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Sample records for lunar mineral hapkeite

  1. Space weathering on airless planetary bodies: clues from the lunar mineral hapkeite.

    PubMed

    Anand, Mahesh; Taylor, Lawrence A; Nazarov, Mikhail A; Shu, J; Mao, H-K; Hemley, Russell J

    2004-05-01

    Physical and chemical reactions occurring as a result of the high-velocity impacts of meteorites and micrometeorites and of cosmic rays and solar-wind particles are major causes of space weathering on airless planetary bodies, such as the Moon, Mercury, and asteroids. These weathering processes are responsible for the formation of their regolith and soil. We report here the natural occurrence of the mineral hapkeite, a Fe2Si phase, and other associated Fe-Si phases (iron-silicides) in a regolith breccia clast of a lunar highland meteorite. These Fe-Si phases are considered to be a direct product of impact-induced, vapor-phase deposition in the lunar soil, all part of space weathering. We have used an in situ synchrotron energy-dispersive, single-crystal x-ray diffraction technique to confirm the crystal structure of hapkeite as similar to the structure of synthetic Fe2Si. This mineral, hapkeite, is named after Bruce Hapke of the University of Pittsburgh, who predicted the presence and importance of vapor-deposited coatings on lunar soil grains some 30 years ago. We propose that this mineral and other Fe-Si phases are probably more common in the lunar regolith than previously thought and are directly related to the formation of vapor-deposited, nanophase elemental iron in the lunar soils. PMID:15118081

  2. Space weathering on airless planetary bodies: Clues from the lunar mineral hapkeite

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Mahesh; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Nazarov, Mikhail A.; Shu, J.; Mao, H.-K.; Hemley, Russell J.

    2004-01-01

    Physical and chemical reactions occurring as a result of the high-velocity impacts of meteorites and micrometeorites and of cosmic rays and solar-wind particles are major causes of space weathering on airless planetary bodies, such as the Moon, Mercury, and asteroids. These weathering processes are responsible for the formation of their regolith and soil. We report here the natural occurrence of the mineral hapkeite, a Fe2Si phase, and other associated Fe-Si phases (iron-silicides) in a regolith breccia clast of a lunar highland meteorite. These Fe-Si phases are considered to be a direct product of impact-induced, vapor-phase deposition in the lunar soil, all part of space weathering. We have used an in situ synchrotron energy-dispersive, single-crystal x-ray diffraction technique to confirm the crystal structure of hapkeite as similar to the structure of synthetic Fe2Si. This mineral, hapkeite, is named after Bruce Hapke of the University of Pittsburgh, who predicted the presence and importance of vapor-deposited coatings on lunar soil grains some 30 years ago. We propose that this mineral and other Fe-Si phases are probably more common in the lunar regolith than previously thought and are directly related to the formation of vapor-deposited, nanophase elemental iron in the lunar soils. PMID:15118081

  3. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  4. Cathodoluminescence (CL) of Lunar Minerals and Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, J.

    2009-08-01

    Selected material from the lunar surface (Luna 16, 20, 24 missions) was investigated using a combination of CL microscopy and spectroscopy with locally resolved microanalytical methods (Micro-Raman, microprobe, SEM, PIXE) to get information about the mineralogy and the luminescence behavior. Although the general high iron content of most lunar minerals and rocks prevents luminescence activation, certain species on the moon show visible CL. The dominant luminescent minerals are plagioclases and minerals of the SiO2 group, but K-feldspar, zircon and Ca-phosphates show also CL emissions. The application of CL imaging reveals microtextures such as zonation, brecciation or deformation features, which are not discernable by other analytical methods. Spectral CL measurements show that the main luminescence activators in lunar minerals are structural defects, Mn2+, REE3+ and Fe3+. The results show principle similarities with terrestrial material but also significant differences (e.g., mineral association, no weathering, impact damage). The close relationship between specific conditions of formation/alteration, the defect structure, and the luminescence properties may provide important genetic information.

  5. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  6. Measurement of the dielectric constant of lunar minerals and regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigwell, S.; Starnes, J.; Brown, C.; White, C.; White, T.; Su, M.; Mahdi, H. H.; Al-Shukri, H. J.; Biris, A.; Non Invasive ProspectingLunar Ores; Minerals

    2010-12-01

    For long-term lunar exploration, the priorities are excavation and beneficiation of lunar regolith for water, oxygen, energy production, and structural and shielding fabrication. This work is part of a project focusing on the utilization of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to identify the presence of enriched areas of sub-surface minerals for excavation and ore processing. GPR detection of sub-surface minerals depends significantly on the differences in dielectric constant of the various minerals. One of the minerals in lunar regolith of interest is ilmenite for its use in oxygen production and a supply of titanium and iron. Several pure minerals (feldspar, spodumene, olivine, and ilmenite) and lunar simulant JSC-1A were sieved into several size fractions (<25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 µm). A test cell with an attached shaker was constructed in a vacuum chamber and measurements of the dielectric constant of the minerals and simulant were taken as a function of particle size and packing density. The results showed that there was a direct correlation between the measured dielectric constant and packing density and that ilmenite had a much higher dielectric constant than the other minerals. Measurements were also taken on Apollo 14 lunar regolith as a comparison and compared to the literature to validate the results. Mixtures of pure silica powder and ilmenite in various concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 15%) were measured and it was determined that approximately 2-4% ilmenite in the mixtures could be distinguished. Core samples taken on the moon for all Apollo missions showed ilmenite concentrations ranging from 0.3-12%, depending upon whether it was in the mare or highlands regions, and so this data may significantly contribute to the use of GPR for mineral prospecting on the moon.

  7. Volatility in the lunar crust: Trace element analyses of lunar minerals by PIXE proton microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Griffin, W. L.; Ryan, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    In situ determination of mineral compositions using microbeam techniques can characterize magma compositions through mineral-melt partitioning, and be used to investigate fine-grained or rare phases which cannot be extracted for analysis. Abundances of Fe, Mn, Sr, Ga, Zr, Y, Nb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Se, and Sb were determined for various mineral phases in a small number of lunar highlands rocks using the PIXE proton microprobe. Sr/Ga ratios of plagioclase and Mn/Zn ratios of mafic silicates show that the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-suite cumulates are depleted in volatile lithophile elements to about the same degree compared with chondrites and the Earth. This links the entire lunar crust to common processes or source compositions. In contrast, secondary sulfides in Descartes breccia clasts are enriched in chalcophile elements such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb, and represent a potential resource in the lunar highlands.

  8. Lunar Nitrogen Problem: A peep at individual mineral grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripada, V. S. Murty; Mahajan, R. R.

    2012-07-01

    The lunar surface is continuously receiving solar wind (SW) implantation, due to lack of atmosphere and intrinsic magnetic field. As a result, grains at the surface are loaded with SW nitrogen and noble gases, making the lunar soils an excellent means to understand the composition of these elements in the SW. A surprise finding since the Apollo era has been the over abundance of nitrogen in lunar soils by about an order of magnitude than expected from noble gases [ ^{14}N/ ^{36}Ar ˜ 360, as against 37 for SW]. In addition, the nitrogen isotopic composition of lunar soil ranges from -240 to +100 per mil, while pure SW nitrogen is -400 per mil. The excess N in lunar soils and its isotopic range still elude an explanation and termed as the ``Lunar Nitrogen Problem''. As would be expected, similar behavior of N and noble gases has been observed in lunar meteorites also. A simultaneous study of N and noble gases is necessary to better address this problem and such studies are sparse in literature. Also, lunar soil consists of an ensemble of different mineral grains, each receiving SW during multiple surface exposures due to regolith gardening and also each grain has different retentivity for SW implanted species. Bulk soil analysis will provide an average picture of the ensemble of grains it has. To better characterize the nitrogen components, it is more appropriate to analyse individual grains. We have developed a laser heating system with low blanks, attached with a mass spectrometer that can analyse all noble gases and nitrogen (in pico mole amounts) for isotopic composition, to investigate this problem. We have analysed individual mineral grains (weighing few hundred micro grams) from the lunar meteorite Y983885 for noble gases and nitrogen. So far we have studied ilmenite grains (analysis of other mineral grains is in progress) by stepwise heating method in an effort to resolve the multiple nitrogen components. The release pattern of N, δ ^{15}N and ^{14}N/ ^{36

  9. Applications for special-purpose minerals at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    1992-01-01

    Maintaining a colony on the Moon will require the use of lunar resources to reduce the number of launches necessary to transport goods from the Earth. It may be possible to alter lunar materials to produce minerals or other materials that can be used for applications in life support systems at a lunar base. For example, mild hydrothermal alteration of lunar basaltic glasses can produce special-purpose minerals (e.g., zeolites, smectites, and tobermorites) that in turn may be used in life support, construction, waste renovation, and chemical processes. Zeolites, smectites, and tobermorites have a number of potential applications at a lunar base. Zeolites are hydrated aluminosilicates of alkali and alkaline earth cations that possess infinite, three-dimensional crystal structures. They are further characterized by an ability to hydrate and dehydrate reversibly and to exchange some of their constituent cations, both without major change of structure. Based on their unique absorption, cation exchange, molecular sieving, and catalytic properties, zeolites may be used as a solid support medium for the growth of plants, as an adsorption medium for separation of various gases (e.g., N2 from O2), as catalysts, as molecular sieves, and as a cation exchanger in sewage-effluent treatment, in radioactive waste disposal, and in pollution control. Smectites are crystalline, hydrated 2:1 layered aluminosilicates that also have the ability to exchange some of their constituent cations. Like zeolites, smectites may be used as an adsorption medium for waste renovation, as adsorption sites for important essential plant growth cations in solid support plant growth mediums (i.e., 'soils'), as cation exchangers, and in other important application. Tobermorites are cystalline, hydrated single-chained layered silicates that have cation-exchange and selectivity properties between those of smectites and most zeolites. Tobermorites may be used as a cement in building lunar base structures, as

  10. Infrared spectra of lunar soil analogs. [spectral reflectance of minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The infrared spectra of analogs of lunar soils were investigated to further the development of methodology for interpretation of remotely measured infrared spectra of the lunar surface. The optical constants of dunite, bytownite, augite, ilmenite, and a mare glass analog were obtained. The infrared emittance spectra of powdered minerals were measured and compared with spectra calculated by the reflectance theory using a catalog of optical constants. The results indicate that the predictions of the theory closely simulate the experimental measurements if the optical constants are properly derived.

  11. Dielectric Constant Measurements on Lunar Soils and Terrestrial Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Buehler, M. G.; Seshardri, S.; Schaap, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using in situ methods. An examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that only a few minerals (silicates and oxides) need be considered for in situ resource utilization (ISRU). This simplifies the measurement requirements and allows a detailed analysis using simple methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils is difficult because of many complex parameters such as soil temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. In this presentation, we will show that the dielectric constant measurement can provide simple detection for oxides such as TiO2, FeO, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  12. The relationship between lunar metal particles and phosphate minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friel, J. J.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Phosphorus is often present in lunar rocks and soils in bulk concentrations in excess of 0.5 wt % P205. The minerals apatite and whitlockite account for most of the phosphorus. However, it may also be present in metal grains. The relations between metal particles and the phosphates commonly found adjacent to these particles are investigated, taking into account studies involving three Apollo 17 rocks. It appears that phosphorus in lunar metal particles is related to the phosphate minerals by a redox reaction. The independent phosphates probably formed over much of the cooling period of the rock. While the rock was at high temperature, however, phosphorus was free to diffuse and dissolve in the metal droplets providing conditions were sufficiently reducing. If the rock was partially molten, this process would take less than 1 hr. If cooling occurred slowly under less reducing conditions, some of the phosphorus in the metal particles would be oxidized to form whitlockite.

  13. Global Distributions of Large Exposed Areas of Lunar Major Minerals and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Nakamura, R.; Matsunaga, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Ohtake, M.; Haruyama, J.

    2016-05-01

    We review the global distributions of large exposure areas of the various lunar major minerals revealed by the recent remote-sensing hyperspectral observations, and discuss possible implications for lunar crust and mantle.

  14. Uranium-bearing minerals of lunar rock 12013.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Albee, A. L.; Chodos, A. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    The U distribution in rock 12013 was studied by fission track and elemental mapping techniques. Major U-bearing phases are whitlockite, apatite, zircon, and phase beta, which is a Zr-Ti mineral rich in Fe, Nb, Y, REE, and containing up to 3.6% UO2, 4.7% ThO2 and 4.2% PbO. Calculated microprobe ages for phase beta average 4.0 b.y. and are in reasonable agreement with Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages. Phase beta plays a significant role in the U-Th-Pb systematics of rock 12012 and may play a similar role in the model ages of lunar soil.

  15. X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: modal analyses of minerals and glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Patchen, A.; Taylor, D. H.; Chambers, J. G.; McKay, D. S.

    1996-01-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses, sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 micrometers size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO approximately or = 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L.A. Taylor and D.S. McKay (1992, Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd, pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

  16. X-Ray Digital Imaging Petrography of Lunar Mare Soils: Modal Analyses of Minerals and Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Dong-Hwa S.; Chambers, John G.; McKay, David S.

    1996-12-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses,sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 μm size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO ≅ 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L. A. Taylor and D. S. McKay (1992,Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd,pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

  17. The Role of Spinel Minerals in Lunar Magma Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Staid, M.; Isaacson, P.; Petro, N. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), a NASA guest instrument on Chandrayaan-1, India’s first mission to the Moon, was designed to map the surface mineralogy of the Moon using reflected solar radiation at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, which contain highly diagnostic absorptions due to minerals. The M3 spectrometer has discovered several new and unexpected aspects of the geology and petrology of the Moon, some involving specific oxide phases. Spinel minerals, with the general formula, AB2O4, present clues as to the oxygen fugacity, the nature of magmatic systems, and their evolution, particularly during the early stages of crystallization. On the Moon, with its total lack of Fe3+ and minerals such as magnetite, observed spinels range between spinel, MgAl2O4; hercynite, FeAl2O4; Chromite, FeCr2O4; and ulvöspinel, Fe(FeTi)2O4. They manifest themselves in three distinctly different igneous rock types: highlands rocks of anorthosites/troctolites, gabbro-norites; mare basalts with various TiO2 contents; and basaltic pyroclastic volcanic glasses. Although spinels occur as minor minerals in the Apollo collection, unique rock types dominated by Mg-spinel (with olivine and pyroxene abundances below detection limits, assumed to be ~5%) have been identified by M3 on the Moon. Because the spinel-bearing rocks detected by M3 have no signature of a significant olivine component, they must be dominated by plagioclase and spinel. Pink Mg-spinels typically occur as a minor phase in troctolites (plagioclase + olivine), a highland rock formed after the initial Ferroan Anorthosite (FAN) crust, presumably by serial magmatism deep within the crust, with intrusion upward. FANs were formed by floatation of plagioclase in the lunar magma ocean (LMO), whereas spinels would sink due to their much higher density. Thus, a plagioclase-rich rock type with a strong Mg-spinel spectral signature would have to be part of later highland intrusives. The excess Mg-spinel could be the product of

  18. Lunar mineral feedstocks from rocks and soils: X-ray digital imaging in resource evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Higgins, Stefan J.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon provide raw materials essential to the successful establishment of a lunar base. Efficient exploitation of these resources requires accurate characterization of mineral abundances, sizes/shapes, and association of 'ore' and 'gangue' phases, as well as the technology to generate high-yield/high-grade feedstocks. Only recently have x-ray mapping and digital imaging techniques been applied to lunar resource evaluation. The topics covered include inherent differences between lunar basalts and soils and quantitative comparison of rock-derived and soil-derived ilmenite concentrates. It is concluded that x-ray digital-imaging characterization of lunar raw materials provides a quantitative comparison that is unattainable by traditional petrographic techniques. These data are necessary for accurately determining mineral distributions of soil and crushed rock material. Application of these techniques will provide an important link to choosing the best raw material for mineral beneficiation.

  19. Resources for a lunar base: Rocks, minerals, and soil of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    The rocks and minerals of the Moon will be included among the raw materials used to construct a lunar base. The lunar regolith, the fragmental material present on the surface of the Moon, is composed mostly of disaggregated rocks and minerals, but also includes glassy fragments fused together by meteorite impacts. The finer fraction of the regolith (i.e., less than 1 cm) is informally referred to as soil. The soil is probably the most important portion of the regolith for use at a lunar base. For example, soil can be used as insulation against cosmic rays, for lunar ceramics and abodes, or for growing plants. The soil contains abundant solar-wind-implanted elements as well as various minerals, particularly oxide phases, that are of potential economic importance. For example, these components of the soil are sources of oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel, helium for nuclear energy, and metals such as Fe, Al, Si, and Ti.

  20. Raman characterization of minerals in two lunar achondrites: NWA 2700 and Dhofar 1085

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Mestres, N.; Madiedo, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    We characterize here the main minerals forming two lunar achondrites (NWA 2700 and Dhofar 1085) whose properties are being extensively studied as a final degree project of first author. Both are different lunar achondrites, the first being a complex breccia and the second one is an anorthositic rock mainly formed by fayalite (Fe2SiO4) and ferrosilite (FeSiO3). Our goal is obtaining information on the physicochemical processes that participated in the formation of both stones.

  1. Mineral-chemical comparisons of MAC88105 with Yamato lunar meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Mori, Hiroshi; Saito, Jun ); Miyamoto, Masamichi )

    1991-11-01

    The new lunar meteorite MAC88105 has been studied by mineral-chemical techniques and was compared with the Yamato lunar meteorites. Clast types and pyroxene compositions of MAC88105 indicate that evidence for a pairing with any known lunar meteorites is unlikely. Clast-laden vitric breccia and comminuted mineral fragments in glassy matrix are common components as in other lunar meteorites, but granulitic clasts are not as common as in other lunar meteorites. The large and common granulite-like meta-igneous clasts still preserve lath-shaped plagioclase crystals with fine-grained olivine and pyroxenes in the interstices. Pyroxenes with mg number = Mg {times} 100/(Mg + Fe) between 70-48 mol% are common, but more Mg-rich pyroxenes and plutonic pyroxenes from nonmare pristine crustal rocks are rare. One basaltic clast contains pyroxenes with zoning trends more MG-rich than the above mg range and than those of the VLT basalts common in lunar meteorites. MAC88105 preserves true glass in the matrix as observed by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The preservation of glassy materials indicates that MAC 88105 had a metamorphic annealing history different from other lunar meteorites.

  2. Studies of light noble gases in mineral grains from lunar soils: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieler, R.; Etique, P.; Signer, P.

    1986-01-01

    Among the lunar soil constituents, monomineralic grains deserve special attention. Noble gases of carefully prepared mineral separates from lunar bulk soils were studied. The major results and conclusions of these investigations are summarized, in the context of both the regolith evolution and the history of the solar corpuscular radiation. With regard to the most abundant noble gas component in the regolith samples (the solar gases) the mineral grains have mainly two properties giving these particles among all soil constituents the best characteristics as sensors for solar gases, despite the fact, that the noble gas concentrations in a mineral separate are 10 to 60 times lower that those in a bulk sample of the same grain size. The first of these properties is the mineral dependent retentivity of the light gases He and Ne, the second property concerns the relatively short time during which a mineral grain acquires it solar gases. These two points are briefly discussed.

  3. Reduction of iron-bearing lunar minerals for the production of oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massieon, Charles; Cutler, Andrew; Shadman, Farhang

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the reduction of simulants of the iron-bearing lunar minerals olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4), pyroxene ((Fe,Mg,Ca)SiO3), and ilmenite (FeTiO3) are investigated, extending previous work with ilmenite. Fayalite is reduced by H2 at 1070 K to 1480 K. A layer of mixed silica glass and iron forms around an unreacted core. Reaction kinetics are influenced by permeation of hydrogen through this layer and a reaction step involving dissociated hydrogen. Reaction mechanisms are independent of Mg content. Augite, hypersthene, and hedenbergite are reduced in H2 at the same temperatures. The products are iron metal and lower iron silicates mixed throughout the mineral. Activation energy rises with calcium content. Ilmenite and fayalite are reduced with carbon deposited on partially reduced minerals via the CO disproportionation reaction. Reduction with carbon is rapid, showing the carbothermal reduction of lunar minerals is possible.

  4. Microsampling techniques for infrared spectroscopic analysis of lunar and terrestrial minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, P. A.; Kovach, J. J.; Karr, C.

    1973-01-01

    Microsampling techniques have been developed for infrared analysis of single mineral grains from lunar rocks and dusts, allowing a detailed molecular structure characterization of these complex fine-grained samples. The methods include special devices for isolating single grains, preparing micropellets from the grains, and obtaining in situ microspecular reflectance spectra from grains in polished rock samples. Although specifically developed for the work on lunar samples, the special techniques for single grain infrared analysis were found to be equally useful in studies of complex terrestrial mineral samples. For example, infrared microanalysis has contributed substantially in solving problems concerned with our natural resources, such as the structural characterization of minerals from commercial iron ores, marine deposits, coal, and fly ash derived from coal.

  5. Evolution of major mineral compositions and trace element abundances during fractional crystallization of a model lunar composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The evolution of major mineral compositions and trace element abundances during perfect fractional crystallization of a model lunar magma ocean was calculated. The minerals in the model lunar composition were olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase. Lunar bulk composition data, major mineral/melt equilibria data, and trace element partition data were taken from published sources. The results show olivine beginning to crystallize at 1380 C. Approximately 50% of the system crystallizes as olivine. From 50 to 60% solidification, orthopyroxene crystallizes alone. During the final 40% solidification, Ca-rich clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallize together. Various changes in composition of all these minerals are also noted during the process. Concomitant evolution of major element abundances in the melt is followed along with that of trace element abundances. Consequences of the results for constraints on some aspects of the composition of the lunar magma ocean and of the primitive moon are discussed.

  6. [A spectral unmixing method of estimating main minerals abundance of lunar soils].

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo-Kun; Li, Jian-Zhong; Gan, Fu-Ping; Yang, Su-Ming; Wang, Run-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    Estimating minerals abundance from reflectance spectra is one of the fundamental goals of remote sensing lunar exploration, and the main difficulties are the complicated mixing law of minerals spectrum and spectral features being sensitive to several kinds of factors such as topography, particle size and roughness etc. A method based on spectral unmixing was put forward and tested in the present paper. Before spectra are unmixed the spectral continuum is removed for clarifying and strengthening spectral features. The absorption features and reflectance features (the upward curving parts of spectra between absorption features) are integrated for unmixing to improve the unmixing performance. The Hapke model was used to correct unmixing error due to nonlinear mixing of minerals spectra. Forty three mixed spectra of olivine, clinopyroxene, hypersthene and plagioclase were used to validate the above method. The four minerals abundance was estimated under the conditions of being unaware of endmember spectra used to mix, granularity and chemical composition of minerals. Residual error, abundance error and correlation coefficient between retrieved and true abundance were 5.0 Vol%, 14.4 Vol% and 0.92 respectively. The method and result of this paper could be referred in the lunar minerals mapping of imaging spectrometer data such as M3. PMID:23427563

  7. An improved radiative transfer model for estimating mineral abundance of immature and mature lunar soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dawei; Li, Lin; Sun, Ying

    2015-06-01

    An improved Hapke's radiative transfer model (RTM) is presented to estimate mineral abundance for both immature and mature lunar soils from the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) dataset. Fundamental to this improved Hapke's model is the application of an alternative equation to describe the effects of larger size submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe) (>50 nm) in the interior of agglutinitic glass that mainly darken the host material, contrasting to the darkening and reddening effects of smaller size SMFe (<50 nm) residing in the rims of mineral grains. Results from applying a nonlinear inversion procedure to the improved Hapke's RTM show that the average mass fraction of smaller and larger size SMFe in lunar soils was estimated to be 0.30% and 0.31% respectively, and the particle size distribution of soil samples is all within their measured range. Based on the derived mass fraction of SMFe and particle size of the soil samples, abundances of end-member components composing lunar soil samples were derived via minimizing the difference between measured and calculated spectra. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the fitted and measured spectra is lower than 0.01 for highland samples and 0.005 for mare samples. This improved Hapke's model accurately estimates abundances of agglutinitic glass (R-squared = 0.88), pyroxene (R-squared = 0.69) and plagioclase (R-squared = 0.95) for all 57 samples used in this study including both immature and mature lunar soils. However, the improved Hapke's RTM shows poor performance for quantifying abundances of olivine, ilmenite and volcanic glass. Improving the model performance for estimation of these three end-member components is the central focus for our future work.

  8. Radiative transfer modeling for quantifying lunar surface minerals, particle size, and submicroscopic metallic Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuai; Li, Lin

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to quantify lunar surface minerals (agglutinate, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite, and volcanic glass), particle sizes, and the abundance of submicroscopic metallic Fe (SMFe) from the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) data set with Hapke's radiative transfer theory. The mode is implemented for both forward and inverse modeling. We implement Hapke's radiative transfer theory in the inverse mode in which, instead of commonly used look-up tables, Newton's method and least squares are jointly used to solve nonlinear questions. Although the effects of temperature and surface roughness are incorporated into the implementation to improve the model performance for application of lunar spacecraft data, these effects cannot be extensively addressed in the current work because of the use of lab-measured reflectance data. Our forward radiative transfer model results show that the correlation coefficients between modeled and measured spectra are over 0.99. For the inverse model, the distribution of the particle sizes is all within their measured range. The range of modeled SMFe for highland samples is 0.01%-0.5%, and for mare samples it is 0.03%-1%. The linear trend between SMFe and ferromagnetic resonance (Is) for all the LSCC samples is consistent with laboratory measurements. For quantifying lunar mineral abundances, the results show that the R squared for the training samples (Is/FeO ≤ 65) are over 0.65 with plagioclase having highest correlation (0.94) and pyroxene having the lowest correlation (0.68). In future work, the model needs to be improved for handling more mature lunar soil samples.

  9. Mineral Composition Determination of the Lunar Crust with the SIR-2 Instrument on CHANDRAYAAN-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mall, Urs; Bhatt, Megha; Bugiolacchi, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been used for quite some time to collect information concerning the composition of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial surfaces. Among those techniques InfraRed (IR) spectroscopy provides information at the molecular level on the structure and properties of minerals. Due to the fact that IR spectra are specific to given minerals, IR spectroscopy is widely applied in qualitative and quantitative mineralogical analyses. In the laboratory the measurement of the IR transmission spectrum of a given material delivers a direct determination of the absorption coefficient of the irradiated substance as a unique identification parameter. Relative wavelength position, strength, and shape of the measured absorption bands have been employed for a long time as diagnostic tools to analyse the mineralogy of the observed surface by deriving basic correlations between optical properties and the actual mineralogy of the observed samples. With the advent of high-resolution NIR reflection spectrometers, mineral identification of planetary surfaces can be investigated now more quantitatively. We show how remotely sensed NIR lunar data, collected by the SIR-2-instrument [1] that flew on the Indian Lunar Mission Chandrayaan-1 in 2009 and 2010, can be used to unscramble and identify the mineral composition of the lunar crust. The SIR-2 instrument was a lightweight, modular, grating-based, high-resolution point spectrometer operating in the spectral range 0.9--2.4~μ m, with spectral resolution of ˜6 nm (256 bands). For this study 50,000 SIR-2 spectra were selected, which show clear absorption features. We concentrate here on pyroxene as one of the most common minerals in both evolved and undifferentiated solid bodies of the solar system and as the dominant mafic mineral on the lunar surface [2]. With their distinct absorption features not only in the visible but also in the near-infrared this group of minerals warrants a quantitative analysis. We are using the

  10. Detection of Macromolecules in Desert Cyanobacteria Mixed with a Lunar Mineral Analogue After Space Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqué, Mickael; Verseux, Cyprien; Rabbow, Elke; de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Billi, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    In the context of future exposure missions in Low Earth Orbit and possibly on the Moon, two desert strains of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis, strains CCMEE 029 and 057, mixed or not with a lunar mineral analogue, were exposed to fractionated fluencies of UVC and polychromatic UV (200-400 nm) and to space vacuum. These experiments were carried out within the framework of the BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) project, which aims at broadening our knowledge of mineral-microorganism interaction and the stability/degradation of their macromolecules when exposed to space and simulated Martian conditions. The presence of mineral analogues provided a protective effect, preserving survivability and integrity of DNA and photosynthetic pigments, as revealed by testing colony-forming abilities, performing PCR-based assays and using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In particular, DNA and pigments were still detectable after 500 kJ/m2 of polychromatic UV and space vacuum (10-4 Pa), corresponding to conditions expected during one-year exposure in Low Earth Orbit on board the EXPOSE-R2 platform in the presence of 0.1 % Neutral Density (ND) filter. After exposure to high UV fluencies (800 MJ/m2) in the presence of minerals, however, altered fluorescence emission spectrum of the photosynthetic pigments were detected, whereas DNA was still amplified by PCR. The present paper considers the implications of such findings for the detection of biosignatures in extraterrestrial conditions and for putative future lunar missions.

  11. Ti-bearing oxide minerals in lunar meteorite Y793169 with the VLT affinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Arai, Tomoko; Saiki, Kazuto

    1993-01-01

    Lunar meteorite, Yamato 793169 previously classified as a VLT mare basalt contains considerable amounts of Ti-bearing oxides in the mesostasis area (2 vol. percent). Mineralogical study of these oxides revealed that they are isolated grains of ilmenite, ulvospinel and chromite, which are formed at the last stage of crystallization. Ti/(Ti+Al+Cr) and Cr/(Cr+Al) versus Fe/(Mg+Fe) variations of these phases are not in the same trends as in the low Ti pigeonite basalts of Apollo 12 and 15 in spite of its higher TiO2 contents. Among four lunar meteorites proposed to be samples of mare regions of the Moon, EET87521 and Y793274 are breccias rich in lunar mare components, but Y793169 and A881757 are crystalline rocks composed of Fe-rich pigeonite and plagioclase with affinity to the VLT basalts, despite their higher bulk TiO2 contents than the limit for VLT. Polished think sections (PTS) Y793169,51-3 and A881757,51-4 (Asuka-31) supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) were investigated. Both samples were allocated as parts of two consortium studies. Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), JEOL 840A with X-ray chemical map analysis (CMA) utilities. Modal abundances of minerals in Y793169 were obtained from colored backscattered electron (BSE) image of SEM for a particular mineral by a computer and by point analysis for minerals with a similar BSE intensity.

  12. Ti-bearing oxide minerals in lunar meteorite Y793169 with the VLT affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Arai, Tomoko; Saiki, Kazuto

    1993-03-01

    Lunar meteorite, Yamato 793169 previously classified as a VLT mare basalt contains considerable amounts of Ti-bearing oxides in the mesostasis area (2 vol. percent). Mineralogical study of these oxides revealed that they are isolated grains of ilmenite, ulvospinel and chromite, which are formed at the last stage of crystallization. Ti/(Ti+Al+Cr) and Cr/(Cr+Al) versus Fe/(Mg+Fe) variations of these phases are not in the same trends as in the low Ti pigeonite basalts of Apollo 12 and 15 in spite of its higher TiO2 contents. Among four lunar meteorites proposed to be samples of mare regions of the Moon, EET87521 and Y793274 are breccias rich in lunar mare components, but Y793169 and A881757 are crystalline rocks composed of Fe-rich pigeonite and plagioclase with affinity to the VLT basalts, despite their higher bulk TiO2 contents than the limit for VLT. Polished think sections (PTS) Y793169,51-3 and A881757,51-4 (Asuka-31) supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) were investigated. Both samples were allocated as parts of two consortium studies. Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), JEOL 840A with X-ray chemical map analysis (CMA) utilities. Modal abundances of minerals in Y793169 were obtained from colored backscattered electron (BSE) image of SEM for a particular mineral by a computer and by point analysis for minerals with a similar BSE intensity.

  13. Formational history of lunar rocks - Applications of experimental geochemistry of the opaque minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Williams, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental data on the cooling histories of lunar rocks are presented along with a descriptive mineralogy of certain opaque minerals in Apollo 17 samples. Lunar rocks having Zr partitionings of coexisting ilmenite and ulvospinel indicative of high-temperature equilibrium (above 1000 C) appear to have cooled rapidly to temperatures below 800-900 C. The Ti content of troilite coexisting with ilmenite can be used to differentiate rock fragments which are mineralogically and texturally similar. It is found that Cr and Mg partitionings between coexisting armalcolite and ilmenite vary notably between rocks so that they can be used to distinguish otherwise similar samples. The spinels are analyzed as varieties of chromian ulvospinel and titanian chromite.

  14. Solar heating of common lunar minerals for the production of oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of vapor-phase reduction (pyrolysis) of lunar materials to produce oxygen. Solar furnace experiments were conducted on two common lunar minerals, ilmenite and anorthite. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations predicted that ilmenite should show a larger pressure increase than anorthite under conditions of the experiments and this was confirmed by the experiments. The measured mass loss of the ilmenite sample was consistent with loss of oxygen by reduction of iron in the liquid phase; this result was also predicted from equilibrium calculations. Based on preliminary experiments and equilibrium calculations, the temperatures needed for pyrolysis are expected to be in the range of 2000 to 2500 K, giving total gas pressures of 0.01 to 1 torr. Bulk regolith can be used as a feedstock without extensive beneficiation. Further, selective condensation of metal-containing species from the gas phase may yield metallic iron and silicon as byproducts from the process.

  15. Cast Basalt, Mineral Wool and Oxygen Production: Early Industries for Planetary (Lunar) Outposts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakes, Peter

    1998-01-01

    In the terrestrial environment, transportation cost is the basic limitation on the use of building materials such as sand, cement, gravel, and stones. Because of transport cost, local materials are preferred over imported, higher-quality materials. This is apparently the case for lunar and martian outposts as well, and this fact is augmented by the need to transport as little technological equipment as possible. In order to optimize the energy that will be available at planetary outposts, it is suggested that the production of cast-basalt building bricks, isolation materials such as mineral wool, and O should be achieved contemporaneously.

  16. Detection of macromolecules in desert cyanobacteria mixed with a lunar mineral analogue after space simulations.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Mickael; Verseux, Cyprien; Rabbow, Elke; de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Billi, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    In the context of future exposure missions in Low Earth Orbit and possibly on the Moon, two desert strains of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis, strains CCMEE 029 and 057, mixed or not with a lunar mineral analogue, were exposed to fractionated fluencies of UVC and polychromatic UV (200-400 nm) and to space vacuum. These experiments were carried out within the framework of the BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) project, which aims at broadening our knowledge of mineral-microorganism interaction and the stability/degradation of their macromolecules when exposed to space and simulated Martian conditions. The presence of mineral analogues provided a protective effect, preserving survivability and integrity of DNA and photosynthetic pigments, as revealed by testing colony-forming abilities, performing PCR-based assays and using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In particular, DNA and pigments were still detectable after 500 kJ/m(2) of polychromatic UV and space vacuum (10(-4) Pa), corresponding to conditions expected during one-year exposure in Low Earth Orbit on board the EXPOSE-R2 platform in the presence of 0.1 % Neutral Density (ND) filter. After exposure to high UV fluencies (800 MJ/m(2)) in the presence of minerals, however, altered fluorescence emission spectrum of the photosynthetic pigments were detected, whereas DNA was still amplified by PCR. The present paper considers the implications of such findings for the detection of biosignatures in extraterrestrial conditions and for putative future lunar missions. PMID:25351683

  17. Chemical Variation of Silicate Mineral Phases in Lunar Feldspathic Granulitic Impactites: Implications for Thermal Histories and Provenances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincke, E. M.; Ryder, G.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the internal variation and abundances of minor elements of silicate phases in lunar granulitic impactites to assess their thermal histories and the pre-metamorphic provenances of the minerals and the process that assembled the rocks. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. A Miniature Mineralogical Instrument for In-Situ Characterization of Ices and Hydrous Minerals at the Lunar Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Vaniman, D.; Bish, D.; Chipera, S.; Collins, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar missions over the past few years have provided new evidence that water may be present at the lunar poles in the form of cold-trapped ice deposits, thereby rekindling interest in sampling the polar regions. Robotic landers fitted with mineralogical instrumentation for in-situ analyses could provide unequivocal answers on the presence of crystalline water ice and/or hydrous minerals at the lunar poles. Data from Lunar Prospector suggest that any surface exploration of the lunar poles should include the capability to drill to depths of more than 40 cm. Limited data on the lunar geotherm indicate temperatures of approximately 245-255 K at regolith depths of 40 cm, within a range where water may exist in the liquid state as brine. A relevant terrestrial analog occurs in Antarctica, where the zeolite mineral chabazite has been found at the boundary between ice-free and ice-cemented regolith horizons, and precipitation from a regolith brine is indicated. Soluble halogens and sulfur in the lunar regolith could provide comparable brine chemistry in an analogous setting. Regolith samples collected by a drilling device could be readily analyzed by CheMin, a mineralogical instrument that combines X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques to simultaneously characterize the chemical and mineralogical compositions of granular or powdered samples. CheMin can unambiguously determine not only the presence of hydrous alteration phases such as clays or zeolites, but it can also identify the structural variants or types of clay or zeolite present (e.g., well-ordered versus poorly ordered smectite; chabazite versus phillipsite). In addition, CheMin can readily measure the abundances of key elements that may occur in lunar minerals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe) as well as the likely constituents of lunar brines (F, Cl, S). Finally, if coring and analysis are done during the lunar night or in permanent shadow, CheMin can provide information on the chemistry and

  19. Raman Spectroscopy as a Method for Mineral Identification on Lunar Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1995-01-01

    The sharp, nonoverlapping Raman bands for plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine would be advantageous for on-surface, active mineralogical analysis of lunar materials. A robust, light-weight, low-power, rover-based Raman spectrometer with a laser exciting source, entirely transmission-mode holographic optics, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector could fit within a less than 20 cm cube. A sensor head on the end of an optical fiber bundle that carried the laser beam and returned the scattered radiation could be placed against surfaces at any desired angle by a deployment mechanism; otherwise, the instrument would need no moving parts. A modem micro-Raman spectrometer with its beam broadened (to expand the spot to 50-micrometer diameter) and set for low resolution (7/cm in the 100-1400/cm region relative to 514.5-nm excitation), was used to simulate the spectra anticipated from a rover instrument. We present spectra for lunar mineral grains, less than 1 mm soil fines, breccia fragments, and glasses. From frequencies of olivine peaks, we derived sufficiently precise forsterite contents to correlate the analyzed grains to known rock types and we obtained appropriate forsterite contents from weak signals above background in soil fines and breccias. Peak positions of pyroxenes were sufficiently well determined to distinguish among orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic (pyroxenoid) structures; additional information can be obtained from pyroxene spectra, but requires further laboratory calibration. Plagioclase provided sharp peaks in soil fines and most breccias even when the glass content was high.

  20. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  1. Evaluation of Lunar small animal software for measuring bone mineral content in excised rat bones.

    PubMed

    Kiebzak, G M; Meyer, M H; Meyer, R A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate software from Lunar Corporation (Madison, WI) designed for the measurement of bone mineral content ([BMC],g) in excised rat femurs using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Femurs were harvested from intact 2- to 12-mo-old female Sprague-Dawley rats, stripped of soft tissues, wrapped in saline-soaked gauze, and frozen at -20 degrees F. Thawed bones were scanned in air on a 1.7-cm-thick Lucite plate that was laid on the manufacturer's supplied Delrin platform. Bones were in an anteroposterior position and scanned in a proximal-to-distal manner. Small animal software version 1.0d was used with a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the middle one-third of the diaphysis, a small central area of the distal metaphysis, and the total bone. Precision (n = 6 femurs) was calculated for each region of interest. After DXA scanning, one group of bones (n = 10 femurs) was dried and incinerated in a muffle furnace to obtain bone ash. The ash was then digested in acid and aliquots assayed for calcium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. This group of bones was used to correlate BMC with ash weight and areal bone mineral density (BMD) with calcium concentration. A second group of bones (n = 14 femurs) was used to correlate BMC with maximal load to failure (N), a biomechanical variable that provides information about bone strength. Precision of repetitive measurements for the three ROIs was 1.2, 3.0, and 0.65%, respectively. Total femur BMC and total femur ash weights were significantly correlated (r = 0.974, p <0.0001). Total femur area BMD (g/cm2) was significantly correlated with calcium concentration (microM) of the bone hydrolysate (r = 0.686, p = 0.029). Total femur BMC and maximum load to midshaft fracture were also significantly correlated (r = 0.914, p<0.0001). The greatest problem with the software was with edge detection: operator intervention was necessary to place edges manually during scan

  2. Effects of fractional crystallization and cumulus processes on mineral composition trends of some lunar and terrestrial rock series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J.

    1982-01-01

    A plot of Mg of mafic minerals versus An of plagioclase in cumulate rocks from various lunar and terrestrial rock series shows each series to have a distinct curvilinear trend. The slopes of these trends vary from nearly vertical in the case of lunar anorthosites and Mg-norites to nearly horizontal in the case of gabbros from the mid-Atlantic ridge. Calculations based upon known major element partitioning between mafic minerals, plagioclase and subalkaline basaltic liquids indicate that fractional crystallization coupled with cotectic accumulation of mafic minerals and plagioclase will produce mineral composition trends on the Mg versus An diagram with slopes greater than 1 for cases where An is approximately greater than Mg. Furthermore, fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas with alkali concentrations approaching zero will produce near vertical Mg versus An trends. Therefore, the steep slopes of the lunar rock series are consistent with relatively simple fractionation processes. The relatively flat slope of mineral compositions from gabbros collected from the mid-Atlantic ridge at 26 deg N is inconsistent with simple fractionation processes, and calculations show that periodic refilling of a fractionating magma chamber with picritic magma cannot simply explain this flat slope either.

  3. In Situ Chemical Characterization of Mineral Phases in Lunar Granulite Meteorite Northwest Africa 5744

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, J. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Peslier, A. H.; Irving, A. J.; Coleff, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5744 meteorite is a granulitic and troctolitic lunar breccia which may represent nearly pristine lunar crust (Fig. 1). NWA 5744 is unusually magnesian compared to other lunar breccias, with bulk [Mg/(Mg+Fe)] 0.79 [1, 2]. Inspection shows impactor content is likely to be very minor, with low Ni content and a lack of metal grains. Some terrestrial contamination is present, evidenced by calcite within cracks. NWA 5744 has notably low concentrations of incompatible trace elements (ITEs) [2]. The goal of this study is to attempt to classify this lunar granulite through analyses of in situ phases.

  4. Mineral compositions in pristine lunar highland rocks and the diversity of highland magmatism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bersch, Michael G.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, Klaus; Norman, Marc D.

    1991-01-01

    High precision electron microprobe analyses of olivine and pyroxene in pristine lunar highland rocks confirm the dichotomy between ferroan anorthosites and the Mg-suite. Ferroan-anorthosites plot as coherent trends, consistent with formation in a complex global magma system. Lack of coherent compositional trends in the Mg-suite rocks indicates derivation from numerous magmas.

  5. Electron- and Photon-stimulated Desorption of Alkali Atoms from Lunar Sample and a Model Mineral Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    We report recent results on an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms in the tenuous planetary atmospheres, with focus on non-thermal processes (photon stimulated desorption (PSD), electron stimulated desorption (ESD), and ion sputtering). Whereas alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO) are far more abundant in lunar samples than alkali oxides (Na2O, K2O), the atmosphere of the Moon contains easily measurable concentrations of Na and K, while Ca and Mg are undetected there; traces of Ca have recently been seen in the Moon's atmosphere (10-3 of Na). The experiments have included ESD, PSD and ion sputtering of alkali atoms from model mineral surface (amorphous SiO2) and from a lunar basalt sample obtained from NASA. The comparison is made between ESD and PSD efficiency of monovalent alkalis (Na, K) and divalent alkaline earths (Ba, Ca).The ultrahigh vacuum measurement scheme for ESD and PSD of Na atoms includes a highly sensitive alkali metal detector based on surface ionization, and a time-of-flight technique. For PSD measurements, a mercury arc light source (filtered and chopped) is used. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by ultraviolet photons or by low energy electrons (E>4 eV) causes desorption of hot alkali atoms. This results are consistent with the model developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and from water ice: electron- or photon-induced charge transfer from the substrate to the ionic adsorbate causes formation of a neutral alkali atom in a repulsive configuration, from which desorption occurs. The two-electron charge transfer to cause desorption of divalent alkaline eath ions is a less likely process.The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  6. Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against

  7. Lunar bases and space activities of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The present conference gives attention to such major aspects of lunar colonization as lunar base concepts, lunar transportation, lunar science research activities, moon-based astronomical researches, lunar architectural construction, lunar materials and processes, lunar oxygen production, life support and health maintenance in lunar bases, societal aspects of lunar colonization, and the prospects for Mars colonization. Specific discussions are presented concerning the role of nuclear energy in lunar development, achromatic trajectories and the industrial scale transport of lunar resources, advanced geologic exploration from a lunar base, geophysical investigations of the moon, moon-based astronomical interferometry, the irradiation of the moon by particles, cement-based composites for lunar base construction, electrostatic concentration of lunar soil minerals, microwave processing of lunar materials, a parametric analysis of lunar oxygen production, hydrogen from lunar regolith fines, metabolic support for a lunar base, past and future Soviet lunar exploration, and the use of the moons of Mars as sources of water for lunar bases.

  8. Petrology of unshocked crystalline rocks and shock effects in lunar rocks and minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; James, O.B.; Minkin, J.A.; Boreman, J.A.; Jackson, E.D.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1970-01-01

    On the basis of rock modes, textures, and mineralogy, unshocked crystalline rocks are classified into a dominant ilmenite-rich suite (subdivided into intersertal, ophitic, and hornfels types) and a subordinate feldspar-rich suite (subdivided into poikilitic and granular types). Weakly to moderately shocked rocks show high strain-rate deformation and solid-state transformation of minerals to glasses; intensely shocked rocks are converted to rock glasses. Data on an unknown calcium-bearing iron metasilicate are presented.

  9. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  10. Lunar Dust 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Largely due to rock and soil samples returned during the Apollo program, much has been learned about the composition and properties of lunar regolith. Although, for the most part, the mineral composition resembles terrestrial minerals, the characteristics of the lunar environment have led to very different weathering processes. These result in substantial differences in the particle shapes, particle size distributions, and surface chemistry. These differences lead to non-intuitive adhesion, abrasion, and possible health properties that will pose challenges to future lunar missions. An overview of lunar dust composition and properties will be given with a particular emphasis on possible health effects.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Weird Martian Minerals: Complex Mars Surface Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Complex Mars Surface" included the following reports:A Reappraisal of Adsorbed Superoxide Ion as the Cause Behind the Reactivity of the Martian Soils; Sub-Surface Deposits of Hydrous Silicates or Hydrated Magnesium Sulfates as Hydrogen Reservoirs near the Martian Equator: Plausible or Not?; Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Smectites: The Search for Water on Mars; Aqueous Alteration Pathways for K, Th, and U on Mars; Temperature Dependence of the Moessbauer Fraction in Mars-Analog Minerals; Acid-Sulfate Vapor Reactions with Basaltic Tephra: An Analog for Martian Surface Processes; Iron Oxide Weathering in Sulfuric Acid: Implications for Mars; P/Fe as an Aquamarker for Mars; Stable Isotope Composition of Carbonates Formed in Low-Temperature Terrestrial Environments as Martian Analogs; Can the Phosphate Sorption and Occlusion Properties Help to Elucidate the Genesis of Specular Hematite on the Mars Surface?; Sulfate Salts, Regolith Interactions, and Water Storage in Equatorial Martian Regolith; Potential Pathways to Maghemite in Mars Soils: The Key Role of Phosphate; and Mineralogy, Abundance, and Hydration State of Sulfates and Chlorides at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site.

  12. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  13. Mineralization on the moon? Theoretical considerations of Apollo 16 'rusty rocks', sulfide replacement in 67016, and surface-correlated volatiles on lunar volcanic glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Russell O.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical considerations of vapor-rock interactions in the lunar environment are a useful supplement to petrologic studies of mineralization or alteration in rocks from the moon. They also provide insights into the potential for the existence of more extensive mineralization on the moon than is found in the limited sample set. Discussed in this paper are the coexistence and textural association in 66095 of the phases lawrencite, troilite, schreibersite, iron metal, and sphalerite; the replacement of olivine in certain clasts of 67016 by troilite and enstatite; and the existence of Zn + S deposits on the surfaces of volcanic glass beads. Particular attention is given in each case to whether the observed mineralization implies that metals, as well as S, P, or Cl, have been mobilized in the vapor. Vapor species that might mobilize metals in the absence of H2O are considered. Most importantly, the suggestion is made that in the dry lunar environment carbonyl species may be important carriers of S and metals. The implications of this possibility are discussed.

  14. Partitioning in REE-saturating minerals - Theory, experiment, and modelling of whitlockite, apatite, and evolution of lunar residual magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    1993-01-01

    Compositions, including REEs determined by ion microprobe, of apatite and whitlockite in lunar rock assemblages rich in incompatible trace elements, are presented. Concentrations of REEs in lunar whitlockites are high, ranging from about 1.2 to 2.1 REEs (lanthanides + Y) per 56 oxygens. This slightly exceeds the level of two REE atoms per 56 oxygens at which the dominant substitution theoretically becomes saturated. This saturation effect leads to whitlockite REE(3+) D values at typical lunar whitlockite REE concentrations which are 30-40 percent lower than the D values at low concentrations. The halogen-to-phosphorous ratio in lunar melts is a key factor determining the REE distribution with crystalline assemblages. As long as P and REE concentrations of melts are in KREEP-like proportions, one or both of the phosphates will saturate in melts at similar REE concentrations.

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Rocks from Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: Mineralogy and Petrology of Unbrecciated Lunar Basaltic Meteorite LAP 02205; LAP02205 Lunar Meteorite: Lunar Mare Basalt with Similarities to the Apollo 12 Ilmenite Basalt; Mineral Chemistry of LaPaz Ice Field 02205 - A New Lunar Basalt; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032; KREEP-rich Basaltic Magmatism: Diversity of Composition and Consistency of Age; Mineralogy of Yamato 983885 Lunar Polymict Breccia with Alkali-rich and Mg-rich Rocks; Ar-Ar Studies of Dhofar Clast-rich Feldspathic Highland Meteorites: 025, 026, 280, 303; Can Granulite Metamorphic Conditions Reset 40Ar-39Ar Ages in Lunar Rocks? [#1009] A Ferroan Gabbronorite Clast in Lunar Meteorite ALHA81005: Major and Trace Element Composition, and Origin; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite PCA02007, a New Feldspathic Regolith Breccia; and Troilite Formed by Sulfurization: A Crystal Structure of Synthetic Analogue

  16. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  17. Estimation of trace element concentrations in the lunar magma ocean using mineral- and metal-silicate melt partition coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Miriam; Righter, Kevin; Walker, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    This study uses experimentally determined plagioclase-melt D values to estimate the trace element concentrations of Sr, Hf, Ga, W, Mo, Ru, Pd, Au, Ni, and Co in a crystallizing lunar magma ocean at the point of plagioclase flotation. Similarly, experimentally determined metal-silicate partition experiments combined with a composition model for the Moon are used to constrain the concentrations of W, Mo, Ru, Pd, Au, Ni, and Co in the lunar magma ocean at the time of core formation. The metal-silicate derived lunar mantle estimates are generally consistent with previous estimates for the concentration of these elements in the lunar mantle. Plagioclase-melt derived concentrations for Sr, Ga, Ru, Pd, Au, Ni, and Co are also consistent with prior estimates. Estimates for Hf, W, and Mo, however, are higher. These elements may be concentrated in the residual liquid during fractional crystallization due to their incompatibility. Alternatively, the apparent enrichment could reflect the inappropriate use of bulk anorthosite data, rather than data for plagioclase separates.

  18. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  19. Experiments on thermal release of implanted noble gases from minerals and their implications for noble gases in lunar soil grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futagami, T.; Ozima, M.; Nagai, S.; Aoki, Y.

    1993-07-01

    Experiments on ion implantation were performed in order to study the release mechanisms of solar particles from lunar soil grains. Helium, neon, and argon ions were implanted into olivine and ilmenite. The release temperatures of noble gases were investigated by heating samples stepwise; the results show that they depend on irradiation energy and dose. We conclude that the release temperature is related to the size of bubbles in which noble gases are trapped: noble gases in small and large bubbles are released at 400-600 C and 800-1200 C, respectively. In Ne and Ar implantation experiments into olivine, a component was released during recrystallization of amorphized surfaces. Based on these experimental results, we suggest that components released from lunar ilmenite grains at different temperatures would correspond to solar particles of different energies. We also suggest that He and Ne of solar wind energy (about 1 keV/amu) should be retained in lunar ilmenite grains, while they should be lost from olivine grains.

  20. CAS-1 lunar soil simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yongchun; Wang, Shijie; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Zou, Yongliao; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Chunlai; Li, Xiongyao; Feng, Junming

    2009-02-01

    Lunar soil simulant is a geochemical reproduction of lunar regolith, and is needed for lunar science and engineering researches. This paper describes a new lunar soil simulant, CAS-1, prepared by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, to support lunar orbiter, soft-landing mission and sample return missions of China’s Lunar Exploration Program, which is scheduled for 2004 2020. Such simulants should match the samples returned from the Moon, all collected from the lunar regolith rather than outcrops. The average mineral and chemical composition of lunar soil sample returned from the Apollo 14 mission, which landed on the Fra Mauro Formation, is chosen as the model for the CAS-1 simulant. Source material for this simulant was a low-Ti basaltic scoria dated at 1600 years from the late Quaternary volcanic area in the Changbai Mountains of northeast China. The main minerals of this rock are pyroxene, olivine, and minor plagioclase, and about 20 40% modal glass. The scoria was analyzed by XRF and found to be chemically similar to Apollo 14 lunar sample 14163. It was crushed in an impact mill with a resulting median particle size 85.9 μm, similar to Apollo soils. Bulk density, shear resistance, complex permittivity, and reflectance spectra were also similar to Apollo 14 soil. We conclude that CAS-1 is an ideal lunar soil simulant for science and engineering research of future lunar exploration program.

  1. Geological Features Study of the Lunar Surface Using the Lunar Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuping, G.; Yanmei, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Taking typical craters of lunar surface as the test areas, using the Clementine UVVIS, NIR and lidar data, we study the relationship between the geological features and physiognomy, analyze the rule of lithology or mineral distribution of the lunar.

  2. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of the lunar regolith under solar wind and micrometeorite bombardment is discussed as well as the size distribution of ultrafine iron in lunar soil. The most important characteristics of complex graphite, sulfide, arsenide, palladium, and platinum mineralization in a pegmatoid pyroxenite of the Stillwater Complex in Montana are examined. Oblique reflected light micrographs and backscattered electron SEM images of the graphite associations are included.

  3. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. The best way to ...

  4. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  5. Lunar Sulfur Capture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Zubrin, Robert; Bostwick-White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) protects in situ resource utilization (ISRU) hardware from corrosion, and reduces contaminant levels in water condensed for electrolysis. The LSCS uses a lunar soil sorbent to trap over 98 percent of sulfur gases and about two-thirds of halide gases evolved during hydrogen reduction of lunar soils. LSCS soil sorbent is based on lunar minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that trap sulfur and halide gas contaminants in a fixed-bed reactor held at temperatures between 250 and 400 C, allowing moisture produced during reduction to pass through in vapor phase. Small amounts of Earth-based polishing sorbents consisting of zinc oxide and sodium aluminate are used to reduce contaminant concentrations to one ppm or less. The preferred LSCS configuration employs lunar soil beneficiation to boost concentrations of reactive sorbent minerals. Lunar soils contain sulfur in concentrations of about 0.1 percent, and halogen compounds including chlorine and fluorine in concentrations of about 0.01 percent. These contaminants are released as gases such as H2S, COS, CS2,HCl, and HF during thermal ISRU processing with hydrogen or other reducing gases. Removal of contaminant gases is required during ISRU processing to prevent hardware corrosion, electrolyzer damage, and catalyst poisoning. The use of Earth-supplied, single-use consumables to entirely remove contaminants at the levels existing in lunar soils would make many ISRU processes unattractive due to the large mass of consumables relative to the mass of oxygen produced. The LSCS concept of using a primary sorbent prepared from lunar soil was identified as a method by which the majority of contaminants could be removed from process gas streams, thereby substantially reducing the required mass of Earth-supplied consumables. The LSCS takes advantage of minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that are present in lunar soil to trap sulfur and halide gases in a fixedbed reactor

  6. Method for producing oxygen from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is related to producing oxygen from lunar or Martian materials, particularly from lunar ilmenite in situ. The process includes producing a slurry of the minerals and hot sulfuric acid, the acid and minerals reacting to form sulfates of the metal. Water is added to the slurry to dissolve the minerals into an aqueous solution, the first aqueous solution is separated from unreacted minerals from the slurry, and the aqueous solution is electrolyzed to produce the metal and oxygen.

  7. The lunar apatite paradox.

    PubMed

    Boyce, J W; Tomlinson, S M; McCubbin, F M; Greenwood, J P; Treiman, A H

    2014-04-25

    Recent discoveries of water-rich lunar apatite are more consistent with the hydrous magmas of Earth than the otherwise volatile-depleted rocks of the Moon. Paradoxically, this requires H-rich minerals to form in rocks that are otherwise nearly anhydrous. We modeled existing data from the literature, finding that nominally anhydrous minerals do not sufficiently fractionate H from F and Cl to generate H-rich apatite. Hydrous apatites are explained as the products of apatite-induced low magmatic fluorine, which increases the H/F ratio in melt and apatite. Mare basalts may contain hydrogen-rich apatite, but lunar magmas were most likely poor in hydrogen, in agreement with the volatile depletion that is both observed in lunar rocks and required for canonical giant-impact models of the formation of the Moon. PMID:24652938

  8. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  9. The Lunar Orbital Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; Mccurdy, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  10. Manufacturing High-Fidelity Lunar Agglutinate Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutafson, R. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Rickman, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The lunar regolith is very different from many naturally occurring material on Earth because it forms in the unique, impact-dominated environment of the lunar surface. Lunar regolith is composed of five basic particle types: mineral fragments, pristine crystalline rock fragments, breccia fragments, glasses of various kinds, and agglutinates (glass-bonded aggregates). Agglutinates are abundant in the lunar regolith, especially in mature regoliths where they can be the dominant component.This presentation will discuss the technical feasibility of manufacturing-simulated agglutinate particles that match many of the unique properties of lunar agglutinates.

  11. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  12. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  13. Lunar igneous rocks and the nature of the lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.; Walker, D.

    1977-01-01

    Lunar igneous rocks, properly interpreted, can give useful information about mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry as a function of depth in the lunar interior. Though intensely brecciated, terra rocks reveal, in their chemistry, evidence for a magmatic history. Partial melting of feldspathic lunar crustal material occurred in the interval 4.6 to 3.9 Gy. Melting of ilmenite-bearing cumulates at depths near 100 km produced parent magmas for Apollo 11 and 17 titaniferous mare basalts in the interval 3.8 to 3.6 Gy. Melting of ilmenite-free olivine pyroxenites (also cumulates?) at depths greater than 200 km produced low-titanium mare basalts in the interval 3.4 to 3.1 Gy. No younger igneous rocks have yet been recognized among the lunar samples and present-day melting seems to be limited to depths greater than 1000 km.

  14. Lunar igneous rocks and the nature of the lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.; Walker, D.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar igneous rocks are interpreted, which can give useful information about mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry as a function of depth in the lunar interior. Terra rocks, though intensely brecciated, reveal, in their chemistry, evidence for a magmatic history. Partial melting of feldspathic lunar crustal material occurred in the interval 4.6 to 3.9 gy. Melting of ilmenite-bearing cumulates at depths near 100 km produced parent magmas for Apollo 11 and 17 titaniferous mare basalts in the interval 3.8 to 3.6 gy. Melting of ilmenite-free olivine pyroxenites at depths greater than 200 km produced low-titanium mare basalts in the interval 3.4 to 3.1 gy. No younger igneous rocks have yet been recognized among the lunar samples and present-day melting seems to be limited to depths greater than 1000 km.

  15. Design criteria for an underground lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siekmeier, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Underground excavation and construction techniques have been well developed terrestrially and provide an attractive option for lunar mining and habitat construction. The lunar mine, processing facilities and habitats could be located beneath the lunar surface in basaltic rock that would protect the crew and equipment from the hazardous surface environment. A terrestrial-like atmosphere would be created within the underground structures allowing more conventional technologies to be utilized. In addition, the basalt would likely contain higher quality mineral deposits than the regolith (lunar soil) since the minerals in the regolith have been degraded by meteorite bombardment. The conditions that would affect the design of an underground lunar mine are described and a lunar rock mass rated to assess its quality using terrestrial rock mass classification systems. Design criteria are established and a construction scenario proposed. Parameters having the greatest effect on stability are identified based on distinct element computer modeling and terrestrial experience.

  16. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  17. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc.

  18. Lunar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

  19. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  20. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and

  1. Lunar highland rocks - Element partitioning among minerals. II - Electron microprobe analyses of Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. V.; Hansen, E. C.; Steele, I. M.

    1980-01-01

    Lunar olivines from anorthosites, granulitic impactites, and rocks in the Mg-rich plutonic trend were subjected to electron probe measurements for Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn, which show that the FeO/MnO ratio for lunar olivines lies between 80 and 110 with little difference among the rock types. The low values of Ca in lunar olivines indicate slow cooling to subsolidus temperatures, with blocking temperatures of about 750 C for 67667 and 1000 C for 60255,73-alpha determined by the Finnerty and Boyd (1978) experiments. An important paradox is noted in the low Ti content of Fe-rich olivines from anorthosites, although both Ti and Fe tend to become enriched in liquid during fractional distillation. Except for Ca and Mn, olivine from anorthosites has lower minor element values than other rock types. Formation from a chemically distinct system is therefore implied.

  2. Lunar Riometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  3. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  4. A protracted timeline for lunar bombardment from mineral chemistry, Ti thermometry and U-Pb geochronology of Apollo 14 melt breccia zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, M. D.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    New zircon U-Pb and trace element investigations from Apollo 14 lunar impact breccia sample #14311 reveal at least three distinct (Concordia, 2 σ) age populations at 4334 ± 10, 4245 ± 10 and 3953 ± 10 Ma. Titanium-in-zircon thermometry (Ti xln ) results correlated with U-Pb ages range from ~800-1200 ºC. Lattice strain models used to infer zircon versus whole-rock rare earth element contents, and partitioning calculations against lunar impact breccia component compositions, quantitatively constrain formation conditions for the different age populations. A compilation of new data with published work shows that Apollo 14 zircons older than ca. 4300 Ma formed by igneous processes associated with lunar crust formation. Compositional variability in the ca. 4240 Ma zircon age population is interpretable, however, via a mixture of inherited and melt-generated components from one or more large impacts perhaps related to a marked increase in bombardment flux. Ages from the youngest zircon group at ca. 3950 Ma coincide with the classical "late heavy bombardment" (LHB) as documented from previous lunar geochronologies. These results lend support to the idea that instead of a simple unimodal LHB scenario, or a monotonic decline in impacts, the Moon was battered by multiple cataclysms since ca. 4240 Ma. Such a "Picket fence"-like bombardment to the Moon best describes the mode and tempo of impacts that accompanied the late stages of solar system formation and giant planet migration.

  5. Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: petrology, petrography, meteoritic composition, planetary geology, atmospheric composition, astronomical spectroscopy, lunar geology, Mars (planet), Mars composition, Mars surface, volcanology, Mars volcanoes, Mars craters, lunar craters, mineralogy, mineral deposits, lithology, asteroids, impact melts, planetary composition, planetary atmospheres, planetary mapping, cosmic dust, photogeology, stratigraphy, lunar craters, lunar exploration, space exploration, geochronology, tectonics, atmospheric chemistry, astronomical models, and geochemistry.

  6. Luminescence of apollo 11 lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Greenman, N N; Gross, H G

    1970-01-30

    Luminescence measurements were made of four lunar rocks, two terrestrial rocks (granite and gabbro), and one terrestrial mineral (willemite) by comparing the spectral curves with the curve of a barium sulfate standard. Efficiencies with 3000 angstrom excitation were < 6 x 10(-5) for the lunar samples, < 8 x 10(-5) for gabbro of very similar composition to the lunar samples, approximately 10(-4) for granite, and approximately 2 X 10(-2) for willemite. If these are typical values for other ultraviolet excitation wavelengths, the Apollo 11 site appears to contribute little to the observed lunar luminescence. PMID:17781561

  7. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  8. Lunar Cold Trap Contamination by Landing Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipley, Scott T.; Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Tools have been developed to model and simulate the effects of lunar landing vehicles on the lunar environment (Metzger, 2011), mostly addressing the effects of regolith erosion by rocket plumes and the fate of the ejected lunar soil particles (Metzger, 2010). These tools are being applied at KSC to predict ejecta from the upcoming Google Lunar X-Prize Landers and how they may damage the historic Apollo landing sites. The emerging interest in lunar mining poses a threat of contamination to pristine craters at the lunar poles, which act as "cold traps" for water and may harbor other valuable minerals Crider and Vondrak (2002). The KSC Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations Lab tools have been expanded to address the probability for contamination of these pristine "cold trap" craters.

  9. The lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change in composition to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Calcium and aluminum are probably important components of the upper mantle and are deficient in the lower mantle. Much of the moon may have accreted from material similar in composition to eucrites. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel, and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite. The thickness of the layer is of the order of 50 km. Cosmic abundances can be maintained if the lower mantle is ferromagnesium silicate with minimal amounts of calcium and aluminum. Achondrites such as eucrites and howardites have more of the required characteristics of the lunar interior than carbonaceous chondrites. A density inversion in the moon is a strong possibility.

  10. High-Grading Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Sellar, Glenn; Nunez, Jorge; Mosie, Andrea; Schwarz, Carol; Parker, Terry; Winterhalter, Daniel; Farmer, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to high-grade their samples to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth and to leave others on the Moon. We are supporting studies to define the necessary and sufficient measurements and techniques for high-grading samples at a lunar outpost. A glovebox, dedicated to testing instruments and techniques for high-grading samples, is in operation at the JSC Lunar Experiment Laboratory. A reference suite of lunar rocks and soils, spanning the full compositional range found in the Apollo collection, is available for testing in this laboratory. Thin sections of these samples are available for direct comparison. The Lunar Sample Compendium, on-line at http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, summarizes previous analyses of these samples. The laboratory, sample suite, and Compendium are available to the lunar research and exploration community. In the first test of possible instruments for lunar sample high-grading, we imaged 18 lunar rocks and four soils from the reference suite using the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) developed by Arizona State University and JPL (see Farmer et. al. abstract). The MMI is a fixed-focus digital imaging system with a resolution of 62.5 microns/pixel, a field size of 40 x 32 mm, and a depth-of-field of approximately 5 mm. Samples are illuminated sequentially by 21 light emitting diodes in discrete wavelengths spanning the visible to shortwave infrared. Measurements of reflectance standards and background allow calibration to absolute reflectance. ENVI-based software is used to produce spectra for specific minerals as well as multi-spectral images of rock textures.

  11. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  12. Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Future human lunar habitation requires using in situ materials for both structural components and oxygen production. Lunar bases must be constructed from thermal-and radiation-shielding materials that will provide significant protection from the harmful cosmic energy which normally bombards the lunar surface. In addition, shipping oxygen from Earth is weight-prohibitive, and therefore investigating the production of breathable oxygen from oxidized mineral components is a major ongoing NASA research initiative. Lunar regolith may meet the needs for both structural protection and oxygen production. Already a number of oxygen production technologies are being tested, and full-scale bricks made of lunar simulant have been sintered. The beneficiation, or separation, of lunar minerals into a refined industrial feedstock could make production processes more efficient, requiring less energy to operate and maintain and producing higher-performance end products. The method of electrostatic beneficiation used in this research charges mineral powders (lunar simulant) by contact with materials of a different composition. The simulant acquires either a positive or negative charge depending upon its composition relative to the charging material.

  13. Discovery of vapor deposits in the lunar regolith.

    PubMed

    Keller, L P; McKay, D S

    1993-09-01

    Lunar soils contain micrometer-sized mineral grains surrounded by thin amorphous rims. Similar features have been produced by exposure of pristine grains to a simulated solar wind, leading to the widespread belief that the amorphous rims result from radiation damage. Electron microscopy studies show, however, that the amorphous rims are compositionally distinct from their hosts and consist largely of vapor-deposited material generated by micrometeorite impacts into the lunar regolith. Vapor deposits slow the lunar erosion rate by solar wind sputtering, influence the optical properties of the lunar regolith, and may account for the presence of sodium and potassium in the lunar atmosphere. PMID:17731858

  14. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  15. Process to create simulated lunar agglutinate particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Robert J. (Inventor); Gustafson, Marty A. (Inventor); White, Brant C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of creating simulated agglutinate particles by applying a heat source sufficient to partially melt a raw material is provided. The raw material is preferably any lunar soil simulant, crushed mineral, mixture of crushed minerals, or similar material, and the heat source creates localized heating of the raw material.

  16. Lunar anorthosites.

    PubMed

    Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

    1970-01-30

    Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context. PMID:17781512

  17. U, Th, Pb and REE abundances and Pb 207/Pb 206 ages of individual minerals in returned lunar material by ion microprobe mass analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Results of ion microprobe analyses of Apollo 11, 12 and 14 material, showing that U, Th, Pb and REE are concentrated in accessory minerals such as apatite, whitlockite, zircon, baddeleyite, zirkelite, and tranquillityite. Th/U ratios are found to vary by over a factor of 40 in these minerals. K, Ba, Rb and Sr have been localized in a K rich, U and Th poor glass phase that is commonly associated with the U and Th bearing accessory minerals. Li is observed to be fairly evenly distributed between the various accessory phases. The phosphates have been found to have REE abundance patterns (normalized to the chondrite abundances) that are fairly flat, while the Zr bearing minerals have patterns that rise steeply, by factors of ten or more, from La to Gd. All the accessory minerals have large negative Eu anomalies. Radiometric age dates (Pb 207/Pb 206) of the individual U and Th bearing minerals compare favorably with the Pb 207/Pb 206 age of the bulk rocks.

  18. Argon adsorption and the lunar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of Ar adsorption experiments on a terrestrial labradorite and lunar rock 15415 crushed in vacuo are reported. The experiments were designed to test lunar atmosphere simulation models for the behavior of Ar on the lunar surface, as determined from the Apollo 17 mass spectrometer results. These models (Hodges, 1980, 1982) used a single adsorption potential to characterize the surfaces of lunar soil grains, with the result that high (6-7 kcal/mol) heats of adsorption were inferred. The present experimental results show that very high adsorption potentials are indeed associated with fresh mineral surfaces, but that these energetic surfaces occupy only small fractions of the total surface area. Nonetheless, these small fractions of surface, if they can be maintained in the lunar regolith in steady-state condition, could be sufficient to account for the Apollo 17 mass spectrometer observations.

  19. Interaction between Escherichia coli and lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    A sample of mature lunar fines (10084.151) was solubilized to a high degree (about 17 percent) by the chelating agent salicylic acid (0.01. M). The neutralized (pH adjusted to 7.0) leachate was found to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 259922) in a minimial mineral salts glucose medium; however, the inhibition was somewhat less than that caused by neutralized salicylic acid alone. The presence of lunar fines in the minimal medium was highly stimulatory to growth of E. coli following an early inhibitory response. The bacterium survived less well in the lunar leachate than in distilled water, no doubt because of the salicylate. It was concluded that the sample of lunar soil tested has nutritional value to E. coli and that certain products of fermentation helped to solubilize the lunar soil.

  20. The lunar interior. [compressional velocities of interior materials compared with lunar seismic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials thought to be important in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower lunar crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. Anorthosite is preferred if lunar basalts result from a small degree of partial melting. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Ca- and Al-rich minerals are important components of both the lower crust and the upper mantle. Most of the moon may have accreted from refractory material rich in Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high-velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high-pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite.

  1. Lunar oasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Niehoff, John

    1989-01-01

    The 'lunar oasis' emphasizes development toward self-sufficiency in order to reduce dependence on the earth for resupply, and to enable expansion utilizing indigeneous resources. The oasis phase includes: (1) habitation and work facilities for 10 people, (2) capability for extraction of volatile consumables (H2O, O2, N2, etc.) from indigenous resources for resupply of losses and filling of reservoirs, and (3) a highly closed life support system, including food production. In the consolidation phase, the base grows from 10 to 30 crewmembers. Lunar resources are used for expanding the lunar foothold, including construction of habitats, extraction of metals for the fabrication of products for maintenance and repair, and expansion of the power system. The strategy does not produce propellants for space transportation. A 10-year scenario is laid out, which contains all elements needed to allow the base to enter a self-expanding utilization phase. Three lunar missions yer year, two cargo missions and one crew flight, are required. At the end of a decade, the base is producing more than it requires for its continued support, although it is unlikely to be completely self-sufficient.

  2. Lunar philosophers.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2007-03-01

    A close associate of the Lunar Society, Joseph Wright of Derby painted several industrial and scientific scenes. This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) shows how two of his works - featuring an orrery and an alchemist - reveal the ideas and aspirations of the provincial philosophers who made up the Society. PMID:17336378

  3. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  4. Lunar exploration for resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy for developing resources on the Moon depends on the stage of space industrialization. A case is made for first developing the resources needed to provide simple materials required in large quantities for space operations. Propellants, shielding, and structural materials fall into this category. As the enterprise grows, it will be feasible to develop additional sources - those more difficult to obtain or required in smaller quantities. Thus, the first materials processing on the Moon will probably take the abundant lunar regolith, extract from it major mineral or glass species, and do relatively simple chemical processing. We need to conduct a lunar remote sensing mission to determine the global distribution of features, geophysical properties, and composition of the Moon, information which will serve as the basis for detailed models of and engineering decisions about a lunar mine.

  5. Lunar base siting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Dowling, Richard

    1991-01-01

    As with any planetary body, the lunar surface is quite heterogeneous. There are widely dispersed sites of particular interest for known and potential resource availability, selenology, and lunar observatories. Discriminating characteristics include solar illumination, view of earth, local topography, engineering properties of the regolith and certain geological features, and local mineralogy and petrology. Space vehicle arrival and departure trajectories constitute a minor consideration. Over time, a variety of base sites will be developed serving different purposes. Resource-driven sites may see the fastest growth during the first decades of lunar development, but selection of the most favorable sites is likely to be driven by suitability for a combination of activities. As on earth, later development may be driven by geographical advantages of surface transportation routes. With the availability of near-constant sunlight for power generation, as well as permanently shadowed areas at cryogenic temperatures, polar sites are attractive because they require substantially less earth-launched mass and lower equipment complexity for an initial permanent base. Discovery of accessible volatiles reservoirs, either in the form of polar permafrost or gas reservoirs at other locations, would dramatically increase the attractiveness of any site from a logistical support and selenological point of view. Amid such speculation, no reliable evidence of such volatiles exist. More reliable evidence exists for areas of certain mineral concentrations, such as ilmenite, which could form a feedstock for some proposed resource extraction schemes. While tentative selections of advantageous base sites are made, new data from lunar polar orbiters and the Galileo polar flybys would be very helpful.

  6. Lunar material resources: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of returned lunar samples and a comparison of the physical and chemical processes operating on the Moon and on the Earth provide a basis for predicting both the possible types of material resources (especially minerals and rocks) and the physical characteristics of ore deposits potentially available on the Moon. The lack of free water on the Moon eliminates the classes of ore deposits that are most exploitable on Earth; namely, (1) hydrothermal, (2) secondary mobilization and enrichment, (3) precipitation from a body of water, and (4) placer. The types of lunar materials available for exploitation are whole rocks and their contained minerals, regolith, fumarolic and vapor deposits, and nonlunar materials, including solar wind implantations. Early exploitation of lunar material resources will be primarily the use of regolith materials for bulk shielding; the extraction from regolith fines of igneous minerals such as plagioclase feldspars and ilmenite for the production of oxygen, structural metals, and water; and possibly the separation from regolith fines of solar-wind-implanted volatiles. The only element, compound, or mineral, that by itself has been identified as having the economic potential for mining, processing, and return to Earth is helium-3.

  7. Process engineering concerns in the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the constraints on a production process imposed by the lunar or Martian environment on the space transportation system. A proposed chemical route to produce oxygen from iron oxide bearing minerals (including ilmenite) is presented in three different configurations which vary in complexity. A design for thermal energy storage is presented that could both provide power during the lunar night and act as a blast protection barrier for the outpost. A process to release carbon from the lunar regolith as methane is proposed, capitalizing on the greater abundance and favorable physical properties of methane relative to hydrogen to benefit the entire system.

  8. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  9. Utilization of lunar ilmenite: Basalt or regolith?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawatra, S. K.; Delao, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    A critical discussion of whether lunar basalt or regolith should be used as a resource for mineral processing schemes on the lunar surface, with pros and cons for each argument is presented. A literature review has shown that the majority of authors feel that mining the lunar basalt, crushing it, and then processing to remove the desired minerals, would be the route to take. The argument that this method would not be a sound mineral processing practice is presented. Mining and crushing are difficult propositions even on Earth; to attempt such processes in the hostile lunar environment would be a phenomenal task. It would be better to start with a simpler scheme, such as processing the regolith, which can be adapted to the multitude of unknowns facing the first lunar production plant. If, however, the lunar mining trend is followed, it must be kept in mind that mining and processing technology which is radically different from what is currently available and used on Earth will have to be developed. Podnieks and Roepke (1987) and Lindroth and Podnieks (1987) have summarized the new technology that may be applicable, but this technology is very similar to the current, 99 percent inefficient technology used on Earth. One such possible technique is sodium vapor fragmentation of basalt. Initial testwork was conducted at Michigan Technological University on terrestrial basalt with extremely promising results, though much time and effort will be needed to fully develop this process.

  10. Some Expected Mechanical Characteristics of Lunar Dust: A Geological View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Street, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    The engineering properties of the lunar regolith reflect aspects of the original parent rock and the consequences of hypervelocity meteor bombardment. Compared to the Earth the geologic nature of the lunar regolith is quite distinct. On scales relevant to machinery, heterogeneity with respect to size and composition is much higher. But the total range in composition is much more restricted. Both facts have implications for predictions of properties, such as abrasion, which will be required by design engineers for constructing equipment for lunar use. Abrasion is related to hardness and hardness is a commonly measured property for both minerals and engineering materials. Although different hardness scales are routinely employed for minerals and engineering materials, a significant amount of literature is available relating the two. In this paper we discuss how to relate hardness to abrasion for the design of lunar equipment. We also indicate how abundant the various mineral phases are and typical size distributions for lunar regolith.

  11. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  12. Electrostatic Separator for Beneficiation of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Arens, Ellen; Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James

    2010-01-01

    A charge separator has been constructed for use in a lunar environment that will allow for separation of minerals from lunar soil. In the present experiments, whole lunar dust as received was used. The approach taken here was that beneficiation of ores into an industrial feedstock grade may be more efficient. Refinement or enrichment of specific minerals in the soil before it is chemically processed may be more desirable as it would reduce the size and energy requirements necessary to produce the virgin material, and it may significantly reduce the process complexity. The principle is that minerals of different composition and work function will charge differently when tribocharged against different materials, and hence be separated in an electric field.

  13. Preliminary Examination of lunar Samples from Apollo 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This is the first scientific report on the examination of the lunar samples returned from the Apollo 12 mission. Analyses of 34 kilograms of lunar rocks and fines reveal significant differences from the samples from Tranquillity Base, most notably in age, texture, amount of solar wind material, and in mineral and chemical composition. (LC)

  14. Availability of hydrogen for lunar base activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bustin, Roberta

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen will be needed on a lunar base to make water for consumables, to provide fuel, and to serve as reducing agent in the extraction of oxygen from lunar minerals. The abundance and distribution of solar wind implanted hydrogen were studied. Hydrogen was found in all samples studied with concentrations varying widely depending on soil maturity, grain size, and mineral composition. Seven cores returned from the moon were studied. Although hydrogen was implanted in the upper surface layer of the regolith, it was found throughout the cores due to micrometeorite reworking of the soil.

  15. Availability of hydrogen for lunar base activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bustin, Roberta; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen will be needed on a lunar base to make water for consumables, to provide fuel, and to serve as a reducing agent in the extraction of oxygen from lunar minerals. This study was undertaken in order to learn more about the abundance and distribution of solar-wind-implanted hydrogen. Hydrogen was found in all samples studied, with concentrations, varying widely depending on soil maturity, grain size, and mineral composition. Seven cores returned from the Moon were studied. Although hydrogen was implanted in the upper surface layer of the regolith, it was found throughout the cores due to micrometeorite reworking of the soil.

  16. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  17. Lunar Seimology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Lognonné, P.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Chenet, H.; Mosegaard, K.

    2003-04-01

    Seismology has the highest resolving power of all geophysical methods used to study the Earth's structure, and, for this reason, it carries the responsibility of determining many parameters critically important to our understanding of the dynamic behaviour of the Earth. This was probably the main scientific motivation for NASA to deploy seismometers on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions. In the period from 1969 to 1972 the US Apollo missions landed seismographs on the lunar surface. These, of which four of the landed stations constituted a seismic array, were positioned in an approximate equilateral triangle with distances between stations being about 1100 km. The array recorded more than 12000 events in the period 1969-1977 which were continuously signaled to Earth. Subsequent examination of the seismograms revealed a highly complex wave train unlike anything observed on the Earth, hampering at times even the detection of the first-arriving P and S-waves, due to intense scattering in a highly porous regolith. The seismic events constitute man-made impacts, meteoroid impacts, shallow moonquakes and deep moonquakes, of which the latter are by far the most numerous. The deep moonquakes are found to occur half-way toward the center of the moon and are believed to be correlated with the tides raised on the moon by the Earth and the Sun. The shallow moonquakes occur in the depth range from 50-220 km and are thought to be akin to intraplate earthquakes. Generally, the Apollo-era studies were successful in determining the gross features of the lunar interior which resulted in the recognition of the Moon as being a differentiated body with a crust and a mantle whose lower parts were thought to be partially molten. However, details remained perfunctory with questions concerning seismic velocity variations and possible discontinuities in the mantle left unanswered. In the present study we show how we have obtained somewhat more detailed information on the lunar

  18. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  19. Lunar surface vehicle model competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During Fall and Winter quarters, Georgia Tech's School of Mechanical Engineering students designed machines and devices related to Lunar Base construction tasks. These include joint projects with Textile Engineering students. Topics studied included lunar environment simulator via drop tower technology, lunar rated fasteners, lunar habitat shelter, design of a lunar surface trenching machine, lunar support system, lunar worksite illumination (daytime), lunar regolith bagging system, sunlight diffusing tent for lunar worksite, service apparatus for lunar launch vehicles, lunar communication/power cables and teleoperated deployment machine, lunar regolith bag collection and emplacement device, soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site, lunar rated fastening systems for robotic implementation, lunar surface cable/conduit and automated deployment system, lunar regolith bagging system, and lunar rated fasteners and fastening systems. A special topics team of five Spring quarter students designed and constructed a remotely controlled crane implement for the SKITTER model.

  20. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  1. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-12-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  2. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  3. Lunar Dust Separation for Toxicology Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, D. S.; Riofrio, L. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Gonzalex, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, crewmembers were briefly exposed to dust in the lunar module, brought in after extravehicular activity. When the lunar ascent module returned to micro-gravity, the dust that had settled on the floor now floated into the air, causing eye discomfort and occasional respiratory symptoms. Because our goal is to set an exposure standard for 6 months of episodic exposure to lunar dust for crew on the lunar surface, these brief exposures of a few days are not conclusive. Based on experience with industrial minerals such as sandblasting quartz, an exposure of several months may cause serious damage, while a short exposure may cause none. The detailed characteristics of sub-micrometer lunar dust are only poorly known, and this is the size range of particles that are of greatest concern. We have developed a method for extracting respirable dust (<2.5 micron) from Apollo lunar soils. This method meets stringent requirements that the soil must be kept dry, exposed only to pure nitrogen, and must conserve and recover the maximum amount of both respirable dust and coarser soil. In addition, we have developed a method for grinding coarser lunar soil to produce sufficient respirable soil for animal toxicity testing while preserving the freshly exposed grain surfaces in a pristine state.

  4. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  5. Getting lunar ilmenite: From soils or rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Lunar soils or rocks can be mined as sources of ilmenite for producing oxygen. However, separable crystals of loose ilmenite in lunar soils are rare (<2%) and small (<200 {mu}); most ilmenite in the regolith is locked together with silicate minerals as rock fragments. Since fragmentation of rock sources must be attempted to win appreciable amounts of ilmenite ({approximately}10% or more), selective collection of high-Ti basalt fragments larger than 1 cm for fragmentation and ilmenite beneficiation may be advantageous over extensive processing of fine lunar soil. Many alternative processing schemes for fragmenting rocks on the Moon have been proposed; one process which was tested early in the Apollo program successfully disaggregated lunar and terrestrial basalts by passive exposure to low-pressure alkali (K) vapor. This process is worthy of reinvestigation. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Copernicus crater central peak - Lunar mountain of unique composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    Olivine is identified as the major mafic mineral in a central peak of Copernicus crater. Information on the mineral assemblages of such unsampled lunar surface material is provided by near infrared reflectance spectra (0.7 to 2.5 micrometers) obtained with earth-based telescopes. The composition of the deep-seated material comprising the Copernicus central peak is unique among measured areas. Other lunar terra areas and the wall of Copernicus exhibit spectral characteristics of mineral assemblages comparable to the feldspathic breccias returned by the Apollo missions, with low-calcium orthopyroxene being the major mafic mineral.

  7. Cross-Calibration of GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometers for Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Saarelainen, J; Hakulinen, M; Rikkonen, T; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H; Honkanen, R; Hujo, M; Jurvelin, J S

    2016-01-01

    In long-term prospective studies, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices need to be inevitably changed. It is essential to assess whether systematic differences will exist between measurements with the new and old device. A group of female volunteers (21-72 years) underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2-L4 (n = 72), proximal femur (n = 72), and total body (n = 62) measurements with the Prodigy and the iDXA scanners at the same visit. The bone mineral density (BMD) measurements with these two scanners showed a high linear association at all tested sites (r = 0.962-0.995; p < 0.0001). The average iDXA BMD values were 1.5%, 0.5%, and 0.9% higher than those of Prodigy for lumbar spine (L2-L4) (p < 0.0001), femoral neck (p = 0.048), and total hip (p < 0.0001), respectively. Total body BMD values measured with the iDXA were -1.3% lower (p < 0.0001) than those measured with the Prodigy. For total body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck, the BMD differences as measured with these two devices were independent of subject height and weight. Linear correction equations were developed to ensure comparability of BMD measurements obtained with both DXA scanners. Importantly, use of equations from previous studies would have increased the discrepancy between these particular DXA scanners, especially at hip and at spine. PMID:27239366

  8. Cross-Calibration of GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometers for Bone Mineral Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Saarelainen, J.; Hakulinen, M.; Rikkonen, T.; Kröger, H.; Tuppurainen, M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H.; Honkanen, R.; Hujo, M.; Jurvelin, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    In long-term prospective studies, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices need to be inevitably changed. It is essential to assess whether systematic differences will exist between measurements with the new and old device. A group of female volunteers (21–72 years) underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2–L4 (n = 72), proximal femur (n = 72), and total body (n = 62) measurements with the Prodigy and the iDXA scanners at the same visit. The bone mineral density (BMD) measurements with these two scanners showed a high linear association at all tested sites (r = 0.962–0.995; p < 0.0001). The average iDXA BMD values were 1.5%, 0.5%, and 0.9% higher than those of Prodigy for lumbar spine (L2–L4) (p < 0.0001), femoral neck (p = 0.048), and total hip (p < 0.0001), respectively. Total body BMD values measured with the iDXA were −1.3% lower (p < 0.0001) than those measured with the Prodigy. For total body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck, the BMD differences as measured with these two devices were independent of subject height and weight. Linear correction equations were developed to ensure comparability of BMD measurements obtained with both DXA scanners. Importantly, use of equations from previous studies would have increased the discrepancy between these particular DXA scanners, especially at hip and at spine. PMID:27239366

  9. Zirconium, hafnium, and rare earth element partition coefficients for ilmenite and other minerals in high-Ti lunar mare basalts - An experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, G.; Wagstaff, J.; Yang, S.-R.

    1986-01-01

    Partition coefficients were determined for Gd, Lu, Hf and Zr among ilmenite, armalcolite, and synthetic high-Ti mare basaltic melts at temperatures from 1122 deg to 1150 deg, and at oxygen fugacities of IW x 10 exp 0.5, by in situ analysis with an electron microprobe, using samples doped to present concentration levels. Coefficients for Zr were also measured for samples containing 600-1600 ppm Zr using this microprobe. In addition, coefficients were determined for Hf and Zr between chromian ulvospinel and melt, for Hf between pigeonite and melt, and for Lu between olivine and melt by microprobe analysis of samples doped to present levels. Values measured using the microprobe were in agreement with the values measured by analyzing mineral separates from the same run products by isotope dilution. Coefficient values for ilmenite are less than 0.01 for the LREE, are around 0.1 for the HREE, and are several times greater than this for Zr and Hf.

  10. Lunar mining of oxygen using fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Donald M.

    1992-09-01

    An important aspect of lunar mining will be the extraction of volatiles, particularly oxygen, from lunar rocks. Thermodynamic data show that oxygen could readily be recovered by fluorination of abundant lunar anorthite, CaAl2Si2O8. Fluorine is the most reactive element, and the only reagent able to extract 100 percent of the oxygen from any mineral, yet it can safely be stored or reacted in nickel or iron containers. The general fluorination reaction, mineral + 2F2 = mixed fluorides = O2, has been used for more than 30 years at a laboratory scale by stable-isotope geochemists. For anorthite, metallic Al and Si may be recovered from the mixed fluorides by Na-reduction, and CaO via exchange with Na2O; the resulting NaF may be recycled into F2 and Na by electrolysis, using lanthanide-doped CaF2 as the inert anode.

  11. Dielectric Constant Measurements for Characterizing Lunar Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert C.; Buehler, M.; Seshadri, S.; Kuhlman, G.; Schaap, M.

    2005-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using fast, reliable in-situ methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils can be very difficult because of the many complex parameters that influence the measurements. In particular, soil electrical property measurements are influenced by temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. Determining the dielectric constant of lunar materials may be very important in providing quick characterization of surface deposits, especially for the Moon. A close examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that the rocks and soils on the Moon are dominated by silicates and oxides. In this presentation, we will show that determining the dielectric constant measurements can provide a simple, quick detection method for minerals that contain titanium, iron, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  12. Lunar mining of oxygen using fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of lunar mining will be the extraction of volatiles, particularly oxygen, from lunar rocks. Thermodynamic data show that oxygen could readily be recovered by fluorination of abundant lunar anorthite, CaAl2Si2O8. Fluorine is the most reactive element, and the only reagent able to extract 100 percent of the oxygen from any mineral, yet it can safely be stored or reacted in nickel or iron containers. The general fluorination reaction, mineral + 2F2 = mixed fluorides = O2, has been used for more than 30 years at a laboratory scale by stable-isotope geochemists. For anorthite, metallic Al and Si may be recovered from the mixed fluorides by Na-reduction, and CaO via exchange with Na2O; the resulting NaF may be recycled into F2 and Na by electrolysis, using lanthanide-doped CaF2 as the inert anode.

  13. Lunar Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Weiss, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    We have completed a reanalysis of the old Apollo paleomagnetic data using modern techniques of analysis and presentation. The principal result from the mare basalts is that several samples, such as 10020, 10017, 10049, and 70215 appear to be carrying primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) acquired on the Moon as they cooled initially on the lunar surface, but in almost every case alternating field (AF) demagnetization was not carried out to strong enough fields to isolate this primary magnetization properly. When modern measurements are available, the agreement between old Apollo era data and new data is strikingly good. It also appears that the fields recorded by the basalts of Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 are stronger than those recorded by Apollo 12 and Apollo 15 basalts. Indeed it is not clear that any reliable records have come from these younger samples. The histories of breccias are more complicated than those of mare basalts and their NRM is harder to interpret. For regolith breccias, interpretations are complicated because of their strong superparamagnetic components and their complex, polymict lithologies. It would be unwise to use these samples for paleointensity estimates unless one can be sure that the NRM was entirely acquired as TRM during cooling after the shock event, as may be the case for 15498. In contrast, the melt rock and melt breccias, which include samples formed at high temperatures far above the Curie point of any magnetic carriers, have an excellent chance of recording lunar fields faithfully as they cool. This cooling may have taken place in a melt pool in a simple crater, or in a melt layer in a complex crater. Such samples would then have been excavated and deposited in the regolith and some appear to have recorded strong fields, but more work needs to be done to test this suggestion. Other melt rocks and melt breccias have had more complicated histories and appear to have been deposited in ejecta blankets, where final cooling took

  14. Lunar resources: Toward living off the lunar land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) lunar resources and surface conditions; (2) guidelines for early lunar technologies; (3) the lunar farm; (4) the lunar filling station; (5) lunar construction materials; (6) the lunar power company; (7) the electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the Moon and in near-Earth space.

  15. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  16. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Captain, Janine; Arens, Ellen; Quinn, Jacqueline; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic beneficiation of lunar regolith is a method allowing refinement of specific minerals in the material for processing on the moon. The use of tribocharging the regolith prior to separation was investigated on the lunar simulant MLS-I by passing the dust through static mixers constructed from different materials; aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The amount of charge acquired by the simulant was dependent upon the difference in the work function of the dust and the charging material. XPS and SEM were used to characterize the simulant after it was sieved into five size fractions (> 100 pm, 75-100 pm, 50- 75 pm, 50-25 pm, and < 25 pm), where very little difference in surface composition was observed between the sizes. Samples of the smallest (< 25 pm) and largest (> 100 pm) size fractions were beneficiated through a charge separator using the aluminum (charged the simulant negatively) and PTFE (charged positively) mixers. The mass fractions of the separated simulant revealed that for the larger particle size, significant unipolar charging was observed for both mixers, whereas for the smaller particle sizes, more bipolar charging was observed, probably due to the finer simulant adhering to the inside of the mixers shielding the dust from the charging material. Subsequent XPS analysis of the beneficiated fractions showed the larger particle size fraction having some species differentiation, but very little difference for the smaller.size. Although MLS-1 was made to have similar chemistry to actual lunar dust, its mineralogy is quite different. On-going experiments are using NASA JSC-1 lunar simulant. A vacuum chamber has been constructed, and future experiments are planned in a simulated lunar environment.

  17. Genesis lunar outpost: An evolutionary lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Gary T. (Compiler); Baschiera, Dino; Fieber, Joe; Moths, Janis

    1990-01-01

    Students at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Department of Agriculture undertook a series of studies of lunar habitats during the 1989 to 1990 academic year. Undergraduate students from architecture and mechanical and structural engineering with backgrounds in interior design, biology and construction technology were involved in a seminar in the fall semester followed by a design studio in the spring. The studies resulted in three design alternatives for lunar habitation and an integrated design for an early stage lunar outpost.

  18. Emission Measurements of Lunar Analogues Measured in a Simulated Lunar Environment for Interpretation of Data Returned from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer on NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    A lunar thermal environment simulator has been constructed, in order to measure emission spectra of lunar analogue minerals in the same thermal environment as is present on the surface of the Moon. This data is directly comparable to measurements made by the Diviner instrument, currently in orbit around the Moon onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), allowing the composition of the Moon’s surface to be further determined, as part of the Diviner Compositional Investigation[1]. Diviner is a nine-channel infrared mapping radiometer, currently making high resolution (~160m per pixel) observations of the lunar surface from a ~50km lunar orbit[2]. The instrument’s filters are designed to map the temperature, mineralogy, albedo, rock abundance and bulk thermal properties of the surface regolith (soil)[2]. Three channels, located around 8µm, are capable of determining the spectral location of the Christiansen Feature (CF)[3], the primary spectral feature observed in mid-infrared measurements of the Moon[4,5]. Four other channels, from 13 to 400µm, are capable of mapping variations in emissivity of the lunar surface. The CF of a feldspathic mineral is located at a shorter wavelength than a mafic mineral, hence this emissivity maximum can be used as a compositional indicator[6,7]. It is observed as an emissivity maximum, and is enhanced by the lunar environment. In the top few hundreds of microns, at low to mid-latitudes during the daytime, large thermal gradients are induced due to very low heat transport within the lunar regolith[8,9,10,11]. The surface is cooled as it radiates to cold space, but soil transparency in the spectra around the CF region causes radiation to be emitted from the deeper, hotter layers, producing an emission maximum. Regolith grain size, mixing ratios, and the lack of atmosphere on the Moon also affect the shape and location of the CF[6,7,9,12]. The lunar thermal environment simulator creates an equivalent thermal gradient in lunar

  19. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  20. LOLA: Defining Lunar Terrain

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on board NASA's LRO spacecraft builds the highest detail topography currently available of the lunar terrain. In this video David Smith, LOLA's P...

  1. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  2. Microcracks in lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1979-01-01

    Lunar samples contain abundant open microcracks that have closure characteristics completely unlike any shocked terrestrial rock; however, the microcracks present in the lunar rocks before the rocks reached the surface of the moon were likely similar to the microcracks in the shocked terrestrial rocks. Because the microcracks present in the lunar rocks in situ inside the moon were different, radically different, from the microcracks present today in returned lunar samples, any property that is sensitive to microcracks measured on the returned lunar samples is inappropriate for predicting that property as a function of depth in the moon. Therefore, many data that have been measured already on lunar samples simply do not apply to rocks in situ inside the moon. A plausible mechanism with which to account for the difference in microcrack characteristics of lunar samples on the surface of the moon and the microcrack characteristics of lunar rock in situ inside the moon is thermal cycling during residence on the moon's surface.

  3. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  4. Electrified Lunar Polar Craters?

    NASA Video Gallery

    New research from NASA's Lunar Science Institute indicates that the solar wind may be charging certain regions at the lunar poles to hundreds of volts. In this short video Dr. Bill Farrell discusse...

  5. Sulfur "Concrete" for Lunar Applications - Sublimation Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Toutanji, Houssam

    2006-01-01

    Melting sulfur and mixing it with an aggregate to form "concrete" is commercially well established and constitutes a material that is particularly well-suited for use in corrosive environments. Discovery of the mineral troilite (FeS) on the moon poses the question of extracting the sulfur for use as a lunar construction material. This would be an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. However, the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. Here it is assumed that the lunar ore can be mined, refined, and the raw sulfur melded with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. This study evaluates pure sulfur and two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar stimulant and SiO2 powder as aggregate additions. Each set was subjected to extended periods in a vacuum environment to evaluate sublimation issues. Results from these experiments are presented and discussed within the context of the lunar environment.

  6. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  7. Toward a Suite of Standard Lunar Regolith Simulants for NASA's Lunar Missions: Recommendations of the 2005 Workshop of Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, R. A.; Sibille, L.; Carpenter, P.

    2005-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fast-pace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960's Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that is being addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and NASA program managers. The issue of reproducing the properties of lunar regolith for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. The conclusions from the workshop and considerations concerning the feasibility (both technical and programmatic) of producing such materials will be presented here.

  8. Lunar granulites and their precursor anorthositic norites of the early lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lunar granulities, which are ancient and KREEP-free, represent the best samples of early lunar crust. They can be divided into ferroan and magnesium groups, and each group can be subdivided on the basis of mineral composition and REE concentrations. It is shown that some of the granulites may be derived from distinct anorthitic norite precursors, while some others are clearly polymict, though it is believed that even these granulites had anorthositic norites as their dominant precursors. The granulites have compositions similar to those of the two lunar meteorites, one of which is ferroan, the other magnesian. These meteorites are soil breccias from an unknown location distant from the Apollo landing sites and contain anorthositic norites as abundant clasts. Granulite and lunar-meteorite compositions more closely resemble the average composition of lunar highlands than those of any other returned lunar samples. The predominance of plutonic anorthositic norite precursors in material having the composition typical of highlands suggests that plutonic anorthositic norites were more abundant in the early lunar crust than is implied by their scarcity in Apollo pristine rocks.

  9. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  10. Russian Lunar Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

  11. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  12. Nuclear tracks in lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt is made to relate the appearance of an etched tract to the atomic number and velocity of the ion that left it using 10 MeV/nucleon Kr beams and 6 MeV/nucleon Zn beams. It was found that the etching rate along a tract in minerals and glass is a monototonic function of ionization rate thus, making particle identification possible. Results show the following were present in lunar samples: superheavy elements, cosmic rays with z greater than 26, and solar flare particles in Surveyor glass.

  13. Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1μm resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical

  14. Lunar sample 14425 - Not a lunar tektite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of a polished section of lunar sample 14425 shows, in contradiction to a previous report, that it has a composition similar to Apollo 14 breccias, but not to high-magnesium microtektites. Lunar sample 14425 is a large (8.006±0.006 mm dia.) glass bead. Sample 14425 is one of the largest glass beads returned from the moon. Semiquantitative analysis of the bead indicated that it has a composition unlike other lunar samples, but similar to high-magnesium microtektites (O'Keefe and Glass, 1985). A polished section was prepared at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Quantitative analysis of this section shows that the spherule is extremely homogenous in composition and that the composition is similar to Apollo 14 impact breccias and not to any known terrestrial tektite. It appears that the glass bead was formed by impact melting and that it is not a lunar tektite.

  15. Search for and analysis of radioactive halos in lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The lunar halo search was conducted because halos in terrestrial minerals serve as pointers to localized radioactivity, and make possible analytical studies on the problems of isotopic dating and mode of crystallization of the host mineral. Ancillary studies were conducted on terrestrial halos and on certain samples of special origin such as tektites and meteorites.

  16. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  17. Guide to using lunar soil and simulants for experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Galindo, C., Jr.; Watts, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that lunar soil can be described as well-graded silty sands or sandy silts with an average particle size by weight in the range from 0.040 to 0.130 mm. The density of in situ bulk lunar soil is typically 1.4 to 1.9 g/cu cm. Changes in soil from moon to laboratory are considered along with some critical differences between simulants and lunar soil. Attention is given to agglutinates, iron metal distributed throughout the agglutinatic glass, solar wind hydrogen, and major lunar minerals (anorthite, pyroxene, ilmenite, olivine). The use of lunar fines as experimental samples is discussed, and the characteristics of simulants for experiments are examined, taking into account grain size distribution, particle type distribution, a highlands simulant, and a high titanium mare simulant. Simulants for testing equipment and structures are also described.

  18. Uncommon behavior of plagioclase and the ancient lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekvasil, Hanna; Lindsley, Donald H.; DiFrancesco, Nicholas; Catalano, Tristan; Coraor, Aron E.; Charlier, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Calcic plagioclase, the dominant mineral of the anorthositic lunar crust, fails to show the Na enrichment during cooling that is typical of magmatic plagioclase. We show that this enigmatic behavior may arise during fractionation of highly calcic plagioclase at depths greater than ~70 km in the lunar magma ocean because of the development of a negative azeotropic configuration at high anorthite contents that impedes and may even reverse the standard plagioclase albite enrichment with dropping temperature. This result supports a high-pressure origin of this plagioclase consistent with the lunar magma ocean model. It also provides a new mechanism for forming lunar lithologies with sodic plagioclase from a highly Na-depleted Moon through gravitational settling of spinel and refines the compositional characteristics of the late stage residual liquids of the lunar magma ocean.

  19. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  20. LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample Ground Truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.

  1. Mining and beneficiation of lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Williams, R. J.; Mckay, D. S.; Giles, D.

    1979-01-01

    The beneficiation of lunar plagioclase and ilmenite ores to feedstock grade permits a rapid growth of the space manufacturing economy by maximizing the production rate of metals and oxygen. A beneficiation scheme based on electrostatic and magnetic separation is preferred over conventional schemes, but such a scheme cannot be completely modeled because beneficiation processes are empirical and because some properties of lunar minerals have not been measured. To meet anticipated shipping and processing needs, the peak lunar mining rate will exceed 1000 tons/hr by the fifth year of operation. Such capabilities will be best obtained by automated mining vehicles and conveyor systems rather than trucks. It may be possible to extract about 40 kg of volatiles (60 percent H2O) by thermally processing the less than 20 micron ilmenite concentrate extracted from 130 tons of ilmenite ore. A thermodynamic analysis of an extraction process is presented.

  2. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  3. Processing of metal and oxygen from lunar deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Constance F.

    1992-01-01

    On the moon, some whole rocks may be ores for abundant elements, such as oxygen, but beneficiation will be important if metallic elements are sought from raw lunar dirt. In the extraction process, a beneficiated metallic ore, such as an oxide, sulfide, carbonate, or silicate mineral, is converted to reduced metal. A variety of plausible processing technologies, which includes recovery of meteoritic iron, and processing of lunar ilmenite, are described in this report.

  4. Rock Degradation by Alkali Metals: A Possible Lunar Erosion Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Naughton, J J; Barnes, I L; Hammond, D A

    1965-08-01

    When rocks melt under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, their alkali components volatilize as metals. These metal vapors act to comminute polycrystalline rocks to their component minerals. The resultant powder is porous and loosely packed and its characteristics may be compatible with the lunar surface as revealed by the Ranger photographs. If meteorite impact or lunar volcanism has produced vaporization or areas of molten lava, alkali erosion may have given dust of this character in adjacent solid areas. PMID:17747570

  5. Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment: Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Table-top views of one of the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiments. This view is of the Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) (Lunar Mass Spectrometer), Experiment S-205, one of the experiments of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. The LACE will measrue components in the ambient lunar atmosphere in the range of one to 110 atomic mass units (AMU).

  6. Ultraviolet investigations for lunar missions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill, William R.; Fischer, William A.; Dornbach, J.E.

    1966-01-01

    Preliminary field tests of an active ultraviolet imaging system have shown that it is possible to produce linages of the terrain from distances as great as 75 feet by means of reflected ultraviolet light at wavelengths longer than 3300 A. Minerals that luminesce when exposed to ultraviolet energy have been detected from distances as great as 200 feet. With appropriate design modifications, it may be possible to utilize a similar system in detecting luminescing minerals from greater distances. Also, with a similar system and appropriate auxiliary equipment such as image intensifiers, it may be possible to discriminate between naturally occurring materials on the basis of reflected ultraviolet energy at wavelengths shorter than 3000 A. In this part of the spectrum image contrast for some rock types may exceed that from visible light. Information from these and related ultraviolet spectralanalysis studies may be useful in evaluating data obtained from passive ultraviolet systems in lunar orbit as well as from active systems on the lunar surface.

  7. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  8. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Schultz, P. H. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  9. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  10. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning, and

  11. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  12. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  13. Reproducing Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectra of Lunar Rocks Directly from Their End-Member Spectra: Importance of Ilmenite in Estimating the Lunar Surface Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, T.; Isaacson, P. J.; Klima, R. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Sarbadhikari, A. B.; Liu, Y.; Taylor, L. A.

    2009-03-01

    Spectral mixing calculations have been performed on the bulk samples and major mineral separates of four Apollo basalts. The results demonstrate the importance of considering coexisting ilmenite in remotely estimating the lunar silicate composition.

  14. Notes on Lithology, Mineralogy, and Production for Lunar Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Stoeser, D. B.; Benzel, W. M.; Schrader, C. M.; Edmunson, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of lunar simulants requires a very broad range of specialized knowledge and information. This document covers several topic areas relevant to lithology, mineralogy, and processing of feedstock materials that are necessary components of the NASA lunar simulant effort. The naming schemes used for both terrestrial and lunar igneous rocks are discussed. The conflict between the International Union of Geological Sciences standard and lunar geology is noted. The rock types known as impactites are introduced. The discussion of lithology is followed by a brief synopsis of pyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine, which are the major mineral constituents of the lunar crust. The remainder of the text addresses processing of materials, particularly the need for separation of feedstock minerals. To illustrate this need, the text includes descriptions of two norite feedstocks for lunar simulants: the Stillwater Complex in Montana, United States, and the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. Magnetic mineral separations, completed by Hazen Research, Inc. and Eriez Manufacturing Co. for the simulant task, are discussed.

  15. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  16. Scenario of Growing Crops on Silicates in Lunar Gargens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrovska, N.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negutska, V.; Lar, O.; Korniichuk, O.; Alpatov, A.; Rogutskiy, I.; Kordyum, V.; Foing, B.

    Self-perpetuating gardens will be a practical necessity for humans, living in permanently manned lunar bases. A lunar garden has to supplement less appetizing packaged food brought from the Earth, and the ornamental plants have to serve as valuable means for emotional relaxation of crews in a hostile lunar environment. The plants are less prone to the inevitable pests and diseases when they are in optimum condition, however, in lunar greenhouses there is a threat for plants to be hosts for pests and predators. Although the lunar rocks are microorganism free, there will be a problem with the acquired infection (pathogens brought from the Earth) in the substrate used for the plant growing. On the Moon pests can be removed by total fumigation, including seed fumigation. However, such a treatment is not required when probiotics (biocontrol bacteria) for seed inoculation are used. A consortium of bacteria, controlling plant diseases, provides the production of an acceptable harvest under growth limiting factors and a threatening infection. To model lunar conditions we have used terrestrial alumino-silicate mineral anorthosite (Malyn, Ukraine) which served us as a lunar mineral analog for a substrate composition. With the idea to provide a plant with some essential growth elements siliceous bacterium Paenibacillus sp. has been isolated from alumino-silicate mineral, and a mineral leaching has been simulated in laboratory condition. The combination of mineral anorthosite and siliceous bacteria, on one hand, and a consortium of beneficial bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases, on the other hand, are currently used in model experiments to examine the wheat and potato growth and production in cultivating chambers under controlled conditions.

  17. Shock metamorphic effects in lunar microcraters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaal, R. B.; Hoerz, F.; Gibbons, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed petrographic descriptions and results of electron microprobe analyses are presented for impact glasses as well as shocked and unshocked minerals associated with individual lunar microcraters (diameters of 0.4 to 4.4 mm). Rocks of four typical lunar lithologies are studied: anorthosite, anorthositic norite, ophitic basalt, and polymict breccia. Textures, mineralogies, and chemical compositions are examined along a radial traverse through each microcrater; i.e., across the impact glasses lining the crater wall, the shock-metamorphosed zone immediately underlying the glass liner, and the unshocked host rock. The microcraters are discussed in a sequence of increasing mineralogical complexity of the host rock (from anorthosite to polymict breccia) in order to distinguish shock effects among mineral types. The shock metamorphic features observed are found to be comparable to those reported in shocked basalt from Lonar Crater, India, and are categorized into five shock-intensity classes with pressures experimentally calibrated.

  18. Detecting Volatiles Deep in the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, A.; Heggy, E.; Ciarletti, V.; Colaprete, A.; Moghaddam, M.; Siegler, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing theoretical and empirical evidence, from the Apollo era and after, of volatiles deep in the lunar interior, in the crust and deeper, both hydrogen-rich and otherwise. This comes in the form of fire fountain samples from Apollo 15 and Apollo 17, of hydrated minerals excavated by impacts which reach the base of the lunar crust e.g., crater Bullialdus, of hydration of apatite and other minerals, as well as predictions of a water-concentrated layer along with the KREEP material at the base of the lunar crust. We discuss how the presence of these volatiles might be directly explored. In particular water vapor molecules percolating to the surface through lunar regolith might be expected to stick and freeze into the regolith, at depths of several meters depending on the regolith temperature profile, porosity and particle size distribution, quantities that are not well known beyond two meters depth. To explore these depths in the regolith we use and propose several modes of penetrating radar. We will present results using the SELENE/Kaguya's Lunar Sounding RADAR (LSR) to probe the bulk volatile dielectric and loss structure properties of the regolith in various locations, both within permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and without, and within neutron suppression regions (NSRs) as traced by epithermal neutrons and without. We also propose installation of ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) on a roving lunar platform that should be able to probe between 0.2 and 1.6 GHz, which will provide a probe of the entire depth of the lunar regolith as well as a high-resolution (about 4 cm FWHM) probe of the upper meter or two of the lunar soil, where other probes of volatiles such as epithermal neutron absorption or drilling might be employed. We discuss predictions for what kinds of volatile density profiles might be distinguished in this way, and whether these will be detected from orbit as NSRs, whether these must be restricted to PSRs, and how these might appear in

  19. Petrology and crystal chemistry of poikilitic anorthositic gabbro 77017. [lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, I. S.; Mathez, E. A.; Okamura, F. P.; Ghose, S.

    1974-01-01

    Aspects of mineralogy are considered, taking into account the occurrence and the characteristics of plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. Attention is also given to oxides, opaque minerals, and glass components. Questions regarding the temperature of formation and the origin of the considered lunar poikilitic rocks are discussed. It is pointed out that the presented hypothesis may not be applicable to other poikilitic lunar rocks.

  20. Feasibility of mining lunar resources for earth use: Circa 2000 AD. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, K.; Arno, R. D.; Alexander, A. D.; Slye, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining lunar minerals for terrestrial uses is examined. Preliminary results gave indications that it will not be economically feasible to mine, refine, and transport lunar materials to Earth for consumption. A broad systems approach was used to analyze the problem. It was determined that even though the procedure was not economically advisable, the concept for the operations is technically sound.

  1. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

  2. U-Pb Ages of Lunar Apatites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J.; Nemchin, A. A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Apatite is one of the minerals that is rarely utilized in U-Pb geochronology, compared to some other U-rich accessory phases. Relatively low U concentration, commonly high proportion of common Pb and low closure temperature of U-Pb system of apatite inhibit its application as geochronological tool when other minerals such as zircon are widely available. However, zircon appear to be restricted to certain type of lunar rocks, carrying so called KREEP signature, whereas apatite (and whitlockite) is a common accessory mineral in the lunar samples. Therefore, utilizing apatite for lunar chronology may increase the pool of rocks that are available for U-Pb dating. The low stability of U-Pb systematics of apatite may also result in the resetting of the system during meteoritic bombardment, in which case apatite may provide an additional tool for the study of the impact history of the Moon. In order to investigate these possibilities, we have analysed apatites and zircons from two breccia samples collected during the Apollo 14 mission. Both samples were collected within the Fra Mauro formation, which is interpreted as a material ejected during the impact that formed the Imbrium Basin.

  3. Apollo 9 Lunar Module in lunar landing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module, in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed form the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on the Lunar Module 'Spider' has been deployed. Note Lunar Module's upper hatch and docking tunnel.

  4. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  5. Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout (LRM/LGS) program status. Topics covered include the LEXWG Lunar Observer science measurement priorities, space exploration initiative priorities, the question of why a lunar orbiting mission is attractive to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), instrument selection, major milestones, and the organization of the LRM/LGS Program Office.

  6. X-ray diffraction studies of shocked lunar analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanss, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction experiments on shocked rock and mineral analogs of particular significance to lunar geology are described. Materials naturally shocked by meteorite impact, nuclear-shocked, or artificially shocked in a flat plate accelerator were utilized. Four areas were outlined for investigation: powder diffractometer studies of shocked single crystal silicate minerals (quartz, orthoclase, oligoclase, pyroxene), powder diffractometer studies of shocked polycrystalline monomineralic samples (dunite), Debye-Scherrer studies of single grains of shocked granodiorite, and powder diffractometer studies of shocked whole rock samples. Quantitative interpretation of peak shock pressures experienced by materials found in lunar or terrestrial impact structures is presented.

  7. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  8. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  9. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  10. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, Dag; Carpenter, James; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L.; Loftus, David J.; Prisk, G. Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-12-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust properties will be required to provide ground truth for ground-based studies quantifying the toxicity of dust exposure and the associated health risks during future manned lunar missions.

  11. Sims Analysis of Water Abundance and Hydrogen Isotope in Lunar Highland Plagioclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Hejiu; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R.; Eiler, John M.; Neal, Clive R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of indigenous water in mare basaltic glass beads has challenged the view established since the Apollo era of a "dry" Moon. Since this discovery, measurements of water in lunar apatite, olivine-hosted melt inclusions, agglutinates, and nominally anhydrous minerals have confirmed that lunar igneous materials contain water, implying that some parts of lunar mantle may have as much water as Earth's upper mantle. The interpretation of hydrogen (H) isotopes in lunar samples, however, is controversial. The large variation of H isotope ratios in lunar apatite (delta Deuterium = -202 to +1010 per mille) has been taken as evidence that water in the lunar interior comes from the lunar mantle, solar wind protons, and/or comets. The very low deuterium/H ratios in lunar agglutinates indicate that solar wind protons have contributed to their hydrogen content. Conversely, H isotopes in lunar volcanic glass beads and olivine-hosted melt inclusions being similar to those of common terrestrial igneous rocks, suggest a common origin for water in both Earth and Moon. Lunar water could be inherited from carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with the model of late accretion of chondrite-type materials to the Moon as proposed by. One complication about the sources of lunar water, is that geologic processes (e.g., late accretion and magmatic degassing) may have modified the H isotope signatures of lunar materials. Recent FTIR analyses have shown that plagioclases in lunar ferroan anorthosite contain approximately 6 ppm H2O. So far, ferroan anorthosite is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). A possible consequence is that the LMO could have contained up to approximately 320 ppm H2O. Here we examine the possible sources of water in the LMO through measurements of water abundances and H isotopes in plagioclase of two ferroan anorthosites and one troctolite from lunar highlands.

  12. Thermoluminescence of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Doell, Richard R.

    1970-01-01

    Appreciable natural thermoluminescence with glow curve peaks at about 350 degrees centigrade for lunar fines and breccias and above 400 degrees centigrade for crystalline rocks has been recognized in lunar samples. Plagioclase has been identified as the principal carrier of thermoluminescence, and the difference in peak temperatures indicates compositional or structural differences between the feldspars of the different rock types. The present thermoluminescence in the lunar samples is probably the result of a dynamic equilibrium between acquisition from radiation and loss in the lunar thermal environment. A progressive change in the glow curves of core samples with depth below the surface suggests the use of thermoluminescence disequilibrium to detect surfaces buried by recent surface activity, and it also indicates that the lunar diurnal temperature variation penetrates to at least 10.5 centimeters.

  13. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  14. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are the following: to investigate the feasibility of the use of local lunar resources for construction of a lunar base structure; to develop a material processing method and integrate the method with design and construction of a pressurized habitation structure; to estimate specifications of the support equipment necessary for material processing and construction; and to provide parameters for systems models of lunar base constructions, supply, and operations. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: comparison of various lunar structures; guidelines for material processing methods; cast lunar regolith; examples of cast basalt components; cast regolith process; processing equipment; mechanical properties of cast basalt; material properties and structural design; and future work.

  15. Lunar Surface Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Lane, A. L.; Miller, D.

    1992-01-01

    Many questions of lunar science remain unanswered because of a lack of specific data. With the potential for returning humans to the Moon and establishing a long-term presence there, a new realm of exploration is possible. Numerous plans have been outlined for orbital and surface missions. The capabilities and objectives of a small class of rovers to be deployed on the lunar surface are described. The objective of these small rovers is to collect detailed in situ information about the composition and distribution of materials on the lunar surface. Those data, in turn, would be applied to a variety of lunar geoscience questions and form a basis for planning human activities on the lunar surface.

  16. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  17. Lunar magnetic fields: Implications for resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1992-09-01

    It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

  18. Lunar Magnetic Fields: Implications for Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

  19. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  20. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Lunar South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen,, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Cohen, B. A.; Sellar, G.; Reiter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanentlyshadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system.

  1. Evaluating the Use of Tribocharging in the Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, S.; Captain, J. G.; Arens, E. E.; Captain, J. E.; Quinn, J. W.; Calle, C. I.

    2007-01-01

    Any future lunar base needs materials to provide thermal and radiation protection. Many factors point to the use of lunar materials as industrial feedstocks. Sintering of full-scale bricks using whole lunar dust has been accomplished. Refinement of soil beneficial before processing means less energy. Triboelectric separation of coal from minerals, quartz from feldspar, and phosphorous from silica and iron ore successively achieved. The Lunar environment ideal for electrostatic separation (1) lack of moisture (2) lower gravitational pull (3) higher voltages in vacuum

  2. Use of lunar regolith as a substrate for plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Henninger, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) will be required to regenerate air, water, and wastes, and to produce food for human consumption during long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars. It may be possible to supplement some of the materials needed for a lunar RLSS from resources on the Moon. Natural materials at the lunar surface may be used for a variety of lunar RLSS needs, including (1) soils or solid-support substrates for plant growth, (2) sources for extraction of essential, plant-growth nutrients, (3) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, (4) sources of O2 and H2, which may be used to manufacture water, (5) feed stock materials for the synthesis of useful minerals (e.g., molecular sieves), and (6) shielding materials surrounding the outpost structure to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from harmful radiation. Use of indigenous lunar regolith as a terrestrial-like soil for plant growth could offer a solid support substrate, buffering capacity, nutrient source/storage/retention capabilities, and should be relatively easy to maintain. The lunar regolith could, with a suitable microbial population, play a role in waste renovation; much like terrestrial waste application directly on soils. Issues associated with potentially toxic elements, pH, nutrient availability, air and fluid movement parameters, and cation exchange capacity of lunar regolith need to be addressed before lunar materials can be used effectively as soils for plant growth.

  3. Determination of lunar ilmenite abundances from remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Stephen M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-04-01

    The mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) was found in abundance in lunar mare soils returned during the Apollo project. Lunar ilmenite often contains greater than 50 weight-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is a primary potential resource for oxygen and other raw materials to supply future lunar bases. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the returned lunar soils produced an empirical function that relates the spectral reflectance ratio at 400 and 560 nm to the weight percent abundance of TiO2. This allowed mapping of the lunar TiO2 distribution using telescopic vidicon multispectral imaging from the ground; however, the time variant photometric response of the vidicon detectors produced abundance uncertainties of at least 2 to 5 percent. Since that time, solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) detector technology capable of much improved photometric response has become available. An investigation of the lunar TiO2 distribution was carried out utilizing groundbased telescopic CCD multispectral imagery and spectroscopy. The work was approached in phases to develop optimum technique based upon initial results. The goal is to achieve the best possible TiO2 abundance maps from the ground as a precursor to lunar orbiter and robotic sample return missions, and to produce a better idea of the peak abundances of TiO2 for benefaction studies. These phases and the results are summarized.

  4. Use of lunar regolith as a substrate for plant growth.

    PubMed

    Ming, D W; Henninger, D L

    1994-01-01

    Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) will be required to regenerate air, water, and wastes, and to produce food for human consumption during long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars. It may be possible to supplement some of the materials needed for a lunar RLSS from resources on the Moon. Natural materials at the lunar surface may be used for a variety of lunar RLSS needs, including (i) soils or solid-support substrates for plant growth, (ii) sources for extraction of essential, plant-growth nutrients, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, (iv) sources of O2 and H2, which may be used to manufacture water, (v) feed stock materials for the synthesis of useful minerals (e.g., molecular sieves), and (vi) shielding materials surrounding the outpost structure to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from harmful radiation. Use of indigenous lunar regolith as a terrestrial-like soil for plant growth could offer a solid support substrate, buffering capacity, nutrient source/storage/retention capabilities, and should be relatively easy to maintain. The lunar regolith could, with a suitable microbial population, play a role in waste renovation; much like terrestrial waste application directly on soils. Issues associated with potentially toxic elements, pH, nutrient availability, air and fluid movement parameters, and cation exchange capacity of lunar regolith need to be addressed before lunar materials can be used effectively as soils for plant growth. PMID:11538023

  5. Combined Gamma Ray/neutron Spectroscopy for Mapping Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Byrd, R. C.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Masarik, J.; Moss, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    Some elements in the Moon can be resources, such as hydrogen and oxygen. Other elements, like Ti or the minerals in which they occur, such as ilmenite, could be used in processing lunar materials. Certain elements can also be used as tracers for other elements or lunar processes, such as hydrogen for mature regoliths with other solar-wind-implanted elements like helium, carbon, and nitrogen. A complete knowledge of the elemental composition of a lunar region is desirable both in identifying lunar resources and in lunar geochemical studies, which also helps in identifying and using lunar resources. The use of gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy together to determine abundances of many elements in the top few tens of centimeters of the lunar surface is discussed. To date, very few discussions of elemental mapping of planetary surfaces considered measurements of both gamma rays and the full range of neutron energies. The theories for gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy of the Moon and calculations of leakage fluxes are presented here with emphasis on why combined gamma ray/neutron spectroscopy is much more powerful than measuring either radiation alone.

  6. Determination of lunar ilmenite abundances from remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Stephen M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) was found in abundance in lunar mare soils returned during the Apollo project. Lunar ilmenite often contains greater than 50 weight-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is a primary potential resource for oxygen and other raw materials to supply future lunar bases. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the returned lunar soils produced an empirical function that relates the spectral reflectance ratio at 400 and 560 nm to the weight percent abundance of TiO2. This allowed mapping of the lunar TiO2 distribution using telescopic vidicon multispectral imaging from the ground; however, the time variant photometric response of the vidicon detectors produced abundance uncertainties of at least 2 to 5 percent. Since that time, solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) detector technology capable of much improved photometric response has become available. An investigation of the lunar TiO2 distribution was carried out utilizing groundbased telescopic CCD multispectral imagery and spectroscopy. The work was approached in phases to develop optimum technique based upon initial results. The goal is to achieve the best possible TiO2 abundance maps from the ground as a precursor to lunar orbiter and robotic sample return missions, and to produce a better idea of the peak abundances of TiO2 for benefaction studies. These phases and the results are summarized.

  7. Use of lunar regolith as a substrate for plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, D. W.; Henninger, D. L.

    1994-11-01

    Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) will be required to regenerate air, water, and wastes, and to produce food for human consumption during long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars. It may be possible to supplement some of the materials needed for a lunar RLSS from resources on the Moon. Natural materials at the lunar surface may be used for a variety of lunar RLSS needs, including (i) soils or solid-support substrates for plant growth, (ii) sources for extraction of essential, plant-growth nutrients, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, (iv) sources of O2 and H2, which may be used to manufacture water, (v) feed stock materials for the synthesis of useful minerals (e.g., molecular sieves), and (vi) shielding materials surrounding the outpost structure to protect humans, plants, and microorganism from harmful radiation. Use of indigenous lunar regolith as a terrestrial-like soil for plant growth could offer a solid support substrate, buffering capacity, nutrient source/storage/retention capabilities, and should be relatively easy to maintain. The lunar regolith could, with a suitable microbial population, play a role in waste renovation; much like terrestrial waste application directly on soils. Issues associated with potentially toxic elements, pH, nutrient availability, air and fluid movement parameters, and cation exchange capacity of lunar regolith need to be addressed before lunar materials can be used effectively as soils for plant growth.

  8. Simulant Materials of Lunar Dust: Requirements and feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, L.

    2005-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fast-pace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960 s Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that must be addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and program managers. While the larger size fraction of the lunar regolith has been reproduced in several simulants in the past, little attention has been paid to the fines fraction, commonly refered to as lunar dust. As reported by McKay, this fraction of the lunar regolith below 20 microns can represent upto 30% by mass of the total regolith mass. The issue of reproducing the properties of these fines for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. Preliminary conclusions from the workshop and con- side-rations concerning the feasibility of producing such materials will be presented here.

  9. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, E; Ozawa, S; Miyahara, M; Ito, Y; Mikouchi, T; Kimura, M; Arai, T; Sato, K; Hiraga, K

    2011-01-11

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO(2) in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8-30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the (39)Ar/(40)Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment. PMID:21187434

  10. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, E.; Ozawa, S.; Miyahara, M.; Ito, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Arai, T.; Sato, K.; Hiraga, K.

    2011-01-01

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO2 in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8–30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the 39Ar/40Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment. PMID:21187434

  11. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  12. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  13. Mobile Lunar Base Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marc M.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes three innovative concepts for a mobile lunar base. These concept combine design research for habitat architecture, mobility systems, habitability, radiation protection, human factors, and living and working environments on the lunar surface. The mobile lunar base presents several key advantages over conventional static base notions. These advantages concern landing zone safety, the requirement to move modules over the lunar surface, and the ability to stage mobile reconnaissance with effective systemic redundancy. All of these concerns lead to the consideration of a mobile walking habitat module and base design. The key issues involve landing zone safety, the ability to transport habitat modules across the surface, and providing reliability and redundancy to exploration traverses in pressurized vehicles. With self-ambulating lunar base modules, it will be feasible to have each module separate itself from its retro-rocket thruster unit, and walk five to ten km away from the LZ to a pre-selected site. These mobile modules can operate in an autonomous or teleoperated mode to navigate the lunar surface. At the site of the base, the mobile modules can combine together; make pressure port connections among themselves, to create a multi-module pressurized lunar base.

  14. Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  15. The International Lunar Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    A new lunar science flight projects line has been introduced within NASA s Science Mission Directorate's (SMDs) proposed 2009 budget, including two new robotic missions designed to accomplish key scientific objectives and, when possible, provide results useful to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Space Operations Mission Directorate (SOMD) as those organizations grapple with the challenges of returning humans to the Moon. The first mission in this line will be the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, an ESMD mission that will acquire key information for human return to the moon activities, which will transition after one year of operations to the SMD Lunar Science Program for a 2-year nominal science mission. The second mission, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) will be launch in 2011 along with the GRAIL Discovery mission to the moon. The third is delivery of two landed payloads as part of the International Lunar Network (ILN). This flight projects line provides a robust robotic lunar science program for the next 8 years and beyond, complements SMD s initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines, and increases international participation in NASA s robotic exploration plans. The International Lunar Network is envisioned as a global lunar geophysical network, which fulfills many of the stated recommendations of the recent National Research Council report on The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon [2], but is difficult for any single space agency to accomplish on its own. The ILN would provide the necessary global coverage by involving US and international landed missions as individual nodes working together. Ultimately, this network could comprise 8-10 or more nodes operating simultaneously, while minimizing the required contribution from each space agency. Indian, Russian, Japanese, and British landed missions are currently being formulated and SMD is actively seeking partnership with

  16. The Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    A thick layer of regolith, fragmental and unconsolidated rock material, covers the entire lunar surface. This layer is the result of the continuous impact of meteoroids large and small and the steady bombardment of charged particles from the sun and stars. The regolith is generally about 4-5 m thick in mare regions and 10-15 m in highland areas (McKay et al., 1991) and contains all sizes of material from large boulders to sub-micron dust particles. Below the regolith is a region of large blocks of material, large-scale ejecta and brecciated bedrock, often referred to as the "megaregolith". Lunar soil is a term often used interchangeably with regolith, however, soil is defined as the subcentimeter fraction of the regolith (in practice though, soil generally refers to the submillimeter fraction of the regolith). Lunar dust has been defined in many ways by different researchers, but generally refers to only the very finest fractions of the soil, less than approx.10 or 20 microns. Lunar soil can be a misleading term, as lunar "soil" bears little in common with terrestrial soils. Lunar soil contains no organic matter and is not formed through biologic or chemical means as terrestrial soils are, but strictly through mechanical comminution from meteoroids and interaction with the solar wind and other energetic particles. Lunar soils are also not exposed to the wind and water that shapes the Earth. As a consequence, in contrast to terrestrial soils, lunar soils are not sorted in any way, by size, shape, or chemistry. Finally, without wind and water to wear down the edges, lunar soil grains tend to be sharp with fresh fractured surfaces.

  17. Oxygen production by pyrolysis of lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, Constance L.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen was identified as the most important product of initial lunar materials processing efforts. A source of oxygen on the Moon provides an alternative to the costly transport of propellant to the Moon or to low earth orbit. Pyrolysis, or vapor-phase reduction, involves heating a feedstock to temperatures sufficient to decompose the constituent metal oxides and release oxygen. The process relies on the vaporization of metal oxides in the form of reduced suboxides or atomic species. The reduced species must then be condensed without re-oxidizing, yielding oxygen in the gas phase. The feasibility of obtaining oxygen from common lunar minerals was demonstrated using solar furnace experiments. These results are discussed together with chemical equilibrium models which were extended to include the multicomponent oxides used in experiments. For the first time, both experiments and theoretical models dealt with the complex oxides that make up potential lunar feedstocks. Two major conclusions are drawn from this preliminary work. First, unbeneficiated regolith is a suitable feedstock for pyrolysis. Second, the process can operate at moderate temperatures, circa 2000 K, which could be supplied by direct solar or electrical energy. In addition to these advantages in choice of feedstock and energy source, the pyrolysis process requires no chemicals or reagents, making it an attractive process for lunar oxygen production.

  18. Modal Mineralogy of Lunar Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Martel, L.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S. T.; Blake, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    Modal mineralogy of the lunar regolith is fundamentally important. It varies with the composition of underlying bedrock, extent of addition of materials excavated by impact both local and distant, and small-scale reworking by micrometeorite bombardment, so it contains information about local geological history. Determining modal mineralogy of soils provides vital ground truth to remote sensing studies. Mineralogy can be determined by a variety of techniques that provide complementary information: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), optical point counting, element mapping by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or electron microprobe (EMP), and normative calculation from a bulk chemical analysis. SEM and EMP element mapping can be converted into mineral modal abundances in a variety of ways, including defining compositional windows for specific minerals and using image processing techniques. XRD provides direct determination of the phases present, but gives little information about the chemical composition of those phases. We have launched a project to determine the modal mineralogy of over 100 lunar soils from all Apollo sites. The goal is to use this quantitative mineralogy and laboratory and remote reflectance spectra of the same soils to improve our ability to extract quantitative mineralogy from remote sensing data. Samples (< 1mm bulk soils) were dry-sieved and the <150 micron fractions analyzed in a Terra XRD instrument (InXitu, Inc.) using sample sizes of ~35 mg. We reduced the data using Reitveld refinement as implemented by the Jade program (Materials Data, Inc.). Glass abundances were determined by choosing a linear background and fitting a broad Gaussian to the scattering hump above background. Quantitative XRD is well established, but usually requires some calibration, in spite of the sophisticated Reitveld refinement and whole-pattern fitting. We calibrated the instrument by using mixtures of terrestrial minerals and results from the Lunar Sample Characterization

  19. Lunar microcosmos. [human factors of lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, N.

    1974-01-01

    A human habitat on the lunar surface requires energy recycling metabolites based on the utilization of vegetative plants that are good photosynthesizers. Selection criteria involve reactions to fertilization by human excrements, suitability as food for man (with or without fractionation), physiological effects of prolonged ingestion of these plants, and technical methods for returning inedible portions back into the cycle.

  20. Lunar regolith bagging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

  1. The lunar hopping transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degner, R.; Kaplan, M. H.; Manning, J.; Meetin, R.; Pasternack, S.; Peterson, S.; Seifert, H.

    1971-01-01

    Research on several aspects of lunar transport using the hopping mode is reported. Hopping exploits the weak lunar gravity, permits fuel economy because of partial recompression of propellant gas on landing, and does not require a continuous smooth surface for operation. Three questions critical to the design of a lunar hopping vehicle are addressed directly in this report: (1) the tolerance of a human pilot for repeated accelerations; (2) means for controlling vehicle attitude during ballistic flight; and (3) means of propulsion. In addition, a small scale terrestrial demonstrator built to confirm feasibility of the proposed operational mode is described, along with results of preliminary study of unmanned hoppers for moon exploration.

  2. Common lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, S.; Stecklein, J.; Chen, H.; Culpepper, W.; Hyatt, C. D.; Kluksdahl, E.; Pelischek, T.; Pruett, D.; Rickman, S.; Wagner, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report focuses on the reference lander design developed at the Johnson Space Center, describing a small lunar soft lander with the capability to soft land about 64 kilograms of payload at any lunar latitude and longitude. The Artemis lander is a sun-pointing, three-axis vehicle that contributes to the translunar injection burn and performs the lunar orbit insertion, deorbit, descent and landing maneuvers with a single liquid bipropellant lander stage. Attention is given to mission profile and performance, the guidance, navigation and control subsystem, the propulsion subsystem, and the flight data subsystem.

  3. Mid infrared spectra of lunar and analog soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, J. R.; Smith, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    The mid infrared emittance spectrum contains compositional information about lunar soils. In order to be able to properly interpret remotely obtained data, it was necessary to develop a theoretical model of the emittance of particulate minerals. This theory was shown to simulate the spectra of analog lunar soils satisfactorily provided that good values of the optical constants of the component minerals were available. Optical constants have been obtained for dunite, bytownite, augite, ilmenite, and a mare glass analog during this work. Our first measurements on lunar soils indicated that 67711 is very immature (high contrast) and is dominated by feldspar; that 10084 shows very low contrast with some evidence of pyroxene and feldspar bands. 71061 is intermediate between the other two having a gross similarity to 10084 but with considerably more contrast.

  4. Radiation shielding for lunar bases using lunar concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, S. L.; Oishi, K.; Saito, T.

    1992-08-01

    The radiation shielding requirements for an advanced lunar base concept which uses concrete made from lunar resources are evaluated. Some of the features of this lunar base concept are discussed. The results of radiation transport calculations are presented to determine the radiation dose as a function of shielding depth. The shielding effectiveness of concrete is compared with that of aluminum, lunar regolith, and water. It is shown that lunar concrete is a fairly effective radiation shield, and that the concrete lunar base concept can provide a significant amount of intrinsic shielding without requiring additional parasitic shielding.

  5. Conceptual design of lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Eto, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

    Lunar exploration/development will be one of the most significant future space activities. In the initial phase of lunar exploration, various unmanned missions will be undertaken and effective transportation means will be required. This paper discusses the results of the conceptual design of a Japanese lunar lander to be used in such explorations. The lunar lander would be launched on a Japanese H-II launch vehicle and would transport a payload, such as a lunar mobile explorer or a lunar sample return vehicle, on to the Moon. Requirements definition, mission analysis, system and subsystem definition of a lunar lander were performed. Our analysis shows that it should be able to carry an 750 kg payload onto the lunar surface. This lunar lander features are summarized.

  6. An Unusual Lunar Halo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a photograph of an unusual combination of lunar halos: the 22-degree refraction halo, the circumscribed halo, and a reflection halo. Deduces the form and orientations of the ice crystals responsible for the observed halo features. (MLH)

  7. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  8. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  9. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  10. Our World: Lunar Rock

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about NASA'€™s Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. See how NASA protects these precious moon rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts. Explore t...

  11. Lunar South Pole Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions over the lunar South Pole region, from ~80°S to the pole. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, 2009. The illumination ca...

  12. Lunar Prospector: overview.

    PubMed

    Binder, A B

    1998-09-01

    Lunar Prospector is providing a global map of the composition of the moon and analyzing the moon's gravity and magnetic fields. It has been in a polar orbit around the moon since 16 January 1998. Neutron flux data show that there is abundant H, and hence probably abundant water ice, in the lunar polar regions. Gamma-ray and neutron data reveal the distribution of Fe, Ti, and other major and trace elements on the moon. The data delineate the global distributions of a key trace element-rich component of lunar materials called KREEP and of the major rock types. Magnetic mapping shows that the lunar magnetic fields are strong antipodal to Mare Imbrium and Mare Serenitatis and has discovered the smallest known magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and bow shock complex in the solar system. Gravity mapping has delineated seven new gravity anomalies and shown that the moon has a small Fe-rich core of about 300 km radius. PMID:9727967

  13. Lunar Influence On Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Wolfgang

    Concerning lunar periodicity in biology, we summarized all what has been observationally and experimentally found and published in scientific literature till 1996. We summoned up as many as about 600 living species (mostly animals) with identified lunar periodicities, functioning in a more or less endogenous manner. Here we give a short review about the occurrence in the plant kingdom. In Thallophytes 45 species have been described as well as 40 species of Angiosperms. In Prokaryonts no lunar rhythms could be found. Their individual life cycles do not reach the time span of at least comparable parts of a lunar day. Thus as in all Eukaryonts the occurrence of the cell nucleus constitutes specifically ndogenous rhythms in plants as well as in the animal kingdom.

  14. Lunar robotic maintenance module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    A design for a robotic maintenance module that will assist a mobile 100-meter lunar drill is introduced. The design considers the following areas of interest: the atmospheric conditions, actuator systems, power supply, material selection, weight, cooling system and operation.

  15. Lunar sample contracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The major scientific accomplishments through 1971 are reported for the particle track studies of lunar samples. Results are discussed of nuclear track measurements by optical and electron microscopy, thermoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis.

  16. Lunar Prospector: a Preliminary Surface Remote Sensing Resource Assessment for the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The potential existence of lunar volatiles is a scientific discovery that could distinctly change the direction of pathways of inner solar system human expansion. With a dedicated germanium gamma ray spectrometer launched in the early 1990's, surface water concentrations of 0.7 percent could be detected immediately upon full lunar polar orbit operations. The expense of lunar base construction and operation would be dramatically reduced over a scenario with no lunar volatile resources. Global surface mineral distribution could be mapped out and integrated into a GIS database for lunar base site selection. Extensive surface lunar mapping would also result in the utilization of archived Apollo images. A variety of remote sensing systems and their parameters have been proposed for use in the detection of these lunar ice masses. The detection or nondetection of subsurface and surface ice masses in lunar polar crater floors could dramatically direct the development pathways that the human race might follow in its radiation from the Earth to habitable locales in the inner terran solar system. Potential sources of lunar volatiles are described. The use of remote sensing to detect lunar volatiles is addressed.

  17. Lunar cinder cones.

    PubMed

    McGetchin, T R; Head, J W

    1973-04-01

    Data on terrestrial eruptions of pyroclastic material and ballistic considerations suggest that in the lunar environment (vacuum and reduced gravity) low-rimmed pyroclastic rings are formed rather than the high-rimmed cinder cones so abundant on the earth. Dark blanketing deposits in the Taurus-Littrow region (Apollo 17 landing area) are interpreted as being at least partly composed of lunar counterparts of terrestrial cinder cones. PMID:17757977

  18. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  19. Lunar Polar Coring Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, David; Bealmear, David; Benarroche, Patrice; Henry, Alan; Hudson, Raymond; Rivellini, Tommaso; Tolmachoff, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Plans to build a lunar base are presently being studied with a number of considerations. One of the most important considerations is qualifying the presence of water on the Moon. The existence of water on the Moon implies that future lunar settlements may be able to use this resource to produce things such as drinking water and rocket fuel. Due to the very high cost of transporting these materials to the Moon, in situ production could save billions of dollars in operating costs of the lunar base. Scientists have suggested that the polar regions of the Moon may contain some amounts of water ice in the regolith. Six possible mission scenarios are suggested which would allow lunar polar soil samples to be collected for analysis. The options presented are: remote sensing satellite, two unmanned robotic lunar coring missions (one is a sample return and one is a data return only), two combined manned and robotic polar coring missions, and one fully manned core retrieval mission. One of the combined manned and robotic missions has been singled out for detailed analysis. This mission proposes sending at least three unmanned robotic landers to the lunar pole to take core samples as deep as 15 meters. Upon successful completion of the coring operations, a manned mission would be sent to retrieve the samples and perform extensive experiments of the polar region. Man's first step in returning to the Moon is recommended to investigate the issue of lunar polar water. The potential benefits of lunar water more than warrant sending either astronauts, robots or both to the Moon before any permanent facility is constructed.

  20. Lunar core: occam's razor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Whether or not the earth's moon has a core is a much bandied question. Like many notions about the properties of the moon, ideas of a lunar core changed drastically after the Apollo studies. A review of the development of these ideas was given a scholarly treatment by S.K. Runcorn recently (Nature, 304, 589-596, 1983). In contrast, L.L. Hood, C.P. Sonett, and L.J. Srnka have questioned the concept in serious detail (Nature, 307, 661-662, 1984).Whether or not the moon actually has or has had a fluid metallic core is of great consequence for a number of geophysical theories about the solar system. Most investigators concede that the possible existence of a lunar core remains one of the major unanswered, and yet most critical, questions about the moon. A lot rides on the answer: Can a lunar-sized body have a core? Is the core metallic? How is the core related to lunar magnetism and its paleomagnetism? Is or was a lunar core related to lunar volcanism? If the moon can have a core, is planetary core formation in the solar system a simple matter of gravitationally segregating metallic fragments that were formed elsewhere? Implications of the questions are without limit. There is, perhaps, no more valid issue about the moon to explore scientifically.

  1. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  2. Lunar Resources: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which are found to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industrial capability within the Earth-Moon system. In this way, gradually increasing access to lunar resources may help 'bootstrap' a space-based economy from which the world economy, and possibly also the world's environment, will ultimately benefit.

  3. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  4. Processing of lunar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisl, W. Howard; Fabes, B. D.

    1994-07-01

    A variety of products made from lunar resources will be required for a lunar outpost. These products might be made by adapting existing processing techniques to the lunar environment, or by developing new techniques unique to the moon. In either case, processing techniques used on the moon will have to have a firm basis in basic principles of materials science and engineering, which can be used to understand the relationships between composition, processing, and properties of lunar-derived materials. These principles can also be used to optimize the properties of a product, once a more detailed knowledge of the lunar regolith is obtained. Using three types of ceramics (monolithic glasses, glass fibers, and glass-ceramics) produced from lunar simulants, we show that the application of materials science and engineering priciples is useful in understanding and optimizing the mechanical properties of ceramics on the moon. We also demonstrate that changes in composition and/or processing can have a significant effect on the strength of these materials.

  5. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  6. Lunar atmospheric composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 17 carried a miniature mass spectrometer, called the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), to the moon as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to study the composition and variations in the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was successfully deployed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley with its entrance aperture oriented upward to intercept and measure the downward flux of gases at the lunar surface. During the ten lunations that the LACE operated, it produced a large base of data on the lunar atmosphere, mainly collected at night time. It was found that thermal escape is the most rapid loss mechanism for hydrogen and helium. For heavier gases, photoionization followed by acceleration through the solar wind electric field accounted for most of the loss. The dominant gases on the moosn were argon and helium, and models formed for their distribution are described in detail. It is concluded that most of the helium in the lunar atmosphere is of solar wind origin, and that there also exist very small amounts of methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.

  7. Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echols, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes current Lunar Exploration plans and objectives. It begins with specific statements from the President s vision for U.S. Space Exploration which pertain to robotic lunar missions. An outline of missions objectives is provided, along with a high-level schedule of events through the year 2025. Focus is then given to the Lunar Robotic and Precursor Program (LPRP) to describe objectives and goals. Recent developments in the Program are explained - specifically, the renaming of the RLEP program to "LPRP" and the movement of the program office to MSFC. A brief summary of the synergy expected between the robotic and crewed missions, with the LSAM descent stage Project is given. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, with its co-manifested Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), is then described with an overview of the payloads and mission objectives. Finally, information is given about the expected future of the LPRP program and Exploration and the development of a compressive Lunar Exploration Architecture.

  8. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  9. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry.

  10. Demandite, lunar materials and space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Terrestrial industry consumes a wide range of elements in producing the outputs which support and make industrial societies possible. 'Demandite' is a conceptual or synthetic molecule which is composed of the weight fractions of the major elements consumed by industry. Demandite needed for mature industrial activities in space will differ from the terrestrial composition because solar energy must replace hydrocarbon-energy, lunar and asteroidal bulk compositions are different from mineral deposits on the earth, and the major bulk processing in space will be the creation of radiation shielding for human habitats to provide real estate in space complete with water, atmosphere and life-stock elements. Demandite cost may be dominated by earth to deep space transport cost of minor elemental constituents depleted in the lunar soils unless careful attention is given to substitution of materials, searches of the moon (polar regions) and asteroids for the depleted elements, and continuing lowering of earth to deep space transport costs.