed by the imaging filters. We obtain multicolour imaging of the fields of four high redshift radio galaxies, covering around 40 arcmin2 in each, allowing us to attempt to find ordinary galaxies at similar redshifts to the central radio galaxies through photometric colour selection techniques. Some idea as to the effectiveness comes through additional colour and morphological information obtained from high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images and from data taken in the near infra-red. While we do not have spectroscopic evidence for the redshifts of our candidates, given the available evidence we conclude that the number densities of Lyman break galaxies in the radio galaxy fields are in broad agreement with the data of Steidel et al (1999). Finally, we assess the prospects for future studies of the high redshift Universe, in particular the potential of the Oxford Deep Wide Field

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC 10214+4724: A Gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Armus, Lee; Hogg, David W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    With a redshift of 2.3, the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724 is apparently one of the most luminous objects known in the universe. We present an image of FSC 10214+4724 at 0.8 pm obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 Planetary Camera. The source appears as an unresolved (less then 0.06) arc 0.7 long, with significant substructure along its length. The center of curvature of the arc is located near an elliptical galaxy 1.18 to the north. An unresolved component 100 times fainter than the arc is clearly detected on the opposite side of this galaxy. The most straightforward interpretation is that FSC 10214+4724 is gravitationally lensed by the foreground elliptical galaxy, with the faint component a counter-image of the IRAS source. The brightness of the arc in the HST image is then magnified by approx. 100, and the intrinsic source diameter is approx. 0.0l (80 pc) at 0.25 microns rest wavelength. The bolometric luminosity is probably amplified by a smaller factor (approx. 30) as a result of the larger extent expected for the source in the far-infrared. A detailed lensing model is presented that reproduces the observed morphology and relative flux of the arc and counterimage and correctly predicts the position angle of the lensing galaxy. The model also predicts reasonable values for the velocity dispersion, mass, and mass-to-light ratio of the lensing galaxy for a wide range of galaxy redshifts. A redshift for the lensing galaxy of -0.9 is consistent with the measured surface brightness profile from the image, as well as with the galaxy's spectral energy distribution. The background lensed source has an intrinsic luminosity approx. 2 x 10(exp 13) L(solar mass) and remains a highly luminous quasar with an extremely large ratio of infrared to optical/ultraviolet luminosity.

  16. FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN LUMINOUS GALAXY MERGERS: EVIDENCE FOR QUASAR FEEDBACK FROM HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; De Jong, J. A.; Fischer, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H. E-mail: marcio@astro.umd.edu; and others

    2013-10-10

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 μm) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 μm silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than –50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (∼145°) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of ∼–1000 km s{sup –1} are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically ∼–200 km s{sup –1}. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L{sub AGN}/L{sub ☉}) ≥ 11.8 ± 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  17. Fast Molecular Outflows in Luminous Galaxy Mergers: Evidence for Quasar Feedback from Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, S.; Melendez, M.; Sturm, E.; Garcia-Carpio, J.; Fischer, J.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; deJong, J. A.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H.; Polisensky, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 micron) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 micron silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than-50 km/s, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (approx. 145 deg.) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km/s is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of approx. -1000 km/s are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically approx.-200 km/s-1. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L(sub AGN)/L(sub solar)) => 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  18. OT2_peisenha_2: The Most Luminous Obscured Galaxies and Quasars Revealed by WISE and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, P.

    2011-09-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns (W1, W2, W3, and W4), reaching sensitivities hundreds of times deeper than IRAS. We have used WISE photometry to select an all-sky sample of objects which are extremely luminous. The objects are prominent in W4, but faint or undetected in W1 and W2 (W12drops). Followup spectroscopy of ~ 100 sources shows over 70% of W12drops have redshifts > 1.6, which with OT1 PACS and SPIRE photometry of 27 sources leads to over 1E13 solar luminosities, with ~ 10% exceeding 1E14 solar luminosities. High resolution adaptive optics imaging shows these objects are unlensed. We request 47.3 hours of Herschel time to complete the all-sky sample of the brightest 185 W12 drops, fulfilling the primary WISE objective of finding the most extreme luminous IR galaxies in the Universe. These superlative objects will be the most fruitful for detailed studies of the physics of star formation, AGN fueling, and feedback in the most active galaxies.

  19. Half of the Most Luminous Quasars May Be Obscured: Investigating the Nature of WISE-Selected Hot Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assef, R. J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Stern, D.; Tsai, C.-W.; Wu, J.; Wylezalek, D.; Blain, A. W.; Bridge, C. R.; Donoso, E.; Gonzales, A.; Griffith, R. L.; Jarrett, T. H.

    2015-05-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission has unveiled a rare population of high-redshift (z = 1-4.6), dusty, hyper-luminous galaxies, with infrared luminosities {{L}IR}\\gt {{10}13} {{L}⊙ }, and sometimes exceeding {{10}14} {{L}⊙ }. Previous work has shown that their dust temperatures and overall far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are significantly hotter than expected to be powered by star formation. We present here an analysis of the rest-frame optical through mid-infrared SEDs for a large sample of these so-called “hot, dust-obscured galaxies” (Hot DOGs). We find that the SEDs of Hot DOGs are generally well modeled by the combination of a luminous, yet obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that dominates the rest-frame emission at λ \\gt 1 μ m and the bolometric luminosity output, and a less luminous host galaxy that is responsible for the bulk of the rest optical/UV emission. Even though the stellar mass of the host galaxies may be as large as 1011-1012 M⊙, the AGN emission, with a range of luminosities comparable to those of the most luminous QSOs known, require that either Hot DOGs have black hole masses significantly in excess of the local relations, or that they radiate significantly above the Eddington limit, at a level at least 10 times more efficiently than z ˜ 2 QSOs. We show that, while rare, the number density of Hot DOGs is comparable to that of equally luminous but unobscured (i.e., Type 1) QSOs. This may be at odds with the trend suggested at lower luminosities for the fraction of obscured AGNs to decrease with increasing luminosity. That trend may, instead, reverse at higher luminosities. Alternatively, Hot DOGs may not be the torus-obscured counterparts of the known optically selected, largely unobscured, hyper-luminous QSOs, and may represent a new component of the galaxy evolution paradigm. Finally, we discuss the environments of Hot DOGs and statistically show that these objects are in regions as dense as

  20. Broadband Observations of High Redshift Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Stalin, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 (z = 3.37), CGRaBS J0225+1846 (z = 2.69), BZQ J1430+4205 (z = 4.72), and 3FGL J1656.2‑3303 (z = 2.40) using quasi-simultaneous data from the Swift, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also archival XMM-Newton observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2‑3303, none of the sources were known as γ-ray emitters, and our analysis of ∼7.5 yr of LAT data reveals the first time detection of statistically significant γ-ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of NuSTAR observations and reproduce them using a one-zone leptonic emission model. The optical‑UV emission in all the objects can be explained by radiation from the accretion disk, whereas the X-ray to γ-ray windows of the SEDs are found to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering off the broad line region photons. All of them host black holes that are billions of solar masses. Comparing the accretion disk luminosity and the jet power of these sources with a large sample of blazars, we find them to occupy a high disk luminosity–jet power regime. We also investigate the X-ray spectral properties of the sources in detail with a major focus on studying the causes of soft X-ray deficit, a feature generally seen in high redshift radio-loud quasars. We summarize that this feature could be explained based on the intrinsic curvature in the jet emission rather than being due to the external effects predicted in earlier studies, such as host galaxy and/or warm absorption.

  1. High-redshift galaxy populations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Esther M; Cowie, Lennox L

    2006-04-27

    We now see many galaxies as they were only 800 million years after the Big Bang, and that limit may soon be exceeded when wide-field infrared detectors are widely available. Multi-wavelength studies show that there was relatively little star formation at very early times and that star formation was at its maximum at about half the age of the Universe. A small number of high-redshift objects have been found by targeting X-ray and radio sources and most recently, gamma-ray bursts. The gamma-ray burst sources may provide a way to reach even higher-redshift galaxies in the future, and to probe the first generation of stars. PMID:16641986

  2. A search for gravitational lensing among highly luminous quasars - New results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magain, P.; Remy, M.; Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Smette, A.

    Images of highly luminous QSOs are analyzed to determine whether the gravitational magnification of the background QSO by matter associated with the foreground galaxies accounts for the excess of galaxies in the fields of distant QSOs. Galaxy detection is increased by utilizing red-filter images, 40 taken with the EFOSC at the ESO 3.6-m telescope and 43 taken with a direct CCD camera at the ESO/MPI 2.2-m telescope. The R-magnitude ranges from 22.5 to 23.0 for the sample, for which the number of galaxies is counted by eye, showing 45 galaxies of radio and optical type. The overdensity found is not as pronounced as that of Fugmann (1988) or that of Webster et al. (1988). A systematic subtraction of the point spread function is also described to investigate the idea that some galaxies responsible for the QSO light magnification are within the inner 3-arcsec circle. The galaxies very close to the line-of-sight are theorized to contribute significantly to the magnification of these QSOs.

  3. Testing the CMB Quenching for High-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Gallo, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The identification of a dozen of high-redshift (z > 4) blazars implies that a much larger population of powerful, but mis-aligned jetted AGNs already exists in the early Universe. However, this parent population remains elusive, although they are expected to be within the sensitivity threshold of modern wide-field radio surveys. One appealing mechanism is that the CMB photons upscatter the diffuse synchrotron radio emission in the lobes to the X-ray band. In this scenario, the lobes will turn into luminous X-ray sources. We analyzed the extended X-ray emission around several radio galaxies at z~4 and constructed their broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Modeling their SEDs will test this CMB quenching scenario for high-redshift radio galaxies.

  4. IONIZED NITROGEN AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Bertoldi, F.; Carilli, C.; Kneib, J. P.; Lestrade, J. F.; Maiolino, R.; Omont, A.; Richard, J.; Riechers, D.; Thanjavur, K.; Weiss, A.

    2012-06-10

    We present secure [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} detections in two millimeter-bright, strongly lensed objects at high redshift, APM 08279+5255 (z = 3.911) and MM 18423+5938 (z = 3.930), using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Due to its ionization energy [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} is a good tracer of the ionized gas phase in the interstellar medium. The measured fluxes are S([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (4.8 {+-} 0.8) Jy km s{sup -1} and (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Jy km s{sup -1}, respectively, yielding line luminosities of L([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (1.8 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} for APM 08279+5255 and L([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (2.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} for MM 18423+5938. Our high-resolution map of the [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} and 1 mm continuum emission in MM 18423+5938 clearly resolves an Einstein ring in this source and reveals a velocity gradient in the dynamics of the ionized gas. A comparison of these maps with high-resolution EVLA CO observations enables us to perform the first spatially resolved study of the dust continuum-to-molecular gas surface brightness ({Sigma}{sub FIR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup N}{sub CO}, which can be interpreted as the star formation law) in a high-redshift object. We find a steep relation (N = 1.4 {+-} 0.2), consistent with a starbursting environment. We measure a [N II]{sub 205{mu}m}/FIR luminosity ratio in APM 08279+5255 and MM 18423+5938 of 9.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, respectively. This is in agreement with the decrease of the [N II]{sub 205{mu}m}/FIR ratio at high FIR luminosities observed in local galaxies.

  5. Neutral hydrogen at the present epoch: A constraint on the evolution of high redshift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Sandhya; Briggs, Frank H.

    1993-01-01

    Damped Lyman-alpha and metal absorption lines in the spectra of quasars indicate the presence of intervening gas-rich systems at high redshift (z greater than 2). These systems have characteristic size scales, velocity dispersions, and neutral hydrogen column densities (N(H1)) similar to present day spirals and are thus thought to be their progenitors. Constraints on galaxy evolution can be derived by comparing the H1 properties of high redshift systems to the present galaxy population. Good observational statistics on high redshift absorbers specify the number of these systems along the line of sight as a function of N(H1), the column density of neutral hydrogen per absorber. Similar statistics for nearby (z = 0) galaxies of which spirals are the only gas-rich systems that provide a significant cross-section for the interception of light from quasars is derived.

  6. Candidate High Redshift Clusters of Dusty Galaxies from Herschel & Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, David L.

    2015-08-01

    The cross identification of Planck compact sources with objects in karger area Herschel surveys, such as HerMES and H-ATLAS, has led to the discovery of candidate high redshift (out to z~3) clusters of far-IR luminous star forming galaxies. These objects are not easily reproduced in the current generations of galaxy and large scale formation simulations and are thus a potentially powerful new tool for comnstraining galaxy and cluster formation models. We will review the current results on these sources and examine future prospects for progress in this novel and potentially important new field.

  7. Spectroscopy of high redshift sightlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Tayyaba

    2011-04-01

    This thesis deals with the absorption studies of two cosmological objects: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and quasars (QSO), using spectroscopy and spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis. GRBs are the most powerful explosions in the Universe. After the discovery of these cosmological events in 1967, a lot of progress has been made in investigating their properties which divided them into two subcategories of long and short bursts. Both GRB classes have different origins and properties. Long duration GRBs are signposts of star formation due to their association with the deaths of short-lived massive stars. The launch of the Swift satellite in 2004, mainly devoted to GRB observations, has marked a dramatic improvement in our understanding of GRB physics. The initial burst of gamma-rays should be followed by slowly fading emission at low frequencies, which is termed the "afterglow". GRB afterglows are excellent and sensitive probes of gas and dust in star-forming galaxies at all epochs. The X-ray to optical/near-infrared SED analysis of GRB afterglows can reveal intrinsic host galaxy properties. The brightness of these transient sources and their occurrence in young, blue galaxies make them excellent tools to study star forming regions in the distant Universe. The first chapter presents an introduction to the history of GRB research, different progenitor models and afterglow phases. It also summarizes the different dust models used for afterglow SED modeling. The chapter also provides an introduction to the Damped Ly-alpha absorbers (DLAs) usually seen in the spectra of background QSOs.

  8. Probing the dark ages: Observations of the high-redshift universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Daniel Keith

    , radio-loud quasars. We report on a spectroscopic survey of photometrically-selected, high-redshift quasars selected from correlations between the 21 cm FIRST radio catalog and the (optical) digitized Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Six radio-loud quasars at z >~ 4 were identified in this survey. We also report on radio-properties of z > 4 optically- selected quasars, showing that there this is no evidence for the radio-loud fraction changing at early cosmic epoch.

  9. Variability and Spectral Studies of Luminous Seyfert 1 Galaxy Fairall 9. Search for the Reflection Component is a Quasar: RXTE and ASCA Observation of a Nearby Radio-Quiet Quasar MR 2251-178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen M.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring observations with interval of 3 days using RXTE (X Ray Timing Explorer) of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9 were performed for one year. The purpose of the observations were to study the variability of Fairall 9 and compare the results with those from the radio-loud object 3C 390.3. The data has been received and analysis is underway, using the new background model. An observation of the quasar MR 2251-178 was made in order to determine whether or not it has a reflection component. Older background models gave an unacceptable subtraction and analysis is underway using the new background model. The observation of NGC 6300 showed that the X-ray spectrum from this Seyfert 2 galaxy appears to be dominated by Compton reflection.

  10. Gemini long-slit observations of luminous obscured quasars: Further evidence for an upper limit on the size of the narrow-line region

    SciTech Connect

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Greene, Jenny E.; Myers, Adam D.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Liu, Guilin; Liu, Xin

    2014-05-20

    We examine the spatial extent of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of a sample of 30 luminous obscured quasars at 0.4 < z < 0.7 observed with spatially resolved Gemini-N GMOS long-slit spectroscopy. Using the [O III] λ5007 emission feature, we estimate the size of the NLR using a cosmology-independent measurement: the radius where the surface brightness falls to 10{sup –15} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} arcsec{sup –2}. We then explore the effects of atmospheric seeing on NLR size measurements and conclude that direct measurements of the NLR size from observed profiles are too large by 0.1-0.2 dex on average, as compared to measurements made to best-fit Sérsic or Voigt profiles convolved with the seeing. These data, which span a full order of magnitude in IR luminosity (log (L {sub 8} {sub μm}/erg s{sup –1}) = 44.4-45.4), also provide strong evidence that there is a flattening of the relationship between NLR size and active galactic nucleus luminosity at a seeing-corrected size of ∼7 kpc. The objects in this sample have high luminosities which place them in a previously under-explored portion of the size-luminosity relationship. These results support the existence of a maximal size of the NLR around luminous quasars; beyond this size, there is either not enough gas or the gas is over-ionized and does not produce enough [O III] λ5007 emission.

  11. A Global Probe of Cosmic Magnetic Fields to High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, P. P.; Bernet, M. L.; Miniati, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Short, M. B.; Higdon, D. M.

    2008-03-01

    Faraday rotation (rotation measure [RM]) probes of magnetic fields in the universe are sensitive to cosmological and evolutionary effects as z increases beyond ~1 because of the scalings of electron density and magnetic fields, and the growth in the number of expected intersections with galaxy-scale intervenors, dN/dz. In this new global analysis of an unprecedented large sample of RMs of high-latitude quasars extending out to z ~ 3.7, we find that the distribution of RM broadens with redshift in the 20-80 rad m-2 range, despite the (1 + z)-2 wavelength dilution expected in the observed Faraday rotation. Our results indicate that the universe becomes increasingly "Faraday-opaque" to sources beyond z ~ 2; that is, as z increases, progressively fewer sources are found with a "small" RM in the observer's frame. This is in contrast to sources at zlesssim 1. They suggest that the environments of galaxies were significantly magnetized at high redshifts, with magnetic field strengths that were at least as strong within a few Gyr of the big bang as at the current epoch. We separately investigate a simple unevolving toy model in which the RM is produced by Mg II absorber systems, and find that it can approximately reproduce the observed trend with redshift. An additional possibility is that the intrinsic RM associated with the radio sources was much higher in the past, and we show that this is not a trivial consequence of the higher radio luminosities of the high-redshift sources.

  12. High Velocity Outflows in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Rodriguez Hidalgo, Paola; Nestor, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    High velocity (HV) outflows are important components of SMBH growth and evolution. The ability of SMBHs to accrete matter and light up as AGN probably requires that outflows are present to carry away angular momentum. Outflows during the luminous AGN phase might also play a critical role in ``unveiling" young dust-enshrouded AGN and in ``polluting" the intergalactic medium with metals at high redshifts. Nonetheless, AGN outflows remain poorly understood. We have begun a program to study a nearly unexplored realm of AGN outflow parameter space: HV winds with v> 10,000 km/s up to v~ 0.2c but small velocity dispersions (narrow absorption lines), such that v/(Delta) v ≫ 1. These extreme outflows have been detected so far in just a few quasars, but they might be ubiquitous if, as expected, the flows subtend a small solid angle as seen from the central engine. Narrow-line HV flows merit specific attention because they pose unique challenges for theoretical models of the wind acceleration, mass loss rates, launch radii, etc. They might also comprise a significant fraction of absorbers previously attributed to unrelated (interveinng) gas or galaxies. We have compiled a list of bright quasars with candidate HV outflow lines (CIV 1550 A) in existing SDSS spectra. We now propose to observe ~50 of these candidates with the 2.1m GoldCam to i) identify/confirm some of the true outflow systems (based on line variability), ii) place a firm lower limit on the fraction of quasars with narrow-line HV outflows, iii) compile a short list of confirmed HV outflow sources for future study, and iv) use the combined SDSS and GoldCam data to measure or constrain basic outflow properties, such as the kinematics, locations, and physical conditions.

  13. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}ȯ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}ȯ yr‑1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm‑3, ionization parameter 10‑1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10‑0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm‑2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ˜48–65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044–1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ˜30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking galaxy

  14. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}ȯ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}ȯ yr‑1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm‑3, ionization parameter 10‑1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10‑0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm‑2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ∼48–65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044–1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ∼30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking

  15. Spectroscopy of quasar candidates from SDSS commissioning data

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Gunn, James E.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Knapp, Gillian; Lupton, Robert H. Hennessy, Gregory S. Munn, Jeffrey A.; Newberg, Heidi J.; Yanny, Brian Schneider, Donald P.

    1999-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has obtained images in five broad-band colors for several hundred square degrees. We present color-color diagrams for stellar objects, and demonstrate that quasars are easily distinguished from stars by their distinctive colors. Follow-up spectroscopy in less than ten nights of telescope time has yielded 22 new quasars, 9 of them at z{gt}3.65, and one with z=4.75, the second highest-redshift quasar yet known. Roughly 80{percent} of the high-redshift quasar candidates selected by color indeed turn out to be high-redshift quasars. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. On the Radio and Optical Luminosity Evolution of Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Petrosian, V.; Lawrence, A.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.

    2011-05-20

    loud quasars, but rather a smooth transition. Also, this efficiency seems higher for the high-redshift and more luminous sources in the considered sample.

  17. STRONG RESPONSE OF THE VERY BROAD H{beta} EMISSION LINE IN THE LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET QUASAR PG 1416-129

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Li, Y.

    2011-11-20

    We report new spectroscopic observations performed in 2010 and 2011 for the luminous radio-quiet quasar PG 1416-129. Our new spectra with high quality cover both H{beta} and H{alpha} regions, and show negligible line profile variation within a timescale of one year. The two spectra allow us to study the variability of the Balmer line profile by comparing the spectra with previous ones taken at 10 and 20 years ago. By decomposing the broad Balmer emission lines into two Gaussian profiles, our spectral analysis suggests a strong response to the continuum level for the very broad component, and significant variations in both bulk blueshift velocity/FWHM and flux for the broad component. The new observations additionally indicate flat Balmer decrements (i.e., too strong H{beta} emission) at the line wings, which is hard to reproduce using recent optically thin models. With these observations we argue that a separate inner optically thin emission-line region might not be necessary in the object to reproduce the observed line profiles.

  18. Accessing the population of high-redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Ghisellini, G.; Mereghetti, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P.; Tanvir, N.; Willingale, D.; Amati, L.; Basa, S.; Bernardini, M. G.; Burlon, D.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Frontera, F.; Götz, D.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Piro, L.; Vergani, S. D.

    2015-04-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are a powerful probe of the high-redshift Universe. We present a tool to estimate the detection rate of high-z GRBs by a generic detector with defined energy band and sensitivity. We base this on a population model that reproduces the observed properties of GRBs detected by Swift, Fermi and CGRO in the hard X-ray and γ-ray bands. We provide the expected cumulative distributions of the flux and fluence of simulated GRBs in different energy bands. We show that scintillator detectors, operating at relatively high energies (e.g. tens of keV to the MeV), can detect only the most luminous GRBs at high redshifts due to the link between the peak spectral energy and the luminosity (Epeak-Liso) of GRBs. We show that the best strategy for catching the largest number of high-z bursts is to go softer (e.g. in the soft X-ray band) but with a very high sensitivity. For instance, an imaging soft X-ray detector operating in the 0.2-5 keV energy band reaching a sensitivity, corresponding to a fluence, of ˜10-8 erg cm-2 is expected to detect ≈40 GRBs yr-1 sr-1 at z ≥ 5 (≈3 GRBs yr-1 sr-1 at z ≥ 10). Once high-z GRBs are detected the principal issue is to secure their redshift. To this aim we estimate their NIR afterglow flux at relatively early times and evaluate the effectiveness of following them up and construct usable samples of events with any forthcoming GRB mission dedicated to explore the high-z Universe.

  19. Detection of molecular gas in the quasar BR1202 - 0725 at redshift z = 4.69.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K; Yamada, T; Nakanishi, K; Kohno, K; Akiyama, M; Kawabe, R

    1996-08-01

    Although great efforts have been made to locate molecular gas--the material out of which stars form--in the early Universe, there have been only two firm detections at high redshift. Both are gravitationally lensed objects at redshift z approximately = 2.5 (refs 9-14). Here we report the detection of CO emission from the radio-quiet quasar BR1202 - 0725, which is at redshift z = 4.69. From the observed CO luminosity, we estimate that almost 10(11) solar masses of molecular hydrogen are associated with the quasar; this is comparable to the stellar mass of a present-day luminous galaxy. Our results suggest that BR1202 - 0725 is a massive galaxy, in which the gas is largely concentrated in the central region, and that is currently undergoing a large burst of star formation. PMID:8684482

  20. Stars and gas in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z=3, when the universe was still in its "teen years". In keeping with the theme of this conference, I show how our knowledge of local star-forming regions can be applied directly to these distant galaxies to deduce their ages, metallicities, initial mass function, and masses. I also discuss areas where current limitations in stellar astrophysics have a direct bearing on the interpretation of the data being gathered, at an ever increasing rate, on the high redshift universe.

  1. GLAST observation of high-redshift GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Calura, Francesco; Matteucci, Francesca; Omodei, Nicola

    2007-07-12

    We compare predicted Type Ib/c supernova (SNIb/c) rates with the observed long-duration Gamma-Ray-Burst (GRB) rates both locally and as a function of redshift, by assuming different star formation histories in galaxies of different morphological types. Due to the high star formation in spheroids at high redshift, we predict a large number of GRBs beyond z > 7. Moreover, based on our studies and on the current LAT performance, an estimate of the detection possibility of this burst population is presented.

  2. Panel Discussion II. Reconciling Observations and Modeling of Star Formation at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, J. H.

    2008-06-01

    This is the written account of the second of two panel discussions, on Reconciling observations and modeling of star formation at high redshifts. The chair of the panel was Pavel Kroupa, and panel members were Marc Balcells, John Beckman, Christopher Conselice, and Joseph Silk. After a short introduction by each of the panelists, panel and audience entered into a lively discussion, centered around the following six themes: the mass function of pre-stellar gas clouds; a possible top-heavy initial mass function at high redshifts versus mini-quasars as the first sources of ionization; the integrated galactic initial mass function; possible differences in specific star formation rates in disks and in massive galaxies; whether merging rates yield a wrong prediction for massive galaxies, and what is the physics behind the onset of the red sequence of galaxies; and the case of dark matter-dominated dwarf galaxies versus tidal dwarf galaxies.

  3. Simulation of High-Redshift Galactic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert J.; Scannapieco, E.; Windhorst, R. A.; Thacker, R.

    2009-12-01

    We construct an observational model of galaxies at high redshifts (z 3 - 13) from numerical N-body and SPH simulations of galaxy formation using the computing cluster "Saguaro” at Arizona State University. The model uses a concordance Lambda-CDM model including baryonic components with gas heating and cooling and star formation using Gadget-2 simulations. Snapshots at various redshifts yield star "particles” (populations) with a modeled metallicity and age of formation. The Bruzual-Charlot '03 stellar population models are used to compute a red-shifted flux for various filters for each simulated star population. The flux and spatial coordinates are then used to create a pixel image in a fits file format. The different redshift "slices” are shifted randomly in the simulation periodic box, and resized according to the comoving distance to correct for the angular pixel mapping. The various redshift corrected fits images are then combined into a single image for each filter to produce simulated observational images. This is to enable the use of observational imaging tools to detect galaxies and to aid observational proposals at high redshifts including the new WFC3 camera to be installed on the HST. This method also permits estimates of the luminosity function at z >6 directly from the simulated stellar populations rather than just the size of the Dark Matter haloes. With runs of higher resolution, this will permit exploration of the faint end of the luminosity function. The computing time was supplied by the ASU Fulton HPC center.

  4. The most luminous quasars do not live in the most massive dark matter haloes at any redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanidakis, N.; Macciò, A. V.; Baugh, C. M.; Lacey, C. G.; Frenk, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Quasars (QSOs) represent the brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Universe and are thought to indicate the location of prodigiously growing black holes (BHs), with luminosities as high as 1048 erg s-1. It is often expected though that such an extremely energetic process takes place in the most massive bound structures in the dark matter (DM) distribution. We show that in contrast to this expectation, in a galaxy formation model which includes AGN feedback, QSOs are predicted to live in DM haloes with typical masses of a few times 1012 M⊙. Such an environment is considered to be average in the low-redshift universe (z ≲ 2-3) and almost comparable to a Milky Way halo. This fundamental prediction arises from the fact that QSO activity (i.e. BH accretion with luminosity greater than 1046 erg s-1) is inhibited in more massive DM haloes, where AGN feedback operates. The galactic hosts of QSOs in our simulations have typical stellar masses of 1010-1011 M⊙, and represent remnants of massive disc galaxies that have undergone a disc instability or galaxy merger. Interestingly, we find no dependence of QSO activity on environment; thus, the typical QSO halo mass remains constant over two orders of magnitude in luminosity. We further show that the z ˜ 6 QSOs do not inhabit the largest DM haloes at that time as these environments are already subject to feedback. Their descendants at z = 0 span a wide range of morphologies and galaxy masses, and their BHs typically grow only by a modest factor between z ˜ 6 and the present day. We predict that there should be an enhancement in the abundance of galaxies around QSOs at z ˜ 5. However, these enhancements are considerably weaker compared to the overdensities expected at the extreme peaks of the DM distribution. Given that high-z QSO descendants are typically found in rich clusters (˜1014 M⊙) and very seldom in the most massive haloes, we conclude that it is very unlikely that QSOs observed at z ≳ 5 trace the

  5. Fe Emission And Ionized Excess Absorption in the Luminous Quasar 3C109 With XMM-Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Miniutti, Giovanni; Ballantyne, D.R.; Allen, S.W.; Fabian, A.C.; Ross, R.R.; /Holy Cross Coll.

    2006-06-09

    the line of sight, located at the redshift of 3C 109. The most likely interpretation for the excess absorption is that the line-of-sight is grazing the obscuring torus of unified models, which is consistent with the inclination inferred from the Fe line profile (about 40{sup o}) and with the hybrid radio-galaxy/quasar nature of 3C 109.

  6. Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Evidence for Intrinsic X-ray Weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bin; Brandt, W. Niel; Alexander, David M; Stern, Daniel; Teng, Stacy H.; Arevalo, Patricia; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Comastri, Andrea; Craig, William W.; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Koss, Michael; Ogle, Patrick M.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Saez, Cristian; Scott, Amy; Walton, Dom; Zhang, William

    2014-08-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z=0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z<1.3. However, their rest-frame 2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (>33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  7. SCUBA Observations of High Redshift Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Reuland, M; Rottgering, H; van Breugel, W

    2003-03-11

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) are key targets for studies of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies.The role of dust in these processes is uncertain. We have therefore observed the dust continuum emission from a sample of z > 3 radio galaxies with the SCUBA bolometer array. We confirm and strengthen the result found by Archibald et al. (1), that HzRGs are massive starforming systems and that submillimeter detection rate appears to be primarily a strong function of redshift. We also observed HzRG-candidates that have so far eluded spectroscopic redshift determination. Four of these have been detected, and provide evidence that they may be extremely obscured radio galaxies, possibly in an early stage of their evolution.

  8. Morphologies at High Redshift from Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Simmons, Brooke; Willett, Kyle; Lintott, Chris

    2015-08-01

    I will present results from Galaxy Zoo classification of galaxies observed in public observed frame optical HST surveys (e.g. COSMOS, GOODS) as well as in observed frame NIR with (ie. CANDELS). Early science results from these classifications have investigated the changing bar fraction in disc galaxies as a function of redshift (to z~1 in Melvin et al. 2014; and at z>1 in Simmons et al. 2015), as well as how the morphologies of galaxies on the red sequence have been changing since z~1 (Melvin et al. in prep.). These unique dataset of quantitative visual classifications for high redshift galaxies will be made public in forthcoming publications (planned as Willett et al. for Galaxy Zoo Hubble, and Simmons et al. for Galaxy Zoo CANDELS).

  9. Dust Emission from High-Redshift QSOs.

    PubMed

    Carilli; Bertoldi; Menten; Rupen; Kreysa; Fan; Strauss; Schneider; Bertarini; Yun; Zylka

    2000-04-10

    We present detections of emission at 250 GHz (1.2 mm) from two high-redshift QSOs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample using the bolometer array at the IRAM 30 m telescope. The sources are SDSSp 015048.83+004126.2 at z=3.7 and SDSSp J033829.31+002156.3 at z=5.0; the latter is the third highest redshift QSO known and the highest redshift millimeter-emitting source yet identified. We also present deep radio continuum imaging of these two sources at 1.4 GHz using the Very Large Array. The combination of centimeter and millimeter observations indicate that the 250 GHz emission is most likely thermal dust emission, with implied dust masses approximately 108 M middle dot in circle. We consider possible dust heating mechanisms, including UV emission from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and a massive starburst concurrent with the AGN, with implied star formation rates greater than 103 M middle dot in circle yr-1. PMID:10727380

  10. Flamingos 2 Spectroscopy of Obscured and Unobscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Susan; Lacy, Mark; Urrutia, Tanya; Petric, Andreea

    2013-08-01

    We will use Flamingos-2 to obtain spectra of luminous AGN and quasars selected in the mid-infrared. Mid-infrared selection is much less biased with respect to obscuration than optical and X-ray techniques, and hence allows for finding obscured (Type-2) quasars as well as Type-1 quasars. Our survey so far has been very successful and has provided an unique opportunity to construct luminosity functions for both Type-1 and Type-2 quasars selected in the same way and covering similar redshifts and luminosities. We have quantifed the change in the obscured fraction with luminosity and redshift for the first time, and find interesting indications that at high redshift the obscured fraction rises, consistent with models for the joint formation of the galaxy and black hole populations. Our samples are, however, still quite incomplete at low fluxes (and therefore lower luminosities at a given redshift), particularly in the southern hemisphere. Near-infrared spectroscopy, such as that we have previously obtained with NIRI at Gemini N, offers us the best possibility of bringing these southern samples to a reasonable completeness level, and will greatly increase the number of high z quasars in our sample. This will allow us to better judge our tantalizing initial results on the redshift evolution of the obscured fraction. In addition, these southern targets can be followed up with ALMA and GEMS/GSAOI to study the morphologies and star-formation properties of the hosts, allowing further exploration of the relationship between the formation of massive bulges and supermassive blackholes in the early universe.

  11. Weak bump quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, B. J.; Mcdowell, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research into the optical, ultraviolet and infrared continuum emission from quasars and their host galaxies was carried out. The main results were the discovery of quasars with unusually weak infrared emission and the construction of a quantitative estimate of the dispersion in quasar continuum properties. One of the major uncertainties in the measurement of quasar continuum strength is the contribution to the continuum of the quasar host galaxy as a function of wavelength. Continuum templates were constructed for different types of host galaxy and individual estimates made of the decomposed quasar and host continua based on existing observations of the target quasars. The results are that host galaxy contamination is worse than previously suspected, and some apparent weak bump quasars are really normal quasars with strong host galaxies. However, the existence of true weak bump quasars such as PHL 909 was confirmed. The study of the link between the bump strength and other wavebands was continued by comparing with IRAS data. There is evidence that excess far infrared radiation is correlated with weaker ultraviolet bumps. This argues against an orientation effect and implies a probable link with the host galaxy environment, for instance the presence of a luminous starburst. However, the evidence still favors the idea that reddening is not important in those objects with ultraviolet weak bumps. The same work has led to the discovery of a class of infrared weak quasars. Pushing another part of the envelope of quasar continuum parameter space, the IR-weak quasars have implications for understanding the effects of reddening internal to the quasars, the reality of ultraviolet turnovers, and may allow further tests of the Phinney dust model for the IR continuum. They will also be important objects for studying the claimed IR to x-ray continuum correlation.

  12. Heavily reddened type 1 quasars at z > 2 - I. Evidence for significant obscured black hole growth at the highest quasar luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Manda; Alaghband-Zadeh, S.; Hewett, Paul C.; McMahon, Richard G.

    2015-03-01

    We present a new population of z > 2 dust-reddened, type 1 quasars with 0.5 ≲ E(B - V) ≲ 1.5, selected using near-infrared (NIR) imaging data from the UKIDSS-LAS (Large Area Survey), ESO-VHS (European Southern Obseratory-VISTA Hemisphere Survey) and WISE surveys. NIR spectra obtained using the Very Large Telescope for 24 new objects bring our total sample of spectroscopically confirmed hyperluminous (>1013 L⊙), high-redshift dusty quasars to 38. There is no evidence for reddened quasars having significantly different Hα equivalent widths relative to unobscured quasars. The average black hole masses (˜109-1010 M⊙) and bolometric luminosities (˜1047 erg s-1) are comparable to the most luminous unobscured quasars at the same redshift, but with a tail extending to very high luminosities of ˜1048 erg s-1. 66 per cent of the reddened quasars are detected at >3σ at 22 μm by WISE. The average 6-μm rest-frame luminosity is log10(L6 μm/ erg s-1) = 47.1 ± 0.4, making the objects among the mid-infrared brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) currently known. The extinction-corrected space density estimate now extends over three magnitudes (-30 < Mi < -27) and demonstrates that the reddened quasar luminosity function is significantly flatter than that of the unobscured quasar population at z = 2-3. At the brightest magnitudes, Mi ≲ -29, the space density of our dust-reddened population exceeds that of unobscured quasars. A model where the probability that a quasar becomes dust reddened increases at high luminosity is consistent with the observations and such a dependence could be explained by an increase in luminosity and extinction during AGN-fuelling phases. The properties of our obscured type 1 quasars are distinct from the heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGN that have been identified at much fainter luminosities and we conclude that they likely correspond to a brief evolutionary phase in massive galaxy formation.

  13. Observed Quasar Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Rudolph E.

    2011-05-01

    With the introduction of microlensing (nano-lensing) and reverberation analysis, understanding of the luminous structure surrounding quasars has gone from theoretical speculation to an observer's sport. Micro-lensing with day timescale has demonstrated that quasars have structure on scales of 1 R_G which we attribute to the inner edge of the accretion disc, at central distance 70 R_G in lo-hard state (radio loud) Q0957 quasar, indicated by reverberation. Reverberation of the dominant optical continuum has been detected in all 55 hi-soft quasars with brightness data, originating in the dusty torus observed in UV-optical and IR reverberation. Microlensing simulation compared to brightness monitoring shows that 2/3 of the UV-optical continuum originates in the outer torus. The observed color effects observed in the microlensing support the existence of inner and outer luminous structure.

  14. Magnetic fields in galaxies at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, Martin Leo; Gaensler, Bryan; Lilly, Simon; O'Sullivan, Shane; Miniati, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    We have recently demonstrated an association between high Faraday Rotation of radio quasars and the presence of intervening strong MgII absorption and determined that the magnetized plasma in the associated galaxies extends up to 60 kpc. These findings are based on Rotation Measure (RM) observations typically performed at 5 GHz, but they can not be reproduced using RMs obtained at lower frequencies, e.g. using the Taylor et al. (2009) RM catalogue at 1.4 GHz. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by a model which takes into account the depolarization of the sources due to inhomogeneous Faraday Rotation screens and their partial coverage of the sources. We propose here to observe 27 sources of our sample which are accessible by the ATCA to test this hypothesis. Our goal is to observe the selected sources over the broad frequency range 1.1 -10.8 GHz to obtain depolarization curves and to perform Faraday Rotation Measure Synthesis. With this sample we will be able to determine the homogeneity of the Faraday screens in the intervening galaxies and to further strengthen the original result. Finally the outcome of this experiment has important implications for the design of future RM surveys.

  15. A long-term space astrophysics research program: The evolution of the quasar continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.

    1993-01-01

    The research program supported by this grant now has great momentum. Numerous papers are in progress, and a strong multi-wavelength observing program is rapidly accumulating data on samples of high redshift quasars across the spectrum. ROSAT spectra of quasars continue to yield surprises. Of four z = 3 quasars with X-ray spectra, three show strong absorption. This contrasts strongly with the situation for luminous AGN at low redshifts where fewer than 1 in 20 show X-ray absorption. A new site for this absorption is probably needed, either around the quasar (e.g. in a cluster cooling flow) or along the line of sight (e.g. in a Damped Lyman-alpha system). The unabsorbed quasar allows limits on the physical conditions in a damped Lyman-alpha cloud to be calculated, and will allow a X-ray Gunn-Peterson test to be applied that will limit the fraction of the closure mass in an intergalactic medium. The X-ray spectral indices of these z = 3 quasars show no change from those of similar objects at low z, suggesting that 'short-lifetime' models apply. Eight other z = 3-4 quasars have been detected and their energy distributions from X-rays to Infrared (using new infrared spectrographs) have been compiled. These are now being compared with the low z continua from the 'Atlas of Quasar Energy Distributions' to search for evolutionary changes. The discovery of a likely warm absorber in 3C351 made recognition of another example simple. Also, modeling of the conditions in the absorber in 3C351 using the OVI absorption line from HST and the high ionization emission lines, suggests that the broad line region is indeed the origin of the warm absorber in this quasar, and by extension, others. Warm absorbers can now be used as a new diagnostic of this region. The X-ray spectrum of a 'Red Quasar', 3C212, has a cut-off spectrum, which could be fitted by an absorbed power-law, or more remarkably, by an unabsorbed black body. Using our quasi-simultaneous optical data and photoionization

  16. Hubble space telescope/cosmic origins spectrograph observations of the quasar Q0302–003: Probing the He II reionization epoch and QSO proximity effects

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, David; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-03-20

    Q0302–003 (z = 3.2860 ± 0.0005) was the first quasar discovered that showed a He II Gunn-Peterson trough, a sign of incomplete helium reionization at z ≳ 2.9. We present its Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-UV medium-resolution spectrum, which resolves many spectral features for the first time, allowing study of the quasar itself, the intergalactic medium, and quasar proximity effects. Q0302–003 has a harder intrinsic extreme-UV spectral index than previously claimed, as determined from both a direct fit to the spectrum (yielding α{sub ν} ≈ –0.8) and the helium-to-hydrogen ion ratio in the quasar's line-of-sight proximity zone. Intergalactic absorption along this sightline shows that the helium Gunn-Peterson trough is largely black in the range 2.87 < z < 3.20, apart from ionization due to local sources, indicating that helium reionization has not completed at these redshifts. However, we tentatively report a detection of nonzero flux in the high-redshift trough when looking at low-density regions, but zero flux in higher-density regions. This constrains the He II fraction to be about 1% in the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) and possibly a factor of a few higher in the IGM as a whole, suggesting helium reionization has progressed substantially by z ∼ 3.1. The Gunn-Peterson trough recovers to a He II Lyα forest at z < 2.87. We confirm a transmission feature due to the ionization zone around a z = 3.05 quasar just off the sightline, and resolve the feature for the first time. We discover a similar such feature possibly caused by a luminous z = 3.23 quasar further from the sightline, which suggests that this quasar has been luminous for >34 Myr.

  17. Short-term optical variability of high-redshift quasi-stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Semkov, E.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we present the results of a search for short-term variability in the optical band of selected high-luminosity, high-redshift radio-quiet quasars. Each quasar has been monitored typically for 2-4 h with a time resolution of 2-5 min and a photometric accuracy of about 0.01-0.02 mag. As a result of the significant redshift (z > 2), the covered wavelength range falls into the ultraviolet region (typically 1500-2500 Å). We have found no statistical evidence for any continuum variations larger than 0.01-0.02 mag for any of the monitored objects. Our results suggest that the presence of a short-term variability in radio-quiet quasars is unlikely even in the ultraviolet region, contrary to reports by other authors. This conclusion holds true at least for high-luminosity (large black hole mass and accretion rate?) objects. The results are consistent with the idea that significant short-term (less than 1 h) variations in active galactic nuclei, where observed, should be attributed primarily to processes in a relativistic jet.

  18. Intensity correlation of ionizing background at high redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuo, Lin

    1993-01-01

    Intensity correlation of ionizing background at high redshifts is discussed. The intensity correlation function xi(sub j) and the absorption line equivalent width correlation xi(sub 1/W) are discussed.

  19. ON THE RADIO AND OPTICAL LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Petrosian, V.; Lawrence, A.; Stawarz, L.

    2011-12-20

    smooth transition. Also, this efficiency seems higher for the high-redshift and more luminous sources in the sample considered.

  20. C IV emission-line properties and systematic trends in quasar black hole mass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-09-01

    Black hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z ≳ 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity width of the C IV λ λ1548, 1550 broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the C IV emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km s-1 to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. We have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the Hα λ6565 emission line, for 19 luminous (LBol = 46.5-47.5 erg s-1) Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars, at redshifts 2 < z < 2.7, with C IV emission lines spanning the full range of blueshifts present in the population. A strong correlation between C IV velocity width and blueshift is found and, at large blueshifts, >2000 km s-1, the velocity widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Black hole masses, based on the full width at half-maximum of the C IV emission line, can be overestimated by a factor of 5 at large blueshifts. A larger sample of quasar spectra with both C IV and H β, or Hα, emission lines will allow quantitative corrections to C IV-based black hole masses as a function of blueshift to be derived. We find that quasars with large C IV blueshifts possess high Eddington luminosity ratios and that the fraction of high-blueshift quasars in a flux-limited sample is enhanced by a factor of approximately 4 relative to a sample limited by black hole mass.

  1. A SIMPLE MODEL FOR QUASAR DEMOGRAPHICS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; White, Martin

    2013-01-10

    We present a simple model for the relationship between quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos from 0.5 < z < 6. In the model, black hole (BH) mass is linearly related to galaxy mass, and galaxies are connected to dark matter halos via empirically constrained relations. A simple 'scattered' light bulb model for quasars is adopted, wherein BHs shine at a fixed fraction of the Eddington luminosity during accretion episodes, and Eddington ratios are drawn from a lognormal distribution that is redshift independent. This model has two free, physically meaningful parameters at each redshift: the normalization of the M {sub BH}-M {sub gal} relation and the quasar duty cycle; these parameters are fit to the observed quasar luminosity function (LF) over the interval 0.5 < z < 6. This simple model provides an excellent fit to the LF at all epochs and also successfully predicts the observed projected two-point correlation of quasars from 0.5 < z < 2.5. It is significant that a single quasar duty cycle at each redshift is capable of reproducing the extant observations. The data are therefore consistent with a scenario wherein quasars are equally likely to exist in galaxies, and therefore dark matter halos, over a wide range in masses. The knee in the quasar LF is a reflection of the knee in the stellar-mass-halo-mass relation. Future constraints on the quasar LF and quasar clustering at high redshift will provide strong constraints on the model. In the model, the autocorrelation function of quasars becomes a strong function of luminosity only at the very highest luminosities and will be difficult to observe because such quasars are so rare. Cross-correlation techniques may provide useful constraints on the bias of such rare objects. The simplicity of the model allows for rapid generation of quasar mock catalogs from N-body simulations that match the observed LF and clustering to high redshift.

  2. SDSS J013127.34-032100.1: A Newly Discovered Radio-loud Quasar at z = 5.18 with Extremely High Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei-Min; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Bai, Jin-Ming; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, William N.; Ho, Luis C.; Zuo, Wenwen; Kim, Minjin; Wang, Ran; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Ju-jia; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Ai, Yanli; Fan, Yu-Feng; Chang, Liang; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Lun, Bao-Li; Xin, Yu-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Very few of the z > 5 quasars discovered to date have been radio-loud, with radio-to-optical flux ratios (radio-loudness parameters) higher than 10. Here we report the discovery of an optically luminous radio-loud quasar, SDSS J013127.34-032100.1 (J0131-0321 in short), at z = 5.18 ± 0.01 using the Lijiang 2.4 m and Magellan telescopes. J0131-0321 has a spectral energy distribution consistent with that of radio-loud quasars. With an i-band magnitude of 18.47 and a radio flux density of 33 mJy, its radio-loudness parameter is ~100. The optical and near-infrared spectra taken by Magellan enable us to estimate its bolometric luminosity to be L bol ~ 1.1 × 1048 erg s-1, approximately 4.5 times greater than that of the most distant quasar known to date. The black hole mass of J0131-0321 is estimated to be 2.7 × 109 M ⊙, with an uncertainty up to 0.4 dex. Detailed physical properties of this high-redshift, radio-loud, potentially super-Eddington quasar can be probed in the future with more dedicated and intensive follow-up observations using multi-wavelength facilities.

  3. SDSS J013127.34–032100.1: A NEWLY DISCOVERED RADIO-LOUD QUASAR AT z = 5.18 WITH EXTREMELY HIGH LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Wei-Min; Bai, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Ju-jia; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fan, Yu-Feng; Chang, Liang; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Lun, Bao-Li; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Qian; Ai, Yanli; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, William N.; Kim, Minjin; Wang, Ran; and others

    2014-11-10

    Very few of the z > 5 quasars discovered to date have been radio-loud, with radio-to-optical flux ratios (radio-loudness parameters) higher than 10. Here we report the discovery of an optically luminous radio-loud quasar, SDSS J013127.34–032100.1 (J0131–0321 in short), at z = 5.18 ± 0.01 using the Lijiang 2.4 m and Magellan telescopes. J0131–0321 has a spectral energy distribution consistent with that of radio-loud quasars. With an i-band magnitude of 18.47 and a radio flux density of 33 mJy, its radio-loudness parameter is ∼100. The optical and near-infrared spectra taken by Magellan enable us to estimate its bolometric luminosity to be L {sub bol} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 48} erg s{sup –1}, approximately 4.5 times greater than that of the most distant quasar known to date. The black hole mass of J0131–0321 is estimated to be 2.7 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, with an uncertainty up to 0.4 dex. Detailed physical properties of this high-redshift, radio-loud, potentially super-Eddington quasar can be probed in the future with more dedicated and intensive follow-up observations using multi-wavelength facilities.

  4. WISH: Wide-field Imaging Durvayor for High-redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toru

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the concept and current status of WISH project and discuss the science cases. WISH is a proposed space science mission for JAXA, which is dedicated for the deep and wide-field near-infrared imaging surveys. The mission contains the 1.5m cooled telescope as well as the imager with the FoV of ~850 square arcmin. The main goal of WISH is to detect and study galaxies at z=8-15 in the earliest history of structure formation in the universe. The key feature is to conduct WISH Ultra Deep Survey, which images in total of 100 square degrees in 6 broad-band filters at 0.9-4.5 micron down to 28AB magnitude. While more than 10^5 galaxies at z=8-9, 10^4 galaxies at z=11-12 will be detected, WISH-UDS is designed to constrain UV luminosity function at z=15. Depending on the models of the earliest evolution history, 1-1000 galaxies at z~15 (~100 galaxies for the moderate cases) will be detected. The UV spectral properties as well as the clustering properties of galaxies at z=8-15 can be studied as well; UV slope can be measured up to z=15, and the stellar and dark-matter-halo masses can be obtained up to z=9. WISH UDS can provide excellent opportunities for studying SNe at high redshift. Up to ~7000 type Ia SNe at z>1 can be detected and the distance modulus can be constrained with the precision of 0.9-1.5% at z>1.5. More than 100 Super Luminous SNe at z>6, and 10 SLSN at z>10 can also be detected, which allow us to study the earliest history of massive star formation in the universe. WISH imaging surveys as well as WISHSpec, which is an optional parallel-operation simple IFU spectrograph, also provide unique opportunities in various astronomical fields. WISH mission proposal was submitted to JAXA in February 2015 for the first down selection of JAXA Large Strategic Science Mission targeting the launch date in 2020-22. International collaborations including SAO (G.Fazio et al.), LAM (D. Burgarella et al.) and Canada (M.Sawicki et al.) are also actively coordinated.

  5. The Evolution of Metals and Dust in the High-Redshift Universe (z greater than 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2007-01-01

    Dusty hyperluminous galaxies in the early universe provide unique environments for studying the role of massive stars in the formation and destruction of dust. At redshifts above approx. 6, when the universe was less than approx. 1 Gyr old, dust could have only condensed in the explosive ejecta of Type-II supernovae (SNe), since most of the progenitors of the AGB stars, the major alternative source of interstellar dust, did not have time to evolve off the main sequence. I will present analytical models for the evolution of the gas, dust, and metals in high redshift galaxies, with a special application to SDSS J1148+5251, a hyperluminous quasar at $z = 6.4$. I will also discuss possible star formation scenarios consistent with observational constraints on the dust and gas content of this object.

  6. Awakening of The High-Redshift Blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Parker, M. L.; Stalin, C. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Ramya, S.; Covino, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Sahayanathan, S.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2015-04-01

    CGRaBS J0809+5341, a high-redshift blazar at z = 2.144, underwent a giant optical outburst on 2014 April 19 when it brightened by ˜5 mag and reached an unfiltered apparent magnitude of 15.7 mag. This implies an absolute magnitude of -30.5 mag, making it one of the brightest quasars in the universe. This optical flaring triggered us to carry out observations during the decaying part of the flare covering a wide energy range using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, Swift, and ground-based optical facilities. For the first time, the source is detected in γ-rays by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A high optical polarization of ˜10% is also observed. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, the accretion disk luminosity and black hole mass are estimated as 1.5 × 1045 erg s-1 and 108.4 M⊙, respectively. Using a single zone leptonic emission model, we reproduce the spectral energy distribution of the source during the flaring activity. This analysis suggests that the emission region is probably located outside the broad-line region, and the jet becomes radiatively efficient. We also show that the overall properties of CGRaBS J0809+5341 seem to not be in agreement with the general properties observed in high-redshift blazars up to now.

  7. Detectability of cold streams into high-redshift galaxies by absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias; Dekel, Avishai; Sternberg, Amiel; Gnat, Orly; Ceverino, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Cold gas streaming along the dark matter filaments of the cosmic web is predicted to be the major source of fuel for disc buildup, violent disc instability and star formation in massive galaxies at high redshift. We investigate to what extent such cold gas is detectable in the extended circumgalactic environment of galaxies via Lyα absorption and selected low-ionization metal absorption lines. We model the expected absorption signatures using high-resolution zoom-in adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations. In the post-processing, we distinguish between self-shielded gas and unshielded gas. In the self-shielded gas, which is optically thick to Lyman continuum radiation, we assume pure collisional ionization for species with an ionization potential greater than 13.6 eV. In the optically-thin, unshielded gas, these species are also photoionized by the metagalactic radiation. In addition to absorption of radiation from background quasars, we compute the absorption line profiles of radiation emitted by the galaxy at the centre of the same halo. We predict the strength of the absorption signal for individual galaxies without stacking. We find that the Lyα absorption profiles produced by the streams are consistent with observations of absorption and emission Lyα profiles in high-redshift galaxies. Due to the low metallicities in the streams, and their low covering factors, the metal absorption features are weak and difficult to detect.

  8. Soft X-Ray Absorption by High-Redshift Intergalactic Helium.

    PubMed

    Miralda-Escudé

    2000-01-01

    The Lyalpha absorption from intergalactic, once-ionized helium (He ii) has been measured with the Hubble Space Telescope in four quasars over the last few years in the redshift range 2.4quasars in which the He ii Lyalpha absorption can be observed becomes increasingly difficult at higher redshift owing to the large abundance of hydrogen Lyman limit systems. It is pointed out here that He ii in the IGM should also cause detectable continuum absorption in the soft X-rays. The spectrum of a high-redshift source seen behind the IGM when most of the helium was He ii should recover from the He ii Lyman continuum absorption at an observed energy of approximately 0.1 keV. Galactic absorption will generally be stronger, but not by a large factor; the intergalactic He ii absorption can be detected as an excess over the expected Galactic absorption from the 21 cm H i column density. In principle, this method allows a direct determination of the fraction of helium that was singly ionized as a function of redshift if the measurement is done on a large sample of high-redshift sources over a range of redshifts. PMID:10587481

  9. Observations of feedback from radio-quiet quasars - I. Extents and morphologies of ionized gas nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Liu, Xin

    2013-04-01

    Black hole feedback - the strong interaction between the energy output of supermassive black holes and their surrounding environments - is routinely invoked to explain the absence of overly luminous galaxies, the black hole versus bulge correlations and the similarity of black hole accretion and star formation histories. Yet direct probes of this process in action are scarce and limited to small samples of active nuclei. In this paper, we present Gemini Integral Field Unit observations of the distribution of ionized gas around luminous, obscured, radio-quiet quasars at z ˜ 0.5. We detect extended ionized gas nebulae via [O III] λ5007 Å emission in every case, with a mean diameter of 28 kpc. These nebulae are nearly perfectly round, with Hβ surface brightness declining ∝R-3.5 ± 1.0. The regular morphologies of nebulae around radio-quiet quasars are in striking contrast with lumpy or elongated [O III] nebulae seen around radio galaxies at low and high redshifts. We present the uniformly measured size-luminosity relationship of [O III] nebulae around Seyfert 2 galaxies and type 2 quasars spanning six orders of magnitude in luminosity and confirm the flat slope of the correlation (R_{[O III]}∝ L_{[O III]}^{0.25± 0.02}). We propose a model of clumpy nebulae in which clouds that produce line emission transition from being ionization-bounded at small distances from the quasar to being matter-bounded in the outer parts of the nebula. The model - which has a declining pressure profile - qualitatively explains line ratio profiles and surface brightness profiles seen in our sample. It is striking that we see such smooth and round large-scale gas nebulosities in this sample, which are inconsistent with illuminated merger debris and which we suggest may be the signature of accretion energy from the nucleus reaching gas at large scales.

  10. HST/NICMOS IMAGING OF BRIGHT HIGH-REDSHIFT 24 {mu}m SELECTED GALAXIES: MERGING PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zamojski, Michel; Yan Lin; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Surace, Jason; Helou, George; Sajina, Anna; Heckman, Tim

    2011-04-01

    We present new results on the physical nature of infrared-luminous sources at 0.5 < z < 2.8 as revealed by HST/NICMOS imaging and Infrared Spectrograph mid-infrared spectroscopy. Our sample consists of 134 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m with a flux of S(24 {mu}m)>0.9 mJy. We find many ({approx}60%) of our sources to possess an important bulge and/or central point source component, most of which reveal additional underlying structures after subtraction of a best-fit Sersic (or Sersic+PSF) profile. Based on visual inspection of the NIC2 images and their residuals, we estimate that {approx}80% of all our sources are mergers. We calculate lower and upper limits on the merger fraction to be 62% and 91%, respectively. At z < 1.5, we observe objects in early (pre-coalescence) merging stages to be mostly disk and star formation dominated, while we find mergers to be mainly bulge dominated and active galactic nucleus (AGN)-starburst composites during coalescence and then AGN dominated in late stages. This is analogous to what is observed in local ULIRGs. At z {>=} 1.5, we find a dramatic rise in the number of objects in pre-coalescence phases of merging, despite an increase in the preponderance of AGN signatures in their mid-IR spectra and luminosities above 10{sup 12.5} L{sub sun}. We further find the majority of mergers at those redshifts to retain a disk-dominated profile during coalescence. We conclude that, albeit still driven by mergers, these high-z ULIRGs are substantially different in nature from their local counterparts and speculate that this is likely due to their higher gas content. Finally, we observe obscured ({tau}{sub 9.7{mu}m}>3.36) quasars to live in faint and compact hosts and show that these are likely high-redshift analogs of local dense-core mergers. We find late-stage mergers to possess predominantly unobscured AGN spectra, but do not observe other morphological classes to carry any specific combination of {tau}{sub 9.7{mu}m} and polycyclic aromatic

  11. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; Scott, A. E.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-10-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <~ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γeff ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (gsim 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  12. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; and others

    2014-10-10

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ{sub eff} ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  13. Candidate high-redshift and primeval galaxies in Hubble Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, D. L.; Eales, S. A.; Baker, A. C.

    1999-09-01

    We present the results of colour selection of candidate high-redshift galaxies in Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) using the Lyman dropout scheme. The HDF-S data we discuss were taken in a number of different filters extending from the near-UV (F300W) to the infrared (F222M) in two different fields. This allows us to select candidates with redshifts from z~3 to z~12. We find 15 candidate z~3 objects (F300W dropouts), one candidate z~4 object (F450W dropout) and 16 candidate z~5 objects (F606W dropouts) in the ~4.7-arcmin^2 WFPC-2 field, and four candidate z~6 objects (optical dropouts) and one candidate z~8 object (F110W dropout) in the 0.84-arcmin^2 NICMOS-3 field. No F160W dropouts are found (z~12). We compare our selection technique with existing data for Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) and discuss alternative interpretations of the objects. We conclude that there are a number of lower redshift interlopers in the selections, including one previously identified object, and reject those objects most likely to be foreground contaminants. Even after this we conclude that the F606W dropout list is likely to still contain substantial foreground contamination. The lack of candidate very-high-redshift UV-luminous galaxies supports earlier conclusions by Lanzetta et al. We discuss the morphologies and luminosity functions of the high-redshift objects, and their cosmological implications.

  14. Detecting the First Quasars with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Spaans, Marco; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2010-05-01

    We show that ALMA is the first telescope that can probe the dust-obscured central region of quasars at z > 5 with a maximum resolution of ~ 30 pc employing the 18 km baseline. We explore the possibility of detecting the first quasars with ALMA (Schleicher, Spaans, & Klessen 2009). For this purpose, we adopt the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as a reference system and calculate the expected fluxes if this galaxy were placed at high redshift. This choice is motivated by the detailed observations available for this system and the absence of any indication for an evolution in metallicity in high-redshift quasars. It is a conservative choice due to the moderate column densities in NGC 1068, leading to moderate fluxes.

  15. Mean and extreme radio properties of quasars and the origin of radio emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kratzer, Rachael M.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of both the radio-loud fraction (RLF) and (using stacking analysis) the mean radio loudness of quasars. We consider how these properties evolve as a function of redshift and luminosity, black hole (BH) mass and accretion rate, and parameters related to the dominance of a wind in the broad emission-line region. We match the FIRST source catalog to samples of luminous quasars (both spectroscopic and photometric), primarily from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. After accounting for catastrophic errors in BH mass estimates at high redshift, we find that both the RLF and the mean radio luminosity increase for increasing BH mass and decreasing accretion rate. Similarly, both the RLF and mean radio loudness increase for quasars that are argued to have weaker radiation line driven wind components of the broad emission-line region. In agreement with past work, we find that the RLF increases with increasing optical/UV luminosity and decreasing redshift, while the mean radio loudness evolves in the exact opposite manner. This difference in behavior between the mean radio loudness and the RLF in L−z may indicate selection effects that bias our understanding of the evolution of the RLF; deeper surveys in the optical and radio are needed to resolve this discrepancy. Finally, we argue that radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) quasars may be parallel sequences, but where only RQ quasars at one extreme of the distribution are likely to become RL, possibly through slight differences in spin and/or merger history.

  16. THE AzTEC/SMA INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Joshua D.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang Jiasheng; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Wilner, David J.; Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant W.; Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason; Perera, Thushara; Peck, Alison B.; Hughes, David H.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Kim, Sungeun; Lowenthal, James D.

    2009-10-10

    We present results from a continuing interferometric survey of high-redshift submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with the Submillimeter Array, including high-resolution (beam size approx2 arcsec) imaging of eight additional AzTEC 1.1 mm selected sources in the COSMOS field, for which we obtain six reliable (peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >5 or peak S/N >4 with multiwavelength counterparts within the beam) and two moderate significance (peak S/N >4) detections. When combined with previous detections, this yields an unbiased sample of millimeter-selected SMGs with complete interferometric follow up. With this sample in hand, we (1) empirically confirm the radio-submillimeter association, (2) examine the submillimeter morphology-including the nature of SMGs with multiple radio counterparts and constraints on the physical scale of the far infrared-of the sample, and (3) find additional evidence for a population of extremely luminous, radio-dim SMGs that peaks at higher redshift than previous, radio-selected samples. In particular, the presence of such a population of high-redshift sources has important consequences for models of galaxy formation-which struggle to account for such objects even under liberal assumptions-and dust production models given the limited time since the big bang.

  17. The Circumgalactic Medium of Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennawi, Joe

    2014-07-01

    I will argue that observations of the diffuse gas in the outskirts of quasar host galaxies, or the so called circumgalactic medium, are essential for understanding how luminous quasars evolve in a cosmological context. Such observations also provide a fruitful comparison to theory, because hydrodynamics at moderate overdensities is much easier to simulate than the complicated processes which trigger quasar activity. A novel technique will be introduced, whereby a foreground quasar can be studied in absorption against a background quasar, resolving scales as small as 30 kpc. This experiment reveals a rich absorption spectrum which contains a wealth of information about the physical conditions of diffuse gas around quasars. Hydrodynamical simulations of the massive dark matter halos which host luminous quasars under predict the amount of cool gas observed in quasar environs by a large factor, challenging our understanding of how massive galaxies form. I will also discuss a very sensitive search for Ly-alpha emission from the same gas which we study in absorption.

  18. CMB quenching of high-redshift radio-loud AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Haardt, F.; Ciardi, B.; Sbarrato, T.; Gallo, E.; Tavecchio, F.; Celotti, A.

    2015-10-01

    The very existence of more than a dozen of high-redshift (z ≳ 4) blazars indicates that a much larger population of misaligned powerful jetted active galactic nucleus (AGN) was already in place when the Universe was ≲1.5 Gyr old. Such parent population proved to be very elusive, and escaped direct detection in radio surveys so far. High-redshift blazars themselves seem to be failing in producing extended radio lobes, raising questions about the connection between such class and the vaster population of radio galaxies. We show that the interaction of the jet electrons with the intense cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation explains the lack of extended radio emission in high-redshift blazars and in their parent population, helping to explain the apparently missing misaligned counterparts of high-redshift blazars. On the other hand, the emission from the more compact and more magnetized hotspots are less affected by the enhanced CMB energy density. By modelling the spectral energy distribution of blazar lobes and hotspots, we find that most of them should be detectable by low-frequency deep radio observations, e.g. by LOw-Frequency ARray for radio astronomy and by relatively deep X-ray observations with good angular resolution, e.g. by the Chandra satellite. At high redshifts, the emission of a misaligned relativistic jet, being debeamed, is missed by current large sky area surveys. The isotropic flux produced in the hotspots can be below ˜1 mJy and the isotropic lobe radio emission is quenched by the CMB cooling. Consequently, even sources with very powerful jets can go undetected in current radio surveys, and misclassified as radio-quiet AGNs.

  19. Mapping metals at high redshift with far-infrared lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Yue, B.; Vallini, L.; Maiolino, R.; Feruglio, C.

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic metal enrichment is one of the key physical processes regulating galaxy formation and the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, determining the metal content of the most distant galaxies has proven so far almost impossible; also, absorption line experiments at z ≳ 6 become increasingly difficult because of instrumental limitations and the paucity of background quasars. With the advent of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), far-infrared emission lines provide a novel tool to study early metal enrichment. Among these, the [C II] line at 157.74 μm is the most luminous line emitted by the interstellar medium of galaxies. It can also resonant scatter comic microwave background (CMB) photons inducing characteristic intensity fluctuations (ΔI/ICMB) near the peak of the CMB spectrum, thus allowing to probe the low-density IGM. We compute both [C II] galaxy emission and metal-induced CMB fluctuations at z ˜ 6 by using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and produce mock observations to be directly compared with ALMA Band 6 data (νobs ˜ 272 GHz). The [C II] line flux is correlated with MUV as log (F_peak/μ Jy)= -27.205 -2.253 M_UV -0.038 M_UV^2. Such relation is in very good agreement with recent ALMA observations of MUV < -20 galaxies by e.g. Maiolino et al. and Capak et al. We predict that a MUV = -19 (MUV = -18) galaxy can be detected at 4σ in ≃40 (2000) h, respectively. CMB resonant scattering can produce ≃ ± 0.1 μJy/beam emission/absorptions features that are very challenging to be detected with current facilities. The best strategy to detect these signals consists in the stacking of deep ALMA observations pointing fields with known MUV ≃ -19 galaxies. This would allow to simultaneously detect both [C II] emission from galactic reionization sources and CMB fluctuations produced by z ˜ 6 metals.

  20. Quasar clustering in a galaxy and quasar formation model based on ultra high-resolution N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oogi, Taira; Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    We investigate clustering properties of quasars using a new version of our semi-analytic model of galaxy and quasar formation with state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In this study, we assume that a major merger of galaxies triggers cold gas accretion on to a supermassive black hole and quasar activity. Our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the evolution of quasars. We find that the median mass of quasar host dark matter haloes increases with cosmic time by an order of magnitude from z = 4 (a few 1011 M⊙) to z = 1 (a few 1012 M⊙), and depends only weakly on the quasar luminosity. Deriving the quasar bias through the quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function in the model, we find that the quasar bias does not depend on the quasar luminosity, similar to observed trends. This result reflects the fact that quasars with a fixed luminosity have various Eddington ratios and thus have various host halo masses that primarily determine the quasar bias. We also show that the quasar bias increases with redshift, which is in qualitative agreement with observations. Our bias value is lower than the observed values at high redshifts, implying that we need some mechanisms that make quasars inactive in low-mass haloes and/or that make them more active in high-mass haloes.

  1. Red Galaxy Structures Toward a Large Quasar Group Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williger, Gerard M.; Feil, E. C.; Haberzettl, L.; Clowes, R.; Campusano, L.; Haines, C. P.; Valls-Gabaud, D.; Lehnert, M.; Nesvadba, N.; LQG Team

    2014-01-01

    We present data from deep FUV-NUV-griz images toward a 2 sq degree region in the Clowes-Campusano Large Quasar Group field, which contains structures of quasars on the >100 Mpc scale at 0.8 and 1.2. Large Quasar Groups may be the signal posts for galaxy structures analogous to superclusters at high redshift. Using the six band photometry, we calculate photometric redshifts for red-selected galaxies to identify supercluster-size structures, and compare their locations with the quasars in the field.

  2. The Most Luminous Heavily Obscured Quasars Have a High Merger Fraction: Morphological Study of WISE-selected Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at z ∼ 3 using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction (62 ± 14%). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of Sérsic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity (∼1014 L ⊙) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR spectral energy distributions decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction. Both the high merger fraction in an IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in a UV/optical-selected, unobscured AGN sample can be expected in the merger-driven evolutionary model. Finally, we conclude that Hot DOGs are merger-driven and may represent a transit phase during the evolution of massive galaxies, transforming from the dusty starburst-dominated phase to the unobscured QSO phase.

  3. The Most Luminous Heavily Obscured Quasars Have a High Merger Fraction: Morphological Study of WISE-selected Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at z ˜ 3 using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction (62 ± 14%). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of Sérsic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity (˜1014 L ⊙) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR spectral energy distributions decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction. Both the high merger fraction in an IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in a UV/optical-selected, unobscured AGN sample can be expected in the merger-driven evolutionary model. Finally, we conclude that Hot DOGs are merger-driven and may represent a transit phase during the evolution of massive galaxies, transforming from the dusty starburst-dominated phase to the unobscured QSO phase.

  4. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Pablo A.; Lasky, Paul D.; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳1010M⊙ can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.

  5. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-11

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms. PMID:27015470

  6. Formation of elongated galaxies with low masses at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai

    2015-10-01

    We report the identification of elongated (triaxial or prolate) galaxies in cosmological simulations at z ≃ 2. These are preferentially low-mass galaxies (M* ≤ 109.5 M⊙), residing in dark matter (DM) haloes with strongly elongated inner parts, a common feature of high-redshift DM haloes in the Λ cold dark matter cosmology. Feedback slows formation of stars at the centres of these haloes, so that a dominant and prolate DM distribution gives rise to galaxies elongated along the DM major axis. As galaxies grow in stellar mass, stars dominate the total mass within the galaxy half-mass radius, making stars and DM rounder and more oblate. A large population of elongated galaxies produces a very asymmetric distribution of projected axis ratios, as observed in high-z galaxy surveys. This indicates that the majority of the galaxies at high redshifts are not discs or spheroids but rather galaxies with elongated morphologies.

  7. Strong magnetic fields in normal galaxies at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, Martin L.; Miniati, Francesco; Lilly, Simon J.; Kronberg, Philipp P.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava

    2008-07-01

    The origin and growth of magnetic fields in galaxies is still something of an enigma. It is generally assumed that seed fields are amplified over time through the dynamo effect, but there are few constraints on the timescale. It was recently demonstrated that field strengths as traced by rotation measures of distant (and hence ancient) quasars are comparable to those seen today, but it was unclear whether the high fields were in the unusual environments of the quasars themselves or distributed along the lines of sight. Here we report high-resolution spectra that demonstrate that the quasars with strong MgII absorption lines are unambiguously associated with larger rotation measures. Because MgII absorption occurs in the haloes of normal galaxies along the sightlines to the quasars, this association requires that organized fields of surprisingly high strengths are associated with normal galaxies when the Universe was only about one-third of its present age.

  8. On the Evolution of High-redshift Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jirong; Kim, Minsun

    2016-09-01

    We build a simple physical model to study the high-redshift active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution within the co-evolution framework of central black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. The correlation between the circular velocity of a dark halo V c and the velocity dispersion of a galaxy σ is used to link the dark matter halo mass and BH mass. The dark matter halo mass function is converted to the BH mass function for any given redshift. The high-redshift optical AGN luminosity functions (LFs) are constructed. At z∼ 4, the flattening feature is not shown at the faint end of the optical AGN LF. This is consistent with observational results. If the optical AGN LF at z∼ 6 can be reproduced in the case in which central BHs have the Eddington-limited accretion, it is possible for the AGN lifetime to have a small value of 2× {10}5 {{years}}. The X-ray AGN LFs and X-ray AGN number counts are also calculated at 2.0\\lt z\\lt 5.0 and z\\gt 3, respectively, using the same parameters adopted in the calculation for the optical AGN LF at z∼ 4. It is estimated that about 30 AGNs per {{{\\deg }}}2 at z\\gt 6 can be detected with a flux limit of 3× {10}-17 {erg} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.5–2 keV band. Additionally, the cosmic reionization is also investigated. The ultraviolet photons emitted from the high-redshift AGNs mainly contribute to the cosmic reionization, and the central BHs of the high-redshift AGNs have a mass range of {10}6{--}{10}8{M}ȯ . We also discuss some uncertainties in both the AGN LFs and AGN number counts originating from the {M}{{BH}}{--}σ relation, Eddington ratio, AGN lifetime, and X-ray attenuation in our model.

  9. Optical signatures of high-redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evrard, August E.; Charlot, Stephane

    1994-01-01

    We combine an N-body and gasdynamic simulation of structure formation with an updated population synthesis code to explore the expected optical characteristics of a high-redshift cluster of galaxies. We examine a poor (2 keV) cluster formed in a biased, cold dark matter cosmology and employ simple, but plausible, threshold criteria to convert gas into stars. At z = 2, the forming cluster appears as a linear chain of very blue (g-r approximately equals 0) galaxies, with 15 objects brighter than r = 25 within a 1 square arcmin field of view. After 2 Gyr of evolution, the cluster viewed at z = 1 displays both freshly infalling blue galaxies and red galaxies robbed of recent accretion by interaction with the hot intracluster medium. The range in G-R colors is approximately 3 mag at z = 1, with the reddest objects lying at sites of highest galaxy density. We suggest that red, high-redshift galaxies lie in the cores of forming clusters and that their existence indicates the presence of a hot intracluster medium at redshifts z approximately equals 2. The simulated cluster viewed at z = 2 has several characteristics similar to the collection of faint, blue objects identified by Dressler et al. in a deep Hubble Space Telescope observation. The similarities provide some support for the interpretation of this collection as a high-redshift cluster of galaxies.

  10. High-redshift Gamma-Ray Burst Studies with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Calura, Francesco; Matteucci, Francesca

    2007-05-01

    We compare predicted Type Ib/c supernova (SN) rates with the observed long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) rates both locally and as a function of redshift. To do that, we assume different star formation histories in galaxies of different morphological type: ellipticals, spirals and irregulars. In particular, the predicted Type Ib/c SN rate (SNRIb/c) is always higher than the GRB rate, as expected, suggesting that only a small fraction (0.1-1%) of them become GRBs. We predict a ratio between the cosmic GRB rate and the cosmic SNRIb/c in the range 10-2 - 10-3, in agreement with previous estimates. Finally, due to the high star formation in spheroids at high redshift, we predict more GRBs at high redshift than previous estimates, a prediction which awaits to be proven by future observations by GLAST. Based on our studies and on the current LAT performance, an estimate of the detection possibility of this high-redshift burst population is finally presented.

  11. Finding high-redshift voids using Lyman α forest tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Casey W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; White, Martin; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2015-11-01

    We present a new method of finding cosmic voids using tomographic maps of Lyα forest flux. We identify cosmological voids with radii of 2-12 h-1 Mpc in a large N-body simulation at z = 2.5, and characterize the signal of the high-redshift voids in density and Lyα forest flux. The void properties are similar to what has been found at lower redshifts, but they are smaller and have steeper radial density profiles. Similarly to what has been found for low-redshift voids, the radial velocity profiles have little scatter and agree very well with the linear theory prediction. We run the same void finder on an ideal Lyα flux field and tomographic reconstructions at various spatial samplings. We compare the tomographic map void catalogues to the density void catalogue and find good agreement even with modest-sized voids (r > 6 h-1 Mpc). Using our simple void-finding method, the configuration of the ongoing COSMOS Lyman Alpha Mapping And Tomography Observations (CLAMATO) survey covering 1 deg2 would provide a sample of about 100 high-redshift voids. We also provide void-finding forecasts for larger area surveys, and discuss how these void samples can be used to test modified gravity models, study high-redshift void galaxies, and to make an Alcock-Paczynski measurement. To aid future work in this area, we provide public access to our simulation products, catalogues, and sample tomographic flux maps.

  12. A Catalog of Candidate High-redshift Blazars for GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Tersi M.; /SLAC /San Francisco State U.

    2006-09-27

    High-redshift blazars are promising candidates for detection by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). GLAST, expected to be launched in the Fall of 2007, is a high-energy gamma-ray observatory designed for making observations of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy band extending from 10 MeV to more than 200 GeV. It is estimated that GLAST will find several thousand blazars. The motivations for measuring the gamma-ray emission from distant blazars include the study of the high-energy emission processes occurring in these sources and an indirect measurement of the extragalactic background light. In anticipation of the launch of GLAST we have compiled a catalog of candidate high-redshift blazars. The criteria for sources chosen for the catalog were: high radio emission, high redshift, and a flat radio spectrum. A preliminary list of 307 radio sources brighter than 70mJy with a redshift z {ge} 2.5 was acquired using data from the NASA Extragalactic Database. Flux measurements of each source were obtained at two or more radio frequencies from surveys and catalogs to calculate their radio spectral indices {alpha}. The sources with a flat-radio spectrum ({alpha} {le} 0.5) were selected for the catalog, and the final catalog includes about 200 sources.

  13. Cosmology with AGN: can we use quasars as standard candles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.

    2016-06-01

    The non-linear relation between X-ray and UV luminosity in quasars can be used to estimate their distance. Recently, we have shown that despite the large dispersion of the relation, a Hubble Diagram made of large samples of quasars can provide unique constraints on cosmology at high redshift. Furthermore, the dispersion of the relation is heavily affected by measurement errors: until now we have used serendipitous X-ray observations, but dedicated observations would significantly increase the precision of the distance estimates. I discuss the future role of XMM in this new field, showing (1) the fundamental contribution of the Serendipitous Source Catalogue and of large surveys, and (2) the breakthrough advancements we may achieve with the observation of a large number of SDSS quasars at high redshift: every 12-15 quasars observed at z~3 would be equivalent to discovering a supernova at that redshift.

  14. Investigating the Local and High Redshift Universe With Deep Survey Data and Ground-Based Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Daniel Charles

    Large multiwavelength surveys are now driving the frontiers of astronomical research. I describe results from my work using data from two large astronomical surveys: the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), which has obtained deep photometric and spectroscopic data on two square degrees of the sky using many of the most powerful telescopes in the world, and the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) Survey, which uses the highly sensitive slitless spectroscopic capability of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to detect star-forming galaxies over most of the universe's history. First I describe my work on the evolution of the high-redshift quasar luminosity function, an important observational quantity constraining the growth of the supermassive black holes in the early universe. I show that the number density of faint quasars declines rapidly above z ˜ 3. This result is discussed in the context of cosmic reionization and the coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes. Next I present results of a multi-year campaign of near-infrared spectroscopy with FIRE, a world-class near-infrared spectrometer on the Magellan Baade 6.5 meter telescope in Chile, targeting emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 2 discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our results showed that the typical emission-line galaxy at this redshift has low-metallicity, low dust obscuration, high ionization parameter, and little evidence for significant active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the emission lines. We also find evidence that high redshift star-forming galaxies have enhanced nitrogen abundances. This result has interesting implications for the nature of the star formation in such galaxies -- in particular, it could mean that a large fraction of such galaxies harbor substantial populations of Wolf-Rayet stars, which are massive, evolved stars ejecting large amounts of enriched matter into the interstellar medium. Finally, I will discuss the discovery of three

  15. Local Analogs for High-redshift Galaxies: Resembling the Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    We present a sample of local analogs for high-redshift galaxies selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these local analogs resemble those in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their positions in the [O iii]/Hβ versus [N ii]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. We show that these local analogs share similar physical properties with high-redshift galaxies, including high specific star formation rates (sSFRs), flat UV continuums, and compact galaxy sizes. In particular, the ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ≃ 2–3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ≃0.6 dex and ≃0.9 dex, respectively. The mass–metallicity relation (MZR) in these local analogs shows ‑0.2 dex offset from that in SDSS star-forming galaxies at the low-mass end, which is consistent with the MZR of the z˜ 2{--}3 galaxies. We compare the local analogs in this study with those in other studies, including Lyman break analogs (LBA) and green pea (GP) galaxies. The analogs in this study share a similar star formation surface density with LBAs, but the ionization parameters and electron density in our analogs are higher than those in LBAs by factors of 1.5 and 3, respectively. The analogs in this study have comparable ionization parameters and electron densities to the GP galaxies, but our method can select galaxies in a wider redshift range. We find the high sSFR and SFR surface density can increase the electron density and ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  16. Local Analogs for High-redshift Galaxies: Resembling the Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    We present a sample of local analogs for high-redshift galaxies selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these local analogs resemble those in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their positions in the [O iii]/Hβ versus [N ii]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. We show that these local analogs share similar physical properties with high-redshift galaxies, including high specific star formation rates (sSFRs), flat UV continuums, and compact galaxy sizes. In particular, the ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ≃ 2–3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ≃0.6 dex and ≃0.9 dex, respectively. The mass–metallicity relation (MZR) in these local analogs shows ‑0.2 dex offset from that in SDSS star-forming galaxies at the low-mass end, which is consistent with the MZR of the z∼ 2{--}3 galaxies. We compare the local analogs in this study with those in other studies, including Lyman break analogs (LBA) and green pea (GP) galaxies. The analogs in this study share a similar star formation surface density with LBAs, but the ionization parameters and electron density in our analogs are higher than those in LBAs by factors of 1.5 and 3, respectively. The analogs in this study have comparable ionization parameters and electron densities to the GP galaxies, but our method can select galaxies in a wider redshift range. We find the high sSFR and SFR surface density can increase the electron density and ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  17. The Infrared Medium-Deep Survey. V. A New Selection Strategy for Quasars at z > 5 Based on Medium-Band Observations with SQUEAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Yiseul; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong; Hyun, Minhee; Kim, Sanghyuk; Kim, Yongjung; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin

    2016-02-01

    Multiple color selection techniques are successful in identifying quasars from wide-field broad-band imaging survey data. Among the quasars that have been discovered so far, however, there is a redshift gap at 5 ≲ z ≲ 5.7 due to the limitations of filter sets in previous studies. In this work, we present a new selection technique of high redshift quasars using a sequence of medium-band filters: nine filters with central wavelengths from 625 to 1025 nm and bandwidths of 50 nm. Photometry with these medium-bands traces the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a source, similar to spectroscopy with resolution R ˜ 15. By conducting medium-band observations of high redshift quasars at 4.7 ≤ z ≤ 6.0 and brown dwarfs (the main contaminants in high redshift quasar selection) using the SED camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (SQUEAN) on the 2.1-m telescope at the McDonald Observatory, we show that these medium-band filters are superior to multi-color broad-band color section in separating high redshift quasars from brown dwarfs. In addition, we show that redshifts of high redshift quasars can be determined to an accuracy of Δ{z}/(1+{z}) = 0.002 - 0.026. The selection technique can be extended to z ˜ 7, suggesting that the medium-band observation can be powerful in identifying quasars even at the re-ionization epoch.

  18. Quasar target selection fiber efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Newberg, H.; Yanny, B.

    1996-05-01

    We present estimates of the efficiency for finding QSOs as a function of limiting magnitude and galactic latitude. From these estimates, we have formulated a target selection strategy that should net 80,000 QSOs in the north galactic cap with an average of 70 fibers per plate, not including fibers reserved for high-redshift quasars. With this plan, we expect 54% of the targets to be QSOs. The North Galactic Cap is divided into two zones of high and low stellar density. We use about five times as many fibers for QSO candidates in the half of the survey with the lower stellar density as we use in the half with higher stellar density. The current plan assigns 15% of the fibers to FIRST radio sources; if these are not available, those fibers would be allocated to lower probability QSO sources, dropping the total number of QSOs by a small factor (5%). We will find about 17,000 additional quasars in the southern strips, and maybe a few more at very high redshift. Use was made of two data sets: the star and quasar simulated test data generated by Don Schneider, and the data from UJFN plate surveys by Koo (1986) and Kron (1980). This data was compared to results from the Palomar-Green Survey and a recent survey by Pat Osmer and collaborators.

  19. FEEDBACK FROM HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES ON THE HIGH-REDSHIFT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: MODEL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Chris; James, Gillian; Wynn, Graham; Combet, Celine

    2013-02-10

    Massive stars at redshifts z {approx}> 6 are predicted to have played a pivotal role in cosmological reionization as luminous sources of ultraviolet (UV) photons. However, the remnants of these massive stars could be equally important as X-ray-luminous (L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). Because the absorption cross section of neutral hydrogen decreases sharply with photon energy ({sigma}{proportional_to}E {sup -3}), X-rays can escape more freely than UV photons from the star-forming regions in which they are produced, allowing HMXBs to make a potentially significant contribution to the ionizing X-ray background during reionization. In this paper, we explore the ionizing power of HMXBs at redshifts z {approx}> 6 using a Monte Carlo model for a coeval stellar population of main-sequence stars and HMXBs. Using the archetypal Galactic HMXB Cygnus X-1 as our template, we propose a composite HMXB spectral energy distribution consisting of blackbody and power-law components, whose contributions depend on the accretion state of the system. We determine the time-dependent ionizing power of a combined population of UV-luminous stars and X-ray-luminous HMXBs and deduce fitting formulae for the boost in the population's ionizing power arising from HMXBs; these fits allow for simple implementation of HMXB feedback in numerical simulations. Based on this analysis, we estimate the contribution of high-redshift HMXBs to the present-day soft X-ray background, and we show that it is a factor of {approx}100-1000 smaller than the observed limit. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the role of HMXBs in reionization and in high-redshift galaxy formation.

  20. How absorption selected galaxies trace the general high-redshift galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise

    2015-08-01

    Strong absorption lines seen in quasar spectra arise when the lines of sight to the quasars intersect intervening galaxies. The associated metal absorption lines from the strongest absorption lines, the damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs), allow us to trace the metallicity of galaxies back to redshifts z>5. Typical metallicities range from 0.1-100% solar metallicities with a huge scatter at any given redshift. Understanding the nature of galaxies that host DLAs is one strategy to probe the early phase and origin of stars in the outskirts of present-day galaxy disks.The search for emission from the elusive high-redshift DLA galaxies has reached a mature state now that we have determined how to best identify the absorbing galaxies. From a growing number of emission-line detections from DLA galaxies at redshifts ranging between 0.1 and 3, we can analyse galaxies in both absorption and emission, and probe the gas-phase metallicities in the outskirts and halos of the galaxies.By combining information for galaxies seen in emission and absorption, I will show that there is a relation between DLA metallicities and the host galaxy luminosities similar to the well-known the mass-metallicity relation for luminosity selected galaxies. This implies that DLA galaxies are drawn from the general population of low- to intermediate mass galaxies. We can determine a metallicity gradient in the extended halo of the galaxies out to ~40 kpc, and this allows us to reproduce observed galaxy correlation functions derived from conventional samples of luminosity selected galaxies.

  1. Paired quasars near NGC 2639 - Evidence for quasars in superclusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, H.; Ciardullo, R.; Harms, R.

    1983-01-01

    Arp (1979, 1980) has found quasars with similar redshifts which appear to be paired across low-redshift galaxies. Arp concludes that the pairings provide evidence for an association between high-redshift quasars and a small, low-redshift galaxy. Oort et al. (1981) suggested an alternative hypothesis to explain the close redshift pairs. They proposed that the two closest pairs are in superclusters at the cosmological distances implied by the quasars' redshifts. The low-redshift quasar pair U7/U10 (0.303/0.305) is close enough to allow detection of any associated clusters of galaxies on deep red photographs. The present investigation had originally the objective to test the supercluster hypothesis by searching for faint clusters which might comprise a supercluster at z approximately 0.3. Unfortunately, the disappearance of the pairs makes it impossible to test the hypothesis in this field. The search for a supercluster at z = 0.30 revealed a faint rich cluster of galaxies near the quasar U10 (z = 0.305). It was found that U10 is not associated with the cluster.

  2. Simulating matched filter detection of ionized bubble around a quasar in the epoch of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Suman; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy

    2012-12-01

    The recent discovery of the z = 7.085 quasar has opened up a new window to peep into the inter galactic medium during the epoch of reionization (EoR). The detection of the ionized region around such a high redshift quasar is in principle capable of constraining the neutral fraction of the IGM and the quasar's age. Here we present the possibility of detection of such an ionized region around a quasar at z = 8 using redshifted 21-cm observations of the neutral hydrogen and possible ways to constrain IGM neutral fraction and quasar's age through this detection.

  3. Imaging the host galaxies of high-redshift radio-quiet QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, James D.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lehnert, Matthew, D.; Elias, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    short timescales. This is consistent with the general trend at low redshifts that radio-loud QSOs are found in giant elliptical galaxies while radio-quiet QSOs are found in less luminous disk galaxies. It also suggests that the processes responsible for the spectacular properties of radio-loud AGNs at high redshifts might not be generally relevent to the (far more numerous) radio-quiet population.

  4. Large scale magnetic fields in galaxies at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, M. L.; Miniati, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Kronberg, P. P.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.

    2012-09-01

    In a recent study we have used a large sample of extragalactic radio sources to investigate the redshift evolution of the Rotation Measure (RM) of polarized quasars up to z ≈ 3.0. We found that the dispersion in the RM distribution of quasars increases at higher redshifts and hypothesized that MgII intervening systems were responsible for the observed trend. To test this hypothesis, we have recently obtained high-resolution UVES/VLT spectra for 76 quasars in our sample and in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 2.0. We found a clear correlation between the presence of strong MgII systems and large RMs. This implies that normal galaxies at z ≈ 1 already had large-scale magnetic fields comparable to those seen today.

  5. Bulge Growth Through Disc Instabilities in High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bournaud, Frédéric

    The role of disc instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disc galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges (Chap. 14 10.1007/978-3-319-19378-6_14"). This secular growth of bulges in modern disc galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudobulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disc instabilities at high redshift (z > 1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (1010 to a few 1011 M⊙ of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift discs are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 108-9 M⊙ of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disc evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms on short timescales. The giant clumps can migrate inward and coalesce into the bulge in a few 108 years. The instability in the very turbulent media drives intense gas inflows toward the bulge and nuclear region. Thick discs and supermassive black holes can grow concurrently as a result of the violent instability. This chapter reviews the properties of high-redshift disc instabilities, the evolution of giant clumps and other features associated to the instability, and the resulting growth of bulges and associated sub-galactic components.

  6. Cosmic Lighthouses : Unveiling the nature of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Pratika

    2011-01-01

    We are in the golden age for the search for high-redshift galaxies, made possible by a combination of new instruments and innovative search techniques. One of the major aims of such searches is to constrain the epoch of reionization (EoR), which marks the second major change in the ionization state of the Universe. Understanding the EoR is difficult since whilst it is galaxy evolution which drives reionization, reionization itself influences galaxy evolution through feedback effects. Unraveling the interplay of reionization and galaxy evolution is further complicated by of a lack of understanding of the metal enrichment and dust distribution in high redshift galaxies. To this end, a class of galaxies called Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) have been gaining enormous popularity as probes of all these three processes. In this thesis, we couple state of the art cosmological SPH simulations (GADGET-2) with a physically motivated, self-consistent model for LAEs, so as to be able to understand the importance of the intergalactic medium (IGM) ionization state, dust and peculiar velocities in shaping their observed properties. By doing so, the aim is to gain insight on the nature of LAEs, put precious constraints on their elusive physical properties and make predictions for future instruments such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). Using our LAE model in conjunction with a code that builds the MW merger tree (GAMETE), we build a bridge between the high-redshift and the local Universe. We also use SPH simulations (GADGET-2) to study the nature of the earliest galaxies that have been detected as of yet, place constraints on their contribution to reionization, and predict their detectability using the next generation of instruments, such as the James Web Space Telescope (JWST).

  7. Radio continuum polarimetric imaging of high redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carilli, C. L.; Owen, F. N.; Harris, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Multifrequency images of total and polarized radio continuum emission from the two high redshift radio galaxies 0902+343 (z = 3.40) and 0647+415 (4C 41.17, z = 3.80) are presented. These images represent the most sensitive polarimetric study of high redshift ratio galaxies to date. The emission from both galaxies is substantially polarized, up to 30% in some regions, and both sources sit behind deep 'Faraday screens,' producing large rotation measures, over 10(exp 3) rad/sq. m in magnitude, and large rotation measure gradients across the sources. Such large rotation measures provide further evidence that high redshift radio galaxies are situated in very dense environments. Drawing the analogy to a class of low redshift powerful radio galaxies with similarly large rotation measures, we suggest that 0902+343 and 0647+415 are situated at the centers of dense, x-ray 'colling flow' clusters, and that the cluster gas is substantially magnetized. The remarkable similarity between the optical and radio morphologies of 0647+415 on scales as small as 0.1 sec is presented. We consider, and reject, both synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation as possible sources of the optical emission. We also consider both scattering of light out of a 'cone' of radiation from an obscured nucleus, and jet-induced star formation, and find that both models encounter difficulties in explaining this remarkably close radio-optical alignment. High resolution spectral index images reveal compact, flat spectrum components in both sources. We suggest that these components are the active nuclei of the galaxies. Lastly, high resolution images of 0902+343 show that the southernmost component forms a 'ring' of 0.2 sec radius. We discuss the possibility that this ring is the result of gravitational lensing, along the lines proposed by Kochanek & Lawrence (1990).

  8. Dark bubbles around high-redshift radio-loud active galactic nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Sbarrato, T.

    2016-09-01

    At redshift larger than 3 there is a disagreement between the number of blazars (whose jet is pointing at us) and the number of expected parents (whose jet is pointing elsewhere). Now we strengthen this claim because (i) the number of blazars identified within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)+Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey footprint increased, demanding a more numerous parent population, and (ii) the detected blazars have a radio flux large enough to be above the FIRST flux limit even if the jet is slightly misaligned. The foreseen number of these slightly misaligned jets, in principle detectable, is much larger than the radio-detected sources in the FIRST+SDSS survey (at redshift larger than 4). This argument is independent of the presence of an isotropic radio component, such as the hotspot or the radio lobe, and does not depend on the bulk Lorentz factor Γ. We propose a scenario that ascribes the lack of slightly misaligned sources to an overobscuration of the nucleus by a `bubble' of dust, possibly typical of the first high-redshift quasars.

  9. GISMO, a 2 mm Bolometer Camera Optimized for the Study of High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J.

    2007-01-01

    The 2mm spectral range provides a unique terrestrial window enabling ground based observations of the earliest active dusty galaxies in the universe and thereby allowing a better constraint on the star formation rate in these objects. We present a progress report for our bolometer camera GISMO (the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter Observer), which will obtain large and sensitive sky maps at this wavelength. The instrument will be used at the IRAM 30 m telescope and we expect to install it at the telescope in 2007. The camera uses an 8 x 16 planar array of multiplexed TES bolometers, which incorporates our recently designed Backshort Under Grid (BUG) architecture. GISMO will be very efficient at detecting sources serendipitously in large sky surveys. With the background limited performance of the detectors, the camera provides significantly greater imaging sensitivity and mapping speed at this wavelength than has previously been possible. The major scientific driver for the instrument is to provide the IRAM 30 m telescope with the capability to rapidly observe galactic and extragalactic dust emission, in particular from high-zeta ULI RGs and quasar s, even in the summer season. The instrument will fill in the SEDs of high redshift galaxies at the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust emission spectrum, even at the highest redshifts. Our source count models predict that GISMO will serendipitously detect one galaxy every four hours on the blank sky, and that one quarter of these galaxies will be at a redshift of zeta 6.5.

  10. An ultraviolet atlas of quasar and blazar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Blades, J. C.; York, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    An atlas is presented which provides a uniformly extracted and calibrated set of over 1000 UV spectra of the highest possible SNR for quasars and blazars observed with the IUE. The spectra show that quasars and blazars vary more in the UV than in the optical, and show increasing variability toward shorter wavelengths. The low-redshift quasars have Ly-alpha emission lines dominated by strong, narrow components, while high-redshift quasars seem to lack such narrow components. Absorption by gas in the Galaxy is ubiquitous in strong interstellar lines of C II, O I, Si II, Mg II, and Fe II. Of special note is the detection of Fe II and Mg II absorption due to gas associated with NGC3067 in the quasar 3C 232. Over 20 percent of the combined quasar and Seyfert 1 sample show either associated absorption or absorption just shortward of the emission redshift.

  11. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

    2014-07-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z {sub phot}, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z {sub phot} < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z {sub phot} in the ranges of 4 < z {sub phot} ≲ 8 and 9 < z {sub phot} < 10 and can robustly determine when z {sub phot} > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z {sub phot} < 4 when z {sub sim} > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  12. Bimodal star formation - Constraints from galaxy colors at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Silk, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that at early epochs the light from elliptical galaxies is dominated by stars with an initial mass function (IMF) which is deficient in low-mass stars, relative to the solar neighborhood is investigated. V-R colors for the optical counterparts of 3CR radio sources offer the most severe constraints on the models. Reasonable fits are obtained to both the blue, high-redshift colors and the redder, low-redshift colors with a model galaxy which forms with initially equal star formation rates in each of two IMF modes: one lacking low-mass stars, and one with stars of all masses. The net effect is that the time-integrated IMF has twice as many high-mass stars as the solar neighborhood IMF, relative to low mass stars. A conventional solar neighborhood IMF does not simultaneously account for both the range in colors at high redshift and the redness of nearby ellipticals, with any single star formation epoch. Models with a standard IMF require half the stellar population to be formed in a burst at low redshift z of about 1.

  13. Using Morphology to Identify Galaxy Mergers at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancato, Kirsten; Kartaltepe, J. S.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed a set of 22,003 galaxies in three of the five CANDELS fields: COSMOS, UDS, and GOODS-S, in order to determine how well automated image statistics did with classifying galaxy morphology and mergers at high redshifts (z > 1). For each galaxy in our set, we have multi-wavelength data, photometric redshifts from SED fitting, visual classifications from the CANDELS structure and morphology group, and automated image statistics. The redshifts of our sample range from z = .01 to 4 with = 1.33. We constructed a conservative set of 1,914 galaxies that we believe to be mergers and interactions. Of this set of merging galaxies, 1,343 were at a redshift greater than z = 1. We also identified a conservative set of 535 spheroids and a set of 2,902 disks. Several different quantitative methods were then used to attempt an automated classification of these visually classified samples. Of the different image statistics, we found M20 and Gini to be the most successful at picking out high redshift mergers and morphological characteristics. Blancato was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  14. Spatially resolved emission of a high-redshift DLA galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-10

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ∼ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222–0946 at a redshift of z ∼ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and a dynamical mass of M {sub dyn} = 6.1 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. The average star formation rate surface density is (Σ{sub SFR}) = 0.55 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}, with a central peak of 1.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σ{sub gas} = 243 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M {sub gas} = 4.2 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222–0946 to be f {sub gas} ∼ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ∼6 kpc away, ∼30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation.

  15. Spatially Resolved Emission of a High-redshift DLA Galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ~ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222-0946 at a redshift of z ~ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M ⊙ yr-1 and a dynamical mass of M dyn = 6.1 × 109 M ⊙. The average star formation rate surface density is langΣSFRrang = 0.55 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, with a central peak of 1.7 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σgas = 243 M ⊙ pc-2. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M gas = 4.2 × 109 M ⊙. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222-0946 to be f gas ~ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ~6 kpc away, ~30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  16. STAR FORMATION AND GAS KINEMATICS OF QUASAR HOST GALAXIES AT z {approx} 6: NEW INSIGHTS FROM ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ran; Carilli, Chris L.; Wagg, Jeff; Walter, Fabian; Lentati, Lindley; Fan, Xiaohui; Narayanan, Desika; Riechers, Dominik A.; Bertoldi, Frank; Strauss, Michael A.; Cox, Pierre; Neri, Roberto; Omont, Alain; Menten, Karl M.; Knudsen, Kirsten K.; Jiang Linhua

    2013-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the [C II] 158 {mu}m fine structure line and dust continuum emission from the host galaxies of five redshift 6 quasars. We also report complementary observations of 250 GHz dust continuum and CO (6-5) line emission from the z = 6.00 quasar SDSS J231038.88+185519.7 using the IRAM facilities. The ALMA observations were carried out in the extended array at 0.''7 resolution. We have detected the line and dust continuum in all five objects. The derived [C II] line luminosities are 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 8.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} L{sub Sun} and the [C II]-to-FIR luminosity ratios are 2.9-5.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, which is comparable to the values found in other high-redshift quasar-starburst systems and local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. The sources are marginally resolved and the intrinsic source sizes (major axis FWHM) are constrained to be 0.''3-0.''6 (i.e., 1.7-3.5 kpc) for the [C II] line emission and 0.''2-0.''4 (i.e., 1.2-2.3 kpc) for the continuum. These measurements indicate that there is vigorous star formation over the central few kpc in the quasar host galaxies. The ALMA observations also constrain the dynamical properties of the star-forming gas in the nuclear region. The intensity-weighted velocity maps of three sources show clear velocity gradients. Such velocity gradients are consistent with a rotating, gravitationally bound gas component, although they are not uniquely interpreted as such. Under the simplifying assumption of rotation, the implied dynamical masses within the [C II]-emitting regions are of order 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. Given these estimates, the mass ratios between the supermassive black holes and the spheroidal bulge are an order of magnitude higher than the mean value found in local spheroidal galaxies, which is in agreement with results from previous CO observations of high redshift quasars.

  17. Ionised outflows in z ~ 2.4 quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are invoked by galaxy evolutionary models to quench star formation and to explain the origin of the relations observed locally between super-massive black holes and their host galaxies. We here aim to detect extended ionised outflows in luminous quasars, where we expect the highest activity both in star formation and in black-hole accretion. Currently, there are only a few studies based on spatially resolved observations of outflows at high redshift, z > 2. Methods: We analysed a sample of six luminous (L > 1047 erg/s) quasars at z ~ 2.4, observed in H-band using the near-IR integral field spectrometer SINFONI at the VLT. We performed a kinematic analysis of the [Oiii] emission line at λ = 5007 Å. Results: We detect fast, spatially extended outflows in five out of six targets. [Oiii]λ5007 has a complex gas kinematic, with blue-shifted velocities of a few hundreds of km s-1 and line widths up to 1500 km s-1. Using the spectroastrometric method, we infer a size of the ionised outflows of up to ~2 kpc. The properties of the ionised outflows, mass outflow rate, momentum rate, and kinetic power, are correlated with the AGN luminosity. The increase in outflow rate with increasing AGN luminosity is consistent with the idea that a luminous AGN pushes away the surrounding gas through fast outflows that are driven by radiation pressure, which depends on the emitted luminosity. Conclusions: We derive mass outflow rates of about 6-700 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample, which are lower than those observed in molecular outflows. The physical properties of ionised outflows show dependences on AGN luminosity that are similar to those of molecular outflows, but indicate that the mass of ionised gas is lower than that of molecular outflows. Alternatively, this discrepancy between ionised and molecular outflows could be explained with different acceleration mechanisms. Based on Observations collected at the European Organisation for

  18. Dust-free quasars in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W N; Carilli, Chris L; Egami, Eiichi; Hines, Dean C; Kurk, Jaron D; Richards, Gordon T; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A; Vestergaard, Marianne; Walter, Fabian

    2010-03-18

    The most distant quasars known, at redshifts z approximately 6, generally have properties indistinguishable from those of lower-redshift quasars in the rest-frame ultraviolet/optical and X-ray bands. This puzzling result suggests that these distant quasars are evolved objects even though the Universe was only seven per cent of its current age at these redshifts. Recently one z approximately 6 quasar was shown not to have any detectable emission from hot dust, but it was unclear whether that indicated different hot-dust properties at high redshift or if it is simply an outlier. Here we report the discovery of a second quasar without hot-dust emission in a sample of 21 z approximately 6 quasars. Such apparently hot-dust-free quasars have no counterparts at low redshift. Moreover, we demonstrate that the hot-dust abundance in the 21 quasars builds up in tandem with the growth of the central black hole, whereas at low redshift it is almost independent of the black hole mass. Thus z approximately 6 quasars are indeed at an early evolutionary stage, with rapid mass accretion and dust formation. The two hot-dust-free quasars are likely to be first-generation quasars born in dust-free environments and are too young to have formed a detectable amount of hot dust around them. PMID:20237563

  19. Properties of Lyman-alpha Absorbers at High-Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroux, C.

    2001-09-01

    In recent years, an extremely successful method to observationally study early stages of galaxy formation has been provided by the study of quasar absorbers. Quasar absorption lines are systems intercepting our line-of-sight to a given quasar and thus produce a feature in the quasar spectrum. Damped Lyman-α systems (hereafter DLAs) have N (H I) > 2 × 1020 atoms cm-2, and were originally thought to be the precursors of present day disk galaxies but there is evidence that they may be dominated by gas-rich proto-dwarf galaxies representing the basic building blocks of hierarchical growth of structure. Since their detection is independent of their size, shape, and covering factor, they provide a unbiased method with which to study early galaxies. DLAs are a subset of Lyman-limit Systems (hereafter LLS) which have hydrogen column densities N (H I) > 1.6 × 1017 atoms cm-2. At z < 1, they are probably associated with galactic halos. Finally, the Lyman-α forest is composed of many small column density systems ranging from N (H I) =1012 to 1.6 × 1017 atoms cm-2. This thesis presents a sample of 66 bright z ⪆ 4 quasars observed with the 4 m Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory telescope and the 4.2 m William Hershel telescope. The first part of the study concentrates on the quasars themselves via the fitting of quasar continua and the measurement of continuum depression parameters characterising the mean absorption across the Lyman-α forest. The quasar spectra are then analysed to investigate the absorption systems they contain. This led to the discovery of 26 new DLAs, 34 LLS and many associated metal lines which enables the analysis of the evolution of the column density distribution, f(N,z), and the total mass in high-column density neutral hydrogen quasar absorbers. The observed number of LLS per unit redshift is used to constrain f(N,z) below the DLA limit in the range N(HI) = 1.6 × 1017 to 2× 1020 atoms cm-2. The joint analysis shows unambiguously that f

  20. The nitrogen and oxygen abundances in the neutral gas at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitjean, P.; Ledoux, C.; Srianand, R.

    2008-03-01

    Aims:We study the oxygen and nitrogen abundances in the interstellar medium of high-redshift galaxies. Methods: We use high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems detected along the line-of-sight to quasars to derive robust abundance measurements from unsaturated metal absorption lines. Results: We present results for a sample of 16 high-redshift DLAs and strong sub-DLAs (log N(H I) > 19.5, 2.4 < z_abs < 3.6) including 13 new measurements. We find that the oxygen to iron abundance ratio is pretty much constant with [O/Fe] ~ +0.32±0.10 for -2.5 < [O/H] < -1.0 with a small scatter around this value. The oxygen abundance follows quite well the silicon abundance within ~0.2 dex, although the silicon abundance could be slightly smaller for [O/H] < -2. The distribution of the [N/O] abundance ratio, measured from components that are detected in both species, is somehow double peaked: five systems have [N/O] > -1 and nine systems have [N/O] < -1.15. In the diagram [N/O] versus [O/H], a loose plateau is possibly present at [N/O] ~ -0.9, which is below the so-called primary plateau as seen in local metal-poor dwarf galaxies ([N/O] in the range -0.57 to -0.74). No system is seen above this primary plateau whereas the majority of the systems lie well below with a large scatter. All this suggests a picture in which DLAs undergo successive star-bursts. During such an episode, the [N/O] ratio decreases sharply because of the rapid release of oxygen by massive stars, whereas inbetween two bursts, nitrogen is released by low and intermediate-mass stars with a delay and the [N/O] ratio increases. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), under visitor mode progs. ID 65.O-0063, 66.A-0624, 67.A-0078 and 68.A-0600 with the UVES echelle spectrograph installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), unit Kueyen, on mount Paranal in Chile. Also based on archival data from progs. 68.A-0492 (PI: D'Odorico), 68.B

  1. Radio-loud high-redshift protogalaxy canidates in Bootes

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, S; van Breugel, W; Brown, M J; de Vries, W; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; Jannuzi, B; Rottgering, H; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; Willner, S P

    2007-07-20

    We used the Near Infrared Camera (NIRC) on Keck I to obtain K{sub s}-band images of four candidate high-redshift radio galaxies selected using optical and radio data in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey in Bootes. Our targets have 1.4 GHz radio flux densities greater than 1 mJy, but are undetected in the optical. Spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that three of these objects are at z > 3, with radio luminosities near the FR-I/FR-II break. The other has photometric redshift z{sub phot} = 1.2, but may in fact be at higher redshift. Two of the four objects exhibit diffuse morphologies in K{sub s}-band, suggesting that they are still in the process of forming.

  2. The KMOS AGN Survey at High Redshift (KASHz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C.; Alexander, D.; Mullaney, J.; Stott, J.; Swinbank, M.; Arumugam, V.; Bauer, F.; Bower, R.; Bunker, A.; Sharples, R.

    2016-03-01

    The KMOS AGN Survey at High Redshift (KASHz) is an extensive observational programme to obtain spatially resolved spectroscopy of distant galaxies that host rapidly growing supermassive black holes (i.e., active galactic nuclei [AGN]). By exploiting the unique capabilities of KMOS we will spatially resolve the ionised gas kinematics in around 200 such galaxies. A fundamental prediction of galaxy formation models is that AGN inject considerable energy into their host galaxies and ultimately destroy or remove star-forming material via outflows. However, until now, observational constraints of this prediction have been limited to only a small number of distant galaxies. KASHz will provide the strongest constraints to date on the prevalence, properties and impact of ionised outflows in the host galaxies of distant AGN. The survey is described and our first results presented.

  3. The High Redshift Universe Seen Through the Eyes of ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklind, Tommy

    2012-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submm Array (ALMA) is an interferometric telescope currently under construction on the Chajnantor Plateau in northern Chile. It is situated at an altitude of 5000m, in one of the driest places in the world. The combination of the meteorological conditions, increased total collecting area and the use of state-of-the-art receivers means that the fully operational ALMA is a factor 10-1000 more sensitive than existing facilities, depending on the wavelength. When completed in 2013, ALMA will consists of 66 antennas, with maximum baselines of up to 15 km and it will be able to observe at wavelengths from 10 millimeter to ~350micron. ALMA will be able to provide an angular resolution of ~0.05 arcseconds. ALMA is still under construction, but has started producing science in an 'Early Science' phase. The goal with ALMA has from the beginning been to provide very high sensitivity as well as an angular resolution matching that of space based optical observatories such as the HST. One of three main drivers when designing ALMA has been the ability to study the high redshift universe. The main reason behind this is that almost half of the integrated background radiation comes from the far-infrared wavelength regime. This emission is interpreted as originating from dust re-radiated stellar emission in high redshift galaxies. Interstellar dust is almost invariably associated with molecular gas, that can be studied using molecular rotational transitions. The shape of the dust spectral energy distribution ensures that the observed flux at a fixed wavelength long-ward of the far-infrared peak (about 100micron) remains more or less constant over a redshift range z=1-10. This aspect makes dust continuum emission extraordinarily important for studying galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei at high redshift. Through observations of line emission from molecular transitions it is possible to study the associated molecular gas distribution and its kinematics. The

  4. Relativistic jet feedback in high-redshift galaxies I: Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph; Wagner, Alex

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of three dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of interaction of AGN jets with a dense turbulent two-phase interstellar medium, which would be typical of high redshift galaxies. We describe the effect of the jet on the evolution of the density of the turbulent ISM. The jet driven energy bubble affects the gas to distances up to several kiloparsecs from the injection region. The shocks resulting from such interactions create a multi-phase ISM and radial outflows. One of the striking result of this work is that low power jets (Pjet ≲ 1043ergs-1) although less efficient in accelerating clouds, are trapped in the ISM for a longer time and hence affect the ISM over a larger volume. Jets of higher power drill through with relative ease. Although the relativistic jets launch strong outflows, there is little net mass ejection to very large distances, supporting a galactic fountain scenario for local feedback.

  5. Relativistic jet feedback in high-redshift galaxies - I. Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph; Wagner, Alex

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of 3D relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of interaction of active galactic nucleus jets with a dense turbulent two-phase interstellar medium, which would be typical of high-redshift galaxies. We describe the effect of the jet on the evolution of the density of the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). The jet-driven energy bubble affects the gas to distances up to several kiloparsecs from the injection region. The shocks resulting from such interactions create a multiphase ISM and radial outflows. One of the striking result of this work is that low-power jets (Pjet ≲ 1043 ergs-1), although less efficient in accelerating clouds, are trapped in the ISM for a longer time and hence affect the ISM over a larger volume. Jets of higher power drill through with relative ease. Although the relativistic jets launch strong outflows, there is little net mass ejection to very large distances, supporting a galactic fountain scenario for local feedback.

  6. Superwind Model of Extended Lyalpha Emitters at High Redshift.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi; Shioya

    2000-03-20

    We propose a new model for the extended Lyalpha blobs found recently at high redshift (z approximately 3). The observational properties of these blobs are as follows: (1) the observed Lyalpha luminosities are approximately 1043 h-2 ergs s-1, (2) they appear elongated morphologically, (3) their sizes amount to approximately 100 kpc, (4) the observed line widths amount to approximately 1000 km s-1, and (5) they are not associated with strong radio continuum sources. All these observational properties seem to be explained in terms of galactic winds driven by successive supernova explosions shortly after the initial burst of massive star formation in the galactic centers. The observed number density of Lyalpha blobs ( approximately 3.4x10-5 h3 Mpc-3) may be explained if their present-day counterparts are elliptical galaxies with a luminosity above approximately 1L*. PMID:10702121

  7. Massive Clumps in Local Galaxies: Comparisons with High-redshift Clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Dewberry, J.; Putko, J.; Teich, Y.; Popinchalk, M.

    2013-09-01

    Local UV-bright galaxies in the Kiso survey include clumpy systems with kiloparsec-size star complexes that resemble clumpy young galaxies in surveys at high redshift. We compare clump masses and underlying disks in several dozen galaxies from each of these surveys to the star complexes and disks of normal spirals. Photometry and spectroscopy for the Kiso and spiral sample come from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the largest Kiso clumpy galaxies resemble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) clumpies in terms of the star formation rates, clump masses, and clump surface densities. Clump masses and surface densities in normal spirals are smaller. If the clump masses are proportional to the turbulent Jeans mass in the interstellar medium, then for the most luminous galaxies in the sequence of normal:Kiso:UDF, the turbulent speeds and surface densities increase in the proportions 1.0:4.7:5.0 and 1.0:4.0:5.1, respectively, for fixed restframe B-band absolute magnitude. For the least luminous galaxies in the overlapping magnitude range, the turbulent speed and surface density trends are 1.0:2.7:7.4 and 1.0:1.4:3.0, respectively. We also find that while all three types have radially decreasing disk intensities when measured with ellipse-fit azimuthal averages, the average profiles are more irregular for UDF clumpies (which are viewed in their restframe UV) than for Kiso galaxies (viewed at g-band), and major axis intensity scans are even more irregular for the UDF than Kiso galaxies. Local clumpy galaxies in the Kiso survey appear to be intermediate between UDF clumpies and normal spirals.

  8. Harnessing High Redshift Beacons: IRS Spectra of Lensed Lyman Break Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siana, Brian; Coppin, Kristen; Ebeling, Harald; Edge, Alastair; Ellis, Richard; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Pettini, Max; Richard, Johan; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Teplitz, Harry

    2007-05-01

    Star-formation at high redshift occurs in two types of galaxies: dusty Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) and UV-bright Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs). In both populations dust absorbs most of the ultraviolet (UV) light from young stars and re-emits the energy in the infrared (IR). Therefore, detailed studies of the dust and the infrared SEDs of these galaxies are critical for understanding these important evolutionary stages in galaxy formation. ULIRGs at z ~ 2-3 are luminous enough for both submm detection and Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, so much has been learned recently about their interstellar medium and IR SEDs. LBGs are too faint to be detected with submm imaging or IRS spectroscopy so little can be discovered about their dust content and IR SEDs prior to JWST and ALMA. Fortunately, there exist a few rare examples of LBGs which are strongly lensed by a foreground cluster or galaxy, and are magnified by factors of 10-30. We can therefore study in detail the infrared properties of this otherwise inaccessible population. Our group will obtain (in an approved Cycle-3 program) IRS spectroscopy of the most famous LBG, cB58, but it is clearly dangerous to draw wide-ranging conclusions about the LBG population based on this single object. We therefore propose for a detailed Spitzer study of the only other known bright lensed LBGs: the 'Cosmic Eye' and the '8-O'clock Arc'. The requested program uses IRS spectroscopy, IRS Peak-Up 16 micron, MIPS 70 micron, and IRAC imaging to fully characterize the gas and dust in the ISM of these galaxies and determine the shape of the IR SEDs. Together, the three lensed sources span the full range of star-formation rates and dust attenuation levels observed in LBGs. Therefore, we can correlate these properties with the infrared SEDs and emission-line properties (PAHs) and apply the correlations when examining the entire LBG population.

  9. OPTIMAL MASS CONFIGURATIONS FOR LENSING HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.

    2012-06-20

    We investigate the gravitational lensing properties of lines of sight containing multiple cluster-scale halos, motivated by their ability to lens very high redshift (z {approx} 10) sources into detectability. We control for the total mass along the line of sight, isolating the effects of distributing the mass among multiple halos and of varying the physical properties of the halos. Our results show that multiple-halo lines of sight can increase the magnified source-plane region compared to the single cluster lenses typically targeted for lensing studies and thus are generally better fields for detecting very high redshift sources. The configurations that result in optimal lensing cross sections benefit from interactions between the lens potentials of the halos when they overlap somewhat on the sky, creating regions of high magnification in the source plane not present when the halos are considered individually. The effect of these interactions on the lensing cross section can even be comparable to changing the total mass of the lens from 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. The gain in lensing cross section increases as the mass is split into more halos, provided that the lens potentials are projected close enough to interact with each other. A nonzero projected halo angular separation, equal halo mass ratio, and high projected halo concentration are the best mass configurations, whereas projected halo ellipticity, halo triaxiality, and the relative orientations of the halos are less important. Such high-mass, multiple-halo lines of sight exist in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  10. THE DARK SIDE OF QSO FORMATION AT HIGH REDSHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Shlosman, Isaac; Trenti, Michele; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2011-07-20

    Observed high-redshift QSOs, at z {approx} 6, may reside in massive dark matter (DM) halos of more than 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} and are thus expected to be surrounded by overdense regions. In a series of 10 constrained simulations, we have tested the environment of such QSOs. The usage of constrained realizations has enabled us to address the issue of cosmic variance and to study the statistical properties of the QSO host halos. Comparing the computed overdensities with respect to the unconstrained simulations of regions empty of QSOs, assuming there is no bias between the DM and baryon distributions, and invoking an observationally constrained duty cycle for Lyman break galaxies, we have obtained the galaxy count number for the QSO environment. We find that a clear discrepancy exists between the computed and observed galaxy counts in the Kim et al. samples. Our simulations predict that on average eight z {approx} 6 galaxies per QSO field should have been observed, while Kim et al. detect on average four galaxies per QSO field compared to an average of three galaxies in a control sample (GOODS fields). While we cannot rule out a small number of statistics for the observed fields to high confidence, the discrepancy suggests that galaxy formation in the QSO neighborhood proceeds differently than in the field. We also find that QSO halos are the most massive of the simulated volume at z {approx} 6 but this is no longer true at z {approx} 3. This implies that QSO halos, even in a case where they are the most massive ones at high redshifts, do not evolve into the most massive galaxy clusters at z = 0.