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Sample records for lun tauno otto

  1. Coupled quantum Otto cycle.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; Johal, Ramandeep S

    2011-03-01

    We study the one-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than in the uncoupled model; in particular, we find an upper bound which is tighter than the Carnot bound. A domain of parameter values is pointed out which was not feasible in the interaction-free model. Locally, each spin seems to cause a flow of heat in a direction opposite to the global temperature gradient. This feature is explained by an analysis of the local effective temperature of the spins. PMID:21517482

  2. Otto lowenstein, pioneer pupillographer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H Stanley

    2005-03-01

    Otto Lowenstein, a pioneer in the study of pupil function, began his professional life as an academic neuropsychiatrist at the University of Bonn with an interest in experimental psychology. From his teacher Alexander Westphal, he developed a fascination with the pupil. He invented ingenious recording devices and took motion pictures of the pupils, graphing their movements. Forced to flee Nazi persecution in 1933, he took temporary refuge in Switzerland and eventually sacrificed a flourishing career in Europe to escape to New York. During the next 25 years, he collaborated with Irene Loewenfeld on experiments and publications related to the clinical use of pupillary signs and introduced pupillography to American neuro-ophthalmology. PMID:15756134

  3. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  4. Otto Hahn: Responsibility and Repression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The role that Otto Hahn (1879 1968) played in the discovery of nuclear fission and whether Lise Meitner (1878 1968) should have shared the Nobel Prize for that discovery have been subjects of earlier studies, but there is more to the story. I examine what Hahn and the scientists in his Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem did during the Third Reich, in particular, the significant contributions they made to the German uranium project during the Second World War. I then use this as a basis for judging Hahn’s postwar apologia as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and first president of its successor, the Max Planck Society.

  5. Molecular beams: our legacy from Otto Stern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, N. F.

    1988-06-01

    It is an honor to contribute to this celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Otto Stern, who developed molecular beams to become one of the most nowerful and fruitful physics research methods.

  6. Otto engine beyond its standard quantum limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggio, Bruno; Antezza, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum Otto cycle based on the properties of a two-level system in a realistic out-of-thermal-equilibrium electromagnetic field acting as its sole reservoir. This steady configuration is produced without the need of active control over the state of the environment, which is a noncoherent thermal radiation, sustained only by external heat supplied to macroscopic objects. Remarkably, even for nonideal finite-time transformations, it largely over-performs the standard ideal Otto cycle and asymptotically achieves unit efficiency at finite power.

  7. [The activity of searching for books of Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Diseases) of the Song edition].

    PubMed

    Qian, Chao-chen

    2010-01-01

    Originally, Shang Han Lun in the Song edition referred to the Shang Han Lun with large and small Chinese characters printed in the Northern Song Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, its only edition of Shang Han Lun with small Chinese characters was again block-printed in Zhong Jing Quan Shu (Zhongjing's Complete Works) by Zhao Keimei and then the original one disappeared. So the Shang Han Lun in Zhong Jing Quan Shu was considered as the Song edition. Only 6 sets were in existence in the world, and were read by myself; I have detailed records and photos of 5 of them. The article is the result of textual research on Shang Han Lun of Zhong Jing Quan Shu preserved in Taiwan National Palace Museum. PMID:20403262

  8. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  9. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NPDA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  10. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NDPA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal DSC using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  11. Optimal performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abah, Obinna; Lutz, Eric

    2016-03-01

    We consider a quantum Otto refrigerator cycle of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator. We investigate the coefficient of performance at maximum figure of merit for adiabatic and nonadiabatic frequency modulations. We obtain analytical expressions for the optimal performance both in the high-temperature (classical) regime and in the low-temperature (quantum) limit. We moreover analyze the breakdown of the cooling cycle for strongly nonadiabatic driving protocols and derive analytical estimates for the minimal driving time allowed for cooling.

  12. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  13. [Healthcare in marriage and pregnancy in Tai Ding Yang Sheng Zhu Lun].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-ying; Qu, Jian-feng; Yang, Jin-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Tai Ding Yang Sheng Zhu Lun is a monograph of life-cultivation, written by Wang Gui of the Yuan Dynasty. Wang Gui held that life-cultivation should start from marriage and pregnancy, so paid great attention to them. His thoughts reflected on marriage at an appropriate age, pregnancy at a selected time, emphasizing the health of the foetus, the priority of enriching the mind, timely care of pregnant women, etc. All of these reflect the ancient concepts of eugenics. PMID:20403257

  14. Geomorphic Processes and Remote Sensing Signatures of Alluvial Fans in the Kun Lun Mountains, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    1996-01-01

    The timing of alluvial deposition in arid and semiarid areas is tied to land-surface instability caused by regional climate changes. The distribution pattern of dated deposits provides maps of regional land-surface response to past climate change. Sensitivity to differences in surface roughness and composition makes remote sensing techniques useful for regional mapping of alluvial deposits. Radar images from the Spaceborne Radar Laboratory and visible wavelength images from the French SPOT satellite were used to determine remote sensing signatures of alluvial fan units for an area in the Kun Lun Mountains of northwestern China. These data were combined with field observations to compare surface processes and their effects on remote sensing signatures in northwestern China and the southwestern United States. Geomorphic processes affecting alluvial fans in the two areas include aeolian deposition, desert varnish, and fluvial dissection. However, salt weathering is a much more important process in the Kun Lun than in the southwestern United States. This slows the formation of desert varnish and prevents desert pavement from forming. Thus the Kun Lun signatures are characteristic of the dominance of salt weathering, while signatures from the southwestern United States are characteristic of the dominance of desert varnish and pavement processes. Remote sensing signatures are consistent enough in these two regions to be used for mapping fan units over large areas.

  15. Modeling the complete Otto cycle - Preliminary version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the equations and the computer program being developed to model the complete Otto cycle. The program incorporates such important features as: (1) heat transfer, (2) finite combustion rates, (3) complete chemical kinetics in the burned gas, (4) exhaust gas recirculation, and (5) manifold vacuum or supercharging. Changes in thermodynamic, kinetic and transport data as well as model parameters can be made without reprogramming. Preliminary calculations indicate that: (1) chemistry and heat transfer significantly affect composition and performance, (2) there seems to be a strong interaction among model parameters, and (3) a number of cycles must be calculated in order to obtain steady-state conditions.

  16. Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanchenko, E. A.

    2015-09-01

    Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles.

  17. Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, E A

    2015-09-01

    Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles. PMID:26465443

  18. Performance of quantum Otto refrigerators with squeezing.

    PubMed

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator coupled to a squeezed cold reservoir has been evaluated using the χ figure of merit. We have shown that squeezing can enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) dramatically, surpassing the Carnot COP defined by the initial temperatures of the heat baths. Furthermore, when the squeezing parameter approaches its maximum value, the work input vanishes while the cooling rate remains finite, in apparent contravention of the second law of thermodynamics. To explain this phenomenon, we have shown that squeezing renders the thermal bath into a nonequilibrium state and the temperature of the bath becomes frequency dependent. Thereby, a correlation to the Carnot COP has been deduced. The results reveal that the COP under the maximum χ figure of merit is of the Curzon-Ahlborn style that cannot surpass the actual Carnot COP, and is thus consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. PMID:26172691

  19. Performance of quantum Otto refrigerators with squeezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator coupled to a squeezed cold reservoir has been evaluated using the χ figure of merit. We have shown that squeezing can enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) dramatically, surpassing the Carnot COP defined by the initial temperatures of the heat baths. Furthermore, when the squeezing parameter approaches its maximum value, the work input vanishes while the cooling rate remains finite, in apparent contravention of the second law of thermodynamics. To explain this phenomenon, we have shown that squeezing renders the thermal bath into a nonequilibrium state and the temperature of the bath becomes frequency dependent. Thereby, a correlation to the Carnot COP has been deduced. The results reveal that the COP under the maximum χ figure of merit is of the Curzon-Ahlborn style that cannot surpass the actual Carnot COP, and is thus consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

  20. [Research on Zhang's collated edition of Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li

    2010-05-01

    Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica) collated by Zhang Ji, and printed by Zhang's Yisheng Tang in Chengdu in 1932 was the first collated edition. Its original edition was not Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) of the Song Dynasty, but was Xiu shi zhi nan (Instruction for Drug Processing) and Lei gong pao zhi yao xing jie (Explanation on Master Lei's Properties of Drugs Processing) of the Qing Dynasty. The contents of this collated edition was far from Lei gong pao zhi lun with many mistakes, and was not the best edition to study Lei gong pao zhi lun. PMID:21029711

  1. Additive for otto cycle engines and fuel mixture so obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Scifoni, M.

    1985-02-12

    The additive for Otto cycle engines according to the present invention consists of a mixture of water, ethanol, methanol and butanol to which is added a determined quantity of a liquid obtained by pressing prickly pear leaves. Added in a small percentage to the fuel, gasoline, LP or methane, this additive prevents the oxidation associated with the use of water and/or alcohols in Otto cycle engines, lowers fuel consumption and allows the use of low octane fuel.

  2. Dr. Otto "Tiger" Freer: inventor and innovator.

    PubMed

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Connor, David E; Nanda, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Every neurosurgeon develops his or her own standard approach to common intracranial pathologies in terms of the order in which different stages are performed and which instruments are used to perform individual tasks. The majority of the basic steps in performing a craniotomy are learned through repetition and practice during residency training. Significant amounts of energy are devoted to mastering technical skills and developing an operative rhythm. What often receives little attention is the historical origin of the instruments that make the work possible. The Freer elevator represents a particularly interesting example. To people unfamiliar with the accomplishments of turn-of-the-century laryngologist Otto "Tiger" Freer, it can be assumed that the name of the instrument in one's hand is simply named for what it can do, that is, to "free" the nasal mucosa from the bony and cartilaginous septum during the transsphenoidal approach. The technique this master surgeon spent his life and career perfecting is now repeated almost daily by skull base neurosurgeons approaching pathologies from the inferior frontal lobe to the foramen magnum. In reviewing his life and work, the authors of this paper discovered an interesting creative process that led to the design of the eponymous instrument. Additionally, they discovered important advances toward the development of the transnasal approach and in our understanding of the anterior skull base. They present a historical perspective on the life and accomplishments of Dr. Freer and the ubiquitous surgical instrument that he invented and popularized. PMID:22853830

  3. Otto Rudolph Ortmann, Music Philosophy, and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzol, David J.

    2004-01-01

    What is music? What should be taught when music is taught? How should it be taught? In the early twentieth century, these most foundational questions relating to music education were addressed by the highly regarded, though less well known, educator and researcher, Otto Rudolph Ortmann. In 1922, he published an article in which he outlined a…

  4. Conversations with American Composers: Ev Grimes Interviews Otto Luening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ev

    1986-01-01

    Otto Luening, one of the pioneers in the development of tape composition, talks about a variety of topics, including the education of musicians, the relationship between composer and teacher, his class for non-music majors, the musical training a teacher should have, and changes needed in music education. (RM)

  5. [Otto Ulmgren--a distinguished pioneer in oral surgery].

    PubMed

    Nordenram, Ake

    2006-01-01

    Otto Ulmgren (1844-1932) was graduated in 1874 as medical doctor. During sex months in 1875-76 he studied the diseases of teeth, mouth and neck at "Erste Wiener Zahntechnische Schule" in Wien. Then he auscultated at some prominent dental practitionars in Berlin. After that he practised further as dental surgeon in Stockholm. He was strongly engaged to improve dental education and contributed actively for starting the School of Dentistry in Stockholm in 1898. He appointed director of the school and chief of the Department of oral surgery. Otto Ulmgren's doctor's thesis was "Ofversigt af tandläkarekonstens historia" (Survey of the History of Dentistry) in 1877. He also published about 60 scientific articles especially dealing with dental education and oral surgery. Otto Ulmgren was one of the founders of Odontologiska Sällskapet i Stockholm (Dental Society in Stockholm) in 1901 and was its president during the period 1901-21. He was also one of the founders of Sveriges Tandläkareförbund (Dental Association of Sweden) in 1908. He was honorary member of many dental associations. Otto Ulmgren was regarded as a man of principle, an eminent teacher, a skilful clinician and scientist and a strong pioneer of dentistry, particularly in oral surgery. In leisure hours Otto Ulmgren devoted himself to singing and he was a member of the famous men's choir "Orphei drängar". He was also very interested in hunting and had a kennel with hunting dogs. He was appointed honorary member of the Swedish Kennel Club. PMID:17575642

  6. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    SciTech Connect

    Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.

    2014-03-24

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  7. Dr. Otto Heinrich Warburg—Survivor of Ethical Storms

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883–1970; not to be confused with the Zionist of the same name) was a member of an illustrious Jewish family, known for some five centuries. From humble beginnings, the family became prominent in the world for their contributions to all aspects of society. The son of a German mother and a Jewish (converted) father, Otto H. Warburg became a major contributor to medical science in the field of cancer research. Considered for Nobel Prize more than once, he finally received it in 1931 for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the cellular respiratory enzyme. Warburg’s personality was controversial: he was intolerant of opposing scientific views yet tolerant toward Nazi abuses. Accused of collaboration under the Nazi regime, Otto H. Warburg was nevertheless readmitted to the global scientific community after World War II. His contribution to cancer research remains influential to this day and has been superseded by discoveries that have built upon his work. PMID:25717390

  8. Otto von Guericke and 17th century cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    Otto von Guericke's scientific method was based on reason and experimental science. His cosmology was embedded in theology and can be interpreted as a refutation of Descartes' worldview. He used Nicolaus Cusanus' theory of quantities in order to characterize space. The notion of space has to be distinguished from that of world or heaven. Forces play a crucial role in this respect described by Athanasius Kircher in his "Celestial Journey". Guericke read this work very diligently. In spite of some obvious similarities between Guericke's and Newton's scientific aims and methods there are crucial differences between the scientific convictions and results of these scholars.

  9. Modeling the complete Otto cycle: Preliminary version. [computer programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the equations and the computer program being developed to model the complete Otto cycle. The program incorporates such important features as: (1) heat transfer, (2) finite combustion rates, (3) complete chemical kinetics in the burned gas, (4) exhaust gas recirculation, and (5) manifold vacuum or supercharging. Changes in thermodynamic, kinetic and transport data as well as model parameters can be made without reprogramming. Preliminary calculations indicate that: (1) chemistry and heat transfer significantly affect composition and performance, (2) there seems to be a strong interaction among model parameters, and (3) a number of cycles must be calculated in order to obtain steady-state conditions.

  10. ECUT energy data reference series: Otto cycle engines in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    Information that describes the use of the Otto cycle engines in transportation is summarized. The transportation modes discussed in this report include the following: automobiles, light trucks, heavy trucks, marine, recreational vehicles, motorcycles, buses, aircraft, and snowmobiles. These modes account for nearly 100% of the gasoline and LPG consumed in transportation engines. The information provided on each of these modes includes descriptions of the average energy conversion efficiency of the engine, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the activity level as measured in ton-miles. Estimates are provided for the years 1980 and 2000.

  11. Karl Otto Himmler, manufacturer of the first contact lens.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard M

    2007-03-01

    In 1889 August Müller (1864-1949) reported the correction of his own high myopia with a ground scleral contact lens that had been manufactured in Berlin two years earlier. This paper provides the first conclusive identification, based upon primary sources, of the manufacturer of these lenses. They were made by an optical engineer, Karl Otto Himmler (1841-1903), whose firm enjoyed, until the outbreak of World War II, an international reputation for the manufacture of microscopes and their accessories. PMID:17110156

  12. The art of living in Otto Rank's Will Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wadlington, Will

    2012-12-01

    Otto Rank's approach to psychotherapy, developed after his separation from Freud, encourages living life fully in spite of death and limitation. In his emphasis on the here and now, new experience in the therapeutic relationship, and collaboration and creativity in the therapy process, Rank was ahead of his time. As a theorist of personality and of creativity, his work is well known, but his influence on the practices of humanistic, existential, and post-psychoanalytic relational therapists is largely unacknowledged. Rank's creative legacy is an approach to psychotherapy that calls forth artistry and collaboration between therapist and client. PMID:23175028

  13. Counterintuitive dispersion effect near surface plasmon resonances in Otto structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Li-Gang; Ye, Lin-Hua; Al-Amri, M.; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the counterintuitive dispersion effect associated with the poles and zeros of reflection and transmission functions in an Otto configuration when a surface plasmon resonance is excited. We show that the zeros and/or poles in the reflection and transmission functions may move into the upper-half complex-frequency plane (CFP), and these locations of the zeros and poles determine the dispersion properties of the whole structures (i.e., the frequency-dependent change of both reflected and transmitted phases). Meanwhile, we demonstrate various dispersion effects (both normal and abnormal) related to the changes of the poles and zeros in both reflection and transmission functions when considering the properties of metal substrates. For a realistic metal substrate in an Otto structure, there are the optimal thickness and incident angle, which correspond to the transitions of the zeros in the reflection function from the upper-half to lower-half CFP. These properties may be helpful to manipulate light propagation in optical devices.

  14. Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model in a quantum Otto cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakmak, Selçuk; Altintas, Ferdi; E. Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür

    2016-06-01

    The Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model of two anisotropically interacting spins in a magnetic field is proposed as a working substance of a quantum Otto engine to explore and exploit the anisotropy effects for the optimization of engine operation. Three different cases for the adiabatic branches of the cycle have been considered. In the first two cases, either the magnetic field or coupling strength are changed while, in the third case, both the magnetic field and the coupling strength are changed by the same ratio. The system parameters for which the engine can operate similar to or dramatically different from the engines of non-interacting spins or of coupled spins with Ising model or isotropic XY model interactions are determined. In particular, the role of anisotropy to enhance cooperative work, and to optimize maximum work with high efficiency, as well as to operate the engine near the Carnot bound are revealed.

  15. The Politics of Memory: Otto Hahn and the Third Reich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2006-03-01

    As President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and its successor, the Max Planck Society, from 1946 until 1960, Otto Hahn (1879 1968) sought to portray science under the Third Reich as a purely intellectual endeavor untainted by National Socialism. I outline Hahn’s activities from 1933 into the postwar years, focusing on the contrast between his personal stance during the National Socialist period, when he distinguished himself as an upright non-Nazi, and his postwar attitude, which was characterized by suppression and denial of Germany’s recent past. Particular examples include Hahn’s efforts to help Jewish friends; his testimony for colleagues involved in denazification and on trial in Nuremberg; his postwar relationships with émigré colleagues, including Lise Meitner; and his misrepresentation of his wartime work in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry.

  16. Prediction of B1 to B10 phase transition in LuN under pressure: An ab-initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, B. D.; Mukherjee, D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-05-01

    Ab-initio total energy calculations have been performed in lutetium nitride (LuN) as a function of hydrostatic compression to understand the high pressure behavior of this compound. Our calculations predict a phase transition from ambient rocksalt type structure (B1 phase) to a tetragonal structure (B10 phase) at ~ 240 GPa. The phase transition has been identified as first order in nature with volume discontinuity of ~ 6%. The predicted high pressure phase has been found to be stable up to at least 400 GPa, the maximum pressure up to which calculations have been performed.Further, to substantiate the results of static lattice calculations analysis of lattice dynamic stability of B1 and B10 phase has been carried out at different pressures. Apart from this, we have analyzed the lattice dynamic stability CsCl type (B2) phase around the 240 GPa, the pressure reported for B1 to B2 transition in previous all-electron calculations by Gupta et al. 2013. We find that the B2 structure is lattice dynamically unstable at this pressure and remains unstable up to ~ 400 GPa, ruling out the possibility of B1 to B2 phase transition at least up to ~ 400 GPa. Further, the theoretically determined equation of state has been utilized to derive various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus of B1 phase at ambient conditions.

  17. [Psychoanalysis and engagement: Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians].

    PubMed

    Fisher, D J

    1988-01-01

    This essay is a critique of Russell Jacoby's The repression of psychoanalysis: Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians (New York, Basic Books, 1983), translated into French by P.U.F. Jacoby depicts Fenichel and his circle of colleagues as political Freudians whose early years were decisively colored by radical youth movements, leftwing politics, the early inspiration of the Russian Revolution, a serious immersion in Marxist culture, a commitment to either socialist or communist parties, and a desire to integrate classical psychoanalysis into a a broader framework of Marxist social theorizing. He centers his book around the archival discovery of the Rundbriefe, 119 circular letters written during Fenichel's exile from 1934 to 1945. He discusses the impact of Wilhelm Reich's ideas and career on the Fenichel circle. Fascism and exile from Europe shattered the lives and commitments of the political Freudians. This essay focuses on Jacoby's use and abuse of the concepts of Americanization, medicalization, the competition from the neo-Freudians, and the apparent silence and "self-repression" of this group's past and leftwing identity once in America. It concludes with a critical analysis of Fenichel's psychoanalytic ethic, which, while engagé, was not Marxist. Fenichel was oriented toward contributing to both psychoanalytic practice and theory. His ethic precluded the intrusion of politics into clinical work, supervision, and teaching. PMID:11640268

  18. The Otto thermodynamic cycle using the magnetic molecule Ni2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Dong, Chuanding; Lefkidis, Georgios

    2012-02-01

    In order to design realistic molecular heat engines, the study of quantum thermodynamics is essential since classical thermodynamics does not apply in this extreme miniaturization limit [1,2]. Realizing a thermodynamic cycle on an existing magnetic molecule embodies a novel and unique approach to understand and exploit the thermodynamic properties of spin at the molecular level.Here we propose an Otto cycle in the Ni2 dimer based on a fully ab-initio calculation of the electronic states and the perturbative inclusion of spin-orbit coupling. A laser pulse, described by the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation, is used to heat the Ni2 dimer. The pulse not only excites the electrons to higher, many-body electronic states, but also influences the spin of the system due to spin-orbit coupling. Using a low-temperature thermal bath the system is cooled back to the ground state. The adiabatic work exchange between the Ni2 and the environment is described by the quasi-static expansion or compression of the bond length of the dimer. The calculated efficiency of the cycle is up to 34%.[1] T. D. Kieu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 140403 (2004)[2] H. T. Quan, Phys. Rev. E 79 041129 (2009)[3] T. Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. A 75 062102 (2007)

  19. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi

  20. Decline of Hesperia ottoe (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Northern Tallgrass Prairie Preserves

    PubMed Central

    Swengel, Ann B.; Swengel, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988–2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin), divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops) than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire) compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others’ butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s). In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent need to

  1. Work and efficiency of quantum Otto cycles in power-law trapping potentials.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Poletti, Dario

    2014-07-01

    We study the performance of a quantum Otto cycle operating in trapping potentials of different shapes. We show that, while both the mean work output and the efficiency of two Otto cycles in different trapping potentials can be made equal, the work probability distribution will still be strongly affected by the difference in structure of the energy levels. To exemplify our results, we study the family of potentials of the form V(t)(x) ∼ x(2q). This family of potentials possesses a simple scaling property that allows for analytical insights into the efficiency and work output of the cycle. We perform a comparison of quantum Otto cycles in various physically relevant scenarios and find that in certain instances, the efficiency of the cycle is greater when using potentials with larger values of q, while in other cases, the efficiency is greater with harmonic traps. PMID:25122289

  2. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  3. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  4. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  5. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  6. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  7. OTTO Revisited: Management Training and Management Performance. Some Perceptions of Headteachers and Key Subordinates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellawell, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a follow-up study to the 1984 One Term Training Opportunity (OTTO) for headteachers and senior teachers conducted by the City of Birmingham Polytechnic. Discusses the effects of the management training course and attempts to determine whether the performance of managers was significantly affected by management training. (GEA)

  8. Otto Peters on Distance Education: The Industrialization of Teaching and Learning. Routledge Studies in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains new and previously published translations of 11 essays and articles about the industrialization of teaching and learning in distance education that were originally published in German by Otto Peters between 1965 and 1993. A "Preface" (Desmond Keegan) and an introduction placing Peters' writings in their historical context begin…

  9. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  10. Grating-coupled Otto configuration for hybridized surface phonon polariton excitation for local refractive index sensitivity enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pechprasarn, Suejit; Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Zheng, Gaige; Shen, Hong; Lei, Dang Yuan; Somekh, Michael G

    2016-08-22

    We demonstrate numerically through rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) that replacing the prism in the Otto configuration with gratings enables us to excite and control different modes and field patterns of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) through the incident wavelength and height of the Otto spacing layer. This modified Otto configuration provides us the following multiple modes, namely, SPhP mode, Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity resonance, dielectric waveguide grating resonance (DWGR) and hybridized between different combinations of the above mentioned modes. We show that this modified grating-coupled Otto configuration has a highly confined field pattern within the structure, making it more sensitive to local refractive index changes on the SiC surface. The hybridized surface phonon polariton modes also provide a stronger field enhancement compared to conventional pure mode excitation. PMID:27557229

  11. Optimum outlet temperature of solar collector for maximum work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Eldighidy, S.M. )

    1993-09-01

    The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximizing the work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is investigated. A mathematical model for the energy balance on the solar collector along with the useful work output and the thermal efficiency of the Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is developed. The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximum work output is determined. The effect of radiative and convective heat losses from the solar collector, on the optimum outlet temperature is presented. The results reveal that the highest solar collector outlet temperature and, therefore, greatest Otto cycle efficiency and work output can be attained with the lowest values of radiative and convective heat losses. Moreover, high cycle work output (as a fraction of absorbed solar energy) and high efficiency of an Otto heat engine with ideal regeneration, driven by a solar collector system, can be attained with low compression ratio.

  12. Otto Stern (1888-1969): The founding father of experimental atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, J. P.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Friedrich, B.; Lower, J. C. A.

    2011-12-01

    We review the work and life of Otto Stern who developed the molecular beam technique and with its aid laid the foundations of experimental atomic physics. Among the key results of his research are: the experimental determination of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities (1920), experimental demonstration of space quantization of angular momentum (1922), diffraction of matter waves comprised of atoms and molecules by crystals (1931) and the determination of the magnetic dipole moments of the proton and deuteron (1933).

  13. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  14. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  15. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  16. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  17. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  18. Sound vibration signal processing for detection and identification detonation (knock) to optimize performance Otto engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujono, A.; Santoso, B.; Juwana, W. E.

    2016-03-01

    Problems of detonation (knock) on Otto engine (petrol engine) is completely unresolved problem until now, especially if want to improve the performance. This research did sound vibration signal processing engine with a microphone sensor, for the detection and identification of detonation. A microphone that can be mounted is not attached to the cylinder block, that's high temperature, so that its performance will be more stable, durable and inexpensive. However, the method of analysis is not very easy, because a lot of noise (interference). Therefore the use of new methods of pattern recognition, through filtration, and the regression function normalized envelope. The result is quite good, can achieve a success rate of about 95%.

  19. Occurrence of discontinuities in the performance of finite-time quantum Otto cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Hänggi, Peter; Poletti, Dario

    2016-07-01

    We study a quantum Otto cycle in which the strokes are performed in finite time. The cycle involves energy measurements at the end of each stroke to allow for the respective determination of work. We then optimize for the work and efficiency of the cycle by varying the time spent in the different strokes and find that the optimal value of the ratio of time spent on each stroke goes through sudden changes as the parameters of this cycle vary continuously. The position of these discontinuities depends on the optimized quantity under consideration such as the net work output or the efficiency.

  20. Occurrence of discontinuities in the performance of finite-time quantum Otto cycles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Hänggi, Peter; Poletti, Dario

    2016-07-01

    We study a quantum Otto cycle in which the strokes are performed in finite time. The cycle involves energy measurements at the end of each stroke to allow for the respective determination of work. We then optimize for the work and efficiency of the cycle by varying the time spent in the different strokes and find that the optimal value of the ratio of time spent on each stroke goes through sudden changes as the parameters of this cycle vary continuously. The position of these discontinuities depends on the optimized quantity under consideration such as the net work output or the efficiency. PMID:27575106

  1. Analysis of a quantum irreversible Otto cycle with exergetic sustainable index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalkıran, Alper; Açıkkalp, Emin; Caner, Necmettin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, exergetic sustainability index is applied to quantum irreversible Otto cycle with -1/2 spin system. Exergetic sustainability index in a quantum engine is used first time. This index is the ratio of exergy output (work output for a thermal engine) to total exergetic losses. It gives an opportunity to evaluate for all thermodynamic losses in the system, that is why, it is an important index. In addition, some thermodynamic parameters (work output, exergy destruction, first and second law efficiencies) are considered and their relationships between the exergetic sustainability index are determined.

  2. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  3. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  4. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  5. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

  6. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto cycle within finite-time or irreversible thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui

    2014-12-01

    We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures Th and Tc (Otto engine working in the linear-response regime.

  7. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto cycle within finite-time or irreversible thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui

    2014-12-01

    We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c) (Otto engine working in the linear-response regime. PMID:25615071

  8. Warburg effect(s)-a biographical sketch of Otto Warburg and his impacts on tumor metabolism.

    PubMed

    Otto, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually everyone working in cancer research is familiar with the "Warburg effect", i.e., anaerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen in tumor cells. However, few people nowadays are aware of what lead Otto Warburg to the discovery of this observation and how his other scientific contributions are seminal to our present knowledge of metabolic and energetic processes in cells. Since science is a human endeavor, and a scientist is imbedded in a network of social and academic contacts, it is worth taking a glimpse into the biography of Otto Warburg to illustrate some of these influences and the historical landmarks in his life. His creative and innovative thinking and his experimental virtuosity set the framework for his scientific achievements, which were pioneering not only for cancer research. Here, I shall allude to the prestigious family background in imperial Germany; his relationships to Einstein, Meyerhof, Krebs, and other Nobel and notable scientists; his innovative technical developments and their applications in the advancement of biomedical sciences, including the manometer, tissue slicing, and cell cultivation. The latter were experimental prerequisites for the first metabolic measurements with tumor cells in the 1920s. In the 1930s-1940s, he improved spectrophotometry for chemical analysis and developed the optical tests for measuring activities of glycolytic enzymes. Warburg's reputation brought him invitations to the USA and contacts with the Rockefeller Foundation; he received the Nobel Prize in 1931. World politics and world wars heavily affected Warburg's scientific survival in Berlin. But, after his second postwar recovery, Warburg's drive for unraveling the energetic processes of life, both in plants and in tumor cells, continued until his death in 1970. The legacy of Otto Warburg is not only the Warburg effect, but also the identification of the "respiratory ferment" and hydrogen-transferring cofactors and the isolation of glycolytic enzymes

  9. Maternal Employment Experiences Affect Children's Behavior via Mood, Cognitive Difficulties, and Parenting Behavior: A Reply to Otto and Atkinson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEwen, Karyl E.; Barling, Julian

    1994-01-01

    Reacts to commentary by Otto and Atkinson concerning MacEwen and Barling's 1991 article on effects of maternal employment experiences on children's behavior. Argues that analyses reported in original article did appropriately test hypotheses outlined in paper and that conclusions were appropriate and substantively similar to conclusions presented…

  10. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  12. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  13. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel...

  15. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  16. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure variations measured during a dynamometer driving cycle with no...-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. 86.109-94 Section 86.109-94 Protection... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel...

  18. Jung's twin brother. Otto Gross and Carl Gustav Jung. With an hitherto unpublished letter by C. G. Jung.

    PubMed

    Heuer, G

    2001-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary communication of several years of research into the life and work of the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross (1877-1920). Although he played a pivotal role in the birth of modernity, acting as a significant influence upon psychiatry, psychoanalysis, ethics, sociology and literature, he has remained virtually unknown to this day. Following a biographical sketch and an overview of his main theoretical contributions, the impact of Gross' life and work on the development of analytical theory and practice is described. His relationship with some of the key figures in psychoanalysis is presented, with particular emphasis on his connections to Jung. The paper concludes with an account of relevant contemporary interest in his work: the founding of the International Otto Gross Society, the first edition of The Collected Works of Otto Gross on the Internet, and the 1st and 2nd International Otto Gross Congresses which took place in Berlin in 1999 and at the Burghölzli Clinic, Zürich, in October 2000. PMID:11675896

  19. Quantum Otto engine of a two-level atom with single-mode fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi; He, Jizhou

    2012-04-01

    We establish a quantum Otto engine (QOE) of a two-level atom, which is confined in a one-dimensional (1D) harmonic trap and is coupled to single-mode radiation fields. Besides two adiabatic processes, the QOE cycle consists of two isochoric processes, along one of which the two-level atom as the working substance interacts with a single-mode radiation field. Based on the semigroup approach, we derive the time for completing any adiabatic process and then present a performance analysis of the heat engine model. Furthermore, we generalize the results to the performance optimization for a QOE of a single two-level atom trapped in a 1D power-law potential. Our result shows that the efficiency at maximum power output is dependent on the trap exponent θ but is independent of the energy spectrum index σ.

  20. Quantum Otto engine of a two-level atom with single-mode fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi; He, Jizhou

    2012-04-01

    We establish a quantum Otto engine (QOE) of a two-level atom, which is confined in a one-dimensional (1D) harmonic trap and is coupled to single-mode radiation fields. Besides two adiabatic processes, the QOE cycle consists of two isochoric processes, along one of which the two-level atom as the working substance interacts with a single-mode radiation field. Based on the semigroup approach, we derive the time for completing any adiabatic process and then present a performance analysis of the heat engine model. Furthermore, we generalize the results to the performance optimization for a QOE of a single two-level atom trapped in a 1D power-law potential. Our result shows that the efficiency at maximum power output is dependent on the trap exponent θ but is independent of the energy spectrum index σ. PMID:22680458

  1. Low-threshold optical bistability with multilayer graphene-covering Otto configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hengliang; Wu, Jipeng; Guo, Jun; Jiang, Leyong; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified Otto configuration to realize tunable and low-threshold optical bistability at terahertz frequencies by attaching multilayer graphene sheets to a nonlinear substrate interface. Our work demonstrates that the threshold of optical bistability can be markedly reduced (three orders of magnitude) by covering the nonlinear substrate with multilayer graphene sheets, due to strong local field enhancement with the excitation of surface plasmons. We present the influences of the Fermi energy of graphene, the incident angle, the thickness of air gap and the relaxation time of graphene on the hysteresis phenomenon and give a way to optimize the surface plasmon resonance, which will enable us to further lower the minimal power requirements for realizing optical bistability due to the strong interaction of light with graphene sheets. These results are promising for realization of terahertz optical switches, optical modulators and logical devices.

  2. Much Polyphony but Little Harmony: Otto Sackur's Groping for a Quantum Theory of Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badino, Massimiliano; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2013-09-01

    The endeavor of Otto Sackur (1880-1914) was driven, on the one hand, by his interest in Nernst's heat theorem, statistical mechanics, and the problem of chemical equilibrium and, on the other hand, by his goal to shed light on classical mechanics from the quantum vantage point. Inspired by the interplay between classical physics and quantum theory, Sackur chanced to expound his personal take on the role of the quantum in the changing landscape of physics in the turbulent 1910s. We tell the story of this enthusiastic practitioner of the old quantum theory and early contributor to quantum statistical mechanics, whose scientific ontogenesis provides a telling clue about the phylogeny of his contemporaries.

  3. Life and Achievement of Otto von Guericke as a Pioneer of Vacuum Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Akira

    Scientific achievement of Otto von Guericke was very remarkable, but it was not introduced in detail in Japan. This was due to his demonstrating experiment with Magdeburug hemisphere using horses was too famous. Therefore, the author wrote in chapter 1, a brief overview of the literature already published in Japan about Guericke and the time he lived in. Chapter 2 will describe his entire life including administrative and political contributions to the city of Magdeburg. Chapter 3 will be used to provide the reader with information on Guericke's activities as physicist, drawing materials from his book. In chapter 4, the author concludes to remark the work to be done in future to obtain clearer description.

  4. Quantum Otto cycle with inner friction: finite-time and disorder effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecce, A.; Galve, F.; Lo Gullo, N.; Dell'Anna, L.; Plastina, F.; Zambrini, R.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of inner friction, by which a quantum heat engine is unable to follow adiabatically its strokes and thus dissipates useful energy, is illustrated in an exact physical model where the working substance consists of an ensemble of misaligned spins interacting with a magnetic field and performing the Otto cycle. The effect of this static disorder under a finite-time cycle gives a new perspective of the concept of inner friction under realistic settings. We investigate the efficiency and power of this engine and relate its performance to the amount of friction from misalignment and to the temperature difference between heat baths. Finally we propose an alternative experimental implementation of the cycle where the spin is encoded in the degree of polarization of photons.

  5. [Textual research on decipher of"prescriptions for treating children's head sore"from Zhi re bing yao lun (Essentials on Treatment of Febrile Diseases) in the Western Xia regime].

    PubMed

    Tang, X L; Liu, J Y

    2016-03-01

    There were 3 prescriptions for treating children's head sore, инв6476-28, 29, 30 preserved in Russia, included in the Zhi re bing yao lun (Essentials on Treatment of Febrile Diseases), a medical literature of the Western Xia regime. Based on the correlated relationship between the Tangut language and the Chinese characters, the 3 prescriptions were translated into Chinese, and then compared with Chinese medical documents. It could be seen that medical system in the Western Xia regime had an inseparable relationship with that of the Han nationality, while keeping the features of the northwestern nomadic nationalities at the same time. PMID:27255199

  6. Practice of the Education for the Principle of Otto Cycle by the E-Learning CG-Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomoaki; Nagaoka, Keizo; Oguchi, Kosei

    A CG-animation content which supports the learning of the Otto cycle was developed. This content has a piston assembly and the diagrams of PV, VS, TP and TS. The each diagram has a pointer which moves along the line of the graph and they are synchronized with the movement of the piston. The learners can operate this content directly on the e-learning system. While watching the movements of the piston assembly, the learners can confirm the state of the engine about temperature, pressure, volume, and entropy by the synchronized pointer on the diagrams. This content was used for the class of the machining practice exercise. The learning effect of the content was examined by the score of the short test. As the result of this examination, the CG-animation content was effective in the learning of the Otto cycle.

  7. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), pursuant to section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act (Act), is granting California its request for a waiver of Clean Air Act preemption for three sets of amendments applicable to its heavy-duty Otto-cycle engines and incomplete vehicle regulations for the 2004, 2005 through 2007, and 2008 and subsequent model year regulations. These amendments align each......

  8. Numerical simulation and analysis of power consumption and Metzner-Otto constant for impeller of 6PBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Deyu; Chen, Qiao; Zhou, Shenjie

    2014-05-01

    Majority of non-Newtonian fluids are pseudoplastic with shear-thinning property, which means that the viscosity will be different in different parts of the stirred tank. In such mixing process, it is difficult to predict accurately the power consumption and mean shear rate for designing novel impeller. Metzner-Otto method is a widely accepted method to solve these questions in mixing non-Newtonian fluids. As a result, Metzner-Otto constant will become a key factor to achieve an optimum way of economical mixing. In this paper, taking glycerine and xanthan gum solutions as research system, the power consumption, stirred by the impeller composed of perturbed six-bent-bladed turbine (6PBT) with differently geometrical characteristics in a cylindrical vessel, is studied by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow is modeled as laminar and a multiple reference frame (MRF) approach is used to solve the discretized equations of motion. In order to determine the capability of CFD to forecast the flow process, the torque test experiment is used to measure the glycerine solution power consumption. The rheological properties of the xanthan gum solutions are determined by a Brookfield rheometer. It is observed that the power consumption predicted by numerical simulation agrees well with those measured using torque experiment method in stirring glycerine solution, which validate the numerical model. Metzner-Otto constant is almost not correlated with the flow behavior index of pseudoplastic fluids. This paper establishes the complete correlations of power constant and Metzner-Otto constant with impeller geometrical characteristics through linear regression analysis, which provides the valuable instructions and references for accurately predicting the power consumption and mean shear rate of pseudoplastic fluids in laminar flow, comparatively.

  9. Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank: debates and confrontations about anxiety and birth.

    PubMed

    Pizarro Obaid, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    The publication of Otto Rank's The Trauma of Birth (1924) gave rise to an intense debate within the secret Committee and confronted Freud with one of his most beloved disciples. After analyzing the letters that the Professor exchanged with his closest collaborators and reviewing the works he published during this period, it is clear that anxiety was a crucial element among the topics in dispute. His reflections linked to the signal anxiety concept allowed Freud to refute Rank's thesis that defined birth trauma as the paradigmatic key to understanding neurosis, and, in turn, was a way of confirming the validity of the concepts of Oedipus complex, repression and castration in the conceptualization of anxiety. The reasons for the modifications of anxiety theory in the mid-1920s cannot be reduced, as Freud would affirm officially in his work of 1926, to the detection of internal contradictions in his theory or to the desire to establish a metapsychological version of the problem, for they gain their essential impulse from the debate with Rank. PMID:22671256

  10. CQUEAN: New CCD Camera System For The Otto Struve Telescope At The McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Soojong; Park, W.; Im, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the overall characteristics and the performance of an optical CCD camera system, Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (CQUEAN), which is being used at the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory since 2010 August. CQUEAN was developed for follow-up imaging observations of near infrared bright sources such as high redshift quasar candidates (z > 4.5), Gamma Ray Bursts, brown dwarfs, and young stellar objects. For efficient observations of the red objects, CQUEAN has a science camera with a deep depletion CCD chip. By employing an auto-guiding system and a focal reducer to enhance the field of view at the classic cassegrain focus, we achieved a stable guiding in 20 minute exposures, an imaging quality with FWHM > 0.6 arcsec over the whole field (4.8 × 4.8 arcmin), and a limiting magnitude of z = 23.4 AB mag at 5-sigma with one hour integration.

  11. Walther Nernst, Albert Einstein, Otto Stern, and the Specific Heat of Hydrogen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Clayton

    2007-04-01

    In 1911, the German physical chemist Walther Nernst observed that the new quantum theory might both clarify unresolved problems in the specific heats of gases and shed new light on quantum theory itself. He noted that measurements of the specific heat of hydrogen gas at low temperatures might be particularly informative. Arnold Euken, working in Nernst's laboratory in Berlin, published the first measurements in 1912. They showed a sharp drop, corresponding to the rotational degrees of freedom ``freezing out.'' Nernst also developed a theory in his 1911 paper, in which, remarkably, rotational energies were not quantized. Instead, the specific heat fell off because the gas was in equilibrium with quantized Planck oscillators. Nernst's theory was flawed But Einstein adopted an improved version at the 1911 Solvay Conference, and in 1913, he and Otto Stern published a more detailed treatment, in which they suggested tentatively that Planck's recently introduced zero-point energy might reduce or even eliminate the need to quantize physical systems. This episode points out just how mysterious quantum phenomena seemed early in the 20th century.

  12. In AppreciationA Lifetime of Connections: Otto Herbert Schmitt, 1913 - 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Jon M.

    Otto H. Schmitt was born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1913. As a youth, he displayed an affinity for electrical engineering but also pursued a wide range of other interests. He applied his multi-disciplinary talents as an undergraduate and graduate student at Washington University, where he worked in three departments: physics, zoology, and mathematics. For his doctoral research, Schmitt designed and built an electronic device to mimic the propagation of action potentials along nerve fibers. His most famous invention, now called the Schmitt trigger, arose from this early research. Schmitt spent most of his career at the University of Minnesota, where he did pioneering work in biophysics and bioengineering. He also worked at national and international levels to place biophysics and bioengineering on sound institutional footings. His years at Minnesota were interrupted by World War II. During that conflict - and the initial months of the Cold War to follow - Schmitt carried out defense-related research at the Airborne Instruments Laboratory in New York. Toward the end of his career at Minnesota, Schmitt coined the term biomimetics. He died in 1998.

  13. Quantum Otto engine using a single ion and a single thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Chand, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum heat engines employ a quantum system as the working fluid, that gives rise to large work efficiency, beyond the limit for classical heat engines. Existing proposals for implementing quantum heat engines require that the system interacts with the hot bath and the cold bath (both modelled as a classical system) in an alternative fashion and therefore assumes ability to switch off the interaction with the bath during a certain stage of the heat-cycle. However, it is not possible to decouple a quantum system from its always-on interaction with the bath without use of complex pulse sequences. It is also hard to identify two different baths at two different temperatures in quantum domain, that sequentially interact with the system. Here, we show how to implement a quantum Otto engine without requiring to decouple the bath in a sequential manner. This is done by considering a single thermal bath, coupled to a single trapped ion. The electronic degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as a two-level working fluid while the vibrational degree of freedom plays the role of the cold bath. Measuring the electronic state mimics the release of heat into the cold bath. Thus, our model is fully quantum and exhibits very large work efficiency, asymptotically close to unity.

  14. A point of view on Otto cycle approach specific for an undergraduate thermodynamics course in CMU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memet, F.; Preda, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper refers to the description of the way in which can be presented to future marine engineers the analyzis of the performance of an Otto cycle, in a manner which is beyond the classic approach of the course of thermodynamics in Constanta Maritime University. The conventional course of thermodynamics is dealing with the topic of performance analysis of the cycle of the internal combustion engine with isochoric combustion for the situation in which the working medium is treated as such a perfect gas. This type of approach is viable only when are considered relatively small temperature differences. But this is the situation when specific heats are seen as constant. Instead, the practical experience has shown that small temperature differences are not viable, resulting the need for variable specific heat evaluation. The presentation bellow is available for the adiabatic exponent written as a liniar function depending on temperature. In the section of this paper dedicated to methods and materials, the situation in which the specific heat is taken as constant is not neglected, additionaly being given the algorithm for variable specific heat.For the both cases it is given the way in which it is assessed the work output. The calculus is based on the cycle shown in temperature- entropy diagram, in which are also indicated the irreversible adiabatic compression and expansion. The experience achieved after understanding this theory will allow to future professionals to deal successfully with the design practice of internal combustion engines.

  15. Mid-infrared Otto excitation of transverse electric modes in doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Mendieta, F.

    2015-04-01

    We have studied numerically the excitation of surface modes of transverse electric polarization in doped graphene. Using the prism-based Otto configuration, the electromagnetic resonances were found within ultra-tiny angular windows of width of order of Δ θ i = 10-3 degrees or lower, beyond the critical angle where evanescent fields are already available. We obtained absorption peaks of angular position strongly dependent on the prism-graphene separation d, which is larger than dc, the cutoff prism-graphene separation. We prove numerically that dc depends on the graphene parameters and can be written as d c = α / 2 , where α ( ω ) is the decay length of the electromagnetic field of the modes. With doping levels of Fermi energy 0.2 eV ≤ μ ≤ 0.3 eV, we found resonances within the range of 80-145 THz. The numerical calculations show the mayor role played by the graphene losses that, indeed, can obliterate the mode resonance.

  16. Young Otto Struve: The Education and Development of A Research Scientist 1921-1932

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1995-12-01

    Otto Struve arrived at Yerkes Observatory from Turkey in October 1921, the penniless survivor of a defeated army. Then 24 years old, he immediately began his studies and assistantship as the only graduate student at the observatory. Eleven years later he became its "boy director." His education, training, research experience and development are described in the context of Yerkes Observatory, and of American graduate and post-graduate work in astronomy of the time. Under Director Edwin B. Frost, Yerkes Observatory's main program was radial-velocity measurements of O, B, and A stars. Struve worked on it and did his thesis on spectroscopic binaries. A prodigious achiever, he was appointed to the faculty as an instructor as soon as he received his doctorate. On his own he jumped into frontier research on interstellar absorption lines, based in large part on existing spectrograms taken for the radial-velocity program. Reviewing Cecilia Payne's book on stellar atmospheres in 1926 converted Struve to a self-taught observational astrophysicist. Research leaves at Mount Wilson and Harvard, with working visits to Lick and the DAO, plus a Guggenheim year at Cambridge with Arthur S. Eddington, broadened his horizons. Struve always observed diligently, published frequently, attended AAS meetings, presented oral papers, and discussed his research with others. With practically no knowledge of modern physics, he cultivated others who were experts in it, beginning with Pol Swings, a visitor from Belgium. By 1932 Struve was ready to become director of Yerkes Observatory, and to lead it back into its place as a leading astrophysical research center, for which George Ellery Hale had founded it.

  17. ["...so that he himself must use all his energy to control the hallucinations...". King Otto of Bavaria and Munich psychiatry around 1900].

    PubMed

    Burgmair, Wolfgang; Weber, Matthias M

    2002-01-01

    King Otto of Bavaria (1848-1916), brother of "Dreamking" Ludwig II., had suffered from a severe psychiatric disorder since he was an adolescent. According to court manners of the time the psychopathological symptoms were at first neglected. After a public scandal in 1875 Otto was treated by the Munich psychiatrist Bernhard von Gudden who used a variety of methods. These changing therapeutic measures reflected the scientific development of psychiatry during the second half of the 19th century. Since 1879 Otto, together with his princely household, was put into Fürstenried Castle near Munich where the so-called "Prinzenärzte" took over responsibility for medical care. In Fürstenried, the neuropathologist Franz Nissl, who served as Otto's "Prinzenarzt" from 1885 to 1887, brought into perfection his famous staining methods for neuronal tissue. Despite his mental incapacity Otto was proclaimed king of Bavaria after the dreamkings's death in 1886. The close connection between the "High Patient" and his doctors strengthened the social position of psychiatry as a public task. PMID:12168233

  18. Reviving astrometry on the McDonald observatory 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J.; Riddle, A.

    2014-07-01

    The first regular observations of asteroids at McDonald observatory started in 1950 with a 10-inch telescope as part of the Yerkes-McDonald survey, which was followed by a long lull after its completion in 1952. Astrometric observations resumed in the early 70s using the 2.1-m telescope, but were mainly of faint outer solar system satellites to support the emerging planetary space program. Observation of asteroids was later added to the program in order to refine the fundamental reference frame and to aid Hubble Space Telescope astrometry. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been the main emphasis since 1995 using a 0.76 m telescope, which worked very well while the surveys concentrated on objects 1 km or larger. However, NASA's mission to discover and catalogue NEOs has been extended down to objects 140 m in size. Most of these new NEO candidates are outside the reach of the 0.76-m telescope. In 2011, the Otto Struve telescope has received a new instrument, the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse, or CQUEAN (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams, as it provides measurable images of a 19th magnitude source with a single 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.8' by 4.8', with 0.281 arcsec/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the point-spread function for precision astrometry. Although this telescope is 75 years old, we are getting circular stellar images for exposures up to 240 seconds with the CQUEAN auto-guider. We obtained images of M71 at three different air masses during two nights in the Sloan i and r filter bands. The σ of the standard coordinate residuals is a little under 0.07 seconds of arc for both cases. We have also looked at the field of view for systematic errors both in direction and magnitude, and we found it to be satisfactorily uniform. The overall quality of our data is improved due to better angular resolution and dome seeing. Based on

  19. Experimental investigation and modeling of an aircraft Otto engine operating with gasoline and heavier fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldivar Olague, Jose

    A Continental "O-200" aircraft Otto-cycle engine has been modified to burn diesel fuel. Algebraic models of the different processes of the cycle were developed from basic principles applied to a real engine, and utilized in an algorithm for the simulation of engine performance. The simulation provides a means to investigate the performance of the modified version of the Continental engine for a wide range of operating parameters. The main goals of this study are to increase the range of a particular aircraft by reducing the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and to show that such an engine can burn heavier fuels (such as diesel, kerosene, and jet fuel) instead of gasoline. Such heavier fuels are much less flammable during handling operations making them safer than aviation gasoline and very attractive for use in flight operations from naval vessels. The cycle uses an electric spark to ignite the heavier fuel at low to moderate compression ratios, The stratified charge combustion process is utilized in a pre-chamber where the spray injection of the fuel occurs at a moderate pressure of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa). One advantage of fuel injection into the combustion chamber instead of into the intake port, is that the air-to-fuel ratio can be widely varied---in contrast to the narrower limits of the premixed combustion case used in gasoline engines---in order to obtain very lean combustion. Another benefit is that higher compression ratios can be attained in the modified cycle with heavier fuels. The combination of injection into the chamber for lean combustion, and higher compression ratios allow to limit the peak pressure in the cylinder, and to avoid engine damage. Such high-compression ratios are characteristic of Diesel engines and lead to increase in thermal efficiency without pre-ignition problems. In this experimental investigation, operations with diesel fuel have shown that considerable improvements in the fuel efficiency are possible. The results of

  20. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND...

  1. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  2. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  3. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  4. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  5. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86.110-94 Section 86.110-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND...

  6. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  7. Entransy analysis and optimization of performance of nano-scale irreversible Otto cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann ideal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar

    2016-08-01

    This paper made attempt to investigate thermodynamically a nano scale irreversible Otto cycle for optimizing its performance. This system employed an ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas as a working fluid. Two different scenarios were proposed in the multi-objective optimization process and the results of each of the scenarios were examined separately. The first scenario made attempt to maximize the dimensionless ecological function and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. Furthermore, the second scenario tried to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. The multi objective evolutionary method integrated with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was used to optimize the proposed objective functions. To determine the final output of each scenario, three efficient decision makers were employed. Finally, error analysis was employed to determine the deviation of solutions chosen by decision makers.

  8. The evolution of the discipline of pharmacology amid an era of global turbulence: the unique contributions of Otto Krayer (1899-1982).

    PubMed

    Rubin, Ronald P

    2014-08-01

    This article revisits the life and times of Otto Krayer, a gifted scientist, teacher and administrator. His unique contributions to the discipline of pharmacology and to the biomedical sciences are chronicled in the wake of the political upheaval that crippled German science during the 1930s. The anti-scientific attitude that pervaded Germany at the time led to the exile of Krayer and many other eminent scientists. Their fate is recounted, as well as the negative impact on science caused by a National Socialist regime that blatantly disregarded basic scientific principles. The threat of intolerance and unethical behaviour still remains a key obstacle to scientific creativity. PMID:24906402

  9. "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making": Correction to Otto et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Reports an error in "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making" by Ashley S. Otto, Joshua J. Clarkson and Frank R. Kardes (, 2016[Jul], Vol 111[1], 1-16). In the article, the main heading for Experiment 3 was missing due to a production error, and the first sentence of the first paragraph of Experiment 3 should begin as follows: Experiment 2 offered support for the hypothesis that those seeking closure engage in decision sidestepping to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) We all too often have to make decisions-from the mundane (e.g., what to eat for breakfast) to the complex (e.g., what to buy a loved one)-and yet there exists a multitude of strategies that allows us to make a decision. This work focuses on a subset of decision strategies that allows individuals to make decisions by bypassing the decision-making process-a phenomenon we term decision sidestepping. Critical to the present manuscript, however, we contend that decision sidestepping stems from the motivation to achieve closure. We link this proposition back to the fundamental nature of closure and how those seeking closure are highly bothered by decision making. As such, we argue that the motivation to achieve closure prompts a reliance on sidestepping strategies (e.g., default bias, choice delegation, status quo bias, inaction inertia, option fixation) to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. In support of this framework, five experiments demonstrate that (a) those seeking closure are more likely to engage in decision sidestepping, (b) the effect of closure on sidestepping stems from the bothersome nature of decision making, and (c) the reliance on sidestepping results in downstream consequences for subsequent choice. Taken together, these findings offer unique insight into the cognitive motivations stimulating a reliance on decision sidestepping and

  10. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1 /2 coupled to an arbitrary spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Ã.-zgür E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1 /2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s ), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  11. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1/2 coupled to an arbitrary spin.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1/2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism. PMID:26382378

  12. Registration of 'Otto' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to strawbreaker foot rot (caused by Oculimacula yallundae Crous & W. Gams and O. acuformis Crous & W. Gams) and to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) are important traits for winter wheat cultivars produced in the Pacifi Northwest region of the Uni...

  13. The Pre-Anschluss Vienna School of Medicine - The medical scientists: Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) and Otto Loewi (1873-1961).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lily Bzl; Shaw, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Two famous medical scientists are described whose major advances were made largely from laboratory-based research. Karl Landsteiner, who received the Nobel Prize in 1930, was the discoverer or co-discoverer of the blood groups and the Rhesus factor. He contributed to the understanding of poliomyelitis, syphilis and typhus. He made major contributions to immunology, inter alia by isolating haptens. After World War I, he left Austria and continued his work initially in the Netherlands and then at the Rockefeller Institute in the USA. Otto Loewi, a pharmacologist, received his Nobel Prize (jointly with his life-long friend, Sir Henry Dale) in 1936 for his discovery that acetylcholine was the chemical agent for the stimulation of autonomic nerves to transmit to the organs they govern. He also made numerous other contributions including the demonstration that amino acids could be converted by animals to proteins. He left Austria after the Anschluss and settled in the USA. PMID:25052151

  14. Photosynthetic acclimation to drought stress in Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings is largely dependent on thermal dissipation and enhanced electron flux to photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Campos, Huitziméngari; Trejo, Carlos; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Conde-Martínez, F Víctor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck, a crassulacean acid metabolism plant that is adapted to water-limited environments, has great potential for bioenergy production. However, drought stress decreases the requirement for light energy, and if the amount of incident light exceeds energy consumption, the photosynthetic apparatus can be injured, thereby limiting plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of A. salmiana seedlings. The leaf relative water content and leaf water potential decreased to 39.6 % and -1.1 MPa, respectively, over 115 days of water withholding and recovered after re-watering. Drought caused a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in light-acclimated leaves, as indicated by a decrease in the photosynthetic electron transport rate. Additionally, down-regulation of photochemical activity occurred mainly through the inactivation of PSII reaction centres and an increased thermal dissipation capacity of the leaves. Prompt fluorescence kinetics also showed a larger pool of terminal electron acceptors in photosystem I (PSI) as well as an increase in some JIP-test parameters compared to controls, reflecting an enhanced efficiency and specific fluxes for electron transport from the plastoquinone pool to the PSI terminal acceptors. All the above parameters showed similar levels after re-watering. These results suggest that the thermal dissipation of excess energy and the increased energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of PSI end acceptors may be an important acclimation mechanism to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from over-excitation in Agave plants. PMID:24798124

  15. [Otto Lubarsch (1860-1933) and pathology at the Berlin Charité from 1917 to 1928. From the trauma of war time destruction to the daily routine of a German national university teacher of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the interdependence of medicine and society in a situation of political crisis. The example of the Pathological Institute at the University of Berlin illustrates how non-scientific, political measures exerted an influence on daily scientific work via the Science Ministry as well as the director and the staff of the Institute. Not only did financial problems of the German State and difficulties of the Prussian Science Ministry in keeping the Institute running hamper successful work in Pathology; moreover, the political ambitions of its director, Otto Lubarsch, and the changes in daily life as a result of the general situation of misery had their impact on scientific work. Therefore, an examination of the interdependence between medical science and politics should not be limited to physicians who are enrolled in a political party. Furthermore, research must be undertaken on the level of laboratory communities and everyday-life with the help of archive material. PMID:9522647

  16. Knocking in the Otto-cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinhart, H

    1939-01-01

    Engine knock is, as is known, preceded by normal burning of the first part of the charge, and only the part burned last (residual charge), knocks. The aim of the present measurements was, first, to reexamine the combustion form in this residual charge, because of the absence of uniform and frequently contradictory results in the very extensive literature on the subject. On top of that, an attempt was to be made to gain a deeper insight into the mechanism accompanying the combustion process, by means of the electrical test equipment perfected in recent years.

  17. Heckmann, Otto Hermann Leopold (1901-83)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astrometrist and cosmologist, became director of the Hamburg Observatory, and of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. By determining the motions of the stars in the direction of several star clusters (including the Praesepe, or Beehive cluster), he was able to see which stars were moving together in the cluster, and which, although in the same direction, were moving differently. Eliminati...

  18. Otto Stern and the double bank shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, R. N.

    1988-06-01

    In analogy to a double surface scattering study of Estermann, Frisch and Stern for selecting and detecting the velocity of a beam of particles, it is proposed to use double surface scattering to investigate the collision dynamics of a beam of polarized particles with a known surface. In this proposed experiment, the first surface scattering event prepares a polarized (aligned/oriented) beam of particles, and the second surface scattering event permits the measurement of how the polarized beam interacts with the surface under study.

  19. Three new polar species of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae).

    PubMed

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2014-01-01

    Two sternaspid species, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 and S. scutata (Ranzani, 1817), have been recorded from many localities including polar or subpolar environments. The study of the collections of five major institutions cannot confirm their presence in high latitudes. On the contrary, the specimens are regarded as different, undescribed species, and are herein described as one from Arctic environments, S. buzhinskajae n. sp., and two others from Antarctic localities: S. monroi n. sp., and S. sendalli n. sp. A key to identify all Sternaspis species is included.  PMID:25283413

  20. The quantum Otto mobile and its application to directed energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Alan E.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2004-09-01

    We show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of a laser system by adding a classical heat engine cycle to the laser gas that can remove both thermal and vibrational energy from the gas. A rapid pulsed CO2 laser/gas expansion cycle engine and a continuous CO2 laser, Stirling or Brayton cycle engine are analyzed. We derive a theoretical total energy recovery efficiency for a CO2 laser combined with a classical heat engine of 89%. Then, several distinctly different functional laser-coupled heat engine designs will be evaluated to determine the viability of these concepts in practice. Ultimate practical device efficiencies are projected to reach 75% efficiency.

  1. Otto Stern, the Gdh Sum Rule and Various Spin Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel, D.

    2001-02-01

    The history of spin and anomalous magnetic moment is full of puzzles and "crises" from the first observations in the 1920's to the present day. The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule connects the anomalous magnetic moment with the helicity dependent cross section for photoproduction, and as such checks the internal consistency of our understanding of the nucleon spin structure. Various generalizations of the sum rule have been proposed for the case of virtual photons, thus interpolating from the real photon point to deep inelastic scattering. A series of recent and newly proposed experiments with beam and target/recoil polarization will study this transition between the coherent spin-dependent response and the incoherent response of the partons in the scaling region.

  2. Thermal entangled four-level quantum Otto heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xian; He, JiZhou

    2012-10-01

    Based on a two-qubit isotropic Heisenberg XXX model with a constant external magnetic field, we construct a four-level entangled quantum heat engine (QHE). The expressions for several thermodynamic quantities such as the heat transferred, the work and efficiency are derived. Moreover, the influence of the entanglement on the thermodynamic quantities is investigated analytically and numerically. Several interesting features of the variation of the heat transferred, the work and the efficiency with the concurrences of the thermal entanglement of different thermal equilibrium states are obtained.

  3. Fluid Dynamics Prize Otto Laporte Lecture:Turbulence and Aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte-Bellot, Genevieve

    2014-11-01

    Some significant advances obtained over the years for two closely related fields, Turbulence and Aeroacoustics, are presented. Particular focus is placed on experimental results and on physical mechanisms. For example, for a 2D channel flow, skewness factors of velocity fluctuations are discussed. The study of isotropic turbulence generated by grids in the «Velvet wind tunnel» of Stanley Corrsin, constitutes a masterpiece. Of particular note are the Eulerian memory times, analysed for all wavenumbers. Concerning hot-wire anemometry, the potential of the new constant voltage technique is presented. Some results obtained with Particule Image Velocimetry are also reported. Two flow control examples are illustrated: lift generation for a circular cylinder, and noise reduction for a high speed jet. Finally, the propagation of acoustic waves through turbulence is considered. Experimental data are here completed by numerical simulations showing the possible occurrence of caustics.

  4. Otto Laporte Award Talk - In light of Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Fluid mechanics, in its inherent non-linear beauty, has been its own laboratory, testing our perseverance and dedication to a branch of science that, despite its perceived maturity, still has many surprises to offer. For many of us, the study of fluid flow has been our path to understanding the complexity of nature. My journey has taken me through many interesting projects including the development of new visualization tools, scrutinizing the rhythms of the human heart, observing flow vortices and studying the dynamics of soap films. But this lecture is mainly devoted to a new example of my research activities where light and flow physics interweave to display another intriguing multi-physics beauty of nature.

  5. [The accident and death of King Stanislas at Lunéville in February 1766. The drugs used for his burns and his embalmment. Reflections on this treatment].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2007-10-01

    Early in the morning of february 5th, 1766, King Stanislas, Duke of Lorraine and Bar, 88 years old, is seriously burned after a fall near the fire-place of his room. The medical treatment carried out by his physicians aims to cure his burns, but also to avoid infection and sustain his general state. But Stanislas dies on february 23th, probably of septicemia and major metabolic abnormalities. After the description of the accident, of the treatment and of the evolution of king's state, the paper studies the composition and effect hoped of the drugs administered with respect to the ideas and knowledges of this moment. Then some words are devoted to Jean-Gaspard Vockel, the apothecary of the king, the probable supplier of the drugs and the proved supplier of the products used for the embalmment. The last part of the paper offers a reflection on the treatment, on the possibility or not to save Stanislas, taking in account the importance of his burns, the current pathophysiological knowledges and the therapeutical measures which come from them that would have been taken today. PMID:18348499

  6. The Otto Aufranc Award: Enhanced Biocompatibility of Stainless Steel Implants by Titanium Coating and Microarc Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young Wook; Kwon, Soon Yong; Sun, Doo Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Background Stainless steel is one of the most widely used biomaterials for internal fixation devices, but is not used in cementless arthroplasty implants because a stable oxide layer essential for biocompatibility cannot be formed on the surface. We applied a Ti electron beam coating, to form oxide layer on the stainless steel surface. To form a thicker oxide layer, we used a microarc oxidation process on the surface of Ti coated stainless steel. Modification of the surface using Ti electron beam coating and microarc oxidation could improve the ability of stainless steel implants to osseointegrate. Questions/purposes The ability of cells to adhere to grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated stainless steel in vitro was compared with that of two different types of surface modifications, machined and titanium-coated, and microarc-oxidated. Methods We performed energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy investigations to assess the chemical composition and structure of the stainless steel surfaces and cell morphology. The biologic responses of an osteoblastlike cell line (SaOS-2) were examined by measuring proliferation (cell proliferation assay), differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity), and attraction ability (cell migration assay). Results Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, migration, and adhesion were increased in the grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated group compared to the two other groups. Osteoblastlike cells on the grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated surface were strongly adhered, and proliferated well compared to those on the other surfaces. Conclusions The surface modifications we used (grit blasting, titanium coating, microarc oxidation) enhanced the biocompatibility (proliferation and migration of osteoblastlike cells) of stainless steel. Clinical Relevance This process is not unique to stainless steel; it can be applied to many metals to improve their biocompatibility, thus allowing a broad range of materials to be used for cementless implants. PMID:20936386

  7. Otto Laport Lecture: A Fascination with Fluids: Vortices and Vortex Breakdown.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworthy, Tony

    2011-11-01

    The problem of the dynamics of long slender vortices, e.g., tornadoes, dust devils, waterspouts, fire whirls, internal flow in rotating machinery, leading edge and trailing vortices on lifting surfaces, etc, has been a fascination for me for close to 50 years. A sequence of experimental studies will be presented, together with reasoned physical explanations and related theoretical arguments, that attempt to bring some order to the sometimes-controversial discussion that has swirled about the subject during that time.

  8. Two new species of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) from China seas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuwen; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Xu, Kuidong

    2015-01-01

    Two species of Sternaspidae, Sternaspis chinensis sp. nov. and S. liui sp. nov., are described based on historic material and recently collected specimens in the sea areas of China. Sternaspis chinensis is abundantly distributed from the Bohai Sea southwards to the East China Sea. It has been frequently misidentified as the nominally cosmopolitan species S. scutata (Ranzani, 1817) in China since the 1950s. However, S. chinensis differs from the latter by possessing concentric bands on the shield (vs. absent) and crenulated posterior margin reaching or slightly expanded beyond the posterolateral corners (vs. posterior margin smooth and markedly expanded beyond the posterolateral corners). Sternaspis chinensis most resembles the NE Pacific species S. affinis Stimpson, 1864, but differs distinctly by its markedly concentric bands decorated from margin to center (vs. mainly restricted in the marginal area). Sternaspis liui is characterized within the genus by its slightly soft shield with firmly adhered sediment particles, which gives it a superficial resemblance to species of Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013. However, the shields of the latter are remarkably soft and poorly developed, without ribs and concentric lines, while in Sternaspis liui both the ribs and concentric lines are well defined. Variations of both species with remarks on juvenile shield development are provided. PMID:26701437

  9. Otto Laporte Award Lecture: Control of Turbulent Boundary Layers: State of the Art - 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, John

    2001-11-01

    Control of turbulent boundary layers has been a subject of much interest because of its high potential payoffs. The control of turbulent boundary layers requires, however, a thorough understanding of the underlying physics of the turbulent flow and an efficient control algorithm, both of which have been less than satisfactory. Great strides on both fronts have been made through the recent advancement in computational fluid dynamics and control theories. New approaches to controller design are significantly different from existing approaches, which were mostly based on the investigator's physical insight into the flow, in that modern control theories are incorporated into the controller design. Examples include systems control-theoretic approaches such as H_2- and H_∞-control, and adjoint-based optimal/suboptimal controls. Some of these approaches explicitly exploit certain linear mechanisms present in the wall-bounded shear flow, and their success suggests the importance of linear mechanisms in the turbulent (and hence, nonlinear) flow. Although all of these new approaches have been thus far based on numerical experiments (and yet to be verified in laboratory experiments), they have shown great promise and present a new approach to flow control. The success and limitation of various new controllers and their implications will be discussed.

  10. 2001 ASPET Otto Krayer Award Lecture. Molecular targets for antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E

    2001-04-01

    There are a number of virus-specific processes within the virus replicative cycle or virus-infected cell that have proven to be attractive targets for chemotherapeutic intervention, i.e., virus adsorption and entry into the cells, reverse (RNA --> DNA) transcription, viral DNA polymerization, and cellular enzymatic reactions that are associated with viral DNA and RNA synthesis and viral mRNA maturation (i.e., methylation). A variety of chemotherapeutic agents, both nucleoside (and nucleotide) and non-nucleoside entities, have been identified that specifically interact with these viral targets, that selectively inhibit virus replication, and that are either used or considered for clinical use in the treatment of virus infections in humans. Their indications encompass virtually all major human viral pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human papilloma virus (HPV), orthomyxoviruses (influenza A and B), paramyxoviruses [e.g., respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)] and hemorrhagic fever viruses (such as Ebola virus). PMID:11259521

  11. Freud, females, childbirth, and dissidence: Margarete Hilferding, Karen Horney, and Otto Rank.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Rosemary

    2013-10-01

    These three early psychoanalysts, who differed in important ways from Freud, each tried to shift his fundamental beliefs about women's bodies in basic developmental theory. This paper illustrates this point by elaborating their materials concerning the centrality of childbirth. One thematic aspect of Freud's disruptive fights with colleagues lay in his loyalty to phallocratic certainties. These problems still affect us, a century later, even in today's clinically pluralistic climate. PMID:24063270

  12. Analytical Chemistry (edited by R. Kellner, J.- M. Mermet, M. Otto, and H. M. Widmer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reviewed By Robert Q.

    2000-04-01

    This text, written in English, was developed by the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies to support the university-level Eurocurriculum in analytical chemistry, a major effort of academics and other analytical scientists throughout Europe and an outgrowth of the economic unification of European countries. The goal of a uniform curriculum and text for analytical chemistry across national borders is laudable, and the editors, led by the late Robert Kellner, deserve commendation for their accomplishments. (The U.S., in contrast, has been late in considering the analytical chemistry curriculum and only recently has published a pamphlet, Curricular Developments in the Analytical Sciences, an outgrowth of several NSF-sponsored workshops.) I can't remember another analytical text that begins with mention of the "big bang" and the beginnings of the universe (!), but I don't believe that the authors and publisher are looking to export their curriculum to neighboring planets. However, I am sure that they are interested in the North American market and its strong analytical chemistry community. It is in this context and in comparison with leading analytical texts in the U.S. that I write this review. At first glance, Analytical Chemistry overwhelms. It is a large book of more than 900 pages, a mass of 2.3 kg, and a volume of nearly 3 L. It is not a book that is easy to stuff into a backpack for the trip to class or lab. Students also may resent paying top dollar for a book that might not last the semester, given that the pages of my review copy began to pull away from the binding after only a few days of gentle use. Beneath the snazzy cover there is a dearth of color printing and photographs. This, combined with a smallish font and figures that are inconsistent in size, quality, and font, makes for a book that is not especially easy on the eyes. The large margins provide ample space for the numerous figures, figure captions, and marginal notes. The text is divided into 5 parts (General Topics, Chemical Analysis, Physical Analysis, Computer-Based Analytical Chemistry, and Total Analysis Systems), 16 sections, and many chapters and subsections, all numbered and with headings for easy reference. The book provides comprehensive coverage of analytical science. Many curricula in North America cling to the tired notion of one semester of classical analytical (wet) chemistry followed by a second semester of instrumental analysis, and publishers continue to respond by publishing separate texts for each course. The Europeans, in contrast, have a text that bridges this artificial gap. Included are chapters and subsections on chemical equilibrium, electronic and vibrational spectroscopy, separations, and electrochemistry (found in most first courses in analytical chemistry). The authors also address atomic spectroscopy in all of its forms, luminescence, mass spectrometry, NMR spectrometry, surface analysis, thermal methods, activation analysis, and automated methods of analysis (found in most instrumental courses). Additional, uncommon chapters on chemical and biochemical sensors, immunoassay, chemometrics, miniaturized systems, and process analytical chemistry point toward the present and future of analytical science. The only glaring omission in comparison to other instrumental texts is in the area of measurement systems and electronics. No mention is made of the analytical laboratory, such as descriptions of glassware calibration and suggested experiments, as is found in most quantitative analysis texts in the U.S. The dangers in any multi-authored book include an uneven treatment of topics and a lack of cohesiveness and logical development of topics. I found some evidence of these problems in Analytical Chemistry. My first reaction to the Table of Contents and the grouping of chapters was "Where is ?" and "What about ?" While the order of topics in an analytical chemistry course always is open to debate (I have done my share of reshuffling over the years), some timing is sacrosanct. For example, I suspect that most first courses in analytical chemistry include basic statistics early on, yet this topic is found under Chemometrics in Part IV. Another example is the separation of the discussions of acid-base equilibria (Chapter 4) and acid-base titrations (Chapter 7), with chromatography and kinetics interspersed. Simple UV-vis spectrometry and Beer's law are discussed after topics such as thermal analysis and biosensors. Information on monochromators is buried in the chapter on atomic emission spectroscopy. The editors have organized the material in a reasonably logical yet unfamiliar order. I would guess that those who adopt this text will need to skip from chapter to chapter or restructure their courses in a major way. Some topics receive more or less attention than I believe is justified. Let me provide a few examples of this uneven treatment. The editors include in Part I a 5-page description of the regulatory aspects of QA & QC, a topic of little interest to undergraduates. In the liquid chromatography section there are 3.5 pages on thin-layer chromatography and 6.5 pages on field flow fractionation, but only 2.5 pages on capillary electrophoresis, a burgeoning area of analysis. While biamperometric and conductometric titrations are discussed, common redox titrations employing an indicator (e.g. iodometric titrations with starch endpoint) are ignored. Likewise, electrochemical stripping analysis, important in trace analysis, is given short shrift (half a page). The editors set a useful chapter template, but it is not followed in all cases. At the top of the first page of each chapter is a grayed box of general learning objectives, sort of a chapter overview, and most chapters begin with a very brief, often interesting historical overview. Worked numerical examples, though scarce, are found in grayed areas throughout the text. Specific and general references for further reading are a welcome sight at the end of the chapters, but in some cases are missing. Review questions and exercises finish up each chapter. Though I write many of my own exercises and problems for student practice, I--and my students--do rely on textbook authors for additional interesting challenges related to the textbook material. The number and type of end-of-chapter problems are quite variable in Analytical Chemistry. For example, the chapters on infrared and Raman spectroscopy and on basic statistics end with a sufficient number of questions (35 and 22, respectively); but, inexplicably, only 4 questions follow the discussion of acid-base equilibria, only 7 follow the chapter on liquid and thin-layer chromatography, and there are none on immunoassay. Other important topics also are slighted. Most of the end-of-chapter questions are rather uninteresting and test simple rote learning, rather than requiring the synthesis and application of the knowledge acquired (higher-level learning). I would have liked to see spreadsheet or other computer work as the focus of some questions and an appendix of answers to at least some of the exercises. Numerous minor errors were evident, especially in the first half of the book. Some were typographical, such as soulbility instead of solubility and equation of the complex instead of aquation of the complex, but others were more egregious, such as ? instead of ? and ?, which is missing the minus sign. The standard electrode potentials listed in the appendix are confusing, because while the proper values for E ° are given, the half-reactions are written as oxidations rather than as reductions. On the whole, though, the principles of the field are described clearly and accurately. I would recommend Analytical Chemistry to prospective and practicing analytical chemists as a valuable reference to many existing and emerging analytical techniques. It certainly deserves a spot on my reference shelf. As a classroom text, however, the book is less interesting. Perhaps with tighter editing and greater focus on pedagogy, the book could compete with the U.S. leaders, such as Harris and Skoog.

  13. Reports and contributions of the Max-Planck Institute of Chemistry (Otto Hahn Institute)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrich, Ulrike; Gerwin, Robert

    In isotope cosmology and cosmochemistry, presolar nebulae and meteorites, the Earth-Moon system, Earth, and archeometric items were investigated. In geochemistry the chemical composition of the Earth mantle, physics and mineralogy at high pressures, the early development of the Earth mantle and the continental crust, and computer simulation of fluids were studied. Atmospheric chemistry investigations are summarized. In nuclear physics and medium-energy physics the polarizability of protons, the testing of exact theories using the deuteron, the unexplained polarization of X-ray bremsstrahlung, and a gamma-ray monochromator were investigated.

  14. Quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates of mezcal Agave (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dick).

    PubMed

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Juárez-Flores, Bertha Irene; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2008-07-23

    Fructans are the reserve carbohydrates in Agave spp. plants. In mezcal factories, fructans undergoes thermal hydrolysis to release fructose and glucose, which are the basis to produce this spirit. Carbohydrate content determines the yield of the final product, which depends on plant organ, ripeness stage, and thermal hydrolysis. Thus, a qualitative and quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates was conducted in raw and hydrolyzed juices extracted from Agave salmiana stems and leaves under three ripeness stages. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fructose, glucose, sucrose, xylose, and maltose were identified in agave juice. Only the plant fraction with hydrolysis interaction was found to be significant in the glucose concentration plant. Interactions of the fraction with hydrolysis and ripeness with hydrolysis were statistically significant in fructose concentration. Fructose concentration rose considerably with hydrolysis, but only in juice extracted from ripe agave stems (early mature and castrated). This increase was statistically significant only with acid hydrolysis. PMID:18558710

  15. Analytical Chemistry (edited by R. Kellner, J.- M. Mermet, M. Otto, and H. M. Widmer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reviewed By Robert Q.

    2000-04-01

    This text, written in English, was developed by the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies to support the university-level Eurocurriculum in analytical chemistry, a major effort of academics and other analytical scientists throughout Europe and an outgrowth of the economic unification of European countries. The goal of a uniform curriculum and text for analytical chemistry across national borders is laudable, and the editors, led by the late Robert Kellner, deserve commendation for their accomplishments. (The U.S., in contrast, has been late in considering the analytical chemistry curriculum and only recently has published a pamphlet, Curricular Developments in the Analytical Sciences, an outgrowth of several NSF-sponsored workshops.) I can't remember another analytical text that begins with mention of the "big bang" and the beginnings of the universe (!), but I don't believe that the authors and publisher are looking to export their curriculum to neighboring planets. However, I am sure that they are interested in the North American market and its strong analytical chemistry community. It is in this context and in comparison with leading analytical texts in the U.S. that I write this review. At first glance, Analytical Chemistry overwhelms. It is a large book of more than 900 pages, a mass of 2.3 kg, and a volume of nearly 3 L. It is not a book that is easy to stuff into a backpack for the trip to class or lab. Students also may resent paying top dollar for a book that might not last the semester, given that the pages of my review copy began to pull away from the binding after only a few days of gentle use. Beneath the snazzy cover there is a dearth of color printing and photographs. This, combined with a smallish font and figures that are inconsistent in size, quality, and font, makes for a book that is not especially easy on the eyes. The large margins provide ample space for the numerous figures, figure captions, and marginal notes. The text is divided into 5 parts (General Topics, Chemical Analysis, Physical Analysis, Computer-Based Analytical Chemistry, and Total Analysis Systems), 16 sections, and many chapters and subsections, all numbered and with headings for easy reference. The book provides comprehensive coverage of analytical science. Many curricula in North America cling to the tired notion of one semester of classical analytical (wet) chemistry followed by a second semester of instrumental analysis, and publishers continue to respond by publishing separate texts for each course. The Europeans, in contrast, have a text that bridges this artificial gap. Included are chapters and subsections on chemical equilibrium, electronic and vibrational spectroscopy, separations, and electrochemistry (found in most first courses in analytical chemistry). The authors also address atomic spectroscopy in all of its forms, luminescence, mass spectrometry, NMR spectrometry, surface analysis, thermal methods, activation analysis, and automated methods of analysis (found in most instrumental courses). Additional, uncommon chapters on chemical and biochemical sensors, immunoassay, chemometrics, miniaturized systems, and process analytical chemistry point toward the present and future of analytical science. The only glaring omission in comparison to other instrumental texts is in the area of measurement systems and electronics. No mention is made of the analytical laboratory, such as descriptions of glassware calibration and suggested experiments, as is found in most quantitative analysis texts in the U.S. The dangers in any multi-authored book include an uneven treatment of topics and a lack of cohesiveness and logical development of topics. I found some evidence of these problems in Analytical Chemistry. My first reaction to the Table of Contents and the grouping of chapters was "Where is ?" and "What about ?" While the order of topics in an analytical chemistry course always is open to debate (I have done my share of reshuffling over the years), some timi

  16. Otto Salomon in Nääs and His First Icelandic Students in Nordic Sloyd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Ólafsson, Brynjar

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogically aimed craft education was established around the same time as the school-based system of formative education, under the term Sloyd. This refers to a pedagogical system of manual training that promotes general child development, through the acquisition of the technical skills employed in woodwork, metalwork, sewing, knitting and the…

  17. Heat transfer from an internal combustion (Otto-cycle) engine on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwynne, Owen

    1992-01-01

    The cooling requirements for an average car sized engine (spark-ignition, V-6, four-stroke, naturally aspirated, about 200 kg, about 100 kW) were looked at for Mars. Several modes of cooling were considered, including forced convection, exhaust, radiation and closed loop systems. The primary goal was to determine the effect of the thinner Martian atmosphere on the cooling system. The results show that there was only a 6-percent difference in the cooling requirements. This difference was due mostly to the thinner atmosphere during forced convection and the heat capacity of the exhaust. A method using a single pass counter-flow heat exchanger is suggested to offset this difference in cooling requirements.

  18. Otto Laporte Lecture: Fluid Dynamics Prize Talk: Simple Models for Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Stephen B.

    2009-11-01

    We focus on the modeling of two turbulent flows: dispersion from a line source in grid turbulence; and, a lifted non-premixed turbulent jet flame. Stochastic Lagrangian models and PDF methods are described, and are shown to model these flows satisfactorily. For the line source, a Lagrangian approach is taken, with the Langevin equation modeling the velocity following a fluid particle, and with a simple relaxation model for the particle temperature. Comparison with experimental data shows that the resulting model describes accurately the dispersion from single and multiple line sources. These simple stochastic Lagrangian models are then applied to the much more challenging case of a lifted non-premixed jet flame. The stochastic Lagrangian models form the basis for a particle/mesh numerical method for solving a modeled transport equation for the Eulerian joint probability density function (PDF) of velocity and composition. The PDF calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, and exhibit the observed extreme sensitivity of the flame to the temperature of the co-flow. The PDF model calculations presented clearly demonstrate that simple models can be very useful, even though aspects of their behavior may be inaccurate or incomplete. The shortcomings of the Langevin equation are examined, and more advanced models (designed to overcome some of these shortcomings) are described. These include models for fluid-particle acceleration, including the effects of intermittency; models accounting for mean shear, which are correct in the rapid- distortion limit; and models designed for use in conjunction with large-eddy simulations (LES).

  19. Conventional engine technology. Volume 1: Status of OTTO cycle engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    Federally-mandated emissions standards have led to major changes in automotive technology during the last decade. Efforts to satisfy the new standards were directed more toward the use of add-on devices, such as catalytic converters, turbochargers, and improved fuel metering, than toward complete engine redesign. The resulting changes are described and the improvement brought about by them in fuel economy and emissions levels are fully documented. Four specific categories of gasoline-powered internal combustion engines are covered, including subsystem and total engine development. Also included are the results of fuel economy and exhaust emissions tests performed on representative vehicles from each category.

  20. 75 FR 7649 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Otto Dix”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Act of October 19, 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (112 Stat. 2681, et seq.; 22 U.S.C. 6501 note, et seq.), Delegation of Authority No. 234 of October 1, 1999, Delegation of Authority No. 236......

  1. The 2007 Otto Aufranc Award. Ceramic-on-metal hip arthroplasties: a comparative in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sophie; Schepers, Anton; Isaac, Graham; Hardaker, Cath; Ingham, Eileen; van der Jagt, Dick; Breckon, Anke; Fisher, John

    2007-12-01

    The performance of novel ceramic-on-metal bearing couples has been compared with metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couples in laboratory and short-term clinical studies. Laboratory studies compared ceramic-on-metal with metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic bearings with diameters of 28 and 36 mm under standard conditions and under adverse conditions with head loading on the rim of the cup. Clinical studies compared metal ion levels in ceramic-on-metal with metal-on-metal, ceramic-on-ceramic, and ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings in a randomized prospective study. In the laboratory studies, friction, wear, and ion levels were lower in ceramic-on-metal bearings compared with metal-on-metal, with results similar to ceramic-on-ceramic couples. Under adverse conditions and rim loading, all bearings showed increased wear with lower wear and absence of stripe wear in ceramic-on-metal compared with metal-on-metal bearings. Short-term studies in 31 patients at 6 months revealed lower metal ion levels (cobalt and chromium) in those with ceramic-on-metal compared with metal-on-metal bearings. PMID:18090468

  2. The New Alliance between Science and Education: Otto Neurath's Modernity beyond Descartes' "Adamitic" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliverio, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a suggestion of Stephen Toulmin and through an interpretation of the criticism to which Neurath, one of the founders of the Vienna Circle, submits Descartes' views on science, the paper attempts to outline a pattern of modernity opposed to the Cartesian one, that has been obtaining over the last four centuries. In particular, it…

  3. Representations of Technology in the "Technical Stories" for Children of Otto Witt, Early 20th Century Swedish Technology Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge…

  4. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFVs would cause loss of proportionality. The variable mixture flow rate is maintained at sonic... samples in which the concentrations approach the limit of detection. (c) Component description, CFV-CVS... samples in which the concentrations approach the limit of detection. (d) Component description,...

  5. Struve family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Struve, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (1793-1864); Struve, Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), son of Friedrich; Struve, Karl Hermann (1854-1920), elder son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Gustav; Struve, Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (1858-1920), younger son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Karl; Struve, Otto (1897-1963) [Otto Struve II], son of Gustav....

  6. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... forth in paragraph (f)(1) of Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065... work, W, over each test interval according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake...-start test intervals: ER30AP10.000 (3)-(4) (b) This paragraph (b) applies as specified in 40 CFR...

  7. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintained at a temperature above the dew point of the mixture, but below 250 °F (121 °C) through heating and... a minimum of flexible sections maintained at a temperature above the dew point of the mixture, but... a heat exchanger is used, the gas mixture temperature, measured at a point immediately ahead of...

  8. Fluid Mechanics Prize-Otto Laporte Lecture: The Art of Mixing with an Admixture of Art: Fluids, Solids, and Visual Imagination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottino, Julio Mario

    2008-11-01

    Arguably, fluid dynamics is intimately linked with visual imagination more than any other branch of physical sciences. A particular example is mixing. Fluid mixing, and under more limited circumstances, granular mixing, can be placed in the framework of dynamical systems and a geometric viewpoint. On the fluid mixing side, the physical connection can be traced back to the stretching and folding of fluid elements and possibility of representation motions in terms of transformations. This opens a wealth of possibilities --- the mathematical machinery of dynamical systems on the theory side, and the possibility of inventing devices on the practical side. There are notable differences as well: granular materials un-mix or segregate, often spectacularly so, and some aspects of segregation can also be incorporated in the mathematical framework. A technical review will highlight key points in both areas -- experiments, applications, and the many branches that have taken root since the mid-1980s. However, much of this could have taken place sooner. The basic mechanisms and key experimental results in both areas were identified early: the stretching and folding mechanism of mixing was pointed out by Osborne Reynolds in 1893-1895, and a key segregation mechanism of granular mixtures was noted by Yositisi Oyama in 1939. In what may appear surprising on a first viewing, these leads were not followed. Ideas, in order to be embraced, need to fit with the canonical knowledge of the times.

  9. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... described in § 86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements: 3.0 grams per test. (2) For the supplemental...-fueled vehicles only): 3.5 grams per test. (B) Running loss test (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 0.05 grams per mile. (C) Fuel dispensing spitback test (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 1.0 gram per...

  10. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... described in § 86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements: 3.0 grams per test. (2) For the supplemental...-fueled vehicles only): 3.5 grams per test. (B) Running loss test (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 0.05 grams per mile. (C) Fuel dispensing spitback test (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 1.0 gram per...

  11. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in § 86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements: 3.0 grams per test. (2) For the supplemental...-fueled vehicles only): 3.5 grams per test. (B) Running loss test (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 0.05 grams per mile. (C) Fuel dispensing spitback test (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 1.0 gram per...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of §...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1725-99 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.094-25...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of §...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1725-99 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.094-25...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1725-99 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.094-25...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of §...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1725-99 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.094-25...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1505 - Introduction; structure of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1505 - Introduction; structure of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1526 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1527 - Idle test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1527 - Idle test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1526 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  6. The Inevitability of Sleep: Using Manet's Last Paintings to Envision a Pedagogy of Loss and Mourning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author offers Manet's last paintings as metaphors for a bygone, psychically healthy conception of loss and mourning, what is called the pre-Freudian, Victorian notion of loss (Otto 2008), which contrasts with the post-Freudian, Modern notion of loss and mourning (Otto 2008). Otto argues this liminal, transitional moment…

  7. 40 CFR 86.701-94 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions for In-Use Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty... model year Otto-cycle and diesel light-duty vehicles; 1994 through 2003 model year Otto-cycle and diesel light-duty trucks; and 1994 and later model year Otto-cycle and diesel heavy-duty engines; and 2001...

  8. 40 CFR 86.127-00 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC, CO, CO2, CH4, NOX, and particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles...

  9. 40 CFR 86.127-12 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... emissions. (4) Fuel spitback (this test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles). (b) The FTP Otto-cycle... particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles...

  10. 40 CFR 86.127-00 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC, CO, CO2, CH4, NOX, and particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles...

  11. 40 CFR 86.127-12 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... emissions. (4) Fuel spitback (this test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles). (b) The FTP Otto-cycle... particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles...

  12. 40 CFR 86.127-12 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... emissions. (4) Fuel spitback (this test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles). (b) The FTP Otto-cycle... particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles...

  13. 40 CFR 86.127-00 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC, CO, CO2, CH4, NOX, and particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles...

  14. 40 CFR 86.127-12 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... emissions. (4) Fuel spitback (this test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles). (b) The FTP Otto-cycle... particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles...

  15. 40 CFR 86.127-00 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC, CO, CO2, CH4, NOX, and particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles...

  16. LRO/LOLA - Counting Craters

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  17. Observations of Past Lunar Landing Sites by the D-CIXS X-Ray Spectrometer on SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Kellett, B. J.; Howe, C.; Perry, C. H.; Swinyard, B.; Dunkin, S.; Huovelin, J.; Alha, L.; D'Uston, L. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Barabash, S.; Joy, K. H.; Crawford, I. A.; Lawrence, D.; Fernandes, V.; Casanova, I.; Wieczorek, M.; Thomas, N.

    2007-03-01

    D-CIXS initial observations show a first unambiguous remote sensing of calcium in the lunar regolith. Data obtained are broadly consistent with current understanding of mare and highland composition. Ground truth is provided by the returned Apollo and Lun

  18. LRO Exposes the Moon's Complex, Turbulent Youth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  19. [Textual research on the time of completion of XU Shuwei' books on exo-pathogenic cold diseases].

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingxin

    2015-11-01

    Shang han bai zheng ge (Poets of Syndromes of Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease), Shang han fa wei lun (Discourse on Elucidation of Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease), Shang han jiu shi lun (90 Discourses on Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease) were the three extant books on exo-pathogenic cold disease written by Xu Shuwei among his other works of its kind. Although there were carved editions of the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, these books were gradually paid attention for citations by other physicians till the Qing Dynasty. Through comparison of its texts, it can be found that the title of Shang han bai zheng ge was mentioned in his other medical works. While Shang han fa wei lun and Shang han jiu shi lun contained some overlapping contents, some even carrying concept contradictory to each other. According to historical materials, Xu Shuwei began to write the above-mentioned 3 books in the Northern Song Dynasty. In the several early years of the Southern Song Dynasty after crossing the Yangtze River, he collected the remained manuscripts and continued to write. Among them, Shang han bai zheng ge was completed first, followed by Shang han fa wei lun, with Shang han jiu shi lun came as the last. PMID:26813319

  20. Participation of fad and mbt Genes in Synthesis of Mycobactin in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    LaMarca, B. Babbette D.; Zhu, Wenming; Arceneaux, Jean E. L.; Rowe Byers, B.; Lundrigan, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Colonies of Mycobacterium smegmatis LR222 on iron-limiting (0.1 μM Fe) minimal medium agar fluoresce under UV light due to the accumulation in the cells of the deferri form of the siderophore mycobactin. Two mutants with little or no fluorescence, designated LUN8 and LUN9, were isolated by screening colonies of transposon (Tn611)-mutagenized M. smegmatis. Ferrimycobactin prepared from iron-restricted cells of the wild type had an Rf of 0.62 on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and a characteristic visible absorption spectrum with a peak near 450 nm. Similar extracts from LUN8 cells contained a small amount of ferrimycobactin with an Rf of 0.58 on HPTLC and an absorption spectrum with the peak shifted to a wavelength lower than that of the wild-type ferrimycobactin. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies suggested that the LUN8 mycobactin may have an altered fatty acid side chain. Mutant strain LUN9 produced no detectable mycobactin. Neither mutant strain produced measurable amounts of excreted mycobactin, although both excreted exochelin (the mycobacterial peptido-hydroxamate siderophore), and both mutants were more sensitive than the wild-type strain to growth inhibition by the iron chelator ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid). The transposon insertion sites were identified, and sequence analyses of the cloned flanking chromosome regions showed that the mutated gene in LUN9 was an orthologue of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycobactin biosynthetic gene mbtE. The mutated gene in LUN8 had homology with M. tuberculosis fadD33 (Rv1345), a gene that may encode an acyl-coenzyme A synthase and which previously was not known to participate in synthesis of mycobactin. PMID:14702306

  1. 77 FR 46797 - Notice of Fiscal Year 2013 Safety Grants and Solicitation for Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...; Performance and Registration Information Systems Management (PRISM) grants; Safety Data Improvement Program... Cambridge, jackie.cambridge@dot.gov , 202-366-1351. PRISM Grants--Julie Otto, julie.otto@dot.gov , 202-366... electronically through grants.gov ( http://www.grants.gov ). PRISM Grants The Safe, Accountable,...

  2. 40 CFR 86.005-1 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy... generally apply to 2000 and earlier model year new Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle light-duty vehicles, 2000 and earlier model year new Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle light-duty trucks, and 2004 and earlier model year...

  3. 40 CFR 86.135-90 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a “cold” start... monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A parallel sample of the dilution air is...

  4. 40 CFR 86.135-90 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a “cold” start... monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A parallel sample of the dilution air is...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  6. 40 CFR 86.135-90 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a “cold” start... monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A parallel sample of the dilution air is...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  10. 40 CFR 86.135-90 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a “cold” start... monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A parallel sample of the dilution air is...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions during the test shall be those specified in § 86.130-78 or 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  12. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  13. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-90 Exhaust gas sampling system... schematic drawing of the CFV system (methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles may be tested using this test... be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the sample zone dilute exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1416 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1416 Calibration; frequency and... calibration of the analyzer must be checked. The analyzer must be adjusted or repaired as necessary. (c)...

  16. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  17. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1416 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1416 Calibration; frequency and... calibration of the analyzer must be checked. The analyzer must be adjusted or repaired as necessary. (c)...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1820-01 - Durability group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1820-01 Durability group determination...) Combustion cycle (e.g., two stroke, four stroke, Otto cycle, diesel cycle). (2) Engine type (e.g., piston, rotary, turbine, air cooled versus water cooled). (3) Fuel used (e.g., gasoline, diesel,...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1335-90 - Cool-down procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cold cycle exhaust emission test may begin after a cool-down only when the engine oil and water... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1335-90 Cool-down procedure. (a) This cool-down procedure applies to Otto-cycle and diesel...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1434 - Equipment preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty... the device(s) for removing water from the exhaust sample and the sample filter(s). Remove any water from the water trap(s). Clean and replace the filter(s) as necessary. (c) Set the zero and span...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1434 - Equipment preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty... the device(s) for removing water from the exhaust sample and the sample filter(s). Remove any water from the water trap(s). Clean and replace the filter(s) as necessary. (c) Set the zero and span...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1820-01 - Durability group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1820-01 Durability group determination...) Combustion cycle (e.g., two stroke, four stroke, Otto cycle, diesel cycle). (2) Engine type (e.g., piston, rotary, turbine, air cooled versus water cooled). (3) Fuel used (e.g., gasoline, diesel,...

  5. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1335-90 - Cool-down procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cold cycle exhaust emission test may begin after a cool-down only when the engine oil and water... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1335-90 Cool-down procedure. (a) This cool-down procedure applies to Otto-cycle and diesel...

  7. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  8. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1820-01 - Durability group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1820-01 Durability group determination. This section...) Combustion cycle (e.g., two stroke, four stroke, Otto cycle, diesel cycle). (2) Engine type (e.g., piston, rotary, turbine, air cooled versus water cooled). (3) Fuel used (e.g., gasoline, diesel,...

  10. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test... during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO,...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1820-01 - Durability group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1820-01 Durability group determination...) Combustion cycle (e.g., two stroke, four stroke, Otto cycle, diesel cycle). (2) Engine type (e.g., piston, rotary, turbine, air cooled versus water cooled). (3) Fuel used (e.g., gasoline, diesel,...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1335-90 - Cool-down procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cold cycle exhaust emission test may begin after a cool-down only when the engine oil and water... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1335-90 Cool-down procedure. (a) This cool-down procedure applies to Otto-cycle and diesel...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1434 - Equipment preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty... the device(s) for removing water from the exhaust sample and the sample filter(s). Remove any water from the water trap(s). Clean and replace the filter(s) as necessary. (c) Set the zero and span...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1416 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1416 Calibration; frequency and... calibration of the analyzer must be checked. The analyzer must be adjusted or repaired as necessary. (c)...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  17. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-90 Exhaust gas sampling system... schematic drawing of the CFV system (methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles may be tested using this test... be sufficient to prevent water condensation. However, the sample zone dilute exhaust...

  18. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission test... stalling should occur during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 (engine starting and restarting). For gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1332-90 - Engine mapping procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... maximum mapping speed per the following methodologies. (Note paragraph (d)(1) below.) (1) Otto-cycle engines. (i) For ungoverned engines using the transient operating cycle set forth in paragraph (f)(1)...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1406 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1406 Equipment required and... adjusted to the lowest available inertia weight setting and must meet the load speed...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1430 - Certification Short Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1430 Certification Short... procedure—(i) Manufacturer's data submittal. The test procedure consists of the Two Speed Idle Test...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1430 - Certification Short Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1430 Certification Short... procedure—(i) Manufacturer's data submittal. The test procedure consists of the Two Speed Idle Test...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1439 - Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1439 Certification Short..., after the requirements of § 86.1438(e) have been satisfied. (b) CST—Two-speed idle test. This...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1439 - Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1439 Certification Short..., after the requirements of § 86.1438(e) have been satisfied. (b) CST—Two-speed idle test. This...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1430 - Certification Short Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1430 Certification Short... procedure—(i) Manufacturer's data submittal. The test procedure consists of the Two Speed Idle Test...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1406 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1406 Equipment required and... adjusted to the lowest available inertia weight setting and must meet the load speed...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1430 - Certification Short Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1430 Certification Short... procedure—(i) Manufacturer's data submittal. The test procedure consists of the Two Speed Idle Test...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1406 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1406 Equipment required and... adjusted to the lowest available inertia weight setting and must meet the load speed...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1439 - Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1439 Certification Short..., after the requirements of § 86.1438(e) have been satisfied. (b) CST—Two-speed idle test. This...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1406 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1406 Equipment required and... adjusted to the lowest available inertia weight setting and must meet the load speed...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty.... Warmup operation is performed if no transient operation of the type specified in § 86.1432(b)(2)...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty.... Warmup operation is performed if no transient operation of the type specified in § 86.1432(b)(2)...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1519 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calibration instructions are specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D, for heavy-duty engines, and § 86.119-78... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1501 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1519 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... calibration instructions are specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D, for heavy-duty engines, and § 86.119-78... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  17. 40 CFR 86.004-9 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel-cycle light-duty trucks... manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's gasoline- and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1501 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  19. 40 CFR 86.004-9 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel-cycle light-duty trucks... manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's gasoline- and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and...

  20. Sciences and society

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  1. Secrets of the Presidential Turn-Around Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl D.

    2002-01-01

    Profiles five college presidents (Henry Tisdale of Claflin University, David Carter of Eastern Connecticut State University, Jimmy Jenkins of Edward Waters College, Dorothy Yancy of Johnson C. Smith University, and Luns Richardson of Morris College) who have brought success to their once-languishing institutions. (EV)

  2. Sciences and society

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-10

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  3. Teacher Retention and Satisfaction with a Servant Leader as Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jimmy; Newton, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    If the most precious product developed in education is the student, then our most prized commodity should be the classroom teacher. According to numerous studies (Allen, Pianta, Gregory, Mikami, & Lun, 2011; Clotfelter, Ladd, & Vigdor, 2010; Darling-Hammond, 2000), the greatest influence on a student's achievement is the classroom…

  4. A COMPUTER MODEL OF LUNG MORPHOLOGY TO ANALYZE SPECT IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of the three-dimensional (3-D) spatial distribution of aerosol deposition can be performed using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). The advantage of using 3-D techniques over planar gamma imaging is that deposition patterns can be related to real lun...

  5. Eighteen-ninety-six and all that

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    This year's commemorative platter includes ether anaesthesia, smallpox vaccination, radioactivity and several mathematical morsels, as well as an accidental death (Otto Lilienthal) and the mother of all births (the Universe).

  6. 6. Photograph of an architectural drawing in possession of Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of an architectural drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATION, 1874. DELINEATOR: W. OTTO GRONEN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1830-01 Acceptance...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1824-07...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1861-04 - How do the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 NOX averaging, banking and trading programs work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1852-01 - Waivers for good in-use emission performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1852-01 Waivers for good...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1831-01 Mileage...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1866-12 CO2 credits...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1852-01 - Waivers for good in-use emission performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1852-01 Waivers for good...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1831-01 Mileage...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... usage category (e.g., gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle, etc.) previously certified to the...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1851-01 - Application of good engineering judgment to manufacturers' decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1842-01 - Addition of a vehicle after certification; and changes to a vehicle covered by certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1830-01 Acceptance...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1841-01...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1870-12 - CO2 credits for qualifying full-size pickup trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1870-12 CO2 credits...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1851-01 - Application of good engineering judgment to manufacturers' decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1851-01 - Application of good engineering judgment to manufacturers' decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1851-01...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1824-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1831-01 Mileage...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1846-01 - Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1846-01 Manufacturer...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1830-01 Acceptance...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1831-01 Mileage...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1824-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1824-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... usage category (e.g., gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle, etc.) previously certified to the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1819 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1824-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1824-01...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... usage category (e.g., gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle, etc.) previously certified to the...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1830-01 Acceptance...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1851-01 - Application of good engineering judgment to manufacturers' decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1851-01 - Application of good engineering judgment to manufacturers' decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1852-01 - Waivers for good in-use emission performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1852-01 Waivers for good...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... usage category (e.g., gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle, etc.) previously certified to the...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1852-01 - Waivers for good in-use emission performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1852-01 Waivers for good...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small-volume manufacturers and small-volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1824-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01 Denial, suspension...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1832-01...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  18. Staff Development in Reading: What the Experts Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacca, Jo Anne

    1979-01-01

    Presents interviews of six prominent researchers (Ira Aaron, Harold Herber, Wayne Otto, Robert Ruddell, Roselmina Indrisano, and Olive Niles), which focused on the dynamics constituting effective staff development experiences. (HOD)

  19. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... methanol (if applicable) concentrations in ppm carbon, initial and final enclosure ambient...

  20. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... methanol (if applicable) concentrations in ppm carbon, initial and final enclosure ambient...

  1. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... methanol (if applicable) concentrations in ppm carbon, initial and final enclosure ambient...

  2. 78 FR 63459 - Names of Members of the Performance Review Board for the Department of the Air Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... President--Gen Shelton, Commander, Air Force Space Command 2. Lt Gen Pawlikowski, Commander, Space & Missile Systems Center 3. Lt Gen Otto, Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1338-2007 - Emission measurement accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... measured by the oxides of nitrogen analyzer following the analyzer's monthly periodic calibration....

  4. 40 CFR 86.1338-2007 - Emission measurement accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... measured by the oxides of nitrogen analyzer following the analyzer's monthly periodic calibration....

  5. 40 CFR 86.1338-2007 - Emission measurement accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... measured by the oxides of nitrogen analyzer following the analyzer's monthly periodic calibration....

  6. 40 CFR 86.1338-2007 - Emission measurement accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... measured by the oxides of nitrogen analyzer following the analyzer's monthly periodic calibration....

  7. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1998-05-01

    * Low-Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children, by. H.O. Gupta and Rakshpal Singh, p 610. * Synthesis of Exotic Soaps in the Chemistry Laboratory, by Otto Phanstiel IV, Eric Dueno, and Queenie Xianghong Wang, p 612.

  8. 40 CFR 86.154-98 - Measurement procedure; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... water shall be placed in the methanol sampling system. (d) If not already on, the enclosure mixing...

  9. 40 CFR 86.154-98 - Measurement procedure; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... water shall be placed in the methanol sampling system. (d) If not already on, the enclosure mixing...

  10. 40 CFR 86.154-98 - Measurement procedure; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... water shall be placed in the methanol sampling system. (d) If not already on, the enclosure mixing...

  11. 40 CFR 86.154-98 - Measurement procedure; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... water shall be placed in the methanol sampling system. (d) If not already on, the enclosure mixing...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  16. The liquid crystal light valve, an optical-to-optical interface device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A. D.; Beard, T. D.; Bleha, W. P.; Margerum, J. D.; Wong, S. Y.

    1972-01-01

    A photoactivated liquid crystal light valve is described as an optical-to-optical interface device (OTTO) which is designed to transfer an optical image from a noncoherent light beam to a spatially coherent beam of light, in real time. Schematics of OTTO in use, the liquid cyrstal cell, and the liquid crystal structure are presented. Sensitivity characteristics and the principles of operation are discussed.

  17. Investigation of high pressure phase transition and electronic properties of Lutetium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, U. P.

    2015-09-01

    In the present manuscript we have investigated the structural, electronic and phase transition properties of the heaviest lanthanide lutetium nitride (LuN) compound using an ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory with Perdrew, Burke and Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) and Engel-Vosko(EV)-GGA as implemented in WIEN2k code. The basic ground state properties viz., lattice constants (a), bulk modulus (B0) and its pressure derivative (B0’) and total energy (E0) are calculated. The calculated values of lattice constant is 4.76 Å which is in good agreement with experimental value a= 4.76 A and other theoretical value. The relative stabilities of LuN at high pressures in the NaCl (B1), CsCl (B2), zinc blende (B3) and body centred tetragonal (BCT) structures are analysed. At compressed volumes, this compound is found to favour the CsCl phase rather the body centred tetragonal phase and zinc blende as observed in other lanthanum pnictides, which has been predicted by the total energy minimization. Under compression LuN undergoes a transition from NaCl to CsCl type structure at around 250.81 GPa with a volume collapse of 3.75%. To see the effect of functional we have also computed the band structure in B1 and B2 structure. Obtained result on band structure shows that LuN are semimetal by GGA while depicts semiconducting behaviour by EV-GGA. It shows metallic nature in B2 phase.

  18. [Textual research on the author of manuscript prefaces in Zhao Kaimei's version of Zhong Jing Quan Shu collected at the Library of Palace Museum in Taipei].

    PubMed

    You, Wen-ren; Su, Yi-zhan

    2007-04-01

    Zhong Jing Quan Shu (Zhongjing's Complete Book) published by Zhao Kaimei in the Ming dynasty is very important. In our understanding, the part of this book named Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Exogenous Cold Diseases) has been thought that the edition could be possibly the most similar to that of the edition of the Northern Song dynasty. Therefore, there are two manuscript prefaces found in the Zhong Jing Quan Shu collected at the Library of Palace Museum in Taipei. The message from the writer of the manuscript who owned facsimile handwritten copy of the official Northern Song large-character edition of Shang Han Lun. This is the first time to reveal that a paper record has been kept in the world now since the Ming dynasty. That is the reason why the edition has always been thought so much important to the world now. These manuscript prefaces quite often attracted the attention of the Chinese and Japanese scholars, but none of them could identify who the writer was. And after a thorough reading of the original work, investigating the inscriptions, and checking the seals, we finally identified the writer to be Xu Fang, in late Qing dynasty. The result of this study might be helpful to research the tracing of the valuable facsimile handwritten copy of the official Northern Song large-character edition of Shang Han Lun, and also would be possible to give some new ideas and make new contents of Shang Han Lun to the studies of bibliography and editions in the future. PMID:17877895

  19. [Philological structure of Dan xi shou jing (Danxi's Hand Mirror)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yincan; Zhu, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    Zhu Danxi, one of the four Major Schools of the Jin-Yuan Dynasties, had a lot of works circulated with its authorship in disarray. Part of the works were compiled by his disciples, while others were by his self-taught followers based on prior circulated Danxi's originals, plus some apocryphal so-called Danxi's works circulated posthumously. When sorting out Danxi's Hand Mirror, we found that some of its contents are closely related to Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies), Qian jin yi fang (Supplements to Qian jin yao fang), Tai ping sheng hui fang (Peaceful Holy Benevolent Prescriptions), Zhu jie shang han lun (Annotated Treatises of Cold Pathogenic Disease), Shang han ming li lun (Elucidation of Cold Pathogenic Disease), Ge zhi yu lun (Treatise of Inquiring the Properties of Things), either by transcription or with an identical origin. By clearing their relationships, it can provide assistance to the research of the philological structure of Danxi's hand Mirror. PMID:26420530

  20. An Inconvenient History: the Nuclear-Fission Display in the Deutsches Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2010-06-01

    One of the longstanding attractions of the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany, has been its display of the apparatus associated with the discovery of nuclear fission. Although the discovery involved three scientists, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann, the fission display was designated for over 30 years as the Arbeitstisch von Otto Hahn (Otto Hahn’s Worktable), with Strassmann mentioned peripherally and Meitner not at all, and it was not until the early 1990s that the display was revised to include all three codiscoverers more equitably. I examine the creation of the fission display in the context of the postwar German culture of silencing the National Socialist past, and trace the eventual transformation of the display into a contemporary exhibit that more accurately represents the scientific history of the fission discovery.

  1. Methanator fueled engines for pollution control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Winkler, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenance costs, performance, operational limitations, and impact on the automotive industries. The methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is projected to meet 1975 emission standards and operate at a lower relative total cost compared to the catalytic muffler system and to have low impact. Additional study is required for system development.

  2. Weight propagation and equivalent horsepower for alternate-engined cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klose, G. J.; Kurtz, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate properly the consequences of replacing conventional Otto-cycle engines with alternate power systems, comparisons must be carried out at the vehicle level with functionally equivalent cars. This paper presents the development and application of a procedure for establishing equivalent vehicles. A systematic weight propagation methodology, based on detailed weight breakdowns and influence factors, yields the vehicle weight impacts due to changes in engine weight and power. Performance-matching criteria, utilizing a vehicle simulation program, are then employed to establish Otto-engine-equivalent vehicles, whose characteristics can form the basis for alternative engine evaluations.

  3. Politics, Chemistry, and the Discovery of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Emilie; Settle, Frank A., Jr.

    2001-07-01

    The discovery of fission is an interesting scientific saga involving the fundamentals of chemistry and physics. It is played out in the late 1930s on a European stage. Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn head a cast of characters that include scientific notables Fritz Strassmann, Otto Frisch, James Chadwick, Enrico Fermi, Ida Noddack, Irene Curie, and Neils Bohr. The plot includes the scientific method, the interdependence of chemistry and physics, the influence of external politics, and human frailty. The events surrounding this discovery did not allow the scientists involved to receive equal recognition. Fortunately, the passage of time and extensive historical research are restoring equality.

  4. Quantum afterburner: improving the efficiency of an ideal heat engine.

    PubMed

    Scully, Marlan O

    2002-02-01

    By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases of a heat engine. Such a "quantum afterburner" involves the internal quantum states of the working molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. It is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the "ideal" Otto heat engine. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates a new kind of lasing without initial inversion. PMID:11863710

  5. Quantum Afterburner: Improving the Efficiency of an Ideal Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Marlan O.

    2002-02-01

    By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases of a heat engine. Such a ``quantum afterburner'' involves the internal quantum states of the working molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. It is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the ``ideal'' Otto heat engine. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates a new kind of lasing without initial inversion.

  6. Enhancement of magneto-optical effect via the evanescent wave and its figure of merit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishibayashi, Kazuhiro; Yoneda, Hitoki; Kuga, Kiyoshi; Iwasaki, Yamato; Munekata, Hiro

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the enhancement of the magneto-optical (MO) effect via the evanescent wave in MO structures composed of GdFe thin layers and two dielectrics. The MO Kerr rotation and the figure of merit (FOM) among the Kretschmann, Otto and direct-irradiation configurations are compared. The data obtained by experiment and calculation both show that the standing evanescent wave in the metal layer realized in the former two configurations enhances the MO Kerr rotation and FOM. Furthermore, the Kretschmann configuration appears to be superior to the Otto configuration in terms of the efficiency of MO Kerr enhancement.

  7. Analog/RF performance of AlInN/GaN underlap DG MOS-HEMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardeshi, Hemant

    2015-12-01

    This work uncovers the potential benefit of AlInN/GaN underlap double-gate MOS-HEMT for RF and analog applications. The device channel consists of a lattice-matched wideband Al0.83In0.17N and narrowband GaN layers, along with high-K Al2O3 as the gate dielectric. The 2D Sentaurus TCAD simulation is done using the hydrodynamic model and interface traps are considered. The simulation model was calibrated with the previously reported experimental result. A comprehensive, quantitative investigation of key analog and RF figures-of-merits (FOMs) is done for a wide range of gate length (Lg), underlap length (Lun) and barrier thickness (TB). Scaling of Lg and Lun leads to increase in the drain current (Id), transconductance (gm), cutoff frequency (fT) and max frequency (fmax) but, at the expense of the reduced transconductance generation factor (gm/Id), gain and output resistance (Ro). Large improvement in almost all analog and RF FOMs was observed for scaled Lg and Lun. Devices with thinner barrier thickness exhibited improved gm, TGF, Ro, fT and fmax. Simulations have revealed a very high drain current of 5.26 mA/μm, peak gm of 5.34 mS/μm, and a maximum gain of 47 dB. The peak values of fT and fmax, extracted from two port Y-parameters, were found to be 786 GHz and 832 GHz, respectively for highly scaled device. These results demonstrate the potential of AlInN/GaN underlap MOS-HEMT for high power and high-frequency applications.

  8. Understanding and Counseling Narcissistic Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Provides counselors with an overview of narcissism and its treatment. In the first section, dysfunctional narcissism is described, drawing on the diagnostic indicators presented in the DSM-III and the contemporary object relations theories of Heinz Kohut and Otto Kerberg. The second section focuses on counseling narcissistic clients. (Author/JAC)

  9. 40 CFR 86.1333-90 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transient test cycle generation. 86...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1333-90 Transient test cycle generation. (a) The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for...

  10. 40 CFR 86.007-17 - On-board Diagnostics for engines used in applications less than or equal to 14,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... catalytic converter. (ii) Diesel. Lack of cylinder combustion must be detected. (3) Exhaust gas sensors—(i) Oxygen sensors and air-fuel ratio sensors downstream of aftertreatment devices. (A) Otto-cycle. If... standard. (ii) Oxygen sensors and air-fuel ratio sensors upstream of aftertreatment devices—(A)...

  11. 40 CFR 86.007-17 - On-board Diagnostics for engines used in applications less than or equal to 14,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... catalytic converter. (ii) Diesel. Lack of cylinder combustion must be detected. (3) Exhaust gas sensors—(i) Oxygen sensors and air-fuel ratio sensors downstream of aftertreatment devices—(A) Otto-cycle. If... standard. (ii) Oxygen sensors and air-fuel ratio sensors upstream of aftertreatment devices—(A)...

  12. 40 CFR 86.146-96 - Fuel dispensing spitback procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... to prevent abnormal fuel distribution. (c) Measure and record the mass of the bag to be used for... minutes after completion of the fueling event, the mass of the bag and its contents shall be measured...

  13. 40 CFR 86.127-96 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... forth in subpart A of this part for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks. (a) The overall test..., CO, CO2, CH4, NOX, and particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and...

  14. 40 CFR 86.127-96 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... forth in subpart A of this part for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks. (a) The overall test..., CO, CO2, CH4, NOX, and particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and...

  15. 40 CFR 86.127-96 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... forth in subpart A of this part for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks. (a) The overall test..., CO, CO2, CH4, NOX, and particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and...

  16. "Great Expectations:" The Motivational Profile of Hungarian English Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Csizer, Kata; Menyhart, Adrienn; Torok, Dora

    2008-01-01

    In this article we investigate what characterizes the language learning motivation of Hungarian English language students in terms of Dornyei and Otto's process model of motivation ("Motivation in Action," 1998). We used a mixed-method research design, in which qualitative interviews conducted with 20 students were supplemented with questionnaire…

  17. [The neurotransmision from the other side].

    PubMed

    Sánchez García, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of how neurons communicate, like the cracking of genetic code and the creation of the atomic bomb is one of the fundamental scientific development of the twentieth century. In this paper we described the history of scientific discovery of neurohumoral transmission against the backdrop of the two torld and the fascinating lives of several scientists whose work was affected by the social and political events in their time. The lives and history of the main protagonists Sir Henry Dale, Otto Loewi and Walter Cannon are reported here. Otto Lewi and William Felberg--as jews--were arrested by nazi troops and Otto Krayer--not a jew--for not accepting one universitary offer of nazu party. All of them, and many others, were compelled to migrate from Germany to Great Britain, where Sir Henry Dale helped them to continue their work and their lives. All this scientist played an important role in the work on chemical neurotransmission which finally cristalized in awarding the Nobel. Price--in 1936--to Otto Loewi and Sir Henry Dale, but not to Walter Cannon, in this case, for adopting a controversial theory. The role of Rockefeller Foundation in this history is also comtemplated. PMID:21877409

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Robinow syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4):419-22. Citation on PubMed Bunn KJ, Daniel P, Rösken HS, O'Neill AC, Cameron-Christie ... Brunoni D, Martelli L, de Andrade CE, Colin G, Otto PA. Clinical characterization of autosomal dominant and ...

  19. 40 CFR 86.004-30 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... simulation of such, resulting in an increase of 1.5 times the NMHC+NOX standard or FEL above the NMHC+NOX... simulation of such, resulting in exhaust emissions exceeding 1.5 times the applicable standard or FEL for... catastrophically failed, or an electronic simulation of such. (2)(i) Otto-cycle. An engine misfire condition...

  20. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  1. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  2. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-90 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... first period (505 seconds) is run. (2) Petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel vehicles. The...

  3. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  4. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-90 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... first period (505 seconds) is run. (2) Petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel vehicles. The...

  5. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-94 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... statement “ .” (a) General. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a cold start test, after a minimum...

  6. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-94 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... statement “ .” (a) General. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a cold start test, after a minimum...

  7. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-94 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... statement “ .” (a) General. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a cold start test, after a minimum...

  8. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-94 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... statement “ .” (a) General. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a cold start test, after a minimum...

  9. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  10. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-90 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... first period (505 seconds) is run. (2) Petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel vehicles. The...

  11. Eskimo Medicine Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Otto

    "Eskimo Medicine Man" is a record of primitive Alaskan life in the 1930's. It records the experiences in Alaska's remote areas of Dr. Otto George, the last "traveling physician" for the Department of Interior's Indian Service, when in all the territory (an area one-fifth that of the contiguous United States) there were fewer than sixty thousand…

  12. 40 CFR 86.1380-2004 - Load response test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... heavy-duty diesel engines. The purpose of this test procedure is to measure the brake-specific gaseous and particulate emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine as it is suddenly loaded, with its fueling... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1318-84 - Engine dynamometer system calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine dynamometer system calibrations... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1318-84 Engine dynamometer system calibrations. (a) The engine...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evaporative/refueling family...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling family... evaporative/refueling family. Manufacturers shall use good engineering judgment to determine...

  15. Alcohol Awareness through the Arts: The Power of Dance in a College Alcohol Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Pattie L.; McClellan, George S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a new alcohol education program at Dickinson State University. The centerpiece of the program is the Alcohol Awareness Through the Arts Program. It involves dozens of students and faculty and regularly draws 400 to 450 audience members. Funded by grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, The Otto Bremer Foundation,…

  16. 40 CFR 86.1845-04 - Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1845-04 Manufacturer... includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty vehicles. (2) Unless otherwise approved...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1848-10 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1848-10 Compliance... be covered by the certificate. (4) For incomplete light-duty trucks and incomplete...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet-average...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with § 86.614 for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks and with 40 CFR part 1068, subpart G, for... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1811-01 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1846-01 - Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1846-01 Manufacturer...). (3) For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1811-17 - Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... procedures of 40 CFR part 1066, as follows: (i) Establish appropriate load settings based on loaded vehicle..., the US06 driving schedule, and the SC03 driving schedule. See 40 CFR 1066.801 for further...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... light-duty vehicles and/or light-duty trucks subject to the provisions in this subpart must establish... with § 86.614 for light-duty vehicles or § 86.1014 for light-duty trucks and, if a...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1848-01 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... be covered by the certificate. (4) For incomplete light-duty trucks and incomplete heavy-duty... certificate and produced during the model year. (e) A manufacturer of new light-duty vehicles,...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1867-12 - CO2 credits for reducing leakage of air conditioning refrigerant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1867-12 CO2 credits... passenger automobiles and/or light trucks. Credits shall be calculated according to this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1825-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph. (h) Emission component durability. . For guidance see 40 CFR 86.1845-01 (e). (i) If EPA... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year HLDT/MDPVs. (3) (4) Vehicles imported by ICIs as defined in 40 CFR 85.1502. (b) Useful life... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1845-01 - Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1845-01 Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements. (a) General requirements. A manufacturer...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1845-01 - Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1845-01 Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements. (a) General requirements. A manufacturer...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1845-04 - Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1845-04 Manufacturer.... For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-05 Complete... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1824-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... guidance see 40 CFR 86.1824-01(d). (i) If EPA determines based on IUVP data or other information that the... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1813-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1813-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1801-12 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... the appropriate section. References in this subpart to 40 CFR part 86 generally apply to Tier 2 and older vehicles, while references to 40 CFR part 1066 generally apply to Tier 3 and newer vehicles;...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1848-10 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1848-10... be covered by the certificate. (4) For incomplete light-duty trucks and incomplete...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1813-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1813-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles Pt. 86, Subpt. S, App. II Appendix..., or individuals conducting the testing. 7. The MIL light is flashing (severe misfire indication)....

  8. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1810-09... statement “ ” This section applies to model year 2009 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1812-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1812-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1844-01 - Information requirements: Application for certification and submittal of information upon request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... results. Use the analytical equipment and procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 as needed to measure... Small Business Administration size standards in 13 CFR 121.201 may omit measurement of N2O and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1810-01... 2001 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks fueled by gasoline, diesel, methanol,...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1844-01 - Information requirements: Application for certification and submittal of information upon request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... results. Use the analytical equipment and procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 as needed to measure... Small Business Administration size standards in 13 CFR 121.201 may omit measurement of N2O and...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1838-01 - Small volume manufacturer certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1838-01 Small volume... under provisions of 40 CFR 85.1505 and 85.1509 (for the model year in which certification is sought)...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1845-04 - Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1845-04 Manufacturer.... For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1829-01 - Durability and emission testing requirements; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1829-01 Durability and... Economy Test (HWFET; 40 CFR part 600, subpart B). The oxides of nitrogen emissions measured during...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1825-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraph. (h) Emission component durability. . For guidance see 40 CFR 86.1845-01 (e). (i) If EPA... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1805-01 - Useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1805-01 Useful life. (a) For light-duty vehicles and light... first. (b) Full useful life is as follows: (1) For light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1846-01 - Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1846-01 Manufacturer...). (3) For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1864-10 How to.../MDPVs. (3) (4) Vehicles imported by ICIs as defined in 40 CFR 85.1502. (b) Useful life...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1810-09..., this is indicated by the statement “ ” This section applies to model year 2009 and later...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1825-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-08 Durability.... (h) Emission component durability. . For guidance see 40 CFR 86.1845-01 (e). (i) If EPA...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1814-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1814-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1812-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1812-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... year HLDT/MDPVs. (3) (4) Vehicles imported by ICIs as defined in 40 CFR 85.1502. (b) Useful life... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1812-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1812-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... light-duty vehicles and/or light-duty trucks subject to the provisions in this subpart must establish... with § 86.614 for light-duty vehicles or § 86.1014 for light-duty trucks and, if a...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1805-01 - Useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1805-01 Useful life. (a) For light-duty vehicles and light... first. (b) Full useful life is as follows: (1) For light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1863-07 - Optional chassis certification for diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1863-07 Optional chassis... in 40 CFR part 1065. (d) Diesel vehicles optionally certified under this section may not be...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1845-04 - Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1845-04 Manufacturer.... For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1824-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... guidance see 40 CFR 86.1824-01(d). (i) If EPA determines based on IUVP data or other information that the... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1829-01 - Durability and emission testing requirements; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1829-01 Durability and... data vehicles tested in accordance with the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET; 40 CFR part...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1810-01... 2001 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks fueled by gasoline, diesel, methanol,...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1814-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1829-01 - Durability and emission testing requirements; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1829-01 Durability and... data vehicles tested in accordance with the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET; 40 CFR part...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1801-01 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conversions as defined in 40 CFR 85.502, of all model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, medium duty... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto..., refueling standards, phase-in requirements and fleet average standards under 40 CFR part 85 and this...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1829-01 - Durability and emission testing requirements; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1829-01 Durability and... data vehicles tested in accordance with the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET; 40 CFR part...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1846-01 - Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1846-01 Manufacturer... Factors (RAFs). (3) For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles,...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year HLDT/MDPVs. (3) (4) Vehicles imported by ICIs as defined in 40 CFR 85.1502. (b) Useful life... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1823-01 Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles,...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1814-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1845-01 - Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1845-01 Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements. (a) General requirements. A manufacturer...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1824-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1824-08 Durability...) Emission component durability. . For guidance see 40 CFR 86.1824-01(d)....

  4. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... light-duty vehicles and/or light-duty trucks subject to the provisions in this subpart must establish... with § 86.614 for light-duty vehicles or § 86.1014 for light-duty trucks and, if a...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1805-01 - Useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1805-01 Useful life. (a) For light-duty vehicles and light... first. (b) Full useful life is as follows: (1) For light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1810-09 General... indicated by the statement “ ” This section applies to model year 2009 and later light-duty vehicles...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1810-01 General... procedures. Measure NMOG emissions using the procedures described in 40 CFR 1065.635. (p) For Tier 2...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1848-10 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1848-10... be covered by the certificate. (4) For incomplete light-duty trucks and incomplete...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1813-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1813-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... light-duty vehicles and/or light-duty trucks subject to the provisions in this subpart must establish... with § 86.614 for light-duty vehicles or § 86.1014 for light-duty trucks and, if a...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1867-12 - CO2 credits for reducing leakage of air conditioning refrigerant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1867-12... of their passenger automobiles and/or light trucks. Credits shall be calculated according to...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1824-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... guidance see 40 CFR 86.1824-01(d). (i) If EPA determines based on IUVP data or other information that the... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles Pt. 86, Subpt. S, App. II Appendix..., or individuals conducting the testing. 7. The MIL light is flashing (severe misfire indication)....

  17. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1810-09..., this is indicated by the statement “ ” This section applies to model year 2009 and later...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1825-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraph. (h) Emission component durability. . For guidance see 40 CFR 86.1845-01 (e). (i) If EPA... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1805-01 - Useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1805-01 Useful life. (a) For light-duty vehicles and light... first. (b) Full useful life is as follows: (1) For light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1863-07 - Optional chassis certification for diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1863-07 Optional chassis... in 40 CFR part 1065. (d) Diesel vehicles optionally certified under this section may not be...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1811-01 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1871-12 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... light truck fuel economy standard calculated under 49 CFR 533.5 for the 2009 model year, the gram per... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... automobile” shall have the meaning given by the Department of Transportation at 49 CFR 523.4 for the...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1845-01 - Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1845-01 Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements. (a) General requirements. A manufacturer...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1838-01 - Small volume manufacturer certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1838-01 Small volume... under provisions of 40 CFR 85.1505 and 85.1509 (for the model year in which certification is sought)...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1844-01 - Information requirements: Application for certification and submittal of information upon request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... specified in 40 CFR 1066.425 for each drive cycle or test phase, as appropriate. (ii) For gasoline-fueled... statement that the diagnostic system is adequate for the performance warranty test described in 40 CFR...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1846-01 - Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1846-01 Manufacturer...). (3) For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1810-09..., this is indicated by the statement “ ” This section applies to model year 2009 and later...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1810-01... 2001 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks fueled by gasoline, diesel, methanol,...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1811-01 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1824-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... guidance see 40 CFR 86.1824-01(d). (i) If EPA determines based on IUVP data or other information that the... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles Pt. 86, Subpt. S, App. II Appendix..., or individuals conducting the testing. 7. The MIL light is flashing (severe misfire indication)....

  20. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...