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Sample records for lunar meteorites queen

  1. Lunar Meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 and the Iron Concentration of the Lunar Highlands Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 is a clast-rich, glassy-matrix regolith breccia of ferroan, highly aluminous bulk composition. It is similar in composition to other feldspathic lunar meteorites but differs in having higher concentrations of siderophile elements and incompatible trace elements. Based on electron microprobe analyses of the fusion crust, glassy matrix, and clasts, and instrumental neutron activation analysis of breccia fragments, QUE 93069 is dominated by nonmare components of ferroan, noritic- anorthosite bulk composition. Thin section QUE 93069,31 also contains a large, impact-melted, partially devitrified clast of magnesian, anorthositic-norite composition. The enrichment in Fe, Sc, and Cr and lower Mg/Fe ratio of lunar meteorites Yamato 791197 and Yamato 82192/3 compared to other feldspathic lunar meteorites can be attributed to a small proportion (5-10%) of low-Ti mare basalt. It is likely that the non- mare components of Yamato 82192/3 are similar to and occur in similar abundance to those of Yamato 86032, with which it is paired. There is a significant difference between the average FeO concentration of the lunar highlands surface as inferred from the feldspathic lunar meteorites (mean: approx. 5.0%; range: 4.3-6.1 %) and a recent estimate based on data from the Clementine mission (3.6%).

  2. Exposure History of Lunar Meteorites Queen Alexandra Range 93069 and 94269

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Jull, A. J. T.; Reedy, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic-ray produced C-14 (t(sub 1/2) = 5730 years), 36Cl (3.01 x 10(exp 5 years), Al-26 (7.05 x 10(exp 5 years), and Be-10 (1.5 x 10(exp 6 years) in the recently discovered lunar meteorites Queen Alexandra Range 93069 (QUE 93069) and 94269 (QUE 94269) were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. The abundance pattern of these four cosmogenic radionuclides and of noble gases indicates QUE 93069 and QUE 94269 were a paired fall and were exposed to cosmic rays near the surface of the Moon for at least several hundred million years before ejection. After the meteorite was launched from the Moon, where it had resided at a depth of 65-80 g/cm square, it experienced a short transition time, approximately 20-50 ka, before colliding with the Earth. The terrestrial age of the meteorite is 5-10 ka. Comparison ofthe cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in QUE 93069/94269 and MAC 88104/88105 clearly shows that these meteorites were not ejected by a common event from the Moon.

  3. Martian "microfossils" in lunar meteorites?

    PubMed

    Sears, D W; Kral, T A

    1998-07-01

    One of the five lines of evidence used by McKay et al. (1996) for relic life in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 was the presence of objects thought to be microfossils. These ovoid and elongated forms are similar to structures found in terrestrial rocks and described as "nanobacteria" (Folk, 1993; McBride et al., 1994). Using the same procedures and apparatus as McKay et al. (1996), we have found structures on internal fracture surfaces of lunar meteorites that cannot be distinguished from the objects described on similar surfaces in ALH 84001. The lunar surface is currently a sterile environment and probably always has been. However, the lunar and Martian meteorites share a common terrestrial history, which includes many thousands of years of exposure to Antarctic weathering. Although we do not know the origin of these ovoid and elongated forms, we suggest that their presence on lunar meteorites indicates that the objects described by McKay et al. (1996) are not of Martian biological origin. PMID:11543077

  4. Martian "microfossils" in lunar meteorites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Kral, Timothy A.

    1998-07-01

    One of the five lines of evidence used by McKay et al. (1996) for relic life in the martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 was the presence of objects thought to be microfossils. These ovoid and elongated forms are similar to structures found in terrestrial rocks and described as "nanobacteria" (Folk, 1993; McBride et al., 1994). Using the same procedures and apparatus as McKay et al. (1996), we have found structures on internal fracture surfaces of lunar meteorites that cannot be distinguished from the objects described on similar surfaces in ALH 84001. The lunar surface is currently a sterile environment, and probably always has been. However, the lunar and martian meteorites share a common terrestrial history, including many thousands of years of exposure to Antarctic weathering. While we do not know the origin of these ovoid and elongated forms, we suggest that their presence on lunar meteorites indicates that the objects described by McKay et al. (1996) are not of martian biological origin.

  5. What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples

  6. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk for Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxworth, Suzanne; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Allen, J.; Kascak, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core and regolith samples, from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected from a US cooperative effort among NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Smithsonian Institution that funds expeditions to Antarctica. The meteorites that are collected include rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. The sample disks for educational use include these different samples. Active relevant learning has always been important to teachers and the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program provides this active style of learning for students and the general public. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks permit students to conduct investigations comparable to actual scientists. The Lunar Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Basalt, Breccia, Highland Regolith, Anorthosite, Mare Regolith and Orange Soil. The Meteorite Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Chondrite L3, Chondrite H5, Carbonaceous Chondrite, Basaltic Achondrite, Iron and Stony-Iron. Teachers are given different activities that adhere to their standards with the disks. During a Sample Disk Certification Workshop, teachers participate in the activities as students gain insight into the history, formation and geologic processes of the moon, asteroids and meteorites.

  7. Lunar and martian meteorite delivery services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    Launch mechanisms for lunar and martian meteorites have been investigated, by integrating physical modeling constraints, geochemical cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) constraints, and petrologic constraints. The potential source region for lunar meteorites is remarkably small compared to the final crater volume. CRE constraints indicate that most launches start at depths of less than or equal to 3.2 m, and cratering theory implies derivation of suitably accelerated objects from a subvolume with diameter only about 0.3 x the final crater diameter. The shallow depth provenance is probably related to shock-wave interference, enhanced by the lunar regolith's extremely low compressional wave velocity. CRE constraints alone imply that four to five separate launch events are represented among the eight well-studied lunar meteorites. Most of the lunar meteorites are regolith breccias, which tend to show only limited compositional diversity within any kilometer-scale region of the Moon. Several others are polymict breccias, which also show relatively subdued compositional diversity, compared to igneous rocks. The observed diversity among these samples in terms of abundances of mare basalt and KREEP, and in Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio, implies that among eight well-studied lunar meteorites only two potential source craters pairings are plausible: between Asuka-881757 + Y-793169 (most probable) and between Y-793274 + EET875721. Altogether, these eight lunar meteorites apparently represent at least six separate source craters, including three in the past 10(exp 5) years and five in the past 10(exp 6) years. CRE constraints imply that SNC meteorites are launched from systematically greater than lunar meteorites. SNCs are also systematically bigger, and all nine well-studied SNCs are uncommonly young (by martian standards) mafic igneous rocks. Comparison between Viking and Apollo results reveals that rocks the size of common meteorites are remarkably scarce in the martian regolith, probably due

  8. Lunar highland meteorites and the composition of the lunar crust

    SciTech Connect

    Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Jochum, K.P.; Dreibus, G.; Weber, H.; Weckwerth, G.; Waenke, H. ); Bischoff, A.; Stoeffler, D. )

    1991-11-01

    Major, minor, and trace element data obtained by neutron activation techniques and by spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS) on two lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 are reported. Both MAC samples were also analyzed for their contents and isotopic compositions of rare gases. Additional SSMS-data were obtained on four lunar highland meteorites previously found in Antarctica: ALHA81005, Y791197, Y82192, and Y86032. MAC88104 and MAC88105 are very similar in chemistry, suggesting that they are pieces of a single fall event. The bulk chemical composition of MAC88104/5 is not very different from the other lunar highland meteorites: highly aluminous with relatively low contents of REE and siderophile element concentrations slightly above 1% of a CI-chondritic level. The contents of solar rare gases in the two MAC samples are low, indicating only a small regolith contribution in agreement with rare petrographically identifiable regolith components. There is no correlation among lunar meteorites between peak shock pressures and solar gas contents, indicating that peak shock pressures of up to 25 GPa do not lead to gas loss. A low {sup 26}Al activity (VOGT et al., 1990) and high contents of cosmogenic rare gases in MAC88104/5 suggest a long exposure (400,000 years) in the lunar sub-surface. K-Ar ages are in excess of 3.9 by. Since lunar highland meteorites are associated with at least three but probably four different fall events, and since they are not derived from chemically exotic front-side terranes, they may represent a better sampling of the average chemical composition of the lunar crust than previous estimates based on returned lunar samples and remote sensing data.

  9. The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. III - Lunar and basaltic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Hazel; Batchelor, J. D.; Symes, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Natural thermoluminescence (TL) data were obtained to investigate recent thermal and radiation histories of the lunar meteorite MacAlpine Hills 88104/5 and 65 eucrites, howardites, diogenites, and mesosiderites. All these meteorites have low levels of natural TL compared to chondrites, which is primarily because they display anomalous fading. Some meteorites have especially low natural TL which must reflect heating within the last 100,000-1,000,000 y. The parameters for TL decay were determined assuming plausible values for cosmic ray dose rate and that the natural TL of MAC88104/5 was totally drained by ejection from the moon. The obtained parameters for TL decay suggest that the moon-earth transit times for MAC88104 and MAC88105 were 2,000 and 1,800 y, respectively, compared with 19,000 and 2,500 y for Y791197 and ALHA81005, respectively.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Meteorites" included the following reports:Description of a New Stony Meteorite Find from Bulloch County, Georgia; Meteorite Ablation Derived from Cosmic Ray Track Data Dhofar 732: A Mg-rich Orthopyroxenitic Achondrite Halogens, Carbon and Sulfur in the Tagish Lake Meteorite: Implications for Classification and Terrestrial Alteration; Electromagnetic Scrape of Meteorites and Probably Columbia Tiles; Pre-Atmospheric Sizes and Orbits of Several Chondrites; Research of Shock-Thermal History of the Enstatite Chondrites by Track, Thermoluminescence and Neutron-Activation (NAA) Methods; Radiation and Shock-thermal History of the Kaidun CR2 Chondrite Glass Inclusions; On the Problem of Search for Super-Heavy Element Traces in the Meteorites: Probability of Their Discovery by Three-Prong Tracks due to Nuclear Spontaneous Fission Trace Element Abundances in Separated Phases of Pesyanoe, Enstatite Achondrite; Evaluation of Cooling Rate Calculated by Diffusional Modification of Chemical Zoning: Different Initial Profiles for Diffusion Calculation; Mineralogical Features and REE Distribution in Ortho- and Clinopyroxenes of the HaH 317 Enstatite Chondrite Dhofar 311, 730 and 731: New Lunar Meteorites from Oman; The Deuterium Content of Individual Murchison Amino Acids; Clues to the Formation of PV1, an Enigmatic Carbon-rich Chondritic Clast from the Plainview H-Chondrite Regolith Breccia ;Numerical Simulations of the Production of Extinct Radionuclides and ProtoCAIs by Magnetic Flaring.

  11. Petrography and Geochemistry of Lunar Meteorite Miller Range 13317

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 13317 is a 32-g lunar meteorite collected during the 2013-2014 ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) field season. It was initially described as having 25% black fusion crust covering a light- to dark-grey matrix, with numerous clasts ranging in size up to 1 cm; it was tenta-tively classified as a lunar anorthositic breccia. Here we present the petrography and geochemistry of MIL 13317, and examine possible pairing relationships with previously described lunar meteorites.

  12. Chondritic meteorites and the lunar surface.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Scott, R F

    1967-12-01

    The landing dynamics of and soil penetration by Surveyor I indicated that the lunar soil has a porosity in the range 0.35 to 0.45. Experiments with Surveyor III's surface sampler for soil mechanics show that the lunar soil is approximately incompressible (as the word is used in soil mechanics) and that it has an angle of internal friction of 35 to 37 degrees; these results likewise point to a porosity of 0.35 to 0.45 for the lunar soil. Combination of these porosity measurements with the already-determined radar reflectivity fixes limits to the dielectric constant of the grains of the lunar soil. The highest possible value is about 5.9, relative to vacuum; a more plausible value is near 4.3. Either figure is inconsistent with the idea that the lunar surface is covered by chondritic meteorites or other ultrabasic rocks. The data point to acid rocks, or possibly vesicular basalts; carbonaceous chondrites are not excluded. PMID:17734304

  13. Comparison of lunar rocks and meteorites: Implications to histories of the moon and parent meteorite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.

    1977-01-01

    There are many similarities between lunar samples and stone meteorites. Lunar samples, especially from the highlands, indicate that they have been affected by complex and repeated impact processes. Similar complex and repeated impact processes have also been operative on the achondritic and chondritic meteorites. Similarities between lunar and meteoritic rocks are discussed as follows: (1) Monomict and polymict breccias occur in lunar rocks, as well as in achondritic and chondritic meteorites, having resulted from complex and repeated impact processes; (2) Chondrules are present in lunar meteorites, as well as in a few achondritic and most chondritic meteorites. They apparently crystallized spontaneously from molten highly supercooled droplets which may have formed from impact melts or, perhaps, volcanic processes (as well as from the solar nebula, in the case of meteoritic chondrites); (3) Lithic fragments vary from little modified (relative to the apparent original texture) to partly or completely melted and recrystallized lithic fragments. Their detailed study allows conclusions to be drawn about their parent rock types and their origin, thereby gaining insight into preimpact histories of lunar and meteoritic breccias. There is evidence that cumulate rocks were involved in the early history of both moon and parent meteorite bodies.

  14. Natural thermoluminescence profiles in lunar cores and implications for meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorites and lunar samples have been irradiated by high energy cosmic rays, typically for millions of years. In addition to producing isotopic changes, the irradiation creates ionization which may be recorded in the form of stored thermoluminescence (TL) in certain minerals, the most important of which is feldspar. One aspect of interpreting the TL of these samples is the effect of 'shielding' or depth control, which is particularly important for meteorites, since they have lost an unknown amount of mass during atmospheric entry. Here we report theoretical calculations which we compare with samples from lunar cores for which we have excellent stratigraphic control. We then discuss the implications for these results for the TL of meteorites, which have a different irradiation geometry. We find that, in general, calculated profiles are similar to those observed in lunar samples and meteorites. Additional effects, such as orbital (thermal) history and terrestrial age must also be considered in the case of meteorites.

  15. Lunar and Meteorite Thin Sections for Undergraduate and Graduate Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Galindo, C.; Luckey, M.; Reustle, J.; Todd, N.; Allen, C.

    2012-03-01

    Lunar and meteorite thin sections sets are available from JSC Curation for loans to domestic university petrology classes. See the new website for information http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/Education/index.cfm.

  16. The NWA 773 Clan: A Unique Group of Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, S. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2016-05-01

    The NWA 773 Clan is a unique group of lunar meteorites that represents an intrusive and extrusive magmatic system on the Moon, spanning from early, magnesian lithologies, to late, ferroan lithologies.

  17. Feldspathic Lunar Meteorite Graves Nunataks 06157, a Magnesian Piece of the Lunar Highland Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-07-01

    We will discuss one of the compositional end members of the feldspathic lunar meteorite suite, GRA 06157. It is the smallest lunar meteorite (0.79 g), but despite its small size its highly feldspathic and highly magnesian composition is intriguing.

  18. The Origin of Metal Particles in Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Lin, Y. T.; Hofmann, B. A.; Gnos, E.; Ouyang, Z. Y.

    2012-09-01

    We report SEM and EPMA data of metal grains from 4 lunar meteorites. The Ni-, Co-contents and their correlation of the metal grains suggest a meteorite origin. This result has important affects on application of Re-Os system and 182Hf-182W of metal.

  19. Porosities of lunar meteorites: Strength, porosity, and petrologic screening during the meteorite delivery process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    2001-05-01

    Porosity has been directly measured for eight lunar meteorite breccias and calculated for two more on the basis of literature density measurements. Lunar meteorite regolith breccias display systematically low porosity in comparison to otherwise analogous Apollo regolith breccias. Among seven meteoritic regolith breccias, porosity ranges from 1 to 11% and averages 7.5+/-(1-σ)3.2%, whereas for 44 analogous Apollo samples (porosities mostly calculated from literature density data) the average is 25+/-(1-σ)7%. The origin of this disparity is enigmatic, but the trend probably reflects mainly a bias in favor of strong, compact breccias among fragments that manage to survive the violent process of launch to lunar escape velocity (2.38 km/s). In addition, compaction during launch may play an important role. The population of lunar meteorites is clearly not a random, unmodified sample of lithic materials near the surface of the parent body.

  20. The discovery of iron barringerite in lunar meteorite Y-793274

    SciTech Connect

    Brandstatter, F.; Kurat, G. ); Koeberl, C. )

    1991-04-01

    The higher phosphide barringerite, (Fe,Ni){sub 2}P, has been found in a thin section of the Y-793274 lunar meteorite. This meteorite originated from a highlands/mare boundary and contains mare and highlands components in a 2:1 ratio. The original report of barringerite was from the Ollague pallasite; however, there is uncertainty where the barringerite in this pallasite may have formed terrestrially. Terrestrial weathering or artificial heating as the source of the barringerite in the lunar meteorite can be excluded. Therefore, Y-793274 seems to contain the first unambiguous extraterrestrial occurrence of barringerite.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Isotopes in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session"Isotopes in Meteorites" consisted of the following presentations:The Common Property of Isotopic Anomalies in Meteorites; Revised Production Rates for 22Na and 54Mn in Meteorites Using Cross Sections Measured for Neutron-induced Reactions; Modeling of 14C and 10Be Production Rates in Meteorites and Lunar Samples; Investigating Xenon Isotopic Fractionation During Rayleigh-type Distillation; The Mean Life Squared Relationship for Abundances of Extinct Radioactivities; and Magnesium Isotopic Fractionation of Forsterite During Evaporation from Different Crystallographic Surfaces.

  2. The Thermal and Radiation Exposure History of Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Symes, Steven J. K.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) of seven lunar meteorites in order to examine their crystallization, irradiation, and recent thermal histories. Lunar meteorites have induced TL properties similar to Apollo samples of the same provenance (highland or mare), indicating similar crystallization and metamorphic histories. MacAlplne Hills 88104/5 has experienced the greatest degree of impact/regolith processing among the highland-dominated meteorites. The basaltic breccia QUE 94281 is dominated by mare component but may also contain a significant highland component. For the mare-dominated meteorites, EET 87521 may have a significant highland impact-melt component, while Asuka 881757 and Y-793169 have been heavily shocked. The thermal history of Y-793169 included slow cooling, either during impact processing or during its initial crystallization. Our natural TL data indicate that most lunar meteorites have apparently been irradiated in space a few thousand years, with most less than 15,000 a. Elephant Moraine 87521 has the lowest irradiation exposure time, being less than 1,000 a. Either the natural TL of ALHA81005, Asuka 881757 and Y-82192 was only partially reset by lunar ejection or these meteorites were in small perihelia orbits (less than or equal to 0.7 AU).

  3. Lunar and Meteorite Thin Sections for Undergraduate and Graduate Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Allen, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach. Studies of rock and soil samples from the Moon and meteorites continue to yield useful information about the early history of the Moon, the Earth, and the inner solar system. Petrographic Thin Section Packages containing polished thin sections of samples from either the Lunar or Meteorite collections have been prepared. Each set of twelve sections of Apollo lunar samples or twelve sections of meteorites is available for loan from JSC. The thin sections sets are designed for use in domestic college and university courses in petrology. The loan period is very strict and limited to two weeks. Contact Ms. Mary Luckey, Education Sample Curator. Email address: mary.k.luckey@nasa.gov Each set of slides is accompanied by teaching materials and a sample disk of representative lunar or meteorite samples. It is important to note that the samples in these sets are not exactly the same as the ones listed here. This list represents one set of samples. A key education resource available on the Curation website is Antarctic Meteorite Teaching Collection: Educational Meteorite Thin Sections, originally compiled by Bevan French, Glenn McPherson, and Roy Clarke and revised by Kevin Righter in 2010. Curation Websites College and university staff and students are encouraged to access the Lunar Petrographic Thin Section Set Publication and the Meteorite Petrographic Thin Section Package Resource which feature many thin section images and detailed descriptions of the samples, research results. http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/Education/index.cfm Request research samples: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ JSC-CURATION-EDUCATION-DISKS@mail.nasa.govLunar Thin Sections; Meteorite Thin Sections;

  4. Petrography and Geochemistry of Feldspathic Lunar Meteorite Larkman Nunatak 06638

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    LAR 06638 is a glassy-matrix lunar regolith breccia based on the presence of glass spherules, which also contains prominent clasts of a feldspathic fragmental breccia lithology. The similarity in composition of the two lithologies is unsurprising given the observed similarities in the clast populations and mineral compositions in both lithologies. The small differences in composition are likely explained by the incorporation of small amounts of more diverse material into the regolith breccia lithologies, e.g., KREEPy glass clasts to account for the higher siderophile and ITE concentrations and excess plagioclase to account for the lower concentrations of mafic elements and increased Na concentrations. Given the relatively small masses analyzed (approx.120 mg of each lithology), these small compositional differences could also be sampling effects. The presense of multiple generations of glass coatings on LAR 06638 is, to our knowledge, unique among lunar meteorites. The more mafic, schlieren and nanophase Fe bearing glass is similar in morphology to the South Ray Crater glass coatings at the Apollo 16 site [3] and likely has a similar origin. The outer, more feldspathic glass has a morphology typical of fusion crust observed on other feldspathic lunar meteorites. It is unclear at this time whether the partially melted glass area represents a partially formed fusion crust or incipient melting due to heating on the lunar surface, likely from an overlying (and possibly ablated) glass splash coating. LAR 06638 is unlikely to be source-crater paired with any other lunar meteorites. For all elements, it plots right in the range of "typical feldspathic lunar meteorites" [4]. Among lunar meteorites from Antarctica, LAR 06638 most closely resembles MAC 88104/5 in composition, although it is slightly more feldspathic and 1.8 richer in siderophile elements. Compositionally it is more similar to hot-desert meteorites like Dhofar 490/1084 and NWA 2200 [4].

  5. Geochemistry of Lunar Highland Meteorites Mil, 090034, 090036 AND 090070

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirai, N.aoki; Ebihara, M.; Sekimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Nyquist, L.; Shih, C.-Y.; Park, J.; Nagao, K.

    2012-01-01

    Apollo and Luna samples were collected from a restricted area on the near side of the Moon, while the source craters of the lunar meteorites are randomly distributed. For example, Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] found a variety of lithic clasts in Dho 489 and Y 86032 which were not represented by Apollo samples, and some of these clasts have lower rare earth elements (REE) and FeO abundances than Apollo anorthosites, respectively. Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] concluded that Dho 489 and Y 86032 originated from the lunar farside. Therefore, lunar meteorites provide an opportunity to study lunar surface rocks from areas not sampled by Apollo and Luna missions. Three lunar anorthitic breccias (MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070) were found on the Miller Range Ice Field in Antarctica during the 2009-2010 ANSMET season [3]. In this study, we determined elemental abudnances for MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070 by using INAA and aimed to characterize these meteorites in chemical compositions in comparison with those for other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples.

  6. Mixing of the lunar regolith. [by meteoritic impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Hoerz, F.; Brownlee, D. E.; Hartung, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    A probabilistic model for mixing and turnover rates for the lunar regolith due to meteoritic impact is presented and evaluated using results from laboratory impact experiments and estimated meteoritic fluxes. The upper millimeter of the lunar surface is shown to be the primary mixing zone in the regolith and an important source for impact melts and vapors. Below this 'mixing layer' the rate of mixing and turnover decreases very rapidly with increasing depth, consistent with well-preserved stratigraphy and resident times deduced from deep drill core tube samples.

  7. Lunar and Meteorite Thin Sections for Undergraduate and Graduate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J.; Galindo, C.; Luckey, M.; Reustle, J.; Todd, N.; Allen, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand and dust from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected on US expeditions to Antarctica including rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. Studies of rock and soil samples from the Moon and meteorites continue to yield useful information about the early history of the Moon, the Earth, and the inner solar system.

  8. Comparison of lunar rocks and meteorites: Implications to histories of the moon and parent meteorite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.

    1974-01-01

    A number of similarities between lunar and meteoritic rocks are reported and suggest that the comparison is essential for a clear understanding of meteorites as probes of the early history of the solar systems: (1) Monomict and polymict breccias occur in lunar rocks, as well as in achondritic and chondritic meteorites, having resulted from complex and repeated impact processes. (2) Chondrules are present in lunar, as well as in a few achondritic and most chondritic meteorites. It is pointed out that because chondrules may form in several different ways and in different environments, a distinction between the different modes of origin and an estimate of their relative abundance is important if their significance as sources of information on the early history of the solar system is to be clearly understood. (3) Lithic fragments are very useful in attempts to understand the pre- and post-impact history of lunar and meteoritic breccias. They vary from little modified (relative to the apparent original texture), to partly or completely melted and recrystallized lithic fragments.

  9. The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Lunar Mare Basalts As Deduced From Analysis of Data for Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence; Basilevsky, A.; Neukum, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we analyze chronological data for lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/lmc/contents.cfm cited thereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter and from the associated literature.

  10. Compositional Evidence for Launch Pairing of the YQ and Elephant Moraine Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jollitt, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Arai and Warren provide convincing evidence that QUE (Queen Alexandra Range) 94281 derives from the same regolith as Y (Yamato) 793274 and, therefore, that the two meteorites were likely ejected from the Moon by the same impact. Recently discovered Y981031 is paired with Y793274. The "YQ" meteorites (Y793274/Y981031 and QUE 94281 are unique among lunar meteorites in being regolith breccias composed of subequal amounts of mare volcanic material (a VLT [very-low-Ti] basalt or gabbro) and feldspathic highland material. EET (Elephant Moraine) 87521 and its pair EET 96008 are fragmental breccias composed mainly of VLT basalt or gabbro. Warren, Arai, and colleagues note that the volcanic components of the YQ and EET meteorites are texturally similar more similar to each other than either is to mare basalts of the Apollo collection. Warren and colleagues address the issue of possible launch pairing of YQ and EET, but note compositional differences between EET and the volcanic component of YQ, as inferred from extrapolations of regressions to high FeO concentration. We show here that: (1) EET 87/96 consists of fragments of a differentiated magma body, (2) subsamples of EET represent a mixing trend between Fe-rich and Mg-rich differentiates, and (3) the inferred volcanic component of YQ is consistent with a point on the EET mixing line. Thus, there is no compositional impediment to the hypothesis that YQ is launch paired with EET.

  11. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105: A new FAN of lunar petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, C.R. Univ. of Notre Dame, IN ); Taylor, L.A. ); Lui, Yungang; Schmitt, R.A. )

    1991-11-01

    New lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 represents an exciting new opportunity to study a potentially unsampled region of the Moon. The authors have analyzed six thin sections by electron microprobe and three bulk samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation (INA) in order to determine the chemical characteristics of this new lunar sample. Lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts which appear to be of basaltic origin. One of these basaltic clasts (clast E in MAC88105,84) is probably mesostasis material, whereas the second larger clast (clast G) may be similar to the Very Low-Ti (VLT) or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105,69 and ,72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite. There is little evidence of any LKFM (Low-K Fra Mauro or low-K KREEP) contribution to this meteorite, as MAC88104/5 and other brecciated lunar meteorites are Fe-rich and poor in the incompatible elements relative to Apollo 16 regolith and feldspathic breccias. While the exact site of origin for the lunar meteorites cannot be pinpointed, it is evident that they were divided from a relatively KREEP-free ferroan anorthosite terrain.

  12. Discovery of seifertite in a shocked lunar meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Masaaki; Kaneko, Shohei; Ohtani, Eiji; Sakai, Takeshi; Nagase, Toshiro; Kayama, Masahiro; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Hirao, Naohisa

    2013-04-01

    Many craters and thick regoliths of the moon imply that it has experienced heavy meteorite bombardments. Although the existence of a high-pressure polymorph is a stark evidence for a dynamic event, few high-pressure polymorphs are found in a lunar sample. α-PbO2-type silica (seifertite) is an ultrahigh-pressure polymorph of silica, and is found only in a heavily shocked Martian meteorite. Here we show evidence for seifertite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Northwest Africa 4734. Cristobalite transforms to seifertite by high-pressure and -temperature condition induced by a dynamic event. Considering radio-isotopic ages determined previously, the dynamic event formed seifertite on the moon, accompanying the complete resetting of radio-isotopic ages, is ~2.7 Ga ago. Our finding allows us to infer that such intense planetary collisions occurred on the moon until at least ~2.7 Ga ago.

  13. Exposure and Terrestrial Histories of New Lunar and Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Hillegonds, D. J.; McHargue, L. R.; Jull, A. J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclide studies of lunar and Martian meteorites have contributed significantly to our understanding of these objects. By measuring a combination of cosmogenic stable- and radionuclides, we can determine a number of important properties of those meteorites. Most lunar meteorites have complex cosmic ray exposure histories, having been exposed both at some depth on the lunar surface (2 irradiation) before their ejection and as small bodies in space (4 irradiation) during transport from the Moon to the Earth. On the other hand, we have not observed evidence of complex exposure history for any Martian meteorites, so far. These exposures were then followed by residence on Earth s surface, a time commonly referred to as the terrestrial age. In addition to their complement of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) produced nuclides some lunar and Martian meteorites contain nuclides produced by solar cosmic rays (SCR). Unraveling the complex history of these objects requires the measurement of at least four cosmogenic nuclides. The specific goals of these measurements are to constrain or set limits on the following shielding or exposure parameters: (1) the depth of the sample at the time of ejection from the Moon or Mars; (2) the transit time (4 exposure age) from ejection off the lunar or Martian surface to the time of capture by the Earth and (3) the terrestrial residence time. The sum of the transit time and residence time yield an ejection age. The ejection age, in conjunction with the sample depth on the Moon or Mars, can then be used to model impact and ejection mechanisms.

  14. Radioactivites in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    The cosmic-ray, solar-flare, and solar-wind bombardments of lunar rocks and soils and meteorites were studied by measurements of tritium, carbon-14 and argon radioactivity. The radioactivity integrates the bombardment for a time period equal to several half-lines. H-3, Ar-37, Ar-39, C-14. For the interior samples of lunar rocks and for deep lunar soil samples, the amounts of the radioactivities were equal to those calculated for galactic cosmic-ray interactions. The top near-surface samples of lunar rocks and the shallow lunar soil samples show excess amounts of the radioactivities attributable to solar flares. Lunar soil fines contain a large amount of hydrogen due to implanted solar wind. Studies of the H-3 in lunar soils and in recovered Surveyor-3 materials gave an upper limit for the H-3/H ratio in the solar wind of 10 to the -11th power. Solar wind carbon is also implanted on lunar soil fines. Lunar soils collected on the surface contained a 0.14 component attributable to implanted solar wind C-14. The C-14/H ratio attributed to the solar wind from this C-14 excess is approximately 4 x 10 to the -11th power.

  15. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, E; Ozawa, S; Miyahara, M; Ito, Y; Mikouchi, T; Kimura, M; Arai, T; Sato, K; Hiraga, K

    2011-01-11

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO(2) in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8-30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the (39)Ar/(40)Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment. PMID:21187434

  16. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, E.; Ozawa, S.; Miyahara, M.; Ito, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Arai, T.; Sato, K.; Hiraga, K.

    2011-01-01

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO2 in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8–30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the 39Ar/40Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment. PMID:21187434

  17. Applications of activation analysis to geochemical, meteoritic and lunar studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, D. L.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of activation analysis techniques to the analysis of cosmological materials, i.e., terrestrial, tektitic, meteoritic, and lunar matter, is reviewed. Elemental determinations can be made by instrumental fast-neutron and thermal-neutron activation analysis, photonuclear and charged-particle activation analysis, and by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Partition-coefficient methods, autoradiography studies, gamma-gamma coincidence counting, and age determination by neutron activation are discussed. Attention is given to K-Ar and I-Xe dating of meteorites.

  18. COMPARISON OF LUNAR WITH TERRESTRIAL AND METEORITIC ROCKS*

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Francis J.; Ulbrich, Mabel

    1969-01-01

    This note examines critically recent attempts to identify or closely correlate lunar surface samples—on the basis of alpha-scattering analysis—with terrestrial igneous rocks (basalts) or with eucrite meteorites. Basalts show considerable variety; but all have chemical characteristics inherited from terrestrial mantle rock melted under a limited range of terrestrial pressure-temperature conditions. What is characteristic is not so much the content of any particular element or oxide—e.g., SiO2 47-52 per cent—but rather a complete chemical pattern in which such ratios as Fe/Mg and Ca/(Na + K) show consistent relationships to Si content. These are the chemical criteria that might be useful in comparing terrestrial basalt with extraterrestrial rocks. Basalts also have distinctive mineralogical and textural characteristics; and if a lunar or meteoritic rock is to be identified as basalt it must possess these, too. Turkevich's analysis of alpha-scattering data for lunar samples (Surveyor V) show significant departure from basaltic composition: Very high (Ca + K)/Na associated with distinctly high Fe/Mg. In basalts relatively high (Ca + K)/Na—in no case approaching the reported lunar values—tends to be associated with Fe/Mg values lower than average. The same “lunar” pattern of high (Ca + K)/Na and Fe/Mg appears in recorded analyses of eucrite meteorites. In the lunar samples, Ti is notably higher than in basalts, and even more so than in eucrites. If eucrites are of lunar origin their Ti values are, so far, a real anomaly. PMID:16591797

  19. Ion-beam analysis of meteoritic and lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    Charged particle-induced nuclear reactions were used in the following problems: the determination of elemental abundances of boron and fluorine in carbonaceous chondritic meteorites; the identification of products of lunar vulcanism; and the study of solar wind-implanted atoms in lunar materials. The technique was seen as an important supplement to other methods of elemental and isotopic analysis. This was especially true for cases involving light elements at very low concentrations or where high resolution depth distribution information was needed in non-destructive analysis.

  20. Connecting Lunar Meteorites to Source Terrains on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Carpenter, P. K.; Korotev, R. L.; North-Valencia, S. N.; Wittmann, A.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    The number of named stones found on Earth that have proven to be meteorites from the Moon is approx. 180 so far. Since the Moon has been mapped globally in composition and mineralogy from orbit, it has become possible to speculate broadly on the region of origin on the basis of distinctive compositional characteristics of some of the lunar meteorites. In particular, Lunar Prospector in 1998 [1,2] mapped Fe and Th at 0.5 degree/pixel and major elements at 5 degree/pixel using gamma ray spectroscopy. Also, various multispectral datasets have been used to derive FeO and TiO2 concentrations at 100 m/pixel spatial resolution or better using UV-VIS spectral features [e.g., 3]. Using these data, several lunar meteorite bulk compositions can be related to regions of the Moon that share their distinctive compositional characteristics. We then use EPMA to characterize the petrographic characteristics, including lithic clast components of the meteorites, which typically are breccias. In this way, we can extend knowledge of the Moon's crust to regions beyond the Apollo and Luna sample-return sites, including sites on the lunar farside. Feldspathic Regolith Breccias. One of the most distinctive general characteristics of many lunar meteorites is that they have highly feldspathic compositions (Al2O3 approx. 28% wt.%, FeO <5 wt.%, Th <1 ppm). These compositions are significant because they are similar to a vast region of the Moon's farside highlands, the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane, which are characterized by low Fe and Th in remotely sensed data [4]. The meteorites provide a perspective on the lithologic makeup of this part of the Moon, specifically, how anorthositic is the surface and what, if any, are the mafic lithic components? These meteorites are mostly regolith breccias dominated by anorthositic lithic clasts and feldspathic glasses, but they do also contain a variety of more mafic clasts. On the basis of textures, we infer these clasts to have formed by large impacts

  1. Pairing Relationships Among Feldspathic Lunar Meteorites from Miller Range, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Range ice fields have been amongst the most prolific for lunar meteorites that ANSMET has searched [1-3]. Six different stones have been recovered during the 2005, 2007, and 2009 field seasons: MIL 05035 (142 g), MIL 07006 (1.4 g), MIL 090034 (196 g), MIL 090036 (245 g), MIL 090070 (137 g), and MIL 090075 (144 g). Of these, the five stones collected during the 2007 and 2009 seasons are feldspathic breccias. Previous work on the Miller Range feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) has suggested that they are not all paired with each other [4-5]. Here we examine the pairing relationships among the Miller Range FLMs using petrography in concert with traceand major-element compositions.

  2. Lunar basalt meteorite EET 87521: Petrology of the clast population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semenova, A. S.; Nazarov, M. A.; Kononkova, N. N.

    1993-01-01

    The Elephant Moraine meteorite EET 87521 was classified as a lunar mare basalt breccia which is composed mainly of VLT basalt clasts. Here we report on our petrological study of lithic clasts and monomineralic fragments in the thin sections EET 87521,54 and EET 87521,47,1, which were prepared from the meteorite. The results of the study show that EET 87521 consists mainly of Al-rich ferrobasalt clasts and olivine pyroxenite clasts. The bulk composition of the meteorite can be well modelled by the mixing of these lithic components which appear to be differentiates of the Luna 25 basalt melt. KREEP and Mg-rich gabbro components are minor constituents of EET 87521.

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Martian Meteorites: Petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Martian Meteorites: Petrology: included the following reports:Volatile Behavior in Lunar and Terrestrial Basalts During Shock: Implications for Martian Magmas; Problems with a Low-Pressure Tholeiitic Magmatic History for the Chassigny Dunite; Fast Cooling History of the Chassigny Martian Meteorite; Rehomogenized Interstitial and Inclusion Melts in Lherzolitic Shergottite ALH 77005: Petrologic Significance; Compositional Controls on the Formation of Kaersutite Amphibole in Shergottite Meteorites; Chemical Characteristics of an Olivine-Phyric Shergottite, Yamato 980459; Pb-Hf-Sr-Nd Isotopic Systematics and Age of Nakhlite NWA 998; Noble Gases in Two Samples of EETA 79001 (Lith. A); Experimental Constraints on the Iron Content of the Martian Mantle; and Mars as the Parent Body for the CI Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Data.

  4. Carbon-14 in lunar soil and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    C-14 was measured in grain-size fractions of lunar soil 10084 and in samples of the Bruderheim chondrite and of several meteorites recently found in Antarctica (Allan Hills no. 5, 6, and 8). Temperature-release patterns were investigated. It was found that C-14 is released at temperatures below melting from small soil grains (less than 74 microns), but not from meteorites or from large soil grains. Below-melting C-14 contents increase with decreasing grain size in a manner similar to solar-wind-implanted rare-gas isotope contents (Eberhardt et al., 1970), whereas the C-14 released above melting temperatures is independent of grain size, suggesting that below-melting C-14 is solar-wind-implanted and above-melting C-14 is the result of cosmic ray spallations. The activity of C-14 in lunar samples is half that measured in the Bruderheim meteorite, which fell on May 4, 1970. No C-14 activity was observed in the Allan Hills chondrites; the C-14 limits suggest that these meteorites fell more than 25,000 years ago.

  5. Exposure history of the lunar meteorite, Elephant Moraine 87521

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.; Eugster, O.; Michel, TH.; Niedermann, S.; Kraehenbuhl, U.; Middleton, R.; Dezfouly-Arjomandy, B.; Fink, D.; Klein, J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the noble gas concentrations and the Al-26, Be-10, Cl-36, and Ca-41 activities of the Antarctic lunar meteorite Elephant Moraine 87521. Although the actual exposure history of the meteorite may have been more complex, the following model history accounts satisfactorily for the cosmogenic nuclide data: A first stage of lunar irradiation for about 1 Ma at a depth of 1-5 g/sq cm followed, not necessarily directly, by a second one for 26 Ma at about 565 g/sq cm; launch from the moon less than 0.1 Ma ago; and arrival on earth 15-50 ka ago. The small concentration of trapped gases shows that except for some material that may have been introduced at the moment of launch, EET 87521 spent less than 1 Ma at a lunar depth less than 1 g/sq cm. EET 87521 has a K/Ar age in the range 3.0-3.4 Ga, which is typical for lunar mare basalts.

  6. The Delivery of Martian and Lunar Meteorites to Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladman, B.; Burns, J.

    1996-09-01

    Using a regularized mixed-variable symplectic integration code (including the effects of the planets from Mercury through Neptune), we numerically integrate the orbits of ejecta thrown off the terrestrial planets for times of 10(7) --10(8) years. Particles are followed until they impact a planet, strike the Sun, or cross the orbit of Jupiter. The distribution of transit times for Earth-impacting objects is compared with the cosmic-ray exposure data for the lunar and martian meteorites. This comparison is consistent with a recurrent ejection of small (cm to dm) meteoroids due to impacts on their parent bodies. Long-range gravitational effects, especially secular resonances, strongly influence the orbits of many meteoroids and can increase meteoroid collision rates with other planets and even the Sun. These effects, and collisional destruction in the asteroid belt, result in shortened time scales and higher fluxes than previously believed, especially for martian meteorites. A small flux of mercurian meteorites appears possible; recovery of ejecta from the Earth and Venus is less likely. We have developed a model which calculates the expected transfer-age spectrum in terms of the impactor flux onto the Moon and Mars. The non-zero, but finite, age of the Antarctic ice sheet is crucial in understanding the different distributions of transfer ages in the lunar and martian cases. To match the data, most recently arrived lunar meteorites must have been launched by impactors of diameter D < 100 m which struck the Moon in the last few hundred thousand years. In contrast, martian meteorites were launched by impactors several kilometers in diameter that struck Mars several million years ago. The number of meteoroids launched by each impact must scale as D(2) in the lunar case, but D(3) for Mars. Different surface properties for the Moon and Mars may account for these differences. In connection with the transport of microfossils to and from Earth, we show that a small fraction

  7. The Origin and Impact History of Lunar Meteorite Yamato 86032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Ebihara, M.; Karouji, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Yamato (Y) 86032 is a feldspathic lunar highland breccia having some characteristics of regolith breccia. The absence of KREEP components in the matrix in Y86032 indicates that these meteorites came from a long distance from Mare Imbrium, perhaps from the far-side of the moon. One ferroan anorthosite (FAN) clast in Y86032 has a very old Ar-Ar age of approximately 4.35-4.4 Ga. The negative Nd of this clast may suggest a direct link with the primordial magma ocean. The facts indicate that Y86032 contains components derived from a protolith of the original lunar crust. Detailed petrologic characterization of each component in this breccia is essential to understand the early impact history and origin of the lunar highland crust. We made a large slab (5.2 x 3.6 cm x 3-5 mm) of Y86032 to better understand the relationship of various lithologies and their petrologic origin.

  8. Lunar Meteorite Northeast Africa 003-A: Microstructures, Crystallization Modeling and Possible Lunar Source Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haloda, J.; Gabzdyl, P.; Tycova, P.; Fernandes, V. A.

    2007-03-01

    Lunar meteorite NEA 003-A is a low-Ti olivine-rich mare basalt with recently determined young Ar-Ar age of 2.377 Ga. The microstructures in the rock together with crystallization modeling indicate relatively stable magma crystallization conditions. Possib

  9. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, M.M.; McKay, D.S. ); Wentworth, S.J.; Martinez, R.R.; Mittlefehldt, D.W. ); Wang, Mingsheng; Lipschutz, M.E. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 are anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered from the same area in Antarctica which are demonstrated to be paired samples of the same fall. Petrographic studies of matrix and clasts show that mAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It contains a small amount of highland impact glass and very few regolith glass spherules. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan (mg{prime} = 63) and highly aluminous (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 28%). REE and other incompatible element concentrations are very low. Compositions of anorthositic, granulitic, and impact melt breccia clasts are very similar to, but distinct from, matrix composition. MAC88104/5 is very similar in composition to the other anorthositic lunar meteorites, but each of the meteorites is distinct. The anorthositic lunar meteorites, especially MAC88104/5 and Y82192/3/86032, are very similar to North Ray Crater feldspathic fragmental breccias in composition and petrography. These fragmental lunar meteorites may have been ancient, deeply buried breccias from the megaregolith. Comparisons of chemical petrographic features and exposure histories suggest that the twelve lunar meteorites were derived from two to nine, but probably four to seven, impact onto the lunar surface. Discrepancies between the proportions of lunar meteorites and results of Apollo missions may be due to unrepresentative sampling. Lunar meteorites provide valuable new information on the nature of the lunar crust.

  10. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model.

    PubMed

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-09-13

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. PMID:25114312

  11. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Sara S.; Joy, Katherine H.; Jeffries, Teresa E.; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. PMID:25114312

  12. Fieldpath Lunar Meteorite Graves Nunataks 06157, a Magnesian Piece of the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, 49 feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) have been recovered, likely representing a minimum of 35 different sample locations in the lunar highlands. The compositional variability among FLMs far exceeds the variability observed among highland samples in the Apollo and Luna sample suites. Here we will discuss in detail one of the compositional end members of the FLM suite, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06157, which was collected by the 2006-2007 ANSMET field team. At 0.79 g, GRA 06157 is the smallest lunar meteorite so far recovered. Despite its small size, its highly feldspathic and highly magnesian composition are intriguing. Although preliminary bulk compositions have been reported, thus far no petrographic descriptions are in the literature. Here we expand upon the bulk compositional data, including major-element compositions, and provide a detailed petrographic description of GRA 06157.

  13. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary C-14 study on lunar soil was carried out with the University of Toronto Iso Trace accelerator mass spectrometer. This accelerator was recommended for C-14 work by Dr. R. Schneider of A.S. and E., who was the field engineer during the assemblage and start-up operation of the accelerator. After the preliminary study using CO2 from 10084,937 soil, which had previously been counted with low-level mini-proportional counters, it became clear that the Toronto accelerator could carry out C-14/C-13/C-12 ratio measurements on 1 gram meteorite and lunar samples and that the C-14 measurements are done with higher precision and better reliability than elsewhere. A collaborative program with the University of Toronto Iso Trace accelerator group, which is expected to be scientifically fruitful. Arrangements have been made for Dr. R.P. Beukens of the Toronto Accelerator Group to extract the carbon compounds from Antarctic meteorite and lunar samples and to convert the compounds to CO2. During the past two years, a uranium-series dating method was developed for polar ice, which method is being applied to ice from the Allan Hills site, Byrd core, and the Beardsmore glacier.

  14. Evolved mare basalt magmatism, high Mg/Fe feldspathic crust, chondritic impactors, and the petrogenesis of Antarctic lunar breccia meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Floss, Christine; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Anand, Mahesh; Patchen, Allan D.

    2006-12-01

    Antarctic lunar meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007 are breccias that come from different regolith lithologies on the Moon. MET 01210 is composed predominantly of fractionated low-Ti basaltic material and is classified as an immature, predominantly basaltic glassy matrix regolith breccia. PCA 02007 is a predominantly feldspathic regolith breccia consisting of metamorphosed feldspathic, noritic, troctolitic and noritic-anorthosite clasts, agglutinate and impact-glasses, as well as a number of basaltic clasts with mare and possible non-mare affinities. The basalt clasts in MET 01210 have undergone 'Fenner' trend enrichments in iron and may also have witnessed late-stage crystallization of zircon or a zirconium-rich mineral. Some of the features of MET 01210 are similar to other basaltic lunar breccia meteorites (e.g., Northwest Africa 773; Elephant Moraine 87521/96008; Yamato 793274/981031), but it is not paired with them. The presence of metamorphic anorthositic clasts as well as agglutinates indicates a small regolith component. Similarities with previously discovered evolved (e.g., LaPaz Icefield 02205; Northwest Africa 032) and ferroan (e.g., Asuka 881757; Yamato 793169) basaltic lunar meteorites suggest a similar mare source region for MET 01210. Despite lack of evidence for pairing, PCA 02007 shares many features with other feldspathic regolith breccias (e.g., Yamato 791197, Queen Alexandra Range 94281), including a high Mg/Fe whole-rock composition, glass spherules, agglutinate fragments and a diverse clast inventory spanning the range of ferroan anorthosite and high magnesium suite rocks. Some of the basalt fragments in this sample are fractionated and have an igneous origin. However, the majority of the basalt fragments are impact melt clasts. PCA 02007 supports previous studies of feldspathic lunar meteorites that have suggested an aluminous crust for the Moon, with compositions more similar to magnesium granulite breccias than

  15. Petrography of Lunar Meteorite MET 01210, A New Basaltic Regolith Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar meteorite MET 01210 (hereafter referred to as MET) is a 22.8 g breccia collected during the 2001 field season in the Meteorite Hills, Antarctica. Although initially classified as an anorthositic breccia, MET is a regolith breccia composed predominantly of very-low-Ti (VLT) basaltic material. Four other brecciated lunar meteorites (NWA 773, QUE 94281, EET 87/96, Yamato 79/98) with a significant VLT basaltic component have been identified. We present here the petrography and bulk major element composition of MET and compare it to previously studied basaltic lunar meteorite breccias.

  16. Petrography of Lunar Meteorite PCA02007, a New Feldspathic Regolith Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2004-01-01

    PCA 02007 is a 22.4 g lunar meteorite collected in 2003 near the Pecora Escarpment in Antarctica [1]. PCA is a feldspathic regolith breccia composed of mature regolith. It is compositionally and texturally similar to other feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) [2] and may be launch paired with Yamato 791197 [3]. Here we present a petrographic description and compositions of mineral clasts, glass clasts, lithic clasts, and the bulk meteorite.

  17. Mineralogy of the Lunar Crust through Complex Craters and Links to Lunar Meteorite Geologic Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, P.; Hiroi, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Hawke, B. R.; Pieters, C. M.; Liu, Y.; Patchen, A.; Taylor, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Orbital measurements allow the composition of planetary surfaces to be mapped globally, something not possible with returned samples. Optical instruments such as reflectance spectrometers, which are sensitive to the very uppermost surface (~1-2 mm depth), provide the highest spatial resolution of the various compositional remote sensing techniques. Major lunar rock-forming minerals exhibit diagnostic absorptions across visible to near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths, and data returned by VNIR reflectance spectrometers enable global mineralogical mapping. Focused analyses of central peaks eliminate two of the drawbacks of remote VNIR reflectance spectroscopy. The steep slopes of central peaks inhibit the development of a thick regolith layer, meaning that central peaks are relatively optically immature and thus preserve the diagnostic spectral absorption features critical to compositional analyses. Furthermore, the crater formation process brings to the surface materials from depth [e.g., Melosh, 1989, Cintala and Grieve, 1998], exposing materials that would otherwise be inaccessible to optical remote sensing. We will present a survey of lunar crater central peaks, following the work of Tompkins and Pieters [1999] and Cahill et al. [2009], who used Clementine UVVIS multispectral data. We employ a band fitting procedure that gives estimates of the position, strength, and width of the mafic 1 μm absorption feature, which are used to evaluate the mineralogy of the central peaks. In addition to the central peaks survey, we will present laboratory spectroscopy data for a suite of lunar meteorite samples. The lunar meteorites offer an important opportunity for "new-sample science" due to their diverse source regions from across the Moon, as opposed to the very limited coverage of manned exploration missions. However, the scientific utility of the lunar meteorites is limited by a lack of geologic context for the samples. Our sample suite includes a range of compositions

  18. Lunar Meteorites: What They Tell us About the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.

    2010-01-01

    Here we analyze the chronology and statistical distribution of lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ antmet/ lmc/contents.cfm cited hereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter, NASA Johnson Space Center, and from the associated literature. The Compendium was last modified on May 12, 2008.

  19. Lunar meteorite Yamato-86032 - Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Kurat, Gero; Brandstaetter, Franz

    1990-01-01

    Yamato-86032 is a shock-lithified anorthositic fragmental breccia. It consists mainly of highly feldspathic meta-breccias and meta-meltrocks and possibly contains a small contribution from mare lithologies, but there is no indication of a KREEP component. In many respects Y-86032 is similar to the previously described lunar meteorites Y-82192/3, but there are some notable differences. We have analyzed about 40 major and trace elements in bulk matrix, impact melt, and clast samples from two chips of Y-86032. The abundances of most lithophile and incompatible elements are lower in Y-86032 than in Y-82192 (which contains very low abundances compared to normal lunar highland rocks). The REE abundances are comparable to those of Y-82192. The elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co have significantly lower abundances than in Y-82192, and the siderophile element pattern is also different. Since cosmic ray exposure data indicate pairing of Y-86032 with Y-82192/3, the source region for these meteorites on the moon must have been fairly heterogeneous.

  20. Mineralogic and petrologic studies of lunar samples and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental and thermodynamic research on the pressure temperature limits of the stability of the mineral assemblages found in pristine, spinel bearing lunar highland lithologies demonstrated the likelihood that the minerals originated in the lower stratigraphic levels of the primordial crust. The phase equilibrium in silicate solid/liquid systems of planetary importance were thermochemically interpreted in order to model the early formation of the crusts and maneles of Earth and Moon sized planets. The petrography and chemical composition of coarse grained gabbro, the chemical analysis and age dating of clasts from Apollo 16 breccia, the analysis of glass particles from Apollo 16 soil samples, the study of Allende and Mokoia meteorites as a source of information about events in the solar nebula, and the hydrothermal alteration of amorphous materials were also investigated. The capabilities of a model for addressing the problem of the origin of the Earth's moon by the disruptive capture mechanism are examined as well as models of the thermal evolution of hypothetical meteorite bodies. Progress in determining the composition of stony meteorite specimens collected at the Allan Hills site during the Antarctic field exploration is reported.

  1. The Influence of Terrestrial Weathering on Implanted Solar Gases in Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, I. A.; Verchovsky, A. V.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    The recent discovery of two large lunar meteorites in the Dar al Gani (DaG) region of the Libyan Sahara desert (DaG 262 and DaG 400) have sparked considerable and wide ranging interest in lunar material. The addition of lunar meteorites to the collections of extraterrestrial material have greatly complemented the suite of samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions almost 30 years ago, extending the range of materials available for investigation. However, care may be required in interpreting variations seen in the lunar meteorite population and also any differences with the returned lunar samples. As has been noted previously in the comparison of ordinary chondrite populations from Antarctica, hot deserts and observed falls, variations between the populations may be attributed to their interaction with the different terrestrial environments they have been exposed to rather than indigenous, pre-atmospheric differences. In the case of the lunar samples this effect may be even more extreme as all the lunar meteorites are finds whereas the returned lunar samples were collected and subsequently stored in as near to ideal conditions as practically possible. Other factors related to the high levels of radiation damage suffered by materials in the lunar regolith may also make certain aspects of the lunar meteorites susceptible to terrestrial weathering. The particular interest behind this paper is how terrestrial weathering may have influenced the abundance and release characteristics of the implanted solar gases.

  2. MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 lunar highland meteorites: General description and consortium overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, M.M. ); Schwarz, C.; Score, R. ); Mason, B. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 are new lunar meteorites returned from Antarctica by the 1988-1989 US meteorite collection team. The two specimens were found in nearby locations and, based on field and laboratory evidence, are thought to be pieces of the same meteorite. MAC88105 is the largest lunar meteorite yet found (662 g). MAC88104/5 is an anorthositic breccia consisting of numerous small clasts in a glassy matrix. An origin on the Moon is supported by mineral, bulk, and oxygen isotope compositions. A consortium of twenty research groups has studied these meteorites. Samples were prepared at the NASA Johnson Space Center meteorite processing laboratory. Details of consortium plans and allocations are documented herein. A summary list of lunar meteorites and an overview of consortium research is presented. Discussions in this and the following consortium papers involve the issue of paired meteorites and paired ejecta, and what new information about the nature and evolution of the lunar crust is provided by the lunar meteorites.

  3. Mineral-chemical comparisons of MAC88105 with Yamato lunar meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Mori, Hiroshi; Saito, Jun ); Miyamoto, Masamichi )

    1991-11-01

    The new lunar meteorite MAC88105 has been studied by mineral-chemical techniques and was compared with the Yamato lunar meteorites. Clast types and pyroxene compositions of MAC88105 indicate that evidence for a pairing with any known lunar meteorites is unlikely. Clast-laden vitric breccia and comminuted mineral fragments in glassy matrix are common components as in other lunar meteorites, but granulitic clasts are not as common as in other lunar meteorites. The large and common granulite-like meta-igneous clasts still preserve lath-shaped plagioclase crystals with fine-grained olivine and pyroxenes in the interstices. Pyroxenes with mg number = Mg {times} 100/(Mg + Fe) between 70-48 mol% are common, but more Mg-rich pyroxenes and plutonic pyroxenes from nonmare pristine crustal rocks are rare. One basaltic clast contains pyroxenes with zoning trends more MG-rich than the above mg range and than those of the VLT basalts common in lunar meteorites. MAC88105 preserves true glass in the matrix as observed by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The preservation of glassy materials indicates that MAC 88105 had a metamorphic annealing history different from other lunar meteorites.

  4. Lunar meteoritic gardening rate derived from in situ LADEE/LDEX measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). LDEX was uniquely equipped to characterize the current rate of lunar impact gardening as it measured the very particles taking part in this process. By deriving an average lunar dust density distribution, we calculate the rate at which exospheric dust rains back down onto the lunar surface. Near the equatorial plane, we find that approximately 40 μm/Myr of lunar regolith, with a cumulative size distribution index of 2.7, is redistributed due to meteoritic bombardment, a process which occurs predominantly on the lunar apex hemisphere.

  5. Mineralogy, Petrology and Oxygen Fugacity of the LaPaz Icefield Lunar Basaltic Meteorites and the Origin of Evolved Lunar Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, S. J.; Righter, K.; Brandon, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    LAP 02205 is a 1.2 kg lunar mare basalt meteorite found in the Lap Paz ice field of Antarctica in 2002 [1]. Four similar meteorites were also found within the same region [1] and all five have a combined mass of 1.9 kg (LAP 02224, LAP 02226, LAP 02436 and LAP 03632, hereafter called the LAP meteorites). The LAP meteorites all contain a similar texture, mineral assemblage, and composition. A lunar origin for these samples comes from O isotopic data for LAP 02205 [1], Fe/Mn ratios of pyroxenes [1-5], and the presence of distinct lunar mineralogy such as Fe metal and baddeleyite. The LAP meteorites may represent an area of the Moon, which has never been sampled by Apollo missions, or by other lunar meteorites. The data from this study will be used to compare the LAP meteorites to Apollo mare basalts and lunar basaltic meteorites, and will ultimately help to constrain their origin.

  6. Mineralogical comparison of the Y86032-type lunar meteorites to feldspathic fragmental breccia 67016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.; Mori, H.; Miyamoto, M.; Wentworth, S. J.; Mckay, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Mineralogical characteristics of lunar meteorites Y82193 and Y86032 were compared to those of Apollo-16 fieldspathic fragmental breccia 67016, using results from electron microprobe analysis and TEM. It was found that the pyroxene mineralogy and chemistry of granulitic clasts in 67016 breccia and the Y86032-type lunar meteorites were much alike, suggesting that the formation processes of the fieldspathic fragmental breccias are also important in the genesis of lunar meteorites. There were differences in matrix microtextures, however, implying that 67016 and Y86032-type breccia formation temperatures were different.

  7. Constraining the source regions of lunar meteorites using orbital geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzada-Diaz, A.; Joy, K. H.; Crawford, I. A.; Nordheim, T. A.

    2015-02-01

    Lunar meteorites provide important new samples of the Moon remote from regions visited by the Apollo and Luna sample return missions. Petrologic and geochemical analysis of these meteorites, combined with orbital remote sensing measurements, have enabled additional discoveries about the composition and age of the lunar surface on a global scale. However, the interpretation of these samples is limited by the fact that we do not know the source region of any individual lunar meteorite. Here, we investigate the link between meteorite and source region on the Moon using the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer remote sensing data set for the elements Fe, Ti, and Th. The approach has been validated using Apollo and Luna bulk regolith samples, and we have applied it to 48 meteorites excluding paired stones. Our approach is able broadly to differentiate the best compositional matches as potential regions of origin for the various classes of lunar meteorites. Basaltic and intermediate Fe regolith breccia meteorites are found to have the best constrained potential launch sites, with some impact breccias and pristine mare basalts also having reasonably well-defined potential source regions. Launch areas for highland feldspathic meteorites are much less well constrained and the addition of another element, such as Mg, will probably be required to identify potential source regions for these.

  8. Impact ejection of lunar meteorites and the age of Giordano Bruno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Jörg

    2012-11-01

    Based on literature data from lunar meteorites and orbital observations it is argued that the lunar crater Giordano Bruno (22 km ∅) formed more than 1 Ma ago and probably ejected the lunar meteorites Yamato 82192/82193/86032 at 8.5 ± 1.5 Ma ago from the Th-poor highlands of the Moon. The efficiency and time scale to deliver 3He-rich lunar material into Earth’s sediments is discussed to assess the temporal relationship between the Giordano Bruno cratering event and a 1 Ma enduring 3He-spike which is observed in 8.2 Ma old sediments on Earth.

  9. Chemistry of the Calcalong Creek lunar meteorite and its relationship to lunar terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. H.; Boynton, W. V.

    2003-04-01

    The Calcalong Creek lunar meteorite is a polymict breccia that contains clasts of both highlands and mare affinity. Reported here is a compilation of major, minor, and trace element data for bulk, clast, and matrix samples determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Petrographic information and results of electron microprobe analyses are included. The relationship of Calcalong Creek to lunar terranes, especially the Procellarum KREEP Terrane and Feldspathic Highlands Terrane, is established by the abundance of thorium, incompatible elements and their KREEP-like CI chondrite normalized pattern, FeO, and TiO2. The highlands component is associated with Apollo 15 KREEP basalt but represents a variant of the KREEP-derived material widely found on the moon. Sources of Calcalong Creek's mare basalt components may be related to low-titanium (LT) and very low-titanium (VLT) basalts seen in other lunar meteorites but do not sample the same source. The content of some components of Calcalong Creek are found to display similarities to the composition of the South Pole-Aitken Terrane. What appear to be VLT relationships could represent new high aluminum, low titanium basalt types.

  10. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar meteorites (LMs) are rocks found on Earth that were ejected from the Moon by impact of an asteroidal meteoroid. Three factors make the LMs important to remote-sensing studies: (1) Most are breccias composed of regolith or fragmental material; (2) all are rocks that resided (or breccias composed of material that resided) in the upper few meters of the Moon prior to launch and (3) most apparently come from areas distant from the Apollo sites. How Many Lunar Locations? At this writing (June 1999), there are 18 known lunar meteorite specimens. When unambiguous cases of terrestrial pairing are considered, the number of actual LMs reduces to 13. (Terrestrial pairing is when a single piece of lunar rock entered Earth's atmosphere, but multiple fragments were produced because the meteoroid broke apart on entry, upon hitting the ground or ice, or while being transported through the ice.) We have no reason to believe that LMs preferentially derive from any specific region(s) of the Moon; i.e., we believe that they are samples from random locations. However, we do not know how many different locations are represented by the LMs; mathematically, it could be as few as 1 or as many as 13. The actual maximum is < 13 because in some cases a single impact appears to have yielded more than one LM. Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 are considered "source-crater paired" or "launch paired" because they are compositionally and petrographically similar to each other and distinct from the others, and both have similar cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) histories. The same can be said of QUE 94281 and Y 793274. Thus the 13 meteorites probably represent a maximum of 11 locations on the Moon. The minimum number of likely source craters is debated and in flux as new data for different isotopic systems are obtained. Conservatively, considering CRE data only, a minimum of about 5 impacts is required. Compositional and petrographic data offer only probabilistic constraints. An extreme, but not

  11. Petrology and Geochemistry of Lunar Meteorite Abar al'Uj 012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, M.; Hofmann, B. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Gnos, E.; Greber, N.; Greenwood, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    The petrology and geochemistry of Abar al’Uj 012, a feldspathic lunar meteorite found in Saudi Arabia is described. The meteorite is a vesicular crystalline impact-melt breccia, which lacks a fusion crust and has a ferroan anorthosite affinity.

  12. Comparison Between Elemental Ratios in Fusion Crusts of Stannern Eucrite, Lunar Meteorite MAC 88105 & Martian Meteorite Nakhla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbik, M.; Gostin, V. A.

    1996-03-01

    Impact phenomena result from the interaction of cosmic bodies that collide in space with ultra-high velocities. In small bodies, not protected by an atmospheric layer, impact phenomena are limited to interaction between solid components that shatter, melt and vaporise, spreading solid, liquid, and gaseous ejecta over the planetary surface and into space. The interaction between a meteoritic body and a large planet like Earth begins in the upper atmosphere. As the body penetrates to lower, and denser layers, lattice destruction increases and the surface layer of the meteor is heated up to many thousands of degrees, resulting in it being vaporised and melted. Under pressure from the oncoming air stream the molten matter on the surface of the meteoritic body is constantly blown off (ablated) and immediately quenched as the meteoritic body decelerates. Therefore the rapidly heated and quenched glassy fusion crust on the surface of meteorites, can be recognised as related to impact melts. Fragments of three meteorites were studied: Stannern eucrite, lunar meteorite MAC 88105 and martian meteorite Nakhla, all displayed significant fusion crusts. Polished thin and thick sections were made and were used for optical, scanning-electron microscope (SEM) and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe studies. The chemical ratios of the outer layer of the fusion crusts for these different planetary meteorites were compared.

  13. The discovery and initial characterization of Allan Hills 81005 - The first lunar meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1983-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALHA81005, discovered in the Allan Hills region of Victoria Land, is a polymict anorthositic breccia which differs from other meteorites in mineralogical and chemical composition but is strikingly similar to lunar highlands soil breccias. The petrologic character and several independent lines of evidence identify ALHA81005 as a meteorite from the moon. Two small clasts of probable mare basalt occur among the highlands lithologies in Thin Section 81005,22. This lunar specimen, which shows relatively minor shock effects, has generated new ideas on the types of planetary samples found on the earth.

  14. Allochthonous Addition of Meteoritic Organics to the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of lunar samples 74220,861 was discussed in detail in [3, 4]. Our analysis sequence was as follows: optical microscopy, UV fluorescence imaging, -Raman, FESEM-EDX imaging and mapping, FETEMEDX imaging and mapping of a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) extracted section, and NanoSIMs analysis. We observed fluffytextured C-rich regions of interest (ROI) on three different volcanic glass beads. Each ROI was several m2 in size and fluoresced when exposed to UV. Using FESEM/EDX, the largest ROI measured 36 m and was located on an edge of a plateau located on the uppermost surface of the bead. The ROI was covered on one edge by a siliceous filament emanating from the plateau surface indicating it was attached to the bead while on the Moon. EDX mapping of the ROI shows it is composed primarily of heterogeneously distributed C. Embedded with the carbonaceous phase are localized concentrations of Si, Fe, Al and Ti indicating the presence of glass and/or minerals grains. -Raman showed strong D- and G-bands and their associated second order bands; intensity and location of these bands indicates the carbonaceous matter is structurally disorganized. A TEM thin section was extracted from the surface of a glass bead using FIB microscopy. High resolution TEM imaging and selected area electron diffraction demonstrate the carbonaceous layer to be amorphous; it lacked any long or short range order characteristic of micro- or nanocrystalline graphite. Additionally TEM imaging also revealed the presence of submicron mineral grains, typically < 50 nm in size, dispersed within the carbonaceous layer. NanoSIMs data will be presented and discussed at the meeting. Given the noted similarities between the carbonaceous matter present on 74220 glass beads and meteoritic kerogen, we suggest the allochthonous addition of meteoritic organics as the most probable source for the C-rich ROIs.

  15. Consortium reports on lunar meteorites Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757, a new type of mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanai, Keizo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Lindstrom, M. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Torigoe, N.; Misawa, K.; Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Koeberl, C.; Kojima, H.

    1993-01-01

    Consortium studies on lunar meteorites Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 (formerly Asuka-31) were performed to characterize these new samples from unknown locations in the lunar mare. Both meteorites are coarse-grained mare rocks having low Mg/Fe ratios (bulk mg'=30-35) and low TiO2 (1.5-2.5 percent in homogenized bulk samples). They are intermediate between VLT and low-Ti mare basalts. Although these meteorites are not identical to each other, their mineral and bulk compositions, isotopic systematics, and crystallization ages are remarkably similar and distinct from those of all other mare basalts. They appear to represent a new type of low-Ti mare basalt that crystallized at about 3.9Ga. These meteorites are inconsistent with the canonical correlation between the TiO2 contents and ages of mare basalts and suggest that our knowledge of lunar volcanism is far from complete.

  16. Importance of lunar meteorites in understanding the evolution of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, V. A.; Burgess, R.

    Presently, there are 40 different lunar meteorites collected on Earth, and most of this material represent regions of the Moon that were not sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions [1]. Thus these meteorites provide the first global sample-set of lunar samples and offer a context for interpreting the age and chemical results of Apollo and Luna missions samples, mainly as the Apollo mission samples were strongly influenced by Imbrium ejecta and development of the Procellarum KREEP terraine (PKT) [2].From this list, only 7 are mare basalts, and yet they represent important samples to gain a global perspective of lunar volcanism. Age determination and chemical characterisation of basaltic lunar meteorites gives better understanding of the lunar mantle composition and its volcanic history as their source can be from any of the maria. Since our lunar work is laboratory based and concentrates on chronology and geochemistry of lunar meteorites, presently we are interested in attempting to tie the lunar meteorites to ground truth on the Moon - specifically where are their sources. Thus, an important next step will be to integrate results obtained from the meteorites with geochemical data obtained by orbiting (and in the future lander) spacecraft (e.g. [3]). Until recently sample age determination suggested that volcanic episodes occurred on the Moon between ˜3.9 to 3.1 Ga. However, remote sensing data for long (e.g. [4,5]) has suggested that volcanism occurred until 1.1 Ga. More recent age determinations of Luna 16 and 24 basalts, and 3 lunar basalt meteorites (NWA 032/479 and 773, LAP 02205, Kalahari 009; [6-13]) show that volcanism must have occurred as recently as 2.5 Ga. Potential lunar source areas: Based on the chemical composition and age of the mare meteorites and also highland material, and comparing with lunar elemental composition maps by [14,15] and future elemental maps by data obtained by the instrument D-CIXS on board SMART-1 mission of ESA [16,17], and

  17. Possible lunar source areas of meteorite ALHA 81005 Geochemical remote sensing information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Hawke, B. R.; Gaffey, M.; Mcfadden, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALHA 81005 is a regolith breccia apparently sent to earth by an impact event in the lunar highlands. Laboratory studies of this sample provide information that is used to understand the source region on the moon using remote sensing data. The meteorites low thorium content is inconsistent with thorium values measured for the central lunar nearside from orbit with Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers. Similarly, the mineral assemblages inferred from near-IR spectra of small impact craters on the lunar nearside do not exhibit the significant component of olivine and Fe-bearing feldspar that is observed in the meteorite spectra. The existing remote sensing data suggest the most probable source region for ALHA 81005 is the nearside limb or the lunar farside and that the composition of ALHA 81005 represents a surface unit that has not previously been extensively sampled.

  18. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar meteorites (LMs) are rocks found on Earth that were ejected from the Moon by impact of an asteroidal meteoroid. Three factors make the LMs important to remote-sensing studies: (1) Most are breccias composed of regolith or fragmental material; (2) all are rocks that resided (or breccias composed of material that resided) in the upper few meters of the Moon prior to launch and (3) most apparently come from areas distant from the Apollo sites. How Many Lunar Locations? At this writing (June 1999), there are 18 known lunar meteorite specimens. When unambiguous cases of terrestrial pairing are considered, the number of actual LMs reduces to 13. (Terrestrial pairing is when a single piece of lunar rock entered Earth's atmosphere, but multiple fragments were produced because the meteoroid broke apart on entry, upon hitting the ground or ice, or while being transported through the ice.) We have no reason to believe that LMs preferentially derive from any specific region(s) of the Moon; i.e., we believe that they are samples from random locations. However, we do not know how many different locations are represented by the LMs; mathematically, it could be as few as 1 or as many as 13. The actual maximum is < 13 because in some cases a single impact appears to have yielded more than one LM. Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 are considered "source-crater paired" or "launch paired" because they are compositionally and petrographically similar to each other and distinct from the others, and both have similar cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) histories. The same can be said of QUE 94281 and Y 793274. Thus the 13 meteorites probably represent a maximum of 11 locations on the Moon. The minimum number of likely source craters is debated and in flux as new data for different isotopic systems are obtained. Conservatively, considering CRE data only, a minimum of about 5 impacts is required. Compositional and petrographic data offer only probabilistic constraints. An extreme, but not

  19. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar meteorites (LMs) are rocks found on Earth that were ejected from the Moon by impact of an asteroidal meteoroid. Three factors make the LMs important to remote-sensing studies: (1) Most are breccias composed of regolith or fragmental material; (2) all are rocks that resided (or breccias composed of material that resided) in the upper few meters of the Moon prior to launch and (3) most apparently come from areas distant from the Apollo sites. How Many Lunar Locations? At this writing (June 1999), there are 18 known lunar meteorite specimens. When unambiguous cases of terrestrial pairing are considered, the number of actual LMs reduces to 13. (Terrestrial pairing is when a single piece of lunar rock entered Earth's atmosphere, but multiple fragments were produced because the meteoroid broke apart on entry, upon hitting the ground or ice, or while being transported through the ice.) We have no reason to believe that LMs preferentially derive from any specific region(s) of the Moon; i.e., we believe that they are samples from random locations. However, we do not know how many different locations are represented by the LMs; mathematically, it could be as few as 1 or as many as 13. The actual maximum is < 13 because in some cases a single impact appears to have yielded more than one LM. Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 are considered "source-crater paired" or "launch paired" because they are compositionally and petrographically similar to each other and distinct from the others, and both have similar cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) histories. The same can be said of QUE 94281 and Y 793274. Thus the 13 meteorites probably represent a maximum of 11 locations on the Moon. The minimum number of likely source craters is debated and in flux as new data for different isotopic systems are obtained. Conservatively, considering CRE data only, a minimum of about 5 impacts is required. Compositional and petrographic data offer only probabilistic constraints. An extreme, but not

  20. Lunar Meteorites Sayh Al Uhaymir 449 and Dhofar 925, 960, and 961: Windows into South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, Ryan A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, three lunar meteorites were collected in close proximity to each other in the Dhofar region of Oman: Dhofar 925 (49 g), Dhofar 960 (35 g), and Dhofar 961 (22 g). In 2006, lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 449 (16.5 g) was found about 100 km to the NE. Despite significant differences in the bulk composition of Dhofar 961 relative to Dhofar 925/960 and SaU 449 (which are identical to each other), these four meteorites are postulated to be paired based on their find locations, bulk composition, and detailed petrographic analysis. Hereafter, they will collectively be referred to as the Dhofar 961 clan. Comparison of meteorite and component bulk compositions to Lunar Prospector 5-degree gamma-ray data suggest the most likely provenance of this meteorite group is within the South Pole-Aitken Basin. As the oldest, largest, and deepest recognizable basin on the Moon, the composition of the material within the SPA basin is of particular importance to lunar science. Here we review and expand upon the geochemistry and petrography of the Dhofar 961 clan and assess the likelihood that these meteorites come from within the SPA basin based on their bulk compositions and the compositions and characteristics of the major lithologic components found within the breccia.

  1. Age of Lunar Meteorite LAP02205 and Implications for Impact-Sampling of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Bogard, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the age of lunar meteorite LAP02205 by the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar methods. Sm-Nd analyses are in progress. The Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar ages indicate a crystallization age of approx. 3 Ga. Comparing the ages of LAP02205 and other lunar mare basaltic meteorites to mare surface ages based on the density of impact craters shows no significant bias in impact- sampling of lunar mare surfaces. Comparing the isotopic and geochemical data for LAP02205 to those for other lunar mare basalts suggests that it is a younger variant of the type of volcanism that produced the Apollo 12 basalts. Representative impact-sampling of the lunar surface

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Martian Meteorites: Chemical Weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Martian Meteorites: Chemical Weathering" included the following reports:Chemical Weathering Records of Martian Soils Preserved in the Martian Meteorite EET79001; Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Meteorites in Thin Section: Preliminary Results; A Survey of Olivine Alteration Products Using Raman Spectroscopy; and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotope Systematics of Shergottite NWA 856: Crystallization Age and Implications for Alteration of Hot Desert SNC Meteorites.

  3. Noble Gases in the Lunar Meteorites Calcalong Creek and QUE 93069

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Burkland, M. K.; Grier, J. A.

    1995-09-01

    Although the world's collections contain comparable numbers of martian and lunar meteorites (about 10 each), their ejection histories seem to be quite different [1]. We have sampled no more than four martian craters, but almost every one of the lunar meteorites apparently represents a separate cratering event. Furthermore, most lunar meteorites were apparently ejected from the top meter of the surface, unlike any of the martian meteorites. We have measured noble gases in two bulk samples of the lunar meteorite QUE93069 and three of Calcalong Creek, ranging in size from 7 to 15 mg. Averaged results are given in Table 1. Both meteorites contain solar-wind-implanted noble gas. QUE 93069, which is a mature anorthositic regolith breccia [2], contains amounts comparable to the most gas-rich lunar meteorites. The relatively low 40Ar/36Ar ratios of both meteorites suggest surface exposures no more than 2.5 Ga ago [3]. Calcalong Creek has readily observable spallogenic gas. The 131Xe/126Xe ratio of 4.8+/-0.3 corresponds to an average shielding depth of slightly more than 40 gm/cm^2 [4]. In common with many lunar breccias, Calcalong Creek has been exposed to cosmic rays for several hundred Ma (calculations based on [4] and [5]). The 3He apparent exposure age is much shorter, suggesting diffusive loss of He. To determine the detailed exposure history, it is necessary to have measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides. Our samples were too small to measure 81Kr, but [6] have measured 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl. Their data are consistent with either extended exposure at <70 gm/cm^2 in the lunar regolith followed by a short (200,000 years) transit to Earth, or with ejection from several meters depth about 2 Ma ago [6]. Our data, requiring several hundred Ma of exposure at an average depth of 40-50 gm/cm^2, are clearly more consistent with the first scenario. The only other lunar meteorite which could have been ejected at the same time is MAC 88104/5 [1], but the chemical differences

  4. In Situ Chemical Characterization of Mineral Phases in Lunar Granulite Meteorite Northwest Africa 5744

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, J. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Peslier, A. H.; Irving, A. J.; Coleff, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5744 meteorite is a granulitic and troctolitic lunar breccia which may represent nearly pristine lunar crust (Fig. 1). NWA 5744 is unusually magnesian compared to other lunar breccias, with bulk [Mg/(Mg+Fe)] 0.79 [1, 2]. Inspection shows impactor content is likely to be very minor, with low Ni content and a lack of metal grains. Some terrestrial contamination is present, evidenced by calcite within cracks. NWA 5744 has notably low concentrations of incompatible trace elements (ITEs) [2]. The goal of this study is to attempt to classify this lunar granulite through analyses of in situ phases.

  5. Petrogenesis of anomalous Queen Alexandra Range enstatite meteorites and their relation to enstatite chondrites, primitive enstatite achondrites, and aubrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niekerk, Deon; Keil, Klaus; Humayun, Munir

    2014-03-01

    Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) meteorite 94204 is an anomalous enstatite meteorite whose petrogenesis has been ascribed to either partial melting or impact melting. We studied the meteorite pairs QUE 94204, 97289/97348, 99059/99122/99157/99158/99387, and Yamato (Y)-793225; these were previously suggested to represent a new grouplet. We present new data for mineral abundances, mineral chemistries, and siderophile trace element compositions (of Fe,Ni metal) in these meteorites. We find that the texture and composition of Y-793225 are related to EL6, and that this meteorite is unrelated to the QUEs. The mineralogy and siderophile element compositions of the QUEs are consistent with petrogenesis from an enstatite chondrite precursor. We caution that potential re-equilibration during melting and recrystallization of enstatite chondrite melt-rocks make it unreliable to use mineral chemistries to assign a specific parent body affinity (i.e., EH or EL). The QUEs have similar mineral chemistries among themselves, while slight variations in texture and modal abundances exist between them. They are dominated by inclusion-bearing millimeter-sized enstatite (average En99.1-99.5) with interstitial spaces filled predominantly by oligoclase feldspar (sometimes zoned), kamacite (Si approximately 2.4 wt%), troilite (≤2.4 wt% Ti), and cristobalite. Siderophile elements that partition compatibly between solid metal and liquid metal are not enriched like in partial melt residues Itqiy and Northwest Africa (NWA) 2526. We find that the modal compositions of the QUEs are broadly unfractionated with respect to enstatite chondrites. We conclude that a petrogenesis by impact melting, not partial melting, is most consistent with our observations.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Meteorites to and from the Moon and Mars: My Planet or Yours?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Meteorites from Mars - Constraints from Numerical Modeling; 2) Iron Oxidation Products in Martian Ordinary Chondrite Finds as Possible Indicators of Liquid Water Exposure at Mars Exploration Rover Landings Sites; 3) Meteorites on Mars; 4) Sulfide Stability of Planetary Basalts; 5) Exposure and Terrestrial Histories of New Lunar and Martian Meteorites.

  7. Workshop on past and present solar radiation: the record in meteoritic and lunar regolith material

    SciTech Connect

    Pepin, R.O.; Mckay, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The principal question addressed in the workshop was the extent to which asteroidal and lunar regoliths have collected and preserved, in meteoritic regolith breccias and in lunar soils and regolith breccias, a record of the flux, energy, and compositional history of the solar wind and solar flares. Six central discussion topics were identified. They are: (1)Trapped solar wind and flare gases, tracks, and micrometeorite pits in regolith components; (2)Comparison between lunar regolith breccias, meteoritic regolith breccias, and the lunar soil; (3)The special role of regolith breccias and the challenge of dating their times of compaction; (4)Implications of the data for the flux and compositional history of solar particle emission, composition, and physical mechanisms in the solar source regions, and the composition of the early nebula; (5)How and to what extent have records of incident radiation been altered in various types of grains; (6) Future research directions

  8. Workshop on Past and Present Solar Radiation: The Record in Meteoritic and Lunar Regolith Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Mckay, D. S. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The principal question addressed in the workshop was the extent to which asteroidal and lunar regoliths have collected and preserved, in meteoritic regolith breccias and in lunar soils and regolith breccias, a record of the flux, energy, and compositional history of the solar wind and solar flares. Six central discussion topics were identified. They are: (1)Trapped solar wind and flare gases, tracks, and micrometeorite pits in regolith components; (2)Comparison between lunar regolith breccias, meteoritic regolith breccias, and the lunar soil; (3)The special role of regolith breccias and the challenge of dating their times of compaction; (4)Implications of the data for the flux and compositional history of solar particle emission, composition, and physical mechanisms in the solar source regions, and the composition of the early nebula; (5)How and to what extent have records of incident radiation been altered in various types of grains; (6)Future research directions

  9. The MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorite and implications of the lunar meteorites collectively for the composition and origin of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyen, G.W. )

    1991-11-01

    The MAC88104/MAC88105 meteorite is a lunar highlands regolith breccia even more anorthositic than previously available samples of highlands regolith. Clasts studied include two unusual pristine rocks. One, a 2.5-mm, slightly granulitic clast rated as probably pristine, contains extraordinarily Fe-rich (Fo{sub 40}) olivine. The other, a 5-mm clast with clear vestiges of a poikilitic cumulate texture, has silicate compositions that extend the range of the Mg-suite in the direction of the high-mg end of the ferroan-anorthositic suite. The pyroxene of the latter clast is relatively Ca-rich and poorly equilibrated by lunar cumulate standards, suggesting that it may have formed in an uncommonly shallow intrusion. The consistently high-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composition indicated for the upper crust supports the magmasphere hypothesis. For the trace-element composition of the crust, the highlands meteorites indicate that the central nearside Apollo and Luna sites are in several respects grossly unrepresentative. Concentrations of siderophile elements are far lower in highlands-meteoritic regolith breccias than in their central nearside counterparts. The high overall siderophile levels and hyperchondritic Ni/Ir and Au/Ir ratios characteristic of highlands materials from Apollo 16 and Apollo 14 are evidently idiosyncracies of the central nearside. Concentrations of incompatible elements, including K, Th, and U, are far lower in the highlands meteorites than in regolith samples from the central nearside. This trend implies that certain lower limits on the bulk-Moon content of U (and associated refractory lithophile elements) should be relaxed. Models of lunar origin implying large enrichments of refractory lithophile elements are not favored by the new constraints from these meteorites.

  10. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon-14 measurements were made for meteorites with a Van der Graaf accelerator. Accelerator C-14 dating improved the precision by a factor of ten, allowed the use of smaller sample sizes, and gave speedier results than C-14 dating with counters. A methodology for determining the terrestrial ages of several antarctic meteorites is described and the results are listed.

  11. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

  12. Galactic cosmic-ray-produced radionuclides in Antarctic meteorites and a lunar core

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide depth effects in a meteorite, the history and pairing of Antarctic meteorites and processes on the lunar surface are discussed in six chapters. A depth profile of /sup 26/Al, /sup 10/Be and /sup 53/Mn activities have been measured in eleven metal phase samples of the Antarctic meteorite ALHA78084 to determine the importance of the secondary cascade in producing these nuclides in a 30 centimeter diameter meteorite. The results show a buildup of lower energy reaction products and a flat profile for high energy reaction products with depth. The activity of /sup 53/Mn has been measured as a function of depth in eleven soil samples from the lunar double drive tubes 15011/15010. The results agree within error with the previous results of Nishiizumi. These data are consistent with the previously published /sup 26/Al results of the Battelle Northwest group which indicated a disturbed profile down to 17 g/cm/sup 2/ and an accumulation rate of 2 cm/My. Comparison with the gardening models of Arnold and Langevin and the local topography suggests such a continuous accumulation is the result of steady downslope transport of surface soil for 7 to 10 My at this site. The /sup 53/Mn activity was determined in eleven samples in eight Allan Hills-80 Antarctic meteorites and one sample from an Elephant Moraine Antarctic meteorite. Mineralogic and field relation data suggest that Allan Hills meteorites to be two sets of paired falls. The /sup 53/Mn results are consistent with the grouping of these meteorites as paired falls excluding the meteorite ALHA80127. comparison with future nuclear particle track work and results from the measurement of other cosmogenic nuclides will provide more definitive results.

  13. Pinpointing the source of a lunar meteorite: implications for the evolution of the Moon.

    PubMed

    Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A; Al-Kathiri, Ali; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Eugster, Otto; Whitehouse, Martin J; Villa, Igor M; Jull, A J Timothy; Eikenberg, Jost; Spettel, Bernhard; Krähenbühl, Urs; Franchi, Ian A; Greenwood, Richard C

    2004-07-30

    The lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir 169 consists of an impact melt breccia extremely enriched with potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorus [thorium, 32.7 parts per million (ppm); uranium, 8.6 ppm; potassium oxide, 0.54 weight percent], and adherent regolith. The isotope systematics of the meteorite record four lunar impact events at 3909 +/- 13 million years ago (Ma), approximately 2800 Ma, approximately 200 Ma, and <0.34 Ma, and collision with Earth sometime after 9.7 +/- 1.3 thousand years ago. With these data, we can link the impact-melt breccia to Imbrium and pinpoint the source region of the meteorite to the Lalande impact crater. PMID:15286369

  14. Preliminary examination of the Yamato-86032 lunar meteorite. II - Major and trace element chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Spettel, Bernhard; Fukuoka, Takaaki

    1989-01-01

    Results of the chemical composition analysis of Yamato-86032, found in Antarctica in 1986, are summarized. The meteorite may be classified as an anorthositic breccia, but its trace element composition is different from the composition of the other known lunar meteorites. The major element chemistry of Y-86032 is similar to the other lunar meteorites, except for the iron content, which is lower by a factor of about 1.4. The abundances of incompatible and lithophile elements such as Zr, Hf, Ta, Th, or the REEs are very low and comparable to Y-82192/3. Other elements, in particular Fe, Ti, Sc, Cr, Mn, and Co, have lower abundances in Y-86032 than in Y-82192/3. Variations between individual analysis demonstrate that the rock itself is heterogeneous.

  15. Late Bombardment of the Lunar Highlands Recorded in MIL 090034, MIL 090036 and MIL 090070 Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Herzog, G. F.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shirai, N.; Ebihara, M.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J.; Turrin, B.; Swisher, C., III

    2013-01-01

    The Kaguya mission detected small but widespread outcrops of nearly pure ferroan anorthosite in and around large impact basins on the Moon. Along with certain lunar rocks, highly feldspathic lunar meteorites such as MIL 090034 (M34), 090036 (M36), and 090070 (M70) may provide samples of this material. We have measured the Ar-40/Ar-39 release patterns and cosmogenic Ar-38 concentrations of several small (<200 microg) samples separated from M34,36, and 70. From petrographic observations concluded that "some of the clasts and grains experienced generations of modifications," a conclusion that we examine in light of our data.

  16. Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Lunar meteorite LAP 02205 is a 1.23 kg basalt collected during the 2002 field season in the La- Paz ice field, Antarctica [1]. We present a petrographic description including mineral modes and compositions, and the major-element composition of the bulk meteorite. LAP 02205 is an Fe-rich, moderately low-Ti mare basalt that is similar in composition, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry to the NWA 032 basaltic lunar meteorite. LAP 02205 is yet another of the moderately low- Ti basaltic meteorites that are underrepresented among Apollo and Luna samples but that appear from remote sensing to be the most common basalt type on the Moon.

  17. Crystal Structure and Chemical Composition of a Presolar Silicate from the Queen Elizabeth Range 99177 Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral characterization of presolar silicate grains, the most abundant stardust phase, has provided valuable information about the formation conditions in circumstellar environments and in super-nova (SN) outflows. Spectroscopic observations of dust around evolved stars suggest a majority of amor-phous, Mg-rich olivine grains, but crystalline silicates, most of which are pyroxene, have also been observed [1]. The chemical compositions of hundreds of presolar silicates have been determined by Auger spectroscopy and reveal high Fe contents and nonstoichiometric compositions intermediate to olivine and pyroxene [2-6]. The unexpectedly high Fe contents can partly be attributed to secondary alteration on the meteorite parent bodies, as some grains have Fe isotopic anomalies from their parent stellar source [7]. Only about 35 presolar silicates have been studied for their mineral structures and chemical compositions by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These grains display a wide range of compositions and structures, including crystalline forsterite, crystalline pyroxene, nanocrystalline grains, and a majority of amorphous nonstoichiometric grains. Most of these grains were identified in the primitive Acfer 094 meteorite. Presolar silicates from this meteorite show a wide range of Fe-contents, suggestive of secondary processing on the meteorite parent body. The CR chondrite QUE 99177 has not suffered as much alteration [8] and displays the highest presolar silicate abundance to date among carbonaceous chondrites [3, 6]. However, no mineralogical studies of presolar silicates from this meteorite have been performed. Here we examine the mineralogy of a presolar silicate from QUE 99177.

  18. Feldspathic Meteorites MIL 090034 and 090070: Late Additions to the Lunar Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shirai, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shih, C.-Y.; Park, J.; Ebihara, M.

    2016-01-01

    Our studies of the Miller Range lunar meteorites MIL 090034, 090036, and 090070 show them to be a diverse suite of rocks from the lunar highlands hereafter referred to as MIL 34, MIL 36, and MIL 70, resp. MIL34 and MIL70, the focus of this work, are crystalline melt breccias. Plagioclase compositions in both peak sharply around An96-97. Mg numbers of olivine vary from 58-65 with a few higher values. MIL36 is a regolith breccia. MIL 34 and MIL 70 have some of the highest Al2O3 abundances of lunar highland meteorites, indicating that they have among the largest modal abundances of plagioclase for lunar meteorites. They have lower Sc and Cr abundances than nearly all lunar highland meteorites except Dho 081, Dho 489 and Dho 733. MIL34 and MIL70 also have similar cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of approximately 1-2 Ma indicating they are launch paired. (MIL36 has a larger CRE age approximately greater than 70 Ma). Park et al. found a variation in Ar-Ar ages among subsamples of MIL 34 and MIL70, but preferred ages of 3500+/-110 Ma for the "Dark" phase of MIL 34 anorthite and 3520+/-30 Ma for the "Light" phase of MIL70. Bouvier et al. reported a Pb-Pb age of 3894+/-39 Ma for a feldspathic clast of MIL 34 and a similar age for a melt lithology. Here we reexamine the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic data, which show complexities qualitatively consistent with those of the Ar-Ar and Pb-Pb data. The Sm-Nd data in particular suggest that the feldspathic compositions of MIL 34 and MIL 70 formed during initial lunar geochemical differentiation, and REE modeling suggests a relatively late-stage formation.

  19. Lunar meteorite Yamato-983885: Noble gases, nitrogen and cosmic ray exposure history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Ramakant R.

    2015-11-01

    Noble gases and nitrogen have been in lunar meteorite from antartcica: the polymict regolith breccias, Yamato-983885 (hereafter Y-983885). Y-983885 has highest concentration of trapped noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) among all the lunar meteorites and returned lunar samples. Noble gases and nitrogen abundances measured in two samples of the lunar meteorite Y-983885. The concentration of trapped noble gases in Y-983885 (A) are, 20Ne=3.69×10-3, 36Ar=12.6×10-4, 84kr=8.57×10-7 and 132Xe=1.63×10-7 ccSTP/g. The cosmic-ray exposure ages for Y-983885 are thus calculated to be T21 (A)=1592±232 Ma and T21 (B)=574±85 Ma for 2π geometry (using production rates as per Hohenberg et al., 1978 and bulk composition). The exposure ages of samples A and B differ, indicating that they have undergone different exposure scenarios on the lunar surface. The different irradiation ages (T21 (A)=1592±232 Ma and T21 (B)=574±85 Ma) indicates that the regolith material which constitutes the meteorite Y-983885 resided at different shielding depths on lunar surface before agglomeration into the final meteorite. Exposure ages calculated using end member compositon like norite, basalt, tractolite (1947 to 1365 and 711 to 455 for A and B respectively) indicates clearly that the two samples A and B has undergone different exposure on Moon. The 20Ne/22Ne ratio of 13.60±0.01 in temperature step 400 °C of Y-983885 (A) demonstrate a clear retention of solar wind signature in this meteorite. The presence of high contents of trapped solar wind gases indicates that Y-983885 consists of mature lunar regolith material. Variable amounts of solar gases as well as cosmogenic noble gases indicate that Y-983885 (A and B) is compacted from several fragments that were exposed at the surface and/or at various depths in the regolith, before becoming part of Y-983885.

  20. Measurements of I-129 in meteorites and lunar rock by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nizhiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Elmore, D.; Gove, H. E.; Honda, M.

    1983-01-01

    Precise measurements of the half-life of I-129 in three different meteorites and one lunar surface rock are reported. The meteorite source of I-129 was produced by cosmic ray secondary neutron reactions on Te, while the source in lunar materials in spallation on barium and rare earth elements. The Abee, Allende, and Dhajala meteorites were examined, together with the lunar rock 14310. Details of the process used to extract the iodine are provided. The Abee and Allende samples exhibited a production of 0.5 atom/min per gm of Te from the (n,2n) reaction and 0.05 atom/min/gm for the (n,gamma) reaction. The I-129 is concluded to be a viable tool for long-lived cosmogenic nuclide studies. Further work to extend the data to include the constancy of the cosmic ray flux, the meteorite bombardment history, and the cosmic exposure age dating by means of the I-129 and Xe-129 method is indicated.

  1. A ferroan region of the lunar highlands as recorded in meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 (MAC88104/5) are paired meteorites of noritic anorthosite composition from the lunar highlands. MAC88105 is a breccia composed mainly of melt-breccia clasts in a fine-grained, fragmental, and partly glassy matrix. The most abundant melt lithologies are feldspathic and are similar in composition to the bulk meteorite. Other melt lithologies include feldspathic melt rocks, mafic melt breccias, and a rare melt breccia relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Subordinate lithic clasts are granulitic breccias and ferroan (relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe)) igneous lithologies, including troctolitic anorthosite, anorthositic norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite. Igneous clasts having mafic mineral compositions more magnesian than Fo{sub 55} and En{sub 60} were not observed. Rare fragments of glass spheres and shards as well as glass clasts indicate that the meteorite was derived from an immature regolith. The bulk composition of MAC88105 is characterized by a molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio of 0.62, at the extreme low end of the range for meteorites from the lunar highlands. Its low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and feldspathic bulk composition (29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), suggests that it, like the other lunar meteorites, formed at a site far removed from the areas sampled by the Apollo missions. Similarities in mineral compositions among the different lithologies of the breccia and the distribution of mineral fragments suggest that most components of the meteorite were derived from a crustal section dominated by material with a noritic anorthosite composition and an affinity of the ferroan suite of plutonic rocks.

  2. Elephant Moraine 87521 - The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of trace-element analyses and detailed petrography obtained for the Elephant Moraine 87521 meteorite (EET87521) found recently in Antarctica. Its high values found for the Fe/Mn ratio and the bulk-Co content indicate that the EET87521 is not, as was originally classified, a eucrite. Moreover, its low Ga/Al and Na/Ca ratios exclude the possibility that it is an SNC meteorite. These and other characteristics (e.g., a very low Ti content) of the EET87521 suggest its affinity with very-low-Ti high-alumina varieties of lunar mare basalt.

  3. Implications for the origins of pure anorthosites found in the feldspathic lunar meteorites, Dhofar 489 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Karouji, Yuzuru; Ohtake, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Akira; Yoneda, Shigekazu; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Remote observation by the reflectance spectrometers onboard the Japanese lunar explorer Kaguya (SELENE) showed the purest anorthosite (PAN) spots (>98% plagioclase) at some large craters. Mineralogical and petrologic investigations on the feldspathic lunar meteorites, Dhofar 489 and Dhofar 911, revealed the presence of several pure anorthosite clasts. A comparison with Apollo nearside samples of ferroan anorthosite (FAN) indicated that of the FAN samples returned by the Apollo missions, sample 60015 is the largest anorthosite with the highest plagioclase abundance and homogeneous mafic mineral compositions. These pure anorthosites (>98% plagioclase) have large chemical variations in Mg number (Mg# = molar 100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe)) of each coexisting mafic mineral. The variations imply that these pure anorthosites underwent complex formation processes and were not formed by simple flotation of plagioclase. The lunar highland samples with pure anorthosite and the PAN observed by Kaguya suggest that pure anorthosite is widely distributed as lunar crust lithology over the entire Moon.

  4. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon 14 terrestial ages were determined with low level minicomputers and accelerator mass spectrometry on 1 Yamato and 18 Allan Hills and nearby sited meteorites. Techniques for an accelerator mass spectrometer which make C(14) measurements on small samples were developed. Also Be(10) concentrations were measured in Byrd core and Allan Hills ice samples.

  5. Meteoritic influence on sodium and potassium abundance in the lunar exosphere measured by LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály; Colaprete, Anthony; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). Here we compare coincident LDEX measurements of meteoritic influx to exospheric column densities of Na and K derived by UVS. We report a strong correlation of exospheric potassium and meteoroid ejecta during the Geminids meteoroid shower, exhibiting a much stronger response than sodium. With the exception of the Geminids, we find a weak correlation between the sporadic meteoroid influx as measured by LDEX and exospheric density as measured by UVS.

  6. U-Pb Dating of Zircons and Phosphates in Lunar Meteorites, Acapulcoites and Angrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Q.; Zeigler, R. A.; Yin, Q. Z.; Korotev, R. L.; Joliff, B. L.; Amelin, Y.; Marti, K.; Wu, F. Y.; Li, X. H.; Li, Q. L.; Lin, Y. T.; Liu, Y.; Tang, G. Q.

    2012-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronology has made a great contribution to the timing of magmatism in the early Solar System [1-3]. Ca phosphates are another group of common accessory minerals in meteorites with great potential for U-Pb geochronology. Compared to zircons, the lower closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for apatite and merrillite (the most common phosphates in achondrites) makes them susceptible to resetting during thermal metamorphism. The different closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for zircon and apatite provide us an opportunity to discover the evolutionary history of meteoritic parent bodies, such as the crystallization ages of magmatism, as well as later impact events and thermal metamorphism. We have developed techniques using the Cameca IMS-1280 ion microprobe to date both zircon and phosphate grains in meteorites. Here we report U-Pb dating results for zircons and phosphates from lunar meteorites Dhofar 1442 and SaU 169. To test and verify the reliability of the newly developed phosphate dating technique, two additional meteorites, Acapulco, obtained from Acapulco consortium, and angrite NWA 4590 were also selected for this study as both have precisely known phosphate U-Pb ages by TIMS [4,5]. Both meteorites are from very fast cooled parent bodies with no sign of resetting [4,5], satisfying a necessity for precise dating.

  7. Radiation history of lunar microbreccias and lithic chrondrules from Weston meteorite by track data

    SciTech Connect

    Kashkarov, L.L.; Genaeva, L.I.; Tarasov, L.S.; Baryshnikova, G.V.; Lavrukhina, A.K.

    1983-02-15

    Tracks generated in the lithic chondrules of the brecciated Weston meteorite as well as in the lunar microbreccias by iron group nuclei of solar cosmic rays are studied. The results for about 2000 olivine and pyroxene grains contained in 67 lithic chondrules indicate that a relict irradiation of the material occurred at an early stage in solar system formation, i.e., before these chondrules were assembled. The results for about 1000 olivine and pyroxene grains in 13 microbreccias strengthen our earlier conclusion that part of the chondrules from the Weston meteorite may have formed in processes analogous to brecciation. The newly obtained data confirm that the formation processes of the Weston lithic chondrules, containing solar flare irradiated crystals, were similar to the impact formation of microbreccias on the lunar regolith without heating compacted material up to temperatures of 600/sup 0/-700 /sup 0/C.

  8. Volatile/mobile trace elements in meteoritic, non-lunar basalts: Guides to Martian sample contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.; Paul, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of genetic processes on or in extraterrestrial objects can be examined by study of volatile/mobile trace elements. Doubtless, considerable efforts will be expended on determining these elements in returned Martian samples. The purpose is to estimate levels of such elements expected to be present in returned Martian samples. Some ideas about Martian genesis were already advanced from the volatile/mobile element contents in SNC meteorites, assuming that Mars was their parent body. Even is Mars and the SNC meteorite parent body are identical, compositional ranges for returned Martian samples should exceed those of SNC meteorites. It is expected, therefore, that Martian samples returned from locations other than Polar regions will have indigenous volatile/mobile element contents within howardite-diogenite ranges. Elements with strong lithophile tendences may be more abundant, as they are in many lunar samples. Most of these elements should be at ppb levels except for Co, Ga, Zn, and Rb, which should lie at ppm levels. If Martian volcanism was accompanied by fumarolic emanations, it should be reflected in occasional huge enrichments of mobile trance elements, as in lunar meteorite Y 791197. During collection and transport Earthward, samples must be contained under conditions appropriate to ppb concentrations. Materials must be used that will not cause contamination which occurred during the Apollo program, where indium from seals contaminated many samples.

  9. Comparisons of Mineralogy Between Cumulate Eucrites and Lunar Meteorites Possibly from the Farside Anorsothitic Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.; Yamaguchi, A.; Hiroi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Ohtake, M.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Anorthosites composed of nearly pure anorthite (PAN) at many locations in the farside highlands have been observed by the Kaguya multiband imager and spectral profiler [1]. Mineralogical studies of lunar meteorites of the Dhofar 489 group [2,3] and Yamato (Y-) 86032 [4], all possibly from the farside highlands, showed some aspects of the farside crust. Nyquist et al. [5] performed Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar studies of pristine ferroan anorthosites (FANs) of the returned Apollo samples and of Dhofar 908 and 489, and discussed implications for lunar crustal history. Nyquist et al. [6] reported initial results of a combined mineralogical/chronological study of the Yamato (Y-) 980318 cumulate eucrite with a conventional Sm-Nd age of 4567 24 Ma and suggested that all eucrites, including cumulate eucrites, crystallized from parental magmas within a short interval following differentiation of their parent body, and most eucrites participated in an event or events in the time interval 4400- 4560 Ma in which many isotopic systems were partially reset. During the foregoing studies, we recognized that variations in mineralogy and chronology of lunar anorthosites are more complex than those of the crustal materials of the HED parent body. In this study, we compared the mineralogies and reflectance spectra of the cumulate eucrites, Y-980433 and 980318, to those of the Dhofar 307 lunar meteorite of the Dhofar 489 group [2]. Here we consider information from these samples to gain a better understanding of the feldspathic farside highlands and the Vesta-like body.

  10. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  11. Exposure Histories of Lunar Meteorites Northwest Africa 032 and DHOFAR 081

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.

    2001-04-01

    Recent additions to the list of lunar meteorites include Northwest Africa (NWA) 032 and Dhofar 081. NWA 032 is an unbrecciated basalt, found in Morocco; Dhofar 081 is a fragmented feldspathic breccia, found in Oman. Our goal is the determination of the cosmic ray exposure history of these objects. Most lunar meteorites have complex cosmic ray exposure histories, having been exposed both at some depth on the lunar surface (2{pi} irradiation) before their ejection and as small bodies in space (4{pi} irradiation) during transport from the Moon to the Earth. These exposures were then followed by residence on the Earth's surface, the terrestrial residence time. Unraveling the complex history of these objects requires the measurement of at least four cosmogenic nuclides. The specific goals of these measurements are to constrain the depth of the sample at the time of ejection from the Moon, the transit time from the time of ejection to the time of capture by the Earth, and the residence time on the Earth's surface. These exposure durations in conjunction with the sample depth on the Moon can then be used to model impact and ejection mechanisms. To investigate the complex exposure histories of lunar meteorites, we measured cosmogenic nuclides, {sup 36}Cl (half-life = 3.01 x 10{sup 5} yr), {sup 26}Al (7.05 x 10{sup 5} yr), and {sup 10}Be (1.5 x 10{sup 6} yr) in NWA 032 and Dhofar 081. The measurements of {sup 41}Ca (1.04 x 10{sup 5} yr) are in progress.

  12. Reflectance spectrophotometry extended to U.V. for terrestrial, lunar and meteoritic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollfus, A.; Cailleux, A.; Cervelle, B.; Hua, C. T.; Mandeville, J.-C.

    1980-09-01

    Extension of remote sensing of planetary bodies to the ultraviolet is now feasible up to 2000 A from earth-orbiting telescopes and spacecraft. The benefits of this extension are analysed on the basis of laboratory spectra taken on a large variety of terrestrial, lunar and meteoritic samples. Knowledge of the albedo for two wavelengths at 2300 and 6500 A permits classification of a surface into one of the following types; lunar, carbonaceous chondrites, ordinary chondrites, achondrites or acidic rocks, basaltic rocks, irons. For lunar-type surfaces, a simple albedo measurement at 6500 A can be converted into quantitative abundance determinations of silicate, aluminium oxide and iron; a large amount of telescopic lunar photometry data is available for mapping these abundances. Extension of the photometry to 2300 A permits quantitative measurement of TiO2 abundances. For asteroids and non-icy satellites, rock-type classification and constraints in chemical abundances of Si, Al, Fe and Ti can be derived from photometry at 2300 and 6500 A. The IUE telescope already orbiting the earth, the Space Telescope to come, the lunar polar orbiter and other spacecraft under prospect are potentially available to provide the photometric observations at 6500 and 2300 A required.

  13. Antarctic meteorite ALHA81005 - Not just another lunar anorthositic norite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is contended that 81005 requires the existence of a component that is poor in large-ion lithophile elements, at least as mafic as anorthositic norite, and magnesian rather than ferroan. While no such component has yet been observed in nearside samples, as an end-member in mixing models it would conveniently account for the composition of some polymict samples that heretofore have been difficult to explain as mixtures of endogenous rock types. The results presented here therefore suggest that the early lunar crust contained a significant proportion of both ferroan and magnesian anorthositic norites as primary igneous rocks. It is acknowledged that this conclusion is at variance with models that treat materials of anorthositic norite composition as mixtures of anorthosite plus norite, troctolite, and dunite.

  14. Minerologic and Petrologic Studies of Meteorites and Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, John

    2000-01-01

    In the past year this group continued essentially full time research on extraterrestrial materials, and the question of the origin of the solar system. The continuing scientific staff consists of the P.I. and Visiting Scientist Michael Petaev. Vitae for Wood and Petaev appear in Sec. 6. We benefit from the part time services of a Project Administrator (Judith Terry) and a Secretary (Muazzez Lohmiller). In January 1999 the P.I. assumed the Chairmanship of COMPLEX, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration of the Space Studies Board, National Research Council. Wood and Petaev were authors or coauthors of 21 publications, new manuscripts, and abstracts in the last year. These are listed above, and referenced by number [n] in the discussion below. Other references to the literature made in this Section are listed in Sec. 3.

  15. Exposure histories of lunar meteorites - ALHA81005, MAC88104, MAC88105, and Y791197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Kubik, P. W.; Sharma, P.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides Ca-41, Cl-36, Al-26, and Be-10 in the Allan Hills 81005, MacAlpine Hills 88104, MacAlpine Hills 88105, and Yamato 791197 meteorites were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Mn-53 in Allan Hills 81005 and Yamato 791197 was measured by neutron activation. These four lunar meteorites experienced similar histories. They were ejected from near the surface of the moon ranging in depth down to 400 g/sq cm and had very short transition times (less than 0.1 Ma) from the moon to the earth. A comparison of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in MacAlpine Hills 88104 and MacAlpine Hills 88105 clearly indicates that they are a pair from the same fall.

  16. Ar-40-Ar-39 Age of an Impact-Melt Lithology in Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 961

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara; Frasl, Barbara; Jolliff, Brad; Korotev, Randy; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The Dhofar 961 lunar meteorite was found in 2003 in Oman. It is texturally paired with Dhofar 925 and Dhofar 960 (though Dhofar 961 is more mafic and richer in incompatible elements). Several lines of reasoning point to the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) basin as a plausible source (Figure 2): Mafic character of the melt-breccia lithic clasts consistent the interior of SPA, rules out feldspathic highlands. Compositional differences from Apollo impact-melt groups point to a provenance that is separated and perhaps far distant from the Procellarum KREEP Terrane SPA "hot spots" where Th concentrations reach 5 ppm and it has a broad "background" of about 2 ppm, similar to lithic clasts in Dhofar 961 subsamples If true, impact-melt lithologies in this meteorite may be unaffected by the Imbrium-forming event that is pervasively found in our Apollo sample collection, and instead record the early impact history of the Moon.

  17. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 - A new 'FAN' of lunar petrology. [ferroan anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Lui, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the chemical characteristics of the MAC88104/5 meteorite six thin sections and three bulk samples were analyzed by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation. It is concluded that this meteorite is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts of basaltic origin. It is suggested that one of these basaltic clasts, clast E, is mesostasis material, and clast G is similar to the very low-Ti or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105, 69, and 72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite.

  18. Petrology and chemistry of hyperferroan anorthosites and other clasts from lunar meteorite ALHA81005

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, C.A.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-11-15

    The results of petrographic and chemical studies of 11 previously undescribed clasts from the lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005 are reported. The majority of lithic clasts in this regolith breccia are granular to cataclastic polymict breccias that are mixtures of ferroan anorthosites and troctolitic Mg-suite plutonic rocks with mg greater than 84, An 97, and REE abundances consistent with those of known Mg-suite rocks. Clasts of appropriate Mg-suite end members have not been found in 81005, although magnesian olivine fragments are present. Impact-melt clasts similar in composition to bulk 81005 also occur. AH81005 is low in KREEP.

  19. Shock glass veins in some lunar and meteoritic samples - Their nature and possible origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.

    1977-01-01

    Glassy veinlets, 15 microns to 1 mm thick and now in part devitrified, cut through breccias 67915, 67936, and 67955 from Outhouse Rock, and similar veins have been found in several other lunar samples and in meteorites. The veins have features suggesting injection of extremely hot material, possibly at several thousands degrees of superheat, presumably from an impact event. The vein compositions are very similar but not identical to the bulk compositions of the host rocks. Two mechanisms of injection are considered feasible-injection of hot liquid and injection of hot particulate matter (resembling a 'fluidized bed'), but neither mechanism fully explains all details of the occurrences.

  20. Petrology and chemistry of hyperferroan anorthosites and other clasts from lunar meteorite ALHA81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Boynton, W. V.; Hill, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The results of petrographic and chemical studies of 11 previously undescribed clasts from the lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005 are reported. The majority of lithic clasts in this regolith breccia are granular to cataclastic polymict breccias that are mixtures of ferroan anorthosites and troctolitic Mg-suite plutonic rocks with mg' greater than 84, An 97, and REE abundances consistent with those of known Mg-suite rocks. Clasts of appropriate Mg-suite end members have not been found in 81005, although magnesian olivine fragments are present. Impact-melt clasts similar in composition to bulk 81005 also occur. AH81005 is low in KREEP.

  1. Basaltic Clasts in Y-86032 Feldspathic Lunar Meteorite: Ancient Volcanism far from the Procellarum Kreep Terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D.; Karouji, Y.; Ebihara, M.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite, Y-86032 is a fragmental or regolith breccia enriched in Al2O3 (28-31 wt%) and having very low concentrations of REEs and Th, U [e.g., 1]. Nyquist et al. [2] suggested that Y- 86032 contains a variety of lithologies not represented by the Apollo samples. They found clasts with old Ar-Ar ages and an ancient Sm-Nd age, and negative Nd indicating a direct link to the primordial magma ocean. Importantly, the final lithification of the Y-86032 breccia was likely >3.8-4.1 Ga ago. Therefore, any lithic components in the breccia formed prior to 3.8 Ga, and lithic components in breccia clasts in the parent breccia formed even earlier. Here we report textures and mineralogy of basaltic and gabbroic clasts in Y- 86032 to better understand the nature of ancient lunar volcanism far from the Procellarum KREEP Terrain (PKT) [3] and the central nearside.

  2. A Review of Lunar Meteorite Impact-Melt Clast Compositions and Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important outstanding goals of lunar science is understanding the bombardment history of the Moon and calibrating the impact flux curve for extrapolation to the Earth and other terrestrial planets. Obtaining a sample from a carefully-characterized interior melt sheet or ring massif is a reliable way to tell a single crater's age. A different but complementary approach is to use extensive laboratory characterization (microscopic, geochemical, isotopic) of float samples to understand the integrated impact history of a region. Both approaches have their merits and limitations. In essence, the latter is the approach we have used to understand the impact history of the Feldspathic Highland Terrain (FHT) as told by lunar feldspathic meteorites.

  3. Galactic Cosmic-Ray-Produced Thermoluminescence Profiles in Meteorites Lunar Samples and a Terrestrial Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Chen, Yongheng

    1996-01-01

    The long-term radiation shielding properties of common extraterrestrial materials are poorly known, although these materials are the most likely structural elements on airless worlds such as the Moon. We report on radiation dose profiles in meteorites and lunar soil cores using specific minerals as naturally-occurring "dosimeters". We find that radiation profiles are fairly flat in typical meteoroid bodies (less than 85 cm radius) and drop by only about 40% through about 2.5 m of lunar soil. These profiles are produced by primary galactic cosmic rays and the secondary proton cascade but with a significant contribution by secondary neutrons at depths of about 2 m (300 g/sq cm).

  4. Lunar Meteorite QUE 93069: History Derived from Cosmic-Ray-Produced and Trapped Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, Ch.; Eugster, O.

    1995-09-01

    We obtained lunar meteorite QUE 93069,7 (0.304 g) from the NASA/MWG for the determination of its noble gas isotopic abundances and exposure history. The data relevant for the discussion of the exposure history and trapped noble gases are given in Tables 1 and 2. Exposure history: The duration of Moon-Earth transfer was determined by Nishiizumi et al. [1]. Based on 10Be these authors obtained 1.9 +/- 0.4 Ma for a 4 pi model (all radionuclides produced in 4 pi space) and <0.1 Ma for a 2 pi model (most radionuclides produced on the Moon). Adopting these times we find that less than one percent of the cosmogenic noble gases were produced during Moon- Earth transfer. The overwhelming amounts of 21Nec and 38Arc must have been produced during residence in the lunar regolith. Using lunar regolith production rates [2] at 5-10 g/cm2 shielding [1], we calculated the exposure times, T (2 pi), on the Moon. Table 2 gives the results and compares them with the exposure times for other anorthositic lunar meteorites (MAC 88105 and ALHA 81005). QUE 93069 shows the longest exposure to cosmic rays (1100 +/- 400 Ma) of all lunar meteorites if we compare the T38 values. Based on 21Nec we obtain 420 +/- 60 Ma. Typically for lunar surface material the T21 are lower than those based on 38Arc, 83Krc, and 126Xec due to 21Ne loss. This effect is also observed for MAC 88105 and ALHA 81005. Characteristics of the trapped noble gases: The long lunar surface residence time and the shallow shielding depth are consistent with the very large amounts of trapped solar wind particles (20Ne and 36Ar, Table 1) for QUE 93069. The concentration of trapped 36Ar is quite similar to that of Y-791197: Takaoka [3] and Ostertag et al. [4] obtained 33900 and 36600 x 10-8 cm3 STP/g, respectively. The trapped ratio 40Ar/36Ar, an antiquity indicator for lunar soil, yields information on the time when the breccia was compacted from regolith material [5]. For QUE 93069 we obtain (40Ar/36Ar)trapped = 1.9 +/- 0

  5. Ti-bearing oxide minerals in lunar meteorite Y793169 with the VLT affinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Arai, Tomoko; Saiki, Kazuto

    1993-01-01

    Lunar meteorite, Yamato 793169 previously classified as a VLT mare basalt contains considerable amounts of Ti-bearing oxides in the mesostasis area (2 vol. percent). Mineralogical study of these oxides revealed that they are isolated grains of ilmenite, ulvospinel and chromite, which are formed at the last stage of crystallization. Ti/(Ti+Al+Cr) and Cr/(Cr+Al) versus Fe/(Mg+Fe) variations of these phases are not in the same trends as in the low Ti pigeonite basalts of Apollo 12 and 15 in spite of its higher TiO2 contents. Among four lunar meteorites proposed to be samples of mare regions of the Moon, EET87521 and Y793274 are breccias rich in lunar mare components, but Y793169 and A881757 are crystalline rocks composed of Fe-rich pigeonite and plagioclase with affinity to the VLT basalts, despite their higher bulk TiO2 contents than the limit for VLT. Polished think sections (PTS) Y793169,51-3 and A881757,51-4 (Asuka-31) supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) were investigated. Both samples were allocated as parts of two consortium studies. Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), JEOL 840A with X-ray chemical map analysis (CMA) utilities. Modal abundances of minerals in Y793169 were obtained from colored backscattered electron (BSE) image of SEM for a particular mineral by a computer and by point analysis for minerals with a similar BSE intensity.

  6. Ti-bearing oxide minerals in lunar meteorite Y793169 with the VLT affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Arai, Tomoko; Saiki, Kazuto

    1993-03-01

    Lunar meteorite, Yamato 793169 previously classified as a VLT mare basalt contains considerable amounts of Ti-bearing oxides in the mesostasis area (2 vol. percent). Mineralogical study of these oxides revealed that they are isolated grains of ilmenite, ulvospinel and chromite, which are formed at the last stage of crystallization. Ti/(Ti+Al+Cr) and Cr/(Cr+Al) versus Fe/(Mg+Fe) variations of these phases are not in the same trends as in the low Ti pigeonite basalts of Apollo 12 and 15 in spite of its higher TiO2 contents. Among four lunar meteorites proposed to be samples of mare regions of the Moon, EET87521 and Y793274 are breccias rich in lunar mare components, but Y793169 and A881757 are crystalline rocks composed of Fe-rich pigeonite and plagioclase with affinity to the VLT basalts, despite their higher bulk TiO2 contents than the limit for VLT. Polished think sections (PTS) Y793169,51-3 and A881757,51-4 (Asuka-31) supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) were investigated. Both samples were allocated as parts of two consortium studies. Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), JEOL 840A with X-ray chemical map analysis (CMA) utilities. Modal abundances of minerals in Y793169 were obtained from colored backscattered electron (BSE) image of SEM for a particular mineral by a computer and by point analysis for minerals with a similar BSE intensity.

  7. International Workshop on Antarctic Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annexstad, J. O.; Schultz, L.; Waenke, H.

    1986-01-01

    Topics addressed include: meteorite concentration mechanisms; meteorites and the Antarctic ice sheet; iron meteorites; iodine overabundance in meteorites; entrainment, transport, and concentration of meteorites in polar ice sheets; weathering of stony meteorites; cosmic ray records; radiocarbon dating; element distribution and noble gas isotopic abundances in lunar meteorites; thermoanalytical characterization; trace elements; thermoluminescence; parent sources; and meteorite ablation and fusion spherules in Antarctic ice.

  8. Cryptomare magmatism 4.35 Gyr ago recorded in lunar meteorite Kalahari 009.

    PubMed

    Terada, Kentaro; Anand, Mahesh; Sokol, Anna K; Bischoff, Addi; Sano, Yuji

    2007-12-01

    The origin and evolution of the Moon remain controversial, with one of the most important questions for lunar evolution being the timing and duration of basaltic (mare) magmatism. Here we report the result of ion microprobe U-Pb dating of phosphates in a lunar meteorite, Kalahari 009, which is classified as a very-low-Ti mare-basalt breccia. In situ analyses of five phosphate grains, associated with basaltic clasts, give an age of 4.35 +/- 0.15 billion years. These ancient phosphate ages are thought to represent the crystallization ages of parental basalt magma, making Kalahari 009 one of the oldest known mare basalts. We suggest that mare basalt volcanism on the Moon started as early as 4.35 Gyr ago, relatively soon after its formation and differentiation, and preceding the bulk of lunar volcanism which ensued after the late heavy bombardment around 3.8-3.9 Gyr (refs 7 and 8). Considering the extremely low abundances of incompatible elements such as thorium and the rare earth elements in Kalahari 009 (ref. 9) and recent remote-sensing observations illustrating that the cryptomaria tend to be of very-low-Ti basalt type, we conclude that Kalahari 009 is our first sample of a very-low-Ti cryptomare from the Moon. PMID:18064006

  9. New lunar meteorite Northwest Africa 2996: A window into farside lithologies and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Treiman, Allan H.; Joy, Katherine H.

    2013-02-01

    The Northwest Africa (NWA) 2996 meteorite is a lunar regolith breccia with a "mingled" bulk composition and slightly elevated incompatible element content. NWA 2996 is dominated by clasts of coarse-grained noritic and troctolitic anorthosite containing calcic plagioclase (An#~98) and magnesian mafic minerals (Mg#~75), distinguishing it from Apollo ferroan anorthosites and magnesian-suite rocks. This meteorite lacks basalt, and owes its mingled composition to a significant proportion of coarse-grained mafic clasts. One group of mafic clasts has pyroxenes similar to anorthosites, but contains more sodic plagioclase (An#~94) distinguishing it as a separate lithology. Another group contains Mg-rich, very low-titanium pyroxenes, and could represent an intrusion parental to regional basalts. Other clasts include granophyric K-feldspar, disaggregated phosphate-bearing quartz monzodiorites, and alkali-suite fragments (An#~65). These evolved lithics are a minor component, but contain minerals rich in incompatible elements. Several anorthosite clasts contain clusters of apatite, suggesting that the anorthosites either assimilated evolved rocks or were metasomatized by a liquid rich in incompatible elements. We used Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer remote sensing data to show that NWA 2996 is most similar to regoliths in and around the South Pole Aitken (SPA) basin, peripheral regions of eastern mare, Nectaris, Crisium, and southern areas of Mare Humorum. However, the mineralogy of NWA 2996 is distinctive compared with Apollo and Luna mission samples, and is likely consistent with an origin near the SPA basin: anorthosite clasts could represent local crustal material, mafic clasts could represent intrusions beneath basalt flows, and apatite-bearing rocks could carry the SPA KREEP signature.

  10. Lunar highland meteorite Dhofar 026 and Apollo sample 15418: Two strongly shocked, partially melted, granulitic breccias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, B. A.; James, O.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Nazarov, M.A.; Barsukova, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of lunar meteorite Dhofar 026, and comparison to Apollo sample 15418, indicate that Dhofar 026 is a strongly shocked granulitic breccia (or a fragmental breccia consisting almost entirely of granulitic breccia clasts) that experienced considerable post-shock heating, probably as a result of diffusion of heat into the rock from an external, hotter source. The shock converted plagioclase to maskelynite, indicating that the shock pressure was between 30 and 45 GPa. The post-shock heating raised the rock's temperature to about 1200 ??C; as a result, the maskelynite devitrified, and extensive partial melting took place. The melting was concentrated in pyroxene-rich areas; all pyroxene melted. As the rock cooled, the partial melts crystallized with fine-grained, subophitic-poikilitic textures. Sample 15418 is a strongly shocked granulitic breccia that had a similar history, but evidence for this history is better preserved than in Dhofar 026. The fact that Dhofar 026 was previously interpreted as an impact melt breccia underscores the importance of detailed petrographic study in interpretation of lunar rocks that have complex textures. The name "impact melt" has, in past studies, been applied only to rocks in which the melt fraction formed by shock-induced total fusion. Recently, however, this name has also been applied to rocks containing melt formed by heating of the rocks by conductive heat transfer, assuming that impact is the ultimate source of the heat. We urge that the name "impact melt" be restricted to rocks in which the bulk of the melt formed by shock-induced fusion to avoid confusion engendered by applying the same name to rocks melted by different processes. ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

  11. Elephant Moraine 87521: The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyn, G.W. )

    1989-12-01

    The trace-element chemistry and detailed petrography of brecciated Antarctic meteorite EET87521 reveal that it is not, as originally classified, a eucrite. Its Fe/Mn ratio and bulk Co content are fair higher than expected for a eucrite. Only one known type of extraterrestrial material resembles EET87521 in all important respects for which constraints exist: very-low-Ti (VLT) lunar mare basalts. Even compared to VLT basalts, EET87521 is enriched in REE. However, other varieties of high-alumina, low-Ti mare basalt are known that contain REE at even higher concentrations than EET87521. Several clasts in EET87521 preserve clear vestiges of coarse-grained igneous, possibly orthocumulate, textures. Mineralogically, these coarse-grained clasts are diverse; e.g., olivine ranges from Fo{sub 15} in one to Fo{sub 67} in another. One clast with an anomalously fine-grained texture is anorthositic and contains exceptionally Mg-rich pyroxene and Na-poor plagioclase, along with the only FeNi-metal in the thin section. Its FeNi-metals have compositions typical of metals incorporated into lunar soils and polymict breccias as debris from metal-rich meteorites. However, the low Ni and Ir contents of our bulk-rock analysis imply that the proportion of impact-projectile matter in our chip sample is probably small. The moderate degree of lithologic diversity among the lithic lasts and the bulk composition in general indicate that EET87521 is dominated by a single rock type: VLT mare basalt.

  12. High crustal diversity preserved in the lunar meteorite Mount DeWitt 12007 (Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collareta, Alberto; D'Orazio, Massimo; Gemelli, Maurizio; Pack, Andreas; Folco, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    The meteorite Mount DeWitt (DEW) 12007 is a polymict regolith breccia mainly consisting of glassy impact-melt breccia particles, gabbroic clasts, feldspathic clasts, impact and volcanic glass beads, basaltic clasts, and mingled breccia clasts embedded in a matrix dominated by fine-grained crystals; vesicular glassy veins and rare agglutinates are also present. Main minerals are plagioclase (typically An>85) and clinopyroxene (pigeonites and augites, sometimes interspersed). The presence of tranquillityite, coupled with the petrophysical data, the O-isotope data (Δ17O = -0.075), and the FeOtot/MnO ratios in olivine (91), pyroxene (65), and bulk rock (77) indicate a lunar origin for DEW 12007. Impactites consist of Al-rich impact-melt splashes and plagioclase-rich meta-melt clasts. The volcanic products belong to the very low titanium (VLT) or low titanium (LT) suites; an unusual subophitic fragment could be cryptomare-related. Gabbroic clasts could represent part of a shallow intrusion within a volcanic complex with prevailing VLT affinity. DEW 12007 has a mingled bulk composition with relatively high incompatible element abundances and shows a high crustal diversity comprising clasts from the Moon's major terranes and rare lithologies. First-order petrographic and chemical features suggest that DEW 12007 could be launch-paired with other meteorites including Y 793274/981031, QUE 94281, EET 87521/96008, and NWA 4884.

  13. Particle shape and magnetization of chondrite meteorites, lunar samples, and impactites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1972-01-01

    Extra terrestrial materials, certain materials which have their origin at the earth's surface due to meteoritic impact, or under highly reducing conditions, such as in the case of basaltic flows in contact with coal beds or serpentenites, all contain Fe and FeNi phases with high magnetization values and spherical shape. Normally, the demagnetizing field (H sub D = NI sub S: where N is the demagnetizing factor and I is the saturation magnetization) is corrected for. In disperse systems, such as most natural materials, the particle shape effects are analyzed in terms of the saturation fields, Hs = H sub D = NI sub S and the magnetization differences (Delta I sub S). Discrete size modes of superparamagnetic (SP), multidomain (MD), and single domain (SD) particles result in reduced coercive force (Hc), increase in the value R sub H (ratio of remanent coercive force, H sub R, to H sub C), and decrease in the value R sub I (ratio of remanent magnetization, I sub R, to saturation magnetization, T sub S). The main distinctions between the various natural materials can be made by this approach. Hysteresis loops for terrestrial basalts, Fe and Ni rods and spheres, chondrite meteorites, lunar samples, impactites, and chondritic fusion crust are presented.

  14. Impact melts in the MAC88105 lunar meteorite - Inferences for the lunar magma ocean hypothesis and the diversity of basaltic impact melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    The MAC88105 lunar meteorite, as represented by thin section 78, contains three major types of impact melt breccias. The most abundant type is clast-laden, fine-grained, and rich in Al2O3 (28 wt pct); these clasts constitute most of the meteorite. Their abundance and aluminous nature indicate that the MAC88105 source area was very aluminous. This is consistent with formation of the primordial lunar crust from a global magma ocean. The second type of impact melt is represented by only one clast in 78. It has a basaltic bulk composition similar to many other lunar impact melts, but is significantly richer in P2O5 than most and has a much lower MgO/(MgO + FeO). The third impact-melt type resembles a prominent melt group at Apollo 16, but has lower MgO/(MgO + FeO). These data show that basaltic impact melts are compositionally diverse. Dating samples of the Al-rich impact melts and the new types of basaltic impact melts from this meteorite can test the idea that the Moon suffered a terminal cataclysm 3.9 Ga ago.

  15. Impact melts in the MAC88105 lunar meteorite: Inferences for the lunar magma ocean hypothesis and the diversity of basaltic impact melts

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The MAC88105 lunar meteorite, as represented by thin section 78, contains three major types of impact melt breccias. The most abundant type is clast-laden, fine grained, and rich in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (28 wt%); these clasts constitute most of the meteorite. Their abundance and aluminous nature indicate that the MAC88105 source area was very aluminous. This is consistent with formation of the primordial lunar crust from a global magma ocean. The second type of impact melt is represented by only one clast in 78. It has a basaltic bulk composition similar to many other lunar impact melts, but is significantly richer in P{sub 2}O{sub 5} than most and has a much lower MgO/(MgO + FeO). These data show that basaltic impact melts are compositionally diverse. Dating samples of the Al-rich impact melts and the new types of basaltic impact melts from this meteorite can test that idea that the Moon suffered a terminal cataclysm 3.9 Ga ago.

  16. Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Meteorites have long been known to offer a unique window into planetary formation processes at the time of solar system formation and into the materials that rained down on Earth at the time of the origin of life. Their material properties determine the impact hazard of Near Earth Asteroids. Some insight into how future laboratory studies of meteorites and laboratory astrophysics simulations of relevant physical processes can help address open questions in these areas and generate new astronomical observations, comes from what was learned from the recent laboratory studies of freshly fallen meteorites. The rapid recovery of Almahata Sitta (a polymict Ureilite), Sutter's Mill (a CM chondrite regolith breccia), Novato (an L6 chondrite), and Chelyabinsk (an LL5 chondrite) each were followed by the creation of a meteorite consortium, which grew to over 50 researchers in the case of Chelyabinsk. New technologies were used to probe the organic content of the meteorites as well as their magnetic signatures, isotopic abundances, trapped noble gasses, and cosmogenic radio nucleides, amongst others. This has resulted in fascinating insight into the nature of the Ureilite parent body, the likely source region of the CM chondrites in the main asteroid belt, and the collisional environment of the CM parent body. This work has encouraged follow-up in the hope of catching more unique materials. Rapid response efforts are being developed that aim to recover meteorites as pristinely as possible from falls for which the approach orbit was measured. A significant increase in the number of known approach orbits for different meteorite types will help tie meteorite types to their asteroid family source regions. Work so far suggests that future laboratory studies may recognize multiple source regions for iron-rich ordinary chondrites, for example. Hope is that these source regions will give insight into the material properties of impacting asteroids. At least some future laboratory

  17. The oxidation state of europium as an indicator of oxygen fugacity. [lunar and terrestrial rocks, achondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Empirical oxygen barometers based on Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) ratios in plagioclase feldspar and magmatic liquid were developed using Philpott's (1970) approach and the experimental data of Drake (1972). Oxygen fugacities calculated on the basis of Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) ratios for terrestrial basalts cluster tightly around 10 to the negative seventh power. Oxygen fugacities for Apollo 11 and 12 lunar ferrobasalts cluster tightly around 10 to the negative 12.7 power. Calculated oxygen fugacities for achondritic meteorites are lower than for lunar samples by several orders of magnitude.

  18. Atlas of reflectance spectra of terrestrial, lunar and meteoritic powders and frosts from 92 to 1800 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Jeffrey; Hapke, Bruce; Wells, Eddie

    1987-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of powdered samples of selected minerals, meteorites, lunar materials and frosts are presented as an aid in the interpretation of present and future remote sensing data of solar system objects. Spectra obtained in separate wavelength regions have been combined and normalized, yielding coverage from 92 to 1800 nm. Spectral features include reflectance maxima in the far UV region produced by valence-conduction interband transitions, and reflectance minima in the near UV, visible and near IR regions, produced by charge transfer and crystal field transitions. Specific maxima and minima are diagnostic of mineral type and composition; additionally, the minerals present in mixtures such as meteorites and lunar samples can be determined.

  19. Constraints on the Composition and Evolution of the Lunar Crust from Meteorite NWA 3163

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, C. L.; Brandon, A. D.; Fernandes, V. A.; Peslier, A. H.; Lapen, T. J.; Irving, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The lunar meteorite NWA 3163 (paired with NWA 4881, 4483) is a ferroan, feldspathic granulitic breccia characterized by pigeonite, augite, olivine, maskelynite and accessory Tichromite, ilmenite and troilite. Bulk rock geochemical signatures indicate the lack of a KREEP- derived component (Eu/Eu* = 3.47), consistent with previously studied lunar granulites and anorthosites. Bulk rock chondrite-normalized signatures are however distinct from the anorthosites and granulites sampled by Apollo missions and are relatively REE-depleted. In-situ analyses of maskelynite reveal little variation in anorthite content (average An% is 96.9 +/- 1.6, 2 sigma). Olivine is relatively ferroan and exhibits very little variation in forsterite content with mean Fo% of 57.7 +/- 2.0 (2 sigma). The majority of pyroxene is low-Ca pigeonite (En57Fs33Wo10). Augite (En46Fs21Wo33) is less common, comprising approximately 10% of analyzed pyroxene. Two pyroxene thermometry on co-existing orthopyroxene and augite yield an equilibrium temperature of 1070C which is in reasonable agreement with temperatures of 1096C estimated from pigeonite compositions. Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of separated fractions yield an average measured Sr-87/Sr-87 of 0.699282+/-0.000007 (2 sigma). Sr model ages are calculated using a modern day Sr-87/Sr-86 Basaltic Achondrite Best Initial (BABI) value of 0.70475, from an initial BABI value Sr-87/Sr-86 of 0.69891 and a corresponding Rb-87/Sr-97 of 0.08716. The Sr model Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) age, which represents the time of separation of a melt from a source reservoir having chondritic evolution, is 4.56+/-0.1 Ga. A Sr model T(sub RD) age, which is a Rb depletion age and assumes no contribution from Rb in the sample in the calculation, yields 4.34+/-0.1 Ga (i.e. a minimum age). The Ar-Ar dating of paired meteorite NWA 4881 reveals an age of c. 2 Ga, likely representing the last thermal event this meteorite experienced. An older Ar-40/Ar-39 age of c. 3.5 Ga may

  20. History of the paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 derived from noble gas isotopes, radionuclides, and some chemical abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Eugster, O.; Burger, M.; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Michel, T. ); Beer, J. ); Finkel, R.C. ); Hofmann, H.J.; Synal, H.A.; Woelfli, W. )

    1991-11-01

    Noble gas isotopes, radionuclides, and chemical abundances were studied in the lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 collected in the MacAlpine Hills area of Antarctica. The concentrations of the noble gas isotopes and the radionuclide activities in the two meteorites are essentially identical, proving that the two meteorites are paired. From {sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar dating the authors obtain a gas retention age of 3,550 {plus minus} 400 Ma, typical for lunar surface material. Probably before breccia compaction the MAC88104/5 material resided for 630 {plus minus} 200 Ma at an average shielding depth of 85 g/cm{sup 2}, that is, about 50 cm below the lunar surface in the lunar regolith, as judged from the concentration of cosmic-ray produced Kr and Xe isotopes. Although this duration of lunar regolith residence is relatively long, MAC88104/5 represent immature regolith material: the concentration of solar wind implanted noble gases are two orders of magnitude lower than those in mature lunar soil. The {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar ratio of the trapped component is 5.7 {plus minus} 1.0, indicating an intermediate antiquity of the material; the authors estimate that the solar wind and lunar atmospheric particles were implanted about 2,000 Ma ago. The radionuclide activities allow a determination of the exposure history of the MAC88104/5 material. The duration of the Moon-Earth transfer was {much lt} 0.24 Ma. The exposure histories of the lunar meteorites discussed in this work indicate that at least two impact events are required for their ejection from the Moon. The authors first noble gas results for lunar meteorite Yamato-793274 show that it represents mature lunar regolith material with relatively high concentrations of solar wind implanted noble gas and a duration of several hundred million years of exposure to cosmic rays.

  1. Solar cosmic ray produced neon in lunar soils and their implication for gas-rich meteorite studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nautiyal, C. M.; Rao, M. N.

    1984-01-01

    Characteristic neon isotopic ratios, produced due to solar cosmic ray spallation (SCR) in lunar soils, are useful in deciphering and estimating the relative contributions of SCR and GCR spallation. To delineate these features, etched mineral grains from mature and immature lunar soils (14148 and 61221 respectively) were analyzed using mass spectrometry. The SF-Ne composition deduced in this work agrees with that obtained from earlier etched lunar pyroxene studies. The data points for mature soil 14148 define a line which significantly deviates from the 61221 tie line. This deviation is attributed to the presence of SCR spallation component. In this context, neon isotopic compositions (step-wise heating) in Pantar and Leighton dark portions were studied and compared with that of Fayetteville. The meteorite data points deviate significantly from the tie line joining SF-Ne and GCR (pyroxene) end points. This deviation is attributed to SCR-spallation in gas-rich chondrites.

  2. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Lunar Highland Meteorite Y86032 and Lunar Ferroan Anorthosites 60025 and 67075

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, H.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Yamato (Y) 86032 is a feldspathic breccia containing anorthositic fragments similar to ferroan anorthosite (FAN) clasts commonly found in Apollo 16 highland rocks. Previous Ar-39-Ar-40 analyses of a grey anorthositic clast (,116 GC) in Y86032 revealed an old degassing age of 4.39 plus or minus 0.06 Ga, which is as old as crystallization ages of some FANs e.g. 60025, 67016 and 67215, as determined by the more robust Sm-Nd radiometric method. The calculated initial Nd value for the clast is -1.8 plus or minus 0.3 for the age. The old age and its negative initial Nd value indicate that Y86032 contains components of the primitive lunar crust related to the lunar magma ocean (LMO). We undertook further Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic investigation of three major lithologies in the meteorite as described in the mineralogical and petrological studies. Ar-39-Ar-40 analyses of these component lithologies are presented in this volume. Also, we analyzed two Apollo 16 FANs, 60025 and 67075, to compare their ages and isotopic signatures to Y86032. Y86032 probably came from a feldspathic highland terrane (FHT) on the northern farside highlands, a locality not sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions.

  3. Petrology and geochemistry of feldspathic impact-melt breccia Abar al' Uj 012, the first lunar meteorite from Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MéSzáRos, Marianna; Hofmann, Beda A.; Lanari, Pierre; Korotev, Randy L.; Gnos, Edwin; Greber, Nicolas D.; Leya, Ingo; Greenwood, Richard C.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.

    2016-08-01

    Abar al' Uj (AaU) 012 is a clast-rich, vesicular impact-melt (IM) breccia, composed of lithic and mineral clasts set in a very fine-grained and well-crystallized matrix. It is a typical feldspathic lunar meteorite, most likely originating from the lunar farside. Bulk composition (31.0 wt% Al2O3, 3.85 wt% FeO) is close to the mean of feldspathic lunar meteorites and Apollo FAN-suite rocks. The low concentration of incompatible trace elements (0.39 ppm Th, 0.13 ppm U) reflects the absence of a significant KREEP component. Plagioclase is highly anorthitic with a mean of An96.9Ab3.0Or0.1. Bulk rock Mg# is 63 and molar FeO/MnO is 76. The terrestrial age of the meteorite is 33.4 ± 5.2 kyr. AaU 012 contains a ~1.4 × 1.5 mm2 exotic clast different from the lithic clast population which is dominated by clasts of anorthosite breccias. Bulk composition and presence of relatively large vesicles indicate that the clast was most probably formed by an impact into a precursor having nonmare igneous origin most likely related to the rare alkali-suite rocks. The IM clast is mainly composed of clinopyroxenes, contains a significant amount of cristobalite (9.0 vol%), and has a microcrystalline mesostasis. Although the clast shows similarities in texture and modal mineral abundances with some Apollo pigeonite basalts, it has lower FeO and higher SiO2 than any mare basalt. It also has higher FeO and lower Al2O3 than rocks from the FAN- or Mg-suite. Its lower Mg# (59) compared to Mg-suite rocks also excludes a relationship with these types of lunar material.

  4. Lunar meteorite LaPaz Icefield 04841: Petrology, texture, and impact-shock effects of a low-Ti mare basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, E.; Taylor, L. A.; Floss, C.; Liu, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Found during the 2004 U.S. Antarctic Search for Meteorites season, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 04841 represents an addition to the LaPaz lunar basalts suite and brings the total mass collected to 1.93 kg. The presence of FeNi grains, troilite, and the anorthositic composition of plagioclase are evidence for the lunar origin of this meteorite. Pyroxene and olivine Mn/Fe values plot along the trend set for lunar basalts. Analyses of chromite grains provide a V/(Al + Cr) ratio of 1.33 ± 13, translating to an fO2 one log unit below the IW buffer, in accordance with previous fO2 estimates for lunar basalts. Application of the Zr-cooling speedometer, for ilmenite and ulvöspinel pairs, gives a cooling rate of 5.2 °C/day, matching previous estimates of cooling rates for the LaPaz lunar meteorites and Apollo mare basalts. Mineral modes and chemistries, as well as trace-element patterns, provide compelling evidence for pairing of this meteorite to others in the LaPaz lunar basalt suite.

  5. The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, Macalpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1999-01-01

    number of ordinary chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

  6. Crystallization of Pyroxene and Spinel in Gabbroic Lunar Meteorite Asuka 881757

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, T.; Takeda, H.; Warren, P. H.

    1995-09-01

    Lunar meteorite Asuka (A)881757 is a distinct new type of low-Ti (LT) mare basalt [e.g. 1,2], considerably older than nearly all Apollo and Luna mare basalt samples [3], and may be an product of the earliest mare volcanism. It shows an extraordinarily coarse-grained gabbroic texture, and is mainly composed of Fe-rich pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite, Ti-rich spinel, troilite and Fe-Ni [4]. Extensive chemical zonings, which are recognized in pyroxenes and spinels, were studied by means of elemental distribution maps in order to deduce crystallization condition of pyroxene and spinel, and their mutual relationship during crystallization. We studied polished thin sections (PTS) A881757, 51-4, A881757, 53D-2, and A881757, 53E-2 supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR). Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by EPMA and SEM. Elemental distribution maps of pyroxenes and spinels for Fe, Mg, Ti, Cr, and Al were obtained by EPMA. Pyroxenes are generally zoned from Mg-rich core Fe(sub)37Mg(sub)40Ca(sub)23 to Fe-rich rim Fe(sub)65Mg(sub)10Ca(sub)25 in three PTSs. Spinels are distributed quite heterogeneously through three PTS and modal abundance of spinel reachs 11% only in one PTS. Spinels in three PTS can be divided in two groups: spinels in mesostases and interstitial ones between pyroxenes. Mesostasis spinels, which are homogeneous and have similar compositions from grain to grain, crystallized with very Fe-rich pyroxene. Interstitial spinels which are zoned for TiO2 and Cr2O3 within crystals, and show different composition between crystals, cocrystallized with relatively Mg- rich pyroxenes. Interstitial spinels (TiO2= 23-28wt%, Cr2O3= 8-17 wt%) are more Ti-rich and less Cr-rich than mesostasis ones (TiO2= 30-31wt%, Cr2O3= 3-4 wt%). It is noted that more Ti-rich spinels tend to be surrounded by more Fe-rich pyroxene. Spinels in mare basalts generally change their compositions from Fe2TiO4 (ulvospinel) to FeCr2O4 (chromite) during

  7. Laser-Ablation ICP-MS Analyses of Meteoritic Metal Grains in Lunar Impact-Melt Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lunar impact-melt breccias contain metal grains from the meteorites that formed the breccias. Because the breccias contain clastic material that may derive from older breccias, metal grains from earlier impacts may be present, too. The large subset of moderately mafic (8 - 12% FeO), KREEP-rich ("LKFM") melt breccias is particularly important because: (1) these are the melt breccias most likely to have been produced in basin-forming impacts, (2) it is from these breccias that many of the approx. 3.9 Gyr ages that are so common in lunar samples derive, (3) the breccias contain large proportions of FeNi metal, more than 1% in some types of Apollo 16 breccias, and (4) the metal potentially provides information about the impactors causing the apparent cataclysm at 3.9 Gyr.

  8. The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, MacAlpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    2000-01-01

    chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized in Table 1. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

  9. Petrography, geochronology and source terrain characteristics of lunar meteorites Dhofar 925, 961 and Sayh al Uhaymir 449

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, K. H.; Nemchin, A.; Grange, M.; Lapen, T. J.; Peslier, A. H.; Ross, D. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Kring, D. A.

    2014-11-01

    Dhofar (Dho) 925, 961 and Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 449 are brecciated lunar meteorites consisting of mineral fragments and clasts from a range of precursor lithologies including magnesian anorthositic gabbronorite granulites; crystalline impact melt breccias; clast-bearing glassy impact melt breccias; lithic (fragmental) breccias; mare basalts; and evolved (silica-rich) rocks. On the similarity of clast type and mineral chemistry the samples are likely grouped, and were part of the same parent meteorite. Phosphate Pb-Pb ages in impact melt breccias and matrix grains demonstrate that Dho 961 records geological events spanning ∼500 Ma between 4.35 and 3.89 Ga. These Pb-Pb ages are similar to the ages of 'ancient' intrusive magmatic samples and impact basin melt products collected on the lunar nearside by the Apollo missions. However, the samples' bulk rock composition is chemically distinct from these types of samples, and it has been suggested that they may have originated from the farside South Pole-Aitken impact basin (i.e., Jolliff et al., 2008). We test this hypothesis, and conclude that although it is possible that the samples may be from the South Pole-Aitken basin, there are other regions on the Moon that may have also sourced these complex breccias.

  10. Siderophile and volatile trace elements in 72255 and 72275. [meteoritic and igneous composition of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1974-01-01

    Of six samples from boulder 1 at Station 2, four contain a unique meteoritic component, which is attributed to the Crisium projectile. The other two samples are meteorite free, igneous rocks: an unusual, alkali- and Ge-rich pigeonitic basalt, and an alkali-poor norite of unexceptional trace element chemistry.

  11. Mineralogy and petrology of lunar meteorite Northwest Africa 2977 consisting of olivine cumulate gabbro including inverted pigeonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Karouji, Yuzuru; Takeda, Hiroshi; Fagan, Timothy J.; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    2015-12-01

    Lunar meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 2977 is identified as an olivine cumulate gabbro (OC), consisting of coarse cumulate olivine crystals up to 1 mm with low-Ca and high-Ca pyroxenes, plagioclase, and interstitial incompatible element-rich pockets of K-feldspar, Ca-phosphates, ilmenite, and troilite. These minerals and textures are similar to those of the OC clasts of the NWA 773 clan of meteorites. NWA 2977 contains a variety of pyroxene textures and compositions including augite, pigeonite, and rare orthopyroxene, all having exsolution lamellae. Some of the orthopyroxene has abundant augite lamellae with compositions indicating formation by inversion of pigeonite. This pigeonite was inverted at 1140 °C according to the pigeonite eutectoid reaction (PER) temperatures. Inverted pigeonite has not been found previously in the NWA 773 clan of meteorites. The presence of inverted pigeonite indicates that NWA 2977 cooled more slowly than most other OC clasts of the NWA 773 clan. The relatively slow cooling of NWA 2977 can be explained by formation in a deeper level of the original igneous body of the NWA 773 clan OC lithology.

  12. Papers presented to the Conference on Origins of Planetary Magnetism. [magnetic properties of meteorites and solar, lunar, and planetary magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts of 63 papers accepted for publication are presented. Topics cover geomagnetism in the context of planetary magnetism, lunar magnetism, the dynamo theory and nondynamo processes, comparative planetary magnetism (terrestrial and outer planets), meteoritic magnetism, and the early solar magnetic field. Author and subject indexes are provided.

  13. The Chronology and Petrogenesis of the Mare Basalt Clast from Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 287: Rb-Sr and Sm- Nd Isotopic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nazarov, M. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Sm-Nd isochron for lunar mare basalt meteorite Dhofar 287A yields T = 3.46 +/- 0.03 Ga and Nd = 0.6 +/- 0.3. Its Rb-Sr isotopic system is severely altered. The basalt is unique, probably coming from an enriched mantle source. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Geochemical comparison of impact glasses from lunar meteorites ALHA81005 and MAC88105 and Apollo 16 regolith 64001

    SciTech Connect

    Delano, J.W. )

    1991-11-01

    Most glasses that occur in lunar highland regolith are quenched droplets of impact melt. The chemical compositions of these glasses are equivalent, in the absence of volatile losses, to the original target materials. The compositional range of impact glasses in a regolith reflects the chemical diversity that existed throughout the region up to the time of system closure (e.g., breccia formation). Since these glasses are a product of widespread and random sampling, both in terms of space and time, they can be used for geochemical exploration of the Moon. The major-element compositions of impact glasses occurring in three samples of lunar feldspathic regolith (ALHA81005; MAC88105; Apollo 16 64001) have been determined by electron microprobe. The glass populations among these three unrelated samples are compositionally distinct. While most of the impact glasses within each of these three samples are compositionally similar to the regolith in which they are found, up to 40% of the impact glasses are different. Some of the compositionally exotic glasses were ballistically transported from other areas of the Moon and thereby provide information about the compositional range of regoliths that exist elsewhere. Since the geological setting of the Apollo 16 region is well known compared to the source areas of the lunar meteorites, the Apollo 16 glasses provide a ground truth for interpretations.

  15. Wanted: Lunar detectives to unravel the mysteries of the Moon! Crime to be solved: Mass extinctions on the Moon by meteorite impact!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1991-01-01

    The criteria and clues for identifying meteorite contamination are outlined to aid in the quest for more knowledge regarding the evolution of the Moon and the early Earth. The Warren and Wasson seven criteria for establishing the pristine nature of highland rocks are presented. Other topics covered include iron/nickel metals, monomict nature, and lunar glasses. The major conclusion is that pristinity should not be the primary consideration in the study of lunar rocks. The most important criterion to establish is whether or not the lunar sample contains more than one lunar rock type. Even if a sample is non-pristine, as long as only one lunar rock type is present, petrogenetic interpretation can still be carried out.

  16. Wanted: Lunar detectives to unravel the mysteries of the Moon] Crime to be solved: Mass extinctions on the Moon by meteorite impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    The criteria and clues for identifying meteorite contamination are outlined to aid in the quest for more knowledge regarding the evolution of the Moon and the early Earth. The Warren and Wasson seven criteria for establishing the pristine nature of highland rocks are presented. Other topics covered include iron/nickel metals, monomict nature, and lunar glasses. The major conclusion is that pristinity should not be the primary consideration in the study of lunar rocks. The most important criterion to establish is whether or not the lunar sample contains more than one lunar rock type. Even if a sample is non-pristine, as long as only one lunar rock type is present, petrogenetic interpretation can still be carried out.

  17. Maskelynite in asteroidal, lunar and planetary basaltic meteorites: An indicator of shock pressure during impact ejection from their parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2015-09-01

    Maskelynite is a diaplectic glass that forms from plagioclase at shock pressures of ∼20-30 GPa, depending on the Ca concentration. The proportion of maskelynite-rich samples in a basaltic meteorite group correlates with the parent-body escape velocity and serves as a shock indicator of launching conditions. For eucrites (basalts widely presumed to be from Vesta; vesc = 0.36 km s-1), ∼5% of the samples are maskelynite rich. For the Moon (vesc = 2.38 km s-1), ∼30% of basaltic meteorites are maskelynite rich. For Mars (vesc = 5.03 km s-1), ∼93% of basaltic meteorites are maskelynite rich. In contrast, literature data show that maskelynite is rare (∼1%) among mare basalts and basaltic fragments in Apollo 11, 12, 15 and 17 soils (which were never ejected from the Moon). Angrites are unbrecciated basaltic meteorites that are maskelynite free; they were ejected at low-to-moderate shock pressures from an asteroid smaller than Vesta. Because most impacts that eject materials from a large (⩾100 km) parent body are barely energetic enough to do that, a collision that has little more than the threshold energy required to eject a sample from Vesta will not be able to eject identical samples from the Moon or Mars. There must have been relatively few impacts, if any, that launched eucrites off their parent body that also imparted shock pressures of ∼20-30 GPa in the ejected rocks. More-energetic impacts were required to launch basalts off the Moon and Mars. On average, Vesta ejecta were subjected to lower shock pressures than lunar ejecta, and lunar ejecta were subjected to lower shock pressures than martian ejecta. H and LL ordinary chondrites have low percentages of shock-stage S5 maskelynite-bearing samples (∼1% and ∼4%, respectively), probably reflecting shock processes experienced by these rocks on their parent asteroids. In contrast, L chondrites have a relatively high proportion of samples containing maskelynite (∼11%), most likely a result of

  18. The origin of young mare basalts inferred from lunar meteorites Northwest Africa 4734, 032, and LaPaz Icefield 02205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elardo, Stephen M.; Shearer, Charles K.; Fagan, Amy L.; Borg, Lars E.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Burger, Paul V.; Neal, Clive R.; Fernandes, Vera A.; McCubbin, Francis M.

    2014-02-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 4734 is an unbrecciated basaltic lunar meteorite that is nearly identical in chemical composition to basaltic lunar meteorites NWA 032 and LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02205. We have conducted a geochemical, petrologic, mineralogic, and Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and Ar-Ar isotopic study of these meteorites to constrain their petrologic relationships and the origin of young mare basalts. NWA 4734 is a low-Ti mare basalt with a low Mg* (36.5) and elevated abundances of incompatible trace elements (e.g., 2.00 ppm Th). The Sm-Nd isotope system dates NWA 4734 with an isochron age of 3024 ± 27 Ma, an initial ɛNd of +0.88 ± 0.20, and a source region 147Sm/144Nd of 0.201 ± 0.001. The crystallization age of NWA 4734 is concordant with those of LAP 02205 and NWA 032. NWA 4734 and LAP 02205 have very similar bulk compositions, mineral compositions, textures, and ages. Their source region 147Sm/144Nd values indicate that they are derived from similar, but distinct, source materials. They probably do not sample the same lava flow, but rather are similarly sourced, but isotopically distinct, lavas that probably originate from the same volcanic complex. They may have experienced slightly different assimilation histories in route to eruption, but can be source-crater paired. NWA 032 remains enigmatic, as its source region 147Sm/144Nd definitively precludes a simple relationship with NWA 4734 and LAP 02205, despite a similar bulk composition. Their high Ti/Sm, low (La/Yb)N, and Cl-poor apatite compositions rule out the direct involvement of KREEP. Rather, they are consistent with low-degree partial melting of late-formed LMO cumulates, and indicate that the geochemical characteristics attributed to urKREEP are not unique to that reservoir. These and other basaltic meteorites indicate that the youngest mare basalts originate from multiple sources, and suggest that KREEP is not a prerequisite for the most recent known melting in the Moon.

  19. Photomosaics of the cathodoluminescence of 60 sections of meteorites and lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akridge, D.G.; Akridge, J.M.C.; Batchelor, J.D.; Benoit, P.H.; Brewer, J.; DeHart, J.M.; Keck, B.D.; Jie, L.; Meier, A.; Penrose, M.; Schneider, D.M.; Sears, D.W.G.; Symes, S.J.K.; Yanhong, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) petrography provides a means of observing petrographic and compositional properties of geological samples not readily observable by other techniques. We report the low-magnification CL images of 60 sections of extraterrestrial materials. The images we report include ordinary chondrites (including type 3 ordinary chondrites and gas-rich regolith breccias), enstatite chondrites, CO chondrites and a CM chondrite, eucrites and a howardite, lunar highland regolith breccias, and lunar soils. The CL images show how primitive materials respond to parent body metamorphism, how the metamorphic history of EL chondrites differs from that of EH chondrites, how dark matrix and light clasts of regolith breccias relate to each other, how metamorphism affects eucrites, the texture of lunar regolith breccias and the distribution of crystallized lunar spherules ("lunar chondrules"), and how regolith working affects the mineral properties of lunar soils. More particularly, we argue that such images are a rich source of new information on the nature and history of these materials and that our efforts to date are a small fraction of what can be done. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Atlas of Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Monica; Pratesi, Giovanni; Moggi Cecchi, Vanni

    2014-11-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Carbonaceous chondrites; 3. Ordinary chondrites; 4. Enstatite chondrites; 5. Rumurutiite and kakangari-type chondrites; 6. Acapulcoites and lodranites; 7. Brachinites; 8. Winonaite-iab-iiicd clan; 9. Ureilites; 10. Angrites; 11. Aubrites; 12. Howardite-eucrite-diogenite clan; 13. Mesosiderites; 14. Pallasites; 15. Iron meteorites; 16. Lunar meteorites; 17. Martian meteorites; References; Index.

  1. Data analysis to separate particles of different speed regimes and charges. [lunar ejecta and meteorite experiment and pioneer space probe data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, H.

    1977-01-01

    Although the instruments on the lunar ejecta and meteorite experiment (LEAM) and the Pioneer 8 and 9 space probes were essentially similar, a comparison of their results indicates that different sets of particles caused the different responses. On Pioneer, the events were caused by the impact of cosmic dust, the so-called beta particles expelled from the vicinity of the sun by solar radiation pressure, augmented by extremely high energy but definitely identifiable interstellar grains. On the moon, the events were due to the impact of slowly moving, highly charged lunar dust being propelled electrostatically across the terminator. Both theoretical analysis and experimental testing confirming these conclusions are discussed.

  2. Compositional implications regarding the lunar origin of the ALHA 81005 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallemeyn, G. W.; Warren, P. H.

    1983-09-01

    Geochemically, ALHA 81005 has all the attributes expected of a regolith sample from the lunar highlands. Most important is its Fe/Mn ratio (77), within an uncertainty the same as the mean lunar ratio. There are significant differences, however, in comparison to previously sampled lunar regoliths. The closest precedents are the Apollo-16 and Luna-20 regoliths, particularly the latter, but ALHA 81005 has lower contents of Na, Ti, and incompatible elements. Feldspathic granulitic breccias such as 72559, which texturally resemble the most abundant type of clast in ALHA 81005, are also similar compositionally. From its low KREEP and Na contents ALHA 81005 is inferred to have originated well away from the K, Th, and U-rich region near the center of the nearside, at least as far away as the eastern limb.

  3. Meteoritic material in lunar highland samples from the Apollo 11 and 12 sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssens, M.-J.; Hertogen, J.; Palme, H.; Anderson, A. T.; Anders, E.

    1978-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analyses for Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Rb, Re, Sb, Te, Tl, U and Zn were carried out on 11 samples from the Apollo 11 and 12 sites (two samples of rock 12013, one granitic and one KREEPy; 4 KREEP fragments from 2-4 mm soil 12033,2; 4 anorthositic fragments from 1-3 mm soil 10085,104; 1 sample of 'Luny' rock-felsite-KREEP breccia 12013 10085,31 LR-1). Most Apollo 12 samples were found to have an Imbrium meteoritic component; others, typified by the Luny breccia, apparently contain a new meteoritic component of low Re content. Components of higher Ir/Au ratio (3L, 5L and 7) were found in Apollo 11 anorthositic samples; the fact that their enrichment in meteoritic siderophiles parallels that of Fe, Mg, REE and other KREEP elements is consistent with progressive contamination of an anorthositic crust. The Luny rock was tentatively classified Group 2, supporting the assignment of this group to Serenitatis.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Concerning Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV session entitled "Concerning Chondrites" includes the following topics: 1) Petrology and Raman Spectroscopy of Shocked Phases in the Gujba CB Chondrite and the Shock History of the CB Parent Body; 2) The Relationship Between CK and CV Chondrites: A Single Parent Body Source? 3) Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites; 4) Composition and Origin of SiO2-rich Objects in Carbonaceous and Ordinary Chondrites; 5) Re-Os Systematics and HSE distribution in Tieschitz (H3.6); Two Isochrons for One Meteorite; 6) Loss of Chromium from Olivine During the Metamorphism of Chondrites; 7) Very Short Delivery Times of Meteorites After the L-Chondrite Parent Body Break-Up 480 Myr Ago; and 8) The Complex Exposure History of a Very Large L/LL5 Chondrite Shower: Queen Alexandra Range 90201.

  5. Compositional-petrographic investigation of pristine nonmare rocks. [unmixed survivors of lunar meteoritic bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Wasson, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-six highlands rocks and clasts are characterized petrographically and by determinations of major and trace elements, including key incompatibles and siderophiles. Most samples were selected in the hope that they would prove to be pristine, i.e., unremelted, monomict products of endogenous lunar magmatism. About 3/5 are almost certainly pristine, while about 1/4 are definitely non-pristine, and the remainder await further study before pristinity may be either proven or disproven. All of the major conclusions of Warren and Wasson (1977) about the significance of pristine nonmare rocks and the nature of the lunar crust still appear correct. Probably none, or virtually none, of the samples possessing the attributes by which 'pristinity' is judged formed as 'secondary differentiates' in giant impact melt pools, as Delano and Ringwood (1978) propose. Those which possess markedly plutonic textures (e.g., 62236) almost certainly did not.

  6. Gamma Rays, Meteorites, Lunar Samples, and the Composition of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2005-11-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer built at Los Alamos National Laboratory and carried on the Lunar Prospector orbiter in 1997-1998 allowed scientists to measure the concentrations of several elements on the entire lunar surface. The data have been widely used by planetary scientists to determine the chemical composition of the Moon and infer something about the processes operating when it formed. However, specialists in the study of lunar samples have been a bit uneasy about the details of the elemental compositions and have offered modest, but significant, corrections to the gamma ray data to make them more in line with what we know from samples. The latest of these approaches to correcting the gamma-ray data has been done by Paul Warren (University of California, Los Angeles), a renowned lunar sample specialist. He concentrated on correcting the analysis for the element thorium (Th), whose natural radioactive decay releases characteristic gamma rays. Thorium is an important element because we understand its behavior during the formation and subsequent evolution of magma, and because it is a refractory element-that is, it condenses at a high temperature from a gas. This means that if you know the thorium concentration, you also know the concentrations of all other refractory elements with similar geochemical behavior, which includes the rare earth elements, uranium, zirconium, titanium, calcium, and aluminum. Using his revised global thorium concentration as a springboard, Warren then estimated the concentration of numerous elements in the entire rocky portion of the Moon, which makes up more than 95% of the orb that graces the night sky. His estimates do not agree with those produced by others, which will lead to continued debate and refinement of the Moon's chemical composition.

  7. Crystal-bearing lunar spherules: Impact-melting of the Moon's crust and implications for the origin of meteoritic chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    Crystal-bearing lunar spherules (CLSs) in lunar breccia (14313, 14315, 14318), soil (68001, 24105), and impact-melt-rock (62295) samples can be classified into two types: feldspathic and olivine-rich. Feldspathic CLSs contain equant, tabular, or acicular plagioclase grains set in glass or a pyroxene-olivine mesostasis; the less common olivine-rich CLSs contain euhedral or skeletal olivine set in glass, or possess a barred-olivine texture. Bulk-chemical and mineral-chemical data strongly suggest that feldspathic CLSs formed by impact-melting of mixtures of ferroan anorthosite and Mg-suite rocks that compose the feldspathic crust of the Moon. It is probable that olivine-rich CLSs also formed by impact-melting, but some appear to have been derived from distinctively magnesian lunar materials, atypical of the Moon's crust. Some CLSs contain reversely-zoned "relict" plagioclase grains that were not entirely melted during CLS formation, thin (?5 ?m thick) rims of troilite or phosphate, and chemical gradients in glassy mesostases attributed to metasomatism in a volatile-rich (Na-K-P-rich) environment. CLSs were rimmed and metasomatized prior to brecciation. Compound CLS objects are also present; these formed by low-velocity collisions in an environment, probably an ejecta plume, that contained numerous melt droplets. Factors other than composition were responsible for producing the crystallinity of the CLSs. We agree with previous workers that relatively slow cooling rates and long ballistic travel times were critical features that enabled these impact-melt droplets to partially or completely crystallize in free-flight. Moreover, incomplete melting of precursor materials formed nucleation sites that aided subsequent crystallization. Clearly, CLSs do not resemble meteoritic chondrules in all ways. The two types of objects had different precursors and did not experience identical rimming processes, and vapor-fractionation appears to have played a less important role in

  8. Lunar formation. Dating the Moon-forming impact event with asteroidal meteorites.

    PubMed

    Bottke, W F; Vokrouhlický, D; Marchi, S; Swindle, T; Scott, E R D; Weirich, J R; Levison, H

    2015-04-17

    The inner solar system's biggest and most recent known collision was the Moon-forming giant impact between a large protoplanet and proto-Earth. Not only did it create a disk near Earth that formed the Moon, it also ejected several percent of an Earth mass out of the Earth-Moon system. Here, we argue that numerous kilometer-sized ejecta fragments from that event struck main-belt asteroids at velocities exceeding 10 kilometers per second, enough to heat and degas target rock. Such impacts produce ~1000 times more highly heated material by volume than do typical main belt collisions at ~5 kilometers per second. By modeling their temporal evolution, and fitting the results to ancient impact heating signatures in stony meteorites, we infer that the Moon formed ~4.47 billion years ago, which is in agreement with previous estimates. PMID:25883354

  9. Critical single-domain grain sizes in elongated iron particles: implications for meteoritic and lunar magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn

    2015-07-01

    Kamacite particles (Fe-Ni, Ni < 5 per cent), are very common in extra-terrestrial materials, such as meteorites. It is normally assumed that for kamacite particles to be reliable recorders of magnetic fields, they need to be magnetically uniform (single domain, SD) and thermally stable. Larger particles subdivide into non-uniform multidomain (MD) magnetic structures that produce weaker magnetic signals, while small SD particles become magnetically unstable due to thermal fluctuations and exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour. In this paper we determine the first micromagnetic calculation of the stable SD range domain-state phase diagram for metallic iron; previous calculations were analytical. There is a significant increase in the critical size for the SD/MD threshold size, for example, for cube-shaped iron particles, the critical SD/MD threshold has now been estimated to be 25 nm, compared to 17 nm for previous estimates. The larger critical SD/MD threshold size for iron, agrees better with previously published nanometric observations of domain state for FeNi particles, then early analytical models.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Rocks from Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: Mineralogy and Petrology of Unbrecciated Lunar Basaltic Meteorite LAP 02205; LAP02205 Lunar Meteorite: Lunar Mare Basalt with Similarities to the Apollo 12 Ilmenite Basalt; Mineral Chemistry of LaPaz Ice Field 02205 - A New Lunar Basalt; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032; KREEP-rich Basaltic Magmatism: Diversity of Composition and Consistency of Age; Mineralogy of Yamato 983885 Lunar Polymict Breccia with Alkali-rich and Mg-rich Rocks; Ar-Ar Studies of Dhofar Clast-rich Feldspathic Highland Meteorites: 025, 026, 280, 303; Can Granulite Metamorphic Conditions Reset 40Ar-39Ar Ages in Lunar Rocks? [#1009] A Ferroan Gabbronorite Clast in Lunar Meteorite ALHA81005: Major and Trace Element Composition, and Origin; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite PCA02007, a New Feldspathic Regolith Breccia; and Troilite Formed by Sulfurization: A Crystal Structure of Synthetic Analogue

  11. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  12. Unique spinel-rich lithology in lunar meteorite ALHA 81005: Origin and possible connection to M3 observations of the farside highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.

    2011-10-01

    A new lunar rock type, rich in (Mg, Fe)Al spinel and lacking abundant olivine and pyroxene, was recently detected by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy by the M3 instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. No such material has been described from lunar rocks, either returned samples or meteorites. Here we describe a fragment of rock containing ˜30% (Mg, Fe)Al spinel from the lunar meteorite ALHA 81005. Although the fragment is not identical to the material detected by M3 (it contains ˜20% olivine + pyroxene), both share the defining feature of an unusual enrichment in spinel. The fragment, 350 × 150 μm, is so fine grained that it reasonably could represent a larger rock body; it is not spinel-rich merely by chance incorporation of a few spinel grains. The fragment is so rich in spinel (and consequently in Al2O3) that it could not have formed by melting a peridotitic mantle or a basaltic lunar crust. The clast's small grain size and its apparent disequilibrium between spinel and pyroxene suggest fairly rapid crystallization at low pressure. It could have formed as a spinel cumulate from an impact melt of troctolitic composition or from a picritic magma body that assimilated crustal anorthosite on its margins. The latter mechanism is preferred because it not only explains the petrographic and chemical features of our clast but is also consistent with the regional setting of the Moscoviense spinel deposit. In that area, M3 spectra have defined areas rich in olivine and in orthopyroxene; these could represent igneous cumulate rocks formed during crystallization and differentiation of a picritic magma body and thus suggests a possible link between the analyzed clast and the observed spinels at Moscoviense.

  13. Consortium study of lunar meteorites Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757: Geochemical evidence of mutual similarity, and dissimilarity versus other mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    Compositions of bulk powders and separated minerals from two meteorites derived from the mare lava plains of the Earth's Moon, Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757, indicate a remarkable degree of similarity to one another, and clearly favor lunar origin. However, these meteorites are unlike any previously studied lunar rock. In both cases, the bulk-rock TiO2 content is slightly greater than the level separating VLT from low-Ti mare basalt, yet the Sc content is much higher than previously observed except among high-Ti mare basalts. Conceivably, the Sc enrichment in A881757 reflects origin of this rock as a cumulate from a mare magma of 'normal' Sc content, but this seems unlikely. Mineral-separate data suggest that most of the Sc is in pyroxene, and a variety of evidence weighs against the cumulus hypothesis as a major cause for the high Sc. The remarkable similarity between Y793169 and A881757 suggests the possibility that they were derived from a single source crater on the Moon.

  14. The 45th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, P. (Compiler); Turner, L. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Impact craters and shock effects, chondrite formation and evolution, meteorites, chondrules, irons, nebular processes and meteorite parent bodies, regoliths and breccias, antarctic meteorite curation, isotopic studies of meteorites and lunar samples, organics and terrestrial weathering, refractory inclusions, cosmic dust, particle irradiations before and after compaction, and mineralogic studies and analytical techniques are discussed.

  15. Comparisons of Mineralogy of Lunar Meteorites Possibly from the Farside and The Kaguya Remote Sensing Data to Reconstruct the Earliest Anorthositic Crust of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Ohtake, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Morota, T.; Karouji, Y.; Haruyma, J.; Katou, M.; Hiroi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Ohtake et al. [1] observed by the Kaguya multiband imager and spectral profiler anorthosites composed of nearly pure anorthite (PAN) at numerous locations in the farside highlands. Based on the Th map made by the GRS group of the Kaguya mission, Kobayashi et al. [2] showed that the lowest Th region in the lunar farside occurs near the equatorial region and noted that the regions well correspond to the lunar highest region and the thickest crust region recently measured by Kaguya mission [3,4]. Such remote sensing data have been interpreted in terms of mineralogical studies of lunar meteorites of the Dhofar 489 group [5,6] (e.g., Dhofar 489, 908, and 307) and Yamato (Y-) 86032 [7], all possibly from the farside highlands. Although the presence of magnesian anorthosites in the Dhofar 489 group has been reported, we have not encountered large clast clearly identifiable as PAN. In this study, we investigated mineralogy and textures of large clasts of nearly pure anorthosites recognized in Dhofar 911 and the d2 clast in Dhofar 489 [8]. The d2 clast is the largest white anorthosite clast in Dhofar 489, but its mineralogy has not been investigated at that time. The low bulk FeO concentrations suggests that the d2 clast may be the pure anorthosite with very low abundance of mafic silicates. In conjunction with all data of the Dhofar 489 group including Dhofar 489, 908, 309 and 307, we propose a model of formation of the farside crust.

  16. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, and planetary mantles.

  17. A Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotope Geochronology and Trace Element Study of Lunar Meteorite LaPaz Icefield 02205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankenburg, K.; Brandon, A. D.; Norman, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium and samarium-neodymium isotopes of lunar meteorite LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02205 are consistent with derivation of the parent magma from a source region similar to that which produced the Apollo 12 low-Ti olivine basalts followed by mixing of the magma with small amounts (1 to 2 wt%) of trace element-enriched material similar to lunar KREEP-rich sample SaU 169. The crystallization age of LAP 02205 is most precisely dated by an internal Rb-Sr isochron of 2991+/-14 Ma, with an initial Sr-87/Sr-88 at the time of crystallization of 0.699836+/-0.000010. Leachable REE-rich phosphate phases of LAP 02205 do not plot on a Sm-Nd mineral isochron, indicating contamination or open system behavior of the phosphates. Excluding anomalous phases from the calculation of a Sm-Nd isochron yields a crystallization age of 2992+/-85 (initial Epsilon Nd-143 = +2.9+/-0.8) that is within error of the Rb-Sr age, and in agreement with other independent age determinations for LAP 02205 from Ar-Ar and U-Pb methods. The calculated Sm-147/Nd-144 source ratios for LAP 02205, various Apollo 12 and 15 basalts, and samples with strong affinities to KREEP (SaU 169, NWA 773, 15386) are uncorrelated with their crystallization ages. This finding does not support the involvement of a common KREEP component as a heat source for lunar melting events that occurred after crystallization of the lunar magma ocean.

  18. Constraints on the flux of meteoritic and cometary water on the Moon from volatile element (N-Ar) analyses of single lunar soil grains, Luna 24 core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füri, Evelyn; Marty, Bernard; Assonov, Sergey S.

    2012-03-01

    We report new nitrogen and argon isotope and abundance results for single breccia clasts and agglutinates from four different sections of the Luna 24 drill core in order to re-evaluate the provenance of N trapped in lunar regolith, and to place limits on the flux of planetary material to the Moon’s surface. Single Luna 24 grains with 40Ar/36Ar ratios <1 show δ15N values between -54.5‰ and +123.3‰ relative to terrestrial atmosphere. Thus, low-antiquity lunar soils record both positive and negative δ15N signatures, and the secular increase of the δ15N value previously postulated by Kerridge (Kerridge, J.F. [1975]. Science 188(4184), 162-164. doi:10.1126/science.188.4184.162) is no longer apparent when the Luna and Apollo data are combined. Instead, the N isotope signatures, corrected for cosmogenic 15N, are consistent with binary mixing between isotopically light solar wind (SW) N and a planetary N component with a δ15N value of +100‰ to +160‰. The lower δ15N values of Luna 24 grains compared to Apollo samples reflect a higher relative proportion of solar N, resulting from the higher SW fluence in the region of Mare Crisium compared to the central near side of the Moon. Carbonaceous chondrite-like micro-impactors match well the required isotope characteristics of the non-solar N component trapped in low-antiquity lunar regolith. In contrast, a possible cometary contribution to the non-solar N flux is constrained to be ⩽3-13%. Based on the mixing ratio of SW to planetary N obtained for recently exposed lunar soils, we estimate the flux of micro-impactors to be (2.2-5.7) × 103 tons yr-1 at the surface of the Moon. Our estimate for Luna 24 agrees well with that for young Apollo regolith, indicating that the supply of planetary material does not depend on lunar location. Thus, the continuous influx of water-bearing cosmic dust may have represented an important source of water for the lunar surface over the past ∼1 Ga, provided that water removal rates

  19. Effects of lunar soil, Zagami meteorite, and ocean ridge basalt on the excretion of itoic acid, a siderophore, and coproporphyrin by Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, T.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of lunar soil (10084,151), Zagami meteorite, postulated to be ejected from Mars, and ocean ridge basalt, the most abundant volcanic rock on earth, all completely inhibited the excretion of itoic acid and of coproporphyrin by Bacillus subtilis, a common airborne bacterium. Since such inhibition has been known to occur only under iron rich growth conditions(the excretion of these compounds occurs under iron deficient growth conditions), the result indicated that the organism was capable of extracting iron quite readily from these materials. A sample of synthetic ilmenite completely failed to inhibit the excretion of coproporphyrin, and inhibited the excretion of itoic acid only slightly. The result suggested that much of the iron extracted by the organism must have come from iron sources other than ilmenite,such as pyroxenes and olivines,in these natural materials tested.

  20. Laboratory simulation of infrared astrophysical features. [Terrestrial silicate, meteoritic and lunar soil 10-micron spectral comparisons with comets Bennet and Kohoutek

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory infrared emission and absorption spectra have been taken of terrestrial silicates, meteorites, and lunar soils in the form of micrometer and submicrometer grains. The emission spectra were taken in a way that imitates telescopic observations. The purpose was to see which materials best simulate the 10-micron astrophysical feature. The emission spectra of dunite, fayalite, and Allende give a good fit to the 10-micron broadband emission feature of comets Bennett and Kohoutek. A study of the effect of grain size on the presence of the 10-micron emission feature of dunite shows that for particles larger than 37 microns no feature is seen. The emission spectrum of the Murray meteorite, a Type 2 carbonaceous chrondrite, is quite similar to the intermediate-resolution spectrum of comet Kohoutek in the 10-micron region. Hydrous silicates or amorphous magnesium silicates in combination with high-temperature condensates, such as olivine or anorthite, would yield spectra that match the intermediate-resolution spectrum of comet Kohoutek in the 10-micron region. Glassy olivine and glassy anorthite in approximately equal proportions would also give a spectrum that is a good fit to the cometary 10-micron feature.

  1. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc.

  2. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  3. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Grossman, Jeffrey; Bouvier, Audrey; Herd, Christopher D. K.; Agee, Carl B.

    2015-09-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin 101 contains 2639 meteorites accepted by the Nomenclature Committee in 2012, including 1 fall (Battle Mountain), with 2308 ordinary chondrites, 156 carbonaceous chondrites, 63 HED achondrites, 17 relict meteorites, 16 Rumuruti chondrites, 15 enstatite chondrites, 15 ureilites, 10 iron meteorites, 9 lunar meteorites, 9 primitive achondrites, 8 ungrouped achondrites, 7 mesosiderites, 4 Martian meteorites, and 2 Pallasites, and with 1812 from Antarctica, 437 from Asia, 301 from Africa, 43 from South America, 21 from Europe (including Russia), 21 from North America, 3 from Oceania, and 1 from unknown. Information about approved meteorites can be obtained from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBD) available on line at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites includes the following topics: 1) Investigating the Impact of UV Radiation on High-Altitude Shallow Lake Habitats, Life Diversity, and Life Survival Strategies: Clues for Mars' Past Habitability Potential? 2) An Analysis of Potential Photosynthetic Life on Mars; 3) Radiation Inactivation of Bacterial spores on Mars; 4) Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers; 5) Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents; 6) Signs of Life in Meridiani Planum-What Might Opportunity See (or Miss)? 7) Isolation of PUrines and Pyrimidines from the Murchison Meteorite Using Sublimation; and 8) Relative Amino Acid Composition of CM1 Carbonaceous Chondrites.

  5. Drama queens.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Why is it that many 'lesbian playwrights' are unwilling to define themselves as such? "Drama Queens: Ruling with a Rod of Irony" attempts to answer this question and to discover what the term 'lesbian playwright' means within contemporary culture. It dissects the dominant homophobic and misogynist mythologies that have outlawed 'queer' girl writers to the underskirts of British theatre, and ultimately denied them either artistic or commercial currency. It examines the history of the label in the context of feminism, gay liberation and positive representation, and queries its aesthetic and economic viability in a climate where the 'lesbian playwright' is not even supported by her own community. Finally, it is an exploration into radical forms, working methodologies and new genres stimulated by being neither semantic Man nor Woman. It is a piece about cultural terrorism-and how to avoid capture. PMID:24785519

  6. Do oblique impacts produce Martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyquist, L. E.

    1983-11-01

    It is pointed out that several achondritic meteorites, classified as shergottites, nakhlites, and chassignites, have a number of unusual characteristics. Following the suggestion of Wood and Ashwal (1981) these meteorites are collectively referred to as SNC meteorites. The major element compositions of the SNC meteorites are, in general, distinct from those of other meteorites and lunar samples, and similar to certain terrestrial rocks. The geochemical and geochronological characteristics of the SNC meteorites strongly imply that their parent body was on the order of lunar size or larger and geologically active. Serious attention must be given to the hypothesis of a Martian origin of the SNC meteorites and to dynamic processes capable of delivering Martian meteorites to earth. In connection with the present investigation, it is suggested that oblique impacts of large meteoroids can produce ejecta which is entrained with the ricocheting projectile and accelerated to velocities in excess of Martian escape velocity.

  7. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Grossman, Jeffrey; Bouvier, Audrey; Herd, Christopher D. K.; Agee, Carl B.

    2015-09-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin 102 contains 3141 meteorites including 12 falls (Boumdeid (2003), Boumdeid (2011), Braunschweig, Chelyabinsk, Dongyang, Draveil, Heyetang, Indian Butte, Katol, Ladkee, Ouadangou, Xining), with 2611 ordinary chondrites, 264 HED achondrites, 124 carbonaceous chondrites, 30 ureilites, 20 Martian meteorites, 16 primitive achondrites, 16 Rumuruti chondrites, 15 mesosiderites, 12 iron meteorites, 10 lunar meteorites, 9 enstatite chondrites, 4 enstatite achondrites, 4 Pallasites, 4 ungrouped achondrites, and 2 angrites, and with 1708 from Antarctica, 956 from Africa, 294 from South America, 126 from Asia, 47 from North America, 6 from Europe (including Russia), and 4 from Oceania. Information about approved meteorites can be obtained from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBD) available on line at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/.

  8. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    It may be useful to know if a meteorite was found at the site where it fell. For instance, the polymict ureilites North Haig and Nilpena were found 1100 km apart, yet are petrologically identical [1]. Could this distance represent transport from a single strewn field, or does it represent distinct fall sites? A meteorite may contain sufficient clues to suggest some characteristics of its fall site. If these inferences are inconsistent with the find site, one may infer that the meteorite has been transported. It will likely be impossible to determine the exact fall site of a transported meteorite. Data relevant to a meteorite's fall site may be intrinsic to the meteorite, or acquired at the site. For instance, an intrinsic property is terrestrial residence age (from abundances of cosmogenic radioisotopes and their decay products); a meteorite's terrestrial residence age must be the same or less than that of the surface on which it fell. After falling, a meteorite may acquire characteristic telltales of terrestrial geological, geochemical, and biological processes. These telltale clues may include products of chemical weathering, adhering geological materials, biological organisms living (or once living) on the meteorite, and biological materials adhering to (but never living on) the meteorite. The effects of chemical weathering, present in all but the freshest finds, range from slight rusting to extensive decomposition and veining The ages of weathering materials and veins, as with terrestrial residence ages above, must be less than the age of the fall surface. The mineralogy and chemistry, elemental and isotopic, of weathering materials will differ according to the mineralogy and composition of the meteorite, and the mineralogy, geochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the fall site. Weathering materials may also vary as climate changes and may vary among the microenvironments associated with a meteorite on the Earth's surface. Geological materials (rock, sediment

  9. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  10. Atlas of reflectance spectra of terrestrial, lunar, and meteoritic powders and frosts from 92 to 1800 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Jeffrey K.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Wells, Eddie N.

    1987-01-01

    The spectra of samples of several powder and frost materials are presented to serve in a reference database for future far-UV scans of solar system bodies. The spectra cover in the 92-1800 nm wavelengths, i.e., wavenumbers 110,000-5600/cm and photon energies from 13.5-1.5 eV. Preparation procedures for the particulates are delineated. The survey includes feldspars, orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes, olivines, assorted minerals, achondrites, carbonaceous chondrites and ordinary chondrites, lunar soils and rocks. Frosts of H2O, CO2, NH3 and SO2 gases were also examined. The data are expected to aid in obtaining spectral matches for asteroids and meteoroids when far-UV telescopy of solar system bodies is performed.

  11. The Eight Queens Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Alton T.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of solution methods to the Eight Queens Problem of placing eight queens on a chess board so that no one queen can capture another. Solution methods progress from empirical approaches to the use of computer algorithms. Geometric transformations are used to find other solutions. (MDH)

  12. Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific and administrative activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute are summarized. Recent research relating to geophysics, planetary geology, the origin of the Earth and Moon, the lunar surface, Mars, meteorites, and image processing techniques is discussed.

  13. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration.

  14. Meteorites and the Antarctic ice sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    The majority of the meteorite finds were located in the Allan Hills site. All the expected goals involving the recovery of rare or previously unknown types of meteorites, and even the recovery of lunar ejecta, were realized. The relationship between these remarkable concentrations of meteorites and the Antarctic ice sheet itself were less well documented. Ice flow vector studies were made and concentration models were proposed. Earlier estimates of the abundances of meteorite types were based on the number of falls in the world collections. The accumulated data and the future collected data will allow more reliable estimates of the source region of most meteorites.

  15. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 88, 2004 July

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, S.S.; Folco, L.; Grady, M.M.; Zolensky, M.E.; Jones, R.; Righter, K.; Zipfel, J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The Meteoritical Bulletin No. 88 lists information for 1610 newly classified meteorites, comprising 753 from Antarctica, 302 from Africa, 505 from Asia (495 of which are from Oman), 40 from North America, 5 from South America, 4 from Europe, and 1 of unknown origin. Information is provided for 9 falls (Alby sur Che??ran, Al Zarnkh, Devgaon, Kamioka, Kendrapara, Maromandia, New Orleans, Sivas, and Villalbeto de la Pen??a). Noteworthy specimens include a eucrite fall (Alby sur Che??ran), 6 martian meteorites, 13 lunar meteorites, and 12 irons including one weighing 3 metric ions (Dronino). ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

  16. 40Ar-39Ar age determinations of lunar basalt meteorites Asuka 881757, Yamato 793169, Miller Range 05035, La Paz Icefield 02205, Northwest Africa 479, and basaltic breccia Elephant Moraine 96008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera A.; Burgess, Ray; Morris, Adam

    2009-06-01

    40Ar-39Ar data are presented for the unbrecciated lunar basaltic meteorites Asuka (A-) 881757, Yamato (Y-) 793169, Miller Range (MIL) 05035, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02205, Northwest Africa (NWA) 479 (paired with NWA 032), and basaltic fragmental breccia Elephant Moraine (EET) 96008. Stepped heating 40Ar-39Ar analyses of several bulk fragments of related meteorites A-881757, Y-793169 and MIL 05035 give crystallization ages of 3.763 ± 0.046 Ga, 3.811 ± 0.098 Ga and 3.845 ± 0.014 Ga, which are comparable with previous age determinations by Sm-Nd, U-Pb Th-Pb, Pb-Pb, and Rb-Sr methods. These three meteorites differ in the degree of secondary 40Ar loss with Y-793169 showing relatively high Ar loss probably during an impact event ˜200 Ma ago, lower Ar loss in MIL 05035 and no loss in A-881757. Bulk and impact melt glass-bearing samples of LAP 02205 gave similar ages (2.985 ± 0.016 Ga and 2.874 ± 0.056 Ga) and are consistent with ages previously determined using other isotope pairs. The basaltic portion of EET 96008 gives an age of 2.650 ± 0.086 Ga which is considered to be the crystallization age of the basalt in this meteorite. The Ar release for fragmental basaltic breccia EET 96008 shows evidence of an impact event at 631 ± 20 Ma. The crystallization age of 2.721 ± 0.040 Ga determined for NWA 479 is indistinguishable from the weighted mean age obtained from three samples of NWA 032 supporting the proposal that these meteorites are paired. The similarity of 40Ar-39Ar ages with ages determined by other isotopic systems for multiple meteorites suggests that the K-Ar isotopic system is robust for meteorites that have experienced a significant shock event and not a prolonged heating regime.

  17. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  18. Amino acids from the moon - Notes on meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

    Contributions of lunar and meteorite composition studies to present understandings of chemical evolution and the origin of life are discussed. The discovery of amino acids in lunar fines, when properly extracted, hydrolyzed and examined by ion-exchange chromatography, is shown to have confirmed the extraterrestrial nature of the amino acids previously found in meteorites. Differences in analysis and sample preparation methods are considered as sources for the initial disagreements in lunar sample data, and possibilities of biological or chemical contamination of the lunar samples are discounted. The possible sources of lunar and meteoritic amino acids by solar wind implantation are considered. Problems remaining concerning the nature of amino acid precursors, the relations of lunar to meteoritic compounds and the prevalence of cyanide oligomers as evolutionary intermediates are indicated.

  19. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 100, 2014 June

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Grossman, Jeffrey N.; Garvie, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin 100 contains 1943 meteorites including 8 falls (Boumdeid [2011], Huaxi, Košice, Silistra, Sołtmany, Sutter's Mill, Thika, Tissint), with 1575 ordinary chondrites, 139 carbonaceous chondrites, 96 HED achondrites, 25 ureilites, 18 primitive achondrites, 17 iron meteorites, 15 enstatite chondrites, 11 lunar meteorites, 10 mesosiderites, 10 ungrouped achondrites, 8 pallasites, 8 Martian meteorites, 6 Rumuruti chondrites, 3 enstatite achondrites, and 2 angrites, and with 937 from Antarctica, 592 from Africa, 230 from Asia, 95 from South America, 44 from North America, 36 from Oceania, 6 from Europe, and 1 from an unknown location. This will be the last Bulletin published in the current format. Information about approved meteorites can be obtained from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBD) available online at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/

  20. Cliftonite in meteorites: A proposed origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Higgins, G.T.

    1967-01-01

    Cliftonite, a polycrystalline aggregate of graphite with cubic morphology, is known in ten meteorites. Some workers have considered it to be a pseudomorph after diamond, and have used the proposed diamond ancestry as evidence of a meteoritic parent body of at least lunar dimensions. We have synthesized cliftonite in Fe-Ni-C alloys in vacuum, as a product of decomposition of cohenite [(Fe,Ni)3C]. We therefore suggest that a high pressure origin is unnecessary for meteorites which contain cliftonite, and that these meteorites were formed at low pressures. This conclusion is in agreement with other recent evidence.

  1. Bench Crater Meteorite: Hydrated Asteroidal Material Delivered to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, K. H.; Messenger, S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Frank, D. R.; Kring, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    D/H measurements from the lunar regolith agglutinates [8] indicate mixing between a low D/H solar implanted component and additional higher D/H sources (e.g., meteoritic/ cometary/volcanic gases). We have determined the range and average D/H ratio of Bench Crater meteorite, which is the first direct D/H analysis of meteoritic material delivered to the lunar surface. This result provides an important ground truth for future investigations of lunar water resources by missions to the Moon.

  2. Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, W. A.; Rancitelli, L. A.

    1982-04-01

    An abundance of meteorites has been discovered on two sites in the Antarctic which may assist in the study of the origins of meteorites and the history of the solar system. Characteristics particular to those meteorites discovered in this region are explained. These specimens, being well preserved due to the climate, have implications in the study of the cosmic ray flux through time, the meteoroid complex in space, and cosmic ray exposure ages. Implications for the study of the Antarctic, particularly the ice flow, are also discussed. Further discoveries of meteorites in this region are anticipated.

  3. 14. Hell Gate Bridge south abutment tower. Queens, Queens Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Hell Gate Bridge south abutment tower. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  4. Abstracts for the 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritic Society are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: Antarctic meteorites; nebula and parent body processing; primary and secondary SNC parent planet processes; enstatite chondrites and aubrites; achondrite stew; refractory inclusions; meteorite exposure ages and sizes; interstellar/meteorite connections; lunar origins, processes and meteorites; craters, cratering and tektites; cretaceous-tertiary impact(s); IDPs (LDEF, stratosphere, Greenland and Antarctica); chondrules; and chondrites.

  5. Typical Meteoritic Worm-Like Forms Seen in the Polonnaruwa Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Briston, J. K.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Fossilized "wormlike forms" were found in a putative new type of carbonaceous meteorite which recently fell on Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. Such worm-like forms have been found in other meteorites notably the Martian Allen Hills sample and a lunar meteorite. It has been claimed that such forms are fossilized bacteria, although this possibility is still disputed. The occurrence of worm-like forms in the Polonnaruwa sample adds weight to the view that it is a meteorite and not, as has been suggested, a fulgerite, formed by lightning striking the Earth's surface.

  6. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of lunar sample and meteorite studies were performed. Abstracts of the most recent reports are also attached. Experimental techniques employed have included scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, atomic absorption analysis and a variety of simulation studies.

  7. Mineralogy of Meteorite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 275 mineral species have been identified in meteorites, reflecting diverse redox environments, and, in some cases, unusual nebular formation conditions. Anhydrous ordinary, carbonaceous and R chondrites contain major olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase; major opaque phases include metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and chromite. Primitive achondrites are mineralogically similar. The highly reduced enstatite chondrites and achondrites contain major enstatite, plagioclase, free silica and kamacite as well as nitrides, a silicide and Ca-, Mg-, Mn-, Na-, Cr-, K- and Ti-rich sulfides. Aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites contain major amounts of hydrous phyllosilicates, complex organic compounds, magnetite, various sulfates and sulfides, and carbonates. In addition to kamacite and taenite, iron meteorites contain carbides, elemental C, nitrides, phosphates, phosphides, chromite and sulfides. Silicate inclusions in IAB/IIICD and lIE iron meteorites consist of mafic silicates, plagioclase and various sulfides, oxides and phosphates. Eucrites, howardites and diogenites have basaltic to orthopyroxenitic compositions and consist of major pyroxene and calcic plagioclase and several accessory oxides. Ureilttes .are made up mainly of calcic, chromian olivine and low-Ca clinopyroxene embedded in a carbonaceous matrix; accessory phases include the C polymorphs graphite, diamond, lonsdaleite and chaoite as well as metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and halides. Angrites are achondrites rich in fassaitic pyroxene (i.e. , AI-Ti diopside); minor olivine with included magnesian kirschsteinite is also present. Martian meteorites comprise basalts, Iherzolites, a dunite and an orthopyroxenite. Major phases include various pyroxenes and olivine; minor to accessory phases include various sulfides, magnetite, chromite and Ca-phosphates. Lunar meteorites comprise mare basalts with major augite and calcic plagioclase and anorthositic breccias with major calcic plagioclase. Several meteoritic

  8. Meteorites and the Evolution of Our Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, David F.

    1999-01-01

    The study of meteorites has long been of intense interest ever since these objects were discovered to be of extraterrestrial origin. Meteorite research contributes to unraveling the mysteries in understanding the formation and evolution processes of our solar system. Meteorites, of which there are a variety of widely diverse types of chemical and mineralogical compositions, are the most ancient of solar system objects that can be studied in the laboratory. They preserve a unique historical record of the astronomical and astrophysical events of our solar system. This record is being discerned by a host of ever evolving analytical laboratory methods. Recent discoveries of what are believed to be Martian meteorites, lunar meteorites, a meteorite containing indigenous water, and the recovery from the Cretaceous layer of a small meteorite fragment thought to be from the dinosaur-killing asteroid have fueled additional excitement for studying meteorites.

  9. 'Snow Queen' Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander.

    Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol.

    Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened.

    The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe.

    Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Solar proton produced neon in shergottite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, D. H.; Rao, M. N.; Bogard, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides produced by near-surface, nuclear interactions of energetic solar protons (approx. 10-100 MeV) were reported in several lunar rocks and a very small meteorites. We recently documented the existence and isotopic compositions of solar-produced (SCR) Ne in two lunar rocks. Here we present the first documented evidence for SCR Ne in a meteorite, ALH77005, which was reported to contain SCR radionuclides. Examination of literature data for other shergottites suggests that they may also contain a SCR Ne component. The existence of SCR Ne in shergottites may be related to a Martian origin.

  11. Harvesting meteorites in the Omani desert: implications for astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Al-Kathriri, Ali

    2004-03-01

    Meteorites will remain the most accessible, most diverse and most abundant source of extraterrestrial materials for many years to come. New sources of large numbers of meteorites allow the recovery of rare types particularly relevant for astrobiology, including Martian and Lunar samples. Oman has become an important source of meteorites only since 1999. Conditions for search and recovery are particularly favourable in many areas here because of an abundance of flat, light-colored, sand- and vegetation-free surfaces. During search expeditions carried out in the central deserts of Oman in 2001-2003 large numbers of meteorites, including a Martian and a Lunar sample, were recovered. The mass of recovered meteorites is 1334 kg, corresponding to approximately 150 to 200 fall events. We aim to classify all recovered specimens and study pairing and weathering effects. Our expeditions demonstrate the possibility to recover meteorite samples with astrobiological relevance with modest investments of finances and manpower.

  12. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 96, September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weisberg, M.K.; Smith, C.; Benedix, G.; Herd, C.D.K.; Righter, K.; Haack, H.; Yamaguchi, A.; Chennaoui, Aoudjehane H.; Grossman, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    The Meteoritical Bulletin No. 96 contains a total of 1590 newly approved meteorite names with their relevant data. These include 12 from specific locations within Africa, 76 from northwest Africa, 9 from the Americas, 13 from Asia, 1 from Australia, 2 from Europe, 950 from Antarctica recovered by the Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE), and 527 from the American Antarctic program (ANSMET). Among these meteorites are 4 falls, Almahata Sitta (Sudan), Sulagiri (India), Ash Creek (United States), and Maribo (Denmark). Almahata Sitta is an anomalous ureilite and is debris from asteroid 2008 TC3 and Maribo is a CM2 chondrite. Other highlights include a lunar meteorite, a CM1 chondrite, and an anomalous IVA iron. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2009.

  13. Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Table-top views of some of the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment equipment. Included are the Geophone Module and Cable Reels of the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (S-203), a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. After it is triggered, the experiment will settle down into a passive listening mode, detecting Moonquakes, meteorite impacts and the thump caused by the Lunar Module ascent stage impact (37259); The remote antenna for the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (S-203) (37260).

  14. An extremely low U Pb source in the Moon: UThPb, SmNd, RbSr, and 40Ar 39Ar isotopic systematics and age of lunar meteorite Asuka 881757

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misawa, K.; Tatsumoto, M.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Yanai, K.

    1993-01-01

    We have undertaken UThPb, SmNd, RbSr, and 40Ar 39Ar isotopic studies on Asuka 881757, a coarse-grained basaltic lunar meteorite whose chemical composition is close to low-Ti and very low-Ti (VLT) mare basalts. The PbPb internal isochron obtained for acid leached residues of separated mineral fractions yields an age of 3940 ?? 28 Ma, which is similar to the U-Pb (3850 ?? 150 Ma) and Th-Pb (3820 ?? 290 Ma) internal isochron ages. The Sm-Nd data for the mineral separates yield an internal isochron age of 3871 ?? 57 Ma and an initial 143Nd 144Nd value of 0.50797 ?? 10. The Rb-Sr data yield an internal isochron age of 3840 ?? 32 Ma (??(87Rb) = 1.42 ?? 10-11 yr-1) and a low initial 87Sr 86Sr ratio of 0.69910 ?? 2. The 40Ar 39Ar age spectra for a glass fragment and a maskelynitized plagioclase are relatively flat and give a weighted mean plateau age of 3798 ?? 12 Ma. We interpret these ages to indicate that the basalt crystallized from a melt 3.87 Ga ago (the Sm-Nd age) and an impact event disturbed the Rb-Sr system and completely reset the K-Ar system at 3.80 Ga. The slightly higher Pb-Pb age compared to the Sm-Nd age could be due to the secondary Pb (from terrestrial and/or lunar surface Pb contamination) that remained in the residues after acid leaching. Alternatively, the following interpretation is also possible; the meteorite crystallized at 3.94 Ga (the Pb-Pb age) and the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and K-Ar systems were disturbed by an impact event at 3.80 Ga. The crystallization age obtained here is older than those reported for low-Ti basalts (3.2-3.5 Ga) and for VLT basalts (3.4 Ga), but similar to ages of some mare basalts, indicating that the basalt may have formed from a magma related to a basin-forming event (Imbrium?). The age span for VLT basalts from different sampling sites suggest that they were erupted over a wide area during an interval of at least ~500 million years. The impact event that thermally reset the K-Ar system of Asuka 881757 must have been post

  15. [The oral problems of queen Elizabeth I].

    PubMed

    Eijkman, M A J

    2012-05-01

    Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603), probably the most famous English Queen ever, had persistent oral problems. Her oral problems were so serious that they probably hampered the Queen in the performance of her tasks. PMID:22667195

  16. 13. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  17. 11. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  18. 12. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  19. Identification of new meteorite, Mihonoseki (L), from broken fragments in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Y.; Noma, Y.

    1993-01-01

    New meteorite of Mihonoseki fallen in Shimane-ken was identified by fine broken pieces by using an energy-dispersive scanning electron microprobe analyzer. It shows fusion-crust (i.e. Fe-Si melt), meteoritic minerals (kamacite, taenite, troilite, amorphous plagioclase etc.) and chrondrule with clear glassy rim. Mineralogical, and petrological data of several fine grains suggest that broken fragments of Mihonoseki are L3/4 chondritic meteorite which is the first identification in a Japanese fallen meteorite. The prompt identification method of meteorite-fragments will be applied to the next lunar, Martian and asteroid explorations, as well as meteorite falls on the terrestrial surface.

  20. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  1. Precompaction irradiation of meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Caffee, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the four meteorites studied, the nonirradiated grains show the nominal amount of spallogenic Ne and Ar expected from recent galactic cosmic ray exposure. Two conclusions follow from these observations: (1) the quality of spallogenic Ne and Ar in the irradiated grains is far more than can be explained by reasonable precompaction exposures to galactic cosmic rays. If the pre-compaction irradiation occurred in a regolith, the exposure to galactic cosmic rays would have to last several hundred m.y. for some of the grains. Similarly long ages would result if the source of the protons were solar flares with a particle flux similar to modern-day solar flares. These exposure durations are incompatible with current models for the pre-compaction irradiation of gas rich meteorites. (2) There is always a correlation between solar flare tracks and precompaction spallogenic Ne and Ar. This correlation is surprising, considering the difference in range of these two effects. Galactic cosmic rays have a range of meters whereas solar flare heavy ions have a range of less than a millimeter. This difference should largely decouple these two effects, as was shown in studies on lunar soil 60009, where both irradiated and non-irradiated grains contain large quantities of spallogenic Ne. If galactic cosmic rays are responsible for the spallogenic Ne and Ar in the irradiated grains, the authors would similarly expect the nonirradiated grains to contain large amounts of spallogenic Ne and Ar.

  2. Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: petrology, petrography, meteoritic composition, planetary geology, atmospheric composition, astronomical spectroscopy, lunar geology, Mars (planet), Mars composition, Mars surface, volcanology, Mars volcanoes, Mars craters, lunar craters, mineralogy, mineral deposits, lithology, asteroids, impact melts, planetary composition, planetary atmospheres, planetary mapping, cosmic dust, photogeology, stratigraphy, lunar craters, lunar exploration, space exploration, geochronology, tectonics, atmospheric chemistry, astronomical models, and geochemistry.

  3. Isotopic studies in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, E. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of lunar soil samples returned by Apollo 11 and 12 flights are discussed. Isotopic studies of the rare gases from Apollo 11 flight lunar samples are presented. The lunar soil analyses indicated the following: (1) high concentrations of solar wind rare gases, (2) isotopic match between solar wind gases and gas components in gas-rich meteorites, and (3) rare gases attributable to spallation reactions induced in heavier nuclides by cosmic ray particles.

  4. Lunar Crustal History from Isotopic Studies of Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Bogard, D. D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of approx.3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. [1]. We will present recent chronological studies of anorthosites [2] that are relevant both to the LMO hypothesis and also to the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. Old (approx.4.4 Ga) Sm-Nd ages have been determined for some Apollo 16 anorthosites, and primitive initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios have been measured for several, but well-defined Rb-Sr ages concordant with the Sm-Nd ages have not been determined until now. Lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater, has concordant Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages of 4.47+/-0.07 Ga and 4.49+/-0.07 Ga, respectively. Initial Nd-143/Nd-144 determined from the Sm-Nd isochron corresponds to E(sub Nd,CHUR) = 0.3+/-0.5 compared to a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir, or E(sub Nd,HEDPB) = -0.6+/-0.5 compared to the initial Nd-143/Nd-144 of the HED Parent Body [3]. Lunar anorthosites tend to have E(sub Nd) > 0 when compared to CHUR, apparently inconsistent with derivation from a single lunar magma ocean. Although E(sub Nd) < 0 for some anorthosites, if lunar initial Nd-143/Nd-144 is taken equal to HEDR for the HED parent body [3], enough variability remains among the anorthosite data alone to suggest that lunar anorthosites do not derive from a single source, i.e., they are not all products of the LMO. An anorthositic clast from desert meteorite Dhofar 908 has an Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.42+/-0.04 Ga, the same as the 4.36-4.41+/-0.035 Ga Ar-39-Ar-40 age of anorthositic clast Y-86032,116 in Antarctic meteorite Yamato- 86032 [3,4]. Conclusions: (i) Lunar anorthosites come from diverse sources. Orbital geochemical studies confirm variability in lunar crustal composition [1, 5]. We suggest that the variability extends to anorthosites alone as shown by the Sm-Nd data (Fig. 2) and the existence of magnesian anorthosites (MAN, [6]) and "An93 anorthosites

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Crust as Sampled by Basins and Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Crust as Samples by Basins and Craters" included:Radar Properties of Lunar Basin Deposits; Numerical Modeling of the South Pole-Aitkin Impact; Lunar South Pole-Aitken Impact Basin: Topography and Mineralogy; Comparison of the Geologic Setting of the South Pole-Aitken Basin Interior with Apollo 16: Implications for Regolith Components; Identifying Impact Events Within the Lunar Cataclysm from 40Ar-39Ar Ages of Apollo 16 Impact Melt Rocks; Apollo 16 Mafic Glass: Geochemistry, Provenance, and Implications; Lunar Meteorite PCA 02 007: A Feldspathic Regolith Breccia with Mixed Mare/Highland Components; Compositional Constraints on the Launch Pairing of LAP 02205 and PCA 02007 with Other Lunar Meteorites; An In-Situ Study of REE Abundances in Three Anorthositic Impact Melt Lunar Highland Meteorites; A Crustal Rock Clast in Magnesian Anorthositic Breccia, Dhofar 489 and Its Excavation from a Large Basin; The Origin and Impact History of Lunar Meteorite Yamato 86032; Evolved Lithologies and Their Inferred Sources in the Northwestern Procellarum Region of the Moon; and Revisiting the Interpretation of Thorium Abundances at Hansteen Alpha.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference covered topics on Mars, planetary origins, planetary analog studies, education,chondrite studies, and meteorite composition. Over 1000 reports were presented at the conference in over 100 sessions. Each session, and presentations,was processed separately for the database.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  8. Apollo lunar surface experiments package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The ALSEP program status and monthly progress are reported. Environmental and quality control tests and test results are described. Details are given on the Apollo 17 Array E, and the lunar seismic profiling, ejecta and meteorites, mass spectrometer, surface gravimeter, and heat flow experiments. Monitoring of the four ALSEP systems on the moon is also described.

  9. Chronology of early lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, E. J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Ryder, G.

    1988-01-01

    The chronology of lunar rocks is summarized. The oldest pristine (i.e., lacking meteoritic contamination of admixed components) lunar rock, recently dated with Sm-Nd by Lugmair, is a ferroan anorthosite, with an age of 4.44 + 0.02 Ga. Ages of Mg-suite rocks (4.1 to 4.5 Ga) have large uncertainties, so that age differences between lunar plutonic rock suites cannot yet be resolved. Most mare basalts crystallized between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. The vast bulk of the lunar crust, therefore, formed before the oldest preserved terrestrial rocks. If the Moon accreted at 4.56 Ga, then 120 Ma may have elapsed before lunar crust was formed.

  10. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  11. Canada's iron creek meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, C. E.

    1989-04-01

    An iron mass, of meteoritical origin, found on a hilltop in the southern Canadian prairies, is unique to Canadian scientific history. It is the third largest meteorite to have been found in Canada (at one time it was reported to be Canada's largest single meteorite mass). A brief historical account, and a corrected official weight (145 kilograms), of this interesting meteorite is presented.

  12. Developments in Our Understanding of Lunar Crustal Formation and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet-Fisher, J. F.; Joy, K. H.

    2016-05-01

    Our recent understanding of lunar crustal formation has developed through the combination of analytical advances, and the increased availability of anorthositic material sampled as clasts within meteorite regolith breccias.

  13. Queen reproductive state modulates pheromone production and queen-worker interactions in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Sarah D.; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The mandibular glands of queen honeybees produce a pheromone that modulates many aspects of worker honeybee physiology and behavior and is critical for colony social organization. The exact chemical blend produced by the queen differs between virgin and mated, laying queens. Here, we investigate the role of mating and reproductive state on queen pheromone production and worker responses. Virgin queens, naturally mated queens, and queens instrumentally inseminated with either semen or saline were collected 2 days after mating or insemination. Naturally mated queens had the most activated ovaries and the most distinct chemical profile in their mandibular glands. Instrumentally inseminated queens were intermediate between virgins and naturally mated queens for both ovary activation and chemical profiles. There were no significant differences between semen- and saline-inseminated queens. Workers were preferentially attracted to the mandibular gland extracts from queens with significantly more activated ovaries. These studies suggest that the queen pheromone blend is modulated by the reproductive status of the queens, and workers can detect these subtle differences and are more responsive to queens with higher reproductive potential. Furthermore, it appears as if insemination substance does not strongly affect physiological characteristics of honeybee queens 2 days after insemination, suggesting that the insemination process or volume is responsible for stimulating these early postmating changes in honeybee queens. PMID:22476212

  14. Meteoritic material on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of meteoritic material are found on the moon: micrometeorites, ancient planetesimal debris from the "early intense bombardment," and debris of recent, craterforming projectiles. Their amounts and compositions have been determined from trace element studies. The micrometeorite component is uniformly distributed over the entire lunar surface, but is seen most clearly in mare soils. It has a primitive, C1-chondrite-like composition, and comprises 1 to 1.5 percent of mature soils. Apparently it represents cometary debris. The ancient component is seen in highland breccias and soils. Six varieties have been recognized, differing in their proportions of refractories (Ir, Re), volatiles (Ge, Sb), and Au. All have a fractionated composition, with volatiles depleted relative to siderophiles. The abundance patterns do not match those of the known meteorite classes. These ancient meteoritic components seem to represent the debris of an extinct population of bodies (planetisimals, moonlets) that produced the mare basins during the first 700 Myr of the moon's history. On the basis of their stratigraphy and geographic distribution, five of the six groups are tentatively assigned to specific mare basins: Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Nectaris, and Humorum or Nubium.

  15. Nineteenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Press abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Topics addressed include: origin of the moon; mineralogy of rocks; CO2 well gases; ureilites; antarctic meteorites; Al-26 decay in a Semarkona chondrule; meteorite impacts on early earth; crystal structure and density of helium; Murchison carbonaceous chondrite composition; greenhouse effect and dinosaurs; Simud-Tiu outflow system of Mars; and lunar radar images.

  16. Nineteenth lunar and planetary science conference. Press abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Topics addressed include: origin of the moon; mineralogy of rocks; CO2 well gases; ureilites; antarctic meteorites; Al-26 decay in a Semarkona chondrule; meteorite impacts on early earth; crystal structure and density of helium; Murchison carbonaceous chondrite composition; greenhouse effect and dinosaurs; Simud-Tiu outflow system of Mars; and lunar radar images.

  17. Lunar Science Conference, 6th, Houston, Tex., March 17-21, 1975, Proceedings. Volume 2 - Chemical and isotopic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical compositions of lunar rocks and soils are examined, taking into account sulfur abundances and distributions in mare basalts and their source magmas, lithophile trace and major elements in Apollo 16 and 17 lunar samples, the role of vaporization processes in lunar rock formation, chemical studies of the lunar regolith with emphasis on zirconium and hafnium, a model for the lunar anorthositic gabbro, and trace-element chemistry and reducing capacity of size fractions from the Apollo 16 regolith. Other topics considered are related to lunar chronology, volatile meteoritic elements, isotopic studies, light element geochemistry, and agglutinates and regolith processes. Attention is given to meteoritic material in four terrestrial meteorite craters, the state of meteoritic material on the moon, volatile elements in Allende inclusions, oxygen isotope fractionation in Apollo 17 rocks, cosmogenic isotope production in Apollo deep-core samples, and the effects of exposure conditions on cosmic-ray records in lunar rocks.

  18. Amino acids precursors in lunar finds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.; Hinsch, G.; Mueller, G.

    1975-01-01

    The consistent pattern is discussed of amino acids found in lunar dust from Apollo missions. The evidence indicates that compounds yielding amino acids were implanted into the surface of the moon by the solar wind, and the kind and amounts of amino acids found on the moon are closely similar to those found in meteorites. It is concluded that there is a common cosmochemical pattern for the moom and meteorites, and this offers evidence of a common course of cosmochemical reactions for carbon.

  19. Rediscovery of Polish meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymiński, Z.; Stolarz, M.; Żołądek, P.; Wiśniewski, M.; Olech, A.

    2016-01-01

    The total number of Polish registered meteorites (by July 2016) including the meteoritical artifacts as Czestochowa Raków I and II is 22. Most of them are described by the pioneer of Polish Meteoritics Jerzy Pokrzywnicki who also identified the meteorite fall locations. In recent years prospectors found impressive specimens of known Polish meteorites such as Morasko: 34 kg, 50 kg, 164 kg, 174 kg and 261 kg or Pultusk: 1578 g, 1576 g, 1510 g, 610 g and 580 g expanding and determining precisely the known meteorite strewn fields.

  20. On the origin of lunar soil 12033

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadecker, P.A.; Cuttitta, F.; Rose, H.J., Jr.; Schaudy, R.; Wasson, J.T.

    1971-01-01

    The lunar soil 12033 is compositionally distinctly different from both the local rocks at the Apollo 12 site and other lunar samples. It must be a recent deposit, else it would not have retained its identity. It contains a meteoritic component which is about 0.59 times as large as that in the more typical Apollo 12 soils. The amount of meteoritic component may be either a fortuitous residuum from the object which produced the 12033 material as crater ejecta, or 12033 may consist of a mixture of an exotic component with the local soil in approximately 41:59 proportions. The available evidence favors the latter interpretation. ?? 1971.

  1. 'Queen of Hearts' Oakleaf Hydrangea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A late-blooming oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia) cultivar was released by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Queen of Hearts’ has grown 6.5 feet high and 11 feet wide in 11 years. In early summer, it is covered with 11-inch-long inflorescences that are held upright above the foliage. Flowers ...

  2. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition.

  3. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  4. Searching for Meteorites

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson combines a series of activities to provide students with an understanding of how meteorites can unlock answers to the early history of the solar system and how meteorites and their big ...

  5. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  6. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  7. Design criteria for an underground lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siekmeier, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Underground excavation and construction techniques have been well developed terrestrially and provide an attractive option for lunar mining and habitat construction. The lunar mine, processing facilities and habitats could be located beneath the lunar surface in basaltic rock that would protect the crew and equipment from the hazardous surface environment. A terrestrial-like atmosphere would be created within the underground structures allowing more conventional technologies to be utilized. In addition, the basalt would likely contain higher quality mineral deposits than the regolith (lunar soil) since the minerals in the regolith have been degraded by meteorite bombardment. The conditions that would affect the design of an underground lunar mine are described and a lunar rock mass rated to assess its quality using terrestrial rock mass classification systems. Design criteria are established and a construction scenario proposed. Parameters having the greatest effect on stability are identified based on distinct element computer modeling and terrestrial experience.

  8. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J W; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Humes, D H; Clem, J M

    2002-12-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated. PMID:12793728

  9. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  10. Track record in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, S. A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of nuclear-track analysis in meteoritic crystals with reference to several areas of research is reviewed. The applications discussed include: fission-track retention ages and cooling rates of meteoritic parent bodies, cosmic-ray studies, determination of pre-atmospheric sizes of meteorites, and search for superheavy elements.

  11. Mars regolith versus SNC meteorites: Evidence for abundant crustal carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1987-01-01

    Viking XRF analyses are compared with those for terrestrial and lunar basalt samples, and eucritic meteorites (of possible Mars origin). The comparison indicates depletion of Ca relative to Si in the Mars regolith. It is suggested that carbonate formation during a warmer, wetter epoch early in Mars' history could have been responsible.

  12. Planetary science: A lunar perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    An interpretative synthesis of current knowledge on the moon and the terrestrial planets is presented, emphasizing the impact of recent lunar research (using Apollo data and samples) on theories of planetary morphology and evolution. Chapters are included on the exploration of the solar system; geology and stratigraphy; meteorite impacts, craters, and multiring basins; planetary surfaces; planetary crusts; basaltic volcanism; planetary interiors; the chemical composition of the planets; the origin and evolution of the moon and planets; and the significance of lunar and planetary exploration. Photographs, drawings, graphs, tables of quantitative data, and a glossary are provided.

  13. Lunar metallic particle ("mini-moon"): An interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKay, D.S.; Carter, J.L.; Greenwood, W.R.

    1971-01-01

    A troilite-rich nickel-iron particle ("mini-moon") recovered from the moon may be a mound detached from a sphere of silicate glass. Erosion and pitting of the particle may have been caused by passage through a cloud of hot gas and particulate matter formed by meteorite impact on the lunar surface. This explanation is in contrast to the theory that the particle was meteoritically derived molten material that was furrowed during solidification after lunar impact, subsequently pitted by high-velocity particles, and then abraded and polished by drifting dust while on the lunar surface.

  14. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  15. Lunar granulites and their precursor anorthositic norites of the early lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lunar granulities, which are ancient and KREEP-free, represent the best samples of early lunar crust. They can be divided into ferroan and magnesium groups, and each group can be subdivided on the basis of mineral composition and REE concentrations. It is shown that some of the granulites may be derived from distinct anorthitic norite precursors, while some others are clearly polymict, though it is believed that even these granulites had anorthositic norites as their dominant precursors. The granulites have compositions similar to those of the two lunar meteorites, one of which is ferroan, the other magnesian. These meteorites are soil breccias from an unknown location distant from the Apollo landing sites and contain anorthositic norites as abundant clasts. Granulite and lunar-meteorite compositions more closely resemble the average composition of lunar highlands than those of any other returned lunar samples. The predominance of plutonic anorthositic norite precursors in material having the composition typical of highlands suggests that plutonic anorthositic norites were more abundant in the early lunar crust than is implied by their scarcity in Apollo pristine rocks.

  16. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Results from a carbon-14 study in size fractions of lunar soil are reported. The 10 to 30 micrometers and 74 to 124 micrometers size fraction results were supplemented by 30 to 37 micrometers results that are given in this report. The gases from the less than 10 micrometers fraction were extracted and purified and carbon-14 counting is now in progress. Meteorites were also studied using carbon-14, with emphasis directed to those recently discovered in the Antarctic.

  17. Xenon spallation systematics in Angra dos Reis. [meteoritic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, C. M.; Hudson, B.; Kennedy, B. M.; Podosek, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Literature Xe data for the Angra dos Reis meteorite have been resolved into constituent spallation, fission and trapped components. The spallation Xe compositions vary over a range wider than observed in any other samples, including lunar samples. These variations are due to the mixing of spallation Xe from Ba and rare earth element targets. It is possible to infer the Ba and rare earth spallation Xe compositions. Angra dos Reis spallation Xe compositions are systematically different from those observed in lunar samples, possibly because of differences in the irradiation conditions (geometry and shielding). Thus the Angra dos Reis data appear to be superior to lunar data for predicting spallation Xe compositions in other meteorites.

  18. Microscopic Meteoritic Material Surrounding Meteorite Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. R.; Hodge, P.

    1993-07-01

    Meteoritic impact-related particles around meteorite craters can have several forms: (1) ablation spherules formed from the melt layer during atmospheric entry; (2) fragments of meteoritic metal formed by the shattering of the meteorite on impact; (3) fragments of metal oxide with meteoritic Fe/Ni ratios; (4) glassy spherules made up of a mixture of target rock and meteoritic material, formed by condensation of impact vapor; and (5) fragments of vesicular material formed from the impact melt. We are investigating the nature of the particles collected from soil surrounding the following craters: Odessa (Texas), Kaalijarvi (Estonia), Boxhole, Dalgaranga, Henbury, Snelling, Veevers, and Wolfe Creek (all Australia). No impact-related particles have been identified in the Veevers or Snelling samples. The Odessa samples include both meteoritic fragments (type 3) and Fe/Ni spherules (type 1). The Henbury samples include particles of type 4 [1] and type 2. The Boxhole samples include particles of types 1 and 4 [2]. The Kaalijarvi particles, being studied cooperatively with Reet Tiimaa of the Institute of Gelogy of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, include particles of type 3 and 5. The type 3 particles from Kaalijarvi are primarily kamacite, with small amounts of taenite. They have oxidized, Ni-free surface layers, probably formed by weathering. The vesicular particles are primarily made of glass that has a bulk composition that indicates that they are about half meteorite and half target rock material. The glass suggests partial recrystallization, with dendritic patterns of slightly different composition. Inclusions of quartz grains also occur and the outer layer in some cases is pure iron oxide. Many of the bubbles have their inner walls laced with patterns of iron condensate, often dendritic and in some cases in the form of stars. References: [1] Hodge P. W. and Wright F. W. (1971) JGR, 76, 3880-3895. [2] Hodge P. W. and Wright F. W. (1973) Meteoritics, 8, 315-320.

  19. Theories for the origin of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, W. D.; Dyal, P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the major theories which have been proposed to explain the remanent magnetism found in the lunar crust. A total of nine different mechanisms for lunar magnetism are discussed and evaluated in light of the theoretical and experimental constraints pertinent to lunar magnetism. It is concluded that none of these theories in their present state of development satisfy all the known constraints. However, the theories which agree best with the present understanding of the moon are meteorite impact magnetization, thermoelectric dynamo field generation, and an early solar wind field.

  20. Lunar rock compositions and some interpretations.

    PubMed

    Engel, A E; Engel, C G

    1970-01-30

    Samples of igneous "gabbro," "basalt," and lunar regolith have compositions fundamentally different from all meteorites and terrestrial basalts. The lunar rocks are anhydrous and without ferric iron. Amounts of titanium as high as 7 weight percent suggest either extreme fractionation of lunar rocks or an unexpected solar abundance of titanium. The differences in compositions of the known, more "primitive" rocks in the planetary system indicate the complexities inherent in defining the solar abundances of elemizents and the initial compositions of the earth and moon. PMID:17781481

  1. Lunar rock compositions and some interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, A.E.J.; Engel, C.G.

    1970-01-01

    Samples of igneous "gabbro," "basalt," and lunar regolith have compositions fundamentally different from all meteorites and terrestrial basalts. The lunar rocks are anhydrous and without ferric iron. Amounts of titanium as high as 7 weight percent suggest either extreme fractionation of lunar rocks or an unexpected solar abundance of titanium. The differences in compositions of the known, more "primitive" rocks in the planetary system indicate the complexities inherent in defining the solar abundances of elements and the initial compositions of the earth and moon.

  2. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William; Taylor, L. A.; Jeevarajan, Antony

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, dust was found to cause numerous problems for various instruments and systems. Additionally, the dust may have caused momentary health issues for some of the astronauts. Therefore, the plan to resume robotic and manned missions to the Moon in the next decade has led to a renewed interest in the properties of lunar dust, ranging from geological to chemical to toxicological. An important property to understand is the reactivity of the dust particles. Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. On the Moon, these species can be maintained for millennia without oxygen or water vapor present to satisfy the broken bonds. Unfortunately, the Apollo dust samples that were returned to Earth were inadvertently exposed to the atmosphere, causing them to lose their reactive characteristics. In order to aid in the preparation of mitigation techniques prior to returning to the Moon, we measured the ability of lunar dust, lunar dust simulant, and quartz samples to produce hydroxyl radicals in solution[1]. As a first approximation of meteorite impacts on the lunar surface, we ground samples using a mortar and pestle. Our initial studies showed that all three test materials (lunar dust (62241), lunar dust simulant (JSC-1Avf), and quartz) produced hydroxyl radicals after grinding and mixing with water. However, the radical production of the ground lunar dust was approximately 10-fold and 3-fold greater than quartz and JSC-1 Avf, respectively. These reactivity differences between the different samples did not correlate with differences in specific surface area. The increased reactivity produced for the quartz by grinding was attributed to the presence of silicon- or oxygen-based radicals on the surface, as had been seen previously[2]. These radicals may also

  3. Curatorial functions and the U.S. Antarctic meteorite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B.; Bogard, D. D.; Annexstad, J. O.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of concentrations of meteorites in Antarctica by Japanese field parties in 1969, and subsequently by joint U.S.-Japanese and U.S. field parties since 1976 has provided a significant new resource for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system. The number of meteorites as well as the variety of meteorites has increased dramatically, and substantial amounts of data derived from their study has begun to appear in the scientific literature. The U.S. program of investigation has drawn on curatorial experience derived from the lunar program to: (1) develop specific collection and preliminary examination protocols; (2) provide documented samples for scientific investigations in response to specific requests; and (3) coordinate research by scientific consortia. The productivity of scientific research is significantly enhanced by these management approaches. Some of the results of the curatorial program for Antarctic meteorites carried out over the past three years are described.

  4. Paleomagnetism of the moon and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Cisowski, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    Paleomagnetic investigations (1979-1982) of the nature of the magnetization process and the magnetizing fields which produced magnetization in lunar and meteoritic materials are surveyed. Natural remanence magnetization (NRM), as well as thermoremanence magnetization (TRM), have been measured in carbonaceous chondrites and and L-chondrites to characterize the formation processes occurring when the magnetization was induced. Chemical remanence magnetism, together with the NRM, has been examined in noncarbonaceous chondrites, and NRM intensity and locations have been probed in achondrites. The magnetism has been concluded to arise either from solar magnetic fields, solar nebula magnetic fields, dynamo magnetic fields in the meteorite parent bodies, or locally generated fields caused by processes such as impacts. Lunar samples with NRM have been dated to origins less than 3.6 b.y., and could have been caused by shocks, such as from impacts less than 3 m.y. ago. Discussions of TRM, dynamo, and possible transient magnetic fields from hypervelocity meteoroid impacts as origins of magnetism on the surface and in a lunar magnetic core are presented.

  5. Acceptance of mated Queens and Queen Cells in Colonies of Russian and Italian Honey Bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Requeening colonies is a standard beekeeping practice with both mated queens and queen cells. More beekeepers are requeening with Russian honey bees queens because of their significantly higher resistance to varroa and tracheal mites, their good honey production and their overwintering abilities. ...

  6. Lunar interactions: Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference on Interactions of the Interplanetary Plasma with the Modern and Ancient Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R. (Editor); Freeman, J. W. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Reviewed are the active mechanisms relating the moon to its environment and the linkage between these mechanisms and their records in the lunar sample and geophysical data. Topics: (1) large scale plasma interactions with the moon and non-magnetic planets; (2) ancient and present day lunar surface magnetic and electric fields; (3) dynamics and evolution of the lunar atmosphere; (4) evolution of the solar plasma; (5) lunar record of solar radiations; (6) non-meteoritic and meteoritic disturbance and transport of lunar surface materials; and (7) future lunar exploration.

  7. Magnetic classification of meteorites. V - Iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, T.

    1982-12-01

    Sixteen iron meteorites are magnetically classified into three major classes; hexahedrite plus Ni-poor ataxite, octahedrite, and Ni-rich ataxite, on the basis of their thermomagnetic characteristics. Magnetic parameters for the classification scheme are ratio of saturation magnetization of kamacite to total saturation magnetization, and transition temperature from gamma-phase to alpha-phase of kamacite in the cooling process. The three major classes of iron meteorites are represented by their respective domains well separated from one another.

  8. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  9. Apollo 17 Astronaut and United States Flag on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an Apollo 17 Astronaut standing upon the lunar surface with the United States flag in the background. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE)and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Viewing the Lunar Interior Through Titanium-Colored Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session"Viewing the Lunar Interior Through Titanium-Colored Glasses" included the following reports:Consequences of High Crystallinity for the Evolution of the Lunar Magma Ocean: Trapped Plagioclase; Low Abundances of Highly Siderophile Elements in the Lunar Mantle: Evidence for Prolonged Late Accretion; Fast Anorthite Dissolution Rates in Lunar Picritic Melts: Petrologic Implications; Searching the Moon for Aluminous Mare Basalts Using Compositional Remote-Sensing Constraints II: Detailed analysis of ROIs; Origin of Lunar High Titanium Ultramafic Glasses: A Hybridized Source?; Ilmenite Solubility in Lunar Basalts as a Function of Temperature and Pressure: Implications for Petrogenesis; Garnet in the Lunar Mantle: Further Evidence from Volcanic Glasses; Preliminary High Pressure Phase Relations of Apollo 15 Green C Glass: Assessment of the Role of Garnet; Oxygen Fugacity of Mare Basalts and the Lunar Mantle. Application of a New Microscale Oxybarometer Based on the Valence State of Vanadium; A Model for the Origin of the Dark Ring at Orientale Basin; Petrology and Geochemistry of LAP 02 205: A New Low-Ti Mare-Basalt Meteorite; Thorium and Samarium in Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses: Insights into the Composition of the Lunar Mantle and Basaltic Magmatism on the Moon; and Eu2+ and REE3+ Diffusion in Enstatite, Diopside, Anorthite, and a Silicate Melt: A Database for Understanding Kinetic Fractionation of REE in the Lunar Mantle and Crust.

  11. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter contains something for everyone! It lists classifications of about 440 meteorites mostly from the 1997 and 1998 ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) seasons. It also gives descriptions of about 45 meteorites of special petrologic type. These include 1 iron, 17 chondrites (7 CC, 1 EC, 9 OC) and 27 achondrites (25 HED, UR). Most notable are an acapoloite (GRA98028) and an olivine diogenite (GRA98108).

  12. Fluorine in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. O., Jr.; Clark, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    Microanalysis using a resonant nuclear reaction was used to measure F concentrations in USGS standard rocks and 21 meteorites. The F appears to be a moderately depleted element, but there were significant variations within each sample. Measurements on separated metal phases suggest that about 20% of meteoritic F is in the metal or in a phase closely associated with it. Simultaneous measurements of F, Mg, Na, Al and Si in the nonmagnetic fractions of meteorites suggest plagioclase as a F containing phase.

  13. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, Volume 31, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satterwhite, Cecilia (Editor); Righter, Kevin (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This newsletter reports 418 new meteorites from the 2004 and 2006 ANSMET seasons from the Cumulus Hills (CMS), LaPaz Ice Field (LAP), Graves Nunataks (GRA), Grosvenor Mountains (GRO), Larkman Nunatak (LAR), MacAlpine Hills (MAC), Miller Range (MIL), Roberts Massif (RBT), and Scott Glacier (SCO). These new samples include one iron, 1 eucrite, 1 mesosiderite, 6 CK chondrites (2 with pairing), 2 CV3 chondrites, 1 CM1, 7 CM2 (4 with pairing), 3 CR2 (2 with pairing), and one each of a type 3 L and H chondrites. The CK6 chondrites (LAR 06869, 06872, 06873) are unusual in that they have no discernable chondrules, extremely fine-grained texture, and are full of veins. This newsletter represents a break from recent newsletters in which we have announced many unusual and popular samples, including new lunar and martian meteorites, an unusual achondrite (GRA 06128 and 06129 the topic of a special session at this years LPSC).

  14. Beyond the Black Queen Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mas, Alix; Jamshidi, Shahrad; Lagadeuc, Yvan; Eveillard, Damien; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The Black Queen Hypothesis, recently proposed to explain an evolution of dependency based on gene loss, is gaining ground. This paper focuses on how the evolution of dependency transforms interactions and the community. Using agent-based modeling we suggest that species specializing in the consumption of a common good escape competition and therefore favor coexistence. This evolutionary trajectory could open the way for novel long-lasting interactions and a need to revisit the classically accepted assembly rules. Such evolutionary events also reshape the structure and dynamics of communities, depending on the spatial heterogeneity of the common good production. Let Black be the new black! PMID:26953598

  15. Trace geochemistry of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar samples from the Apollo 16 and 17 flights which were analyzed include soil, igneous rock, anorthositic gabbro, orange soil, subfloor basalt, and norite breccia. Up to 57 elements including majors, minors, rare earths and other trace elements were determined in the lunar samples. The analytical techniques used were spark source mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The latter was done either instrumentally or with group radiochemical separations. The differences in abundances of the elements in lunar soils at the various sites are discussed. With regard to the major elements only Si is about the same at all the sites. A detailed analysis which was performed on a sample of the Allende meteorite is summarized.

  16. Brazilian stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, C. B.; Keil, K.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of Brazilian meteorites is presented, along with basic premises of meteoritics, including classification, naming, and analytic procedures. Meteorites are noted to be of interest as representative samples of ancient rocks, perhaps half as old as the universe, as sometimes originating from outside the solar system, containing early solar material, and containing evidence of cosmic ray interactions or collisions. The characteristics which make up the achondrite and chondrite group are reviewed, and a listing of the primary characteristics of known Brazilian meteorites is provided.

  17. Ar-Ar ages and thermal histories of enstatite meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Dixon, Eleanor T.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2010-05-01

    Compared with ordinary chondrites, there is a relative paucity of chronological and other data to define the early thermal histories of enstatite parent bodies. In this study, we report 39Ar-40Ar dating results for five EL chondrites: Khairpur, Pillistfer, Hvittis, Blithfield, and Forrest; five EH chondrites: Parsa, Saint Marks, Indarch, Bethune, and Reckling Peak 80259; three igneous-textured enstatite meteorites that represent impact melts on enstatite chondrite parent bodies: Zaklodzie, Queen Alexandra Range 97348, and Queen Alexandra Range 97289; and three aubrites, Norton County, Bishopville, and Cumberland Falls Several Ar-Ar age spectra show unusual 39Ar recoil effects, possibly the result of some of the K residing in unusual sulfide minerals, such as djerfisherite and rodderite, and other age spectra show 40Ar diffusion loss. Few additional Ar-Ar ages for enstatite meteorites are available in the literature. When all available Ar-Ar data on enstatite meteorites are considered, preferred ages of nine chondrites and one aubrite show a range of 4.50-4.54Ga, whereas five other meteorites show only lower age limits over 4.35-4.46Ga. Ar-Ar ages of several enstatite chondrites are as old or older as the oldest Ar-Ar ages of ordinary chondrites, which suggests that enstatite chondrites may have derived from somewhat smaller parent bodies, or were metamorphosed to lower temperatures compared to other chondrite types. Many enstatite meteorites are brecciated and/or shocked, and some of the younger Ar-Ar ages may record these impact events. Although impact heating of ordinary chondrites within the last 1Ga is relatively common for ordinary chondrites, only Bethune gives any significant evidence for such a young event.

  18. Sparking young minds with Moon rocks and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    What could be more exciting than seeing pieces of other worlds? The Apollo program left a legacy of astounding accomplishments and precious samples. Part of the thrill of those lunar missions is brought to schools by the lunar sample educational disks, which contain artifacts of six piloted trips to the Moon. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is preparing 100 new educational disks containing pieces of meteorites collected in Antarctica. These represent chunks of several different asteroids, that were collected in one of the most remote, forbidding environments on Earth. These pieces of the Moon and asteroids represent the products of basic planetary processes (solar nebular processes, initial differentiation, volcanism, and impact), and, in turn, these processes are controlled by basic physical and chemical processes (energy, energy transfer, melting, buoyancy, etc.). Thus, the lunar and meteorite sample disks have enormous educational potential. New educational materials are being developed to accompany the disks. Present materials are not as effective as they could be, especially in relating samples to processes and to other types of data such as spectral studies and photogeology. Furthermore, the materials are out of date. New background materials will be produced for teachers, assembling slide sets with extensive captions, and devising numerous hands-on classroom activities to do while the disks are at a school and before and after they arrive. The classroom activities will be developed by teams of experienced teachers working with lunar and meteorite experts.

  19. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  20. Magnetism in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview is presented of magnetism in meteorites. A glossary of magnetism terminology followed by discussion of the various techniques used for magnetism studies in meteorites are included. The generalized results from use of these techniques by workers in the field are described. A brief critical analysis is offered.

  1. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  2. Fullerenes in Allende Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, L.; Bada, J. L.; Winans, R. E.; Bunch, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of fullerenes in deposits from meteor impacts has led to renewed interest in the possibility that fullerenes are present in meteorites. Although fullerenes have not previously been detected in the Murchison and Allende meteorites, the Allende meteorite is known to contain several well-ordered graphite particles which are remarkably similar in size and appearance to the fullerene-related structures carbon onions and nanotubes. We report that fullerenes are in fact present in trace amounts in the Allende meteorite. In addition to fullerenes, we detected many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Allende meteorite, consistent with previous reports. In particular, we detected benzofluoranthene and corannulene (C20H10), five-membered ring structures which have been proposed as precursors to the formation of fullerene synthesis, perhaps within circumstellar envelopes or other sites in the interstellar medium.

  3. 50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. 622... ATLANTIC Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.493 Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. (a) A Caribbean queen conch in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with meat...

  4. 50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. 622... ATLANTIC Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.493 Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. (a) A Caribbean queen conch in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with meat...

  5. Lunar polar ice deposits: scientific and utilization objectives of the Lunar Ice Discovery Mission proposal.

    PubMed

    Duke, Michael B

    2002-03-01

    The Clementine mission has revived interest in the possibility that ice exists in shadowed craters near the lunar poles. Theoretically, the problem is complex, with several possible sources of water (meteoroid, asteroid, comet impact), several possible loss mechanisms (impact vaporization, sputtering, photoionization), and burial by meteorite impact. Opinions of modelers have ranged from no ice to several times 10(16) g of ice in the cold traps. Clementine bistatic radar data have been interpreted in favor of the presence of ice, while Arecibo radar data do not confirm its presence. The Lunar Prospector mission, planned to be flown in the fall of 1997, could gather new evidence for the existence of ice. If ice is present, both scientific and utilitarian objectives would be addressed by a lunar polar rover, such as that proposed to the NASA Discovery program, but not selected. The lunar polar rover remains the best way to understand the distribution and characteristics of lunar polar ice. PMID:11902177

  6. Understanding the Potential Toxic Properties of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust causes a variety of problems for spacecraft. It can obscure vision, clog equipment, cause seal failures and abrade surfaces. Additionally, lunar dust is potentially toxic and therefore hazardous to astronauts. Lunar dust can be activated by meteorites, UV radiation and elements of solar wind and, if inhaled, could produce reactive species in the lungs (freshly fractured quartz). Methods of lunar dust deactivation must be determined before new lunar missions. This requires knowledge of how to reactivate lunar dust on Earth - thus far crushing/grinding, UV activation and heating have been tested as activation methods. Grinding of lunar dust leads to the production of hydroxyl radicals in solution and increased dissolution of lunar simulant in buffers of different pH. Decreases in pH lead to increased lunar simulant leaching. Additionally, both ground and unground lunar simulant and unground quartz have been shown to promote the production of IL-6 and IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines, by alveolar epithelial cells. The results suggest the need for further studies on lunar dust and simulants prior to returning to the lunar surface.

  7. The mineralogy of meteorites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, B.

    1972-01-01

    Of particular interest among minerals recently discovered in meteorites are five phosphate minerals, three of them unknown in terrestrial rocks; a chromium nitride and a silicon oxynitride; lonsdaleite and chaoite, new polymorphs of carbon; ringwoodite and majorite, the spinel and garnet analogs of olivine and pyroxene, respectively; a number of calcium- and aluminum-rich silicates in the Allende meteorite, a type III carbonaceous chondrite which fell in 1969; and several alkali-rich silicates found as inclusions in iron meteorites. Knowledge of the compositional range of the common minerals olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase has also been greatly increased by recent researches.

  8. Radiocarbon datings of Yamato meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kigoshi, K.; Matsuda, E.

    1986-01-01

    The terrestrial ages of five Yamato Meteorites were measured by the content of cosmic-ray-produced carbon-14. Three Yamato Meteorites Y-74013, Y-74097, and Y-74136, which are all diogenites, were found at sites from one to two kilometers apart from each other. Evidence is presented for these three meteorites being a single meteorite. Also presented is a method adopted in the experimental procedure which includes a check for modern carbon contamination in the meteorites.

  9. Lunar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

  10. Glazed lunar rocks: origin by impact.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J W; Laul, J C; Ganapathy, R; Anders, E

    1971-05-01

    The glassy coating of lunar rock 12017 is enriched in 15 trace elements relative to the crystalline interior. It apparently consists chiefly of shock-melted rock, somewhat richer in rare earth elements and alkali metals than rock 12017 itself. The glass has been contaminated by about 0.5 percent carbonaceous-chondrite-like material or, alternatively, by a mixture of 0.06 to 0.3 percent fractionated meteoritic material and approximately 10 to 15 percent local soil. The glazing seems to represent molten material splashed from a nearby meteorite impact and not in situ melting by a sudden increase in solar luminosity. PMID:17802215

  11. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  12. History of meteorites from the moon collected in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Eugster, O

    1989-09-15

    In large asteroidal or cometary impacts on the moon, lunar surface material can be ejected with escape velocities. A few of these rocks were captured by Earth and were recently collected on the Antarctic ice. The records of noble gas isotopes and of cosmic ray-produced radionuclides in five of these meteorites reveal that they originated from at least two different impact craters on the moon. The chemical composition indicates that the impact sites were probably far from the Apollo and Luna landing sites. The duration of the moon-Earth transfer for three meteorites, which belong to the same fall event on Earth, lasted 5 to 11 million years, in contrast to a duration of less than 300,000 years for the two other meteorites. From the activities of cosmic ray-produced radionuclides, the date of fall onto the Antarctic ice sheet is calculated as 70,000 to 170,000 years ago. PMID:17747880

  13. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology.

  14. A 8.2 Ma Age for the Lunar Crater Giordano Bruno?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, J.

    2011-03-01

    Giordano Bruno (22 km diameter) is the youngest lunar crater of its size. Its formation age is discussed by using lit. data on (1) crater statistics, (2) ejection ages and petrography of lunar meteorites, and (3) 3He profiles of Earth’s sediments.

  15. Meteorites, Microfossils and Exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    1997-01-01

    The discovery of evidence for biogenic activity and possible microfossils in a Martian meteorite may have initiated a paradigm shift regarding the existence of extraterrestrial microbial life. Terrestrial extremophiles that live in deep granite and hydrothermal vents and nanofossils in volcanic tuffs have altered the premise that microbial life and microfossils are inconsistent with volcanic activity and igneous rocks. Evidence for biogenic activity and microfossils in meteorites can no longer be dismissed solely because the meteoritic rock matrix is not sedimentary. Meteorite impact-ejection and comets provide mechanisms for planetary cross-contamination of biogenic chemicals, microfossils, and living microorganisms. Hence, previously dismissed evidence for complex indigenous biochemicals and possible microfossils in carbonaceous chondrites must be re-examined. Many similar, unidentifiable, biological-like microstructures have been found in different carbonaceous chondrites and the prevailing terrestrial contaminant model is considered suspect. This paper reports the discovery of microfossils indigenous to the Murchison meteorite. These forms were found in-situ in freshly broken, interior surfaces of the meteorite. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and optical microscopy images indicate that a population of different biological-like forms are represented. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy reveals these forms have high carbon content overlaying an elemental distribution similar to the matrix. Efforts at identification with terrestrial microfossils and microorganisms were negative. Some forms strongly resemble bodies previously isolated in the Orgueil meteorite and considered microfossils by prior researchers. The Murchison forms are interpreted to represent an indigenous population of the preserved and altered carbonized remains (microfossils) of microorganisms that lived in the parent body of this meteorite at diverse times during the past 4.5 billion

  16. Rock Degradation by Alkali Metals: A Possible Lunar Erosion Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Naughton, J J; Barnes, I L; Hammond, D A

    1965-08-01

    When rocks melt under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, their alkali components volatilize as metals. These metal vapors act to comminute polycrystalline rocks to their component minerals. The resultant powder is porous and loosely packed and its characteristics may be compatible with the lunar surface as revealed by the Ranger photographs. If meteorite impact or lunar volcanism has produced vaporization or areas of molten lava, alkali erosion may have given dust of this character in adjacent solid areas. PMID:17747570

  17. Processing of metal and oxygen from lunar deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Constance F.

    1992-01-01

    On the moon, some whole rocks may be ores for abundant elements, such as oxygen, but beneficiation will be important if metallic elements are sought from raw lunar dirt. In the extraction process, a beneficiated metallic ore, such as an oxide, sulfide, carbonate, or silicate mineral, is converted to reduced metal. A variety of plausible processing technologies, which includes recovery of meteoritic iron, and processing of lunar ilmenite, are described in this report.

  18. Lunar Riometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  19. Organic analysis of the returned lunar sample.

    PubMed

    Abell, P I; Draffan, G H; Eglinton, G; Hayes, J M; Maxwell, J R; Pillinger, C T

    1970-01-30

    Lunar fines have been examined for organic compounds by crushing, programmed heating, hydrofluoric acid etching, and solvent extraction. Products were examined by mass spectroscopy. A variety of small organic molecules, including methane and other hydrocarbons, accompanied the release of the rare gases when the sample was heated in a stepwise fashion to 900 degrees C under vacuum. Methane is more abundant (abundance on the order of 1 part per million) than argon in the matrix-entrapped gases liberated by hydrofluoric acid etching of lunar fines. Methane is also present in a dark portion of the gas-rich meteorite Kapoeta. PMID:17781581

  20. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queen Reproductive Potential Affects Queen Mandibular Gland Pheromone Composition and Worker Retinue Response.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Juliana; Böröczky, Katalin; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive division of labor is one of the defining traits of honey bees (Apis mellifera), with non-reproductive tasks being performed by workers while a single queen normally monopolizes reproduction. The decentralized organization of a honey bee colony is maintained in large part by a bouquet of queen-produced pheromones, the distribution of which is facilitated by contact among workers throughout the hive. Previous studies have shown that the developmental fate of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher measures of reproductive potential compared to queens raised from older worker larvae. We investigated differences in the chemical composition of the mandibular glands and attractiveness to workers of "high-quality" queens (i.e., raised from first instar worker larvae; more queen-like) and "low-quality" queens (i.e., raised from third instar worker larvae; more worker-like). We characterized the chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of high-quality queens and low-quality queens using GC-MS and used the worker retinue response as a measure of the attractiveness to workers of high-quality queens vs. low-quality queens. We found that queen quality affected the chemical profiles of mandibular gland contents differently across years, showing significant differences in the production of the queen mandibular pheromone ("QMP") components HVA and 9-HDA in 2010, but no significant differences of any glandular compound in 2012. We also found that workers were significantly more attracted to high-quality queens than to low-quality queens in 2012, possibly because of increased attractiveness of their mandibular gland chemical profiles. Our results indicate that the age at which honey bee larvae enter the "queen-specific" developmental pathway influences the chemical composition of queen mandibular glands and worker behavior. However, these changes are not consistent across years, suggesting that other external

  1. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queen Reproductive Potential Affects Queen Mandibular Gland Pheromone Composition and Worker Retinue Response

    PubMed Central

    Böröczky, Katalin; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive division of labor is one of the defining traits of honey bees (Apis mellifera), with non-reproductive tasks being performed by workers while a single queen normally monopolizes reproduction. The decentralized organization of a honey bee colony is maintained in large part by a bouquet of queen-produced pheromones, the distribution of which is facilitated by contact among workers throughout the hive. Previous studies have shown that the developmental fate of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher measures of reproductive potential compared to queens raised from older worker larvae. We investigated differences in the chemical composition of the mandibular glands and attractiveness to workers of “high-quality” queens (i.e., raised from first instar worker larvae; more queen-like) and “low-quality” queens (i.e., raised from third instar worker larvae; more worker-like). We characterized the chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of high-quality queens and low-quality queens using GC-MS and used the worker retinue response as a measure of the attractiveness to workers of high-quality queens vs. low-quality queens. We found that queen quality affected the chemical profiles of mandibular gland contents differently across years, showing significant differences in the production of the queen mandibular pheromone (“QMP”) components HVA and 9-HDA in 2010, but no significant differences of any glandular compound in 2012. We also found that workers were significantly more attracted to high-quality queens than to low-quality queens in 2012, possibly because of increased attractiveness of their mandibular gland chemical profiles. Our results indicate that the age at which honey bee larvae enter the “queen-specific” developmental pathway influences the chemical composition of queen mandibular glands and worker behavior. However, these changes are not consistent across years, suggesting

  2. Organic Molecules in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are primitive samples from the asteroid belt, containing 3-5wt% organic carbon. The exogenous delivery of organic matter by carbonaceous meteorites may have contributed to the organic inventory of the early Earth. The majority (>70%) of the meteoritic organic material consist of insoluble organic matter (IOM) [1]. The remaining meteoritic organic material (<30%) consists of a rich organic inventory of soluble organic compounds, including key compounds important in terrestrial biochemistry [2-4]. Different carbonaceous meteorites contain soluble organic molecules with different abundances and distributions, which may reflect the extension of aqueous alteration or thermal metamorphism on the meteorite parent bodies. Extensive aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body may result on 1) the decomposition of α-amino acids [5, 6]; 2) synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids [2, 6-9]; 3) higher relative abundances of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [6, 10]; and 4) higher L-enantiomer excess (Lee) value of isovaline [6, 11, 12].The soluble organic content of carbonaceous meteorites may also have a contribution from Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions after the meteorite parent body cooled to lower temperatures [13, 14].The analysis of the abundances and distribution of the organic molecules present in meteorites helps to determine the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar system, and the prebiotic organic compounds available on the early Earth.[1] Cody and Alexander (2005) GCA 69, 1085. [2] Cronin and Chang (1993) in: The Chemistry of Life’s Origin. pp. 209-258. [3] Martins and Sephton (2009) in: Amino acids, peptides and proteins in organic chemistry. pp. 1-42. [4] Martins (2011) Elements 7, 35. [5] Botta et al. (2007) MAPS 42, 81. [6] Martins et al. (2015) MAPS, in press. [7] Cooper and Cronin (1995) GCA 59, 1003. [8] Glavin et al. (2006) MAPS. 41, 889. [9] Glavin et al. (2011) MAPS 45, 1948. [10

  3. [Possibility of exacerbation of allergy by lunar regolith].

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Kambara, Tatsunori; Kuroda, Etsushi; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2012-09-01

    Japan, U.S.A. and other foreign space agencies have plans for the construction of a lunar base and long-term stay of astronauts on the moon. The surface of the moon is covered by a thick layer of soil that includes fine particles called "lunar regolith", which is formed by meteorite impact and space weathering. Risk assessment of particulate matter on the moon is important for astronauts working in microgravity on the moon. However, there are few investigations about the biological influences of lunar regolith. Especially, there is no investigation about allergic activity to lunar regolith. The main chemical components of lunar regolith are SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, FeO, etc. Of particular interest, approximately 50% of lunar regolith consists of SiO2. There is a report that the astronauts felt hay fever-like symptoms from the inhalation of the lunar regolith. Yellow sand, whose chemical components are similar to lunar regolith, enhances allergenic reactions, suggesting the possibility that lunar regolith has an adjuvant-like activity. Although intraperitoneal administration of lunar regolith with ovalbumin to mouse did not show enhancement of allergenic reactions, further evaluation of lunar regolith's potential to exacerbate the effects of allergies is essential for development of the moon. PMID:23035343

  4. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  5. Lunar Science for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will return humans to the Moon and will include robotic precursor missions in its early phases, including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, now in development. Many opportunities for scientific investigations will arise from this program of exploration. Such opportunities will span across disciplines of planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science via remote observation and monitoring. This abstract focuses on some of the key lunar science objectives that can be addressed with robotic and human missions. Even after 35+ years of study of Apollo samples and data, and global remote sensing missions of the 1990's, key lunar science questions remain. Apollo provided ground truth for the central nearside, but ground truth is lacking for the lunar farside and poles. Lunar meteorites provide knowledge about areas potentially far distant from the central nearside, but ground truth in key areas such as the farside South Pole-Aitken Basin, which provides access to the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle, will enable more direct correlations between the lunar meteorites and global remotely sensed data. Extending and improving knowledge of surface compositions, including partially buried basalt deposits, globally, is needed to better understand the composition of the Moon's crust as a function of depth and of the mantle, and to provide new tests of the Moon's origin and early surface and internal evolution. These issues can be addressed in part with robotic measurements on the surface; however, samples cached for return to Earth are needed for detailed chemical, lithologic, and geochronologic investigations. Apollo experience has shown that regolith samples and/or rock fragments sieved from regolith provide a wealth of information that can be interpreted within the context of regional geology. Targeted sampling by humans and human/robotic teams can optimize sampling strategies. Detailed knowledge of specific

  6. Thermoluminescence and Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Hasan, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The level of natural thermoluminescence (TL) in meteorites is the result of competition between build-up, due to exposure to cosmic radiation, and thermal decay. Antarctic meteorites tend to have lower natural TL than non-Antarctic meteorites because of their generally larger terrestrial ages. However, since a few observed falls have low TL due to a recent heating event, such as passage within approximately 0.7 astronomical units of the Sun, this could also be the case for some Antarctic meteorites. Dose rate variations due to shielding, heating during atmospheric passage, and anomalous fading also cause natural TL variations, but the effects are either relatively small, occur infrequently, or can be experimentally circumvented. The TL sensitivity of meteorites reflects the abundance and nature of the feldspar. Thus intense shock, which destroys feldspar, causes the TL sensitivity to decrease by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, while metamorphism, which generates feldspar through the devitrification of glass, causes TL sensitivity to increase by a factor of approximately 10000. The TL-metamorphism relationship is particularly strong for the lowest levels of metamorphism. The order-disorder transformation in feldspar also affect the TL emission characteristics and thus TL provides a means of paleothermometry.

  7. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter. Volume 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Satterwhite, Cecilia E.

    1997-01-01

    The availability of 116 new meteorites from the 1994-1996 collections is announced. There are 4 special chondrites, 2 carbonaceous chondrites, and 1 achondrite among the new meteorites. Also included is a redescription of Lodranite GRA95209.

  8. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  9. The relict magnetism of meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisowski, S. M.; Hood, L. L.

    1991-01-01

    Meteorite paleomagnetic studies are reviewed and evaluated. Possible mechanisms for producing early solar system magnetic fields that could have been responsible for the magnetization of some or all meteorite classes are explored. A detailed review of paleointensity results derived from the various classes of meteorites is given, and the likelihood that the results might related to solar or nebulawide magnetic fields is considered. The implications of meteorite magnetism for early solar system evolution are discussed.

  10. Comparative zircon U-Pb geochronology of impact melt breccias from Apollo 12 and lunar meteorite SaU 169, and implications for the age of the Imbrium impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dunyi; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, Randy L.; Wan, Yushan; Xie, Hangqiang; Zhang, Yuhai; Dong, Chunyan; Wang, Wei

    2012-02-01

    The ages of zircons from high-Th impact-melt breccias (IMBs) from meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 169 and from rock fragments in soil samples from Apollo 12 have been determined using the SHRIMP-II ion microprobe. The IMBs are very similar to each other in chemistry, mineralogy and texture, and the zircons from the KREEP-rich (high-Th) crystalline impact melt have similar U and Th contents and identical ages, within uncertainties, of 3920 ± 13 (2σ) Ma (SaU 169) and 3914 ± 7 (2σ) Ma (Apollo 12). The age results support the idea that the high-Th IMBs (Apollo 12 and SaU 169) formed in the same impact event. The similarity of composition and age suggest that SaU 169 and the high-Th IMB fragments of Apollo 12 originated from the same area of the Procellarum KREEP Terrane. We interpret the age of zircon grains in the Apollo 12 high-Th IMB as a precise and direct determination of the age of the Imbrium impact. This age is significantly older than the commonly cited age of 3.85 Ga but is similar to recent determinations from SIMS U-Pb dating of Apollo 14 apatite grains and with anticipated revision of ages by 40Ar-39Ar and 87Rb-86Sr. The present zircon 207Pb-206Pb age is the first direct zircon age determination of the Imbrium impact event from an Apollo sample. Previous measurements of zircon ages of Apollo IMBs have recorded events pre-dating the Imbrium basin-forming event.

  11. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science - XVII: Joseph Goldstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2012-05-01

    In this interview, Joseph Goldstein (Fig. 1) recounts how he became interested in meteorites during his graduate studies working with Robert Ogilvie at MIT. By matching the Ni profiles observed across taenite fields in the Widmanstätten structure of iron meteorites with profiles he computed numerically he was able to determine cooling rates as the meteorites cooled through 650-400 °C. Upon graduating, he worked with a team of meteorite researchers led by Lou Walter at Goddard Space Flight Center where for 4 years he attempted to understand metallographic structures by reproducing them in the laboratory. Preferring an academic environment, Joe accepted a faculty position in the rapidly expanding metallurgy department at Lehigh University where he was responsible for their new electron microprobe. He soon became involved in studying the metal from lunar soils and identifying the metallic component from its characteristic iron and nickel compositions. Over the next two decades he refined these studies of Ni diffusion in iron meteorites, particularly the effect of phosphorus in the process, which resulted in superior Fe-Ni-P phase diagrams and improved cooling rates for the iron meteorites. After a period as vice president for research at Lehigh, in 1993 he moved to the University of Massachusetts to serve as dean of engineering, but during these administrative appointments Joe produced a steady stream of scientific results. Joe has served as Councilor, Treasurer, Vice President, and President of the Meteoritical Society. He received the Leonard Medal in 2005, the Sorby Award in 1999, and the Dumcumb Award for in 2008.

  12. Organic Chemistry of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

  13. Primordial material in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Primordial is a term which applied to material that entered the solar system early and became incorporated into a meteorite without totally losing its identity. Identification of such material surviving in meteorites is so far solely through recognition of anomalous isotopic compositions of generally macroscopic entities contained within those meteorites. Isotopic anomalies are, by definition, isotopic compositions which differ from the canonical solar system abundances in ways which cannot be explained in terms of local processes such as mass dependent fractionation, cosmic ray induced spallation or decay of radionuclides. A comprehensive account of isotopic anomalies is impractical here, so it is necessary to be selective. Issues which are potentially addressable through the study of such primordial material are examined. Those issues will be illustrated with specific, but not exhaustive, examples.

  14. The equation of state of a lunar anorthosite - 60025

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanloz, R.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    High-pressure equation of state data for lunar anorthosite with an initial porosity of about 18% are compared with previous results for nonporous anorthosite and lunar samples. The porous anorthosite is characterized by a lower shock impedance than the nonporous anorthosite; nonporous gabbroic anorthosite and high-titanium mare basalt show higher shock impedances than the nonporous anorthosite. Thus the properties of target rocks may bias crater statistics and apparent cratering ages for different lunar terranes. Repeated meteoritic bombardment of the moon resulting in even mild brecciation and, hence, porosity, could lead to increases in the efficiency with which thermal energy is trapped by the surface upon impact.

  15. Organics In Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sherwood

    1996-01-01

    The variety of classes of organic compounds that occur in carbonaceous meteorites suggests a rich pre-planetary chemistry with possible connections to interstellar, solar nebular and parent body processes. Structural diversity prevails within all classes examined in detail. Among amino acids for instance, all possible isomers are found up to species containing 4-6 carbon atoms, with abundances decreasing with increasing molecular weight. Such diversity seems limited to those carbonaceous meteorites which show evidence of having been exposed to liquid water; meteorites lacking such evidence also show much lower abundances and less structural diversity in their organic contents. This apparent dependency on water suggests a role for cometary ices in the chemical evolution of organic compounds on parent bodies. Measurements of the stable isotope compositions of C, H, N and S in classes of compounds and at the individual compound level show strong deviations from average chondritic values. These deviations are difficult to explain by solar system or parent body processes, and precedents for some of these isotopic anomalies exist in interstellar (e.g., high D/H ratios) and circumstellar chemistry. Therefore, presolar origins for much if not all of the meteoritic organic compounds (or their precursors) is a distinct possibility. In contrast, evidence of solar nebular origins is either lacking or suspect. Results from molecular and isotopic analyses of meteoritic organics, from laboratory simulations and from a model of interstellar grain reactions will be used to flesh out the hypothesis that this material originated with interstellar chemistry, was distributed within the early solar system as cometary ices, and was subsequently altered on meteorite parent bodies to yield the observed compounds.

  16. Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of the Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the conference on Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of Martian Meteorites, September 11-12, 2002, in Houston, Texas. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  17. Development of Standardized Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.; Sibille, L.; Meeker, G.; Wilson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lunar exploration requires scientific and engineering studies using standardized testing procedures that ultimately support flight certification of technologies and hardware. It is necessary to anticipate the range of source materials and environmental constraints that are expected on the Moon and Mars, and to evaluate in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) coupled with testing and development. We describe here the development of standardized lunar regolith simulant (SLRS) materials that are traceable inter-laboratory standards for testing and technology development. These SLRS materials must simulate the lunar regolith in terms of physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. A summary of these issues is contained in the 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials [l]. Lunar mare basalt simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1 were developed in the late 1980s. MLS-1 approximates an Apollo 11 high-Ti basalt, and was produced by milling of a holocrystalline, coarse-grained intrusive gabbro (Fig. 1). JSC-1 approximates an Apollo 14 basalt with a relatively low-Ti content, and was obtained from a glassy volcanic ash (Fig. 2). Supplies of MLS-1 and JSC-1 have been exhausted and these materials are no longer available. No highland anorthosite simulant was previously developed. Upcoming lunar polar missions thus require the identification, assessment, and development of both mare and highland simulants. A lunar regolith simulant is manufactured from terrestrial components for the purpose of simulating the physical and chemical properties of the lunar regolith. Significant challenges exist in the identification of appropriate terrestrial source materials. Lunar materials formed under comparatively reducing conditions in the absence of water, and were modified by meteorite impact events. Terrestrial materials formed under more oxidizing conditions with significantly greater access to water, and were modified by a wide range of weathering processes. The composition space of lunar

  18. Search for and analysis of radioactive halos in lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The lunar halo search was conducted because halos in terrestrial minerals serve as pointers to localized radioactivity, and make possible analytical studies on the problems of isotopic dating and mode of crystallization of the host mineral. Ancillary studies were conducted on terrestrial halos and on certain samples of special origin such as tektites and meteorites.

  19. Sulfur in achondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Moore, C. B.; Primus, T. M.; Lewis, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    The sulfur abundances of samples of nearly 50 achondrites were examined to enlarge the database on the sulfur contents of various categories of achondrites. The study covered eucrites, howardites, diogenites, shergottites, chassignites, nakhilites, aubrites and three unique specimens. The study was spurred by the possibility that the S abundances could help identify the meteorites as originating on Mars or Venus. The S abundances and distributions varied widely, but confirmed that the data were valid indicators of the brecciation and thermal metamorphic history of each meteorite.

  20. Shock effects in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Bischoff, A.; Buchwald, V.; Rubin, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    The impacts that can occur between objects on intersecting solar system orbits can generate shock-induced deformations and transformations, creating new mineral phases or melting old ones. These shock-metamorphic effects affect not only the petrography but the chemical and isotopic properties and the ages of primordial meteoritic materials. A fuller understanding of shock metamorphism and breccia formation in meteorites will be essential not only in the study of early accretion, differentiation, and regolith-evolution processes, but in the characterization of the primordial composition of the accreted material itself.

  1. Iron Meteorite on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has found an iron meteorite on Mars, the first meteorite of any type ever identified on another planet. The pitted, basketball-size object is mostly made of iron and nickel. Readings from spectrometers on the rover determined that composition. Opportunity used its panoramic camera to take the images used in this approximately true-color composite on the rover's 339th martian day, or sol (Jan. 6, 2005). This composite combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer (red), 530-nanometer (green), and 480-nanometer (blue) filters.

  2. Antarctic Meteorite Location and Mapping Project (AMLAMP): Antarctic meteorite location map series explanatory text and user's guide to AMLAMP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J.; Fessler, B.; Cassidy, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    This technical report is an update to LPI Technical Report 89-02, which contained data and information that was current to May 1987. Since that time approximately 4000 new meteorites have been collected, mapped, and characterized, mainly from the numerous ice fields in the Allan Hills-David Glacier region, from the Pecora Escarpment and Moulton Escarpment in the Thiel Mountains-Patuxent region, the Wisconsin Range region, and from the Beardmore region. Meteorite location maps for ice fields from these regions have been produced and are available. This report includes explanatory texts for the maps of new areas and provides information on updates of maps of the areas covered in LPI Technical Report 89-02. Sketch maps and description of locales that have been searched and have yielded single or few meteorites are also included. The meteorite listings for all the ice fields have been updated to include any classification changes and new meteorites recovered from ice fields in the Allan Hills-David Glacier region since 1987. The text has been reorganized and minor errors in the original report have been corrected. Computing capabilities have improved immensely since the early days of this project. Current software and hardware allow easy access to data over computer networks. With various commercial software packages, the data can be used many different ways, including database creation, statistics, and mapping. The databases, explanatory texts, and the plotter files used to produce the meteorite location maps are available through a computer network. Information on how to access AMLAMP data, its formats, and ways it can be used are given in the User's Guide to AMLAMP Data section. Meteorite location maps and thematic maps may be ordered from the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Ordering information is given in Appendix A.

  3. Identification of Iron-Bearing Phases on the Martian Surface and in Martian Meteorites and Analogue Samples by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Agresti, D. G.; Schroeder, C.; Rodionov, D.; Yen, A.; Ming, Doug; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit (Gusev Crater) and Opportunity (Meridiani Planum) have each analyzed more than 100 targets during their ongoing missions (>1050 sols). Here we summarize the Fe-bearing phases identified to date and compare the results to Moessbauer analyses of martian meteorites and lunar samples. We use lunar samples as martian analogues because some, particularly the low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts, have bulk chemical compositions that are comparable to basaltic martian meteorites [1,2]. The lunar samples also provide a way to study pigeonite-rich samples. Pigeonite is a pyroxene that is not common in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon and is present in basaltic martian meteorites

  4. Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID

  5. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    PubMed

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2007-01-01

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID

  6. Carbon in primitive meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, John F.

    1990-01-01

    No meteorites are truly primitive, in the sense of being pristine collections of interstellar grains or solar-nebular condensates. Nonetheless, some chrondritic meteorites have been so little altered by secondary processing that they are commonly termed primitive and it is almost a definition of such chondrites that they contain significant quantities of carbon. Most of that carbon is of apparently local, i.e., solar-system, origin but a proportion that ranges from trace, in some cases, to minor, in others, is believed to be exotic, i.e., of circumstellar or interstellar origin, and it is upon such material that researchers focus here. The nature of the meteoritic samples and the techniques used to analyse them are briefly discussed and the observational record is surveyed. Clearly, the study of exotic carbon preserved in meteorites has been informative about sites of nucleosynthesis, processes of nucleation and growth of grains in stellar outflows, grain survival in the interstellar medium, and many other topics of astrophysical significance. Much more work, particularly of an interdisciplinary nature remains to be done, however.

  7. Microfossils in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Microfossils of large filamentous trichomic prokaryotes have been detected during in-situ investigations of carbonaceous meteorites. This research has been carried out using the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) to examine freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorites. The images obtained reveal that many of these remains are embedded in the meteorite rock matrix. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) studies establish that the filamentous microstructures have elemental compositions consistent with the meteorite matrix, but are often encased within carbon-rich electron transparent sheath-like structures infilled with magnesium sulfate. This is consistent with the taphonomic modes of fossilization of cyanobacteria and sulphur bacteria, since the life habits and processes of these microorganisms frequently result in distinctive chemical biosignatures associated with the properties of their cell-walls, trichomes, and the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the sheath. In this paper the evidence for biogenicity presented includes detailed morphological and morphometric data consistent with known characteristics of uniseriate and multiseriate cyanobacteria. Evidence for indigeneity includes the embedded nature of the fossils and elemental compositions inconsistent with modern biocontaminants.

  8. Computed tomographic analysis of meteorite inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Testa, J. P., Jr.; Friedman, P. J.; Kambic, G. X.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining nondestructively a cross-sectional display of very dense heterogeneous rocky specimens, whether lunar, terrestrial or meteoritic, by using a fourth generation computed tomographic (CT) scanner, with modifications to the software only, is discussed. A description of the scanner, and of the experimental and analytical procedures is given. Using this technique, the interior of heterogeneous materials such as Allende can be probed nondestructively. The regions of material with high and low atomic numbers are displayed quickly; the object can then be cut to obtain for analysis just the areas of interest. A comparison of this technique with conventional industrial and medical techniques is made in terms of image resolution and density distribution display precision.

  9. Radioactivity of the moon, planets, and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkou, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical data is summarized for the content of natural radioactive elements in meteorites, eruptive terrestrial rocks, and also in lunar samples returned by Apollo missions and the Luna series of automatic stations. The K-U systematics of samples analyzed in the laboratory are combined with data for orbital gamma-ray measurements for Mars (Mars 5) and with the results of direct gamma-ray measurements of the surface of Venus by the Venera 8 lander. Using information about the radioactivity of solar system bodies and evaluations of the content of K, U, and Th in the terrestrial planets, we examine certain aspects of the evolution of material in the protoplanetary gas-dust cloud and then in the planets of the solar system.

  10. Melting relations of the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitz, M. G.; Kushiro, I.

    1974-01-01

    The proportions of major oxides in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite after partial reduction are remarkably similar to those in possible mantle material of the earth. When heated, the Allende meteorite generates a sulfide melt, a ferrobasaltic melt, and olivine with or without pyroxene, over a wide pressure range (5 to 25 kilobar). The silicate melt contains more sodium and less titanium than lunar ferrobasalts. An aggregate of the Allende chondrite rich in calcium and aluminum produces silica-undersaturated, calcium-rich melt and spinel over a wide pressure and temperature range. It is suggested that the earth's core contains significant amounts of both nickel and sulfur and that a 3:2 mixture of Allende bulk sample and calcium- and aluminum-rich agregates is closer in major element abundances than either of these components to the average composition of the moon.

  11. Antarctic Meteorite Location Map Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John (Editor); Fessler, Brian (Editor); Cassidy, William (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Antarctica has been a prolific source of meteorites since meteorite concentrations were discovered in 1969. The Antarctic Search For Meteorites (ANSMET) project has been active over much of the Trans-Antarctic Mountain Range. The first ANSMET expedition (a joint U.S.-Japanese effort) discovered what turned out to be a significant concentration of meteorites at the Allan Hills in Victoria Land. Later reconnaissance in this region resulted in the discovery of meteorite concentrations on icefields to the west of the Allan Hills, at Reckling Moraine, and Elephant Moraine. Antarctic meteorite location maps (reduced versions) of the Allan Hills main, near western, middle western, and far western icefields and the Elephant Moraine icefield are presented. Other Antarctic meteorite location maps for the specimens found by the ANSMET project are being prepared.

  12. Huge waves of meteorite origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Kozelkov, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Asteroid and meteorite risk is now actively investigated in various aspects. If the meteorite falls in the ocean it can generate huge waves with heights exceeded 10 m. For whole history about 10-20 events related with entry of meteorite in water are known. The last event occurred on February 15, 2013 when the meteorite exploded in sky of Chelyabinsk (Russia) and its big piece entered in the Chebarkul Lake. Very often, huge waves of meteorite origin are computed using the conception of equivalent (parametrical) source, whose parameters are determined through meteorite characteristics. Recently, direct methods based on numerical simulations of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) have been applied to study wave processes generated by the entry of meteorite. These approaches and their applications to the historic events are discussed in paper.

  13. A Comparison of Anorthositic Lunar Lithologies: Variation on the FAN Theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Shirai, N.

    2014-01-01

    Certain anorthositic rocks that are rare in the returned lunar samples have been identified among lunar meteorites. The variety of anorthosites in the Apollo collection also is more varied than is widely recognized. James eta. identified three lithologies in a composite clast o ferroan anorthosite (FAN)-suite rocks in lunar breccia 64435. They further divided all FANs into four subgroups: anorthositic ferroan (AF), mafic magnesian (MM), mafic ferroan (MF), and anorthositic sodic (AS, absent in the 64435 clast). Here we report Sm-Nd isotopic studies of the lithologies present in the 64435 composite clast and compare the new data to our previous data for lunar anorthosites incuding lunar anorthositic meteorites. Mineralogy-petrography, in situ trace element studies, Sr-isotope studies, and Ar-Ar chronology are included, but only the Nd-isotopic studies are currently complete.

  14. Behavioral plasticity in ant queens: environmental manipulation induces aggression among normally peaceful queens in the socially polymorphic ant Leptothorax acervorum.

    PubMed

    Trettin, Jürgen; Seyferth, Thomas; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The behavioral traits that shape the structure of animal societies vary considerably among species but appear to be less flexible within species or at least within populations. Populations of the ant Leptothorax acervorum differ in how queens interact with other queens. Nestmate queens from extended, homogeneous habitats tolerate each other and contribute quite equally to the offspring of the colony (polygyny: low reproductive skew). In contrast, nestmate queens from patchy habitats establish social hierarchies by biting and antennal boxing, and eventually only the top-ranking queen of the colony lays eggs (functional monogyny: high reproductive skew). Here we investigate whether queen-queen behavior is fixed within populations or whether aggression and high skew can be elicited by manipulation of socio-environmental factors in colonies from low skew populations. An increase of queen/worker ratio and to a lesser extent food limitation elicited queen-queen antagonism in polygynous colonies from Nürnberger Reichswald similar to that underlying social and reproductive hierarchies in high-skew populations from Spain, Japan, and Alaska. In manipulated colonies, queens differed more in ovarian status than in control colonies. This indicates that queens are in principle capable of adapting the magnitude of reproductive skew to environmental changes in behavioral rather than evolutionary time. PMID:24743352

  15. The Microstructure of Lunar Micrometeorite Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The peak of the mass flux of impactors striking the lunar surface is made up of objects approximately 200 micrometers in diameter that erode rocks, comminute regolith grains, and produce agglutinates. The effects of these micro-scale impacts are still not fully understood. Much effort has focused on evaluating the physical and optical effects of micrometeorite impacts on lunar and meteoritic material using pulsed lasers to simulate the energy deposited into a substrate in a typical hypervelocity impact. Here we characterize the physical and chemical changes that accompany natural micrometeorite impacts into lunar rocks with long surface exposure to the space environment (12075 and 76015). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were obtained from cross-sections of approximately 10-20 micrometers diameter craters that revealed important micro-structural details of micrometeorite impact processes, including the creation of npFe (sup 0) in the melt, and extensive deformation around the impact site.

  16. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  17. Siberian Meteorite Chelyabinsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marov, Mikhail Ya.

    On the February 15, 2013, in 9 (h) 20 (m) LT, a spectacular phenomenon - large meteorite fall - was observed over Chelyabinsk city in Siberia, Russia. Basically, this rather routine astronomical event (though largest for the recent one hundred years) attracted great attention because occurred in the well populated area and affected environment and people. The phenomenon has been well documented and numerous fragments of the fall collected, the largest one excavated from Chebarcul lake amounting 560 kg. The meteorite was called Chelyabinsk. It was observed as very bright bolide of 18 m in size which was exploded and mostly destroyed at the heights between 23 and 29 km and formed a powerful bow shock responsible for destructions when reaching the ground. Energy release at the explosion was estimated 300 to 500 Kt of TNT. The pieces collected brought evidence that Chelyabinsk is the stony meteorite classified as typical ordinary chondrite of LL type of the 5th petrological class. Morphology and isotopic composition of the meteorite’s matter allowed us to reconstruct its history and to conclude that it represents a fragment of much larger asteroid-type body of the age close to the solar system origin and experienced a number of collisions, including the very early one during the first 30 million years after formation, which resulted to melted phase in the structure of the main matrix. The study of meteorites gives us unique opportunity to penetrate deep in the fundamental cosmochemical aspects of the solar system origin and also provide unique information concerning the processes of its thermal and dynamical early evolution. The new data contribute to the study. Besides, Chelyabinsk meteorite fall brought new important evidence that Earth is vulnerable to space hazards and raised warning how to protect our planet from asteroid-comet impacts.

  18. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  19. Women in History--Queen Liliuokalani

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeppe, Tina

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last monarch. Liliuokalani was born in Hawaii in 1838 into the family of a high chief. She attended the Royal School, run by American missionaries, and received a high quality education and learned to love music, writing and politics. Liliuokalani was given the Christian name "Lydia" as a child.…

  20. Queen Margaret University College's Sustainable, Community Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The new campus of Queen Margaret University College in the United Kingdom is designed to be a sustainable educational and community resource. Early consultation with students and staff on the campus design revealed a strong desire for a sustainable environment, with plenty of green space for all to enjoy. In response to this, the design focuses on…

  1. Impact ages of meteorites: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogard, D.

    1995-05-01

    Isotopic ages of meteorites that indicate chronometer resetting due to impact heating are . Most of the ages were obtained by the 39Ar-40Ar technique, but several Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, and Sm-Nd ages also suggest some degree of impact resetting. Considerations of experimental data on element diffusion in silicates suggest that various isotopic chronometers ought to differ in their ease of resetting during shock heating in the order K-Ar (easiest), Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, and Sm-Nd, which is approximately the order observed in meteorites. Partial rather than total chronometer resetting by impacts appears to be the norm; consequently, interpretation of the event age is not always straightforward. Essentially all 39Ar-40Ar ages of eucrites and howardites indicate partial to total resetting in the relatively narrow time interval of 3.44.1 Ga ago (1 Ga = l09 years). Several disturbed Rb-Sr ages appear consistent with this age distribution. This grouping of ages and the brecciated nature of many eucrites and all howardites argues for a large-scale impact bombardment of the HED parent body during the same time period that the Moon received its cataclysmic bombardment. Other meteorite parent bodies such as those of mesosiderites, some chondrites, and HE irons also may have experienced this bombardment. These data suggest that the early bombardment was not lunar specific but involved much of the inner Solar System, and may have been caused by breakup of a larger planetismal. Although a few chondrites show evidence of age resetting ˜3.5-3.9 Ga ago, most impact ages of chondrites tend to fall below 1.3 Ga in age. A minimum of ˜4 impact events, including events at 0.3, 0.5, 1.2, and possibly 0.9 Ga appear to be required to explain the younger ages of H, L, and LL chondrites, although additional events are possible. Most L chondrites show evidence of shock, and the majority of 39Ar40Ar ages of L chondrites fall near 0.5 Ga. The L chondrite parent body apparently experienced a major impact at

  2. Surface lipids of queen-laid eggs do not regulate queen production in a fission-performing ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruel, Camille; Lenoir, Alain; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    In animal societies, most collective and individual decision making depends on the presence of reproductive individuals. The efficient transmission of information among reproductive and non-reproductive individuals is therefore a determinant of colony organization. In social insects, the presence of a queen modulates multiple colonial activities. In many species, it negatively affects worker reproduction and the development of diploid larvae into future queens. The queen mostly signals her presence through pheromone emission, but the means by which these chemicals are distributed in the colony are still unclear. In several ant species, queen-laid eggs are the vehicle of the queen signal. The aim of this study was to investigate whether queen-laid eggs of the ant Aphaenogaster senilis possess queen-specific cuticular hydrocarbons and/or Dufour or poison gland compounds, and whether the presence of eggs inhibited larval development into queens. Our results show that the queen- and worker-laid eggs shared cuticular and Dufour hydrocarbons with the adults; however, their poison gland compounds were not similar. Queen-laid eggs had more dimethylalkanes and possessed a queen-specific mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons composed of 3,11 + 3,9 + 3,7-dimethylnonacosane, in higher proportions than did worker-laid eggs. Even though the queen-laid eggs were biochemically similar to the queen, their addition to experimentally queenless groups did not prevent the development of new queens. More studies are needed on the means by which queen ant pheromones are transmitted in the colony, and how these mechanisms correlates with life history traits.

  3. Surface lipids of queen-laid eggs do not regulate queen production in a fission-performing ant.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Camille; Lenoir, Alain; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    In animal societies, most collective and individual decision making depends on the presence of reproductive individuals. The efficient transmission of information among reproductive and non-reproductive individuals is therefore a determinant of colony organization. In social insects, the presence of a queen modulates multiple colonial activities. In many species, it negatively affects worker reproduction and the development of diploid larvae into future queens. The queen mostly signals her presence through pheromone emission, but the means by which these chemicals are distributed in the colony are still unclear. In several ant species, queen-laid eggs are the vehicle of the queen signal. The aim of this study was to investigate whether queen-laid eggs of the ant Aphaenogaster senilis possess queen-specific cuticular hydrocarbons and/or Dufour or poison gland compounds, and whether the presence of eggs inhibited larval development into queens. Our results show that the queen- and worker-laid eggs shared cuticular and Dufour hydrocarbons with the adults; however, their poison gland compounds were not similar. Queen-laid eggs had more dimethylalkanes and possessed a queen-specific mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons composed of 3,11 + 3,9 + 3,7-dimethylnonacosane, in higher proportions than did worker-laid eggs. Even though the queen-laid eggs were biochemically similar to the queen, their addition to experimentally queenless groups did not prevent the development of new queens. More studies are needed on the means by which queen ant pheromones are transmitted in the colony, and how these mechanisms correlates with life history traits. PMID:23224071

  4. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  5. Queen pheromone regulates egg production in a termite.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuuka; Matsuura, Kenji

    2011-10-23

    In social insects, resource allocation is a key factor that influences colony survival and growth. Optimal allocation to queens and brood is essential for maximum colony productivity, requiring colony members to have information on the total reproductive power in colonies. However, the mechanisms regulating egg production relative to the current labour force for brood care remain poorly known. Recently, a volatile chemical was identified as a termite queen pheromone that inhibits the differentiation of new neotenic reproductives (secondary reproductives developed from nymphs or workers) in Reticulitermes speratus. The same volatile chemical is also emitted by eggs. This queen pheromone would therefore be expected to act as an honest message of the reproductive power about queens. In this study, we examined how the queen pheromone influences the reproductive rate of queens in R. speratus. We compared the number of eggs produced by each queen between groups with and without exposure to artificial queen pheromone. Exposure to the pheromone resulted in a significant decrease in egg production in both single-queen and multiple-queen groups. This is the first report supporting the role of queen pheromones as a signal regulating colony-level egg production, using synthetically derived compounds in a termite. PMID:21543395

  6. Assessing the mating 'health' of commercial honey bee queens.

    PubMed

    Tarpy, David R; Keller, Jennifer J; Caren, Joel R; Delaney, Deborah A

    2012-02-01

    Honey bee queens mate with multiple males, which increases the total genetic diversity within colonies and has been shown to confer numerous benefits for colony health and productivity. Recent surveys of beekeepers have suggested that 'poor queens' are a top management concern, thus investigating the reproductive quality and mating success of commercially produced honey bee queens is warranted. We purchased 80 commercially produced queens from large queen breeders in California and measured them for their physical size (fresh weigh and thorax width), insemination success (stored sperm counts and sperm viability), and mating number (determined by patriline genotyping of worker offspring). We found that queens had an average of 4.37 +/- 1.446 million stored sperm in their spermathecae with an average viability of 83.7 +/- 13.33%. We also found that the tested queens had mated with a high number of drones (average effective paternity frequency: 17.0 +/- 8.98). Queen "quality" significantly varied among commercial sources for physical characters but not for mating characters. These findings suggest that it may be more effective to improve overall queen reproductive potential by culling lower-quality queens rather than systematically altering current queen production practices. PMID:22420250

  7. Cliftonite: A proposed origin, and its bearing on the origin of diamonds in meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Higgins, G.T.

    1969-01-01

    Cliftonite, a polycrystalline aggregate of graphite with spherulitic structure and cubic morphology, is known in 14 meteorites. Some workers have considered it to be a pseudomorph after diamond, and have used the proposed diamond ancestry as evidence of a meteoritic parent body of at least lunar dimensions. Careful examination of meteoritic samples indicates that cliftonite forms by precipitation within kamacite. We have also demonstrated that graphite with cubic morphology may be synthesized in a Fe-Ni-C alloy annealed in a vacuum. We therefore suggest that a high pressure origin is unnecessary for meteorities which contain cliftonite, and that these meteorities were formed at low pressures. This conclusion is in agreement with other recent evidence. We also suggest that recently discovered cubes and cubo-octahedra of lonsdaleite in the Canyon Diablo meteorite are pseudomorphs after cliftonite, not diamond, as has previously been suggested. ?? 1969.

  8. Hydrocarbon components in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Y. V.

    2003-05-01

    Currently, the presence of free n-alkanes and isoprenoid alkanes in carbonaceous meteorites is usually explained either by microbial contamination during the period between the meteorite fall and collection or by contamination from the environment of analytical laboratories and museums. The goal of this research was to repeat analysis of hydrocarbon components in meteorites and to investigate possible meteorite contamination routes discussed in the literature. Experimental analysis of free organic constituents in five carbonaceous meteorites by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and gas chromatographic (GC) methods confirmed the presence of extractable aliphatic components, n-alkanes in the C 15H 32-C 27H 56 range and isoprenoid alkanes (phytane, pristane, and norpristane), in some of these meteorites. The contents of these compounds vary depending on the source. Insoluble organic components of two meteorites (meteorite kerogens) were isolated, and their composition was analyzed by IR and cracking/GC methods. Comparison with the data on several terrestrial contamination sources proposed in the literature shows that the presence of free saturated hydrocarbons in meteorites and the composition of the meteorite kerogen could not be explained either by microbial contamination or by contamination from the laboratory environment. The types of the hydrocarbons in meteorites resemble those typical of ancient terrestrial deposits of organic-rich sediments, except for the absence of lighter hydrocarbons, which apparently slowly evaporated in space, and multi-ring naphthenic compounds of the biologic origin, steranes, terpanes, etc. The prevailing current explanation for the presence of free linear saturated hydrocarbons in carbonaceous meteorites, apart from contamination, is the abiotic route from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. However, the data on the structure of meteorite kerogens require a search for different routes that initially produce complex polymeric structures containing

  9. Cosmic-ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.

    2003-12-01

    hundreds of meteorites had been estimated from noble gas measurements. Histograms of the CRE age distributions pointed to several important observations.(i) The CRE ages of meteorites increase in the order stones meteorites available for analyses has increased greatly, by a factor of ˜10, thanks to abundant finds in the Antarctic, northern Africa/Arabia, and Australia. With increased sampling, the statistical properties of CRE age distributions have become more convincing. Further, the worlds collection of meteorites collection has become more diverse. In this respect, the lunar and the martian meteorites take pride of place but leave ample room for R, CH, and CB chondrites, new angrites, and other unusual specimens. At the same time, better

  10. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  11. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens.

    PubMed

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina; den Boer, Susanne P A

    2016-05-01

    The queens of eusocial ants, bees, and wasps only mate during a very brief period early in life to acquire and store a lifetime supply of sperm. As sperm cannot be replenished, queens have to be highly economic when using stored sperm to fertilize eggs, especially in species with large and long-lived colonies. However, queen fertility has not been studied in detail, so that we have little understanding of how economic sperm use is in different species, and whether queens are able to influence their sperm use. This is surprising given that sperm use is a key factor of eusocial life, as it determines the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found that queens are remarkably efficient and only use a median of 2 sperm per egg fertilization, with decreasing sperm use in older queens. The number of sperm in storage was always a significant predictor for the number of sperm used per fertilization, indicating that queens use a constant ratio of spermathecal fluid relative to total spermathecal volume of 2.364 × 10(-6) to fertilize eggs. This allowed us to calculate a lifetime fecundity for honeybee queens of around 1,500,000 fertilized eggs. Our data provide the first empirical evidence that honeybee queens do not manipulate sperm use, and fertilization failures in worker-destined eggs are therefore honest signals that workers can use to time queen replacement, which is crucial for colony performance and fitness. PMID:27217944

  12. Lunar anorthosites.

    PubMed

    Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

    1970-01-30

    Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context. PMID:17781512

  13. Recent documented meteorite falls, a review of meteorite - asteroid links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.

    2014-07-01

    Since the previous Meteoroids 2010 meeting, 25 confirmed meteorite falls have been reported, and one additional meteorite was linked tentatively to an observed fireball. All but two of those are classified as ordinary chondrites. Sutter's Mill is a rare carbonaceous chondrite, while Martian meteorite Tissint is a Shergotite. For 18 of these falls the associated fireball was observed, but only four provided a pre-atmospheric orbit derived from video and photographic records. Results were published for Sutter's Mill, Novato, and Chelyabinsk, providing insight into the asteroid belt source regions for CM2, L and LL type chondrites, respectively. Proposed meteorite-asteroid links are discussed.

  14. Proceedings of the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Sessions with oral presentations include: A SPECIAL SESSION: MESSENGER at Mercury, Mars: Pingos, Polygons, and Other Puzzles, Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Mars: Ice On the Ground and In the Ground, SPECIAL SESSION: Results from Kaguya (SELENE) Mission to the Moon, Outer Planet Satellites: Not Titan, Not Enceladus, SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Science: Past, Present, and Future, Mars: North Pole, South Pole - Structure and Evolution, Refractory Inclusions, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observations, Mars Sedimentary Processes from Victoria Crater to the Columbia Hills, Formation and Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites, New Achondrite GRA 06128/GRA 06129 - Origins Unknown, The Science Behind Lunar Missions, Mars Volcanics and Tectonics, From Dust to Planets (Planetary Formation and Planetesimals):When, Where, and Kaboom! Astrobiology: Biosignatures, Impacts, Habitability, Excavating a Comet, Mars Interior Dynamics to Exterior Impacts, Achondrites, Lunar Remote Sensing, Mars Aeolian Processes and Gully Formation Mechanisms, Solar Nebula Shake and Bake: Mixing and Isotopes, Lunar Geophysics, Meteorites from Mars: Shergottite and Nakhlite Invasion, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Lunar Samples: Chronology, Geochemistry, and Petrology, Enceladus, Venus: Resurfacing and Topography (with Pancakes!), Overview of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission, Mars Sulfates, Phyllosilicates, and Their Aqueous Sources, Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites, Impact Calibration and Effects, Comparative Planetology, Analogs: Environments and Materials, Mars: The Orbital View of Sediments and Aqueous Mineralogy, Planetary Differentiation, Titan, Presolar Grains: Still More Isotopes Out of This World, Poster sessions include: Education and Public Outreach Programs, Early Solar System and Planet Formation, Solar Wind and Genesis, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Carbonaceous

  15. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  16. Hexagonal diamonds in meteorites: implications.

    PubMed

    Hanneman, R E; Strong, H M; Bundy, F P

    1967-02-24

    A new polymorph of carbon, hexagonal diamond, has been discovered in the Canyon Diablo and Goalpara meteorites. This phase had been synthesized recently under specific high-pressure conditions in the laboratory. Our results: provide strong evidence that diamonds found in these meteorites were produced by intense shock pressures acting on crystalline graphite inclusions present within the meteorite before impact, rather than by disintegration of larger, statically grown diamonds, as some theories propose. PMID:17830485

  17. Fluid inclusions in stony meteorites--a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, R L; Ashwal, L D; Henry, D J; Gibson, E K; Roedder, E; Belkin, H E; Colucci, M T

    1985-02-15

    Newly discovered fluid inclusions in thin sections of Bjurbole chondrules, shergottite EETA79001, lunar meteorite ALHA81005, and Apollo 16 glasses possess physical properties similar to those fluid inclusions found in thin sections of five stony meteorites recently described by Warner et al. (1983). The distribution and physical properties of these new fluid inclusions indicate they may be artifacts of thin section preparation; we suggest that saw coolant was sucked into vacuum vesicles in glasses and minerals through submicroscopic fractures produced during sawing. The similarities between these fluid inclusions and fluid inclusions previously described by Warner et al. (1983) lead us to conclude that many of the fluid inclusions reported earlier may be artifacts. Consequently, the origin of any fluid inclusions observed in thin sections of extraterrestrial materials must be interpreted with caution. The most probable true extraterrestrial fluid inclusions are those that have been observed in grains prepared without exposure to liquids of any kind. PMID:11542002

  18. Antarctic Meteorite Classification and Petrographic Database Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, N. S.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Righter, K.

    2012-03-01

    Describes the Antarctic Meteorite Classification Database and the latest enhancements made to the data acquisition process used to provide updated meteorite data concurrent with the publication of the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter twice a year.

  19. Lunar oasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Niehoff, John

    1989-01-01

    The 'lunar oasis' emphasizes development toward self-sufficiency in order to reduce dependence on the earth for resupply, and to enable expansion utilizing indigeneous resources. The oasis phase includes: (1) habitation and work facilities for 10 people, (2) capability for extraction of volatile consumables (H2O, O2, N2, etc.) from indigenous resources for resupply of losses and filling of reservoirs, and (3) a highly closed life support system, including food production. In the consolidation phase, the base grows from 10 to 30 crewmembers. Lunar resources are used for expanding the lunar foothold, including construction of habitats, extraction of metals for the fabrication of products for maintenance and repair, and expansion of the power system. The strategy does not produce propellants for space transportation. A 10-year scenario is laid out, which contains all elements needed to allow the base to enter a self-expanding utilization phase. Three lunar missions yer year, two cargo missions and one crew flight, are required. At the end of a decade, the base is producing more than it requires for its continued support, although it is unlikely to be completely self-sufficient.

  20. Lunar philosophers.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2007-03-01

    A close associate of the Lunar Society, Joseph Wright of Derby painted several industrial and scientific scenes. This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) shows how two of his works - featuring an orrery and an alchemist - reveal the ideas and aspirations of the provincial philosophers who made up the Society. PMID:17336378

  1. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  2. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Hammond, D. K.; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to returning to the moon, understanding the effects of lunar dust on both human physiology and mechanical equipment is a pressing concern, as problems related to lunar dust during the Apollo missions have been well documented (J.R. Gaier, The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions. 2005, NASA-Glenn Research Center. p. 65). While efforts were made to remove the dust before reentering the lunar module, via brushing of the suits or vacuuming, a significant amount of dust was returned to the spacecraft, causing various problems. For instance, astronaut Harrison Schmitt complained of hay fever effects caused by the dust, and the abrasive nature of the material was found to cause problems with various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. It is clear that, in order to avoid potential health and performance problems while on the lunar surface, the reactive properties of lunar dust must be quenched. It is likely that soil on the lunar surface is in an activated form, i.e. capable of producing oxygen-based radicals in a humidified air environment, due to constant exposure to meteorite impacts, UV radiation, and elements of the solar wind. An activated silica surface serves as a good example. An oxygen-based radical species arises from the breaking of Si-OSi bonds. This system is comparable to that expected for the lunar dust system due to the large amounts of agglutinic glass and silicate vapor deposits present in lunar soil. Unfortunately, exposure to the Earth s atmosphere has passivated the active species on lunar dust, leading to efforts to reactivate the dust in order to understand the true effects that will be experienced by astronauts and equipment on the moon. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is commonly used for the study of radical species, and has been used previously to study silicon- and oxygen-based radicals, as well as the hydroxyl radicals produced by these species in solution (V. Vallyathan, et al., Am. Rev

  3. Colony strength and queen replacement in Melipona marginata (Apidae: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Kleinert, A de M P

    2005-08-01

    Physogastric queens of Melipona marginata were removed from their colonies in order to verify the acceptance of a new queen by workers. Colony strength was evaluated according to queen oviposition rate and comb diameters. Replacement was observed seven times. Its occurrence and speed related positively to colony strength, independently of queen's age. In weak colonies, queen replacement was observed only once, following colony population increase that occurred after introduction of combs from another colony. Worker oviposition after queen removal was observed three times: in a strong colony with virgin queens and males, and in two of the weak colonies. In the first two or three days of new queen oviposition, during which most of the eggs were eaten by the queen, worker oviposition preceded almost all provisioning and oviposition processes (POPs). After this period, worker oviposition decreased until it reached around 25% of the POPs. Daily oviposition rate of young queens decreased or was even interrupted by hatching of their first brood. PMID:16341425

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18th, Houston, TX, Mar. 16-20, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, including petrogenesis and chemistry of lunar samples, geology and petrogenesis of the Apollo 15 landing site, lunar geology and applications, cratering records and cratering effects, differentiated meteorites, chondritic meteorites and asteroids, extraterrestrial grains, Venus, Mars, and icy satellites. The importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium basalt petrogenesis, indentifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments, glasses in ancient and young Apollo 16 regolith breccias, the formation of the Imbrium basin, the chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, lunar mare ridges, studies of Rima Mozart, electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction, detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record, and a search for water on the moon, are among the topics discussed. Other topics include the bidirectional reflectance properties of Fe-Ni meteorites, the nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts, the dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, characteristics of Greenland Fe/Ni cosmic grains, electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle, trapping Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in Si2O3 smokes, gossans on Mars, and a model of the porous structure of icy satellites.

  5. Detection of Impact Ejecta on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanwei; Srama, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    One of the highest-priority issues for a future human or robotic lunar exploration is the lunar dust. This problem should be studied in depth in order to develop an environment model for a future lunar exploration. The impact ejecta of interplanetary meteoroids is one of the source mechanics of the lunar dust environment. A dust detector placed on the lunar surface is exposed to strong variations in the impact ejecta environment. The purpose of this article is a study of the speed and trajectory information of ejecta created by micrometeoroid impacts. Autodyn14.0/2D software was used to simulate the impacting by micrometeoroids bombarding the lunar surface. The projectiles were selected as 10 μm spheres in diameter with the speed of 17 km-s-1. We used impact angles of 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°. A part of impact ejecta grains created in the early stage of impact process can be captured by a sensor placed on the lunar surface (e.g. Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment) or mounted on a lunar lander (e.g. Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX)). Most of the detectable ejecta grains have very-low-speeds (< 100 m-s-1) together with a few of high-speed ejecta grains (> 1 km-s-1). Comparing with the most recently analysis of LEAM data, the impact ejecta grains are considered as one of the most possible sources for the recorded events. Furthermore, a sensor mounted on a lander instead of directly placed on the lunar surface has more chances to measure high-speed ejecta. A new developed instrument, such as LDX, will be a powerful tool to study the lunar dust environment.

  6. Synthesis of Seifertite and its Applications to Shocked Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, M. E.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Asahara, Y.; Saxena, S.

    2013-12-01

    Seifertite is a high pressure polymorph of silica and a post-stishovite phase. The stable phase is observed at very high pressures around the core-mantle boundary, generally above 100 GPa. Despite this, the mineral is increasingly found in shocked meteorites, both Martian (1) (Sharp et al., 1999), and lunar (2) (Miyahara et al., 2013). It appears, then, that the occurrence of seifertite may indicate intensive shock events on Mars and the Moon. In direct contrast to this, recent high pressure studies have shown metastable formation of seifertite from cristobalite, a high-temperature and low-pressure polymorph of silica, at high pressures of only 30 GPa (3) (Dubrovinski et al., 2001) or less (4) (Kubo et al., 2012). Thus, the formation conditions of seifertite in meteorites are not well catalogued. Knowing this, experiments on the reaction kinetics of formation of seifertite from cristobalite are investigated. Synthesis experiments at 20 GPa and 600 C and 900 C were carried out for various heating duration using the Kawai type mutianvil apparatus. Formation of seifertite from cristobalite was observed, and seifertite was quenchable and recovered to ambient conditions. Present results suggest that the existence of seifertite does not indicate an intensive shock pressure above 100 GPa. Rather, it is as low as 20 GPa around 600 C. We intend to report a more detailed study on reaction kinetics of seifertite from cristobalite at high pressures and temperatures, and will discuss new constraints on the impact conditions of some Martian and lunar meteorites from which seifertite was reported. (1) Sharp, T. G. et al. A Post-Stishovite SiO2 Polymorph in the Meteorite Shergotty: Implications for Impact Events, Science, 284, 1511 (1999) (2) Miyahara, M. et al. Discovery of Seifertite in a Shocked Lunar Meteorite, Nat Commun, 4, 1737 (2013) (3) Dubrovinsky, L. S. et al. Pressure-induced Transformations of Cristobalite, Chem Phys Lett, 333, 264 (2001) (4) Kubo, T. et al. Formation

  7. Oral histories in meteoritics and planetary science—XVI: Donald D. Bogard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2012-03-01

    Donald D. Bogard (Don, Fig. 1) became interested in meteorites after seeing the Fayetteville meteorite in an undergraduate astronomy class at the University of Arkansas. During his graduate studies with Paul Kuroda at Arkansas, Don helped discover the Xe decay products of 244Pu. After a postdoctoral period at Caltech, where he learned much from Jerry Wasserburg, Peter Eberhardt, Don Burnett, and Sam Epstein, Don became one of a number of young Ph.D. scientists hired by NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center to set up the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) and to perform a preliminary examination of Apollo samples. In collaboration with Oliver Schaeffer (SUNY), Joseph Zähringer (Max Planck, Heidelberg), and Raymond Davis (Brookhaven National Laboratory), he built a gas analysis laboratory at JSC, and the noble gas portion of this laboratory remained operational until he retired in 2010. At NASA, Don worked on the lunar regolith, performed pioneering work on cosmic ray produced noble gas isotopes and Ar-Ar dating, the latter for important insights into the thermal and shock history of meteorites and lunar samples. During this work, he discovered that the trapped gases in SNC meteorites were very similar to those of the Martian atmosphere and thus established their Martian origin. Among Don's many administrative accomplishments are helping to establish the Antarctic meteorite and cosmic dust processing programs at JSC and serving as a NASA-HQ discipline scientist, where he advanced peer review and helped create new programs. Don is a recipient of NASA's Scientific Achievement and Exceptional Service Medals and the Meteoritical Society's Leonard Medal.

  8. Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2013-01-01

    New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Nevertheless, crystallization of a global-scale magma ocean remains the best model to account for known lunar lithologies. Crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO) is modeled to proceed by two end-member processes - fractional crystallization from (mostly) the bottom up, or initial equilibrium crystallization as the magma is vigorously convecting and crystals remain entrained, followed by crystal settling and a final period of fractional crystallization [1]. Physical models of magma viscosity and convection at this scale suggest that both processes are possible. We have been carrying out high-fidelity experimental simulations of LMO crystallization using two bulk compositions that can be regarded as end-members in the likely relevant range: Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [2] and Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [3]. TWM is enriched in refractory elements by 1.5 times relative to Earth, whereas LPUM is similar to the terrestrial primitive upper mantle, with adjustments made for the depletion of volatile alkalis observed on the Moon. Here we extend our earlier equilibrium-crystallization experiments [4] with runs simulating full fractional crystallization

  9. Apollo 17 Astronaut Cernan Adjusts U.S. Flag on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan adjusts the U.S. flag deployed upon the Moon. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center developed LRV. The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  10. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Automation Recognition oF Crater-Like Structures in Terrestrial and Plantary Images; Condensation from Cluster-IDP Enriched Vapor Inside the Snow Line: Implications for Mercury, Asteroids, and Enstatite Chondrites; Tomographic Location of Potential Melt-Bearing Phenocrysts in Lunar Glass Spherules; Source and Evolution of Vapor Due to Impacts into Layered Carbonates and Silicates; Noble Gases and I-Xe Ages of the Zag Meteorite; The MArs Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) for the 209 Mars Science Laboratory; The Sedimentary Rocks of Meridiani Planum, in Context; Three-System Isotopic of Lunar Norite 78238: Rb-Sr Results; Constraints on the Role of Curium-247 as a Source of Fission Xenon in the Early Solar System; New Features in the ADS Abstract Service; Cassini RADAR's First Look at Titan; Volcanism and Volatile Recycling on Venus from Lithospheric Delamination; The Fate of Water in the Martian Magma Ocean and the Formation of an Early Atmosphere; Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer Water-Equivalent Hydrogen: Comparison with Glacial; Landforms on Tharsis; Using Models of Permanent Shadow to Constrain Lunar Polar Water Ice Abundances; Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method; Petrological and Geochemical Consideration on the Tuserkanite Meteorite; and Mineralogy of Asteroids from Observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  12. Chondrule-like particles provide evidence of early Archean meteorite impacts, South Africa and western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of the Earth and the Earth crust was studied. Two layers, that contain abundant unusual spherical particles which closely resemble chondroules were identified. Chondrules occur on small quantities in lunar soil, however, they are rare in terrestrial settings. Some chondrules in meteorites were formed on the surfaces of planet sized bodies during impact events. Similar chondrule like objects are extremely rare in the younger geologic record and these abundances are unknown in ancient deposits, except in meteorites. It is suggested that a part of the Earth's terminal bombardment history, and conditions favoring chondrule formation existed on the early Earth.

  13. The lunar magma ocean - A transient lunar phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minear, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The time required for the solidification of a lunar magma ocean is considered. In the absence of a thermal boundary crust, heat loss is by radiation and the ocean will solidify in a few decades. However, only a few millimeters of crust would effectively limit radiation. The current investigation has the objective to present estimates of conduction boundary (crust) thickness based on several models of the mechanism of crustal formation. Three different models for estimating conduction boundary layer thickness are discussed. They are based on the formation of a chill margin, a plagioclase flotation layer, and a layer which is continually destroyed by meteorite impacts and regrows by conductive heat loss. Based on these models, the maximum solidification time for a 200 km thick ocean is about 100 million years. A more probable solidification time based on a plagioclase flotation crust model is about 60 million years.

  14. Studies related to the evolution of the lunar soil materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Studies of the chemistry and morphology of the lunar samples are reported. The presence of fragments of plagoclase in the centers of the impact craters indicate that the glass spheres were derived by meteoritic impact from high velocity particles, while the glass was at high temperatures. From the study of the Apollo 16 samples, it is suggested that this material was formed in a hot impact ejecta blanket, or in an igneous environment, and later exposed to meteoritic impact. It is suggested that particles from Apollo 17 were formed in a cloud of siliceous vapors.

  15. Characterization of the Tishomingo meteorite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, K. F.; Kenik, E. A.; Miller, M. K.

    1991-04-01

    A preliminary microstructural characterization of the Tishomingo meteorite has been performed with the combined techniques of atom probe field ion microscopy, analytical electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and nanoindentation. Eighty percent of this meteorite appears to have undergone a martensite transformation; the remaining 20% being taenite (γ).

  16. The SNC Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    The SNC (Shergotty-Nakhla-Chassigny) group, are achondritic meteorites. Of all SNC meteorites recognized up to date, shergottites are the most abundant group. The petrographic study of Shergotty began several years ago when Tschermak, (1872) identified this rock as an extraterrestrial basalt. Oxygen isotopes in SNC meteorites indicate that these rocks are from a single planetary body (Clayton and Mayeda, 1983). Because the abundance patterns of rare gases trapped in glasses from shock melts (e.g., Pepin, 1985) turned out to be very similar to the Martian atmosphere (as analyzed by the Viking landers, Owen, 1976), the SNC meteorites are believed to originate from Mars (e.g. McSween, 1994). Possibly, they were ejected from the Martian surface either in a giant impact or in several impact events (Meyer 2006). Although there is a broad consensus for nakhlites and chassignites being -1.3Ga old, the age of the shergottites is a matter of ongoing debates. Different lines of evidences indicate that these rocks are young (180Ma and 330-475Ma), or very old (> 4Ga). However, the young age in shergottites could be the result of a resetting of these chronometers by either strong impacts or fluid percolation on these rocks (Bouvier et al., 2005-2009). Thus, it is important to check the presence of secondary processes, such as re-equilibration or pressure-induce metamorphism (El Goresy et al., 2013) that can produce major changes in compositions and obscure the primary information. A useful tool, that is used to reconstruct the condition prevailing during the formation of early phases or the secondary processes to which the rock was exposed, is the study of glass-bearing inclusions hosted by different mineral phases. I will discuss the identification of extreme compositional variations in many of these inclusions (Varela et al. 2007-2013) that constrain the assumption that these objects are the result of closed-system crystallization. The question then arises whether these

  17. Meteorite regolithic breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Rajan, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to endogenic processes such as heating and aqueous activity, meteorite parent bodies were subjected also to exogenic processing brought about by the impact of the other solar-system objects. Such impacts can produce a variety of effects, ranging from shock metamorphism of individual mineral grains to production of breccias; i.e., rocks consisting of mixtures of disparate lithic units. The present paper reviews recent studies of such breccias, which have generated significant information about the accretional growth of parent bodies, as well as their evolution, composition, stratigraphy, and geological processing.

  18. Stardust in meteorites.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew M

    2011-11-29

    Primitive meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, and comets contain dust grains that formed around stars that lived their lives before the solar system formed. These remarkable objects have been intensively studied since their discovery a little over twenty years ago and they provide samples of other stars that can be studied in the laboratory in exquisite detail with modern analytical tools. The properties of stardust grains are used to constrain models of nucleosynthesis in red giant stars and supernovae, the dominant sources of dust grains that are recycled into the interstellar medium by stars. PMID:22106261

  19. Stardust in meteorites

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Primitive meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, and comets contain dust grains that formed around stars that lived their lives before the solar system formed. These remarkable objects have been intensively studied since their discovery a little over twenty years ago and they provide samples of other stars that can be studied in the laboratory in exquisite detail with modern analytical tools. The properties of stardust grains are used to constrain models of nucleosynthesis in red giant stars and supernovae, the dominant sources of dust grains that are recycled into the interstellar medium by stars. PMID:22106261

  20. Comets, meteorites and atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Bar-Nun, A.

    1996-01-01

    The relatively low value of Xe/Kr in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars seems to rule out meteorites as the major carriers of noble gases to the inner planets. Laboratory experiments on the trapping of gases in ice forming at low temperatures suggest that comets may be a better choice. It is then possible to develop a model for the origin of inner planet atmospheres based on volatiles delivered by comets added to volatiles originally trapped in planetary rocks. The model will be tested by results from the Galileo Entry Probe.

  1. Meteorites for K-12 Classrooms: NASA Meteorite Educational Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, M.; Allen, J.

    1995-09-01

    The fall of a new meteorite is an event that catches the interest of the public in matters of science. The threat of a huge impact like last year's comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 gives us all reason to evaluate such potential risks. NASA's meteorite educational materials use our natural interest in rocks from space to present classroom activities on planetary science. The meteorite educational package includes a meteorite sample disk, a teachers's guide and a slide set. The sample disk is a lucite disk containing chips of six different kinds of meteorites (3 chondrites, achondrite, iron, stony-iron). EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERIES is a teacher's guide with background information and 19 hands-on or heads-on activities for grades 4-12. It was prepared in a partnership of planetary scientists and teachers. The slide set consists of 48 slides with captions to be used with the activities. The materials will be available in Fall 1995. Teachers may obtain a loan of the whole package from NASA Teacher Resource Centers; researchers may borrow them from the JSC meteorite curator. The booklet is available separately from the same sources, and the slide set will be available from NASA CORE. EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERIES is an interdisciplinary planetary science unit which teaches basic science concepts and techniques together with math, reading, writing and social studies The activities are done in a variety of different teaching styles which emphasize observation, experimentation and critical thinking. The activities are ideal for middle schools where teaming makes interdisciplinary units desireable, but most of the activities can be easily modified for grade levels from upper elementary through high school. Meteorites are a natural subject for interdisciplinary teaching because their study involves all fields of science and offers fascinating historical accounts and possibilities for creative expression. Topics covered in EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERES are centered around basic

  2. Matricide and queen sex allocation in a yellowjacket wasp.

    PubMed

    Loope, Kevin J

    2016-08-01

    In many colonies of social insects, the workers compete with each other and with the queen over the production of the colony's males. In some species of social bees and wasps with annual societies, this intra-colony conflict even results in matricide-the killing of the colony's irreplaceable queen by a daughter worker. In colonies with low effective paternity and high worker-worker relatedness, workers value worker-laid males more than queen-laid males, and thus may benefit from queen killing. Workers gain by eliminating the queen because she is a competing source of male eggs and actively inhibits worker reproduction through policing. However, matricide may be costly to workers if it reduces the production of valuable new queens and workers. Here, I test a theoretical prediction regarding the timing of matricide in a wasp, Dolichovespula arenaria, recently shown to have facultative matricide based on intra-colony relatedness. Using analyses of collected, mature colonies and a surgical manipulation preventing queens from laying female eggs, I show that workers do not preferentially kill queens who are only producing male eggs. Instead, workers sometimes kill queens laying valuable females, suggesting a high cost of matricide. Although matricide is common and typically occurs only in low-paternity colonies, it seems that workers sometimes pay substantial costs in this expression of conflict over male parentage. PMID:27350328

  3. Matricide and queen sex allocation in a yellowjacket wasp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loope, Kevin J.

    2016-08-01

    In many colonies of social insects, the workers compete with each other and with the queen over the production of the colony's males. In some species of social bees and wasps with annual societies, this intra-colony conflict even results in matricide—the killing of the colony's irreplaceable queen by a daughter worker. In colonies with low effective paternity and high worker-worker relatedness, workers value worker-laid males more than queen-laid males, and thus may benefit from queen killing. Workers gain by eliminating the queen because she is a competing source of male eggs and actively inhibits worker reproduction through policing. However, matricide may be costly to workers if it reduces the production of valuable new queens and workers. Here, I test a theoretical prediction regarding the timing of matricide in a wasp, Dolichovespula arenaria, recently shown to have facultative matricide based on intra-colony relatedness. Using analyses of collected, mature colonies and a surgical manipulation preventing queens from laying female eggs, I show that workers do not preferentially kill queens who are only producing male eggs. Instead, workers sometimes kill queens laying valuable females, suggesting a high cost of matricide. Although matricide is common and typically occurs only in low-paternity colonies, it seems that workers sometimes pay substantial costs in this expression of conflict over male parentage.

  4. Future directions in meteorite research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Kerridge, John F.

    1988-01-01

    Information presently available on meteorite composition and history and the areas in meteorite research that should be covered in future in order to shed additional light on the earliest history of the solar system are discussed. Attention is given to the work needed in the classification schemes for chondrites, the question of the identification of parent bodies of the major meteorite and chondrite types, the igneous differentiation of certain asteroids, the effects of irradiation, the solar-system chronology, and issues concerning the early solar system. Other important areas discussed include the elemental composition of chondrites, the magnetic properties of meteorites, the composition and the petrology of chondrules, the properties of primitive material surviving in chondrites, the micrometeorites, the nebula, the presolar material in meteorites, the nucleosynthesis, and the nucleocosmochronology.

  5. Mars Life? - Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This 4.5 billion-year-old rock, labeled meteorite ALH84001, is believed to have once been a part of Mars and to contain fossil evidence that primitive life may have existed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago. The rock is a portion of a meteorite that was dislodged from Mars by a huge impact about 16 million years ago and that fell to Earth in Antarctica 13,000 years ago. The meteorite was found in Allan Hills ice field, Antarctica, by an annual expedition of the National Science Foundation's Antarctic Meteorite Program in 1984. It is preserved for study at the Johnson Space Center's Meteorite Processing Laboratory in Houston.

  6. Lunar Mare Basalts as Analogues for Martian Volcanic Compositions: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The lunar mare basalts potentially provide a unique sample suite for understanding the nature of basalts on the martian surface. Our current knowledge of the mineralogical and chemical composition of the basaltic material on Mars comes from studies of the basaltic martian meteorites and from orbital and surface remote sensing observations. Petrographic observations of basaltic martian meteorites (e.g., Shergotty, Zagami, and EETA79001) show that the dominant phases are pyroxene (primarily pigeonite and augite), maskelynite (a diaplectic glass formed from plagioclase by shock), and olivine [1,2]. Pigeonite, a low calcium pyroxene, is generally not found in abundance in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon [3]. Lunar samples thus provide a means to examine a variety of pigeonite-rich basalts that also have bulk elemental compositions (particularly low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts) that are comparable to basaltic SNC meteorites [4,5]. Furthermore, lunar basalts may be mineralogically better suited as analogues of the martian surface basalts than the basaltic martian meteorites because the plagioclase feldspar in the basaltic Martian meteorites, but not in the lunar surface basalts, is largely present as maskelynite [1,2]. Analysis of lunar mare basalts my also lead to additional endmember spectra for spectral libraries. This is particularly important analysis of martian thermal emission spectra, because the spectral library apparently contains a single pigeonite spectrum derived from a synthetic sample [6].

  7. The Mbale meteorite shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Betlem, Hans; Betlem, Jan; Barifaijo, Erasmus; Schluter, Thomas; Hampton, Craig; Laubenstien, Matthias; Kunz, Joachim; Heusser, Gerd

    1994-01-01

    On 1992 August 14 at 12:40 UTC, an ordinary chondrite of type L5/6 entered the atmosphere over Mbale, Uganda, broke up, and caused a strewn field of size 3 x 7 km. Shortly after the fall, an expedition gathered eye witness accounts and located the position of 48 impacts of masses between 0.19 and 27.4 kg. Short-lived radionuclide data were measured for two specimens, one of which was only 12 days after the fall. Subsequent recoveries of fragements has resulted in a total of 863 mass estimates by 1993 October. The surfaces of all fragments contain fusion crust. The meteorite shower caused some minor inconveniences. Most remarkably, a young boy was hit on the head by a small specimen. The data interpreted as to indicate that the meteorite had an initial mass between 400-1000 kg (most likely approximately 1000 kg) and approached Mbale from AZ = 185 +/- 15, H = 55 +/- 15, and V(sub infinity) = 13.5 +/- 1.5/s. Orbital elements are given. Fragmentation of the initial mass started probably above 25 km altitude, but the final catastrophic breakup occurred at an altitude of 10-14 km. An estimated 190 +/- 40 kg reached the Earth's surface minutes after the final breakup of which 150 kg of material has been recovered.

  8. The Kosice meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, J.; Svoren, J.

    2012-01-01

    The glare of the bolide on the night of February 28, 2010, illuminated streets and interiors of apartments at some location in eastern Slovakia and northern Hungary. In addition, cannon-like bursts or series of low frequency blasts were heard. Due to bad weather, cloudy skies, and scattered showers, the Central European Fireball Network (operated by Dr. Pavel Spurny of the Czech Academy of Sciences) did not take direct optical records of the bolide and the Slovak Video Meteor Network (operated by the first author) was not operational that night. So, at first sight, it seemed that there were no scientific records of this event. Fortunately, fast photoelectric sensors on seven automated fireball stations in the Czech Republic (6) and Austria (1) detected the illumination of the sky caused by the bolide, which made it possible to determine exact time and duration of the bolide and estimate its brightness. The bolide reached its maximum brightness of at least magnitude -18 in one huge flare. Later on, several surveillance camera data were published showing the moment when the night turned into day for a second, but only two videos from Hungary (Orkeny village, Fazzi Daniella and Vass Gabor; Telki village, contact persons Sarneczky Krisztian, and Kiss Laszlo) actually captured the fireball itself. Thanks to calibration of videos by several members of the Hungarian Astronomical Association (MCSE, http://www.mcse.hu) contributing (in particular, Antal Igaz) and a trajectory analysis by Dr. Jiri Borovicka of the Czech Academy of Sciences gave the hope that significant numbers of meteorite fragments reached the surface. He also calculated the impact area, near the town of Kosice in eastern Slovakia. The data from the Local Seismic Network of Eastern Slovakia (project led by Professor Moczo of Comenius University) confirmed the atmospheric trajectory as well. The expedition consisting of scientists and graduate students of the Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of

  9. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, Volume 28, Number 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin (Editor); Satterwhite, Cecilia (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    This newsletter contains classifications for 274 new meteorites from the 2003 and 2004 ANtarctic Search for METeorites (ANSMET) collections. They include samples from the Cumulus Hills, Larkman Nunatak, LaPaz Ice Field, MacAlpine Hills, Dominion Range, Miller Range, Roberts Massif, and Sandford Cliffs. Tables are provided of the newly classified Antarctic meteorites, meteorites classified by type, and tentative pairings petrographic descriptions.

  10. The discovery of stardust in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larimer, J. W.

    1989-02-01

    The search for and discovery of material which predates the origin of the solar system in meteorites is discussed. Studies of chondrite chemistry, isotopic anomalies in meteorites, and the oxygen isotopic composition of calcium aluminum inclusions are examined. The determination of the noble gas content in meteorites and the discovery of traces of SiC and diamond crystals in meteorites are considered.

  11. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments in the Laboratory Relating to Lunar Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchell, M. J.; Parnell, J.; Bowden, S. A.; Crawford, I. A.

    2010-12-01

    The results of a set of laboratory impact experiments (speeds in the range 1-5 km s-1) are reviewed. They are discussed in the context of terrestrial impact ejecta impacting the Moon and hence lunar astrobiology through using the Moon to learn about the history of life on Earth. A review of recent results indicates that survival of quite complex organic molecules can be expected in terrestrial meteorites impacting the lunar surface, but they may have undergone selective thermal processing both during ejection from the Earth and during lunar impact. Depending on the conditions of the lunar impact (speed, angle of impact etc.) the shock pressures generated can cause significant but not complete sterilisation of any microbial load on a meteorite (e.g. at a few GPa 1-0.1% of the microbial load can survive, but at 20 GPa this falls to typically 0.01-0.001%). For more sophisticated biological products such as seeds (trapped in rocks) the lunar impact speeds generate shock pressures that disrupt the seeds (experiments show this occurs at approximately 1 GPa or semi-equivalently 1 km s-1). Overall, the delivery of terrestrial material of astrobiological interest to the Moon is supported by these experiments, although its long term survival on the Moon is a separate issue not discussed here.

  12. Three mechanisms of Red Queen dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Khibnik, A. I.; Kondrashov, A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Models describing systems of coevolving populations often have asymptotically non-equilibrium dynamics (Red Queen dynamics (RQD)). We claim that if evolution is much slower than ecological changes, RQD arises due to either fast ecological processes, slow genetical processes, or to their interaction. The three corresponding generic types of RQD can be studied using singular perturbation theory and have very different properties and biological implications. We present simple examples of ecological, genetical, and ecogenetical RQD and describe how they may be recognized in natural populations. In particular, ecogenetical RQD often involve alternations of long epochs with radically different dynamics.

  13. X-ray diffraction studies of shocked lunar analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanss, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction experiments on shocked rock and mineral analogs of particular significance to lunar geology are described. Materials naturally shocked by meteorite impact, nuclear-shocked, or artificially shocked in a flat plate accelerator were utilized. Four areas were outlined for investigation: powder diffractometer studies of shocked single crystal silicate minerals (quartz, orthoclase, oligoclase, pyroxene), powder diffractometer studies of shocked polycrystalline monomineralic samples (dunite), Debye-Scherrer studies of single grains of shocked granodiorite, and powder diffractometer studies of shocked whole rock samples. Quantitative interpretation of peak shock pressures experienced by materials found in lunar or terrestrial impact structures is presented.

  14. Evidence and implications of shock metamorphism in lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Short, N M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar microbreccias and loose regolith materials contain abundant evidence of shock metamorphism related to crater-forming meteorite impacts. Diagnostic shock effects include (i) planar features in a silica phase and feldspars, and lamellae in clinopyroxene, (ii) thetomorphic feldspar glass, (iii) heterogeneous glasses of rock and mineral composition, (iv) distinctive recrystallization textures, and (v) characteristic changes in crystal structure as indicated by x-ray diffraction analysis and measurements of refractive index. The microbreccias are produced from regolith materials (ejected fromz craters) by shock lithification. Some feldsparrich fragments may represent ejecta introduced from nonlocal sources, such as the lunar highlands. PMID:17781541

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science Boosted by Citizen Science Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2013-04-01

    From efforts to help scientists remotely monitor meteorites hitting the Moon to campaigns to count craters on raw images of the asteroid Vesta, creative strategies to utilize the public's ability to collect and analyze data are being employed for a variety of lunar and planetary science projects. According to speakers at a session called "Rising to the challenge: Improving public understanding of science in the next decade," held at the 44th annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in The Woodlands, Tex., from 18 to 22 March, these citizen science projects tap into public enthusiasm about worlds beyond our own.

  16. Rock 14068 - An unusual lunar breccia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helz, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Rock 14068 is a walnut-sized clast of dark breccia from station C1 near Cone Crater. The rock's dominant component is an olivine-rich groundmass. Petrographic and chemical studies were made of polished sections of the rock. The origin of the material is discussed. It is thought possible that the melt was produced by remelting a preexisting lunar rock of the same composition. Another possibility considered is that the rock composition constitutes a mixture of several rock types of partly meteoritic origin.

  17. Oxygen Isotopes in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. N.

    2003-12-01

    Oxygen isotope abundance variations in meteorites are very useful in elucidating chemical and physical processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system (Clayton, 1993). On Earth, the mean abundances of the three stable isotopes are 16O: 99.76%, 17O: 0.039%, and 18O: 0.202%. It is conventional to express variations in abundances of the isotopes in terms of isotopic ratios, relative to an arbitrary standard, called SMOW (for standard mean ocean water), as follows:The isotopic composition of any sample can then be represented by one point on a "three-isotope plot," a graph of δ17O versus δ18O. It will be seen that such plots are invaluable in interpreting meteoritic data. Figure 1 shows schematically the effect of various processes on an initial composition at the center of the diagram. Almost all terrestrial materials lie along a "fractionation" trend; most meteoritic materials lie near a line of "16O addition" (or subtraction). (4K)Figure 1. Schematic representation of various isotopic processes shown on an oxygen three-isotope plot. Almost all terrestrial materials plot along a line of "fractionation"; most primitive meteoritic materials plot near a line of "16O addition." The three isotopes of oxygen are produced by nucleosynthesis in stars, but by different nuclear processes in different stellar environments. The principal isotope, 16O, is a primary isotope (capable of being produced from hydrogen and helium alone), formed in massive stars (>10 solar masses), and ejected by supernova explosions. The two rare isotopes are secondary nuclei (produced in stars from nuclei formed in an earlier generation of stars), with 17O coming primarily from low- and intermediate-mass stars (<8 solar masses), and 18O coming primarily from high-mass stars (Prantzos et al., 1996). These differences in type of stellar source result in large observable variations in stellar isotopic abundances as functions of age, size, metallicity, and galactic location ( Prantzos

  18. Silicate Stardust in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2004-06-01

    One of the most exciting discoveries in cosmochemistry during the past 15 years is the presence of presolar grains in meteorites. They are identified by the unusual abundances of isotopes of oxygen, silicon, and other elements. Presolar grains, also called stardust, are exotic compounds such as diamond, graphite, aluminum oxide, and silicon carbide. Why are there no silicates? Spectroscopic observations of young stars show that silicates are abundant. This means that silicates are abundant in molecular clouds like the one in which the solar system formed. Cosmochemists wondered why do we not find silicates in the most primitive extraterrestrial materials: interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and primitive chondrites. These materials are the least altered since they formed and if any preserved presolar silicate grains, IDPs and chondrites would. Were they all destroyed as the solar system formed? Or was it that we were looking for stardust in all the wrong places? As we reported previously [see PSRD article A New Type of Stardust], Scott Messenger and colleagues have found silicates in IDPs. Now, researchers report finding presolar silicate grains in primitive chondritic meteorites. Ann Nguyen and Ernst Zinner (Washington University in St. Louis) and Kazuhide Nagashima and Hisayoshi Yurimoto (Tokyo Institute of Technology), with Alexander Krot (University of Hawaii) used advanced instrumentation to image the isotopic compositions of small regions of the Acfer 094 carbonaceous chondrite and found several silicate grains with isotopically anomalous oxygen isotopes, a clear indicator of presolar origin. Nagashima and his colleagues also investigated the primitive CR2 carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa 530, finding presolar grains in it as well. The grains will shed (star)light on the histories of the stars in which they formed. The relative abundances of presolar silicates in different types of meteorites will help cosmochemists understand the processes of heating

  19. Amino acid precursors in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    The use of hot water to extract lunar samples, followed by the hydrolysis of the aqueous extract, appears to be the method of choice for identification and quantitation of amino acid precursors in extraterrestrial sources. The net inferences from the analyses to date are (1) that amino acid precursors are verifiably present in lunar dust, and (2) that they are quite certainly not the consequence of contamination by terrestrial organisms, including man. It is suggested that prebiotic evolutionary pathways such as have been traversed on the earth were terminated on the moon for lack of sufficient water. Although some or all of the amino acid precursors may be indigenous, the low level observed suggests that they may also result from onfall of organic compounds from interstellar matter, comets, tails, solar wind, or meteorites.

  20. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter. Volume 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satterwhite, Cecilia (Editor); Lindstrom, Marilyn (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This Newsletter Contains Classifications of 143 New Meteorites from the 1997 ANSMET Collection. Descriptions are given for 6 meteorites;2 eucrites, and 4 ordinary chondrites. We don't expect much excitement from the rest of the 1997 collection. JSC has examined another 100 meteorites to send to the Smithsonian for classification and they appear to be more of the same LL5 shower. However, past experience tells us that there will be some treasures hidden in the remaining samples. Hope rings eternal, but we can't wait to see the 1998 collection described below.

  1. On the irradiation history and origin of gas-rich meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope study of the track density gradients and irradiation geometries of track-rich grains and chondrules in sections of Fayetteville and Kapoeta, and in sections of lunar breccias and grains from lunar soil. A substantial fraction (50 to 90%) of the meteoritic track-rich grains and chondrules show evidence of having been irradiated anisotropically in their different faces, as would be expected for irradiation on the surface of a parent body. The observations thus support the hypothesis that the irradiation of these grains and chondrules took place on the regoliths of asteroidal-sized bodies. Measurements of steepest track density gradients indicate that, while there are finite differences between spectra exhibited by individual gas-rich meteorites, the average solar flare spectral shapes have been similar over the last 4 b.y. or so.

  2. Solar flare neon and solar cosmic ray fluxes in the past using gas-rich meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nautiyal, C. M.; Rao, M. N.

    1986-01-01

    Methods were developed earlier to deduce the composition of solar flare neon and to determine the solar cosmic ray proton fluxes in the past using etched lunar samples and at present, these techniques are extended to gas rich meteorites. By considering high temperature Ne data points for Pantar, Fayetteville and other gas rich meteorites and by applying the three component Ne-decomposition methods, the solar cosmic ray and galactic cosmic ray produced spallation Ne components from the trapped SF-Ne was resolved. Using appropiate SCR and GCR production rates, in the case of Pantar, for example, a GCR exposure age of 2 m.y. was estimated for Pantar-Dark while Pantar-Light yielded a GCR age of approx. 3 m.y. However the SCR exposure age of Pantar-Dark is two orders of magnitude higher than the average surface exposure ages of lunar soils. The possibility of higher proton fluxes in the past is discussed.

  3. Alternative mating behaviors of the queen polymorphic ant Temnothorax longispinosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Kenneth J.; Kennedy, David

    2007-11-01

    Mating behaviors of ants fall into two categories: female calling, in which a female alate releases pheromones that attract males, and male swarming, in which large male aggregations attract females. Female calling is common in species with queens that return to their natal nest to found colonies dependently after mating, while male swarming is common in species with queens that disperse to found independently. In some species that display both founding strategies, a queen-size polymorphism has evolved in which dependent-founding queens are smaller than independent-founding queens. Dependent founding is likely difficult if gynes (virgin queens) are mating in distant swarms. Therefore, a queen may adopt one or the other mating strategy based on its size and founding behavior. We investigated mating behaviors in the queen-polymorphic ant, Temnothorax longispinosus. Observations in laboratory mating arenas indicated that small gynes exhibited significantly lower flight activity than large gynes. Both forms mated in male swarms, and neither form exhibited female calling. The reduced flight activity of the small morph may facilitate returning to the natal nest after mating, provided the mating swarm is located nearby. Therefore, alternative colony-founding behaviors may be possible without the evolution of female-calling behavior; however, the reduced flight activity of small morphs may require that mating swarms are not distant from the natal nest.

  4. Alternative mating behaviors of the queen polymorphic ant Temnothorax longispinosus.

    PubMed

    Howard, Kenneth J; Kennedy, David

    2007-11-01

    Mating behaviors of ants fall into two categories: female calling, in which a female alate releases pheromones that attract males, and male swarming, in which large male aggregations attract females. Female calling is common in species with queens that return to their natal nest to found colonies dependently after mating, while male swarming is common in species with queens that disperse to found independently. In some species that display both founding strategies, a queen-size polymorphism has evolved in which dependent-founding queens are smaller than independent-founding queens. Dependent founding is likely difficult if gynes (virgin queens) are mating in distant swarms. Therefore, a queen may adopt one or the other mating strategy based on its size and founding behavior. We investigated mating behaviors in the queen-polymorphic ant, Temnothorax longispinosus. Observations in laboratory mating arenas indicated that small gynes exhibited significantly lower flight activity than large gynes. Both forms mated in male swarms, and neither form exhibited female calling. The reduced flight activity of the small morph may facilitate returning to the natal nest after mating, provided the mating swarm is located nearby. Therefore, alternative colony-founding behaviors may be possible without the evolution of female-calling behavior; however, the reduced flight activity of small morphs may require that mating swarms are not distant from the natal nest. PMID:17653686

  5. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  6. Impact Crater Particulates: Microscopic Meteoritic Material Surrounding Meteorite Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Toby Russell

    1995-01-01

    The influx of extraterrestrial matter onto the Earth is a ongoing process. Every year 40,000 metric tons of extraterrestrial matter is accreted by the Earth (Love 1993). A small fraction of this material arrives at Earth as objects large enough to survive the passage through atmosphere. Some of this material is completely melted as it passes through the atmosphere and arrives at the surface of the Earth as cosmic spherules. Cosmic spherules formed from metallic cosmic material undergoes changes in its elemental abundance as it passes through the atmosphere. The oxidation of the spherules results in the concentration of more refractory elements like Ni and Co into the metallic phase. Cosmic spherules are also formed by the passage of large meteorites through the atmosphere and their resulting impact onto the Earth. I found that the cosmic spherules from a wide variety of sources show a very similar trend in the elemental abundance patterns of their metallic phases. This trend is most obvious in the spherules recovered from the deep -sea and the spherules imbedded in impactite glass recovered from iron meteorite impact crater sites. The metallic spherules recovered from the soil surrounding impact craters do not show the high degree of elemental fractionation found in the deep-sea and impactite spherules. The composition of these spherules indicate that they are a mixture of meteoritic and target material. Metallic spherules are not the only meteoritic material to be found in the soil surrounding meteorite craters. I found that small fragments of the parent meteorite are an ubiquitous component of the soil surrounding the Odessa and Dalgaranga meteorite craters. These fragments occurred as small (most less than 400 mu m in size) heavily weathered fragments of meteoritic metal. The total calculated mass of these fragments is an order of magnitude larger than the mass of ponderable meteorites recovered from the site but 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the

  7. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  8. Lunar Seimology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Lognonné, P.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Chenet, H.; Mosegaard, K.

    2003-04-01

    Seismology has the highest resolving power of all geophysical methods used to study the Earth's structure, and, for this reason, it carries the responsibility of determining many parameters critically important to our understanding of the dynamic behaviour of the Earth. This was probably the main scientific motivation for NASA to deploy seismometers on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions. In the period from 1969 to 1972 the US Apollo missions landed seismographs on the lunar surface. These, of which four of the landed stations constituted a seismic array, were positioned in an approximate equilateral triangle with distances between stations being about 1100 km. The array recorded more than 12000 events in the period 1969-1977 which were continuously signaled to Earth. Subsequent examination of the seismograms revealed a highly complex wave train unlike anything observed on the Earth, hampering at times even the detection of the first-arriving P and S-waves, due to intense scattering in a highly porous regolith. The seismic events constitute man-made impacts, meteoroid impacts, shallow moonquakes and deep moonquakes, of which the latter are by far the most numerous. The deep moonquakes are found to occur half-way toward the center of the moon and are believed to be correlated with the tides raised on the moon by the Earth and the Sun. The shallow moonquakes occur in the depth range from 50-220 km and are thought to be akin to intraplate earthquakes. Generally, the Apollo-era studies were successful in determining the gross features of the lunar interior which resulted in the recognition of the Moon as being a differentiated body with a crust and a mantle whose lower parts were thought to be partially molten. However, details remained perfunctory with questions concerning seismic velocity variations and possible discontinuities in the mantle left unanswered. In the present study we show how we have obtained somewhat more detailed information on the lunar

  9. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies of carbonaceous chondrites provide evidence that certain organic compounds are indigenous and the result of an abiotic, chemical synthesis. The results of several investigators have established the presence of amino acids and precursors, mono- and dicarboxylic acids, N-heterocycles, and hydrocarbons as well as other compounds. For example, studies of the Murchison and Murray meteorites have revealed the presence of at least 40 amino acids with nearly equal abundances of D and L isomers. The population consists of both protein and nonprotein amino acids including a wide variety of linear, cyclic, and polyfunctional types. Results show a trend of decreasing concentration with increasing carbon number, with the most abundant being glycine (41 n Moles/g). These and other results to be reviewed provide persuasive support for the theory of chemical evolution and provide the only natural evidence for the protobiological subset of molecules from which life on earth may have arisen.

  10. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  11. Intraspecific queen parasitism in a highly eusocial bee

    PubMed Central

    Wenseleers, Tom; Alves, Denise A.; Francoy, Tiago M.; Billen, Johan; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L.

    2011-01-01

    Insect societies are well-known for their advanced cooperation, but their colonies are also vulnerable to reproductive parasitism. Here, we present a novel example of an intraspecific social parasitism in a highly eusocial bee, the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In particular, we provide genetic evidence which shows that, upon loss of the mother queen, many colonies are invaded by unrelated queens that fly in from unrelated hives nearby. The reasons for the occurrence of this surprising form of social parasitism may be linked to the fact that unlike honeybees, Melipona bees produce new queens in great excess of colony needs, and that this exerts much greater selection on queens to seek alternative reproductive options, such as by taking over other nests. Overall, our results are the first to demonstrate that queens in highly eusocial bees can found colonies not only via supersedure or swarming, but also by infiltrating and taking over other unrelated nests. PMID:20961883

  12. Lunar surface vehicle model competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During Fall and Winter quarters, Georgia Tech's School of Mechanical Engineering students designed machines and devices related to Lunar Base construction tasks. These include joint projects with Textile Engineering students. Topics studied included lunar environment simulator via drop tower technology, lunar rated fasteners, lunar habitat shelter, design of a lunar surface trenching machine, lunar support system, lunar worksite illumination (daytime), lunar regolith bagging system, sunlight diffusing tent for lunar worksite, service apparatus for lunar launch vehicles, lunar communication/power cables and teleoperated deployment machine, lunar regolith bag collection and emplacement device, soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site, lunar rated fastening systems for robotic implementation, lunar surface cable/conduit and automated deployment system, lunar regolith bagging system, and lunar rated fasteners and fastening systems. A special topics team of five Spring quarter students designed and constructed a remotely controlled crane implement for the SKITTER model.

  13. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  14. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens.

    PubMed

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Kryger, Per

    2013-03-01

    The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31 %) showing the presence of viral infection ranging from 10(1) to 10(5) copies. For DWV, 361/340 tissues (84 %) showed presence of viral infection (DWV copies ranging from 10(2) to 10(12)), with 50 tissues showing viral titres >10(7) copies. For both AKI and DWV, the thorax was the most frequently infected tissue and the ovaries were the least frequently infected. Relative to total mass, the spermatheca showed significantly higher DWV titres than the other tissues. The ovaries had the lowest titre of DWV. No significant differences were found among tissues for AKI. A subsample of 14 queens yielded positive results for the presence of negative-sense RNA strands, thus demonstrating active virus replication in all tissues. PMID:23223622

  15. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31 %) showing the presence of viral infection ranging from 101 to 105 copies. For DWV, 361/340 tissues (84 %) showed presence of viral infection (DWV copies ranging from 102 to 1012), with 50 tissues showing viral titres >107 copies. For both AKI and DWV, the thorax was the most frequently infected tissue and the ovaries were the least frequently infected. Relative to total mass, the spermatheca showed significantly higher DWV titres than the other tissues. The ovaries had the lowest titre of DWV. No significant differences were found among tissues for AKI. A subsample of 14 queens yielded positive results for the presence of negative-sense RNA strands, thus demonstrating active virus replication in all tissues. PMID:23223622

  16. Composition of solar flare noble gases preserved in meteorite parent body regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Badhwar, G.; Murali, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    Isotopic composition of solar-flare (SF) Ne was determined in acid-etched pyroxene mineral separates from the Kapoeta meteorite, a brecciated meteorite known to contain implanted solar gases. The results yield the SF Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio of 11.6 +/-0.2, confirming previous determinations of this SF ratio in lunar and meteoritic samples. The same SF Ne composition was also obtained by applying an ordinate intercept technique to the same data set. The ordinate intercept technique was then applied to the Ar and He data. The results are SF Ar-36/Ar-38 = 4.9 +/-0.1 and SF He-4/He-3 = 3800 +/-200. These values are significantly different from the solar-wind (SW) Ar and He values. It is estimated that the concentration of the SF component in Kapoeta pyroxenes is about 20 percent that of the SW component, orders of magnitude higher than expected from SW and SF proton flux measurements.

  17. Nature of the fossil evidence - Moon and meteorites. [solar activity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of the fossil evidence to be found in extraterrestrial materials concerning the history of solar activity is reviewed. The various types of lunar rocks and meteorites containing evidence of exposure to solar radiations are distinguished, including igneous rocks, breccias, glassy agglutinates, single mineral crystals, carbonaceous meteorites, and the Antarctic meteorites, some of which fell to earth as much as a million years ago. The characteristic effects of energetic particles from space in materials are then examined, including ion implantation and surface radiation damage to a depth of several hundred A by the solar wind, radioactivity, electron trapping and track production induced by solar flares to depths from millimeters to centimeters, and spallation due to galactic cosmic rays at depths from centimeters to meters. Complications in the interpretation of radiation exposure histories represented by dynamic surface processes, the nonsolar origin of some trapped elements, and difficulties in determining the duration and epoch of surface exposure of individual crystals are also noted.

  18. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science - XV: John Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2012-05-01

    John Wood (Fig. 1) was trained in Geology at Virginia Tech and M.I.T. To fulfill a minor subject requirement at M.I.T., he studied astronomy at Harvard, taking courses with Fred Whipple and others. Disappointed at how little was known in the 1950s about the origin of the earth, he seized an opportunity to study a set of thin sections of stony meteorites, on the understanding that these might shed light on the topic. This study became his Ph.D. thesis. He recognized that chondrites form a metamorphic sequence, and that idea proved surprisingly hard to sell. After brief service in the Army and a year at Cambridge University, John served for 3 years as a research associate with Ed Anders at the University of Chicago. He then returned to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he spent the remainder of his career. At Chicago, he investigated the formation of the Widmanstätten structure, and found that the process informs us of the cooling rates of iron meteorites. Back in Cambridge, he collaborated with W. R. Van Schmus on a chondrite classification that incorporates metamorphic grade, and published on metal grains in chondrites, before becoming absorbed by preparations for the return of lunar samples by the Apollo astronauts. His group's work on Apollo samples helped to establish the character of the lunar crust, and the need for a magma ocean to form it. Wood served as President of the Meteoritical Society in 1971-72 and received the Leonard Medal in 1978.

  19. Meteorite concentration mechanisms in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annexstad, J. O.

    1986-01-01

    The location of most Antarctic meteorite finds is on stagnant, highly ablative surfaces known as blue ice. The role of blue ice as transporter, concentrator, and preserver of specimens from the time of fall until find is discussed.

  20. Interstellar organic matter in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J.; Epstein, S.

    1983-01-01

    Deuterium-enriched hydrogen is present in organic matter in such meteorites as noncarbonaceous chondrites. The majority of the unequilibrated primitive meteorites contain hydrogen whose D/H ratios are greater than 0.0003, requiring enrichment (relative to cosmic hydrogen) by isotope exchange reactions taking place below 150 K. The D/H values presented are the lower limits for the organic compounds derived from interstellar molecules, since all processes subsequent to their formation, including terrestrial contamination, decrease their D/H ratios. In contrast, the D/H ratios of hydrogen associated with hydrated silicates are relatively uniform for the meteorites analyzed. The C-13/C-12 ratios of organic matter, irrespective of D/H ratio, lie well within those observed for the earth. Present findings suggest that other interstellar material, in addition to organic matter, is preserved and is present in high D/H ratio meteorites.

  1. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    Meteorites play a fundamental role in education and outreach, as these samples of extraterrestrial materials are very valuable tools to promote the public's interest in Astronomy and Planetary Sciences. Thus, for instance, meteorite exhibitions reveal the interest and fascination of students, educators and even researchers for these peculiar rocks and how these can provide information to explain many fundamental questions related to the origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts of private collectors, museums and other institutions to organize meteorite exhibitions, the reach of these is usually limited. But this issue can be addressed thanks to new technologies related to the Internet. In fact we can take advantage of HTML and related technologies to overcome local boundaries and open the possibility of offering these exhibitions for a global audience. With this aim a Virtual Museum for Meteorites has been created and a description of this web-based tool is given here.

  2. Ice in the lunar polar regions revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, R. Richard

    2002-02-01

    The common wisdom that water ice may exist in lunar polar cold traps has become a significant factor in the selection of space research objectives. The purpose of this paper is to address two topics that are missing from the discourse on lunar water: the effect that the pristine cleanliness of the regolith has on water transport on the moon, and the limits on water exposure implied by the extremely high adsorption potentials of the surfaces of soil grains. Water transport is characterized by chemisorption on soil grains and the mixing of ``wet'' grains into the regolith by meteoritic gardening. Ballistic lateral flow, which is generally thought to be an efficient conduit for moving water to the poles, is actually a secondary phenomenon that is facilitated by solar wind and micrometeor erosion but not by thermal desorption, as is the case for the dominant lunar exospheric gases, He and 40Ar. Simulation results show that even under the most optimistic conditions, less than 7% of the water accumulated in the regolith resides in the polar cold traps, where water concentrations cannot be greater than 350 ppm. More important, when realistic transport parameters are used in the simulator, the polar water concentration is reduced by almost 2 orders of magnitude. In a word, the concept of water ice at the lunar poles is insupportable.

  3. Wandering Gas Giants and Lunar Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2006-08-01

    There may have been a dramatic event early in the history of the Solar System--the intense bombardment of the inner planets and the Moon by planetesimals during a narrow interval between 3.92 and 3.85 billion years ago, called the late heavy bombardment, but also nicknamed the lunar cataclysm. The evidence for this event comes from Apollo lunar samples and lunar meteorites. While not proven, it makes for an interesting working hypothesis. If correct, what caused it to happen? A group of physicists from the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (Nice, France), GEA/OV/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and Observatorio Nacional/MTC (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and the Southwest Research Institute (Boulder, Colorado) conducted a series of studies of the dynamics of the early Solar System. Alessandro Morbidelli, Kleomenis Tsiganis, Rodney Gomes, and Harold Levison simulated the migration of Saturn and Jupiter. When the orbits of these giant planets reached the special condition of Saturn making one trip around the Sun for every two trips by Jupiter (called the 1:2 resonance), violent gravitational shoves made the orbits of Neptune and Uranus unstable, causing them to migrate rapidly and scatter countless planetesimals throughout the Solar System. This dramatic event could have happened in a short interval, anywhere from 200 million years to a billion years after planet formation, causing the lunar cataclysm, which would have affected all the inner planets.

  4. Barred olivine 'chondrules' in lunar spinel troctolite 62295

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Several objects have been found in sections of lunar igneous spinel troctolite 62295 that resemble certain meteoritic barred olivine chondrules. Each consists of an apparently spherical single crystal of Fo90 olivine, approximately 0.6-0.8 mm in diameter, containing a set of approximately 30-40 subparallel stringers of An95 plagioclase, whereas the stringers in ordinary meteoritic chondrules consist of glass. The olivine of the 62295 chondrules is also more magnesian, and is radially zoned, having a relatively iron-rich core and rim and an iron-poor intermediate zone. Several possible origins are proposed: impact-generated melt globules solidified in flight, spherical phenocrysts, and meteoritic chondrules, but none of these seems adequate to explain the detailed observations.

  5. Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Martin H.; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A.; Beveridge, Oliver S.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2013-06-01

    In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10 % of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive.

  6. The Lunar Regolith as a Recorder of Cosmic History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie; McKay, D.; Riofrio, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon can be considered a giant tape recorder containing the history of the solar system and Universe. The lunar regolith (soil) has recorded the early history of the Moon, Earth, the solar system and Universe. A major goal of future lunar exploration should be to find and play back existing fragments of that tape . By reading the lunar tape, we can uncover a record of planetary bombardment, as well as solar and stellar variability. The Moon can tell us much about our place in the Universe. The lunar regolith has likely recorded the original meteoritic bombardment of Earth and Moon, a violent cataclysm that may have peaked around 4 Gyr, and the less intense bombardment occurring since that time. This impact history is preserved on the Moon as regolith layers, ejecta layers, impact melt rocks, and ancient impact breccias. The impact history of the Earth and Moon possibly had profound effects on the origin and development of life. Decrease in meteor bombardment allowed life to develop on Earth. Life may have developed first on another body, such as Mars, then arrived via meteorite on Earth. The solar system may have experienced bursts of severe radiation from the Sun, other stars, or from unknown sources. The lunar regolith has recorded this radiation history in the form of implanted solar wind, solar flare materials and radiation damage. Lunar soil can be found sandwiched between layers of basalt or pyroclastic deposits. This filling constitutes a buried time capsule that is likely to contain well-preserved ancient regolith. Study of such samples will show us how the solar system has evolved and changed over time. The lunar tape recorder can provide detailed information on specific portions of solar and stellar variability. Data from the Moon also offers clues as to whether so-called fundamental constants have changed over time.

  7. Interpretation of Meteorite Magnetic Records Needs a Paradigm Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Dickinson, T. L.

    1995-09-01

    There is now sufficient information about the complexity of the FeNi system and the unexplained peculiarities in paleomagnetic records associated with metal bearing natural samples (Moon rocks and meteorites)to suggest that a paradigm shift in the interpretation of meteorite magnetic properties is needed. Almost nothing is known about acquisition of remanence in relatively weak magnetic fields for metals and alloys. We have no direct knowledge about whether the magnetization acquired by FeNi is preserved intact when atomic ordering effectively produces a new magnetic mineral, tetrataenite, whose magnetic anisotropy is orders of magnitude greater than the original taenite. A plausible scenario for initial chondrule magnetization is a cooling chondrule spinning and translating through a magnetic field. The physical reality in the early solar system must have been different from the geomagnetic field experience as far back in time as it can be documented. During demagnetization, either thermal or alternating field, meteorite subsamples, metal grains, and chondrules exhibit zig-zag intensity curves and vector excursions confined to a plane or else in circular excursions [1, 2]. These have never been adequately explained. Similar curves are observed in lunar samples [3, 4]. Watching a welder use a torch to cut steel pipe offered crude test specimens for an evaluation of remanence acquisition appropriate to chondrule magnetization. Most of the orange melt slag droplets cooled to black before they dropped to the cement floor, as they traveled an arced path of about 10 feet. One larger droplet was soft when it hit on the floor. These slag droplets traced a path across the geomagnetic field while they cooled, with final cooling taking place after they hit the floor. Obviously, there was little control on the relationship between magnetization acquisition and various physical parameters such as field orientation, temperature, etc. In another experiment, electropolished wires

  8. Lunar Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Weiss, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    We have completed a reanalysis of the old Apollo paleomagnetic data using modern techniques of analysis and presentation. The principal result from the mare basalts is that several samples, such as 10020, 10017, 10049, and 70215 appear to be carrying primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) acquired on the Moon as they cooled initially on the lunar surface, but in almost every case alternating field (AF) demagnetization was not carried out to strong enough fields to isolate this primary magnetization properly. When modern measurements are available, the agreement between old Apollo era data and new data is strikingly good. It also appears that the fields recorded by the basalts of Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 are stronger than those recorded by Apollo 12 and Apollo 15 basalts. Indeed it is not clear that any reliable records have come from these younger samples. The histories of breccias are more complicated than those of mare basalts and their NRM is harder to interpret. For regolith breccias, interpretations are complicated because of their strong superparamagnetic components and their complex, polymict lithologies. It would be unwise to use these samples for paleointensity estimates unless one can be sure that the NRM was entirely acquired as TRM during cooling after the shock event, as may be the case for 15498. In contrast, the melt rock and melt breccias, which include samples formed at high temperatures far above the Curie point of any magnetic carriers, have an excellent chance of recording lunar fields faithfully as they cool. This cooling may have taken place in a melt pool in a simple crater, or in a melt layer in a complex crater. Such samples would then have been excavated and deposited in the regolith and some appear to have recorded strong fields, but more work needs to be done to test this suggestion. Other melt rocks and melt breccias have had more complicated histories and appear to have been deposited in ejecta blankets, where final cooling took

  9. Lunar resources: Toward living off the lunar land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) lunar resources and surface conditions; (2) guidelines for early lunar technologies; (3) the lunar farm; (4) the lunar filling station; (5) lunar construction materials; (6) the lunar power company; (7) the electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the Moon and in near-Earth space.

  10. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  11. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  12. Queen pheromones: The chemical crown governing insect social life.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke

    2010-11-01

    Group-living species produce signals that alter the behavior and even the physiology of their social partners. Social insects possess especially sophisticated chemical communication systems that govern every aspect of colony life, including the defining feature of eusociality: reproductive division of labor. Current evidence hints at the central importance of queen pheromones, but progress has been hindered by the fact that such pheromones have only been isolated in honeybees. In a pair of papers on the ant Lasius niger, we identified and investigated a queen pheromone regulating worker sterility. The cuticular hydrocarbon 3-methylhentriacontane (3-MeC(31)) is correlated with queen maturity and fecundity and workers are also more likely to execute surplus queens that have low amounts of this chemical. Experiments with synthetic 3-MeC(31) found that it inhibits ovarian development in queenless workers and lowers worker aggression towards objects coated with it. Production of 3-MeC(31) by queens was depressed by an experimental immune challenge, and the same chemical was abundant on queenlaid eggs, suggesting that the workers' responses to the queen are conditional on her health and fecundity. Together with other studies, these results indicate that queen pheromones are honest signals of quality that simultaneously regulate multiple social behaviors. PMID:21331238

  13. Mandibular gland components of european and africanized honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Pankiw, T; Winston, M L; Plettner, E; Slessor, K N; Pettis, J S; Taylor, O R

    1996-04-01

    The composition of the five-component honey bee queen mandibular gland pheromone (QMP) of mated European honey bee queens was compared to those of virgin and drone-laying (i.e., laying only haploid unfertilized eggs that develop into males), European queens and Africanized mated queens. QMP of mated European queens showed significantly greater quantities of individual components than all queen types compared, except for a significantly greater quantity of 9-hydroxy-(E)-2-decenoic acid (9-HDA) found in Africanized queens. Glands of European drone-laying queens contained quantities intermediate between virgin and mated queens, reflecting their intermediate reproductive state and age. QMP ontogeny shifts from a high proportion of 9-keto-(E)-2-decenoic acid (ODA) in young unmated queens to roughly equal proportions of ODA and 9-HDA in mated queens. A biosynthetic shift occurs after mating that results in a greater proportion of 9-HDA, methylp-hydroxybenzoate (HOB), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (HVA) production, accompanied by a decreased proportion of ODA. Africanized QMP proportions of ODA and 9-HDA were significantly different from European queens. A quantitative definition of a "queen equivalent" of QMP is proposed for the various queen types, and a standard queen equivalent for mated European honeybee queen mandibular gland pheromone is adopted as 200µg ODA, 80µg 9-HDA, 20µg HOB, and 2 µg HVA. PMID:24227572

  14. Tungsten in iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Tungsten concentrations have been determined by instrumental neutron activation in 104 iron meteorites, and range from 0.07 to 5 microg/g. In individual groups, concentrations vary by factors of between 1.5 and 8, but there are negative W-Ni correlations in 8 groups: IAB, IC, IIAB, IID, IIE, IIIAB, IIICD, and IIIF. The lowest W concentrations are found in groups IAB and IIICD, which also have the smallest slopes on a W-Ni plot. Eighteen anomalous irons have W concentrations between 5 microg/g (Butler) and 0.11 microg/g (Rafrueti). The distribution of W in irons shows similarities to that of other refractory sideophilic elements (except Mo), but is closest to the distribution of Ru and Pt. Assuming that chemical trends in group IIIAB were produced by fractional crystallization, a value of 1.6 can be deduced for the distribution coefficient of W between solid and liquid metal, as compared with 0.89 for Mo. Experimental evidence in support of these values is tenuous.

  15. Supernova Confetti in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2010-11-01

    Chromium has four isotopes, with atomic weights of 50, 52, 53, and 54. In terrestrial rocks the isotopes behave in predictable ways, with their variations in relative abundance governed by geochemical processes. In contrast, some meteorites have deviant abundances of the heaviest (hence the one with the most neutrons) Cr isotope, chromium-54. These anomalies in isotopic composition are almost certainly caused by nuclear reactions in stars that existed before our Sun was formed. However, the mineralogical carrier of the special chromium-54 was not known until Nicolas Dauphas (University of Chicago) and eight colleagues there and at the California Institute of Technology, the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Universite de Lille (France) made detailed analyses of chemical and physical separates from the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous chondrites. They found that the carrier of the isotopically-anomalous Cr is spinel, Cr-bearing oxide grains generally smaller than 100 nanometers. Only supernovae can produce the chromium-54 anomalies, although which specific type of supernova is not clear. An intriguing possibility is that the chromium-54-rich nano-oxide particles were produced in the same supernova that made two other short-lived isotopes, iron-60 and aluminum-26, which also existed in the Solar System when it formed. This suggests that formation of the Solar System was triggered by a supernova explosion.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 14th, Houston, TX, March 14-18, 1983, Proceedings. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V. (Editor); Schubert, G. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various topics on the geology and evolution of the moon, planets, and meteorites are addressed. Some of the subjects considered include: Venusian rocks, impact cratering rate in recent time, ice and debris in Martian fretted terrain, geological evolution of Ganymede's Galileo Regio, and Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd evolution in lunar mare basalts. Also discussed are: ages and cosmic ray exposure history of moon rocks, U-Pb geochronology of zircons from lunar breccia, petrologic comparisons of Cayley and Descartes, chemistry and origin of chondrites and condrules, and the petrogenesis of SNC meteorites.

  17. Genesis lunar outpost: An evolutionary lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Gary T. (Compiler); Baschiera, Dino; Fieber, Joe; Moths, Janis

    1990-01-01

    Students at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Department of Agriculture undertook a series of studies of lunar habitats during the 1989 to 1990 academic year. Undergraduate students from architecture and mechanical and structural engineering with backgrounds in interior design, biology and construction technology were involved in a seminar in the fall semester followed by a design studio in the spring. The studies resulted in three design alternatives for lunar habitation and an integrated design for an early stage lunar outpost.

  18. Studies in lunar geology and geochemistry using sample analysis and remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, Katherine Helen

    The thesis reports the results of an investigation into the geochemistry and petrology of lunar meteorites and synthesises this knowledge with research into the calibration and interpretation of lunar X-ray spectroscopy from the D-CIXS instrument. I present the mineralogy, bulk composition and petrography of two lunar regolith breccia meteorites (DaG 400 and MET 01210), and a launch paired group of mare basalt meteorites (LAP 02205/02224/02226/02436/03632). Individual sample geochemistry is interpreted and geological models proposed to account for the meteorites' formation histories and subsequent impact related processes. These are compared to previously studied Apollo, Luna and meteorite lunar samples in order to understand how these new samples fit within the context of existing theories of lunar evolution. I have also utilised currently available geochemical remote sensing datasets to try and constrain possible meteorite launch localities, thus relating the microscopic perspective of lunar geological processes from the sample collection back to the 'big-picture' of global remotely sensed datasets. I review the scientific findings of the UK-built D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer, which flew to the Moon on the SMART-1 mission between 2003 and 2006. I present an overview of the instrument and discuss various hardware and software problems the mission encountered. Results of laboratory calibration work and of theoretical X-ray fluorescence modelling are also presented. This thesis introduces the first detailed examination and interpretation of D-CIXS data recorded by the instrument during lunar science phase activities in 2005. These datasets focus on X-ray flux recorded during periods of strong solar activity (i.e. solar flare associated events), with particular attention to an observation of the lunar far-side feldspathic highlands and the South Pole-Aitkin Basin, which records an X-ray flux difference between the two lithological terrains indicative of a marked

  19. The geologic classification of the meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elston, Donald Parker

    1968-01-01

    aggregates of grains, and as large subround to round, finely granular accretional chondrules. Evidence in Murray indicates that component 3 silicates precipitated abruptly and at low pressures, possibly from a high temperature gas, in an environment that contained dispersed component 1 and 2 materials. All component 3 aggregates in Murray contain component 1 material, most commonly as flakes, and locally as tiny granules and larger spherules, some of which are hollow and some of which were broken prior to their mechanical incorporation in accretionary chondrules. Accretion may have occurred as ices associated with dispersed water-bearing component 1 materials temporarily melted during the precipitation of component 3 silicates, and then abruptly refroze to form an icy cementing material. Group 1 materials may be cometary, and group 2 materials may be asteroidal. Schematic models are proposed. Evidence is reviewed for the lunar origin of the pyroxeneplagioclase achondrites. On the basis of natural remanent magnetism, it is suggested that the very scarce diopside-olivine achondrites may be samples from Mars. A classification of the meteorite breccias, including the calcium-poor and calcium-rich mesosiderites, and irons that contain silicate fragments, is proposed. A fragmentation history of the meteorites is outlined on the basis of evidence in the polymict breccias, and from gas retention ages in stones and exposure ages in irons. Cometal impacts appear to have caused the initial fragmentation, stud possibly the perturbation of orbits, of two inferred asteroidal bodies (enstatite and bronzite), one and possibly both events occurring before 2000 m.y. ago. Several impacts apparently occurred on the inferred hypersthene body in the interval 1000 to 2000 m.y. ago. Major breakups of the three bodies apparently occurred as the result of interasteroidal collisions at about 900 m.y. ago, and 600 to 700 m.y. ago. The breakups were followed by a number of fr

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of turnover processes in the lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model for the gardening of the lunar surface by meteoritic impact is described, and some representative results are given. The model accounts with reasonable success for a wide variety of properties of the regolith. The smoothness of the lunar surface on a scale of centimeters to meters, which was not reproduced in an earlier version of the model, is accounted for by the preferential downward movement of low-energy secondary particles. The time scale for filling lunar grooves and craters by this process is also derived. The experimental bombardment ages (about 4 x 10 to the 8th yr for spallogenic rare gases, about 10 to the 9th yr for neutron capture Gd and Sm isotopes) are not reproduced by the model. The explanation is not obvious.

  1. Disturbance of isotope systematics in meteorites during shock and thermal metamorphism and implications for shergottite chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, A M; Borg, L E; Asmerom, Y

    2008-12-10

    Shock and thermal metamorphism of meteorites from differentiated bodies such as the Moon and Mars have the potential to disturb chronometric information contained in these meteorites. In order to understand the impact-related mechanisms and extent of disturbance to isochrons, we undertook experiments to shock and heat samples of 10017, a 3.6 billion year old lunar basalt. One sub-sample was shocked to 55 GPa, a second subsample was heated to 1000 C for one week, and a third sub-sample was maintained as a control sample. Of the isotope systems analyzed, the Sm-Nd system was the least disturbed by shock or heat, followed by the Rb-Sr system. Ages represented by the {sup 238}U-{sup 206}Pb isotope system were degraded by shock and destroyed with heating. In no case did either shock or heating alone result in rotated or reset isochrons that represent a spurious age. In some cases the true crystallization age of the sample was preserved, and in other cases age information was degraded or destroyed. Although our results show that neither shock nor thermal metamorphism alone can account for the discordant ages represented by different isotope systems in martian meteorites, we postulate that shock metamorphism may render a meteorite more susceptible than unshocked material to subsequent disturbance during impact-related heating or aqueous alteration on Mars or Earth. The combination of these processes may result in the disparate chronometric information preserved in some meteorites.

  2. Martian Biosignatures: Tantalizing Evidence Within Martian Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    Several of the martian meteorites offer a unique opportunity to study possible biosignatures over the history of Mars. Reduced carbon components have been found within the pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration phases (iddingsite) of martian meteorites.

  3. Antarctic Meteorite Classification and Petrographic Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Righter, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Antarctic Meteorite collection, which is comprised of over 18,700 meteorites, is one of the largest collections of meteorites in the world. These meteorites have been collected since the late 1970's as part of a three-agency agreement between NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the Smithsonian Institution [1]. Samples collected each season are analyzed at NASA s Meteorite Lab and the Smithsonian Institution and results are published twice a year in the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, which has been in publication since 1978. Each newsletter lists the samples collected and processed and provides more in-depth details on selected samples of importance to the scientific community. Data about these meteorites is also published on the NASA Curation website [2] and made available through the Meteorite Classification Database allowing scientists to search by a variety of parameters

  4. Update on Terrestrial Ages of Antarctic Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.

    2000-01-01

    Terrestial ages are presented for 70 Antarctic meteorites, based on cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26 and Cl-36 in the metal phase. Also, results of leaching experiments are discussed to study possible contamination of stony meteorites with atmospheric Be-10

  5. Lunar Science Conference, 8th, Houston, Tex., March 14-18, 1977, Proceedings. Volume 1 - The moon and the inner solar system. Volume 2 - Petrogenetic studies of mare and highland rocks. Volume 3 - Planetary and lunar surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merril, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Solar system processes are considered along with the origin and evolution of the moon, planetary geophysics, lunar basins and crustal layering, lunar magnetism, the lunar surface as a planetary probe, remote observations of lunar and planetary surfaces, earth-based measurements, integrated studies, physical properties of lunar materials, and asteroids, meteorites, and the early solar system. Attention is also given to studies of mare basalts, the kinetics of basalt crystallization, topical studies of mare basalts, highland rocks, experimental studies of highland rocks, geochemical studies of highland rocks, studies of materials of KREEP composition, a consortium study of lunar breccia 73215, topical studies on highland rocks, Venus, and regional studies of the moon. Studies of surface processes, are reported, taking into account cratering mechanics and fresh crater morphology, crater statistics and surface dating, effects of exposure and gardening, and the chemistry of surfaces.

  6. Simulations of Water Migration in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Goldstein, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    We perform modeling and analysis of water in the lunar exosphere. There were two controlled experiments of water interactions with the surface of the Moon observed by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). The Chang'e 3 landing on the Moon on 14 Dec 2013 putatively sprayed ~120 kg of water on the surface on the Moon at a mid-morning local time. Observations by LADEE near the noon meridian on six of the orbits in the 24 hours following the landing constrain the propagation of water vapor. Further, on 4 Apr 2014, LADEE's Orbital Maintenance Manuever (OMM) #21 sprayed the surface of the Moon with an estimated 0.73 kg of water in the pre-dawn sector. Observations of this maneuver and later in the day constrain the adsorption and release at dawn of adsorbed materials. Using the Chang'e 3 exhaust plume and LADEE's OMM-21 as control experiments, we set limits to the adsorption and thermalization of water with lunar regolith. This enables us to predict the efficiency of the migration of water as a delivery mechanism to the lunar poles. Then we simulate the migration of water through the lunar exosphere using the rate of sporadic inputs from meteoritic sources (Benna et al., this session). Simulations predict the amount of water adsorbed to the surface of the Moon and the effective delivery rate to the lunar polar cold traps.

  7. Chemical evidence relating to the origin of the returned lunar material.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baedecker, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    The material returned on the Apollo 11 mission can be separated into four types on chemical as well as structural grounds. Two distinct crystalline rock types can be identified, which may have been formed during two separate magmatic events. The lunar soil and breccias (which are apparently impacted soil material) can be thought of as being composed of a crystalline rock component similar in composition to, but differing in detail from, the two types of Apollo 11 crystalline rocks, and anorthositic component amounting to about 20% in the lunar soil, and a meteoritic component resembling carbonaceous chondrites in composition. Data on Ga, Ge, In, Ir, and Au in Apollo 11 rocks reflect the high temperature history of the lunar surface material, and the presence of a meteoritic component in the soil and breccias.

  8. Microcracks in lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1979-01-01

    Lunar samples contain abundant open microcracks that have closure characteristics completely unlike any shocked terrestrial rock; however, the microcracks present in the lunar rocks before the rocks reached the surface of the moon were likely similar to the microcracks in the shocked terrestrial rocks. Because the microcracks present in the lunar rocks in situ inside the moon were different, radically different, from the microcracks present today in returned lunar samples, any property that is sensitive to microcracks measured on the returned lunar samples is inappropriate for predicting that property as a function of depth in the moon. Therefore, many data that have been measured already on lunar samples simply do not apply to rocks in situ inside the moon. A plausible mechanism with which to account for the difference in microcrack characteristics of lunar samples on the surface of the moon and the microcrack characteristics of lunar rock in situ inside the moon is thermal cycling during residence on the moon's surface.

  9. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  10. Electrified Lunar Polar Craters?

    NASA Video Gallery

    New research from NASA's Lunar Science Institute indicates that the solar wind may be charging certain regions at the lunar poles to hundreds of volts. In this short video Dr. Bill Farrell discusse...

  11. LOLA: Defining Lunar Terrain

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on board NASA's LRO spacecraft builds the highest detail topography currently available of the lunar terrain. In this video David Smith, LOLA's P...

  12. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  13. Proceedings of the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The sessions in the conference include: Titan, Mars Volcanism, Mars Polar Layered Deposits, Early Solar System Isotopes, SPECIAL SESSION: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Achondrites: Exploring Oxygen Isotopes and Parent-Body Processes, Solar System Formation and Evolution, SPECIAL SESSION: SMART-1, . Impact Cratering: Observations and Experiments, SPECIAL SESSION: Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Solar Nebula Composition, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Asteroid Observations: Spectra, Mostly, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: View from the Surface, Mars Tectonics and Crustal Dichotomy, Stardust: Wild-2 Revealed, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: The Map View, Chondrules and Their Formation, Enceladus, Asteroids and Deep Impact: Structure, Dynamics, and Experiments, Mars Surface Process and Evolution, Martian Meteorites: Nakhlites, Experiments, and the Great Shergottite Age Debate, Stardust: Mainly Mineralogy, Astrobiology, Wind-Surface Interactions on Mars and Earth, Icy Satellite Surfaces, Venus, Lunar Remote Sensing, Space Weathering, and Impact Effects, Interplanetary Dust/Genesis, Mars Cratering: Counts and Catastrophes?, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Atmosphere, Soils, Brines, and Minerals, Lunar Interior and Differentiation, Mars Magnetics and Atmosphere: Core to Ionosphere, Metal-rich Chondrites, Organics in Chondrites, Lunar Impacts and Meteorites, Presolar/Solar Grains, Topics for Print Only papers are: Outer Planets/Satellites, Early Solar System, Interplanetary Dust, Comets and Kuiper Belt Objects, Asteroids and Meteoroids, Chondrites, Achondrites, Meteorite Related, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars, Astrobiology, Planetary Differentiation, Impacts, Mercury, Lunar Samples and Modeling, Venus, Missions and Instruments, Global Warming, Education and Public Outreach, Poster sessions are: Asteroids/Kuiper Belt Objects

  14. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Queens County, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Queens County, NY AGENCY: Federal Highway... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Bridge Rehabilitation and Interchange Improvements Project... considered will not have a significant impact on the environment. To address these bridge conditions,...

  15. Queens become workers: pesticides alter caste differentiation in bees

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Charles F.; Acosta, André L.; Dorneles, Andressa L.; dos Santos, Patrick D. S.; Blochtein, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Bees are important for the world biodiversity and economy because they provide key pollination services in forests and crops. However, pesticide use in crops has adversely affected (decreased) queen production because of increased mortality among larvae. Here, we demonstrated that in vitro-reared queens of a neotropical social bee species (Plebeia droryana) also showed high larval mortality after exposure to an organophosphate pesticide (chlorpyrifos) via larval food. Moreover, most of the surviving larvae that were destined to develop into queens became workers more likely because they ate less food than expected without pesticide skewing thus caste differentiation in this bee species. This adverse effect has not been previously reported for any other social insects, such as honeybees or bumblebees. Queens are essential for breeding and colony growth. Therefore, if our data are applicable to other pantropical social bee species across the globe, it is likely that these bees are at a serious risk of failure to form new colonies. PMID:27530246

  16. Radar detection of drones responding to honeybee queen pheromone.

    PubMed

    Loper, G M; Wolf, W W; Taylor, O R

    1993-09-01

    The response of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones to queen pheromone(s) (either natural from a mated queen, or synthetic from a lure) was recorded using an X-band, ground-based radar. The distribution of drones (insect targets on the radar screen) changed from a scattered distribution to a line concentration (downwind) when the pheromone was released. Displacement within the line concentration was toward the pheromone. This response was seen as far as 800±15 m downwind from a lure with 10 mg of synthetic 9-oxodec-trans-2-enoic acid (9-ODA) and as far as 420±15 m from a mated queen. These studies demonstrate that queen pheromone can be detected by drones at much greater distances than previously believed and illustrate how X-band radar may be used to establish the distances at which insects of similar or larger size respond to pheromones. PMID:24249369

  17. Queens become workers: pesticides alter caste differentiation in bees.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Charles F; Acosta, André L; Dorneles, Andressa L; Dos Santos, Patrick D S; Blochtein, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Bees are important for the world biodiversity and economy because they provide key pollination services in forests and crops. However, pesticide use in crops has adversely affected (decreased) queen production because of increased mortality among larvae. Here, we demonstrated that in vitro-reared queens of a neotropical social bee species (Plebeia droryana) also showed high larval mortality after exposure to an organophosphate pesticide (chlorpyrifos) via larval food. Moreover, most of the surviving larvae that were destined to develop into queens became workers more likely because they ate less food than expected without pesticide skewing thus caste differentiation in this bee species. This adverse effect has not been previously reported for any other social insects, such as honeybees or bumblebees. Queens are essential for breeding and colony growth. Therefore, if our data are applicable to other pantropical social bee species across the globe, it is likely that these bees are at a serious risk of failure to form new colonies. PMID:27530246

  18. A Critical Look at the Queen Bee Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Jane; Kushner, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the popular "Queen Bee" stereotype of successful female executives, and concludes that the stereotype is too narrow in focus and fails to take into account complex psychological and experiential variables. (Author/EJT)

  19. Maternal influence on the acceptance of virgin queens introduced into Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies.

    PubMed

    Moretto, G; Guerra, J C V; Kalvelage, H; Espindola, E

    2004-01-01

    The oviposition potential of honey bee queens decreases with age, therefore it is important to replace old queens with younger ones on a periodic basis. However, queen replacement is problematic, especially in Africanized honey bee colonies, since many introduced queens are not accepted, and virgin queens are less easily accepted than are mated queens. We assessed the influence of genetic origin (queen mother) on the acceptance of queens, when they were introduced as virgins into Africanized honey bee colonies. For this purpose, 12 daughter queens from each of 11 mother queens with no degree of kinship among themselves were introduced. Introductions were made monthly, for 12 months, though the winter months of June and July were not included, as there is little brood and drones are rare in winter. There was some seasonal variation in the acceptance rates; generally there was greater acceptance in months with good honey flows. However, the acceptance of introduced queens was influenced by their origin. The rate of acceptance of daughter queens from the 11 different mother queens varied significantly, ranging from 33 to 75%. There appears to be a genetic influence of the mother queen on the introduced queen acceptance rate. PMID:15614734

  20. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  1. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  2. Organic Chemistry of Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Chiral and carbon-isotopic analyses of isovaline have been carried out on numerous samples of the Murchison and one sample of the Murray carbonaceous chondrite. The isovaline was found to be heterogeneous with regard to enantiomeric excess (ee) both between samples and within a single Murchison sample. L-Excesses ranging from 0 to 15% were observed. The isovaline delta(sup 13) C was found to be about +18%. No evidence was obtained suggesting terrestrial contamination in the more abundant L-enantiomer. A correlation was observed between isovaline (also alpha - aminoisobutyric acid) concentration and PCP content of five CM chondrites. It is suggested that isovaline, along with other meteoritic a-methyl amino acids with ee, are of presolar origin. The possible formation of ee in extraterrestrial amino acids by exposure to circularly polarized light or by magnetochiral photochemistry is discussed. Key words: Murchison meteorite, Murray meteorite, amino acids, isovaline, chirality, carbon isotopes, PCP.

  3. Fossil Meteorite Unearthed From Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2006-06-01

    A team of scientists lead by Wolf Maier (University of Quebec, Canada and University of Pretoria, South Africa and soon at University of Western Australia, Perth) and Marco Andreoli (University of the Witwatersrand and South African Nuclear Energy Corp.) and colleagues who also hail from Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States, have announced the discovery of a 25-centimeter-wide chondritic meteorite unearthed from the 145-million-year-old Morokweng impact crater in South Africa. Found within the crater's impact melt sheet about 770 meters (half a mile) down a drilling borehole, the hefty meteorite's existence would seem improbable given its low chance of surviving the high shock pressures and temperatures normally associated with large impact events. Its unusual composition could mean it is a sample from a previously unknown part of the LL chondrite parent body or maybe it is from an entirely different asteroid population than other known meteorites.

  4. The Magnetization of Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, James Herndon

    1974-01-01

    Alternating field demagnetization experiments have been conducted on representative samples of the carbonaceous meteorites (carbonaceous chondrites and ureilites). The results indicate that many, if not all, of these meteorites possess an intense and stable magnetic moment of extraterrestrial origin. Thermomagnetic analyses have been conducted on samples of all known carbonaceous meteorites. In addition to yielding quantitative magnetite estimates, these studies indicate the presence of a thermally unstable component, troilite, which reacts with gaseous oxygen to form magnetite. It is proposed that the magnetite found in some carbonaceous chondrites resulted from the oxidation of troilite during the early history of the solar system. The formation of pyrrhotite is expected as a natural consequence of magnetite formation via this reaction. Consideration is given to the implications of magnetite formation on paleointensity studies.

  5. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  6. Russian Lunar Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

  7. Exploration of Lunar Craters using a Tracked Microrover Concept for the ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunskill, C.; Smith, B.; Humphrey, S.; Makhlouta, M.; Baig, S.; Lappas, V.

    Robotic exploration of the lunar terrain is a crucial step towards future manned missions. There is evidence to suggest water ice ores may be found in the base of deep, polar craters as a result of the meteorite impacts which created them. These regions are in a permanent state of darkened deep-freeze due to their extreme latitudes, allowing the ice to remain intact. Lunar terrain is extremely inhospitable to all but the most robust of exploration vehicles. Surface conditions around the rim of large craters are rarely favourable for the descent and, more importantly, ascent of a ground-based vehicle. The ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge tasked eight teams from Universities across Europe to build microrovers capable of climbing into a terrestrial analogue of such a lunar crater, search the base for small samples of ore simulants and return them to a lander site outside of the crater. The University of Surrey Space Centre team designed a tracked vehicle based on a modified Mobile Robots Pioneer 3-AT microrover. The Pioneer on-board computer and microcontroller allowed the microrover to be equipped with off-the-shelf components, including a stereo camera for navigation, wireless Ethernet communications system for teleoperation and 5 degree of freedom robotic manipulator.

  8. Mating triggers dynamic immune regulations in wood ant queens.

    PubMed

    Castella, G; Christe, P; Chapuisat, M

    2009-03-01

    Mating can affect female immunity in multiple ways. On the one hand, the immune system may be activated by pathogens transmitted during mating, sperm and seminal proteins, or wounds inflicted by males. On the other hand, immune defences may also be down-regulated to reallocate resources to reproduction. Ants are interesting models to study post-mating immune regulation because queens mate early in life, store sperm for many years, and use it until their death many years later, while males typically die after mating. This long-term commitment between queens and their mates limits the opportunity for sexual conflict but raises the new constraint of long-term sperm survival. In this study, we examine experimentally the effect of mating on immunity in wood ant queens. Specifically, we compared the phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of mated and virgin Formica paralugubris queens. Queens had reduced levels of active phenoloxidase after mating, but elevated antibacterial activity 7 days after mating. These results indicate that the process of mating, dealation and ovary activation triggers dynamic patterns of immune regulation in ant queens that probably reflect functional responses to mating and pathogen exposure that are independent of sexual conflict. PMID:19170815

  9. Unequal subfamily proportions among honey bee queen and worker brood

    PubMed

    Tilley; Oldroyd

    1997-12-01

    Queens from three colonies of feral honey bees, Apis mellifera were removed and placed in separate nucleus colonies. For each colony, eggs and larvae were taken from the nucleus and placed in the main hive on each of 3-4 consecutive weeks. Workers in the queenless parts selected young larvae to rear as queens. Queen pupae, together with the surrounding worker pupae, were removed from each colony and analysed at two to three microsatellite loci to determine their paternity. In all three colonies, the paternity of larvae chosen by the bees to rear as queens was not a random sample of the paternities in the worker brood, with certain subfamilies being over-represented in queens. These results support an important prediction of kin selection theory: when colonies are queenless, unequal relatedness within colonies could lead to the evolution of reproductive competition, that is some subfamilies achieving greater reproductive success than others. The mechanism by which such dominance is achieved could be through a system of kin recognition and nepotism, but we conclude that genetically based differential attractiveness of larvae for rearing as queens is more likely.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9521799

  10. Chaotic Red Queen coevolution in three-species food chains

    PubMed Central

    Dercole, Fabio; Ferriere, Regis; Rinaldi, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Coevolution between two antagonistic species follows the so-called ‘Red Queen dynamics’ when reciprocal selection results in an endless series of adaptation by one species and counteradaptation by the other. Red Queen dynamics are ‘genetically driven’ when selective sweeps involving new beneficial mutations result in perpetual oscillations of the coevolving traits on the slow evolutionary time scale. Mathematical models have shown that a prey and a predator can coevolve along a genetically driven Red Queen cycle. We found that embedding the prey–predator interaction into a three-species food chain that includes a coevolving superpredator often turns the genetically driven Red Queen cycle into chaos. A key condition is that the prey evolves fast enough. Red Queen chaos implies that the direction and strength of selection are intrinsically unpredictable beyond a short evolutionary time, with greatest evolutionary unpredictability in the superpredator. We hypothesize that genetically driven Red Queen chaos could explain why many natural populations are poised at the edge of ecological chaos. Over space, genetically driven chaos is expected to cause the evolutionary divergence of local populations, even under homogenizing environmental fluctuations, and thus to promote genetic diversity among ecological communities over long evolutionary time. PMID:20356888

  11. Asexual queen succession in the higher termite Embiratermes neotenicus

    PubMed Central

    Fougeyrollas, Romain; Dolejšová, Klára; Sillam-Dussès, David; Roy, Virginie; Poteaux, Chantal; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Asexual queen succession (AQS), in which workers, soldiers and dispersing reproductives are produced sexually while numerous non-dispersing queens arise through thelytokous parthenogenesis, has recently been described in three species of lower termites of the genus Reticulitermes. Here, we show that AQS is not an oddity restricted to a single genus of lower termites, but a more widespread strategy occurring also in the most advanced termite group, the higher termites (Termitidae). We analysed the genetic structure in 10 colonies of the Neotropical higher termite Embiratermes neotenicus (Syntermitinae) using five newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci. The colonies contained one primary king accompanied either by a single primary queen or by up to almost 200 neotenic queens. While the workers, the soldiers and most future dispersing reproductives were produced sexually, the non-dispersing neotenic queens originated through thelytokous parthenogenesis of the founding primary queen. Surprisingly, the mode of thelytoky observed in E. neotenicus is most probably automixis with central fusion, contrasting with the automixis with terminal fusion documented in Reticulitermes. The occurrence of AQS based on different mechanisms of ploidy restoration raises the hypothesis of an independent evolutionary origin of this unique reproductive strategy in individual lineages of lower and higher termites. PMID:26019158

  12. The Evolution and Development of the Lunar Regolith and Implications for Lunar Surface Operations and Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David

    2009-01-01

    The lunar regolith consists of about 90% submillimeter particles traditionally termed lunar soil. The remainder consists of larger particles ranging up to boulder size rocks. At the lower size end, soil particles in the 10s of nanometer sizes are present in all soil samples. Lunar regolith overlies bedrock which consists of either lava flows in mare regions or impact-produced megaregolith in highland regions. Lunar regolith has been produced over billions of years by a combination of breaking and communition of bedrock by meteorite bombardment coupled with a variety of complex space weathering processes including solar wind implantation, solar flare and cosmic ray bombardment with attendant radiation damage, melting, vaporization, and vapor condensation driven by impact, and gardening and turnover of the resultant soil. Lunar regolith is poorly sorted compared to most terrestrial soils, and has interesting engineering properties including strong grain adhesion, over-compacted soil density, an abundance of agglutinates with sharp corners, and a variety of properties related to soil maturity. The NASA program has supported a variety of engineering test research projects, the production of bricks by solar or microwave sintering, the production of concrete, the in situ sintering and glazing of regolith by microwave, and the extraction of useful resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, iron, aluminum, silicon and other products. Future requirements for a lunar surface base or outpost will include construction of protective berms, construction of paved roadways, construction of shelters, movement and emplacement of regolith for radiation shielding and thermal control, and extraction of useful products. One early need is for light weight but powerful digging, trenching, and regolith-moving equipment.

  13. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The first decades of the 21st century will be marked by major lunar science and exploration activities. The Moon is a witness to 4.5 billion years of solar system history, recording that history more completely and more clearly than any other planetary body. Lunar science encompasses early planetary evolution and differentiation, lava eruptions and fire fountains, impact scars throughout time, and billions of years of volatile input. I will cover the main outstanding issues in lunar science today and the most intriguing scientific opportunities made possible by renewed robotic and human lunar exploration. Barbara is a planetary scientist at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center. She studies meteorites from the Moon, Mars and asteroids and has been to Antarctica twice to hunt for them. Barbara also works on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity and has an asteroid named after her. She is currently helping the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program on the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, a project tasked by the Exploration System Mission Directorate (ESMD) to develop maps and tools of the Moon to benefit the Constellation Program lunar planning. She is also supporting the Science Mission Directorate s (SMD) lunar flight projects line at Marshall as the co-chair of the Science Definition Team for NASA s next robotic landers, which will be nodes of the International Lunar Network, providing geophysical information about the Moon s interior structure and composition.

  14. Lunar sample 14425 - Not a lunar tektite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of a polished section of lunar sample 14425 shows, in contradiction to a previous report, that it has a composition similar to Apollo 14 breccias, but not to high-magnesium microtektites. Lunar sample 14425 is a large (8.006±0.006 mm dia.) glass bead. Sample 14425 is one of the largest glass beads returned from the moon. Semiquantitative analysis of the bead indicated that it has a composition unlike other lunar samples, but similar to high-magnesium microtektites (O'Keefe and Glass, 1985). A polished section was prepared at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Quantitative analysis of this section shows that the spherule is extremely homogenous in composition and that the composition is similar to Apollo 14 impact breccias and not to any known terrestrial tektite. It appears that the glass bead was formed by impact melting and that it is not a lunar tektite.

  15. Eddies off the Queen Charlotte Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The bright red, green, and turquoise patches to the west of British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Islands and Alaska's Alexander Archipelago highlight the presence of biological activity in the ocean. These colors indicate high concentrations of chlorophyll, the primary pigment found in phytoplankton. Notice that there are a number of eddies visible in the Pacific Ocean in this pseudo-color scene. The eddies are formed by strong outflow currents from rivers along North America's west coast that are rich in nutrients from the springtime snowmelt running off the mountains. This nutrient-rich water helps stimulate the phytoplankton blooms within the eddies. (For more details, read Tracking Eddies that Feed the Sea.) To the west of the eddies in the water, another type of eddy-this one in the atmosphere-forms the clouds into the counterclockwise spiral characteristic of a low pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere. (Click on the image above to see it at full resolution; or click to see the scene in true-color.) The snow-covered mountains of British Columbia are visible in the upper righthand corner of the image. This scene was constructed using SeaWiFS data collected on June 13, 2002. SeaWiFS image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 11th, Houston, TX, March 17-21, 1980, Proceedings. Volume 1 - Igneous processes and remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Topics discussed include basaltic studies, planetary differentiation (e.g., lunar highland rocks), and remote sensing studies of chemical composition, mineralogic composition, and physical surface properties. Particular attention is given to the petrology and chemistry of basaltic fragments from the Apollo 11 soil, a model of early lunar differentiation, rocks of the early lunar crust, refractory and moderately volatile element abundances in the earth, moon, and meteorites, the effects of overlapping optical absorption bands of pyroxene and glass on the reflectance spectra of lunar soils, and the characterization of Martian surface materials from earth-based radar.

  17. U-Pb Ages of Lunar Apatites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J.; Nemchin, A. A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Apatite is one of the minerals that is rarely utilized in U-Pb geochronology, compared to some other U-rich accessory phases. Relatively low U concentration, commonly high proportion of common Pb and low closure temperature of U-Pb system of apatite inhibit its application as geochronological tool when other minerals such as zircon are widely available. However, zircon appear to be restricted to certain type of lunar rocks, carrying so called KREEP signature, whereas apatite (and whitlockite) is a common accessory mineral in the lunar samples. Therefore, utilizing apatite for lunar chronology may increase the pool of rocks that are available for U-Pb dating. The low stability of U-Pb systematics of apatite may also result in the resetting of the system during meteoritic bombardment, in which case apatite may provide an additional tool for the study of the impact history of the Moon. In order to investigate these possibilities, we have analysed apatites and zircons from two breccia samples collected during the Apollo 14 mission. Both samples were collected within the Fra Mauro formation, which is interpreted as a material ejected during the impact that formed the Imbrium Basin.

  18. HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

  19. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed.

  20. Multifunctional queen pheromone and maintenance of reproductive harmony in termite colonies.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Pheromones are likely involved in all social activities of social insects including foraging, sexual behavior, defense, nestmate recognition, and caste regulation. Regulation of the number of fertile queens requires communication between reproductive and non-reproductive individuals. Queen-produced pheromones have long been believed to be the main factor inhibiting the differentiation of new reproductive individuals. However, since the discovery more than 50 years ago of the queen honeybee substance that inhibits the queen-rearing behavior of workers, little progress has been made in the chemical identification of inhibitory queen pheromones in other social insects. The recent identification of a termite queen pheromone and subsequent studies have elucidated the multifaceted roles of volatile pheromones, including functions such as a fertility signal, worker attractant, queen-queen communication signal, and antimicrobial agent. The proximate origin and evolutionary parsimony of the termite queen pheromone also are discussed. PMID:22623152

  1. Virgin honeybee queens fail to suppress worker fertility but not fertility signalling.

    PubMed

    Orlova, Margarita; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham

    2013-03-01

    Queen mating status in social insects is a matter of crucial importance for workers because of its influence on the queen's productivity and consequently their fitness. Behavioural and physiological reactions of workers to the queens mating status have been studied as a proxy to mechanisms maintaining insect sociality. Here we show that unmated honeybee queens have considerably impaired capacity to trigger worker sterility and cooperative behaviour in comparison to mated (and thus more productive) queens and that under unmated queens social harmony in honeybee societies and queen's dominant position are somewhat compromised. Together with this it is shown that honeybee workers exposed to unmated queens despite being active reproductively and behaving accordingly display an impaired ability to advertise their fertility compared to queenless workers. These findings suggest that reproductive development, behavioural reactions and production of fertility signals are differentially regulated and differently influenced by the queen's presence. PMID:23232436

  2. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.; Cirlin, E. H.; Rajan, R. S.; Rambaldi, E. R.; Want, D.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented from an extensive series of new high resolution scanning electron microscope studies of the very primative group of meteorites known as unequilibrated chondrites. These include quantitative analyses of micrometer sized phases and interpretation in terms of relevant phase equilibria. Several new meteorite minerals including high chromium metal, have been discovered.

  3. The earliest Lunar Magma Ocean differentiation recorded in Fe isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Sedaghatpour, Fatemeh; Chen, Heng; Korotev, Randy L.

    2015-11-01

    Recent high-precision isotopic measurements show that the isotopic similarity of Earth and Moon is unique among all known planetary bodies in our Solar System. These observations provide fundamental constraints on the origin of Earth-Moon system, likely a catastrophic Giant Impact event. However, in contrast to the isotopic composition of many elements (e.g., O, Mg, Si, K, Ti, Cr, and W), the Fe isotopic compositions of all lunar samples are significantly different from those of the bulk silicate Earth. Such a global Fe isotopic difference between the Moon and Earth provides an important constraint on the lunar formation - such as the amount of Fe evaporation as a result of a Giant Impact origin of the Moon. Here, we show through high-precision Fe isotopic measurements of one of the oldest lunar rocks (4.51 ± 0.10 Gyr dunite 72 415), compared with Fe isotope results of other lunar samples from the Apollo program, and lunar meteorites, that the lunar dunite is enriched in light Fe isotopes, complementing the heavy Fe isotope enrichment in other lunar samples. Thus, the earliest olivine accumulation in the Lunar Magma Ocean may have been enriched in light Fe isotopes. This new observation allows the Fe isotopic composition of the bulk silicate Moon to be identical to that of the bulk silicate Earth, by balancing light Fe in the deep Moon with heavy Fe in the shallow Moon rather than the Moon having a heavier Fe isotope composition than Earth as a result of Giant Impact vaporization.

  4. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  5. Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Grorge

    2001-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

  6. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, O. Richard

    2002-03-01

    In recent years, meteorites have caught the imagination of scientist and collector alike. An army of people are now actively searching for them in the hot and cold deserts of Earth. Fascinating extraterrestrial rocks in meteorites are our only contact with materials from beyond the Earth-Moon system. Using well known petrologic techniques, O. Richard Norton reveals in vivid color their extraordinary external and internal structures and taking readers to the atomic level, describes the environment within the solar nebula that existed before the planets accreted. Extensively illustrated, this volume is a valuable guide to assist searchers in the field in recognizing the many classes of meteorites and it is a superb reference source for students, teachers and scientists who wish to probe deeper these amazing rocks from space. O. Richard Norton is a contributing editor for Meteorite magazine and the author of The Planetarium and Atmospherium and Rocks from Space (Mountain Press, 1998). For the last 40 years, he has taught astronomy and space sciences at various US institutions.

  7. Antarctic Meteorite Classification and Petrographic Database Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, N. S.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Righter, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic Meteorite collection, which is comprised of over 18,700 meteorites, is one of the largest collections of meteorites in the world. These meteorites have been collected since the late 1970 s as part of a three-agency agreement between NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the Smithsonian Institution [1]. Samples collected each season are analyzed at NASA s Meteorite Lab and the Smithsonian Institution and results are published twice a year in the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, which has been in publication since 1978. Each newsletter lists the samples collected and processed and provides more in-depth details on selected samples of importance to the scientific community. Data about these meteorites is also published on the NASA Curation website [2] and made available through the Meteorite Classification Database allowing scientists to search by a variety of parameters. This paper describes enhancements that have been made to the database and to the data and photo acquisition process to provide the meteorite community with faster access to meteorite data concurrent with the publication of the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter twice a year.

  8. Lunar Nitrogen Problem: A peep at individual mineral grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripada, V. S. Murty; Mahajan, R. R.

    2012-07-01

    The lunar surface is continuously receiving solar wind (SW) implantation, due to lack of atmosphere and intrinsic magnetic field. As a result, grains at the surface are loaded with SW nitrogen and noble gases, making the lunar soils an excellent means to understand the composition of these elements in the SW. A surprise finding since the Apollo era has been the over abundance of nitrogen in lunar soils by about an order of magnitude than expected from noble gases [ ^{14}N/ ^{36}Ar ˜ 360, as against 37 for SW]. In addition, the nitrogen isotopic composition of lunar soil ranges from -240 to +100 per mil, while pure SW nitrogen is -400 per mil. The excess N in lunar soils and its isotopic range still elude an explanation and termed as the ``Lunar Nitrogen Problem''. As would be expected, similar behavior of N and noble gases has been observed in lunar meteorites also. A simultaneous study of N and noble gases is necessary to better address this problem and such studies are sparse in literature. Also, lunar soil consists of an ensemble of different mineral grains, each receiving SW during multiple surface exposures due to regolith gardening and also each grain has different retentivity for SW implanted species. Bulk soil analysis will provide an average picture of the ensemble of grains it has. To better characterize the nitrogen components, it is more appropriate to analyse individual grains. We have developed a laser heating system with low blanks, attached with a mass spectrometer that can analyse all noble gases and nitrogen (in pico mole amounts) for isotopic composition, to investigate this problem. We have analysed individual mineral grains (weighing few hundred micro grams) from the lunar meteorite Y983885 for noble gases and nitrogen. So far we have studied ilmenite grains (analysis of other mineral grains is in progress) by stepwise heating method in an effort to resolve the multiple nitrogen components. The release pattern of N, δ ^{15}N and ^{14}N/ ^{36

  9. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  10. Lunar Dust Charging by Photoelectric Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    The lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of sub-micron/micron size dust grains formed by meteoritic impact over billions of years. The fine dust grains are levitated and transported on the lunar surface, as indicated by the transient dust clouds observed over the lunar horizon during the Apollo 17 mission. Theoretical models suggest that the dust grains on the lunar surface are charged by the solar UV radiation as well as the solar wind. Even without any physical activity, the dust grains are levitated by electrostatic fields and transported away from the surface in the near vacuum environment of the Moon. The current dust charging and levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena. Since the abundance of dust on the Moon s surface with its observed adhesive characteristics has the potential of severe impact on human habitat and operations and lifetime of a variety of equipment, it is necessary to investigate the charging properties and the lunar dust phenomena in order to develop appropriate mitigating strategies. Photoelectric emission induced by the solar UV radiation with photon energies higher than the work function of the grain materials is recognized to be the dominant process for charging of the lunar dust, and requires measurements of the photoelectric yields to determine the charging and equilibrium potentials of individual dust grains. In this paper, we present the first laboratory measurements of the photoelectric efficiencies and yields of individual sub-micron/micron size dust grains selected from sample returns of Apollo 17, and Luna 24 missions, as well as similar size dust grains from the JSC-1 simulants. The measurements were made on a laboratory facility based on an electrodynamic balance that permits a variety of experiments to be conducted on individual sub-micron/micron size dust grains in simulated space environments. The photoelectric emission measurements indicate grain size dependence with the yield

  11. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  12. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  13. Compositional and Geochronological Constraints on the Lunar Cataclysm from Planetary Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiometric dating and compositional clustering of lunar impact-melt rocks form the backbone of the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. Precise age determinations of Apollo and Luna impact-melt rocks define the classic formulation of the cataclysm: a large number of samples 3.9 Ga old, a steep decline after 3.9 Ga, and few impact rocks older than 4.0 Ga. Lunar meteorites more randomly sample the lunar surface, but impact-melt clasts in these rocks show the same apparent age cutoff at 4.0 Ga (though their ages extend approx.500 Myr later). Neither do impact-formed glass spherules and fragments, formed by impacts of all sizes throughout lunar history, predate 4.0 Ga. Geological associations between compositional groups of impact-melt rocks and specific impact basins imply that five large basins formed on the Moon within 200 Myr but a counter-argument postulates they are all products of the Imbrium basin-forming impact; it is not yet proven whether groups of impact melt that are resolvable from each other in age and in trace-element composition represent multiple impacts. The 3.9 Ga age peak and subsequent steep decline are not well mirrored in meteorite data. Radiometric ages in ordinary chondrites and HED meteorites peak around 3.9 Ga but ages older and younger than 3.9 Ga are common. Among Martian meteorites, there is a single impact-related age: ALH 84001 was shocked at 3.92 Ga. Differences in relative impact velocity, impact-melt production, and sampling rate could explain differences between the meteorite and lunar records. One way to anchor the early end of the lunar flux is to directly sample the impact-melt sheet of a large lunar basin distant from Imbrium, such as the South Pole-Aitken basin, where melt rocks probably still resides on the basin floor and could be directly sampled by a human or robotic mission.

  14. MAC88105 - A regolith breccia from the lunar highlands: Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C. ); Kurat, G.; Branstaetter, F. )

    1991-11-01

    The new large lunar meteorite MAC88105 is a dense breccia, with lithic and mineral clasts and fragments set into a welded matrix. It is a regolith breccia which shows some recrystallization and evidence for a late shock event during which anorthositic glass veins were formed. Shock effects (most probably due to impact ejection from the moon) are present throughout the sample and require a shock pressure of about 25-30 GPa, in agreement with observations made on other lunar meteorites. The presence of devitrified glass (spheres and shards) supports a regolith origin. Most common are meta-meltbreccias consisting of abundant anorthitic plagioclase clasts and a dense, fine-grained matrix. Some fine-grained hornfelsic to granulitic metabreccias are also present. Lithic clast compositions are predominantly anorthositic noritic (or noritic anorthositic), and anorthositic troctolitic. The bulk comparison of MAC88105 is different from that of the lunar meteorites and suggests a different source, which is supported by cosmic-ray and noble gas data. At this time it seems likely that about four individual impact events have been responsible for delivering the seven highland meteorites.

  15. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  16. Bumblebee size polymorphism and worker response to queen pheromone.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Queen pheromones are chemical signals produced by reproductive individuals in social insect colonies. In many species they are key to the maintenance of reproductive division of labor, with workers beginning to reproduce individually once the queen pheromone disappears. Recently, a queen pheromone that negatively affects worker fecundity was discovered in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, presenting an exciting opportunity for comparisons with analogous queen pheromones in independently-evolved eusocial lineages such as honey bees, ants, wasps and termites. I set out to replicate this discovery and verify its reproducibility. Using blind, controlled experiments, I found that n-pentacosane (C25) does indeed negatively affect worker ovary development. Moreover, the pheromone affects both large and small workers, and applies to workers from large, mature colonies as well as young colonies. Given that C25 is readily available and that bumblebees are popular study organisms, I hope that this replication will encourage other researchers to tackle the many research questions enabled by the discovery of a queen pheromone. PMID:25289189

  17. Do sexist organizational cultures create the Queen Bee?

    PubMed

    Derks, Belle; Ellemers, Naomi; van Laar, Colette; de Groot, Kim

    2011-09-01

    'Queen Bees' are senior women in masculine organizational cultures who have fulfilled their career aspirations by dissociating themselves from their gender while simultaneously contributing to the gender stereotyping of other women. It is often assumed that this phenomenon contributes to gender discrimination in organizations, and is inherent to the personalities of successful career women. We argue for a social identity explanation and examine organizational conditions that foster the Queen Bee phenomenon. Participants were 94 women holding senior positions in diverse companies in The Netherlands who participated in an on-line survey. In line with predictions, indicators of the Queen Bee phenomenon (increased gender stereotyping and masculine self-descriptions) were found mostly among women who indicated they had started their career with low gender identification and who had subsequently experienced a high degree of gender discrimination on their way up. By contrast, the experience of gender discrimination was unrelated to signs of the Queen Bee phenomenon among women who indicated to be highly identified when they started their career. Results are discussed in light of social identity theory, interpreting the Queen Bee phenomenon as an individual mobility response of low gender identified women to the gender discrimination they encounter in their work. PMID:21884548

  18. The evolution of queen pheromones in the ant genus Lasius.

    PubMed

    Holman, L; Lanfear, R; d'Ettorre, P

    2013-07-01

    Queen pheromones are among the most important chemical messages regulating insect societies yet they remain largely undiscovered, hindering research into interesting proximate and ultimate questions. Identifying queen pheromones in multiple species would give new insight into the selective pressures and evolutionary constraints acting on these ubiquitous signals. Here, we present experimental and comparative evidence that 3-methylalkanes, hydrocarbons present on the queen's cuticle, are a queen pheromone throughout the ant genus Lasius. Interspecific variation in the chemical profile is consistent with 3-methylalkanes evolving more slowly than other types of hydrocarbons, perhaps due to differential selection or evolutionary constraints. We argue that the sensory ecology of the worker response imposes strong stabilizing selection on queen pheromones relative to other hydrocarbons. 3-Methylalkanes are also strongly physiologically and genetically coupled with fecundity in at least one Lasius species, which may translate into evolutionary constraints. Our results highlight how honest signalling could minimize evolutionary conflict over reproduction, promoting the evolution and maintenance of eusociality. PMID:23662630

  19. Bumblebee size polymorphism and worker response to queen pheromone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Queen pheromones are chemical signals produced by reproductive individuals in social insect colonies. In many species they are key to the maintenance of reproductive division of labor, with workers beginning to reproduce individually once the queen pheromone disappears. Recently, a queen pheromone that negatively affects worker fecundity was discovered in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, presenting an exciting opportunity for comparisons with analogous queen pheromones in independently-evolved eusocial lineages such as honey bees, ants, wasps and termites. I set out to replicate this discovery and verify its reproducibility. Using blind, controlled experiments, I found that n-pentacosane (C25) does indeed negatively affect worker ovary development. Moreover, the pheromone affects both large and small workers, and applies to workers from large, mature colonies as well as young colonies. Given that C25 is readily available and that bumblebees are popular study organisms, I hope that this replication will encourage other researchers to tackle the many research questions enabled by the discovery of a queen pheromone. PMID:25289189

  20. Presence of Nosema ceranae associated with honeybee queen introductions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Irene; Cepero, Almudena; Pinto, Maria Alice; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; De la Rúa, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    Microsporidiosis caused by Nosema species is one of the factors threatening the health of the honeybee (Apis mellifera), which is an essential element in agriculture mainly due to its pollination function. The dispersion of this pathogen may be influenced by many factors, including various aspects of beekeeping management such as introduction of queens with different origin. Herein we study the relation of the presence and distribution of Nosema spp. and the replacement of queens in honeybee populations settled on the Atlantic Canary Islands. While Nosema apis has not been detected, an increase of the presence and distribution of Nosema ceranae during the last decade has been observed in parallel with a higher frequency of foreign queens. On the other hand, a reduction of the number of N. ceranae positive colonies was observed on those islands with continued replacement of queens. We suggest that such replacement could help maintaining low rates of Nosema infection, but healthy queens native to these islands should be used in order to conserve local honeybee diversity. PMID:24568841