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Sample records for luna tabasco modelacion

  1. Mexico's Luna discoveries are more than moonshine

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart-Gordon, T.J.; Baker, G.T.

    1987-05-01

    Just when it seemed that Mexico's petroleum reserves may have been overstated, the state oil company opened a new province. Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) geologists think the Luna area of Tabasco State and the Gulf of Mexico could add the condensate and gas equivalent of 20 billion bbl of light oil to Mexico's proven reserves. If true, this would be the largest discovery in Mexico since the Campeche Sound fields in 1976. To date, the new province stretches about 50 miles between the Caribbean coastal towns of Frontera and Puerto Ceiba in Tabasco State, and extends some 31 miles offshore (see map). Since the early 1970s, Pemex geologists have postulated that the entire Yucatan platform will prove productive. Luna finds reduce the distance between Campeche fields and onshore production to 93 miles. The Luna area is ideally suited for rapid development - it is about 40 miles northeast of Villahermosa, Tabasco, and within 60 miles of the export terminal at Dos Bocas near the border between Tabasco and Vera Cruz states. It is also less than 50 miles from the Cactus gas-processing and petrochemical plants in Chiapas State, which means that gas can be put into the country's trunk line that extends to the U.S. grid at Reynosa.

  2. Lunae Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 24 June 2002) The Science This image is within a region called Lunae Planum, near 27.3N, 75.3W. This is a region west of the Viking 1 landing site that marks the transition between the Tharsis rise, a giant volcanic complex, and the northern lowland plains. The topographically high regions display numerous graben, signs of significant amounts of crustal deformation. The low areas display signs of resurfacing, including an unusual unit that appears to 'lap' onto the base of the uplands. This scarp follows the transition between the high and low areas throughout much of the image. It is not clear what caused these deposits, but a likely candidate is ice, which is suspected to have played a major role in the surface morphology of the fretted terrains and many features within the northern lowlands. The Story Lunae Planum was named after the Roman moon goddess Luna, who in ancient stories ruled over the night just as her counterpart, the sun god Sol, ruled over the day (a 'sol' is, in fact, the word used for a Martian day). Wearing the symbol of the crescent moon upon her head, Luna was known to ride on chariot pulled by two powerful horses. If the fictional Luna ever rode over the Martian plain named for her, she would find the terrain fairly rough going. You might say that she'd face a large number of 'ruts' on a geologic scale. That's because Lunae Planum marks the transition between the high Tharsis rise , a giant volcanic bulge on Mars, and the northern lowland plains. In this region, there are many signs of significant crustal deformation. Look for the dropped blocks of terrain called 'graben' on the higher surfaces in this image. Graben are created when tectonic forces tear apart the terrain, leaving long, large 'ruts' on the surface. We find graben on Earth too (think of Death Valley, the lowest dry land in the United States, or of the Jordan Dead Sea depression). Much more exciting than these depressions is the thin ridge that seems to lap up against

  3. The halogens in Luna 16 and Luna 20 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1973-01-01

    The halogens, uranium, and lithium contents found in Luna 16, Luna 20, and some Apollo lunar soil samples are discussed. Chlorine and phosphorus pentoxide do not appear to exhibit the same correlation in soils from the Luna 20 and possibly the Luna 16 sites as they do in samples from the Apollo 11-15 sites.

  4. [Migration and oil in Tabasco].

    PubMed

    Lezama, J L

    1987-01-01

    "At the beginning of the seventies, important economic investments aimed at developing and commercializing the newly discovered oilwells were made in the state of Tabasco [Mexico]. As a result of this, the distribution and the social growth of the population in this state changed. This paper analyses the general characteristics of these changes, particularly those related to migration.... Generally speaking, the most important migratory movements which took place in this state during the oil boom were from one municipality to another and not from other states to Tabasco, as was thought at first.... This paper also describes the direction of the migratory flows and provides information about the sex of the migrants and about their insertion within the sphere of employment." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12314998

  5. Nuclear Astrophysics with LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggini, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonuclear reactions which power the stars and synthesize the chemical elements. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained during the 'solar' phase of LUNA are reviewed and their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino and of the Sun is discussed. We then describe the current LUNA program mainly devoted to the study of the nucleosynthesis of the light elements in AGB stars and Classical Novae. Finally, the future of LUNA towards the study of helium and carbon burning with a new 3.5 MV accelerator is outlined.

  6. Mapping luna incognita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, John E.

    1990-11-01

    The portion of the moon near the south and southwestern limbs was poorly photographed by the 1960s lunar missions, and is accordingly designated 'luna incognita'. The Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers accordingly undertook a study of this region from 1972 to 1990 which ultimately encompassed 1509 photographs by terrestrial observers, photographs from the Lunar Orbiters IV and V and from Zond 8, radar maps and images, and charts of the moon's limb profile. On these bases, a shaded-relief topographic map was compiled and executed by a computerized 'shading' program at 1:2.5 million scale. This map is presently reproduced in 1:3.5 million scale.

  7. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    SciTech Connect

    Best, A.

    2015-02-24

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.

  8. 78 FR 49121 - Safety Zone; Luna Pier Fireworks, Luna Pier, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Luna Pier Fireworks, Luna Pier, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard... zone for the Luna Pier Fireworks Show, Luna Pier, MI, from 9:25 p.m. until 10:25 p.m. on August 24... waters of Lake Erie within a 300-yard radius of the fireworks launch site at the Clyde E. Evens...

  9. Science Program of Lunar Landers of "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resource" Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Tret'yakov, V. I.; Dolgopolov, V. P.

    2011-03-01

    Program of scientific investigations is presented for two Russian polar landers: Luna Resource and Luna Glob. This program has to address two tasks: studies of composition of lunar polar regolith and studies of lunar exosphere at both poles.

  10. Radiation damage in Luna 20 soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phakey, P. P.; Price, P. B.

    1973-01-01

    As an extension of previous studies of radiation damage produced by heavy solar flare ions in lunar soils, high-voltage electron microscopy and electron diffraction procedures were used to rank a Luna 20 sample among the other soils returned by Soviet and American lunar missions. Micron-sized soil grains from the Luna 20 mission are the most lightly irradiated, in contrast to micron-sized grains from Luna 16 soil, which are the most heavily irradiated.

  11. Luna 24 origins - Some trace element constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Jensen, K. J.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Luna 24 basaltic material originated in the particular volume of the lunar crust that produced Apollo 11 and Luna 16 basaltic material; it has the same Clr/P2O5 (r = residual) signature. Ru-Os contents (Barsukov et al., 1977) and a number of radiogenic age measurements place Luna 24 basalt origins stratigraphically in a layer between those from which Apollo 15 and Apollo 11 and 17 basalts were derived.

  12. Chemical composition of crystalline rock fragments from Luna 16 and Luna 20 fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbalnikova, A.; Palivcova, M.; Frana, J.; Mastalka, A.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical composition (bulk, rare earth, and trace elements) of the Luna 16 mare regolith and luna 20 highland regolith is discussed. The rock samples considered are 14 basaltic rock fragments (Luna 16) and 13 rock fragments of the ANT suite (Luna 20). On the basis of bulk composition, two types of basaltic rocks have been differentiated and defined in the Luna 16 regolith: mare basalts (fundamental crystalline rocks of Mare Fecunditatis) and high-alumina basalts. The bulk analyses of rock fragments of the ANT suite also enabled distinction of two rock types: anorthositic norites and troctolites and/or spinal-troctolites (the most abundant crystalline rocks of the highland region, the landing site of luna 20), and anorthosites. The chemical compositions of Luna 16 and Luna 20 regolith samples are compared. Differences in the chemistry of the Luna 16 mare regolith and that of mare basalts are discussed. The chemical affinity between the Luna 20 highland regolith and (a) anorthositic norites and (b) troctolites and/or spinel-troctolites has been ascertained.

  13. Melt inclusions in Luna 24 soil fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, W.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Optical examinations of 28 slides of Luna 24 soil fragments revealed melt inclusions in grains of olivine, plagioclase, spinel, and ilmenite as well as interstitial inclusions. In contrast with Apollo samples, the Luna 24 samples contain sulfide melt inclusions, which indicates that saturation with respect to an iron sulfide melt took place throughout much of the crystallization history, even while olivine was crystallizing. The Luna 24 silicate-melt inclusions have recorded a more extensive differentiation toward higher iron magmas than have the Apollo inclusions, but they have also recorded some inexplicably low aluminum values.

  14. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at LUNA

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, Matthias

    2008-01-24

    Nuclear cross sections play a key role in understanding stellar evolution and elemental synthesis. Also in the field of astroparticle physics precise knowledge on thermonuclear cross sections is needed to extract the particle properties from the experimental data. While it is desirable to directly measure the relevant cross sections in the energy range of interest for the specific stellar environment this proves to be difficult, if not impossible, due to the effect of the Coulomb barrier, which causes an exponential drop of the cross sections at stellar energies. Consequently direct measurements are hampered by low counting rates and background caused by cosmic rays and environmental radioactivity. In addition background induced by the beam or the target itself can disturb the measurements.In this contribution I will discuss some of the reactions studied by LUNA in the past years to illustrate important aspects underground nuclear astrophysics.

  15. [The regional context of migration: the case of Tabasco].

    PubMed

    Lezama, J L

    1991-09-01

    This work contains reflections on regional influences in determination of migratory processes, as distinct from economic and political influences at the national level. The relationship between migration and region implies discussion of the concept of regions and regional hierarchies in relation to the national level. The economic structure of a region and its influence on migration for example is related to characteristics of the same phenomenon at the national level. Migration to Mexico City and Monterrey represents a process of social change that affects all of Mexican society, both because of the regional diversity and large volume of migrants to the 2 cities and because of their importance in Mexico's economic and social development. Migration at the regional level may be determined by forces within that region or by processes at the national or even international level that are beyond local control. The particular mix of resources available in a region and the level of its development compared to other places within the nation strongly affect migratory potential. The concrete case of petroleum activity in the state of Tabasco is an example of the lack of participation at the regional level in design of investment policy. The petroleum boom of the 1960s in Tabasco produced profound economic changes in the region and caused changes in the local power structure. Particularities in the case of Tabasco included a state economy dominated by petroleum activity, deterioration in the agricultural sector accompanied by increased livestock raising, expansion of zones of population expulsion especially where livestock were most dominant, and consolidation of strong migratory flows toward the petroleum zones. External factors in the regional socioeconomic situation included the impacts generated by petroleum activity, while internal factors included the increasing importance of livestock and eclipse of agriculture even before the petroleum boom. Census and survey data

  16. Team LunaCY Outreach Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heise, James; Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    Iowa State University's Lunabotics Club, Team LunaCY, has worked hard to generate enthusiasm for robotics, engineering, and lunar activities. Team LunaCY participated in a variety of different outreach events making a strong impression on Iowa youth. These events led the chair of the mechanical engineering department, Dr. Ted Heindel, to refer to the club's outreach program as "the model that all other engineering clubs should follow." Team LunaCY's outreach activities totaled over 200 hours and captivated over 3000 students and adults throughout the course of this acaden1ic year, reaching out to people all over Iowa and to several special guests. These guests included Vice-President Joe Biden, during a visit to Iowa State University in March 2012, and astronaut Clayton Anderson, during a visit to Iowa State's campus in the fall 2011. Team LunaCY's outreach events created hands on learning opportunities for local youth ranging in age from elementary school children to high school students. The team strove to make a positive impression on Iowa youth and to encourage interest and involvement in scientific fields. The full list of events is shown in Table 1. Three of the major outreach events the team participated in were the FIRST LEGO League, Science Bound, and iExplore STEM Festival.

  17. "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resurs": science goals, payload and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Khartov, Viktor; Lukjanchikov, Alexandr; Tret'yakov, Vlad; Zelenyi, Lev

    2014-05-01

    Vicinity of the South pole of the Moon is thought to be the most interesting region for future investigations. The first reason is associated with the studies of composition and content of volatiles in the lunar polar regolith: neutron mapping with high spatial resolution by LRO has shown that there are more local spots with strong signatures of water at south pole in comparison with the north one. Secondly, the center of Galaxy is not visible from the north pole, therefore southern location is more preferable for perspectives of future lunar exploration. The current Russian space program contains successive missions to study physical environment at the vicinity of the lunar south pole. The first one is the "Luna-Glob" mission, which spacecraft is named Luna-25 (next after the last Soviet lander Luna-24 of 1976). This project has to test the upgraded landing technology, to study the samples of lunar regoluth from the upper most layer of the subsurface and to measure the content of dust, neutrals and plasma during the cycle of the lunar local time. This mission is planned for launch in 2016 by Soyuz. The next lander is Luna-27 of the mission "Luna-Resurs" scheduled for launch in 2019 by Soyuz also. It will use the experience of the previous one to perform the comprehensive studies of the lunar polar environment. The landing site of this mission will be selected taking into account the perspective of further usage for future exploration. The lander will study in situ samples of regolith from the depth down to 2 meters. The mission "Luna-Resurs" will also include the lunar polar orbiter Luna-26 (launch in 2018 by Soyuz). These missions will be implemented with contributions of international partners. In particular, the cooperation with ESA is now under discussion for contribution of scientific instruments, high precision landing technology, drilling element, etc.

  18. Geologic mapping of northern Lunae Planun, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    1991-01-01

    Lunae Planum is an elevated region east of the Tharsis rise, and ridged plains containing numerous Sacra Dorsa wrinkle ridges, cross-cutting Sacra Fossae grabens, and lobate scarps compose this Martian Plateau. Geologic mapping of the northern Lunae Planum region was undertaken to better understand to emplacement history of the ridge plains, the structural history of deformation, and the periods of fluvial processes that have modified the region. These investigations are important for several reasons: (1) the history of plains emplacement yields information valuable for understanding the evolution of Tharsis volcanism; (2) interpretation of structural deformation has implications on the lithology of the Martian crust; and (3) determining the history and fate of Martian volatiles is dependent upon knowing the periods of outflow activity. A discussion of the findings is presented.

  19. Seawater batteries for the Luna 27

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    On 20 January 1996, the first installation of seawater batteries (SWBs) on a live subsea well was successfully completed on the Luna 27 well in 591 ft of water in the Ionian Sea. The SWB pack is composed of six cells, each measuring 3.3 ft in diameter by 6.6 ft high, and is designed to provide all the electrical energy required by the autonomous control system for the well. The only operations required in the future will be periodic replacement of the anodes by use of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) every 3 to 5 years. This application of the SWBs is a part of the continuing research by Agip SpA in the area of autonomous control that began with the subsea-wells autonomous-control system (SWACS) project. This project began in 1982 and culminated with the installation of a SWACS prototype in December 1987 on the Luna 27 gas well offshore Crotone and 2.5 miles form the Luna A platform. Notwithstanding the 5-year predicted life, the system was still operating in 1996 without any noticeable problems.

  20. The mineralogy and petrology of the Luna 20 soil sample.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kridelbaugh, S. J.; Weill, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The lithologic types found in the soil at the Luna site are characterized, and their mineralogical and petrological significance is discussed. Chemically, the Luna 20 and Apollo 16 soil samples are similar, but the Luna 20 soil is slightly depleted in aluminum and calcium and enriched in iron and magnesium relative to the Apollo 16 soils. This slight difference may be a result of the presence of a minor amount of mare material in the Luna 20 soil and its apparent absence in the Apollo 16 soils.

  1. Landing of the probes Luna 23 and Luna 24 remains an enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaydash, Vadym; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Videen, Gorden

    2013-12-01

    The landing sites of the landers of Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 as well as Luna 16, 20, and 23 spacecraft are all located within specific phase-ratio anomalies caused by the engine jets. The landing site identified as that of the Luna 24 spacecraft, however, was not located within its corresponding anomaly, leading Shkuratov et al. (2013) to suggest that this may be due to the misidentification of the Luna 23 and 24 spacecraft in the LROC images, since the Luna 23 landing was not successful. Dolgopolov et al. (2013) synthesized images of the Luna spacecraft as they might appear in the LROC images, using a model made by the Lavochkin Association. They found similarity of the spacecraft seen in the LROC images with the synthetic images corresponding to successful and unsuccessful missions and concluded that the original identification of the Luna 23 and 24 spacecraft in the images by Robinson et al. (2012) is likely correct. However, Dolgopolov et al. (2013) used only one illumination geometry for each landing site. As distinct from Dolgopolov et al. (2013) we make a similar analysis using a 3D computer spacecraft model using several different illuminations of the spacecraft and show that the orientations used by Dolgopolov are inconsistent with other LROC images, and it is impossible to make a reliable conclusion based on these analyses. We also show that geologic arguments presented by Dolgopolov et al. (2013) are ambiguous. Using Lucey et al.'s (1995) technique and multispectral images acquired with the Kaguya MI camera (resolution ~20 m), we show that small areas around the landing sites of the probes have almost the same contents of FeO and TiO2, as well as fairly close maturity degree of the regolith.

  2. Luna 24 regolith breccias: A possible source of the fine size material of the Luna 24 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rode, O. D.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    The regolith breccias from the Luna 24 core were analyzed. The Luna 24 regolith is a mixture of fine and coarse grain materials. The comparable analysis of the grain size distributions, the modal and chemical compositions of the breccias, and the regolith from the same levels show that the friable slightly litificated breccia with a friable fine grain matrix may be a source of fine grain material of the Luna 24 present day regolith.

  3. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) for Luna-Resurs and Luna-Glob missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Ivanov, A.; Mantsevich, S.; Kiselev, A.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.

    2012-09-01

    Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2015) and Luna- Resurs (launch in 2017) Russian surface missions. The experiment is dedicated to the studies of mineralogy of the lunar regolith in the vicinity of the lander. The instrument is mounted on the mechanic arm of landing module in the field of view (45°) of stereo TV camera. LIS will provide measurements of selected surface region in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The electrically commanded acousto-optic filter scans sequentially at a desired sampling, with random access, over the entire spectral range.

  4. The Impact of LUNA Results on Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavino, Carlo

    2011-10-28

    LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) is devoted to measure nuclear cross sections relevant in astroparticle physics. The facility operates underground, at the 'Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso'(LNGS), where the cosmic ray induced background is very low. The LUNA measurements are important in neutrino physics, in the study of the Sun and other celestial bodies, in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

  5. Lithic fragments, glasses and chondrules from Luna 16 fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Prinz, M.; Green, J. A.; Kurat, G.

    1972-01-01

    Electron probe determination of the bulk compositions of igneous and microbreccia lithic fragments, glasses and chondrules from Luna 16 fines and of the compositions of minerals in basaltic lithic fragments. It is found that the Luna 16 fines have a composition more similar to that of Apollo 11 than to those of Apollo 12 and 14 materials. The compositions of lithic fragments, glasses and chondrules from Luna 16 core tube layers A and D are similar. The glasses are compositional analogs of the lithic fragments and are produced largely from igneous rocks. The Luna 16 chondrules have an anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic composition. Evidence for the presence of ferric iron and water-bearing minerals in the Luna 16 material is not obtained. The occurrence of a great variety of igneous rocks in the material confirms an earlier conclusion that large-scale melting or partial melting to a considerable depth and an extensive igneous differentiation must have occurred on the moon.

  6. Major element composition of Luna 20 glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Ten per cent of the 50 to 150-micron size fraction of Luna 20 soil is glass. A random suite of 270 of these glasses has been analyzed by electron microprobe techniques. The major glass type forms a strong cluster around a mean value corresponding to Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro) with 70% normative feldspar. Minor glass groups have the compositions of mare basalts and of low-K Fra Mauro type basalts. The glass data indicate that Highland basalt is the major rock type in the highlands north of Mare Fecunditatis.

  7. Un asteroide proveniente de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.

    El descubrimiento de un débil objeto en movimiento por el telescopio Spacewatch (un instrumento dedicado a la búsqueda de Asteroides Cercanos a la Tierra) en 1991, ha generado una gran controversia en la comunidad planetaria. El objeto, denominado 1991 VG, tiene elementos orbitales llamativamente similares a los de la Tierra, lo que ha llevado a B. G. Marsden a aventurar:``El objeto podría ser una nave espacial en retorno (IAUC 5387)". Luego de analizar las características dinámicas de 1991 VG y las diferentes hipótesis sobre su origen, favorecemos la alternativa de que el objeto es un gran fragmento de material eyectado de la Luna durante un reciente impacto (en las últimas decenas de miles de años). El hallazgo en 1983 en la Antártida de meteoritos con composición tipo lunar, confirma la posibilidad de que material de la superficie del satélite puede ser eyectado a velocidades superiores a la de escape del sistema Tierra-Luna y alcance órbitas heliocéntricas. Los elementos orbitales de 1991 VG corresponden a los valores alcanzados por partículas que apenas escapan de la gravedad lunar y entran en órbitas heliocéntricas a través del punto Lagrangiano exterior del sistema Tierra-Sol.

  8. LUNA: Present status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caciolli, A.

    2016-05-01

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonuclear reactions responsible for powering the stellar engine and for the synthesis of the chemical elements. At astrophysical energies the cross section of nuclear processes is extremely reduced by the effect of the Coulomb barrier and often extrapolations are needed. The Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) is placed under the Gran Sasso mountain. Thanks to the environmental background reduction provided by its position many reactions involved in hydrogen burning has been measured directly at astrophysical energies. Based on this progress, currently there are efforts in several countries to construct new underground accelerators. The exciting science that can be probed with these new facilities will be highlighted.

  9. Chemical composition of Luna 16 lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinogradov, A. P.; Chupakhin, M. S.; Belyayev, Y. I.

    1974-01-01

    Data on the chemical composition of regolith returned by the Luna 16 automatic station and two fragments of basalts from the lower layer of the core are presented. Spark mass spectrometric, primary X-ray spectral, emission spectral, and atomic absorption methods were used in the analysis. The regolith of mare provinces were shown to be a mixture of material of various origins. The source of the material of the mare regolith was principally basalts of the corresponding lunar lava maria. The regolith is genetically related to it. This follows from a comparison of the chemical composition, mineralogical, and petrochemical features of the basesalts and the regolith from the Sea of Fertility, Sea of Tranquillity, and Ocean of Storms, respectively.

  10. Mossbauer spectroscopy of iron in the Luna 20 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemcik, T.; Raclavsky, K.

    1977-01-01

    Results of the Mossbauer effect measurements on Fe-57 in the average sample of the Luna 20 regolith, and their comparison with similar measurements of the Luna 16 samples are presented. Room temperature measurements of the nonmagnetic as well as magnetic components of the spectra were performed. By careful least-squares analysis, six quadrupole doublets in the inner parts of spectra were resolved. According to their splittings, they were interpreted as four types of iron in silicates (olivine, two inequivalent pyroxene sites, and a glassy fraction) and two types of nonmagnetic iron-titanium oxides (ilmenite and a spinel). Velocity-window measurements, were used to determine the average nickel content of (2.01 plus or minus 0.84) wt. %. These results are discussed in terms of distribution of iron among different phases. In comparison with the Luna 16 sample, the Luna 20 sample contains more olivine and less ilmenite as well as metal with a slightly higher nickel content.

  11. Demonstrating xLuna on ESA EXOMADER Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present xLuna [1] and its successful demonstration on the ESA EXOMArs DEmonstration Rover (EXOMADER) [2]. xLuna is a Linux-specific hypervisor extension for RTEMS, a Real-time Executive already used on ESA missions. On xLuna, RTEMS runs natively and directly on top of the hardware providing all its native services to real- time control applications. On top of the hypervisor runs a Linux kernel para-virtualised specifically for the system that provides all the well known POSIX based services and an endless set of software libraries to payload applications. On the demonstration, the complete navigation software of the rover (with stereo image processing and path processing) that was being tested ran on xLuna's Linux subsystem, while the RTEMS components were running control tasks. Due to impossibilities of integration, the RTEMS tasks running were simulated. The control was performed by existing HW.

  12. Luna 20 soil - Abundance of 17 trace elements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Ganapathy, R.; Anders, E.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of radiochemical neutron activation analysis of two Luna 20 fine soil and breccia samples for the abundance of 17 mainly siderophile and volatile elements that are strongly depleted in lunar surface rocks and hence represent sensitive indicators of meteoritic materials. These results are compared with those previously obtained for Apollo 16 soils. Some of the source rocks of Luna 20 regolith are identified.

  13. Lunar Solar Origins Exploration (LunaSOX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natasha; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon offers a unique vantage point from which to investigate the Sun and its interaction via the solar wind magnetic fields, plasma, and energetic particles with the geospace system including the Moon itself. The lunar surface and exosphere provide in part a record of solar coronal plasma material input and resultant space weathering over billions of years. The structure and dynamics of solar wind interactions with the Moon provide an accessible near-Earth laboratory environment for study of general solar wind interactions with the vast multitude of airless asteroidal bodies of the inner solar system. Spacecraft in lunar orbit have the often simultaneous opportunity, except when in the Earth's magnetosphere, to make in-situ compositional measurements of the solar wind plasma and to carry out remote observations from the Moon of the solar corona, potentially enabled by lunar limb occultation of the solar disk. The LunaSOX project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is addressing these heliophysical science objectives from and of the Moon with support from NASA's Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research (LASER) program: (1) specify history of solar wind parameters at and sunward of the Moon through enhanced access (http://lunasox.gsfc.nasa.gov/) to legacy and operational mission data products from the Apollo era to the present, (2) model field and plasma interactions with the lunar surface, exosphere, and wake, as constrained by the available data, through hybrid kinetic code simulations, and (3) advance mission concepts for heliophysics from and of the Moon.

  14. The radiation history of material returned by the Soviet automatic stations Luna 16 and Luna 20, according to track studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashkarov, L. L.; Genayeva, L. I.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Fission tracks formed by the vH (very heavy) nuclei group of solar and galactic cosmic rays have been studied in silicate minerals of the lunar regolith returned by the Luna 16 and Luna 20 unmanned spacecraft. It is shown that the material in the Luna 16 core sample, from a typical mare region of the lunar surface, has undergone stronger irradiation by cosmic rays than material returned a highland region by Luna 20. A low-irradiation component (about 10 percent of the total number of crystals) has been found in the Luna 20 core sample materials, which can possibly be attributed to material added to the main bulk of the regolith in the formation of the crater Apollonius C. From the track density distribution of crystals, as a function of depth in the regolith core sample, it follows that the process of formation of the upper layer of the regolith, both for the lunar mare and for the highland region, includes sequential layering of finely crushed crystalline matter and subsequent mixing of it by micrometeorite bombardment. A portion of the crystals with a very high track density may be a component added to the lunar surface from outer space.

  15. Identity Theft: Gentrification, Latinidad, and American Girl Marisol Luna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Jennifer Domino

    2009-01-01

    Released by Mattel in 2005, American Girl doll Marisol Luna quickly provoked controversy. The doll's accompanying narrative depicts her Chicago neighborhood of Pilsen as "dangerous" and recounts her family's move to the suburbs. Pilsen, located just south and west of downtown Chicago, has a long history as a Mexican (im)migrant port of entry. Many…

  16. Fossil track and thermoluminescence studies of Luna 16 material.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R.; Zimmerman, D.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of track densities and thermoluminescence have been made on two 5-mg samples (feldspar crystals) from the Luna 16 core tube. The distribution of track densities is shown graphically and is similar to that observed in heavily irradiated Apollo samples. Results of thermoluminescence measurements are plotted and also compared with similar measurements of Apollo samples.

  17. Results of special mechanical analyses of Luna 16 material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiller, H.; Vollstaedt, H.; Wasch, R.; Bankwitz, P.; Bankwitz, E.; Wagner, F. C.; Schoen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The studies carried out on the Luna 16 regolith have confirmed the data that were already published internationally. By means of activation analysis under irradiation in the reactor, activation analysis with a 14 MeV U-generator, and mass spectroscopy on samples of 10 or 20 mg, six main and 63 trace elements were quantitatively determined and compared with known data.

  18. [Scolitids (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) associated to the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-De La Cruz, Manuel; Equihua-Martínez, Armando; Romero-Nápoles, Jesus; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl; García-López, Eustolia; Bravo-Mojica, Hiram

    2009-01-01

    The Scolytidae fauna associated to the cacao agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico was studied during 2007. Adult insects were captured by using ethanol and light traps, and by direct collecting in their host plants. 3,192 specimens of 34 species belonging to 18 genera of Scolytidae were collected. Twenty-two species are new records for the State of Tabasco. The genera with more species were Xyleborus (6) and Hypothenemus (6). We conclude that the Scolytidae fauna associated to the cacao agroecosystem captured with the three trap systems are similar through the year of study. We also conclude that although the ethanol traps were more efficient, obtaining the highest species diversity, the use of other methods is important. PMID:19943007

  19. Luna 24 - Mineral chemistry of 90-150 micron clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. O. A.; Hwang, J.-Y.; Mccallister, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The mineralogy, composition and source relations of monomineralic clasts in the size range 0.09 to 0.15 mm have been studied for seven grain mounts from the Luna 24 core, obtained in Mare Crisium. One of the core horizons, which showed the greatest number of mafic mineral clasts, apparently represents a less reworked level or one which received a greater average influx of gabbroic and/or basaltic ejecta. Most of the mafic minerals in the core were probably derived from the comminution of clasts of very low titanium basalts and/or gabbros. A small number of mineral clasts may have originated from a Mg-rich gabbro. A mixture of local mare basalts and ejecta from Fahrenheit crater probably makes up most of the regolith at the Luna 24 site.

  20. Fossil track and thermoluminescence studies of Luna 20 material.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.; Walker, R.; Zimmerman, D.

    1973-01-01

    Track densities in 85 feldspar crystals from L-2009 range from 2,500,000 per sq cm to greater than one billion per sq cm. This track distribution represents an intermediate case between what have been previously defined as lightly and heavily irradiated soils and suggests that the Luna 20 sample consists of a mixture of a mature, heavily irradiated component with another, lightly irradiated component. Using a two-component mixing model, the age of the lightly irradiated component is about 270,000,000 yr. It is possible, but by no means certain, that this is associated with the formation of the crater Apollonius C. At about 200 C the ratio of natural thermoluminescence to that induced by a standard irradiation is similar to that in Apollo 12 and 14 cores below about 7 cm. This confirms that most of the Luna 20 sample represents subsurface material.

  1. Compressive strain in Lunae Planum-shortening across wrinkle ridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Wrinkle ridges have long been considered to be structural or structurally controlled features. Most, but not all, recent studies have converged on a model in which wrinkle ridges are structural features formed under compressive stress; the deformation being accommodated by faulting and folding. Given that wrinkle ridges are compressive tectonic features, an analysis of the associated shortening and strain provides important quantitative information about local and regional deformation. Lunae Planum is dominated by north-south trending ridges extending from Kasei Valles in the north to Valles Marineris in the south. To quantify the morphometric character, a photoclinometric study was undertaken for ridges on Lunae Planum using the Davis and Soderblom. More than 25 ridges were examined between long. 57 and 80 deg, lat. 5 to 25 deg N. For each ridge, several profiles were obtained along its length. Ridge width, total relief, and elevation offset were measured for each ridge. Analyses are given.

  2. Luna-25 lander: science of the first lunar day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Litvak, Maxim; Prokhorov, Vasily; Kozyrev, Alexander; Mokrousov, Maxim; Vostrukhin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Luna-25 lander is a Roscosmos mission to investigate the southern lunar pole to launch in 2018. The mission aims at testing the landing capability of the spacecraft as well as conducting a number of science experiments. The instrument suite consists of 10 scientific experiments to study both, the landing site and the moon as a whole. These include measurements of soil composition and volatiles in the vicinity of the lander, environmental conditions such as temperature variations, plasma and dust exosphere of Moon, measurements of Moon inner structure through seismic, radio and laser ranging sensors. Luna-25 will also provide a number of images of the lander surroundings and samples collected in its robotic arm. We present the details of the investigations program for the first lunar day for the entire instruments suite.

  3. Boguslawsky Crater, Moon: Studying the Luna-Glob Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, M.; Head, J. W.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Pasckert, J. H.; Bauch, K.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Abdrahimov, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of the Russian Luna-Glob lander, which will land on the floor of Boguslawsky crater (~95 km in diameter, centered at 72.9S, 43.26E), is to test landing techniques. However, it will also carry a small scientific payload. Two landing ellipses, 30x15 km each, are under investigation: Ellipse West is at 72.9S, 41.3E, Ellipse East is at 73.3S, 43.9E [1].

  4. Microprobe analyses of glasses and minerals from Luna-16 soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Harmon, R. S.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Warner, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    Electron microprobe analyses are presented for nine elements in 250 glasses and 434 pyroxenes, eight elements in 113 olivines, and six elements in 354 feldspars, 35 spinels, and 159 ilmenites. All grains are from the 125-425 micron fraction of horizon A and horizon D soil from the Luna 16 sample. A norm is presented for each glass analysis and the structural formula is calculated for each mineral analysis.

  5. Late Cretaceous biostratigraphy of the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo basin

    SciTech Connect

    Truskowski, I.; Galeaalvarez, F.; Sliter, W.V.

    1996-08-01

    Micropaleontological analysis, sedimentological studies, and geochemical data are presented for the Upper Cretaceous {open_quote}black shales{close_quote} of the La Luna Formation of Western Venezuela. The detailed planktonic foraminiferal studies allowed the establishment of the first biozonation, determination of sedimentation rates, and documentation of occurrences of benthic foraminifers for these unusually thick black shales that extend stratigraphically nearly 100 m. Hedbergellids, whiteinellids and Heterohelix characterize the lower part of the La Luna Formation, dated from the late Cenomanian Rotalipora cushmani Zone to middle Turonian Helvetoglobotruncana belvetica Zone. The high productivity of these groups associated with phosphatized fish remains suggest upwelling and a poorly stratified water column. The presence of buliminids and Favreina sp. at some levels, imply disoxic conditions in this anoxic interval. Planktonic foraminifers in the middle and upper parts of the formation range in age from the late Turonian Marginotruncana sigali- Dicarinella primitiva Zone to the early Campanian Globotruncanita elevata Zone. The increase in keeled planktonic foraminifers toward the top of the formation suggest more stratified, oligotrophic surface waters. Benthic foraminifers found at the top are indicative of dysaerobic conditions. This study provides new opportunities for utilizing the petroleum system in the La Luna Formation, arguably the most prolific source rock in northern South America.

  6. ADRON Instrument for Luna-Resource and Luna-Glob Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, D.; Mitrofanov, I.; Barmakov, Y.; Bogolubov, E.; Litvak, M.; Sanin, A.; Kozyrev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Schatzkij, V.; Smirnov, G.; Ryzhkov, V.; Kurdumov, I.; Shvetsov, V.; Tretyakov, V.; Varenikov, A.; Vostrukhin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The interest to Moon investigations was increasing last decade. Many scientific and exploration missions were developed and about ten spacecrafts reached our nearest cosmic neighbor for detailed studying. Russian instrument LEND (Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector) received new interesting data about global lunar surface and distribution of hydrogen (water) enriched regions near poles in particular using collimation technique. Two of these regions are now landing sites of Russian-Indian project Luna-Resource and Russian lander Luna-Glob with planned launches in 2014 and 2015 respectively. One of scientific instruments onboard landers of both missions is ADRON (Active Detector of gamma Rays and Neutrons). The main tasks of the experiment are: 1) Definition of composition of the soil in the landing site; 2) Hydrogen content and distribution along depth; 3) Radiation background measurement; 4) Registering of Gamma-Ray Bursts. ADRON instrument is based on available heritage of design of DAN (MSL 2011, NASA) and MGNS (BepiColombo 2014, ESA). The concept ADRON is based on is the well-known method of nuclear well neutron logging for geological applications when detectors measure flux of scattered and moderated neutrons emitted by generator. Using scintillator one can detect spectrum of gamma-rays from soil and the lines intensities of this spectrum will indicate amount of a corresponding element in the subsurface up to 1 m depth during experiment on lunar surface. Instrument consists of two separate units: Pulse Neutron Generator (PNG) and Detectors and Electronic Unit (DEU). DEU (weight 3.8 kg, size 260×217×127 mm), besides of electronic for instrument control, contains LaBr3 crystal for measuring spectra of gamma rays and He3 proportional counters to detect thermal and epithermal neutrons. Fast electronics allow to get time profiles of gamma and neutrons flux with time resolution of up to 1 microsecond. PNG unit (weight 2.6 kg, size 331×125×45 mm) is connected to

  7. [Avifauna in silvopastoral systems in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, Tabasco, México].

    PubMed

    González-Valdivia, Noel; Barba-Macías, Everardo; Hernández-Daumás, Salvador; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana

    2014-09-01

    Silvopastoral systems support local ecological and economical features as they enhance conservation of floral and faunal communities. As other animal communities, avifauna may be a good representative of habitat alterations, both as the species and functional levels. In order to attend the initiative of Mesoamerican Biological Corridor initiative (CBM) in the state of Tabasco, we studied the diversity of birds in two silvopastoral systems: scattered trees in pastures (ADP), and trees in boundary-hedgerows (AL). For this, we applied the fixed radius counting point method in three priority sites in Tabasco's CBM during the dry and wet season of 2011, and a total of 56, 60 and 62 points were evaluated in Huimanguillo, Tenosique and Tacotalpa, respectively. We observed 2 084 individuals of 154 species (79-89% of expected diversity) and 36 bird families. We detected 92, 87 and 85 species in Huimanguillo, Tenosique and Tacotalpa, respectively, including 35 protected species, of which 23, 19 and 16 in each locality, respectively. All sites showed high diversity (H' ≥ 3.20), low species dominance (D ≥ 0.08) and high equitability (J ≥ 0.77). Species composition showed differences between sites, being most similar Tacotalpa and Tenosique. Ten species were considered characteristic for sites. Although the silvopastoral system did contain protected species, the low diversity and the early successional character of the arboreal components were not attractive to frugivorous bird species. Diversification with native trees can improve the systems to create a complementary habitat and to increase landscape connectivity. The management of silvopastoral practices on cattle dominated landscapes in Tabasco could improve its ecological quality, and thus achieve the CBM's objectives ofbiodiversity conservation combined with human economic activities. PMID:25412535

  8. Papers presented to the Conference on Luna 24. [lunar soil studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered include: the regional geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of Mare Crisium and the Luna 24 landing site; the petrology, mineral chemistry, and cooling histories of lithic fragments, the chemistry, isotopic studies, and geochronology of Luna 24 samples; and regolith studies of soil samples. Subject and topical indexes are provided.

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in domestic dogs in Tabasco, southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo Margarito; García-Herrera, Ricardo Alfonso; Hernández-Hernández, Melchor; Peralta-Torres, Jorge Alonso; Ojeda-Robertos, Nadia Florencia; Blitvich, Bradley John; Baak-Baak, Carlos Marcial; García-Rejón, Julián Everardo; Machain-Wiliams, Carlos Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. The study population consisted of 302 owned dogs that had limited access to public areas. A fecal sample was collected from each animal and examined for GI parasites by conventional macroscopic analysis and centrifugal flotation. Fecal samples from 80 (26.5%) dogs contained GI parasites. Of these, 58 (19.2%) were positive for helminths and 22 (7.3%) were positive for protozoan parasites. At least seven parasitic species were identified. The most common parasite was Ancylostoma caninum which was detected in 48 (15.9%) dogs. Other parasites detected on multiple occasions were Cystoisospora spp. (n = 19), Toxocara canis (n = 7) and Giardia spp. (n = 3). Three additional parasites, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Uncinaria spp., were each detected in a single dog. No mixed parasitic infections were identified. In summary, we report a moderately high prevalence of GI parasites in owned dogs in Villahermosa, Tabasco. Several parasitic species identified in this study are recognized zoonotic pathogens which illustrates the important need to routinely monitor and treat dogs that live in close proximity to humans for parasitic infections. PMID:26648011

  10. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresán, Ana; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender. PMID:27258292

  11. Bulk and rare earth abundances in the Luna 16 soil levels A and D.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillum, D. E.; Ehmann, W. D.; Wakita, H.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the abundances of major, minor, and trace elements by means of sequential INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) in two Luna 16 soils, at levels A (about 7 cm depth) and D (about 30 cm depth). Abundances of the bulk elements in Luna 16 soils generally agree with the values reported by Vinogradov (1971). Elemental abundances of both bulk and trace elements are nearly the same for the two A and D soil levels. Overall, the chemical compositions of the two Luna 16 soils are more closely related to Apollo 11 soil 10084 than to Apollo 12 and 14 soils, with the exception of TiO2 abundances.-

  12. Chemical composition of Luna 20 rocks and soil and Apollo 16 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the abundances of 24 major, minor, and trace elements measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis in Luna 20 metaigneous rocks, breccia, and soil, and in Apollo 16 soils. The similarities and differences observed are discussed. The bulk compositions of Luna 20 and Apollo 16 rocks and soils show close similarity between the two highland sites. Interelement correlations observed previously for maria are also found in highland samples. Luna 20 and Apollo 16 soils are low in alkalis. Both soils show an apparent Cd-Zn rich component similar to that observed at the mare sites and high Tl abundances relative to mare sites.

  13. Wrinkle ridges in Lunae Planum Mars: Implications for shortening and strain

    SciTech Connect

    Plescia, J.B. )

    1991-05-01

    Photoclinometric data for Lunae Planum wrinkle ridges indicate average relief of {approximately}130 m and distinct elevation discontinuities across the ridge of 55 m. Modeling ridges as the result of thrust faulting and associated upper-plate folding indicates shortening across individual ridges of {approximately}131 m (90% faulting). Total shortening at 20{degree}N across Lunae Planue is {approximately}1,840 m corresponding to a regional compressive strain of 0.29%. Strain appears uniform across Lunae Planum, although it is accommodated by larger and few structures in the west than in the east.

  14. Wrinkle ridges in Lunae Planum Mars - Implications for shortening and strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Photoclinometric data for Lunae Planum wrinkle ridges indicate average relief of about 130 m and distinct elevation discontinuities across the ridge of 55 m. Modeling ridges as the result of thrust faulting and associated upper-plate folding indicates shortening across individual ridges of about 131 m (90 percent faulting). Total shortening at 20 N across Lunae Planum is about 1840 m corresponding to a regional compressive strain of 0.29 percent. Strain appears uniform across Lunae Planum, although it is accommodated by larger and fewer structures in the west than in the east.

  15. Nittrouer Receives 2013 Luna B. Leopold Young Scientist Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.

    2014-09-01

    I am grateful for receiving the Luna B. Leopold Award from the Earth and Planetary Surface Processes (EPSP) focus group at AGU. I am thankful to the mentors and colleagues who played important roles in shaping my science over the past 10 years. Significant credit goes to three people in particular: David Mohrig, Gary Parker, and Mead Allison. These gentlemen patiently developed and honed my skills for observing, modeling, and theorizing about the physical processes that produce fluvial-deltaic morphology and stratigraphy. It was an incredible opportunity to have worked with such a diverse set of thinkers, who regularly pushed me to consider and pursue new ideas, preventing too much comfort with the scientific status quo. Their mentoring fostered an independent and creative focus that produced the science for which this award has been generously given.

  16. Origin and modal petrography of Luna 24 soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; Mckay, D. S.; Fruland, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Petrographic modal analyses of polished grain mounts of fractions in the 20 to 250 micron size range from Luna 24 soil samples are presented and used to infer the nature and relative contributions of source rocks. It is found that more than 90% of the identifiable rock fragments are mare basalts, with about 11% of the soil consisting of the crystalline form. Soil breccias, which make up nearly 10% of the soil, are found to be immature. Electron probe analysis of glass particles reveals principle clusters conforming to anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro and mare basalts. More than half of the soil is composed of monomineralic particles, with pyroxene as the most abundant mineral. It is concluded that 85% of the regolith is derived from local mare basalts and gabbros and about 10% is derived from early cumulates of local mare basalt magma. Highland sources are considered to contribute not more than 3% of the regolith.

  17. TerraLuna: A CosmoQuest Adventure in Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela; Bracey, Georgia; Gugliucci, Nicole

    The content of the session will focus on CosmoQuest’s TerraLuna unit, a comparative geology unit that uses authentic data to study the geology of the Moon and Earth. Inquiry activities will allow teachers to help their students compare crater formation and other surface features on the two bodies, comparing Moon features to similar structures on Earth. Links to the latest data from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will be introduced and hands- on activities will be featured as the basis for inquiry learning in elementary and middle level classrooms. Teachers will be introduced to citizen science projects that will enable their students to think like real scientists and engage in authentic scientific research, providing a useful service to the scientific community. Participation in the workshop introduces teachers to the CosmoQuest website, which includes a suite of citizen science activities. The site provides teachers with an online community dedicated to science inquiry and educational support.

  18. Petrology, chemistry, age and irradiation history of Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Huneke, J. C.; Dymek, R. F.; Depaolo, D. J.; Chodos, A. A.; Albee, A. L.; Radicati Di Brozolo, F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of petrological, chemical, isotopic age determination and irradiation studies of sample 24170 from the 170 cm depth of the regolith core returned from Mare Crisium by Luna 24 are presented. The sample is found to be comprised of fragments from a single igneous rock, with mineralogical evidence indicating it to be a mare basalt. The crystallization age is determined by Sm-Nd and Ar(40)-Ar(39) ages to be 3.30 AE, establishing the presence of relatively young flows. All soil samples show low trace element compositions with minimum contamination by KREEPUTh-rich materials. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd relations reflect the absence of significant fractionation at ages younger than 4.5 AE. One soil sample shows extremely large neutron capture effects, imposing a new lower limit to the neutron production rate in the regolith and requiring the addition of irradiated materials from depth.

  19. LUNA: low-flying UAV-based forest monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keizer, Jan Jacob; Pereira, Luísa; Pinto, Glória; Alves, Artur; Barros, Antonio; Boogert, Frans-Joost; Cambra, Sílvia; de Jesus, Cláudia; Frankenbach, Silja; Mesquita, Raquel; Serôdio, João; Martins, José; Almendra, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The LUNA project is aiming to develop an information system for precision forestry and, in particular, the monitoring of eucalypt plantations that is first and foremost based on multi-spectral imagery acquired using low-flying uav's. The presentation will focus on the first phase of image acquisition, processing and analysis for a series of pot experiments addressing main threats for early-stage eucalypt plantations in Portugal, i.e. acute , chronic and cyclic hydric stress, nutrient stress, fungal infections and insect plague attacks. The imaging results will be compared with spectroscopic measurements as well as with eco-physiological and plant morphological measurements. Furthermore, the presentation will show initial results of the project's second phase, comprising field tests in existing eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal.

  20. [Regulation of surrogate gestation and maternity in the state of Tabasco].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Miguel Ángel León

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, one of the most disconcerting issues in bioethics, a field closely related to legal disciplines, is surrogate gestation or surrogacy. Very little is known about the medical nature of these novel therapeutic processes in legal study. Different dilemmas emerge in the fields of ethics, medicine and law. This paper analyses the normative content of the Tabasco civil regime with respect to the concepts, types and effects of surrogacy. It emphasizes the primacy of protecting the physical and emotional integrity of pregnant women and the legal protection of the nasciturus. In addition, this paper shows the exceptional nature of this prerogative for infertile people who cannot get pregnant through any other medical means, by posing surrogacy's ultima ratio regum characteristics. PMID:26665348

  1. Pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from continental shelf of Tabasco State, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Botello, A.V.; Gonzalez, C.; Diaz, G. )

    1991-10-01

    The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major petroleum production areas include Louisiana and Texas, USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all of which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. About 5 million of barrels are transported every day in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/year. For all those reasons petroleum pollution is considered as the major environmental problem in the Wider Caribbean area and increasing day to day due to the use of petroleum as the main energy source. On the other hand, the continental shelf of Tabasco state actually represents one of the most productive areas for crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Sediments were collected from this area and analyzed for hydrocarbons.

  2. Cartography Support and Assessment of Candidate Landing Sites for the ``Luna-Glob'' Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanov, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Gläser, Ph.; Wählisch, M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-03-01

    For cartography support of future landing mission LUNA-GLOB was development a geodatabase using data obtained by LRO. For characterization of the surface we created some examples of maps: slope, roughness, and hill-shaded relief in various scales.

  3. Luna 16 - Relative proportions and petrologic significance of particles in the soil from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, J. B., Jr.; Taylor, G. J.; Marvin, U. B.; Wood, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Some 2380 lithic and vitreous particles from levels A and G of the Luna 16 core-tube sample were classified. The relative proportions of particle types from each of the two layers are reported, and some petrological and mineralogical aspects of the lithic and vitreous components of the lunar regolith are discussed. Possible sources of the particles in the Luna 16 soil are examined.

  4. Oiling the system: How activities and the state shaped the politics of petroleum development in Tabasco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Heather Dawn

    This dissertation analyzes the social, economic and political processes that accompanied the development of petroleum resources in Tabasco, Mexico. Through an historical examination of the case of Tabasco, I explore the general question of how and why state-led development becomes a contested terrain. Why does this sort of activism flourish during some time periods and not others? Under what conditions are relatively marginalized people able to effectively challenge the sort of domination inherent in state-led development plans? To what extent can activists succeed at reshaping the course of development? I argue that protest of state-led development is not necessarily linked to the pace or absolute impact of the social, environmental and economic changes being promoted. Instead, what is most central is the degree to which activists can successfully portray state-led development as an unjust process that contributes to inequality. However, the fact that activists are always constrained by the limits of existing state discourse seriously constrains the range of actions open to marginalized people. In the case of oil development in Tabasco, while activists were free to challenge the uneven distribution of rents, they have not been able to challenge the process itself. Indeed, the promise of material progress is common ground for both activists and the state. I conclude my dissertation with the observation that just as state discourses simultaneously create and limit possibilities for citizen protest, so social movement discourses simultaneously push for change and solidify the existing inequitable social structures.

  5. Onboard Processing of Electromagnetic Measurements for the Luna - Glob Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruska, F.; Kolmasova, I.; Santolik, O.; Skalski, A.; Pronenko, V.; Belyayev, S.; Lan, R.; Uhlir, L.

    2013-12-01

    The LEMRA-L instrument (Long-wavelength Electro-Magnetic Radiation Analyzer) will be implemented on the LUNA-GLOB spacecraft. It will analyze the data of the three-axial flux gate (DC - 10Hz) and searchcoil (1Hz - 10kHz) magnetometers LEMI. It will measure intensity, polarization, and coherence properties of waves in plasmas of the solar wind, in the lunar wake and its boundaries, and study the magnetic anomalies. We will use new modern robust onboard analysis methods to estimate the wave coherence, sense of polarization, ellipticity, and wave-vector direction, and thus substantially compress the transmitted data volumes, while conserving the important scientific information. In the burst mode data set intended for studying nonlinear phenomena, we will conserve the continuous flux-gate magnetometer data and discrete snapshots of three axial waveform measurements. In the survey-mode data set, continuous flux-gate magnetometer data will be transmitted together with onboard analyzed and averaged spectral matrices from the higher-frequency wave measurements or with onboard calculated propagation and polarization parameters.

  6. Petrology of some lithic fragments from Luna 20.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    Microscopic and electron microprobe studies were made of polished thin sections of part of a 30-mg sample of 250- to 500-micron lunar soil returned by Luna 20 from a point between Mare Fecunditatis and Mare Crisium. Very fine-grained lithic (crystalline) rock fragments, composing about one-fifth of the total sample, have mineralogical compositions equivalent to various types of gabbro, anorthositic gabbro, gabbroic anorthosite, and troctolite, with minor basalt. The textures now observed in these fragments are in large part metamorphic. Twenty-seven electron microprobe analyses of minerals from these fragments are presented, including olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, spinel, nickel-iron, and a Zr-Ti-REE mineral possibly similar to 'phase B' of Lovering and Wark (1971). Analyses of seven melt inclusions and 28 defocused beam analyses of lithic fragments are also given. Some of the fragments contain 'gas' inclusions which, along with the fine grain size, are believed to indicate final crystallization under low pressure near surface conditions.

  7. Metallic phases in the Luna 24 soil samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friel, J. J.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The metal and sulfide phases in the Luna 24 soil samples were studied with the optical microscope and the electron microprobe. The compositions of the metal particles fall into three groups based on their Ni and Co contents: (1) Samples of meteoritic composition which have undergone metamorphism on the lunar surface. (2) Samples of submeteoritic, low Ni and low Co contents, including most of the metal particles observed. These particles are contained in glass and agglutinate particles and were probably formed by the mixing of meteoritic metal with lunar metal produced by the reduction of silicates during shock-impact. (3) Samples of high-CO content probably formed by mixing of meteoritic material with high-Co metal from the mare basalt or by fractional crystallization from a metal silicate melt. The sulfide minerals were also studied. These are almost pure FeS, and crystallized from a late stage liquid in the mare basalt. Three high-Ni sulfides were also found in the glass phase of agglutinates.

  8. [Diversity of insects captured by weaver spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-de La Cruz, Manuel; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl; Ortíz-García, Carlos F; Zapata-Mata, Raúl; Cruz-Pérez, Aracely de la

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to know the diversity of insects captured by weaver spiders in a plantation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) of 6 ha in the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The study was carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 by means biweekly samples of the insects captured on the spiders webs. The total of 3,041 webs of 54 species of spiders belonging to seven families (Araneidae, Theridiidae, Tetragnathidae, Uloboridae, Pholcidae, Dyctinidae and Linyphiidae) were revised. We found 1,749 specimens belonging to 10 orders of insects, represented by 93 families, the majority of Coleoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera that constituted 74% of the identified families. The biggest number of specimens of all orders was captured by Araneidae, except of Isoptera, whose specimens were captured mainly by the family Theridiidae. The index of diversity (H'), evenness (J') and similarity (Is), applied to know the diversity of families of insects captured among families of spiders, varied from 0.00 to 3.24, 0.00 to 0.81, and 0.04 to 0.522, respectively. We conclude that there is a wide diversity of insects predated by the weaver spiders in the cocoa agroecosystem, and that there are species that can be promising for the biological control of pests. PMID:17420866

  9. Microfossil evidence for pre-Columbian maize dispersals in the neotropics from San Andres, Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Mary E D; Piperno, Dolores R; Pope, Kevin O; Jones, John G

    2007-04-17

    The history of maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most debated topics in New World archaeology. Molecular and genetic studies indicate that maize domestication took place in tropical southwest Mexico. Although archaeological evidence for the evolution of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte has yet to be found in that poorly studied region, other research combining paleoecology and archaeology is documenting the nature and timing of maize domestication and dispersals. Here we report a phytolith analysis of sediments from San Andrés, Tabasco, that confirms the spread of maize cultivation to the tropical Mexican Gulf Coast >7,000 years ago ( approximately 7,300 calendar years before present). We review the different methods used in sampling, identifying, and dating fossil maize remains and compare their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we examine how San Andrés amplifies the present evidence for widespread maize dispersals into Central and South America. Multiple data sets from many sites indicate that maize was brought under cultivation and domesticated and had spread rapidly out of its domestication cradle in tropical southwest Mexico by the eighth millennium before the present. PMID:17426147

  10. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with localized current field (radio frequency) in Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Castrejon, O; Walton, B C; Rivas-Sanchez, B; Garcia, M F; Lazaro, G J; Hobart, O; Roldan, S; Floriani-Verdugo, J; Munguia-Saldana, A; Berzaluce, R

    1997-09-01

    In Mexico cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) occurs in 17 of 32 States, and is a serious public health problem. This is a report of treatment of CL patients in the State of Tabasco, Mexico with a localized current field-radio frequency (LCF-RF) device to generate precisely controlled heat as an alternative to prohibitively expensive drug treatment. It was not a controlled clinical trial, but rather an evaluation of the feasibility of this form of treatment for all CL patients encountered in the endemic area. A total of 201 previously diagnosed patients with CL caused by Leishmania mexicana were treated with a portable Thermosurgery LCF-RF generator powered by rechargeable batteries. The ages of the patients ranged from two to 75 years; the sex distribution was 63% males and 37% females. A single device was used in five different municipalities. Lesions were first anesthetized with 1% lidocaine HCl and moistened with normal saline solution. Treatment consisted of a single application that produced 50 degrees C for 30 sec. After four weeks, 122 patients were available for evaluation, of which 95% were totally cured; (even those involving ear cartilage, which respond poorly to antimonials). At eight weeks post-treatment, 191 patients were evaluated, with a total cure rate of 90%. This form of treatment proved to be effective and convenient for use in primary health care facilities in Mexico and has many advantages over traditional forms of therapy. PMID:9311641

  11. [Reproductive phenology of tree species in the Tenosique tropical forest, Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Hernández, Isidro Pérez; de Jong, Bernardus H J

    2008-06-01

    Between August 2003 and August 2005 we registered the flowering and fruiting of 75 tree species (341 individual trees) in a tropical rain forest at Tenosique, Tabasco, Mexico. Monthly we checked five transects (500 m long; 5 m wide). To test the homogeneity of flowering and fruiting during the year, and between adjacent months, we applied a chi2 test. The flowering was bimodal, with a highest peak in March and April, coinciding with the dry season, and a second lower peak in July when precipitation is relatively low. The highest number of fruiting tree species occur between May and July, with its peak in May. Each of the most common botanical families showed a particular phenological pattern. Monthly rainfall and the number of species flowering or fruiting were not significantly correlated. This means that trees are flowering and fruiting all year long, with seasonal increases of both phenological phenomena in the dryer periods. We conclude that phenological patterns vary between individuals and between years and are not seasonally correlated. The data we generated are relevant to program the best periods of seed collections according to individual or groups of species, as part of forest management and conservation practices. PMID:19256435

  12. Luna 24 - Systematics in spinel mineral chemistry in the context of an intrusive petrogenetic grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spinels in the Luna 24 gabbroic fragments have a restricted bimodal distribution of aluminum chromite and ulvospinel, whereas those in the Luna 24 basalts form a continuous sequence which defines a compositional variation from Al-Mg-chromites to ulvospinels containing 1 wt% Al2O3. A comparison of these spinel mineral chemistries with basaltic spinels from other mare regions and with spinels from other lunar intrusive rocks suggest that the Luna 24 gabbroic spinels lie at the low pressure end of a P-T spinel grid, and that titanium enrichment trends on Mg-Al-Cr rich spinel cores are related to extrusion and formed at the terminal stages of magmatic crystallization.

  13. K-Ar dating of lunar fines - Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Luna 16.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O.; Bradley, J. G.; Dragon, J. C.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    K-Ar ages were determined on a 6-in. double-focus mass spectrometer in fines of less than 1 mm from Apollo 14 and 16, and Luna 16 lunar soil samples. Age estimates of about 2.8 AE and about 4.0 AE are suggested for the two low-K components whose presence in the samples must be assumed to accommodate the age data. An average value of 0.1849 plus or minus 0.0008 was obtained for the Ar-18/Ar-36 ratio in the solar wind from ordinate intercept correlations for the Apollo 14 and Luna 16 samples. Cosmic ray exposure ages were close to 440 m.y. for both Apollo 14 samples and close to 840 m.y. for both Luna 16 samples.

  14. Chemistry and thermal history of metal particles in Luna 20 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Blau, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Individual metal particles from Luna 20 thin sections 521, 513 and 514 as well as several small metallic inclusions in silicate particles from Luna 20 thin sections 501 and 502 were examined using optical microscopy and the electron microprobe. All the metallic particles and inclusions analyzed are of meteoritic Co-Ni content as are most of the metallic particles from the Fra Mauro and the Apollo 16 highlands sites. It is proposed that most of the metal at these 3 sites had its origin in the meteoritic projectiles that bombarded and accumulated in the early lunar crust. It is apparent that the metallic particles and some of the metallic inclusions in the Luna 20 soil have been subjected to reheating on the moon and this process has removed any evidence of the original meteoritic microstructure of the metal.

  15. The analysis of various size, visually selected and density and magnetically separated fractions of Luna 16 and 20 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eglinton, G.; Gowar, A. P.; Jull, A. J. T.; Pillinger, C. T.; Agrell, S. O.; Agrell, J. E.; Long, J. V. P.; Bowie, S. H. U.; Simpson, P. R.; Beckinsale, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of Luna 16 and 20 have been separated according to size, visual appearance, density, and magnetic susceptibility. Selected aliquots were examined in eight British laboratories. The studies included mineralogy and petrology, selenochronology, magnetic characteristics, Mossbauer spectroscopy, oxygen isotope ratio determinations, cosmic ray track and thermoluminescence investigations, and carbon chemistry measurements. Luna 16 and 20 are typically mare and highland soils, comparing well with their Apollo counterparts, Apollo 11 and 16, respectively. Both soils are very mature (high free iron, carbide, and methane and cosmogenic Ar), while Luna 16, but not Luna 20, is characterized by a high content of glassy materials. An aliquot of anorthosite fragments, handpicked from Luna 20, had a gas retention age of about 4.3 plus or minus 0.1 Gy.

  16. Estimated Rock Abundances at the Apollo and Luna Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Karin E.; Hiesinger, Harald; Weinauer, Julia; Robinson, Mark S.; Scholten, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Diurnal temperature variations can be used to analyze the surface and subsurface thermophysical properties [1, 2]. These properties, namely the bulk density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity, define the thermal inertia, which represents the ability of the surface and subsurface to conduct and store heat [2]. Materials with a low thermal inertia, such as dust and other fine grained materials, quickly respond to temperature changes, which results in a large temperature amplitude during a complete lunar cycle. Surfaces covered with high thermal inertia materials, e.g., rocks or bedrock, take more time to heat up during the day and reradiate the heat during night. We derived maps of thermal inertia from LRO-Diviner nighttime temperature data [3]. This approach is similar to martian thermal inertia derivations, as described by Mellon et al. (2000) and Putzig et al. (2005) [2, 4]. In addition to studying thermal inertia, we also calculated the relative rock abundances of selected study areas; e.g., the Apollo and Luna Landing Sites. Due to the relatively large footprints of remote sensing data, anisothermal surfaces are observed within the field of view. Consequently, multiple thermal inertia units having variable temperatures are merged to a single observed temperature. However, because the brightness temperature is a function of wavelength, it increases with decreasing wavelength. This nonlinearity of the Planck radiance can be used to determine the rock concentration of the observed surfaces [e.g., 5-7]. Therefore, we used our model surface temperatures for different thermal inertia and rock abundances and compared these results to the LRO-Diviner temperature data at distinct wavelengths. The areas investigated in this study are covered by units of low thermal inertia material with low rock abundances (

  17. Cartographic and geodetic methods to characterize the potential landing sites for the future Russian missions Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Konopikhin, A. A.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Zubarev, A. E.; Patratiy, V. D.; Kozlova, N. A.; Uchaev, D. V.; Uchaev, Dm. V.; Malinnikov, V. A.; Oberst, J.

    2015-04-01

    Characterization of the potential landing sites for the planned Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs Russian missions requires cartographic and geodetic support prepared with special methods and techniques that are briefly overviewed here. The data used in the analysis, including the digital terrain models (DTMs) and the orthoimages acquired in the survey carried out from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Kaguya spacecraft, are described and evaluated. By way of illustration, different regions of the lunar surface, including the subpolar regions of the Moon, are characterized with the suggested methods and the GIS-technologies. The development of the information support for the future lunar missions started in 2011, and it is now carried on in MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab), which is a department of the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK).

  18. Investigations of Moon Polar Regions from Luna-Resource and Luna-Glob Landers - Science Instruments and Operational Plan on Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, V.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.

    2012-04-01

    Scientific goals for Landers of Luna-Resource and Luna-Glob missions will be presented. Both project aimed on search for volatiles and water ice in upper layer of regolith, study structure and content of regolith and investigate of moon's surface exosphere in lunar polar regions. Science devices for payload, which were selected in accordance to the main goals of these missions, will be described. Criteria for potential landing sites selection will be considered: from engineering suitability (flatness and roughness of surface, radio visibility, solar irradiation and so on) and from scientific applicability for these missions. The detailed plan of surface operations during fist moon day will be presented and preliminary plans for sunset and for second and others days will be discussed.

  19. Prototype of the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer to investigate volatile species in the lunar soil for the Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, L.; Lasi, D.; Tulej, M.; Wurz, P.; Cabane, M.; Cosica, D.; Gerasimov, M.; Rodinov, D.

    2013-09-01

    In preparation for the Russian Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs missions we combined our compact time-offlight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with a chemical pre-separation of the species by gas chromatography (GC). Combined measurements with both instruments were successfully performed with the laboratory prototype of the mass spectrometer and a flight-like gas chromatograph. Due to its capability to record mass spectra over the full mass range at once with high sensitivity and a dynamic range of up to 106 within 1s, the TOF-MS system is a valuable extension of the GC analysis. The combined GC-MS complex is able to detect concentrations of volatile species in the sample of about 2·10^-9 by mass.

  20. Genotoxicity in child populations exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air from Tabasco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa, Rodríguez T.; Gamboa, Aldeco R.; Bravo, Alvarez H.; Ostrosky, Wegman P.

    2008-01-01

    The economy of the state of Tabasco is based on oil extraction. However, this imposes major effects to the environment and communities. Examples are the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that may be found in the soil, water and sediment of the region. Their volatility makes them available to living beings and results in genotoxic activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of PAHs in the air at several points in the state, and to analyze their relationship with possible damage to DNA on local inhabitants. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (Comet Assay) was applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes of five groups of children between six and 15 years of age. PAH samples were analyzed following US/EPA TO-13-A method. Results indicated the presence in the air of most of the 16 PAHs considered as high priority by EPA, some of which have been reported with carcinogenic activity. Differences (p<0.05) were found between PAHs concentration in the gaseous component and in the particulate component of air samples, with the greatest values for the gaseous component. Greatest PAH concentrations were detected in areas with high oil extraction activities. Children groups from high oil activity areas presented genotoxic damage labeled from moderate to high according to DNA migration from nuclei (Tail Length: 14.2 – 42.14 μm and Tail/Head: 0.97 – 2.83 μm) compared with control group (12.25 and 0.63 μm, respectively). The group with greatest cell damage was located in the area with the greatest oil activity. We conclude that the presence of PAHs in the air may represent a health risk to populations that are chronically exposed to them at high oil activity regions. PMID:19151429

  1. Luna 24 - Opaque mineral chemistry of gabbroic and basaltic fragments from Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    Spinels and ilmenites are relatively sparse in the Luna 24 gabbro and basalts. Spinel compositions show some affinities to those of spinels in Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Luna 16 basalts; a characteristic feature is high Al2O3, reaching a maximum of 19.8 wt%. A comparison of spinels in the Luna 24 gabbro with those in other deep-seated lunar intrusive rocks shows a characteristic trend for Fe/Mg. This trend is systematic from gabbro to anorthosite to troctolite and is interpreted to be P-T dependent. Compositions of spinels in the gabbro fall within the Cr/Al trend defined by the spinels of the basalts, but form a Fe/Mg trend parallel to that of the basalts; this relationship suggests that both the gabbro and the basalts are derived from a closely similar source region, with the basalts originating at a slightly greater depth than the gabbro. The spinels in both rock types are considered to have formed at high crustal levels, at low pressures. The Luna 24 data suggest that the compositional discontinuities which exist between chromian spinels and titanian spinels in a large proportion of mare basalts are the result of nucleation of chromian spinels at high crustal levels prior to eruption, and of titanian spinels during melt crystallization at the lunar surface.

  2. Cartography and Information Systems for the Luna-Glob Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanov, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Zubarev, A.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    We provide cartography and information system support to the LUNA-GLOB mission and assess candidate landing sites [1] on the basis of different available remote sensing data sets. The main goal of our work is to identify science opportunities in the sub-polar areas and to detect possible hazards for any landing spacecraft.

  3. The Luna-Glob Candidate Landing Region: Geological Mapping Based on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Dickson, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mazarico, E.; Neish, C. D.; Bussey, D. B. J.

    2012-03-01

    The new regional detailed geologic map was made using recent LRO data for the Luna-Glob mission. The most probable unit that could be sampled by the lander is a feldspathic Imbrian highland plains-forming material, resembling the Cayley Formation.

  4. Luna 20 - Mineral chemistry of spinel, pleonaste, chromite, ulvospinel, ilmenite and rutile.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the results of a reflection microscopy and electron microprobe study performed on a part of the Luna 20 soil sample designated as the East Coast Consortium aliquot. The study is restricted to analyses of the oxides of Fe, Ti, Mg, Mn, Cr, and Al in this sample. The spinel mineral group, ilmenite and rutile only are discussed.

  5. Luna 16 - An opaque mineral study and a systematic examination of compositional variations of spinels from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    The opaque mineralogy of the Luna 16 soil sample is studied, with an emphasis on a detailed survey of the compositional variations of the Fe-Ti-Cr-Al-Mg spinels. Analytical data are also presented for ilmenite. Textural characteristics and shock-metamorphic effects on the opaque minerals are briefly described and comparisons are made throughout between the Luna 16 samples and published and unpublished data on the Apollo samples.

  6. Age of Giordano Bruno crater as deduced from the morphology of its secondaries at the Luna 24 landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    We undertook a photogeologic study of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of the ejecta of the very young 22-km diameter crater Giordano Bruno (GB) and for the Luna 24 landing site region, where secondary craters from Giordano Bruno are observed. Using the technique of Basilevsky (1976) for estimating the absolute ages of small lunar craters based on their morphologic prominence and size, craters near the Luna 24 site considered to be secondaries of Giordano Bruno crater and craters superposed on ejecta of Giordano Bruno crater are found to have approximately the same age: somewhere between 5 and 10 m.y. This suggests that the craters at the Luna 24 site are indeed secondaries of GB crater and that this age range is an estimate for the time of GB crater formation. Our results generally agree with estimates derived from counts of small craters superposed on GB ejecta: 1-10 m.y. and with the exposure age of one of the samples derived from Zone I of the Luna 24 core. Plescia et al. (2010b) interpreted a large fraction of the craters superposed on GB ejecta and floor not as primary craters, but rather as secondary craters formed from the GB event itself. On this basis, it was postulated that GB may be formed by an historic impact. Our new data and analysis do not support an age as young as historical. The general agreement of our results for age determination for the GB secondaries of the Luna 24 area, and for craters superposed on the GB ejecta, with the age estimate based on crater count and with the mentioned exposition age of one of the Luna 24 samples, also validates the technique of Basilevsky (1976). A special study of the Luna 24 samples should be undertaken designed to find records of the formation age of the crater on whose rim Luna 24 landed, thus better constraining the age of GB crater.

  7. Shock metamorphic effects in the Luna 16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    Diverse lunar soil fragments returned from the Luna 16 mission were examined for evidence in shock metamorphism in order to evaluate the role of meteorite impact in forming the lunar regolith at a new site relatively distant from the Apollo landing sites. It was found that shock metamorphic effects, characteristic of meteorite impact and virtually identical to those observed in Apollo samples, are common in the Luna 16 fragments. Two types of shock effects are present - i.e., a deformation and partial melting features in rock and mineral fragments, and heterogeneous glasses and glassy breccias produced by shock melting. It is concluded that these shock metamorphic effects indicate that regolith formation by meteorite impact has occurred in Mare Fecunditatis and is a general process over the entire moon.

  8. Cosmic Ray Intensity Variation in Lunar Radiation Environments during Luna and LRO missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jongdae; Oh, Suyeon; Yi, Yu

    The RV-2N-series instruments onboard Luna missions and the CRaTER instrument onboard LRO satellite were designed to monitor in lunar radiation environment by measuring cosmic ray (CR) intensity. In order to examine the origins and the characteristics of the CR intensity variation in lunar radiation environment, we use proton intensity measured by RV-2N-series onboard Luna missions out of the Russian space Zond program for exploration of the Moon and CR intensity observed by the CRaTER on the Moon. We compare the CR intensity on the Moon with that observed by neutron monitors (Climax, McMurdo, Thule) on the Earth. To find the correlation between the solar activity and the CR intensity on the Moon, we also use the sunspot number supplied by NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. We present the result in this time.

  9. Soil mechanics results of Luna 16 and Lunokhod 1: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. W.; Carrier, W. D., III

    1971-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of the lunar soil, as determined by Luna 16 and Lunokhod 1 experiments, are discussed. Data are included for interactions between vehicle wheels and the lunar soil, compressibility, resistance to penetration, and friction characteristics of the soil. The shear strength of the returned lunar soil for various bulk densities is also examined. Several potential spacecraft materials were tested in contact with lunar soil to determine their friction and wear characteristics.

  10. Luna 16 sample G36 - Another crystalline product of an extremely mafic magma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollister, L. S.; Kulick, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    Luna 16 sample G36 is a microbasalt containing skeletal olivine, plagioclase, ilmenite, and interstitial pyroxene. It apparently resulted from very rapid crystallization of a highly fractionated, totally liquid mafic magma. Although different in many details, G36 is generally similar to the ferromagnesian-rich Apollo 11 and 12 basalts. In this respect, it emphasizes the continuing problem of identifying a process on the moon which generated highly mafic magmas.

  11. Lunar cosmic ray radiation environments during Luna and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jongdae; Oh, Suyeon; Yi, Yu

    2014-09-01

    The RV-2N-series instruments onboard Luna missions and the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) instrument onboard Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) were designed to characterize the global lunar radiation environment and its biological impacts by measuring cosmic ray (CR) intensity. In this study, we have shown that the RV-2N-series instruments onboard of Russian Luna missions and the CRaTER reliably detect both background CRs and solar proton events (SPEs) in the lunar radiation environment using the proton intensity measured by the RV-2N-series onboard Luna missions out of the Russian Luna program for the exploration of the Moon (November 1970-August 1975) and the CR intensity on the Moon observed by the CRaTER (June 2009-March 2011). Those were compared with the CR intensities observed by neutron monitors (McMurdo, Thule, Oulu) on the Earth. The sunspot number is used as the index of solar activity (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center). As a result, the background CR intensities on the Moon turned out to have a good anti-correlation with the solar activity. We have also identified the proton intensity increasing events on the Moon which have the similar profiles to those observed by neutron monitors on the Earth. Most of these events show the significant increase of proton intensities in the lunar radiation environment when the SPEs associated with solar eruptions are verified. Therefore, most of the proton intensity increasing events are associated with the energetic solar particles in the lunar environment.

  12. Mineralogy and petrology of basaltic fragments from the Luna 24 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coish, R. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    The petrology of rock fragments and monomineralic grains from Luna 24 samples is described, and a petrogenetic scheme for the derivation of Mare Crisium basalts is presented. Components of the rock fragments include subophitic basalts, metabasalts, late-stage fragments, olivine vitrophyres, and non-mare lithic fragments of possible cumulate origin. Among the monomineralic grains (which are much more abundant than the rock fragments) are pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite and native Fe.

  13. A global scale mechanistic model of photosynthetic capacity (LUNA V1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Rogers, A.; Fisher, R. A.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Massoud, E. C.; Vrugt, J. A.; Muss, J. D.; McDowell, N. G.; Fisher, J. B.; Reich, P. B.; Wilson, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc, max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25 °C) is known to vary considerably in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated with plant functional types. In this study, we have developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA) to predict photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions. We adopt an optimality hypothesis to nitrogen allocation among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation and respiration. The LUNA model is able to reasonably capture the measured spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthetic capacity as it explains ˜ 55 % of the global variation in observed values of Vc, max25 and ˜ 65 % of the variation in the observed values of Jmax25. Model simulations with LUNA under current and future climate conditions demonstrate that modeled values of Vc, max25 are most affected in high-latitude regions under future climates. ESMs that relate the values of Vc, max25 or Jmax25 to plant functional types only are likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.

  14. A global scale mechanistic model of photosynthetic capacity (LUNA V1.0)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ali, Ashehad A.; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; Fischer, R. A.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Massoud, E. C.; Vrugt, J. A.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Reich, Peter B.; et al

    2016-02-12

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc,max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25 °C) is known to vary considerably in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated with plant functional types. In this study, we have developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA) to predict photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions. We adopt an optimality hypothesis to nitrogen allocation among light capture, electronmore » transport, carboxylation and respiration. The LUNA model is able to reasonably capture the measured spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthetic capacity as it explains ~55 % of the global variation in observed values of Vc,max25 and ~65 % of the variation in the observed values of Jmax25. Model simulations with LUNA under current and future climate conditions demonstrate that modeled values of Vc,max25 are most affected in high-latitude regions under future climates. In conclusion, ESMs that relate the values of Vc,max25 or Jmax25 to plant functional types only are likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.« less

  15. Chemical ecology of the luna moth : Effects of host plant on detoxification enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Lindroth, R L

    1989-07-01

    The effects of food plant on larval performance and midgut detoxification enzymes were investigated in larvae of the luna moth,Actias luna. Neonate larvae were fed leaves of black cherry, cottonwood, quaking aspen, white willow, red oak, white oak, tulip tree, paper birch, black walnut, butternut, or shagbark hickory. First instar survival, larval duration, and pupal weights were monitored as indices of food quality. Midgut enzyme preparations from fifth instars were assayed for β-glucosidase, quinone reductase, polysubstrate monooxygenase, esterase, and glutathione transferase activities. Larval survival on seven of the 11 plant species, including several recorded host plants, was extremely poor. Larvae performed well, and quite similarly, on birch, walnut, butternut, and hickory. Activities of all enzyme systems except β-glucosidase were significantly influenced by larval host plant. Of the systems assayed, quinone reductase and glutathione transferase activities were especially high. Comparisons of these values with published values for other Lepidoptera support the hypothesis that these enzyme systems are involved in conferring tolerance to juglone and related quinones occurring in members of the plant family Juglandaceae. Results suggest that host plant utilization by luna is more specialized at the individual or population level than at the species level and that biochemical detoxification systems may play a role in such specialization. PMID:24272292

  16. The LunaRace - a public outreach, involvement, education and support mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzl, H.; Bouquet, F.; Arafune, K.; Contino, M.-C.; Fontaine, T. H.; Freihoefer, J.; Grey, I.; Leindecker, W.; Lintchik, E.; Meierink, G.; Pauly, K.; Shen, Z.; Simi, N.; Summerer, L.; Weinmann, G.; Yoon, J.

    2002-10-01

    Today's level of technology allows for many fantastic missions to space. Funding of these missions is a problem, because government are cutting space budgets and commercial expenditure in space is minimal. The major obstacle to achieving global involvement into large scale, economically viable space enterprises is the lack of public involvement, education and support. At the 1999 Summer Session of the International Space University, the LunaRace (LR) mission has been desgined. With its extensive public outreach program before, during and after the race, this mission could be the first to bridge the gap between space and public. In national and international design contests, the most promising rover designs will be selected. Similar to the Tour de France and Paris-Dakar, the LR will be a staged event from the Apollo 17 to the Luna 21 landing site and back, during one Lunar Day. During the remaining sunlight after the race the surviving rovers will be used for public outreach purposes. This LunaRace will be a stepping stone for future human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Next to the technology pull it implies, it has a high chance of boosting public support and education that brings the institution of commercially viable space enterprises a step closer.

  17. A global scale mechanistic model of photosynthetic capacity (LUNA V1.0)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Rogers, A.; Fisher, R. A.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Massoud, E. C.; Vrugt, J. A.; Muss, J. D.; McDowell, N. G.; Fisher, J. B.; et al

    2016-02-12

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc, max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25 °C) is known to vary considerably in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated with plant functional types. In this study, we have developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA) to predict photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions. We adopt an optimality hypothesis to nitrogen allocation among light capture, electron transport,more » carboxylation and respiration. The LUNA model is able to reasonably capture the measured spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthetic capacity as it explains  ∼  55 % of the global variation in observed values of Vc, max25 and  ∼  65 % of the variation in the observed values of Jmax25. Model simulations with LUNA under current and future climate conditions demonstrate that modeled values of Vc, max25 are most affected in high-latitude regions under future climates. ESMs that relate the values of Vc, max25 or Jmax25 to plant functional types only are likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.« less

  18. The lunar regolith - Comparative studies of the Apollo and Luna sites. Petrology of soils from Apollo 17, Luna 16, 20, and 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A progress report is presented concerning an investigation involving a comprehensive chemical and petrologic study of surface soils from all nine lunar sampling sites. The soils selected for this study are part of the lunar highlands soils suite and represent the soils at each site that contain abundant highland-derived material. The current report takes into consideration, in addition to the eight soils discussed by Labotka et al. (1980) and by Laul and Papike (1980), three Apollo 17 soils (72501, 76501, and 78221), and three Luna soils (21000, L-16; 22001, L-20; and 24999, L-24). Attention is given to the modal petrology of the 1000-90 micrometer fraction of all 14 soils, and the modes and mineral and glass chemistries of the 90-20 and 20-10 micrometer fractions of the Apollo 17 and Luna soils. In an evaluation of the obtained results, it is found that except for rare, large-scale impacts, lateral mixing is an inefficient process. Comminution and vertical mixing appear to be the dominant process.

  19. The lunar regolith - Comparative studies of the Apollo and Luna sites. Chemistry of soils from Apollo 17, Luna 16, 20, and 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation represents an extension of a comparative regolith study reported by Labotka et al. (1980) to the Apollo 17 site and to the east limb of the moon (Luna 16, 20, and 24 sites). Chemical systematics are considered, taking into account major and minor element characteristics, and large ion-lithophile patterns (K, REE, and Th). Attention is also given to chemical mixing calculations and the significance of the fine fraction. It is found that the chemistries of 1000-90, 90-20, and 20-10 micrometer size fractions are very similar to each other but quite different from the 'less than 10 micrometer' fine fractions. The 'less than 10 micrometer' fine fractions, which comprise about 5 to 20% of the bulk soils, are consistently more feldspathic and enriched in LIL-rich material relative to the coarse fractions in all soils. The KREEP type is different at each site and is largely derived locally.

  20. Luna, a Drosophila KLF6/KLF7, Is Maternally Required for Synchronized Nuclear and Centrosome Cycles in the Preblastoderm Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ursula; Rodriguez, Estefania; Martignetti, John; Mlodzik, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Krüppel like factors (KLFs) are conserved transcription factors that have been implicated in many developmental processes including differentiation, organ patterning, or regulation of stem cell pluripotency. We report the generation and analysis of loss-of-function mutants of Drosophila Klf6/7, the luna gene. We demonstrate that luna mutants are associated with very early embryonic defects prior to cellularization at the syncytial stage and cause DNA separation defects during the rapid mitotic cycles resulting in un-coupled DNA and centrosome cycles. These defects manifest themselves, both in animals that are maternally homozygous and heterozygous mutant. Surprisingly, luna is only required during the syncytial stages and not later in development, suggesting that the DNA segregation defect is linked to centrosomes, since centrosomes are dispensable for later cell divisions. PMID:24915236

  1. Geological context of potential landing site of the Luna-Glob mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Dixon, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Chick, L.; Vitten, J.; Zuber, M. T.; Simt, D. E.; Mazarico, E.; Neish, C. D.; Bassey, D. B. J.

    2014-11-01

    The region planned for performing the Luna-Glob mission is located in the southern part of the swell surrounding the largest South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin. The photogeological analysis of the surface topography of this region using the LRO-WAC (resolution of 100 Mpxl) photomaps made it possible to define the following groups of morphological units (area types): (1) related to the formation of relatively fresh impact craters; (2) associated with larger (>100 km across) degraded craters including (2a) external and (2b) inner facies; and (3) occupying intercrater spaces. The comparison of the geological map with the map illustrating the distribution of the epithermal neutron flow (Mitrofanov et al., 2012) shows no correlation between them. Consequently, one should not expect development of rock complexes, which would be characterized by elevated concentrations of water in the region chosen for the Luna-Glob mission and, thus, considered among the first-priority targets. The comparison of the neutron flow distribution with the map of circular polarization of the Mini-RF radar beam also shows no correlation. This means that high values of circular polarization reflect elevated concentrations of rock fragments rather than water accumulations. Even though ice fragments are present, their sizes should only slightly be less as compared with the radar wavelength (12.6 cm). The region planned for investigations in the scope of the Luna-Glob mission corresponds to the swell of the largest (and, likely, oldest) preserved basin and offers a potential opportunity to analyze ancient material of this planet and introduce important constraints into the spectrum of models proposed for explaining the Moon's origin.

  2. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra

    2015-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  3. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  4. Crystallization kinetics in a multiply saturated basalt magma - An experimental study of Luna 24 ferrobasalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, T. L.; Bence, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the effects of kinetics on mineral/melt partitioning and on fractional crystallization for a Luna-24 ferrobasalt. The composition is nearly multiply saturated under lunar surface conditions, making it possible to study the response of several mineral phases to kinetic factors during cooling. The differential suppression of the temperature of appearance of olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase causes changes in the liquid line of descent. The course of liquid line of descent is mapped as a function of the cooling rate, and the partitioning of elements between pyroxene/liquid and olivine/liquid is examined.

  5. Bioinspired micrograting arrays mimicking the reverse color diffraction elements evolved by the butterfly Pierella luna

    PubMed Central

    England, Grant; Kolle, Mathias; Kim, Philseok; Khan, Mughees; Muñoz, Philip; Mazur, Eric; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Recently, diffraction elements that reverse the color sequence normally observed in planar diffraction gratings have been found in the wing scales of the butterfly Pierella luna. Here, we describe the creation of an artificial photonic material mimicking this reverse color-order diffraction effect. The bioinspired system consists of ordered arrays of vertically oriented microdiffraction gratings. We present a detailed analysis and modeling of the coupling of diffraction resulting from individual structural components and demonstrate its strong dependence on the orientation of the individual miniature gratings. This photonic material could provide a basis for novel developments in biosensing, anticounterfeiting, and efficient light management in photovoltaic systems and light-emitting diodes. PMID:25288730

  6. Microfossil evidence for pre-Columbian maize dispersals in the neotropics from San Andrés, Tabasco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Mary E. D.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Pope, Kevin O.; Jones, John G.

    2007-01-01

    The history of maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most debated topics in New World archaeology. Molecular and genetic studies indicate that maize domestication took place in tropical southwest Mexico. Although archaeological evidence for the evolution of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte has yet to be found in that poorly studied region, other research combining paleoecology and archaeology is documenting the nature and timing of maize domestication and dispersals. Here we report a phytolith analysis of sediments from San Andrés, Tabasco, that confirms the spread of maize cultivation to the tropical Mexican Gulf Coast >7,000 years ago (≈7,300 calendar years before present). We review the different methods used in sampling, identifying, and dating fossil maize remains and compare their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we examine how San Andrés amplifies the present evidence for widespread maize dispersals into Central and South America. Multiple data sets from many sites indicate that maize was brought under cultivation and domesticated and had spread rapidly out of its domestication cradle in tropical southwest Mexico by the eighth millennium before the present. PMID:17426147

  7. The age and petrography of two Luna 20 fragments and inferences for widespread lunar metamorphism.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Huneke, J. C.; Gancarz, A. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    Ages were determined by the Ar-40/Ar-39 method on two metaclastic rocks returned from the lunar highlands north of Mare Fecunditatis by the Luna 20 probe. Both samples gave very well-defined argon retention ages of 3.90 plus or minus 0.04 AE which are indistinguishable from each other within a resolution of 0.02 AE. Both fragments, 22006 and 22007, are highly recrystallized polymict breccias; there is no evidence of radiogenic Ar-40, and the age almost surely dates the time of recrystallization. The cosmic ray exposure ages of these fragments are similar and high: 900 million years for 22006, 1300 million years for 22007. 22007 also contains substantial trapped argon with a high Ar-40/Ar-36. The Luna 20 results greatly extend the area of the moon's surface exhibiting a well-defined record of metamorphism at 3.9 AE. So far, lunar history in the interval from 4.6 to 3.9 AE is not preserved in the ages of surface rocks. This obliteration suggests lunar-wide metamorphic conditions occurring or terminating at this time as a result of major impacts.

  8. Shock-metamorphic effects in the Luna-16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1971-01-01

    The results of intensive studies indicate that shock-metamorphic effects, characteristic of meteorite impact and virtually identical to those observed in Apollo samples, are common in fragments of the Luna-16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis. Two types of shock effects are present: (1) deformation and partial melting features in rock and mineral fragments (1-2 percent of fragments); and (2) heterogeneous glasses and glassy breccias produced by shock melting (70-80 percent of fragments). Shock effects were observed in pyroxene (deformation twin lamellae, multiple planar shock lamellae, extreme mosaicism, partial isotropization); in plagioclase (planar shock lamellae, complete isotropization to form maskelynite); and in basalt fragments (plagioclase isotropization, selective partial melting). The glasses exhibit several characteristics of shock melting, especially: (1) diversity in chemical composition; (2) association with shock mineral fragments and Ni-Fe spherules; and (3) heterogeneous schlieren and incipient fusion of mineral inclusions. Two types of source rocks are present in the Luna-16 sample; basaltic (85-90 percent) and feldspathic (10-15 percent). The basaltic rocks are predominant and generally occur as unshocked fragments, indicating that they form the bedrock underlying Mare Fecunditatis.

  9. Organic carbon and phosphate distributions in the La Luna Formation, Western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Stoufer, P.S.; Scherer, W.

    1996-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous La Luna Formation in Western Venezuela is believed to be the major source rock in the Maracaibo basin. In order to obtain an approximation of the total amount of hydrocarbons that could have possibly been generated in this basin, the vertical and areal distribution of total organic carbon (TOC) was studied. Since important phosphate deposits were found in the uppermost portion of the La Luna Formation, their distribution was also determined on a regional scale. A total of 263 samples corresponding to 19 surface sections and 9 wells were collected and analyzed with geochemical methods including LECO carbon analyzer, Rockeval and X-Ray fluorescence. The vertical distribution was represented for all sections and wells. For mapping purposes of TOC and P205 only the upper part of the formation was considered. It was determined, in general, that TOC increases towards the top of the formation; geographically the highest concentrations were found in the central and western part of the Maracaibo basin, close to the Alturitas-Catatumbo area. Higher TOC concentrations correspond to finely laminated limestones and calcareous shales, where bioclasts are more frequent. Phosphates are found only in the uppermost 8-20 m of the stratigraphic section; geographically it is concentrated in northern Tachira and in the central Maracaibo basin. Phosphate is mostly of primary origin, concentrated in massive limestones, glauconitic sandstones and argillaceous rocks. Phosphate mineralogy includes collophane, wavellite and apatite oolites, diagenetic fossil replacements and authigenic precipitates.

  10. Towards a study of 22Ne(pγ)23Na at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depalo, R.; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction is involved in the NeNa cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle plays an important role for nucleosynthesis in the Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch phases of stellar evolution, as well as in classical novae and type Ia supernovae explosions. The 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction rate is highly uncertain because of a large number of resonances lying in the energy region of the Gamow peak. Several of these resonances have never been studied in either direct or indirect experiments, and only upper limits exist for their strengths. A measurement of the 2Ne(p,γ)23Na cross section is on-going at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) in Gran Sasso. With the LUNA setup, it will be possible to study the 22Ne+p reaction inside the Gamow window. The results of a feasibility test, as well as the measurement strategy and the setup for the first experimental campaign are discussed

  11. Il volto della Luna da Plutarco a Newton. Storia di una teoria ellenistica della gravità

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    In his dialogue "De Facie quae in Orbe Lunae apparet", Plutarch includes a discussion on a non-Aristotelian theory of gravity. I describe how this theory could be developed during the Hellenistic period and its influence on the cosmological debate along the centuries until the beginning of modern science. (Text in Italian)

  12. Investigation of Luna-20 soil samples, using a mass spectrometer with a spark-discharge ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Ramendik, G. I.; Gronskaia, S. I.; Gubina, I. IA.; Gushchin, V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A method of analyzing soil samples with a mass spectrometer employing a spark-discharge ion source is described, and the effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the determination of impurities, in amounts of less than 10 mg, in lunar samples. It is shown that four parts of the Luna-20 lunar highland sample differ in their chemical composition.

  13. Geometry and Kinematics of Wrinkle Ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana, Mars: Implications for Fault/Fold Growth History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, A.; Mueller, K. J.; Golombek, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    The three dimensional geometry of wrinkle ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana suggest they form by rapid lateral propagation and linkage of fault-propagation fold segments above reactivated blind thrust faults. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Morphology of Wrinkle Ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana, Mars from MOLA Topography: Implications for Their Kinematic Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, A.; Golombek, M. P.; Mueller, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography is used to define the detailed morphology and kinematic development of martian wrinkle ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana. Changes in ridge morphology suggest they form as fault-propagation folds, often with significant backthrusts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. [Presence and spatio-temporal habitat characterization of Dermatemys mawii (Testudines: Dermatemydidae) in the Grijalva-Usumacinta watershed, Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Zenteno Ruiz, Claudia Elena; Barba Macias, Everardo; Bello-Gutiérrez, Joaquín; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana

    2010-12-01

    The Central American River Turtle (Dermatemys mawii) is an endangered species that has been poorly studied. There are no reports on their population status, habitat condition, and the species distribution area is still unknown. This study analyzes the seasonal and spatial variations of their habitat and the presence/absence of D. mawii in three rivers within the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve (Tabasco, Mexico). For habitat characterization, natural segmentation of rivers was used and three sites per segment were identified, 9 in each rivers (Grijalva and Usumacinta) and 6 in Tabasquillo. Additionally, the evaluation of 11 environmental variables such as water hydrological, physicochemical characteristics and riparian and hydrophytic vegetation were carried out during two different seasons (dry and rainy). The presence/absence of species was assessed with eight fike nets that were set per segment, with a capture effort of 384 hours per trap. The capture per unit effort (CPUE) was used as an indicator of relative abundance. The results indicated spatio-temporal variations in habitat characteristics and the presence of environmental gradients. The principal components analysis (PCA) applied allowed us to determine that the first three components explained 67.8% of the environmental variability. The species presence was confirmed in all rivers, however significant differences exists in their relative abundance: the highest was registered in the Tabasquillo River where the species was present in both seasons and in all segments. Of the 11 environmental variables analyzed, the gradient, shelter and depth were the most indicative of species presence. The obtained results evidenced the importance of riparian vegetation as habitat for Dermatemys. This represents the first approach towards an action plan for a species and its habitat protection within the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve. PMID:21250478

  16. [The interaction of municipal labor markets in the state of Tabasco: an approximation via the use of gravitational models].

    PubMed

    Juarez, E

    1993-01-01

    Employment is an important factor in state planning and a variable in both economic activity and population. Multiregional methodologies which incorporate territorial variables in functional type analyses may be used to study the interactions between municipal labor markets, helping identify those that should receive priority assistance in developing their sources of employment. This work uses a gravitational model to analyze interactions between the local labor markets of 17 seats of municipios in the state of Tabasco as demonstrated with data from the census of 1990. The working hypothesis was that alternatives for labor market growth are distributed hierarchically in descending order of supply as a function of the size of the economically active population in each locality, the relative participation of the unemployed in each locality, and the distance between the localities. The modeling of interaction between local labor markets is achieved in three stages. First, a gravitational model is adjusted with restrictions in the origins. The next step requires use of the parameters resulting from the first step to predict the number of trips to each destination, as a function of levels of unemployment in each locality producing trips. The third stage consists of predictive application of a gravitational model restricted in both origin and destination to define the magnitude of flows between each point of origin and each point of destination. The general character of the gravitational model is described for each step. The model suggests that the main interactions between local labor markets at the level of seats of municipios are located in the center of the state. Three municipal seats in particular had great potential for labor market growth. A separate system of labor market interaction was observed in the southern part of the state. The coastal zone did not appear to offer an alternative for labor market growth. PMID:12287864

  17. Inert gases in twelve particles and one 'dust' sample from Luna 16.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Yaniv, A.

    1972-01-01

    The inert gases were measured mass-spectrometrically in 12 fragments and one dust sample from Luna 16. The fragments were classified petrologically by microscopic inspection. The major petrologic types were breccias and basalts. The He-4/Ne-20 ratio of the breccias (average 49) was systematically smaller than that of the basalts (average 78), probably because of He-Ne fractionation during or after the formation of the breccias. We suggest that the He-4/Ne-20 ratios of bulk fines in general may reflect the proportions of basaltic and breccia (plus cindery glasses) fragments in the fines. Exposure ages of four fragments are several hundred million years. The Ar-40/Ar-36 slopes of breccias and basalts are identical: 0.65.

  18. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012" [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly used.[...]. PMID:27376318

  19. Compact Low Power DPU for Plasma Instrument LINA on the Russian Luna-Glob Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Riihelä, Pekka; Kallio, Esa

    2013-04-01

    The Swedish Institute for Space Physics in Kiruna is bilding a Lunar Ions and Neutrals Analyzer (LINA) for the Russian Luna-Glob lander mission and its orbiter, to be launched around 2016 [1]. The Finnish Meteorological Institute is responsible for designing and building the central data processing units (DPU) for both instruments. The design details were optimized to serve as demonstrator also for a similar instrument on the Jupiter mission JUICE. To accommodate the originally set short development time and to keep the design between orbiter and Lander as similar as possible, the DPU is built around two re-programmable flash-based FPGAs from Actel. One FPGA contains a public-domain 32-bit processor core identical for both Lander and orbiter. The other FPGA handles all interfaces to the spacecraft system and the detectors, somewhat different for both implementations. Monitoring of analog housekeeping data is implemented as an IP-core from Stellamar inside the interface FPGA, saving mass, volume and especially power while simplifying the radiation protection design. As especially on the Lander the data retention before transfer to the orbiter cannot be guaranteed under all conditions, the DPU includes a Flash-PROM containing several software versions and data storage capability. With the memory management implemented inside the interface FPGA, one of the serial links can also be used as test port to verify the system, load the initial software into the Flash-PROM and to control the detector hardware directly without support by the processor and a ready developed operating system and software. Implementation and performance details will be presented. Reference: [1] http://www.russianspaceweb.com/luna_glob_lander.html.

  20. Chemical and Sr-isotopic characteristics of the Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Mckay, G.; Wiesmann, H.; Bansal, B.; Wooden, J.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical and Sr isotopic characteristics of Luna 24 bulk soil samples are determined and interpreted within the framework of lunar mare basalt evolution. Major and trace element compositions lead to the suggestion of candidate rock types consisting of a basalt/gabbro with very low TiO2 and MgO content (52%), a very low TiO2 basalt with 10% MgO (23%), olivine vitrophyre (20%), low K Fra Mauro basalt (4%) and anorthositic gabbro (1%). The proposed compositions are supported by the agreement of mixing models based on the proposed compositions with observed soil compositions. Sr ratios for plagioclase samples imply a lower Sr-87/Sr-86 value for low Mg soils than for other mare basalts and higher Rb/Sr and a more evolved Sr ratio in high Mg basalts. Rb, Sr and rare earth element compositions for low Mg basalts fit a model of partial remelting of cumulates containing small amounts of plagioclase.

  1. Luna 20 soil - Abundance and composition of phases in the 45-125 micron fraction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Glass compositions in the Luna 20 soil indicate a minor contribution of mare rocks and a major contribution of highly feldspathic highland material. Glasses with the composition of highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro or norite) predominate in a range of highly aluminous glasses. The analyses of minerals in the soil show that the highland rocks have a unique assemblage of minerals that can readily be distinguished from the mineral assemblages of either mare or KREEP basalts. The soils are characterized by abundant anorthitic, low-Fe plagioclase. Highly magnesian orthopyroxenes, pigeonites, and augites are the most prominent pyroxenes. Unlike mare basalt pyroxenes, clinopyroxenes with intermediate Ca values are not abundant, but extreme iron enrichment toward pyroxferroite does occur. Olivines are more abundant than at other sites and are Mg-rich, low in Ca and Cr. Spinels with compositions approaching MgAl2O4 predominate over pleonastes and chromites. Ilmenite and metal are present but not abundant. The mineral compositions are consistent with derivation from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks in which highland basalt compositions predominate.

  2. Direct measurement of the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction cross section at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Federico; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction takes part in the NeNa cycle of hydrogen burning, influencing the production of the elements between 20Ne and 27Al in red giant stars, asymptotic giant stars and classical novae. The 22Ne(p,γ)27Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of tentative resonances in the Gamow window, where only upper limits were quoted in literature. A direct measurement of the 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction cross section has been carried out at LUNA using a windowless differential-pumping gas target with two high- purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. A new measurement with a 4π bismuth germanate (BGO) summing detector is ongoing. During the HPGe phase of the experiment the strengths of the resonances at 156.2 keV, 189.5 keV and 259.7 keV have been directly measured for the first time and their contribution to the reaction rate has been calculated. The decay scheme of the newly discovered resonances has been established as well and some improved upper limits on the unobserved resonances have been put. The BGO detector with its 70% γ-detection efficiency allows to measure the cross section at lower energy. In order to further investigate the resonances at 71 keV and 105 keV and the direct-capture component, the data taking is ongoing.

  3. Silicate melt inclusions and glasses in lunar soil fragments from the Luna 16 core sample

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1972-01-01

    More than 2000 fragments were studied microscopically, and electron microprobe analyses were made of 39 selected areas, from a few square mm of polished surface, through 75- to 425-??m fragments of lunar soil from two samples of the Luna 16 core. The silicate melt inclusions and glasses differ in important details from those observed earlier in the Apollo samples. Melt inclusions in olivine contain epitaxially oriented daughter crystals, but also show a similar epitaxy around the outside of the crystals not observed in previous lunar samples. Melt inclusions in ilmenite suggest trapping at successive stages in a differentiation sequence. There is abundant evidence for late-stage silicate liquid immiscibility, with melt compositions similar but not identical to those from Apollo 11 and 12. A comparison of the alkali ratio of any given bulk rock analysis with that of its late-stage, high-silica melt shows gross differences for different rocks. This is pertinent to understanding late-stage differentiation processes. Glass fragments and spherules exhibit a wide range of crystallization textures, reflecting their wide range of compositions and cooling histories. No significant differences were found between the two portions of core examined (Zones A and D). ?? 1972.

  4. Geology and geochemistry of the La Luna Formation type sections in the Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, N.; Scherer, W.

    1996-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous La Luna Formation is the most important source rock of hydrocarbons in Western Venezuela. Curiously enough it has two type sections, the formation was first defined in 1926 in Perija on the western flank of the Maracaibo basin; 30 years later the La Aguada, Chejende and Timbetes members were defined 260 km toward the east, on the shelf of the basin. The purpose of this study is to compare these sections and to define the vertical and horizontal variability of geological and geochemical characteristics that might have influenced the generation of hydrocarbons. The study consisted of detailed, bed level sampling, macroscopic sedimentary descriptions, petrography of 168 thin sections with 40 variables recorded in a statistical data matrix for determination of lithomicrofacies, as well as geochemical analysis of total organic carbon (TOC), visual kerogen, Rock-Eval pyrolysis and gas chromatography. The western type section is characterized by alternating thinly laminated and massive bedded limestones. Thermally immature, amorphous organic matter of marine origin is abundant in this section; TOC values range from 0.23% to 8.56%, generally increasing toward the top. Hydrogen index values range from 327 to 1078, indicating good to excellent oil generating potential. The eastern type sections have a higher level of thermal maturity; they show increasing amounts of clastic material, less authigenic minerals and abundant Favreina sp crab fecal pellets. The mainly terrestrially derived organic matter concentrations are considerably less, ranging from 0.07 to 3.39, again increasing toward the top of the section.

  5. Landing site selection for Luna-Glob mission in crater Boguslawsky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Pasckert, J.-H.; Bauch, K.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Gläser, P.; Kohanov, A.

    2015-11-01

    Boguslawsky crater (72.9°S, 43.3°E, ~100 km in diameter) is a primary target for the Luna-Glob mission. The crater has a morphologically smooth (at the resolution of WAC images), flat, and horizontal floor, which is about 55-60 km in diameter. Two ellipses were selected as specific candidate landing areas on the floor: the western ellipse is centered at 72.9°S, 41.3°E and the eastern ellipse is centered at 73.9°S, 43.9°E. Both ellipses represent areas from which Earth is visible during the entire year of 2016 and lack permanently shadowed areas. Boguslawsky crater is located on or near the rim of the South Pole-Aitken basin, which provides the unique possibility to sample some of the most ancient rocks on the Moon that probably pre-date the SPA impact event. The low depth/diameter ratio of Boguslawsky suggests that the crater has been partly filled after its formation. Although volcanic flooding of the crater cannot be ruled out, the more likely process of filling of Boguslawsky is the emplacement of ejecta from nearby and remote large craters/basins. Three morphologically distinctive units are the most abundant within the selected landing ellipses: rolling plains (rpc), flat plains (fp), and ejecta from crater Boguslawsky-D (ejf), which occurs on the eastern wall of Boguslawsky. The possible contribution of materials from unknown sources makes the flat and rolling plains less desirable targets for landing. In contrast, ejecta from Boguslawsky-D represents local materials re-distributed by the Boguslawsky-D impact from the wall onto the floor of Boguslawsky. Thus, this unit, which constitutes about 50% of the eastern landing ellipse, represents a target of clearer provenance and a higher scientific priority.

  6. Low-Energy resonances in the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction directly observed at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depalo, Rosanna; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning influences the synthesis of the elements between 20Ne and 27Al in AGB stars and classical novae explosions. The 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of unobserved resonances lying in the Gamow window. A new direct study of the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction has been performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) using a windowless gas target and two HPGe detectors. Several resonances have been observed for the first time in a direct experiment.

  7. Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

  8. Status of the direct measurements of 18O(p,γ)19F and 23Na(p,γ)24Mg cross sections at astrophysical energies at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeltzig, A.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Best, A.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.

    2016-04-01

    18O(p, γ)19F and 23Na(p,γ)24Mg are reactions of astrophysical interest for example in AGB star scenarios. The rates of both reactions are potentially influenced by low-energy resonances for whose strengths either exist only values with large uncertainties, upper limits or even contradictory claims. Measurements at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) aim at a direct observation of these low-energy resonances, and additional cross section measurements to aid a more precise determination of the reaction rates in astrophysical scenarios. We report the experimental setup and the status of the ongoing measurements of the two reactions at LUNA.

  9. A computer procedure to analyze seismic data to estimate outcome probabilities in oil exploration, with an initial application in the tabasco region of southeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlanga, Juan M.; Harbaugh, John W.

    The Tabasco region contains a number of major oilfields, including some of the emerging "giant" oil fields which have received extensive publicity. Fields in the Tabasco region are associated with large geologic structures which are detected readily by seismic surveys. The structures seem to be associated with deepseated movement of salt, and they are complexly faulted. Some structures have as much as 1000 milliseconds relief of seismic lines. A study, interpreting the structure of the area, used initially only a fraction of the total seismic lines That part of Tabasco region that has been studied was surveyed with a close-spaced rectilinear network of seismic lines. A, interpreting the structure of the area, used initially only a fraction of the total seismic data available. The purpose was to compare "predictions" of reflection time based on widely spaced seismic lines, with "results" obtained along more closely spaced lines. This process of comparison simulates the sequence of events in which a reconnaissance network of seismic lines is used to guide a succession of progressively more closely spaced lines. A square gridwork was established with lines spaced at 10 km intervals, and using machine contour maps, compared the results with those obtained with seismic grids employing spacings of 5 and 2.5 km respectively. The comparisons of predictions based on widely spaced lines with observations along closely spaced lines provide information by which an error function can be established. The error at any point can be defined as the difference between the predicted value for that point, and the subsequently observed value at that point. Residuals obtained by fitting third-degree polynomial trend surfaces were used for comparison. The root mean square of the error measurement, (expressed in seconds or milliseconds reflection time) was found to increase more or less linearly with distance from the nearest seismic point. Oil-occurrence probabilities were established on

  10. A lunar differentiation model in light of new chemical data on Luna 20 and Apollo 16 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, D. F.; Philpotts, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Fines from a Luna 20 soil sample and from three Apollo 16 deep drill core samples have been analyzed for major-minor element abundances by a combined, semi-micro atomic absorption spectrophotometric and colorimetric method. Both the major element and large ion lithophile trace element abundances in these soils, the first from interior highland sites, are greatly influenced by the very high normative plagioclase content, being distinctly richer in Al and Ca, and poorer in K, P, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ti, than most bulk soil samples from previous lunar missions. The relatively large compositional variations in the Apollo 16 core can be ascribed almost entirely to decreasing plagioclase with increasing depth. The chemical composition of the Luna 20 soil indicates less plagioclase and less KREEP than in the Apollo 16 soils. A lunar differentiation model is presented in which is made the suggestion that KREEP is the result of a second fusion event in a lunar crust consisting of early feldspathic cumulates and primary aluminous 'liquid.'

  11. Comparison of the magnetic properties of glass from Luna 20 with similar properties of glass from the Apollo missions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.; Alexander, C.C.; Briggs, C.L.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on four glass spherules and fragments from the Luna 20 fines; two at 300??K and two from 300??K to 4??K. From these data the magnetic susceptibility extrapolated to infinite field, the magnetization at low fields and also the saturation magnetization at high fields, the Curie constant, the Weiss temperature, and the temperature-independent susceptibility were determined. Using a model previously proposed for the Apollo specimens, the Curie constant of the antiferromagnetic inclusions and a zero field splitting parameter were calculated for the same specimens. The data show the relatively low concentration of iron in all forms in these specimens. In addition, the Weiss temperature is lower than that measured for the Apollo specimens, and can be attributed almost entirely to the ligand field distortion about the Fe2+ ions in the glassy phase. The data further suggest that the Luna 20 specimens cooled more slowly than those of the Apollo missions, and that some of the antiferromagnetic inclusions in the glass may have crystallized from the glass during cooling. ?? 1973.

  12. Lunar Surface Origins Exploration (LunaSOX) -Virtual observatory facility for solar wind plasma interactions with the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John

    A new virtual observatory facility is being will be implemented in support of solar wind and terrestrial magnetospheric plasma interactions with the lunar surface and atmospheric envi-ronments. The NASA Heliophysics virtual observatory approach of open on-line metadata registration, discovery, access, and supporting value-added tools will be applied to selected data products from lunar surface, lunar orbital, and earth-orbiting solar wind monitors. The LunaSOX facilty at lunasox,gsfc.nasa.gov will be operated by a science focus group for NASA's Virtual Heliospheric Observatory. Initial primary focus will be on the Apollo ALSEP solar wind monitor data products already accessible on-line in through the Coordinated Data Anal-ysis Web (CDAWeb) service of the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF). These data will be recast in forms appropriate for support of the plasma interaction modeling and the new value-added data products will be posted through the virtual observatory. Supporting lunar and Earth orbit data of the Apollo era in the NASA archives will be similarly treated and posted on-line. The LunaSOX virtual observatory will also provide links to other available lunar data. Selected data analysis (e.g., OMNIWeb), orbital ephemeris (SSCWeb), and associated visualization tools of SPDF will be utilized in support of the modeling and virtual observatory efforts. Please contact the author for potential virtual observatory support of specific data products related to plasma interactions with the lunar surface and atmosphere.

  13. Oriented chromite-diopside symplectic inclusions in olivine from lunar regolith delivered by "Luna-24" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khisina, N. R.; Wirth, R.; Abart, R.; Rhede, D.; Heinrich, W.

    2013-03-01

    Calcium-chromium rich lamellae in olivine grain No. 1611 from the Luna-24 regolith were studied with FEG-EMPA and TEM. The lamellae consist of a worm-like intergrowth of FeCr2O4 chromite (Chr) and CaMgSi2O6 diopside (Di), with a Chr:Di modal proportion of 1:3. The linear extension of the lamellae and crystallographic orientation relationships among the symplectite phases and the olivine suggest that the lamellae nucleated at deformation defects in the olivine host. Calcium depletion haloes surrounding the lamellae amount to about 75 μm and indicate that the chromite + diopside lamellae were formed by segregation of calcium and chromium from the host olivine into the lamellae without addition of calcium and/or chromium from outside the olivine. The segregation of calcium and chromium and, consequently, the growth of the symplectic lamellae were diffusion-controlled. The segregation of a calcium-chromium component from the host olivine was associated with oxidation of divalent to trivalent chromium. Oxidation was facilitated by dehydrogenation, which was driven by decompression and/or a change in redox potential. Hydrogen point defects in the original olivine with H+ substituting for divalent cations on the M-sites provided the necessary electron acceptors for the oxidation of chromium and after electron transfer left olivine as molecular H2. The internal microstructure of the lamellae suggests that exsolution of the calcium-chromium rich lamellae from the host olivine and formation of the chromite-diopside symplectic intergrowth occurred simultaneously. The time scale derived from diffusion modeling of the calcium depletion haloes around the lamellae indicates a thermal event on the order of several months to several hundred years at most. Symplectic inclusions found in olivine from lunar, martian and terrestrial rocks are similar with respect to their shape, crystallographic orientation relationships, and internal microstructure of the spinel

  14. Wrinkle ridges, reverse faulting, and the depth penetration of lithospheric stress in lunae planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Tectonic features on a planetary surface are commonly used as constraints on models to determine the state of stress at the time the features formed. Quantitative global stress models applied to understand the formation of the Tharsis province on Mars constrained by observed tectonics have calculated stresses at the surface of a thin elastic shell and have neglected the role of vertical structure in influencing the predicted pattern of surface deformation. Wrinkle ridges in the Lunae Planum region of Mars form a conentric pattern of regularly spaced features in the eastern and southeastern part of Tharsis; they are formed due to compressional stresses related to the response of the Martian lithosphere to the Tharsis bulge. As observed in the exposures of valley walls in areas such as the Kasei Valles, the surface plains unit is underlain by an unconsolidated impact-generated megaregolith that grades with depth into structurally competent lithospheric basement. The ridges have alternatively been hypothesized to reflect deformation restricted to the surface plains unit ('thin skinned deformation') and deformation that includes the surface unit, megaregolith and basement lithosphere ('thick skinned deformation'). We have adopted a finite element approach to quantify the nature of deformation associated with the development of wrinkle ridges in a vertically stratified elastic lithosphere. We used the program TECTON, which contains a slippery node capability that allowed us to explicitly take into account the presence of reverse faults believed to be associated with the ridges. In this study we focused on the strain field in the vicinity of a single ridge when slip occurs along the fault. We considered two initial model geometries. In the first, the reverse fault was assumed to be in the surface plains unit, and in the second the initial fault was located in lithospheric basement, immediately beneath the weak megaregolith. We are interested in the conditions underwhich

  15. Chemistry and petrology of Luna 24 lithic fragments and less than 250-micron soils - Constraints on the origin of VLT mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Lange, D. E.; Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported on a combined INAA-petrologic study of 17 small (0.2-1.5 mg) Luna 24 lithic and mineral fragments and INAA study of 5 bulk soils and mineral separates from gabbro 24170. Lithic and mineral fragments are classified into VLT mare basalts (ferrobasalt and metabasalts), low-Ti, variolitic mare basalt, gabbros, melt rock and soil breccia. Data indicate 5 possible magma types, represented by: (1) VLT ferrobasalt and gabbro fragments, with low-TiO2 (about 1%), slightly bow-shaped REE pattern, and low REE concentrations (5-10X chondritic); (2) a ferrobasalt (Laul et al., 1978) and metabasalt fragments with major and trace element contents similar to (1), but positive Eu anomalies; (3) one gabbro fragment with distinctive pyroxene compositional trend (increasing Ti with nearly constant Fe/Fe + Mg) and highest REE contents of any Luna 24 mare basaltic sample, (4) a gabbro fragment with considerably less V and Cr2O3 than ferrobasalt and metabasalt fragments; and (5) variolitic basalt fragment with higher Ti2(2.3%) than other Luna 24 basalts and pyroxene that has increasing then decreasing Ti with increasing Fe/Fe + Mg. Trace element data place constraints on the nature of the source region and possible parent magmas for the Luna 24 VLT ferrobasalt.

  16. Bimodal TiO2 Contents of Mare Basalts at Apollo and Luna Sites and Implications for TiO2 Derived from Clementine Spectral Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    A revised algorithm to estimate Ti contents of mare regions centered on Apollo and Luna sites shows a bimodal distribution, consistent with mare-basalt sample data. A global TiO2 map shows abundant intermediate TiO2 basalts in western Procellarum. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Boguslawsky crater, Moon: Geology of the Luna-Glob Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Ivanov, Mikhail; Hendrik Paskert, Jan; Bauch, Karin; Howes van der Bogert, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    The floor of crater Boguslawsky (~95 km in diameter, centered at 72.9S, 43.26E) was selected as the primary landing site for the Russian Luna-Glob mission. Two landing ellipses, 30x15 km each, were chosen on the floor of the crater: Ellipse West is at 72.9S, 41.3E; Ellipse East is at 73.3S, 43.9E. Using high-resolution LROC images, we identified six geologic units within Boguslawsky crater, including smooth plains sp, rolling plains rp, secondary craters sc, a hilly unit hu, the crater wall cw, and the ejecta blanket eb of the 24-km sized crater Boguslawsky D. Units sp, rp, sc, hu, and possibly cw are accessible within the western landing ellipse. The eastern landing ellipse contains units sp, rp, eb, and sc. Based on our crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements and using the lunar production function and chronology of [1], we find Boguslawsky crater formed approximately 4 Ga ago. Because this age was derived from a count area on the western crater wall, which might have been modified by mass wasting, it represents a minimum age, i.e., the crater might be older. Applying the stratigraphy of [2], Bouguslawsky is pre-Nectarian in age, consistent with the age assignment of the geologic map [3]. Our CSFD results indicate that the rolling plains have an absolute model age of about 3.96 Ga old, thus being indistinguishable within the error bars from the CSFD of the Boguslawsky wall. The smooth plains and the ejecta blanket of Boguslawsky D exhibit very similar absolute model ages of 3.77 and 3.74 Ga, respectively. Thus, our ages for the crater floor are somewhat younger than the ages in the geologic map of [3] while Boguslawsky D appears to be older, i.e., it is Imbrian in age and not Eratosthenian as shown in [3]. To assess the safety of the landing ellipses, we studied the distribution of slopes and boulders. Within the two proposed landing sites, we find that the slopes at ~30m base-length are generally less than 5-10 degrees. However, local slopes

  18. Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of individual mineral phases in Luna 20 material by ion microprobe mass analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Ion microprobe analyses of returned lunar material have helped to demonstrate that U, Th, and radiogenic Pb are concentrated in small accessory mineral phases. It is possible to measure the isotopic composition of this Pb and obtain a radiometric Pb-207/Pb-206 age for the mineral. The ages so derived compare favorably with crystallization ages determined by conventional methods. A grain mount (22003,2/6) of Luna 20 material was searched for such accessory mineral phases, and two were found. One of these phases give an age of 4.12 plus or minus 0.04 b.y. and the other an age of 4.42 plus or minus 0.11 b.y. Ages of minerals dated by the ion probe in Apollo samples 14310 and 15555 are given for comparison. Data on the upper limit for Pb concentration in the outermost surface layers of free lunar soil particles are also given.

  19. Exploring the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction at LUNA and at HZDR

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanna, Francesca; Collaboration: LUNA Collaboration

    2014-05-09

    The {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction is involved in the hydrogen burning NeNa cycle. This determines the nucleosynthesis of the Ne and Na isotopes in the Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch phases of stellar evolution. In the energy range relevant for astrophysics (20 keV < E < 600 keV), the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction rate is highly uncertain because of the contribution of a large number of resonances never measured directly. A related study is under preparation at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA), in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, and it will cover the energy range 100 keV < E < 400 keV. Meanwhile, a measurement at higher energies (i.e. 436 keV) has been carried out at the Tandetron accelerator of the HZDR (Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf) in Germany. Some preliminary results will be presented.

  20. Legal aspects and technical alternatives for the treatment of reservoir brines at the Activo Luna oilfield, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Birkle, Peter; Cid Vázquez, Adolfo L; Fong Aguilar, J L

    2005-01-01

    Deep formation water, extracted as an undesired byproduct from on-shore production wells at the Activo Luna oilfield and processed in adjacent oil fields, are highly enriched in salt minerals, especially in sodium chloride (NaCl) (262 000 mg/L), but also in metals and nonmetals, such as strontium (Sr) (2068 mg/L), bromine (Br) (2034 mg/L), boron (B) (396 mg/ L), iodine (I) (43.4 mg/L), selenium (Se) (3.74 mg/L), and arsenic (As) (0.55 mg/L). Direct reinjection of the brine underground is not possible because of elevated pressure conditions within the petroleum reservoir. The disposal into near shore areas of the Gulf of Mexico without treatment must be rejected because of a) elevated concentrations of some toxic elements, such as B, silver (Ag), thallium (Tl), Se and cadmium (Cd), which exceed permissible limits of environmental legislation for surface discharge (Official Mexican norms NOM-001-ECOL-1998 and CE-CCA-001/89), and b) differences in density that could cause the descent of hypersaline fluid to the ocean floor, potentially affecting the diversity and survival of the benthic ecosystem. Conventional treatment techniques, such as microfiltration or reverse osmosis, are not suitable for the Activo Luna brines because of their extreme mineralization, which will cause pressure conditions exceeding 200 bars across the membrane. As an alternative process, the evaporation of the entire brine volume of approximately 200 m3/day by solar ponds or industrial crystallization plants is suggested. The residual precipitated residuals are composed mainly of chlorine (Cl) (9460 tons/year), sodium (Na) (4230 tons/ year), calcium (Ca) (1028 tons/year), potassium (K) (207 tons/year), and magnesium (Mg) (65.8 tons/year). As an alternative to its disposal on a dumpsite, some special minerals (especially NaCl, Mg, Sr, and Br) could be recovered for its economic value. PMID:15765938

  1. Response to the Fernández-Niño Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, México between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresán, Ana; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma

    2016-01-01

    We thank the comments of Fernández-Niño [1] addressing our article [2] "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012", which pointed out that the use of the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly applied in the present manuscript. PMID:27376319

  2. Constraints on the flux of meteoritic and cometary water on the Moon from volatile element (N-Ar) analyses of single lunar soil grains, Luna 24 core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füri, Evelyn; Marty, Bernard; Assonov, Sergey S.

    2012-03-01

    We report new nitrogen and argon isotope and abundance results for single breccia clasts and agglutinates from four different sections of the Luna 24 drill core in order to re-evaluate the provenance of N trapped in lunar regolith, and to place limits on the flux of planetary material to the Moon’s surface. Single Luna 24 grains with 40Ar/36Ar ratios <1 show δ15N values between -54.5‰ and +123.3‰ relative to terrestrial atmosphere. Thus, low-antiquity lunar soils record both positive and negative δ15N signatures, and the secular increase of the δ15N value previously postulated by Kerridge (Kerridge, J.F. [1975]. Science 188(4184), 162-164. doi:10.1126/science.188.4184.162) is no longer apparent when the Luna and Apollo data are combined. Instead, the N isotope signatures, corrected for cosmogenic 15N, are consistent with binary mixing between isotopically light solar wind (SW) N and a planetary N component with a δ15N value of +100‰ to +160‰. The lower δ15N values of Luna 24 grains compared to Apollo samples reflect a higher relative proportion of solar N, resulting from the higher SW fluence in the region of Mare Crisium compared to the central near side of the Moon. Carbonaceous chondrite-like micro-impactors match well the required isotope characteristics of the non-solar N component trapped in low-antiquity lunar regolith. In contrast, a possible cometary contribution to the non-solar N flux is constrained to be ⩽3-13%. Based on the mixing ratio of SW to planetary N obtained for recently exposed lunar soils, we estimate the flux of micro-impactors to be (2.2-5.7) × 103 tons yr-1 at the surface of the Moon. Our estimate for Luna 24 agrees well with that for young Apollo regolith, indicating that the supply of planetary material does not depend on lunar location. Thus, the continuous influx of water-bearing cosmic dust may have represented an important source of water for the lunar surface over the past ∼1 Ga, provided that water removal rates

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Pagano Salvage site, Los Lunas, NM. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-27

    The 1.4-acre Pagano Salvage site is in Los Lunas, Valencia County, New Mexico, and consists of a family-run salvage business and a residence. During 1983, salvage operations at the site included purchasing high technology scrap material from Federal facilities such as transformers, drums containing waste fluids, and capacitors. Site inspections in 1984, 1985, and 1986 revealed several areas of soil contamination in the yard due to leaks from scrap materials, which released PCB-contaminated oil into the soil. These areas included two surface burn areas, a stained soil area, and a surface pool of oil. In 1990, EPA removed approximately 5,100 cubic yards (i.e., soil in excess of 10 mg/kg PCBs based on TSCA cleanup policy) of contaminated soil and debris for disposal in an approved RCRA facility offsite. Soil containing less than 10 mg/kg PCB was covered with a 10-12 inch soil cover. Soil sampling has confirmed that this removal has resolved the PCB contamination at the site and EPA proposes no additional remedial action. Based on this rationale, there are no primary contaminants of concern affecting the site. The selected remedial action for the site is a no action remedy with ground water monitoring for one year at the request of the State.

  4. The LuNa project: experimental didactic modules exploiting portable setups to teach optics in primary and secondary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondani, Maria; Allevi, Alessia; Nardo, Luca; Favale, Fabrizio

    2014-07-01

    The "LuNa" (La natura della Luce nella luce della Natura - The nature of Light in the light of Nature) Project is devoted to the experimental teaching of optics in the different school grades. The basic idea of the Project is that the history of optics and the debate about the nature of light are a meaningful example of how science proceeds in the development of a physical model. Moreover optical phenomena can be presented at different levels of complexity in order to be accessible to students of different age. At the core of the Project are several portable setups that support experimental and partially interactive lectures covering all the aspects of optical phenomena, from geometrical optics to single-photon interference passing through atmospheric optics, spectroscopy, holography and theory of perception. When possible, the setups are realized with simple and easy to find materials so as to be reproducible by teachers and students. Of course, for the most complicated setups (interferometers and holography) research materials are used. Each module is calibrated to fit teachers' requirements either to be included in the curricula of their classes or to be used as an expansion of the optics program.

  5. Pressurized groundwater systems in Lunae and Ophir Plana (Mars): insights from small-scale morphology and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; de Jong, Steven M.; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Large outflow channels on Mars reveal the past presence of water on the surface, possibly released from pressurized groundwater reservoirs. Due to a lack of understanding of the underlying processes, the hydrological and corresponding climate conditions remain a subject of debate. We investigate the detailed morphology of possible pressurized groundwater outflow systems in comparison to landscape evolution experiments. These experiments show that incised valleys like the classic outflow channels are a last erosional stage in morphological development. This is preceded by the formation of sedimentary lobes due to rapid water loss by infiltration. On Mars, we observed similar features related to different stages of groundwater outflow in Lunae and Ophir Plana, which form parts of the high standing plateaus adjacent to the huge depressions of the Valles Marineris. In both the experiment and the Martian cases, we observed lobate depositions that emerge from collapsed pits and pit chains. These lobes have channelized surfaces related to fluvial flow. In the experiments, pits formed adjacent to the valley heads due to the outflow. The pits in the source regions of Mars strongly relate to the regional tectonic structure and likely result from subsidence by extension and not by groundwater alone. Faulting, subsidence and collapse likely triggered outflow from a pressurized aquifer and could have aided in aquifer pressurization. This scenario is consistent with the presence of one or several cryosphere-confined aquifers from the Early Hesperian to at least the middle Amazonian. A pronounced spatial trend of larger and further developed outflow systems at lower elevations suggests that features ranging from small lobes to large outflow channels were sourced from a common aquifer or from aquifers with similar pressures. The required cryosphere indicates a cold climate and enables groundwater outflow even under atmospheric conditions unfavorable for sustained presence of

  6. Record of a new species of the genus Viridopromontorius Luna de Carvalho (Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae) from India with a revised key to Corioxenidae.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sukhendu; Hazra, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Viridopromontorius Luna de Carvalho is described from West Bengal, India. The new species V. aequus differs from the other member of Viridopromontorius by having approximately equal size of antennomeres IV and V, maxillary palp nearly twice the length of base, vein R4 curved towards R2, very small distal process on tarsomeres II-III, tarsomere IV almost trapezoidal and acumen to some extent upwardly bent (in lateral view). A revised key of the family Corioxenidae is also provided. PMID:27615860

  7. "Una Luna Brilla."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the "World's Largest Concerts" listing various songs to be sung by students. Includes teaching tips in the form of quotes from music teachers on aspects of music education, such as teaching rhythm. Includes information on how to access the songs. (CMK)

  8. LUNA and the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Broggini, Carlo; Collaboration: LUNA Collaboration

    2014-05-09

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonu-clear reactions responsible for the stellar luminosity and for the synthesis of the chemical elements. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained in the past 20 years are reviewed and their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino and the Sun is discussed.

  9. Content of lithium, beryllium, boron, and titanium, and the isotopic composition of lithium, boron, and magnesium in Luna 16 regolith sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugster, O.

    1974-01-01

    The abundance of the following elements in the L 16-19 No. 118 regolith sample, zone V was determined by isotopic dilution using a mass spectrometer equipped with a scattering ion source: Li -- 9.8, Be -- 1.2, Be -- 2.6, and Ti -- 1.92 percent. For comparison, these same elements were measured in samples of surface material returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, and in the terrestrial reference standard diabase W-1. The content of Li, Be, and B in the Luna 16 sample is nearly the same as in the Apollo 11 surface material. The surface material returned by Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 contains two to four times more of these elements. However, the abundance ratios of Li, Be, and B are remarkably similar in the surface materials from the four different lunar regions. With respect to basaltic achondrites and especially with respect to chondrites, the lunar basalts are enriched in Li, Be, and B up to 100 times.

  10. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Johar, S; Embong, Z

    2015-11-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h(-1). As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, (238)U and (232)Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 × 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of (238)U and (232)Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively. PMID:25920778

  11. Neutron-induced background by an α-beam incident on a deuterium gas target and its implications for the study of the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, M.; Trezzi, D.; Bellini, A.; Aliotta, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Costantini, H.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Elekes, Z.; Erhard, M.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Scott, D.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.

    2013-02-01

    The production of the stable isotope 6Li in standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis has recently attracted much interest. Recent observations in metal-poor stars suggest that a cosmological 6Li plateau may exist. If true, this plateau would come in addition to the well-known Spite plateau of 7Li abundances and would point to a predominantly primordial origin of 6Li , contrary to the results of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Therefore, the nuclear physics underlying Big Bang 6Li production must be revisited. The main production channel for 6Li in the Big Bang is the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction. The present work reports on neutron-induced effects in a high-purity germanium detector that were encountered in a new study of this reaction. In the experiment, an α-beam from the underground accelerator LUNA in Gran Sasso, Italy, and a windowless deuterium gas target are used. A low neutron flux is induced by energetic deuterons from elastic scattering and, subsequently, the 2H(d,n)3He reaction. Due to the ultra-low laboratory neutron background at LUNA, the effect of this weak flux of 2-3MeV neutrons on well-shielded high-purity germanium detectors has been studied in detail. Data have been taken at 280 and 400keV α-beam energy and for comparison also using an americium-beryllium neutron source.

  12. Spatial and size-frequency distributions of boulders on the floor of crater Boguslawsky, the primary target of the Luna-Glob mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Head, James; Hiesinger, Harald; Bazilevskiy, Alexander; Hendrik Pasckert, Jan; Bauch, Karin

    Crater Boguslawsky (73S, 44E) is the primary target for the lander-oriented Russian mission Luna-Glob. The rocky surfaces represent serious threats to landers. We have conducted a survey of the NAC images seeking for the rocky sites on the floor and assessing quantitative parameters of the size-frequency distributions (SFD) of boulders. Two craters on the Boguslawsky floor show abundant boulders in their surroundings. In the vicinity of Crater 1 (73.0S, 42.0E, 405 m), we have counted 9,000 rock fragments (1-13 m) at a radial distance <670 m outside the crater rim. The mean density of boulders in this zone is 76 rocks/10,000 m2. Boulders are arranged in elongated ray-like clusters. Shallow grooves (tracks) are associated with some larger boulders; the visible depth of the tracks is 0.3-0.5 m. There are 3,200 boulders (1-8 m) around Crater 4 (72.6S 44.9E, 340 m) at a radial distance <500 m outside the crater rim; the mean density is 52 rocks/10,000 m2. The spatial distribution of boulders around Crater 4 is similar to that at Crater 1, but no tracks are associated with boulders at Crater 4. The mean density of boulders around Crater 4 is 30% less than that at Crater 1, which suggests that Crater 4 is 30-50 Ma older than Crater 1 [Basilevsky et al., 2013]. The lack of boulder tracks in the vicinity of Crater 4 implies that a layer of regolith 0.3-0.5 m thick has been reworked during this time interval. A slope of -4.37 characterizes the SFD of boulders around Crater 1, whereas the SFD of boulders around Crater 4 has a slope of -5.54. These differences in slope indicate the preferential destruction of the larger rock fragments and suggest that up to 90% of boulders in the diameter range 8-12 m are fragmented into smaller pieces during the 30-50 Ma time span.

  13. Towards the study of 2H(p, γ)3He reaction in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis energy range in LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, Izabela

    2016-04-01

    The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis began a few minutes after the Big Bang, when the Universe was sufficiently cold to allow deuterium nuclei to survive photo-disintegration. The total amount of deuterium produced in the Universe during the first minutes depends on the cosmological parameters (like the energy density in baryons, Ω bh 2, and the effective neutrino number, Neff ) and on the nuclear cross sections of the relevant reactions. The main source of uncertainty in the deuterium estimation comes from the 2H(p, γ)3He cross section. Measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies obtained by the Planck satellite are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the minimal ΛCDM cosmological model, significantly reducing the uncertainty on its parameters. The Planck data allows to indirectly deduce with very high precision the abundances of primodial nuclides, such as the primodial deuterium fraction 2H/H = (2.65 ± 0.07) .10-5 (68% C.L.). The astrophysical observations in damped Lyman-a systems at high redshifts provide a second high accuracy measurement of the primodial abundance of deuterium 2H/H = (2.53 ± 0.04) · 10-5 (68% C.L.). The present experimental status on the astrophysical S-factor of the 2H(p, γ)3He reaction in the BBN energy range, gives a systematic uncertainties of 9%. Also the difference between ab-initio calculations and experimental values of S12 is at the level of 10%. In order to clarify the actual scenario, a measurement of 2H(p, γ)3He cross section with a precision of a few percent in the 70-400 keV energy range is planned at LUNA in 2016. A feasibility test of the measurement has been performed in October 2014, giving the preliminary results on the cross section. The experimental setup for the test and final measurement campaign will be presented.

  14. Selection of adsorption traps for in situ gas chromatographic analysis of polar regolith volatiles on board of the Luna-Resource lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseev, Sergey; Gerasimov, Mikhail; Zaitsev, Maxim

    Investigation of volatile species in the polar regions of the Moon is an important task for better understanding of its evolution and for further exploration, in particular, to provide resources for future permanent stations. Gas chromatographic complex of Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science is focused on measurements of volatile compounds composition, supposedly existing in the polar regions of the Moon in the area of Luna-Resource probe landing (2017). Also, this devise can be used on the Mars in the area of ExoMars landing mission (2018). One of the features of this gas analytical system is the use of adsorption traps, which can retain volatile compounds continuously coming into the gas chromatograph as a result of pyrolysis of the regolith sample and shortly release them for injection into chromatographic system for analysis. To improve sensitivity and analytical properties of the gas chromatograph, it’s necessary to provide concentrated injection of all the volatile components, which were released during pyrolysis of the regolith sample. It takes ~15 minutes to complete this pyrolysis operation. Such permanent gases as noble gases and N2, Ar, CO on the left hand have low dynamic viscosity, which cause their short retention time in adsorption traps, but on the right hand - these gases are released from the soil sample close to the end of the heating cycle. Summarizing these principles, we can say that 5 minutes of trapping for specified gases is efficient enough for their accumulation with consequent heating of adsorption trap up to 150°C to produce concentrated injection of all these compounds to the analytical columns of gas chromatography system. In the most of space missions (Viking, Phoenix, MSL, Rosetta), which use gas chromatography as the main method for in situ chemical analysis of volatiles, chromatography columns are usually mounted in parallel scheme. It is well known that water has a negative influence on analytical

  15. A multidisciplinary approach to reveal floodplain palaeohydrography in the surrounding of ancient Luna archaeological site (lower Magra River valley, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Monica; Bisson, Marina; Chelli, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Marta

    2010-05-01

    The Magra floodplain (NW Italy) is a coastal plain that was created during the last 2.5 millennia by the River Magra itself and by minor streams draining the southern slope of the Apuan Alps. The coastline progressively migrated from the mountain foothills to its present position, 2.5 km seaward. Available stratigraphical data suggest that the marine gulf that occupied the area before Bronze age gradually changed into a lagoon; this was finally separated from the open sea and became a complex of marshes that were finally silted up. All these environments provided opportunities for settlement and land use: early settlement is accounted for in the Iron Age by Ligurian people that were finally defeated by the Romans. In the 2nd century bC the roman colony of Luna (today Luni) was founded in the area. After the Imperial Age Luni gradually decayed and was finally abandoned in 1204. Post-Roman alluviation is thought to be partly responsible for the city decline and the survival of only scattered farmsteads in its surroundings. Settlement and land use history from Iron Age onward are thus tightly dependant from drainage network evolution in the area. Although historical maps provide some chronological constraints about the advance of the Magra floodplain it is still unknown how and when precisely the transformation of a lagoon environment into a dry land occurred. In particular no data are available about the position of the mouths of the Magra River and of the minor streams at Roman Times and little is known about channel migration since the Early Middle Ages and information about land reclamation are difficult to find because dispersed. In order to identify abandoned fluvial channels, a series of digital elaborations were applied to different types of Remotely-Sensed Images. In detail, the used data consist of satellite images (Landsat 7 - ETM) and airborne orthophotos (AIMA) covering a temporal interval of five years (from 1998 to 2002) and characterized by a spatial

  16. The Moon Phases in a Paper Box. (Spanish Title: Las Fases de la Luna en Una Caja de Cartón.) As Fases da Lua Numa Caixa de Papelão

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima O. Saraiva, Maria; Amador, Cláudio B.; Kemper, Érico; Goulart, Paulo; Muller, Angela

    2007-12-01

    We present a very simple concrete model to demonstrate the concept of phases of an illuminated body. The main objective of our model is to help the understanding of the Moon phases as viewed from the perspective of an observer on Earth. The material allows the visualization of two important effects: (1st) even though all the time half Moon is illuminated by the Sun, we see different fractions of the illuminated Moon surface, depending on our angle of sight; (2nd) the orientation of the convex part of the Moon in the crescent and waning phases on the sky also depends on our perspective from Earth. The use of a closed box allows one to see the contrast among the different phases with no need of a dark room. We also present a text on the Moon phases, emphasizing the dependence of the aspect of the bright part on the angle of sight. En este trabajo proponemos la construcción de material didáctico de bajo costo para demostración del concepto de fases de un cuerpo iluminado. El principal objetivo de nuestro material es facilitar la comprensión de las fases de la Luna desde la perspectiva de un observador en la Tierra. El material ayuda la visualización de dos efectos importantes: (1º) a pesar de tener siempre la mitad de la Luna (representada por una bolita de espuma plástica o de ping-pong), iluminada por el Sol ( representado por una fuente de luz natural o artificial), vemos diferentes fracciones de su superficie iluminada, dependiendo del ángulo por el cual la vemos; (2º) la orientación del borde convexo de la Luna en las fases Creciente y Menguante también depende de la perspectiva por la cual la miramos desde la Tierra. El uso de una caja cerrada permite observar el contraste entre las diferentes fases sin necesidad de estar en un recinto oscuro. Presentamos también un texto explicativo sobre las fases de la Luna, enfatizando la dependencia de la apariencia de la parte iluminada con el ángulo de visión. Neste trabalho propomos a construção de

  17. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do

  18. Is the Dark Side of the Moon Ever Illuminated by the Sun? (Breton Title: O Lado Escuro da Lua Nunca Apanha Sol?) El Lado Oscuro de la Luna Nunca Toma Sol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Odilon; Pellenz, Daiana; Catelli, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the elaboration of an answer to the question "Is the dark side of the moon ever illuminated by the sun?", in which issues related to the students' conceptions, how they arise, and the core elements that constitute a "good answer" are considered. These issues are initially elaborated from a literature review of the research in the field; then, and also based on this review, a didactic model that involves the relative motions of the Earth - Moon - Sun system is proposed. A description of the application of this model in a learning environment within middle school students is described. This work confirms the students' initial concepts described in the literature; on the other hand, the questions asked by students during the activity provide evidence that meaningful learning, at least to some degree, has occurred. Este trabalho apresenta a elaboração de uma resposta à pergunta "O lado escuro da Lua nunca apanha sol?" na qual são consideradas questões relacionadas às concepções iniciais dos alunos, de onde elas surgem e os elementos centrais que constituem uma "boa resposta". Essas questões são tratadas, inicialmente, a partir de uma revisão da literatura sobre pesquisas na área e, em seguida, também com base nessa revisão, um objeto modelo didático que envolve os movimentos relativos do sistema Terra - Lua - Sol é proposto. Uma descrição detalhada da aplicação deste modelo em um ambiente de aprendizagem com alunos do ensino fundamental é relatada. As concepções iniciais apresentadas na literatura se confirmam e os questionamentos feitos pelos estudantes por ocasião da aplicação do modelo fornecem indícios de que uma aprendizagem significativa, pelo menos em algum grau, ocorreu. El artículo se presenta el desarrollo de una respuesta a la pregunta "¿El lado oscuro de la luna nunca toma sol?", en la que se consideran algunas cuestiones vinculadas que se refieren a las concepciones iniciales de los estudiantes, dónde surgen

  19. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    ínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  20. Osservazioni dell'eclissi penombrale di Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The penumbral lunar eclipses equilibrate the probability of occurrence of solar and lunar eclipses over several years, but they are often neglected in the media and in the observations because of the difficulty of their identification due to the high luminosity of the full Moon. Three methods are presented to reduce this luminosity and to detect the penumbral phase of the lunar eclipse: the reflection on glass and water, the double polarizer and the short exposure photographs with 400 and 800 ISO and 1/500s of pose.

  1. Proving the Orbits of the Galilean Moons Through Astrophotography. (Spanish Title: Comprobando Las Órbitas de Las Lunas Galileanas a Través de la Astrofotografía.) Evidenciando as Órbitas das Luas Galileanas Atravéd da Astrofotografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    An activity related to the observation of the Galilean moons and to amateur astrophotography is presented in this work. Through the reading of excerpts of the book Sidereus Nuncius (Sidereal Messenger), by Galileo, it is possible to trace a methodology to observe the planet and its natural satellites and, with the aid of the astrophotography, to analyze the field recordings. Moreover, it is possible to compare the images obtained after plotting the relative positions of these moons to prove their orbits. This activity can be conducted by teachers, students and amateur astronomers, in order to develop their capabilities of observation of astronomical phenomena. Se presenta en este trabajo una actividad relacionada a la observación de las lunas Galileanas y a la astrofotografía amateur. A través de la lectura de tramos de la obra Sidereus Nuncius (El Mensajero Sideral) de Galileo, es posible trazar una metodología para la observación del planeta y de sus satélites naturales y, con el auxilio de la astrofotografía, analizar las anotaciones de campo. Además, es posible comparar las imágenes obtenidas con el gráfico de las posiciones relativas de estas lunas para comprobar sus órbitas. Esa actividad puede ser realizada por maestros, estudiantes y astrónomos amateurs, de forma a desarrollar sus capacidades de observación de los fenómenos astronómicos. Uma atividade relacionada à observação das luas Galileanas e à astrofotografia amadora é apresentada neste trabalho. Através da leitura de trechos da obra Sidereus Nuncius (Mensageiro Sideral), de Galileu, é possível traçar uma metodologia para a observação do planeta e de seus satélites naturais e, com o auxílio da astrofotografia, analisar as anotações de campo. Além disso, é possível comparar as imagens obtidas com o gráfico das posições relativas destas luas para evidenciar suas órbitas. Essa atividade pode ser realizada por professores, estudantes e astrônomos amadores, de forma a

  2. Astronomy at School: Measurements of the Earth-Moon Distance. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela: Medición de la Distancia Tierra-Luna.) Astronomia na Escola: Medida da Distância Terra-Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, Santiago; Pintado, Olga I.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this project is to approach High School students to Science. We propose to measure the Earth-Moon distance using the parallax. The observation and measurements techniques and all the calculations needed are described in this paper. The results obtained in a test experience realized during 2003 are presented. This test shows that this is a feasible project and also shows which things needed to be improved. Se plantea la propuesta de un proyecto educativo dirigido al Nivel Medio de enseñanza, consistente en la determinación de la distancia Tierra - Luna por paralaje. Se describen las técnicas de observación, mediciones y cálculos. Se proporcionan a continuación los resultados obtenidos en la experiencia piloto realizada en el 2003, la que permitió comprobar la factibilidad de llevar a cabo la propuesta, así como perfeccionar los diferentes aspectos involucrados en la misma. Propomos neste trabalho um projeto educativo dirigido ao Ensino Médio que consiste na determinação da distância Terra-Lua pelo efeito da paralaxe. As técnicas de observação, medidas e cálculos auxiliares são descritos, e os resultados obtidos numa experiência-teste realizada no ano de 2003 apresentados. Este último teste permitiu comprovar a viabilidade de execução da proposta e aperfeiçoar diversos aspectos da mesma.

  3. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  4. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de

  5. Algoritmi per il calcolo dell'epatta della Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    On the sides of the chair of St. Hyppolitus in the Vatican Libray there is a series of 112 epacts, used for calculating the date of Christian Easter valid for 112 years from 222 AD. The algorithm of octaëteris or 8 civil (julian) years=99 lunar months and a correction of three days each 16 years or one day each 5, 5, 6 years are discussed. Four complete solar cycles (28 years), after which the sequence of the day of the week are repeating, are included in 112 years as well as 7 groups of 16 years; 112 is the minimum common multiple between the double octaëteris (16 years) and the solar cycle (28).

  6. Metal and phosphide phases in Luna 24 soil fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axon, H. J.; Nasir, M. J.; Knowles, F.

    1980-06-01

    Soil fragments in the 106-150 and 150-250 micron size ranges were selected for metallographic and microprobe examination on the basis of their magnetic properties. Serial sections of the mounted fragments were examined. One fragment proved to be a compositionally zoned crystal of phosphide with no metal phase but partly embedded in glass. Another was a coarse-grained association of silica with ilmenite and fayalite with a 5-micron particle of metallic iron in troilite. One splinter of oxide contained a central spine of metallic iron. The remaining six fragments contained 10-micron particles of iron-nickel-cobalt alloy with compositions in either the 'meteoritic' or the low Ni-low Co sub-meteoritic composition ranges of Ni, Co content. In some fragments separate particles of alloy had different Ni, Co contents. No particles of high Co metal were encountered.

  7. Luna: What Did We Learn and What Should We Expect?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation presents a look at the space program's background prior to lunar exploration and highlights the Apollo program and lessons learned from lunar exploration. The possibilities of exposures and difficulties attributed to lunar dust are described, including obscured vision, clogged equipment, coated surfaces, and inhalation, among others. A lunar dust simulant is proposed to support preliminary studies. Lunar dust is constantly activated by meteorite lunar dust, UV radiation and elements of solar wind - this active dust could produce reactive species. Methods of deactivation must be determined before new lunar missions, but first we must understand how to reactivate dust on Earth. Activation methods tested and described here include crushing/grinding or UV activation. Grinding time has a direct effect on amount of hydroxyl radicals produced upon addition of ground quartz to a solution. An increase in hydroxyl production was also seen for a lunar simulant with increased grinding.

  8. Photoclinometric analysis of wrinkle ridges on Lunae Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    Wrinkle ridges are common morphologic features on Mars. Both volcanic and tectonic mechanisms were suggested to explain their origin; recent work has focused on a compressional origin. Analysis of terrestrial analogs has greatly influenced and aided the understanding of wrinkle ridge formation. An important aspect necessary to intrepret structure is topography. Topographic profiles across ridges can provide important constraints for models of internal structure and analyzing deformation associated with ridges. Topographic maps of Mars are too coarse to resolve the topography of individual ridges; therefore, monoscopic photoclinometry was used to derive topographic profiles for the ridges. Profiles spaced a few kilometers apart were obtained for each ridge, the number depended on ridge length, morphology, and albedo variation. Photoclinometry relies on pixel brightness variations which results from topography, albedo, or both. Because of the albedo variations, photoclimometric profiles can not be extended across large distances, such as between adjacent ridges (about 20 to 80 km). However, the technique is applicable to shorter distances, such as the distance across typical ridges. Profiles were measured across the ridge and extended a few kilometers on either side, including all visible components of the ridge. The results of these measurements and the use of internal structure and topographic profile models for estimating the shortening due to folding and faulting are discussed.

  9. Cathodoluminescence of regolith returned by Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivak, G. V.; Antoshin, M. K.; Ilin, N. P.; Saparin, G. V.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of local variations in the intensity and spectral composition of the cathodoluminescence of lunar regolith are described. These variations are caused by structural features, by the kind and quantity of the material, and by the admixtures. In addition, cathodoluminescent emission is also associated with a change in the temperature of the lunar surface. Periodic diurnal illumination and darkening of the moon is responsible for a temperature gradient normal to the lines of longitude. These observations made of regolith, using a scanning electron microscope with an attachment for temperature variation, simulate the indicated thermal changes of the cathodoluminescent properties of lunar material.

  10. Lunar Phases and Earthly Events: Beliefs from Different Education Levels. (Spanish Title: Fases de la Luna y Acontecimientos Terrestres: Creencia de Distintos Niveles de Instrucción.) As Fases da Lua e os Acontecimentos Terrestres: a Crença de Diferentes Níveis de Instrução

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Teresinha Werner; Alves Vizzotto, Patrick; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro

    2013-12-01

    This article presents the result of a research carried out in the first semester of 2013 with a group of 80 subjects from different education levels. In this research, we sought to investigate the earthly events that this group of people attributes to the phenomenon of lunar phases. For data collection we used semi-structured interviews guided by questions that aimed to keep the focus on subjects of the investigation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and the results were compared to scientific studies in the area after being quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Research data showed that the Moon and the phenomenon of lunar phases still fascinate and raise the interest of people. However, the lack of knowledge to find correct explanations to the phenomena involving the moon ends up originating a series of beliefs about its influence on earthly events. En este artículo se presenta el resultado de una investigación realizada en el primer semestre de 2013 con a un grupo de 80 individuos de distintos niveles de instrucción. En esta investigación, tratamos de averiguar cuáles son los acontecimientos terrestres que este grupo de personas atribuye al fenómeno las fases lunares. Como instrumento de colecta de datos, se emplearon entrevistas semiestructuradas guiadas por preguntas que trataban de mantener la atención de los entrevistados en el objeto investigado. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcriptas, y los resultados, después de ser analizados cuantitatativa y cualitativamente, fueron confrontados con estudios científicos del área. Los datos de la investigación demuestran que la Luna y de sus fases continúan fascinando y despertando el interés de la población. Sin embargo, la falta de conocimientos para encontrar explicaciones correctas relacionadas a los fenómenos que ocurren con el astro acaba originando una serie de creencias en la población sobre su influencia en los sucesos terrestres. Apresenta-se neste artigo o resultado de uma

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE PRACTICES IN TABASCO, MEXICO USING NOVEL RIAA TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We anticipate that several of the indigenous farmers will adopt fish farming in the context of their small irrigated farms. Fish farming is a non-consumptive use of water and irrigation will transfer the wastes from the fish into the fertilizers needed for crop production. W...

  12. A new species of Jahnulales from Las Ilusiones Lagoon, Tabasco, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a study on biodiversity of freshwater ascomycetes from an urban tropical lagoon, an ascomycete with similar morphology to species of Jahnulales was obtained. Smooth surface test blocks of Pinus sp., Bucida sp., Cedrela sp. and Tabebuia sp. were submerged in pairs close to a private house whar...

  13. Chemical Characterization of Brines from Selected Oil Fields, Tabasco, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Ortiz, B.; Carrillo-Chavez, A.; Tritlla, J.; Levresse, G.; Gonzalez-Partida, E.; Oviedo-Perez, A.; Martinez-Kepm, H.; Gonzalez-Posadas, F.; Clara-Valdes, L.

    2004-12-01

    Thirteen brine samples were recovered from nine oil-producing wells in the Agave (Cretaceous) and Saramako (Cretaceous and Tertiary) oil fields. These samples were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as O and D isotopic compositions. The goal of this study was to compare the possible links between oil-related brines enclosed within Cretaceous and Tertiary productive horizons that were thought to have similar origin oils. The salinity of the Saramako Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons is very constant, around 30000 ppm, one to six times lower than the salinities found in the Agave Cretaceous Field (from 45000 to 170000 ppm). Major ion chemistry suggests that brines are in equilibrium with the host rock. One of the main difference, besides Mg, resides in the S concentrations, were Agave samples present lower concentrations, probably related to the presence of abundant sulfides in the aquifer's rock. Halogen (Br, Cl) systematics indicates a different origin for the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako samples halogen composition plot near normal seawater both in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios) and the Cl vs Br (ppm) plots. The Agave halogen data scatter near and underneath the seawater evaporation line in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios), suggesting that these fluids could represent seawater evolved past the point of halite precipitation. The Cl vs Br (ppm) plot indicates that these fluids undergone some degree of mixing with low-salinity fluids, probably seawater. The presence of two different groups of data suggests the compartment of the aquifer. The \\deltaD and \\delta18O data show strong differences between the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako brine \\delta18O and \\deltaD isotopic compositions are +2.1% (VSMOW) and -13.8% respectively. The Agave samples have a \\delta18O composition from +4.3% to +6.0% and \\deltaD isotopic composition from -20.0% to -12.6%. Differences in \\delta18O compositions between Saramako and Agave brines indicate that the latter fluids were in equilibrium with the host dolostones at certain temperature. Saramako brine composition indicates a near-pristine seawater origin. Agave brines chemical composition suggests an origin related with a bittern formed after evaporation of seawater past the point of halite precipitation, subsequently mixed with seawater. Oxygen isotopic compositions reflect both different host rock and water to rock interaction phenomena, whereas hydrogen isotopic composition can be modified by diagenetic reactions.

  14. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  15. Hydrogen and Carbon Stable Isotopic Compositions and Concentrations of Methane in Cave Air of Cueva de Villa Luz, Tabasco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, K.; Rosales Lagarde, L.; Sauer, P. E.; Schimmelmann, A.; Lennon, J. T.; Boston, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Cueva de Villa Luz (CVL) is a unique biogeochemical environment where microbial consortia are supported by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) leading to sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) which is thought to have generated the porosity and permeability of several petroleum reservoirs. Possible sources of the sulfur (S) include the Chichón Volcano and petroleum basins in the area. A better understanding of the source of the H2S in CVL may help predict where else SAS may have occurred. Analysis of methane (CH4) in CVL may provide a proxy to assess the source of S entering CVL. We obtained 13 air samples in 1-L Tedlar® bags from varying locations in CVL to assess the role of CH4 in sulfide-rich karst systems. CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured by gas-chromatography. The stable isotopic ratios of carbon and hydrogen were measured on a stable isotope-ratio mass-spectrometer. CH4 in the air of CVL ranged from 1.88 ± 0.10 ppmv to 3.7 ± 0.2 ppmv. CO2 concentrations ranged from 400 ± 20 ppmv to 920 ± 50 ppmv. For comparison, the CH4 and CO2 concentrations in the outside atmosphere were 1.96 ± 0.10 ppmv and 430 ± 20 ppmv respectively. CH4 and CO2 were positively correlated in CVL (R2 = 0.91, CH4 = [0.0035 ± 0.0007] CO2 + [0.4 ± 0.4], p >0.01). The highest concentrations were near springs. Keeling-style analysis showed that the CH4 samples from CVL plot along a two-end member mixing model and suggest that CH4 is outgassing from spring water with isotopic compositions δ13CCH4 = -24 ± 3 ‰ and δ2HCH4 = -40 ± 40 ‰. CO2 did not plot along a two end member mixing model. The proposed δ13C of CH4 entering from springs does not closely match the δ13CCH4 values from hydrocarbon basins in the area. This is likely due to oxidative loss of CH4 as it ascends to CVL which may be partly driven by anaerobic methanotrophy coupled to sulfate reduction. Analysis of the spring water chemistry coupled to biogeochemical modeling may help quantify the amount of methanotrophy occurring in the subsurface.

  16. [Somatic production of two species: Crassostrea virginica and Ischadium recurvum Bivalvia in Mecoacán, Tabasco, México].

    PubMed

    George Zamora, A; Aldana Aranda, D

    2000-12-01

    The Mexican oyster fishery, 90% supported by the coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, has decreased drastically in the last six years as a result of anthropogenic pollution and improper management. The mussel Ischadium recurvum has proliferated and competes with oysters for space and probably food. Crassostrea virginica and Ischadium recurvum were studied to evaluate somatic production with biometry and physiological condition indices (PCI's) during an annual cycle. A random sample of 200 organisms was taken montly for each species. Condition indices wet flesh weigth: wet shell weight ratio (WFW/WSW), dry flesh weight: wet flesh weight ratio (DFW/WFW), dry flesh wet: dry shell weight ratio (DFW/DSW), and ash free dry weight: tissue dry weight (AFDW/TDW) were calculated. In order to stablish physiological condition and temporal variability, these indices were compared between species and months. The somatic production of mussels was higher than in oysters. This enhancement in production could be explained by: 1) Mussel uses less energy for shell production, 2) a constant recruitment of mussel almost year-round, and 3) the mesohalin lagoon was more favourable to the mussel. PMID:15266794

  17. Seasonal prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in Antillean manatees from a landlocked lake in Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Martínez, Arianna; Olivera-Gómez, León D; Jiménez-Domínguez, Darwin

    2014-07-01

    Factors that alter the dynamics of ecologic systems can influence transmission of infectious diseases and may lead to decreases in natural populations. Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan disease of zoonotic importance that affects most mammals. At the southern Gulf of Mexico, Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) inhabit highly variable environments, with extended floods during the rainy season and drought conditions during the dry season that affect food availability and the thermal environment for manatees. We tested for changes in prevalence and titers of antibodies to 12 serovars of Leptospira interrogans in manatees between dry and rainy seasons. We determined titers for L. interrogans through microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) from 10 manatees, six during the dry season (DS), and six during the rainy season (RS) in Laguna de las Ilusiones, a landlocked lake hosting a population of about 20 manatees. All individuals were antibody positive (titers ≥ 100) to at least one serovar. The serovars bataviae, bratislava, canicola, and icterohaemorrhagiae had overall prevalences ≥ 50%; bataviae, bratislava, and canicola had prevalences ≥ 50% during both seasons. Serovars icterohaemorrhagiae and pyrogenes had prevalences ≥ 50% during DS and pomona, tarassovi, wolfii, and autumnalis during RS. Significant differences in prevalence between seasons were found for pomona, tarassovi, and autumnalis. Titers of tarassovi, wolfii, autumnalis, and bataviae were significantly higher during RS. There was a high prevalence of L. interrogans during the RS independent of high availability of plant foods, coinciding with the epizootiology of the bacteria that are endemic to tropical regions. Another factor possibly influencing prevalence is high anthropogenic pressure at the lake, causing an increase in potential sources of infection. Because of possible cross-reaction in MAT, further research is needed on the molecular discrimination of serovars in animals in the lake. PMID:24779468

  18. Ex Luna Scientia! A New Paradigm for Nuclear Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richard Scott; Bonamente, M.; Ebbets, D.; Freelove, R.; Harwit, A.; Lawrence, D. J.; O'Brien, S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Young, C. A.

    2010-03-01

    The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) is a new gamma-ray astrophysics mission concept being developed to probe the nuclear regime (( 0.1-10 MeV). LOCO will perform an all-sky survey of the Cosmos at nuclear energies, and will the have capability to address multiple high-priority science goals. Placed into lunar orbit, LOCO will utilize the Moon's unique environment to maximize performance relative to terrestrial-orbit endeavors with similar science goals. Specifically, LOCO will use the Moon to occult astrophysical sources as they rise and set along the lunar limb. The encoded temporal modulation will then be used to image the sky thereby enabling spectroscopic, time-variability, point- & extended-source analyses. This Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT) enables the excellent flux sensitivity, position, and energy resolution required of the next-generation nuclear astrophysics mission. In addition, occultation imaging eliminates the need for complex, position sensitive detectors. The LOCO concept is cost-effective, competitive, and has a straightforward and scaleable implementation. I will review the top-level mission concept, simulations and performance estimates, detector development efforts, mission implementation strategies and tradeoffs, as well as the astrophysics and secondary lunar science goals. This work was supported in part by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grants NNG06GF74G and National Science Foundation grant ATM-0421267. One author (RSM) also acknowledges support of the National Space Science & Technology Center through cooperative agreement grants NCC8-200 and NNM05AA22A.

  19. Project Luna Succendo: The Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bess, John Darrell

    A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched within lunar shipments from the Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides 5 kWe using a free-piston Stirling space converter. The overall envelope for a single unit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. The subunits can be placed with centerline distances of approximately 0.6 m in a hexagonal-lattice pattern to provide sufficient neutronic coupling while allowing room for heat rejection and interstitial control. A lattice of six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network Future improvements include advances in reactor control methods, fuel form and matrix, determination of shielding requirements, as well as power conversion and heat rejection techniques to generate an even more competitive LEGO Reactor design. Further modifications in the design could provide power generative opportunities for use on other extraterrestrial surfaces such as Mars, other moons, and asteroids.

  20. The tadpole of Scinax melanodactylus (Lourenço, Luna & Pombal Jr, 2014) (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Abreu, Rafael Oliveira De; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; Trevisan, Camila Costa; Camardelli, Milena; Dória, Thais Andrade Ferreira; Silva, Lucas Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Scinax melanodactylus is a small treefrog distributed within the Tropical Atlantic morphoclimatic domain (see Ab'Sáber 1977 for South American morphoclimatic domains), from northern Espírito Santo state to Sergipe state in Brazil (Lourenço et al. 2014). The species is usually found inhabiting herbaceous and shrubby xerophytic vegetation (e.g. terrestrial tank-bromeliads) from sandy plains of beach ridges known in Brazil as Restingas (see Rocha et al. 2007 for a Restinga definition), and also the edge of forest areas with temporary ponds and/or permanent lakes and streams near these environments (Bastazini et al. 2007, as Scinax agilis; Lourenço et al. 2014). Scinax melanodactylus is currently placed in the S. catharinae species group (Lourenço et al. 2014), which in turn is included in the S. catharinae clade (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The S. catharinae clade is currently comprised of 46 species, 33 placed in the catharinae group and 13 in the perpusillus group (Faivovich et al. 2010, Silva & Alves-da-Silva 2011, Lourenço et al. 2014, Frost 2015). From these, 32 species have tadpoles with external morphology and oral disc formerly described. Here, we describe the external morphology, oral disc and color patterns of the previously unknown tadpole of S. melanodactylus. PMID:26250005

  1. Singing in "La Voce Della Luna" Italian Women's Choir in Melbourne, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane; Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of ongoing migration that embraces diversity, creative expression and cultural activity. Membership of community music groups by older people can enhance life quality, and may provide a space through which cultural and linguistic identity may be shared and celebrated. This qualitative phenomenological case study explores…

  2. 77 FR 4829 - Emilio Luna, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... receive back either an error or undeliverable message.\\3\\ See Robert Leigh Kale, 76 FR 48898, 48899-900... FR 54297, 54298 (2007); Sheran Arden Yeates, 71 FR 39130, 39131 (2006); Dominick A. Ricci, 58 FR 51104, 51105 (1993); Bobby Watts, 53 FR 11919, 11920 (1988). See also 21 U.S.C. 824(a)(3)...

  3. Discontinuities in the shallow Martian crust at Lunae, Syria, and Sinai Plana

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A. ); Golombek, M.P. )

    1990-08-30

    Detailed photoclinometric profiles across 125 erosional features and 141 grabens in the western equatorial region of Mars indicate the presence of three discontinuities within the shallow crust. Pits, troughs, and wall valleys (tributary canyons) within Noctis Layrinthus and Valles Marineris and escarpments within the fretted terrain of Sacra Fossae and Kasei Valles show distinct erosional base levels at depths of 0.3-0.6 km, 1 km, and 2-3 km. The shallowest discontinuity corresponds to thickness estimates for the ridged plains unit in this region, and thus the discontinuity probably is the contact between a sequence of layered rock making up this unit and the underlying megaregolith. The 1-km discontinuity is reflected in the base levels of erosion of all the features studied, and it may correspond to the base of the proposed layer of ground ice. Model calculations using photoclinometric profiles of simple grabens and the 60{degree} dip of bounding faults show that graben-bounding faults consistently intersect at the mechanical discontinuity at about 1 km depth. This discontinuity may represent an interface between ice-laden and dry regolith, ice-laden and water-laden regolith, or pristine and cemented regolith. A correlation between wall valley head depth and local thickness of the faulted layer suggests that the 1-km discontinuity also controlled the depth of the heads of sapping canyons. The third discontinuity, at a depth of 2-3 km, corresponds to the proposed base of the Martian megaregolith and is probably the interface between overlying, ejected breccia and in situ, fractured basement rocks.

  4. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of Luna 16 sample of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkov, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.; Sobornov, O. P.; Nazarkina, G. B.; Bachina, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    Using a scintillation gamma spectrometer with shielding against anticoincidences, the content of the natural radioelements (K, U, and Th) and long-lived cosmogenic radioisotopes (Al-26, Na-22, and Mn-54) in a sample of Sea of Fertility regolith was determined. Based on the content data of natural radioelements, an attempt was made to classify this sample in the scale of petrochemical types of terrestrial rocks arranged in accordance with their silicic content and alkalinity. Within the frame of reference of calcium-uranium systematics of lunar samples, a comparison was made of the K/U ratio obtained for the Sea of Fertility sample with analogous data for other regions of the moon. Also discussed are problems on the depthwise distribution of cosmogenic radioisotopes along the regolith profile.

  5. Electron Microprobe Analyses of Lithic Fragments and Their Minerals from Luna 20 Fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, G. H.; Hlava, P. F.; Green, J. A.; Moore, R. B.; Moreland, G.; Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Nehru, C. E.; Bunch, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    The bulk analyses (determined with the broad beam electron microprobe technique) of lithic fragments are given in weight percentages and are arranged according to the rock classification. Within each rock group the analyses are arranged in order of increasing FeO content. Thin section and lithic fragment numbers are given at the top of each column of analysis and correspond to the numbers recorded on photo mosaics on file in the Institute of Meteoritics. CIPW molecular norms are given for each analysis. Electron microprobe mineral analyses (given in oxide weight percentages), structural formulae and molecular end member values are presented for plagioclase, olivine, pyroxene and K-feldspar. The minerals are selected mostly from lithic fragments that were also analyzed for bulk composition. Within each mineral group the analyses are presented according to the section number and lithic fragment number. Within each lithic fragment the mineral analyses are arranged as follows: Plagioclase in order of increasing CaO; olivine and pyroexene in order of increasing FeO; and K-feldspar in order of increasing K2O. The mineral grains are identified at the top of each column of analysis by grain number and lithic fragment number.

  6. Discontinuities in the shallow Martian crust at Lunae, Syria, and Sinai Plana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Golombek, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed photoclinometric profiles across 125 erosional features and 141 grabens in the western equatorial region of Mars indicate the presence of three discontinuities within the shallow crust, at depths of 0.3, 0.6 km, 1 km, and 2-3 km. The shallowest discontinuity corresponds to thickness estimates for the ridged plains unit in this region, and thus the discontinuity probably is the contact between a sequence of layered rock making up this unit and the underlying megaregolith. The 1-km discontinuity is reflected in the base levels of erosion of all the features studied, and it may correspond to the base of the proposed layer of ground ice. Model calculations show that graben-bounding faults consistently intersect at the mechanical discontinuity at about 1 km depth. This discontinuity may represent an interface between ice-laden and dry regolith, ice-laden and water-laden regolith, or pristine and cemented regolith. A correlation between wall valley head depth and local thickness of the faulted layer suggests that the 1-km discontinuity also controlled the depth of the heads of sapping canyons. The third discontinuity, at a depth of 2-3 km, corresponds to the proposed base of the Martian megaregolith and is probably the interface between overlying, ejected breccia and in situ, fractured basement rocks. -from Authors

  7. Luna B. Leopold--pioneer setting the stage for modern hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Meine, Curt

    2012-01-01

    In 1986, during the first year of graduate school, the lead author was sampling the water from a pitcher pump in front of “The Shack,” the setting of the opening essays in Aldo Leopold's renowned book A Sand County Almanac. The sampling was part of my Master's work that included quarterly monitoring of water quality on the Leopold Memorial Reserve (LMR) near Baraboo, Wisconsin. The Shack was already a well-known landmark, and it was common to come upon visitors and hikers there. As such, I took no special note of the man who approached me as I was filling sample bottles and asked, as was typical, “What are you doing?”

  8. Light scattering indicatrices of lunar surface material returned by Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barabashov, N. P.; Akimov, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements are made of the indicatrix of scattering of lunar surface material with an indicatometer that has a spread of the illuminating beam of less than 0.5 deg and of the detected beam of about 1.5 deg. The results are compared with the indicatrices for the lunar mean obtained by terrestrial telescopic measurements. It is concluded that the main features of the reflection of light by the moon) (rapid rise in brightness with approach to the full moon) are accounted for by the microrelief caused principally by grains smaller than a millimeter.

  9. Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

  10. Effects of the Mi-1, N and Tabasco Genes on Infection and Reproduction of Meloidogyne Mayaguensis on Tomato and Pepper Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meloidogyne mayaguensis is a damaging root-knot nematode that is able to reproduce on root-knot nematode-resistant tomato and other economically important crops. In a growth chamber experiment conducted at 22 and 33 C, isolate 1 of M. mayaguensis reproduced at both temperatures on the Mi-1-carrying...

  11. Measurement of density and porosity of lunar rocks based on samples of Luna 16 automatic lunar station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volynets, V. F.; Florenskiy, K. P.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Three fragments of holocrystalline igneous rocks of the gabbro type, weighing 30 to 50 mg each, were investigated. The density of the fragments was established with a mercury pycnometer and was found to be 3.05 to 3.12 g/cu cm, with a relative error not more than 2 percent. The porosity was found for the difference between the volumes determined with the mercury and with the gas techniques; for all three samples together it was 13 percent, and the error of determination was 70 percent owing to the small volumes. It can be anticipated that the porosity of the rock in bulk will be higher than the value obtained based on small fragments. The porosity of lunar rocks can markedly affect the isostatic distribution of rocks and must be taken into account when developing models of lunar structure.

  12. Towards a high-precision measurement of the 3He(α,γ)7Be cross section at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, H.; Bemmerer, D.; Bezzon, P.; Bonetti, R.; Broggini, C.; Casanova, M. L.; Confortola, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Cruz, J.; Elekes, Z.; Formicola, A.; Fülop, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Gustavino, C.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Jesus, A. P.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Roca, E.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, M.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Schümann, F.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H. P.

    2006-03-01

    The 3He(4He,γ)7Be reaction is the key process for the production of 7Be and 8B neutrinos in the Sun. We have designed a new experimental setup to study this reaction with high accuracy at low energies using two different experimental techniques. The first method consists in measuring the prompt capture gamma-ray transitions with an ultra-low background germanium detector heavily shielded and placed at close distance from a 3He windowless gas target. With another fully shielded large-volume germanium detector we will also measure the β-decay of the 7Be residual nuclei. The aim of the experiment is to reduce the error on the astrophysical factor S3, 4 to 4%.

  13. L'Astronomia del Venerdí Santo, l'eclissi di Luna e l'ora della Sindone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    Dating the crucifixion on friday 3 April 33, when, at sunset a partially eclipsed Moon rised allows to interprete the speech of Saint Peter (Acts 2:20=Joel 3:4) on the day of Pentecost as including an account of this eclipse, as fulfillment of the Scriptures. Few minutes later the apparition of a third star of medium magnitude stated the beginning of the sabbatical rest: before that time Jesus has been buried, wrapped into the shroud. The observations of the equinoctial moonrise from the Mount of Olives on September 2013 are strongly in favour of the hypotehsis of possible observation of the lunar eclipse of 33 AD by Jewish people, as well as the sunrises observed from the Temple Institute terrace in Southern-East Jerusalem demonstrated that this eclipse could have been seen from Jerusalem. The depression of the horizon and the refraction allow to see Sun and Moon more than 1 degree below the geometrical horizon in the azimuthal direction ranging from 90 to 116, prologing to 16 minutes the duration of the partial lunar eclipse observed in 33AD. Texts of Matthew, Mark and Cyrillus of Jerusalem are also commented.

  14. Sistema Solar: de la observación de La Tierra a los planetas gigantes y sus lunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, R.

    La fotoquímica tiene un papel principal en la composición de las atmósferas planetarias. Se examinan diferentes procesos fotoquímicos tanto para atmósferas oxidadas como reductoras, poniendo un especial énfasis en los ciclos químicos más importantes. En este sentido, se presentan diferentes ciclos químicos capaces de producir hidrocarbonos y nitrilos en atmósferas reductoras, así como aquellos capaces de mantener las proporciones de mezcla de las moléculas que contienen oxígeno, tales como CO2, O2 y H2O. También se analizan otros procesos importantes tales como la condensación y procesos de sputtering y de sublimación que han de tenerse en cuenta cuando se realizan modelos sobre la composición atmosférica.

  15. Dedos de Luna. Children's Literature in Spanish: Bilingual Edition. Guia para maestros en espanol e ingles. Elementary Literature Series, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Dana; Huerta, Mario

    This curriculum unit is designed to give primary school students foreign language experiences and also to support the cultural literacy strand of the California State History-Social Science Framework. The unit is part of an elementary literature series which utilizes quality primary source literature from various world regions and countries and…

  16. Influence of Salicylic Acid on In Vitro Micropropagation and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species, H. acetosella and H. moscheutos (cv ‘Luna Red’)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. It has been reported to improve in vitro regeneration as well as induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effects of varying SA concentrations (0, 0.5, and 1 mM) on i...

  17. Geologic characteristics of the Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 and Chang'E-3/Yutu landing sites, Northwest Mare Imbrium of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Wu, Yunzhao; Xiao, Long

    2015-11-01

    We compared and assessed the results of measurements and observations by the Lunokhod 1 and Yutu rovers, both of which explored the northwestern part of Mare Imbrium. Both sites are within the distinctive Eratosthenian-aged lava flow geologic unit and our comparisons showed that the geologies of these exploration sites are very similar. As in the majority of other areas of the Moon, the dominant landforms in these sites are small impact craters, having various degrees of morphologic prominence and states of preservation, and rock fragments, mostly associated with the rims and interiors of fresh craters. The shape and the degree of preservation of the observed rock fragments in these two sites are similar. In both sites sporadic rock fragments were observed whose morphologies suggest that their source rocks had columnar jointing. Localization of these specific rocks on the rims of 450-470 m in diameter craters implies that the source rocks are at depths of 40-50 m. Regolith in the study areas is typically a few meters thick, but locally can be much thicker. The ground penetrating radar of the Yutu rover revealed the multilayer regolith structure, which is determined by superposition of crater ejecta; with some local variations, this type of the regolith stratigraphy should be typical of the majority of lunar mare sites. The physico-mechanical properties of the regolith in these two sites appear to be rather similar: the bearing capacity ranges from 0.04 to 1.44 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.45 kg/cm2, and the shear strength ranges from 0.02 to 0.1 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.05 kg/cm2. Both these factors decrease by a factor of 3-4 with an increase of surface slope from ∼2 to 12°. The chemical composition of surface materials determined by the rover instruments at these two sites differ from those derived from the remote sensing data for the Eratosthenian-aged basalts on which the two sites are located. This could be partly due to low measurement accuracies, especially in the case of Lunokhod 1, but may also represent real variations in the composition of the surface materials compared to returned lunar samples. Difference in the spatial resolution of the in-situ and remote-sensing analyses should also be taken into account. Recommendations for future lunar rover missions are as follows: (1) to use ground penetrating radar and a robotic arm, and (2) to employ radial study tactics for impact crater documentation and analysis.

  18. Kidney Stones in Children (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pepper, chocolate, parsley, beets, spinach, dill, nuts, and citrus juices Urate — Children with increased levels of urate ... about alcoholic beverages Condiments: Fresh and dried herbs; lemon juice; low-salt mustard, vinegar, Tabasco sauce; low- ...

  19. Rio Grande Youth Care Center. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    A non-profit counseling and referral center, the Center was established in 1972 to alleviate delinquency problems in Los Lunas (New Mexico), with special reference to Chicanos. The Center used specific direct youth services to identify: barriers to services for Chicanos in Los Lunas and to provide referral services to overcome those barriers;…

  20. 76 FR 72969 - Proclaiming Certain Lands as Reservation for the Fort Sill Apache Indian Tribe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Indians. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ben Burshia, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Division of Real Estate... to residence at such reservation. New Mexico Principal Meridian Luna County, New Mexico That part of... Twenty-four (24) south, Range Six (6) west, N.M.P.M., Luna County, New Mexico, being described as...

  1. detail of north wing, revealing singlewidth c.m.u. wall construction, typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    detail of north wing, revealing single-width c.m.u. wall construction, typical stucco over wood-frame HOOD, and “LUNA LODGE” spelled out in cut tiles. View NORTHEAST. - Luna Lodge, 9119 Central Avenue Northeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  2. Resolving the agriculture-petroleum conflict: the experience of cacao smallholders in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Scherr, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972, PEMEX, the Mexican national oil company, discovered huge reserves of oil and natural gas along the Gulf Coast, and began intensive exploitation in Tabasco and northern Chiapas states. Severe conflict between PEMEX and the agricultural economy of Tabasco seemed certain. But despite problems of labor scarcity, inflation, migration, pollution, agricultural production 1974 to 1979 increased for the state's major products - cacao, coconut, beef, and bananas. This study analyzes how agriculture-petroleum conflicts have been resolved in Tabasco, and how relevant its experience is to other agricultural areas undergoing rapid large-scale industrial development. Cacao farming was chosen as a case study. Detailed farm budget, family employment, and technical production data were used to document farm production strategies. Research results suggest that resolution of agriculture-petroleum conflicts depends on: demographic conditions, employment conditions, agricultural prices, petroleum company flexibility, government development policy, and farmer political strength. Support for the campesino sector is critical.

  3. Decreasing Mattress Ripping Using Forced Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Michael A.

    A deaf, profoundly retarded institutionalized 20-year-old, who engaged in mattress ripping, was required to participate in forced practice behavioral training. Repeatedly physically guided through ripping mattresses, he was given the aversive consequence of a squirt of tabasco sauce solution. After 5 weeks of intensive behavioral training and a 3…

  4. 75 FR 15772 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...; Leonides Guerra No. 97 y Eugenio Lopez No. 97, Colonia San Rafael, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Claveles... RIOJAS, Eleazar; a.k.a. GONZALEZ MARTINEZ, Erick); Cuauhtemoc 805, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Diaz... Valle Hermoso, Tamaulipas; Alt. POB La Libertad, Cunduacan, Tabasco, Mexico; Alt. POB San...

  5. GLOBAL WARMING AND POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON FUTURE THE BRAZILIAN GRAIN PRODUCTION Hilton S. Pinto.State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). CNPq. Eduardo D. Assad. Embrapa Agriculture Informatics (CNPTIA). CNPq. Eduardo Pavao. Embrapa Agriculture Informatics (CNPTIA). Ricardo Luna. Embrapa Agriculture Informatics (CNPTIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Pavao, E.; Luna, R.

    2012-12-01

    According to the Brazilian Government (CONAB, July 2012) the actual area of grain production in the country is close to 50.8 million ha and the perspective of production is 162.6 million of tons. Maize and Soybean are responsible for more than 83% of the total harvest. The area available for agriculture in Brazil is 282.2 million ha or close to 33% of the total land of the country. From 1991 until 2010 the agricultural technology was responsible for an increase of production close to 154% while the planted area raised only 25%. Considering this rate of production in the last 20 years the Ministry of Agriculture made an extrapolation for 2020, when the country can produce close to 176 million of grains being 65 million tons of maize, 86 million tons of soybean and 70 million bags of coffee. In this case, it was not considered any variation in the climate conditions. In 2002, in partnership with the British Embassy in Brazil, Unicamp and Embrapa published the study "Global Warming and the New Geography of Agricultural Production in Brazil" (Pinto and Assad, 2002) based on a Regional Climate Model PRECIS from Hadley Centre, where the grain production was estimated to decrease due to temperature rise. Without considering any mitigation or adaptation action, in the worst scenario (A2-IPCC) the principal crops to be affected will be coffee with 6.7% estimated production decrease until 2020, soybean 22% and corn 12%. On the other hand, sugar cane, as a C4 plant, will have an increase of production in the order of 170%. As suggested by the Word Bank, a new project was developed for a more detailed analysis of the influence of the global warming in the Brazilian agriculture, affecting temperature and water deficit in the years 2020 and 2030. It was considered initially 23 Global Climatic Models (GCM) defined by IPCC, that were separated in blocks of similar comportment using cluster multivariate analysis. Other 3 Regional Climatic Models (RCM) were also used to give more detailed information of the future scenarios: PRECIS, BRAMS and ETA. The 4 GCMs that showed more similarity among themselves and the 3 RCM were used as simulation models with similar behavior for establishing the new scenarios for 2020 and 2030. The better and the worst forecast of the curves were used as simulation points for the future agriculture scenarios. In Brazil, most part of the agricultural plantation as well as the insurance are financed by the Ministry of Agriculture that has a basic directive of following the Public Policy Program of Climatic Risk Zoning for authorizing what, when and where to plant according to climate predominance. Based in this program and in the new climatic scenarios provided by the 7 models, a new geography for Brazilian agriculture was suggested for the years 2020 and for 2030 showing the same pessimistic tendency of decrease in production close to 24% for soybean and 19% for maize summer season as compared to 2012. The results obtained with this study were used as input for the economics complimentary analysis of Brazilian possible modification of the agribusiness until the years 2020 and 2030.

  6. Thicknesses of and Primary Ejecta Fractions in Basin Ejecta Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; McKinnon, William B.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a model for production of ba-sin ejecta deposits to address provenances of materials collected at the Apollo and Luna landing sites and for consideration in interpreting remote sensing data.

  7. Thicknesses of and Primary Ejecta Fractions in Basin Ejecta Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; McKinnon, William B.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a model for production of basin ejecta deposits to address provenances of materials collected at the Apollo and Luna landing sites and for consideration in interpreting remote sensing data.

  8. Exploring Cold Trapped Volatiles from Stationary Landers and Mobile Rovers: ESA Activities for Resource Prospecting at the Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Aziz, S.; Houdou, B.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of ESA activities in the area of measuring cold trapped volatiles in-situ, including the PROSPECT package for the Russian Luna-27 mission and the development of mobile platform capabilities that could be applied to future missions.

  9. System Engineering Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heise, James; Hull, Bethanne J.; Bauer, Jonathan; Beougher, Nathan G.; Boe, Caleb; Canahui, Ricardo; Charles, John P.; Cooper, Zachary Davis Job; DeShaw, Mark A.; Fontanella, Luan Gasparetto; Friel, Mark; Goebel, Katie; Grant, Alex Martinsdacosta; Graves, Matt; Harms, Ryan Andrew; Hill, Aren; Lsely, Kevin Lee; Jose, Sonia; Klein, Andrew; Kolstad, Lauren Wickham; Lamp, Daniel A.; Lindquist, Mariangela Martin; Lopes, Daniel da Paula; Lourens, Rob; Matthews, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa State University team, Team LunaCY, is composed of the following sub-teams: the main student organization, the Lunabotics Club; a senior mechanical engineering design course, ME 415; a senior multidisciplinary design course, ENGR 466; and a senior design course from Wartburg College in Waverly, Iowa. Team LunaCY designed and fabricated ART-E III, Astra Robotic Tractor- Excavator the Third, for the team's third appearance in the NASA Lunabotic Mining competition. While designing ART-E III, the team had four main goals for this year's competition:to reduce the total weight of the robot, to increase the amount of regolith simulant mined, to reduce dust, and to make ART-E III autonomous. After many designs and research, a final robot design was chosen that obtained all four goals of Team LunaCY. A few changes Team LunaCY made this year was to go to the electrical, computer, and software engineering club fest at Iowa State University to recruit engineering students to accomplish the task of making ART-E III autonomous. Team LunaCY chose to use LabView to program the robot and various sensors were installed to measure the distance between the robot and the surroundings to allow ART-E III to maneuver autonomously. Team LunaCY also built a testing arena to test prototypes and ART-E III in. To best replicate the competition arena at the Kennedy Space Center, a regolith simulant was made from sand, QuickCrete, and fly ash to cover the floor of the arena. Team LunaCY also installed fans to allow ventilation in the arena and used proper safety attire when working in the arena . With the additional practice in the testing arena and innovative robot design, Team LunaCY expects to make a strong appearance at the 2012 NASA Lunabotic Mining Competition. .

  10. Development of a mast or robotic arm-mounted infrared AOTF spectrometer for surface Moon and Mars probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Andrey; Fedorova, Anna; Kalinnikov, Yurii K.; Shapkin, Alexei; Mantsevich, Sergey; Viazovetsky, Nikita; Evdokimova, Nadezhda; Kiselev, Alexander V.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a pencil-beam infrared AOTF spectrometer for context assessment of the surface mineralogy in the vicinity of a planetary probe or a rover analyzing the reflected solar radiation in the near infrared range. One application is the ISEM (Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars) instrument to be deployed on the mast of ExoMars Rover planned for launch in 2018. A very similar instrument LIS (Lunar Infrared Spectrometer) is planned to be flown on Russian Luna-25 (Luna Globe Lander) and Luna-27 (Luna Resource Lander) missions in 2018 and 2021 respectively. On the lunar landers the instrument will be mounted at a robotic arm (Luna-25) or at a dedicated mast (Luna-27). The instrument covers the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm with the spectral resolution of ~25 cm-1 and is intended to study mineralogical and petrographic composition of the uppermost layer of the regolith. Both the Mars and the Moon instruments target waterbearing minerals, phyllosilicates, sulfates, carbonates in the vicinity of the Mars rover, and H2O ice and hydroxyl in the vicinity of lunar lander. The optical scheme includes entry optics, the TeO2 AOTF, and a Peltier-cooled InAs detector. To cover the extended spectral range the AOTF is equipped with two piezotransducers. At present the qualification prototype of the instrument is being characterized. The requirements, instrument optics, and different aspects of its characterization, including low-temperature survival validation is described.

  11. Artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen; Guido-Zárate, Alejandro; Huanosta, Thalía; Padrón-López, Rosa Martha; Rodríguez-Monroy, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Artificial wetlands (AW) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. Nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. Nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an important role in the performance of these systems by promoting the growth of macrophytes such as reeds and cattails (e.g. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia respectively). In this paper, two AW systems were compared, one located in Mexico City, Mexico at an altitude higher than 2,000 m above the sea level, and the second one located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico at an a altitude near the sea level (27 m). Both systems comprised five reactors (147-L plastic boxes) filled with volcanic slag and gravel and intermittently fed with synthetic water. The removal nitrogen efficiency found for the system located in Mexico City was higher than that of the Tabasco system (90 and 80% as TKN respectively). The higher temperatures in the Tabasco system did not enhanced the nitrogen removal as expected. PMID:18957747

  12. Petroleum systems of the northwestern Tachira Depression, Venezuelan Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Ostos, M.; Callejon, A.; Vivan, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    The tectonic evolution and sedimentation of the Tachira Depression was controlled by Paleozoic crustal scale discontinuities, partly or fully inverted during the pre-Andean (Paleocene) and Andean (Neogene) deformations. Outcrop samples were analyzed for source rock evaluation. La Luna, Los Cuervos and Carbonera formations are excellent potential oil sources. However, La Luna and Los Cuervos were the oil-generating units according to ID-modelling (BasinMod), defining La Luna-K/T(!) and Los Cuervos-K/T(!) systems. La Luna contains good to excellent oil prone kerogen type I-II, while Los Cuervos contains gas-oil prone type II-III. Oil seeps, expelled at the peak of oil generation stage (0.85-0.90 %R{sub o}), were derived from marine sources and genetically correlated to La Luna. No correlation of seeps with Los Cuervos was found. Although it exists to the southeast (Burgua depression). Potential clastic and carbonatic Cretaceous (K) and Tertiary (T) reservoirs and regional seals of the Colon and Leon Formations are widespread in the depression. Modelling results indicate that migration started during the Middle Miocene, related to the Andean tectonic loading. The subsequent migration took place northward, to be finally stopped against the Capacho and Bocono fault systems.

  13. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of basic education teachers in the survey domain is a controversial issue and fully debated in the academy. The opportunity for a collective work that incorporated school teachers from a public school to a university's group of physics teaching at university allowed us to glimpse the redefinition of the function of a science teacher (a coauthor of this paper) by himself, such that now he includes research on the knowledge construction by students in his teacher practice. The formation of inter-institutional groups for action planning and research in these areas has proved productive for the task of knowledge construction to support educational processes in school, while the university enriches its collection of experiences critically validated, and can consider the results in teachers initial and continued education. The active participation of the teacher in a research group at the university led him to reflect on the possible didactical ways to be described, analyzed and communicated to other teachers. The construction of a pedagogy that took into account the mental models of students on the basic topics of astronomy, and the changes developed resulting from the lessons taught, led to far-reaching consequences on the pedagogy adopted by the teacher, who incorporates now a new vision of science and alternative forms to dialogue with students, essential components for a researcher in Science Education. La inclusión de los maestros de la escuela básica en el universo de la investigación es polémica y está en amplio debate en el mundo académico. La oportunidad de trabajo colectivo de los maestros de una escuela pública en Río de Janeiro con un grupo universitario de enseñanza de la física nos ha permitido vislumbrar la redefinición de la función de un maestro de ciencias (uno de los coautores de este documento) por él mismo, ahora para incluir la investigación sobre la construcción del conocimiento por los alumnos en su práctica como docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e continuada de professores. A participação ativa do professor num grupo de pesquisa na universidade o levou à reflexão sobre caminhos didáticos possíveis de serem descritos, analisados e comunicados a outros professores. A construção de uma pedagogia própria, levando em conta os modelos mentais dos alunos sobre temas básicos de Astronomia, e as mudanças promovidas a partir das aulas dadas, trouxeram amplas conseqüências sobre a pedagogia adotada pelo professor. Hoje a prática desse professor incorpora uma nova visão de ciência e formas alternativas de dialogar com os alunos, elementos indispensáveis a um pesquisador em Educação em Ciências.

  14. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of basic education teachers in the survey domain is a controversial issue and fully debated in the academy. The opportunity for a collective work that incorporated school teachers from a public school to a university's group of physics teaching at university allowed us to glimpse the redefinition of the function of a science teacher (a coauthor of this paper) by himself, such that now he includes research on the knowledge construction by students in his teacher practice. The formation of inter-institutional groups for action planning and research in these areas has proved productive for the task of knowledge construction to support educational processes in school, while the university enriches its collection of experiences critically validated, and can consider the results in teachers initial and continued education. The active participation of the teacher in a research group at the university led him to reflect on the possible didactical ways to be described, analyzed and communicated to other teachers. The construction of a pedagogy that took into account the mental models of students on the basic topics of astronomy, and the changes developed resulting from the lessons taught, led to far-reaching consequences on the pedagogy adopted by the teacher, who incorporates now a new vision of science and alternative forms to dialogue with students, essential components for a researcher in Science Education. La inclusión de los maestros de la escuela básica en el universo de la investigación es polémica y está en amplio debate en el mundo académico. La oportunidad de trabajo colectivo de los maestros de una escuela pública en Río de Janeiro con un grupo universitario de enseñanza de la física nos ha permitido vislumbrar la redefinición de la función de un maestro de ciencias (uno de los coautores de este documento) por él mismo, ahora para incluir la investigación sobre la construcción del conocimiento por los alumnos en su práctica como docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e continuada de professores. A participação ativa do professor num grupo de pesquisa na universidade o

  15. Rb-Sr age and content of potassium, rubidium strontium, barium, and rare earths in surface material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allegre, C. J.; Birck, J. L.; Loubet, M.; Provost, A.

    1974-01-01

    The Luna 16 automatic station returned from the Sea of Fertility a 35 cm long column of lunar surface material. 1 g of the Luna 16 lunar surface material, taken at a depth of 22 cm, consists of fine material: surface material and fine fragments of rocks from 1 to 4 mm in diameter. Analyses made on 17 mg of the fine lunar surface material are presented. The results obtained for the Luna 16 surface material are plotted on the diagram of the isotopic evolution of strontium and show that this surface material is most depleted of radiogenic Sr-87 of all the known lunar surface materials and that the point characterizing Lunar 16 lies somewhat to the right of the line corresponding to an age of 4.6 billion years.

  16. Microcrater and solar-flare track maturation of the lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poupeau, G.; Michel-Levy, M. C.; Mandeville, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Romary, P.

    1978-01-01

    The microcrater, pancake and cosmic ray track record in the 100-200 microns feldspar fraction of a variety of surface soils and Apollo and Luna 16-24 cores have been studied. In Luna 24, a study of the glassy agglutinates plus breccias in 9 levels revealed this core was deposited as discrete layers, most of which are immature. Luna 16 and 20 cores were found respectively mature and immature. Glassy agglutinates and impact microcraters, absent to rare in immature soils such as 12033 and 14141, are present in similar abundances on crystals from submature to mature soils. In submature and mature soils, pancakes are present on 60 to 100 percent of crystals and craters on 50 to 70 percent. Microcrater, track and solar wind gas data suggest feldspar crystals in the size range considered reach an equilibrium maturity grade faster than bulk soils. This is interpreted as due to the limited lifetime of these crystals in the lunar regolith.

  17. Regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W., III; Adams, J. B.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Zisk, S.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing and Luna 24 sample data are used to develop a summary of the regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium. Laboratory spectra of Luna 24 samples, telescopic reflectance spectra in the 0.3 to 1.1 micron range and orbital X-ray data have identified three major basalt groups in the region. Group I soil is derived from iron- and magnesium-rich titaniferous basalts and was apparently emplaced over the majority of the basin, however is presently exposed as a shelf in the southwest part. Group II soils, derived from very low titanium ferrobasalts, were emplaced in two stages subsequent to Group I emplacement and now appear as part of the outer shelf and topographic annulus. Subsidence of the basin interior preceded and continued after the emplacement of the third basalt group, a soil derived from a low titanium ferrobasalt. The Luna 24 site is found to be within a patch of Group II material.

  18. Infrared transmission spectra of Sea of Fertility regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhmanova, M. V.; Karyakin, A. V.; Tartasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    Transmission spectra in the 2-25 micrometer region were obtained for samples of lunar regolith returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. A comparison of the Luna 16, Apollo 11, and Apollo 12 samples showed that the infrared transmission spectra of regolith samples from the mare regions are similar and characteristic of basic basaltic rocks. The absorption bands show up in the vibration region of the SiO4 groups. No water and OH groups were found in the samples based on the spectrum. Spectra of regolith samples calcined at 1000C showed changes that can be interpreted as changes in the spectra of irradiated crystals (especially distinctly for the Luna 16 samples).

  19. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  20. Radiation Evaluation of an Advanced 64Mb 3.3V DRAM and Insights into the Effects of Scaling on Radiation Hardness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, D. C.; Swift, G. M.; Johnston, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, total ionizing dose radiation evaluations of the Micron 64 Mb 3.3 V, fast page mode DRAM and the IBM LUNA-ES 16 Mb DRAM are presented. The effects of scaling on total ionizing dose radiation hardness are studied utilizing test structures and a series of 16 Mb DRAMs with different feature sizes from the same manufacturing line. General agreement was found between the threshold voltage shifts of 16 Mb DRAM test structures and the threshold voltage measured on complete circuits using retention time measurements. Retention time measurement data from early radiation doses are shown that allow internal failure modes to be distinguished.

  1. Extreme radiation damage in soil from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phakey, P. P.; Price, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    High-voltage electron microscopy has been used to compare radiation effects in micron-size soil grains from the Luna 16 site (Mare Fecunditatis) and the four Apollo landing sites. Radiation damage by heavy solar particles is strikingly greater in the Luna 16 sample than in the other four samples. It is suggested that less movement of the soil at Mare Fecunditatis has taken place, perhaps because of its proximity to the limb and consequent lower exposure to energetic electrons in the earth's magnetospheric tail, which would cause electrostatic agitation of fine particles.

  2. Some results of cislunar plasma research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vyshlov, A. S.; Savich, N. A.; Vasilyev, M. B.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Sidorenko, A. I.; Shtern, D. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The main results of plasma cislunar investigations, carried out during Luna-19 and Luna-22 spacecraft flights by means of dual frequency dispersion interferrometry, are briefly outlined. It is shown that a thin layer of plasma, with a height of several tens of kilometers and a maximum concentration of the order 1,000 electrons/cu cm exists above the solar illuminated lunar surface. A physical model of the formation and existence of such a plasma in cislunar space is proposed, taking into account the influence of local magnetic areas on the moon.

  3. The lunar laser ranging experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Currie, D. G.; Poultney, S. K.; Dicke, R. H.; Eckhardt, D. H.; Kaula, W. M.; Mulholland, J. D.; Plotkin, H. H.; Silverberg, E. C.; Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives achievable through high-accuracy range measurements to lunar retroreflectors are considered. A specific study of design questions related to the operation of retroreflectors on the lunar surface indicated that a reflector panel containing a number of solid fused silica corner reflectors would be capable of maintaining essentially diffraction limited performance under direct solar illumination. Initial Apollo 11 observations are discussed together with the installation of additional lunar retroreflectors in connection with the Luna 17, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, and Luna 21 missions. Range measurements at the McDonald Observatory are considered along with new results from lunar range data, and prospects regarding future lunar ranging stations.

  4. Wrinkle ridges in the floor material of Kasei Valles, Mars: Nature and origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Thomas R.; Craddock, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Wrinkle ridges on Mars occur almost exclusively in smooth plains material referred to as ridged plains. One of the largest contiguous units of ridged plains occurs on Lunae Planum on the eastern flank of the Tharsis rise. The eastern, western, and northern margins of the ridged plains of Lunae Planum suffered extensive erosion in early Amazonian channel-forming events. The most dramatic example of erosion in early Amazonian plains is in Kasei Valles. The nature an origin of the wrinkle ridges in the floor material of Kasei Valles are discussed.

  5. 77 FR 11617 - Jetronic Industries, Inc. (n/k/a New Bastion Development, Inc.), JMAR Technologies, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Jetronic Industries, Inc. (n/k/a New Bastion Development, Inc.), JMAR Technologies, Inc., Kolorfusion International, Inc. Legalopinion.com (n/k/a Drayton Richdale Corp.), Lifestream Technologies, Inc., Lions Petroleum, Inc., (n/k/a China Hongxing Agritech, Inc.), Luna Technologies International,...

  6. Meeting the Needs of Rural Gifted Students with Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Roger L.; Gabaldon, Thomas

    This paper describes a rural Hispanic community's efforts to identify and develop a program for gifted students in grades 2-6 who are also mildly to moderately handicapped (learning disabled, behavior disordered, or communication disordered). The "Twice Exceptional" (2E) program, in Los Lunas, New Mexico, is a modified full-time separate classroom…

  7. Indio and Hispano Child: Improving His Self Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Katherine Powers, Ed.

    Prepared under a Title IV Civil Rights program grant, this document consists of social studies units for grades 1 and 4, suggestions for a culturally oriented arts program, biographical sketches of cultural models, and brief historical sketches of communities in the area of Los Lunas, New Mexico. The purpose of the units of instruction and related…

  8. Linking Student Retention Model with Institutional Planning: The Benefits and Limitations of a Student Matrix Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schartman, Laura; Rhee, Byung-Shik

    This study explored the possibility of linking the Luna (1999) student flow matrix model with institutional planning at a comprehensive state institution, investigating how student flow environments were associated with student characteristics such as race, gender, citizenship, class level, entry type, and cumulative grade point average. The study…

  9. Report & Evaluations on Opportunities Conference (Albuquerque Indian School, New Mexico, January 19, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Eulynda

    The conference was attended by 53 high school seniors and 65 parents, teachers, administrators, and counselors from Albuquerque Public Schools, Los Lunas, Bernalillo, Jemez, Grants, and Albuquerque Indian School. After an opening address and two speakers, participants attended three workshops. In the first workshop, a panel of students presented…

  10. Study of friction properties of lunar surface material and its analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dukhovskoy, Y. A.; Motovilov, E. A.; Silin, A. A.; Smorodinov, M. I.; Shvarev, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of instruments for determining the friction properties of the surficial layer of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic lunar station, as well as the friction properties of its analogs: andesite-basaltic sand and basalts. The experimental method and results are presented.

  11. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Leavell, Brian C.; Keener, Adam L.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Chadwell, Brad A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Hill, Geena M.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator–prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  12. Il Calcolo della Pasqua: Vittorio d'Aquitania Dionigi il Piccolo e Abbone di Fleury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    The Easter calculus is a story of ephemerides approximations, with appropriate algorithms, as well as the reformations of the calendar dealed with tropical year's approximations. The calculus made by Victorius of Aquitania, Dyonisius Exiguus and Abbo of Fleury, based on 532 years Easter period in Julian calendar are discussed, including the corrections ad hoc of the algorithms, like the saltus lunae.

  13. Creating Community through Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Deborah E.; Travick-Jackson, Cecelia

    2006-01-01

    This research studies a doctoral program that includes a cohort component. Candidates engage in active learning and in the skill of mentoring. Research on peer mentoring has shown to support graduate students as they progress in their study (Luna & Cullen, 1998). Analysis of the data found themes relating to mentoring and community: candidates…

  14. Evidence for a high-magnesium subsurface basalt in Mare Crisium from orbital X-ray fluorescence data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, C. G.; Adler, I.; Wolfe, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Orbital X-ray fluorescence data taken by the Apollo 15 mission over Mare Crisium are analyzed in order to detect surface occurrences of the magnesium-rich materials found in the Luna 24 core sample. Apollo 15 data of the surface soils of the Luna 24 landing site, expressed as Al/Si and Mg/Si ratios, are found to be well correlated with the composition of the less than 74 micron fraction of the core sample. Orbital data indicate that most surface areas of the southern part of Mare Crisium have magnesium contents lower than or equal to that of the landing site, with the exception of areas in the vicinities of the post-mare craters Picard and Pierce and an area northeast of the Luna 24 site. The crater material is interpreted to be a magnesium-rich subsurface basalt excavated by crater formation, which may represent the material from which magnesium-rich Luna 24 samples, including olivine gabbro and olivine vitrophyre, were derived.

  15. Future lunar missions and investigation of dusty plasma processes on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey I.; Zelenyi, Lev M.; Zelenyi

    2013-08-01

    From the Apollo era of exploration, it was discovered that sunlight was scattered at the terminators giving rise to ``horizon glow'' and ``streamers'' above the lunar surface. Subsequent investigations have shown that the sunlight was most likely scattered by electrostatically charged dust grains originating from the surface. A renaissance is being observed currently in investigations of the Moon. The Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource missions (the latter jointly with India) are being prepared in Russia. Some of these missions will include investigations of lunar dust. Here we discuss the future experimental investigations of lunar dust within the missions of Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. We consider the dusty plasma system over the lunar surface and determine the maximum height of dust rise. We describe mechanisms of formation of the dusty plasma system over the Moon and its main properties, determine distributions of electrons and dust over the lunar surface, and show a possibility of rising dust particles over the surface of the illuminated part of the Moon in the entire range of lunar latitudes. Finally, we discuss the effect of condensation of micrometeoriod substance during the expansion of the impact plume and show that this effect is important from the viewpoint of explanation of dust particle rise to high altitudes in addition to the dusty plasma effects.

  16. Evolution of the moon: The 1974 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Investigations are reported of Apollo and Luna explorations which have brought about the understanding of the moon and its structure. It is shown that with this knowledge of the moon, a better understanding is presented of the earth's origin, structure and composition.

  17. Chemical kinetic model of hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, and destruction applied to the Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.; Braun, R.L.; Burnham, A.K.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a compositional chemical model of hydrocarbon generation, expulsion,a nd destruction for the Cretaceous La Luna Formation source rock of the Maraciabo basin, Venezuela. Applications include both laboratory and geological settings. Laboratory pyrolysis experiments were used to study bulk oil generation, expulsion, and associated changes in composition of the kerogen, extractable organic matter, and expelled and unexpelled hydrocarbons. The laboratory experiments were also used to determine kinetic parameters to quantitatively describe organic reactions, via a computer model that also includes simulation of pressure-driven primary expulsion, over widely varying conditions. We show that the chemical model accuratley simulates the experimental results. Thermal history models for wells in the Maraciabo basin were used to simulate hydrocarbon generation and pore pressure development in the La Luna Formation and expulsion into nearby Cretaceous reservoirs. Results of the modeling indicate that both compaction disequilibrium and organic maturation play important roles in the development of excess pore pressure in the La Luna Formation. The model simulation of the variation of indicators such as Rock-Eval parameters and extract and oil compositions shows generally good agreement with measurements from remaining kerogen, oils, and extracts recovered from the La Luna Formation and from nearby Cretaceous reservoirs.

  18. Further notes on New Zealand Enantiobuninae (Opiliones, Neopilionidae), with the description of a new genus and two new species.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher K

    2013-01-01

    Mangatangi parvum gen. n. and sp. and Forsteropsalis pureroa sp. n. are described from the North Island of New Zealand. Pantopsalis listeri (White 1849) and Pantopsalis cheliferoides (Colenso 1882) are redescribed and no longer regarded as nomina dubia; Pantopsalis luna (Forster 1944) is identified as a junior synonym of Pantopsalis listeri. A key to Pantopsalis species is provided. PMID:23653517

  19. Feldspar basalts in lunar soil and the nature of the lunar continents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Warner, J.; Brett, R.; Jakes, P.; Brown, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that 25% on the Apollo-14 glasses have the same composition as the glasses in two samples taken from the Luna-16 column. The compositions are equivalent to feldspar basalt and anorthosite gabbro, and are similar to the feldspar basalts identified from Surveyor-7 analysis for lunar continents.

  20. The abundances of components of the lunar soils by a least-squares mixing model and the formation age of KREEP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, E.; Meyer, C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A least-square mixing model incorporating mare basalts, KREEP basalts, anorthosites, anorthositic gabbros, ultramafics, granites, and meteorites was used to estimate the abundances of rock components in lunar soil from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, Luna 16, and Surveyor 5 and 6 landing sites. The predominance of iron-rich mare basalt at the sites is indicated.

  1. Apollo 13 emblem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is the insignia of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission. Represented in the Apollo 13 emblem is Apollo, the sun god of Greek mythology, symbolizing how the Apollo flights have extended the light of knowledge to all mankind. The Latin phrase Ex Luna, Scientia means 'From the Moon, Knowledge'.

  2. Selective europium and cerium phases in the regolith of mare crisium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, A. V.; Gornostaeva, T. A.; Kartashov, P. M.; Bogatikov, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Two particles selectively enriched in REEs (one in Eu, the other in Ce) were found during the study of samples of the lunar regolith delivered to the Earth by AS Luna-24. They may be related to oxides or carbides. Thus, the fact of the presence of specific processes resulting in deep REE differentiation on the Moon is supported.

  3. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer to Characterize the Hydration of Regolith in the Vicinity of a Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Andrey; Fedorova, Anna; Korablev, Oleg; Mantsevich, Sergey; Stepanov, Alexander; Kalinnikov, Yury

    Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Globe (Luna 25) and Luna-Resurce (Luna 27) Russian surface missions. It is a pencil-beam spectrometer to be pointed by a robotic arm of the landing module, and is intended for study of the lunar surface composition in the vicinity of the lander. The instrument’s field of view (FOV) of 1(°) is co-aligned with the FOV (45(°) ) of a stereo TV camera. The spectrometer will provide measurements of selected surface areas in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 mum. The spectral selection is provided by acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), which scans the spectral range sequentially. Electrical command of the AOTF allows selecting the spectral sampling, and permits a random access if needed. The spectral resolution is better than 25 cm (-1) . The instrument’s mass is 1.3 kg. The primary goal of the experiment is to detect the regolith hydration at 3mum, identifying its form from the shape of the spectrum, and to follow its changes during the day/shadow pattern. Also, LIS will allow to study the mineralogical composition from mineral signatures within the spectral range, and will serve for selection of samples to be analyzed by other instruments.

  4. Reception and study of lunar surface material in inert gas medium. [considering laboratory vacuum receiving chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkov, Y. A.; Rudnitskiy, Y. M.; Glotov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The reception and study of lunar material returned by the Luna 16 space station is described. The layout of a vacuum receiving chamber for working with material in a helium atmosphere is examined along with the main operations involved in extracting the material from the ampule and drill.

  5. Teaching a Cognitive Behavioral Strategy to Manage Emotions Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy in an Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tachelle; Zionts, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The academic and social challenges facing public schools are enormous. For example, the pressure to meet the demands of the current high-stakes testing environment and reach adequate yearly progress (AYP) goals has arguably never been greater (Luna & Turner, 2001; Sanders, 2003). The energy devoted to academics has supplanted the little time spent…

  6. Investigation of the volatile species in the lunar soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurz, Peter; Hofer, Lukas; Tulej, Marek; Lasi, Davide; Cabane, Michel; Cosica, David; Gerasimov, Mikhail; Rodinov, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Two spacecraft, Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource of Roskosmos (Russia), will be landing on the lunar south pole in 2016 and 2018, respectively. These spacecraft will carry a complex scientific payload. Part of the scientific instrumentation is the gas-chromatographic mass-spectrometric complex, which combines a Thermal Differential Analyser (TDA), a Gas Chromatograph (GC), and a mass spectrometer (MS). This instrument is dedicated to the investigation of the volatiles in the lunar soil, its chemical composition, the fraction of water and organic species, and the identification of noble gases. Measurement of isotopic composition will be performed of CHON elements (13C/12C, D/H, 17O/16O, 18O/16O, 15N/14N) and noble gases. We developed a prototype GC-MS instrument for these missions where the GC part is heritage from the Phobos Grunt mission of Roskosmos and the MS part is a complete new development for the Luna missions. We have carried out several GC-MS measurements on calibration gas mixtures that demonstrate that this instrument fulfills the scientific requirements for the Luna missions.

  7. Corporate Philanthropy, College Students, and The LUNAFEST[R] Film Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Clif Bar & Company, makers of LUNA: The Whole Nutrition Bar for Women, debuted LUNAFEST[R], an international touring film festival that showcases short narrative and documentary work of female filmmakers and raises money for the Breast Cancer Fund and other nonprofit women's organizations. A pre-packaged film festival with clear and easy…

  8. Long-term variations of solar corpuscular fluxes based on lunar soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, G. S.

    2013-07-01

    We report the results of age determination of a lunar soil column, delivered by the Luna 16 mission in September 1970 from the Sea of Fertility. We elaborated and applied the soil age determination method using the kinetic parameter, the regolith accumulation rate. The age of the soil delivered by Luna 16 is about 90 Myr. The isotopic ratio of 3He/4He in the column is slightly higher than in the soil column delivered by the Luna 24 mission. The abundance of helium in the fine fraction of the soil (about 100 µm) is significantly higher and is close to the maximum abundance from the Luna 24 soil column. These differences are most likely associated with the variations of solar corpuscular fluxes. Based on the measurements of the helium isotope abundance in the samples of lunar soil columns, we have estimated the values of ancient solar fluxes of protons and helium and variations thereof in the time interval of up to 600 Myr. We demonstrate that during this epoch there were two strong bursts of the helium flux, about 80 and 470 Myr ago, respectively. The existence of the first peak was assumed earlier from the paleodendrochronological data.

  9. Safe and Secure Schools Assessment. Public School Information. Legislative Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    As a result of high profile shootings and critical incidents in schools on a national level, combined with the lack of a cohesive, standardized approach to safety and security in Idaho Schools, Superintendent Tom Luna requested an appropriation to address this issue and the Legislature allocated 5150.000 in FY 2008 for the Safe and Secure…

  10. Soaring through the Universe. Astronomy through Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwinch, Joanne C.

    This publication is a guide to teaching astronomy through the use of mythology and its literature in grades 3-6. The book is divided into the following seven sections: "Introduction"; Chapter 1: "Luna: the Moon"; Chapter 2: "Del Sol: the Sun"; Chapter 3: "The Planets"; Chapter 4: "Star Bright, Star Light"; Chapter 5: "Traveling through Space"; and…