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Sample records for lunar prospector gamma

  1. Lunar Prospector: overview.

    PubMed

    Binder, A B

    1998-09-01

    Lunar Prospector is providing a global map of the composition of the moon and analyzing the moon's gravity and magnetic fields. It has been in a polar orbit around the moon since 16 January 1998. Neutron flux data show that there is abundant H, and hence probably abundant water ice, in the lunar polar regions. Gamma-ray and neutron data reveal the distribution of Fe, Ti, and other major and trace elements on the moon. The data delineate the global distributions of a key trace element-rich component of lunar materials called KREEP and of the major rock types. Magnetic mapping shows that the lunar magnetic fields are strong antipodal to Mare Imbrium and Mare Serenitatis and has discovered the smallest known magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and bow shock complex in the solar system. Gravity mapping has delineated seven new gravity anomalies and shown that the moon has a small Fe-rich core of about 300 km radius. PMID:9727967

  2. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning, and

  3. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  4. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  5. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  6. The Lunar Orbital Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; Mccurdy, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  7. Mapping the elemental composition of the moon: Current results of the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Elphic, R.C.; Binder, A.B.; Maurice, S.

    1998-12-01

    One of the instruments on board the recently launched Lunar Prospector spacecraft is a Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) designed to map the surface elemental composition of the Moon. Specifically, the objectives of the GRS are to map abundances of Fe, Ti, U, Th, K, Si, O and if possible Mg, Al, and Ca. The GRS consists of a bismuth germanate (BGO) crystal placed within a well shaped borated plastic scintillator anti-coincidence (ACS) shield. Events triggering only the BGO are labeled as accepted events; events triggering both the BGO and ACS are labeled as rejected events. BGO spectra for both accepted and rejected events are telemetered to the ground for later analysis. Results of the study are given.

  8. Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark; Concha, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The orbit support for Lunar Prospector (LP) consists of three main areas: (1) cislunar orbit determination, (2) rapid maneuver assessment using Doppler residuals, and (3) routine mapping orbit determination. The cislunar phase consisted of two trajectory correction maneuvers during the translunar cruise followed by three lunar orbit insertion burns. This paper will detail the cislunar orbit determination accuracy and the real-time assessment of the cislunar trajectory correction and lunar orbit insertion maneuvers. The non-spherical gravity model of the Moon is the primary influence on the mapping orbit determination accuracy. During the first two months of the mission, the GLGM-2 lunar potential model was used. After one month in the mapping orbit, a new potential model was developed that incorporated LP Doppler data. This paper will compare and contrast the mapping orbit determination accuracy using these two models. LP orbit support also includes a new enhancement - a web page to disseminate all definitive and predictive trajectory and mission planning information. The web site provides definitive mapping orbit ephemerides including moon latitude and longitude, and four week predictive products including: ephemeris, moon latitude/longitude, earth shadow, moon shadow, and ground station view periods. This paper will discuss the specifics of this web site.

  9. Lunar prospector mission design and trajectory support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozier, David; Galal, Ken; Folta, David; Beckman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector mission is the first dedicated NASA lunar mapping mission since the Apollo Orbiter program which was flown over 25 years ago. Competitively selected under the NASA Discovery Program, Lunar Prospector was launched on January 7, 1998 on the new Lockheed Martin Athena 2 launch vehicle. The mission design of Lunar Prospector is characterized by a direct minimum energy transfer trajectory to the moon with three scheduled orbit correction maneuvers to remove launch and cislunar injection errors prior to lunar insertion. At lunar encounter, a series of three lunar orbit insertion maneuvers and a small circularization burn were executed to achieve a 100 km altitude polar mapping orbit. This paper will present the design of the Lunar Prospector transfer, lunar insertion and mapping orbits, including maneuver and orbit determination strategies in the context of mission goals and constraints. Contingency plans for handling transfer orbit injection and lunar orbit insertion anomalies are also summarized. Actual flight operations results are discussed and compared to pre-launch support analysis.

  10. Lunar Prospector: First Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Hubbard, G.; Feldman, William; Cox, Sylvia A.; Smith, Marcie A.; Chu-Thielbar, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Lunar Prospector, the first competitively selected mission in NASA's Discovery Program, is conducting a one-year orbital survey of the Moon's composition and structure. Launched on January 6 1998, the suite of five instruments is measuring water/ice to a sensitivity of 50 ppm (hydrogen), detecting key elemental constituents, gas release events and mapping the Moon's gravitational and magnetic fields. The mission is described with emphasis on the first scientific results and lessons learned from managing a very low cost project. A mission overview and systems description is given along with final mission trajectories. Lessons learned from government-industry teaming, new modes of project management, and novel contractual arrangements are discussed. The suite of five instruments (neutron spectrometer, alpha particle spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, electron reflectometer and magnetometer) is outlined with attention to final technical performance as well as development on a constrained budget and schedule. A review of our novel approaches to education and public outreach is discussed and a summary with suggestions and implications for future missions is provided.

  11. Thorium Mass Balance for the Moon from Lunar Prospector and Sample Data: Implications for Thermal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Haskin, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    A global lunar mass-balance model for Th based on Lunar Prospector gamma-ray and lunar sample data is presented within the context of major crustal terranes. The consequences of strong enrichment of Th in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane are discussed.

  12. Optimized Traverse Planning for Future Lunar Polar Prospectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J. D.; Robinson, M. S.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2014-10-01

    Ground-truth measurements are required to fully understand the resource potential of lunar volatiles. A mobile polar prospector that leverages persistently illuminated areas would address many outstanding questions by sampling multiple nearby PSRs.

  13. Lunar Prospector: developing a very low cost planetary mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, G. S.

    Lunar Prospector, the first competitively selected planetary mission in NASA's Discovery Program, is described with emphasis on the lessons learned from managing a very low cost project. Insights into government-industry teaming, project management, contractual arrangements, schedule and budget reserve approach are discussed. The mission is conducting an orbital survey of the Moon's composition and structure. A mission overview and scientific data return is briefly described in the context of low cost mission development. The suite of five instruments is outlined: neutron spectrometer (NS), alpha particle spectrometer (APS), gamma ray spectrometer (GRS), magnetometer (MAG) and an electron reflectometer (ER). Scientific requirements and measurement approaches to detect water ice to a sensitivity of 50 ppm (hydrogen), measure key elemental constituents, detect gas release events and accurately map the Moon's gravitational and magnetic fields are described.

  14. The launch of Lunar Prospector on Jan. 6!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Lunar Prospector spacecraft launched successfully on its way to the moon from Launch Complex 46 (LC46) at Cape Canaveral Air Station on Jan. 6 at 9:28 p.m. EST. It was the inaugural launch of Lockheed Martin's Athena II launch vehicle and the first launch from LC46, operated by Spaceport Florida Authority. Lunar Prospector, built for the NASA Ames Research Center by Lockheed Martin, is a spin-stabilized spacecraft designed to provide NASA with the first global maps of the moon's surface and its gravitational magnetic fields, as well as look for the possible presence of ice near the lunar poles. It will orbit the Moon at an altitude of approximately 63 miles during a one-year mission.

  15. Lunar surface heat flow mapping from radioactive elements measured by Lunar Prospector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Xiongyao; Li, Qingxia; Lang, Liang; Zheng, Yongchun

    2014-06-01

    An accurate estimate of global surface heat flow is important because it provides strong constraints on interior thermal model and understanding of the thermal state and geologic evolution of the Moon. In this paper, a distribution map of lunar surface heat flow is derived from calibrated Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer data (K, U and Th abundances). It shows that surface heat flow varies regionally from about 10.6 mW/m2 to 66.1 mW/m2, which is in the same order of magnitude as previous results. In the calculation, lunar surface heat flow includes the heat flow from the non-uniform distribution of radioactive elements K, U and Th and that from secular cooling of the Moon. The calculation of heat flow from radioactive elements is based on the assumption that the radioactive decay of K, U and Th on the Moon is the same as that on the Earth. The heat flow from secular cooling of the Moon is assumed to be equal to the global average radioactive heat flow. Firstly we construct a relationship between radioactive elements K, U and Th and lunar surface heat flow. The key parameter of the characteristic length scale in the relationship is determined by measured surface heat flow and Th abundances at Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites. Then the distribution of lunar surface heat flow is derived by combining other parameters such as lunar crustal thickness measured by Clementine and lunar crustal density. In addition, correlation analysis of the three radioactive elements is carried out due to the higher resolution of Th abundance and for ease of calculation.

  16. Integration of the Ultraviolet-Visible Spectral Clementine Data and the Gamma-Ray Lunar Prospector Data: Preliminary Results Concerning FeO, TiO2, and Th Abundances of the Lunar Surface at Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, S. D.; Pinet, P. C.; Barreau, G.; Daydou, Y.; Richard, G.; Maurice, S.; Feldman, W. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Clementine mission (CLM) produced global multispectral data that resulted in a map of FeO and Ti02 concentrations of the lunar surface. The recent Lunar Prospector (LP) mission returned the first global data for the distribution of surface abundances of key elements in lunar rocks, using a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) and neutron spectrometer(NS). Integrating CLM mineralogical spectral reflectance and LP chemical data is important to enhance our view of lunar crust origin and evolution, lunar volcanism, and surface processes. Iron, Ti, and Th having relatively large compositional variation over the lunar surface, as well as strong isolated peaks in the GRS spectra, information concerning the distribution and concentration of these elements has been derived from maps of corrected (cosmic ray, nonsymmetric response of the instrument) counting rates only, without converting them into absolute abundances. Maps produced contain count rates in equal-area projection averaged into 5 x 5 degrees latitude/longitude bins, from -90 to +90 degrees latitude and -180 to +180 degrees longitude. In this work, we have used the CLM global FeO and Ti02 abundances (wt%) maps converted at the LP spatial resolution (about 150 km/pixel) to produce FeO and TiO2 GRS abundance maps, through a linear regression based on the analysis of the scatter distribution of both datasets. The regression coefficients have been determined from the data taken between -60 and +60 degrees latitude to avoid uncertainties in the CLM spectral data due to nonnominal conditions of observation at high latitudes. After a critical assessment of the validity of these coefficients for every class of absolute abundance, the LP data have been transformed into absolute abundances for the whole Moon. The Th LP data have been converted into abundances (ppm) using Th concentrations in average soils from the Apollo and Luna sites given. Values of Th abundances for these samples range between 0.5 and 13 ppm. A nonlinear

  17. Resource Prospector: A lunar volatiles prospecting and ISRU demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Andrews, D. R.; Trimble, J.; Sanders, J.; Quinn, J.

    2014-12-01

    A variety of recent observations have indicated several possible reservoirs of water and other volatiles. These volatiles, and in particular water, have the potential to be a valuable or enabling resource for future exploration. NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is supporting the development of Resource Prospector (RP) to explore the distribution and concentration of lunar volatiles prospecting and to demonstrate In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The mission includes the RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) payload, a NASA developed rover, and a lander will most likely be a contributed element by an international partner or the Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (CATALYST) initiative. The RESOLVE payload is designed to: (1) locate near-subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. RP is being designed with thought given to its extensibility to resource prospecting and ISRU on other airless bodies and Mars. This presentation will describe the Resource Prospector mission, the payload and measurements, and concept of operations.

  18. Improved gravity field of the moon from lunar prospector

    PubMed

    Konopliv; Binder; Hood; Kucinskas; Sjogren; Williams

    1998-09-01

    An improved gravity model from Doppler tracking of the Lunar Prospector (LP) spacecraft reveals three new large mass concentrations (mascons) on the nearside of the moon beneath the impact basins Mare Humboltianum, Mendel-Ryberg, and Schiller-Zucchius, where the latter basin has no visible mare fill. Although there is no direct measurement of the lunar farside gravity, LP partially resolves four mascons in the large farside basins of Hertzsprung, Coulomb-Sarton, Freundlich-Sharonov, and Mare Moscoviense. The center of each of these basins contains a gravity maximum relative to the surrounding basin. The improved normalized polar moment of inertia (0.3932 +/- 0.0002) is consistent with an iron core with a radius of 220 to 450 kilometers. PMID:9727968

  19. Resource Prospector: A Lunar Volatiles Prospecting and ISRU Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A variety of recent observations have indicated several possible reservoirs of water and other volatiles. These volatiles, and in particular water, have the potential to be a valuable or enabling resource for future exploration. NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is supporting the development of Resource Prospector (RP) to explore the distribution and concentration of lunar volatiles prospecting and to demonstrate In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The mission includes a NASA developed rover and payload, and a lander will most likely be a contributed element by an international partner or the Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (CATALYST) initiative. The RP payload is designed to: (1) locate near-subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form. extractability and usefulness of the materials. RP is being designed with thought given to its extensibility to resource prospecting and ISRU on other airless bodies and Mars. This presentation will describe the Resource Prospector mission, the payload and measurements, and concept of operations

  20. Resource Prospector: A lunar volatiles prospecting and ISRU demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.

    2015-12-01

    A variety of recent observations have indicated several possible reservoirs of water and other volatiles. These volatiles, and in particular water, have the potential to be a valuable or enabling resource for future exploration. NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is supporting the development of Resource Prospector (RP) to explore the distribution and concentration of lunar volatiles prospecting and to demonstrate In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The mission includes a NASA developed rover and payload, and a lander will most likely be a contributed element by an international partner or the Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (CATALYST) initiative. The RP payload is designed to: (1) locate near-subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. RP is being designed with thought given to its extensibility to resource prospecting and ISRU on other airless bodies and Mars. This presentation will describe the Resource Prospector mission, the payload and measurements, and concept of operations

  1. The first stage of Lunar Prospector's LMLV is erected at Pad 46, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers erect the first stage of a Lockheed Martin Launch Vehicle-2 (LMLV-2) at Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fla. The Lunar Prospector spacecraft is scheduled to launch aboard the LMLV-2 in October for an 18-month mission that will orbit the Earth's Moon to collect data from the lunar surface. Scientific experiments to be conducted by the Prospector include locating water ice that may exist near the lunar poles, gathering data to understand the evolution of the lunar highland crust and the lunar magnetic field, finding radon outgassing events, and describing the lunar gravity field by means of Doppler tracking.

  2. Implications of Lunar Prospector Data for Lunar Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Research is sumamrized in the following areas: The Asymmetric Thermal Evolution of the Moon; Magma Transport Process on the Moon;The Composition and Origin of the Deep Lunar Crust;The Redistribution of Thorium on the Moon's Surface.

  3. Intrepid: Lunar Roving Prospector — Providing Ground Truth and Enabling Future Exporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S. J.; Speyerer, E. J.; Stopar, J. D.

    2014-10-01

    We propose a long range lunar roving prospector, Intrepid, to collect essential measurements to address key questions and demonstrate technologies required for future robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars, and other terrestrial bodies.

  4. The second stage of Lunar Prospector's LMLV is erected at Pad 46, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The second stage of the Lockheed Martin Launch Vehicle-2 (LMLV-2) is hoisted into position at Launch Pad 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Station for mating to the rocket's first stage, which is out of camera view. The LMLV-2 will carry the Lunar Prospector spacecraft, scheduled to launch in October for an 18-month mission that will orbit the Earth's moon to collect data from the lunar surface. Designed for a low polar orbit investigation of the moon, the Lunar Prospector will map the moon's surface composition and possible polar ice deposits, measure magnetic and gravity fields, and study lunar outgassing events.

  5. The first stage of Lunar Prospector's LMLV is erected at Pad 46, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers erect the first stage of a Lockheed Martin Launch Vehicle-2 (LMLV-2) at Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fla. The Lunar Prospector spacecraft is scheduled to launch aboard the LMLV-2 in October for an 18-month mission that will orbit the Earth's Moon to collect data from the lunar surface. Designed for a low polar orbit investigation of the Moon, the Lunar Prospector will map the Moon's surface composition and possible polar ice deposits, measure magnetic and gravity fields, and study lunar outgassing events.

  6. The Lunar Crustal Thickness from Analysis of the Lunar Prospector Gravity and Clementine Topography Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, S.; Schubert, G.; Konopliv, A.; Moore, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector spacecraft has mapped the gravity field of the Moon to a level of resolution never achieved before, and a spherical harmonic representation to degree and order 100 is available. When combined with the topography dataset produced by the Clementine mission, the resulting Bouguer anomaly map is interpreted to model the thickness of the lunar crust. Such models are crucial to understanding the lunar thermal history and the formation of geological features such as mascon basins, several more of which have been newly discovered from this dataset. A two-layer planetary model was used to compute the variations of the depth to the lunar Moho. The thickness values ranged from near 0 to 120 km. There is significant agreement with previous work using the Clementine gravitational field data with differences in specific locations such as South Pole-Aitken Basin, for example.

  7. Recent outgassing from the lunar surface: The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Stefanie L.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; Moore, Kurt R.; Elphic, Richard C.; Belian, Richard D.; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2005-09-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (APS) was designed to detect characteristic-energy alpha particles from the decay of Rn-222, Po-218, and Po-210 and to therefore map sites of radon release on the lunar surface. These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of U-238 hence the background level of alpha particle activity is a function of the lunar crustal uranium distribution. Radon reaches the lunar surface either at areas of high soil porosity or where fissures release the trapped gases in which radon is entrained. Once released, the radon spreads out by ``bouncing'' across the surface on ballistic trajectories in a random-walk process. The half-life of Rn-222 allows the gas to spread out by several hundred kilometers before it decays (depositing approximately half of the Po-218 recoil nuclides on the lunar surface) and allows the APS to detect gas release events up to several days after they occur. The long residence time of the Pb-210 precursor to Po-210 allows the mapping of gas vents which have been active over the last approximately 60 years. The APS found only a faint indication of Po-218 alpha particles. However, the Rn-222 alpha particle map shows that radon gas was emanating from the vicinity of craters Aristarchus and Kepler at the time of Lunar Prospector. The Po-210 alpha particle distribution reveals a variability in time and space of lunar gas release events. Po-210 and Rn-222 detections are associated with both thorium enhancements and lunar pyroclastic deposits.

  8. Preliminary results from the lunar prospector alpha particle spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) builds on Apollo heritage and maps the distribution of outgassing sites on the Moon. The APS searches for lunar surface gas release events and maps their distribution by detecting alpha particles produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life) and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but remains on the surface with a 21 year half-life as lead-210), which are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238. Radon is in such small quantities that it is not released directly from the lunar interior, rather it is entrained in a stream of gases and serves as a tracer for such gases. Once released, the radon spreads out by 'bouncing' across the surface on ballistic trajectories in a random-walk process. The 3.8 day half-life of radon-222 allows the gas to spread out by several 100 km before it decays and allows the APS to detect gas release events up to a few days after they occur. The long residence time (10s of years) of the lead-210 precursor to the polonium-210 allows the mapping of gas vents which have been active over the last approximately 50 years. Because radon and polonium are daughter products of the decay of uranium, the background level of alpha particle activity is a function of the lunar crustal uranium distribution. Using radioactive radon and polonium as tracers, the Apollo 15 and 16 Command Module orbital alpha particle experiments obtained evidence for the release of gases at several sites beneath the orbit tracks, especially over the Aristarchus Plateau and Mare Fecunditatis [1]. Aristarchus crater had previously been identified by ground-based observers as the site of transient optical events [2]. The Apollo 17 surface mass spectrometer showed that argon-40 is released from the lunar interior every few months, apparently in concert with some of the shallow moonquakes that are believed to be of tectonic origin [3]. The latter tectonic events could be

  9. The third stage of Lunar Prospector's Athena arrives at LC 46 at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The third stage of the Lockheed Martin Athena launch vehicle arrives at Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Station before it is mated to the second stage. The protective covering for safe transportation is removed before the third stage is lifted on the launch pad. Athena is scheduled to carry the Lunar Prospector spacecraft for an 18-month mission that will orbit the Earth's moon to collect data from the lunar surface. Scientific experiments to be conducted by the Prospector include locating water ice that may exist near the lunar poles, gathering data to understand the evolution of the lunar highland crust and the lunar magnetic field, finding radon outgassing events, and describing the lunar gravity field by means of Doppler tracking. The launch is now scheduled for early-January 1998.

  10. The third stage of Lunar Prospector's Athena is lifted at LC 46 at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The third stage of the Lockheed Martin Athena launch vehicle is lifted at Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Station before mating to the second stage already on the pad. Athena is scheduled to carry the Lunar Prospector spacecraft for an 18- month mission that will orbit the Earth's moon to collect data from the lunar surface. Scientific experiments to be conducted by the Prospector include locating water ice that may exist near the lunar poles, gathering data to understand the evolution of the lunar highland crust and the lunar magnetic field, finding radon outgassing events, and describing the lunar gravity field by means of Doppler tracking. The launch is now scheduled for early- January 1998.

  11. The second stage of Lunar Prospector's LMLV is erected at Pad 46, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The second stage of the Lockheed Martin Launch Vehicle-2 (LMLV-2) arrives aboard a truck at Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Station before it is mated to the first stage, seen in the center of the pad structure in the background. The LMLV-2 will carry the Lunar Prospector spacecraft, scheduled to launch in October for an 18-month mission that will orbit the Earth's moon to collect data from the lunar surface. Scientific experiments to be conducted by the Prospector include locating water ice that may exist near the lunar poles, gathering data to understand the evolution of the lunar highland crust and the lunar magnetic field, finding radon outgassing events, and describing the lunar gravity field by means of Doppler tracking.

  12. Lunar Prospector finds signature for water ice on Moon, NASA announces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA scientists were overcome with wide-eyed excitement on March 5 when the agency announced that the Lunar Prospector mission has found evidence of water ice on the Moon.The finding, based on just the first four weeks of data from the Lunar Prospector's anticipated 18 month mission, is proof, says mission manager Scott Hubbard, that “faster, better, cheaper is not just a slogan: it's a way of life.” It also means that astronauts sometime in the 21st century may find that orb an oasis as well as a refueling pit stop for further Solar System exploration.

  13. Surface vector mapping of magnetic anomalies over the Moon using Kaguya and Lunar Prospector observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    We have provided preliminary global maps of three components of the lunar magnetic anomaly on the surface applying the surface vector mapping (SVM) method. The data used in the present study consist of about 5 million observations of the lunar magnetic field at 10-45 km altitudes by Kaguya and Lunar Prospector. The lunar magnetic anomalies were mapped at 0.2° equi-distance points on the surface by the SVM method, showing the highest intensity of 718 nT in the Crisium antipodal region. Overall features on the SVM maps indicate that elongating magnetic anomalies are likely to be dominant on the Moon except for the young large basins with the impact demagnetization. Remarkable demagnetization features suggested by previous studies are also recognized at Hertzsprung and Kolorev craters on the farside. These features indicate that demagnetized areas extend to about 1-2 radii of the basins/craters. There are well-isolated central magnetic anomalies at four craters: Leibnitz, Aitken, Jules Verne, and Grimaldi craters. Their magnetic poles through the dipole source approximation suggest occurrence of the polar wander prior to 3.3-3.5 Ga. When compared with high-albedo markings at several magnetic anomalies such as the Reiner Gamma anomalies, three-dimensional structures of the magnetic field on/near the surface are well correlated with high-albedo areas. These results indicate that the global SVM maps are useful for the study of the lunar magnetic anomalies in comparison with various geological and geophysical data.

  14. Correlation of Lunar South Polar Epithermal Neutron Maps: Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector and Lunar Prospector Neutron Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Sagdeev, R.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; Sanin, A. B.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Harshman, K.; Finch, M. J.; Nandikotkur, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) was developed to refine the lunar surface hydrogen (H) measurements generated by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. LPNS measurements indicated a approx.4,6% decrease in polar epithermal fluxes equivalent to (1.5+/-0,8)% H concentration and are direct geochemical evidence indicating water /high H at the poles. Given the similar operational and instrumental objectives of the LEND and LPNS systems, an important science analysis step for LEND is to test correlation with existing research including LPNS measurements. In this analysis, we compare corrected low altitude epithermal rate data from LPNS available via NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) with calibrated LEND epithermal maps using a cross-correlation technique

  15. Lunar prospector measurements of the distribution of incompatible elements gadolinium, samarium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Elphic, R.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Maurice, S.; Binder, A.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    1999-04-01

    Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (NS) and gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) observations have been used to map out the distribution of incompatible elements on the lunar surface. Specifically, the GRS data provide maps of the distribution of thorium and potassium while the NS data provide information on the distribution of iron and titanium, and the rare earth elements gadolinium and samarium. Using results of analysis of Celementine spectral reflectance (CSR) data, the Fe- and Ti-contributions to the NS data can be removed, leaving primarily rare earth element contributions from Gd and Sm. The Th and K maps correlate with the inferred Gd and Sm maps (r {approximately} 0.93), but there are regions of significant disagreement. One of these is in the KREEP-rich circum-Imbrium ring. No clear explanation has emerged for this disagreement, though Th, K, Gd and Sm have differing degrees of incompatibility. These results clearly are important to discussions of the geochemistry of the Procellarum-Imbrium Th-rich Terrane and the South-Pole-Aitken Terrane.

  16. The third stage of Lunar Prospector's Athena is placed atop the second stage at LC 46 at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The third stage of the Lockheed Martin Athena launch vehicle is placed atop the vehicle's second stage at Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Athena is scheduled to carry the Lunar Prospector spacecraft for an 18-month mission that will orbit the Earth's moon to collect data from the lunar surface. Scientific experiments to be conducted by the Prospector include locating water ice that may exist near the lunar poles, gathering data to understand the evolution of the lunar highland crust and the lunar magnetic field, finding radon outgassing events, and describing the lunar gravity field by means of Doppler tracking. The launch is now scheduled for early-January 1998.

  17. The first stage of Lunar Prospector's LMLV is erected at Pad 46, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers hoist the first stage of a Lockheed Martin Launch Vehicle-2 (LMLV-2) for placement at Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Fla. The Lunar Prospector spacecraft is scheduled to launch aboard the LMLV-2 from CCAS in October for an 18-month mission that will orbit the Earth's Moon to collect data from the lunar surface. Information gathered during the mission will allow construction of a detailed map of the surface composition of the Moon and will improve our understanding of its origin, evolution, current state, and resources.

  18. Classification of Regolith Materials from Lunar Prospector Data Reveals a Magnesium-Rich Highland Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Lawrence, D. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission returned the first global elemental maps of major elements O, Si, Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, and Ca. The maps were submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive in June of 2002. Maps are provided for all of the elements at 5 spatial resolution, corresponding to 1790 equal area pixels. This resolution is sufficient to investigate large-scale compositional variations within major lunar terranes. Further work is underway to develop 2 and 0.5 maps for a subset of these elements, which will reduce the effects of instrumental mixing and will enable more meaningful comparisons to the sample collection. We believe that we have discovered a highland province that may contain an abundance of Mg-rich troctolitic or noritic materials. We are investigating several possibilities for the origin of this province, one of which is the exceptional abundance of late-stage Mgsuite intrusions at a high level in the lunar crust. We will use the entire Lunar Prospector elemental data set to investigate candidate hypotheses.

  19. Correlations Between In Situ and Remotely Sensed Magnetic Anomalies on the Lunar Prospector Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, G. T.; Mitchell, D. L.; Halekas, J. S.; Lin, R. P.; Frey, S.

    2002-05-01

    The Lunar Prospector mission provides two complementary measurements of Lunar magnetic fields. The magnetometer (MAG) measures the vector magnetic field at the spacecraft position, while estimates of the magnetic field strength at the Lunar surface are derived remotely using the electron reflectometer (ER) measurements of the electron loss cone angle. In this work we study correlations between these two data sets with several goals in mind. First, since the ER instrument depends on some knowledge of the electron trajectories in order to determine the magnetic field footprint on the surface, we wish to assess the importance of strong magnetic field curvature in the determination of the location of the reflection points measured by the ER. Second, we wish to explore the utility of using the ER data as a lower boundary condition for models attempting to downward extend the magnetic field topology as measured by the MAG instrument on the spacecraft. Initial results using well isolated anomalies in areas such as Reiner Gamma and the Apollo 16 landing site indicate that for strong anomalies (~50 nT at 20-30 km altitude) corrections to the electron reflection points may be on the order of 1 degree in latitude or longitude at the surface. The magnetic fields of these sites and other similar examples were modeled using a simple magnetic dipole approximation. Sites with a more complex magnetic topology such as the Crisium antipode may be too difficult to model with a simple collection of dipoles as the run times for fitting routines increases dramatically. Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (SCHA) may be an appropriate tool to model these larger regional anomalies, and we discuss the possibility of using the ER data as a lower boundary condition at the surface for this technique. The end goal of our work is to remove at least some of the ambiguities inherent in any downward extension of orbital magnetometer data, using a synthesis of the in situ magnetic field data measured

  20. Resource Prospector Instrumentation for Lunar Volatiles Prospecting, Sample Acquisition and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, J.; Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Zacny, Kris; Paz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Data gathered from lunar missions within the last two decades have significantly enhanced our understanding of the volatile resources available on the lunar surface, specifically focusing on the polar regions. Several orbiting missions such as Clementine and Lunar Prospector have suggested the presence of volatile ices and enhanced hydrogen concentrations in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission was the first to provide direct measurement of water ice in a permanently shadowed region. These missions with other orbiting assets have laid the groundwork for the next step in the exploration of the lunar surface; providing ground truth data of the volatiles by mapping the distribution and processing lunar regolith for resource extraction. This next step is the robotic mission Resource Prospector (RP). Resource Prospector is a lunar mission to investigate 'strategic knowledge gaps' (SKGs) for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The mission is proposed to land in the lunar south pole near a permanently shadowed crater. The landing site will be determined by the science team with input from broader international community as being near traversable landscape that has a high potential of containing elevated concentrations of volatiles such as water while maximizing mission duration. A rover will host the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload for resource mapping and processing. The science instruments on the payload include a 1-meter drill, neutron spectrometer, a near infrared spectrometer, an operations camera, and a reactor with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer for volatile analysis. After the RP lander safely delivers the rover to the lunar surface, the science team will guide the rover team on the first traverse plan. The neutron spectrometer (NS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrometer instruments will be used as prospecting tools to guide

  1. Fluxes of fast and epithermal neutrons from Lunar Prospector: evidence for water ice at the lunar poles.

    PubMed

    Feldman, W C; Maurice, S; Binder, A B; Barraclough, B L; Elphic, R C; Lawrence, D J

    1998-09-01

    Maps of epithermal- and fast-neutron fluxes measured by Lunar Prospector were used to search for deposits enriched in hydrogen at both lunar poles. Depressions in epithermal fluxes were observed close to permanently shaded areas at both poles. The peak depression at the North Pole is 4.6 percent below the average epithermal flux intensity at lower latitudes, and that at the South Pole is 3.0 percent below the low-latitude average. No measurable depression in fast neutrons is seen at either pole. These data are consistent with deposits of hydrogen in the form of water ice that are covered by as much as 40 centimeters of desiccated regolith within permanently shaded craters near both poles. PMID:9727973

  2. Real-Time Lunar Prospector Data Visualization Using Web-Based Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardorff, D. Glenn; Green, Bryan D.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector was co-developed by NASA Ames Research Center and Lockheed Martin, and was launched on January 6th, 1998. Its mission is to search for water ice and various elements in the Moon's surface, map its magnetic and gravity fields, and detect volcanic activity. For the first time, the World Wide Web is being used to graphically display near-real-time data from a planetary exploration mission to the global public. Science data from the craft's instruments, as well as engineering data for the spacecraft subsystems, are continuously displayed in time-varying XY plots. The craft's current location is displayed relative to the whole Moon, and as an off-craft observer would see in the reference frame of the craft, with the lunar terrain scrolling underneath. These features are implemented as Java applets. Analyzed data (element and mass distribution) is presented as 3D lunar maps using VRML and Javascript. During the development phase, implementations of the Java Virtual Machine were just beginning to mature enough to adequately accommodate our target featureset; incomplete and varying implementations were the biggest bottleneck to our ideal of ubiquitous browser access. Bottlenecks notwithstanding, the reaction from the Internet community was overwhelmingly enthusiastic.

  3. First results from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) Field Campaign, a Lunar Polar Rover Mission Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Colaprete, A.; Cook, A.; Deans, M. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Skok, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal to produce critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. MVP will feed science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. MVP achieves these goals through a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural and a priori unknown environment within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon. The MVP field site is the Mojave Desert, selected for its low, naturally occurring water abundance. The Mojave typically has on the order of 2-6% water, making it a suitable lunar analog for this field test. MVP uses the Near Infrared and Visible Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), Neutron Spectrometer Subsystem (NSS), and a downward facing GroundCam camera on the KREX-2 rover to investigate the relationship between the distribution of volatiles and soil crust variation. Through this investigation, we mature robotic in situ instruments and concepts of instrument operations, improve ground software tools for real time science, and carry out publishable research on the water cycle and its connection to geomorphology and mineralogy in desert environments. A lunar polar rover mission is unlike prior space missions and requires a new concept of operations. The rover must navigate 3-5 km of terrain and examine multiple sites in in just ~6 days. Operational decisions must be made in real time, requiring constant situational awareness, data analysis and rapid turnaround decision support tools. This presentation will focus on the first science results and operational architecture findings from the MVP field deployment relevant to a lunar polar rover mission.

  4. Lunar Prospector: a Preliminary Surface Remote Sensing Resource Assessment for the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The potential existence of lunar volatiles is a scientific discovery that could distinctly change the direction of pathways of inner solar system human expansion. With a dedicated germanium gamma ray spectrometer launched in the early 1990's, surface water concentrations of 0.7 percent could be detected immediately upon full lunar polar orbit operations. The expense of lunar base construction and operation would be dramatically reduced over a scenario with no lunar volatile resources. Global surface mineral distribution could be mapped out and integrated into a GIS database for lunar base site selection. Extensive surface lunar mapping would also result in the utilization of archived Apollo images. A variety of remote sensing systems and their parameters have been proposed for use in the detection of these lunar ice masses. The detection or nondetection of subsurface and surface ice masses in lunar polar crater floors could dramatically direct the development pathways that the human race might follow in its radiation from the Earth to habitable locales in the inner terran solar system. Potential sources of lunar volatiles are described. The use of remote sensing to detect lunar volatiles is addressed.

  5. NASA's Lunar Polar Ice Prospector, RESOLVE: Mission Rehearsal in Apollo Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Picard, Martin; Quinn, Jacqueline; Sanders, Gerald B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    After the completion of the Apollo Program, space agencies didn't visit the moon for many years. But then in the 90's, the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions returned and showed evidence of water ice at the poles. Then in 2009 the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite indisputably showed that the Cabeus crater contained water ice and other useful volatiles. Furthermore, instruments aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) show evidence that the water ice may also be present in areas that receive several days of continuous sunlight each month. However, before we can factor this resource into our mission designs, we must understand the distribution and quantity of ice or other volatiles at the poles and whether it can be reasonably harvested for use as propellant or mission consumables. NASA, in partnership with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), has been developing a payload to answer these questions. The payload is named RESOLVE. RESOLVE is on a development path that will deliver a tested flight design by the end of 2014. The team has developed a Design Reference Mission using LRO data that has RESOLVE landing near Cabeus Crater in May of2016. One of the toughest obstacles for RESOLVE's solar powered mission is its tight timeline. RESOLVE must be able to complete its objectives in the 5-7 days of available sunlight. The RESOLVE team must be able to work around obstacles to the mission timeline in real time. They can't afford to take a day off to replan as other planetary missions have done. To insure that this mission can be executed as planned, a prototype version of RESOLVE was developed this year and tested at a lunar analog site on Hawaii, known as Apollo Valley, which was once used to train the Apollo astronauts. The RESOLVE team planned the mission with the same type of orbital imagery that would be available from LRO. The simulation team prepositioned a Lander in Apollo Valley with RESOLVE on top mounted on its CSA rover. Then the mission

  6. Resource Prospector (RP: )A Lunar Volatiles Prospecting and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Efficient expansion of human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as provide significant exploration and science value. Since the moons polar regions have confirmed the presence of volatiles, as revealed by the LCROSS and LRO missions, the next step is to understand the nature and distribution of those candidate resources and how they might be extracted. Recent studies have even indicated that if those volatiles are practically available for harvesting, they could be processed into propellants and human life-support resources, significantly reducing the cost of human missions to Mars maybe by as much as 50!Resource Prospector (RP) is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorates (HEOMD). This clever mission is currently planned to launch as early as 2021 and will demonstrate extraction of oxygen, water and other volatiles, as well measure mineralogical content such as silicon and light metals from lunar regolith.

  7. Resource Prospector: The RESOLVE Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; J., Captain; Paz, A.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R.; Zacny, K.

    2015-10-01

    NASA has been developing a lunar volatiles exploration payload named RESOLVE. Now the primary science payload on-board the Resource Prospector (RP) mission, RESOLVE, consists of several instruments that evaluate lunar volatiles.

  8. Lunar polar rover science operations: Lessons learned and mission architecture implications derived from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) terrestrial field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Lim, Darlene; Deans, Matthew; Cook, Amanda; Roush, Ted; Skok, J. R.; Button, Nicole E.; Karunatillake, S.; Stoker, Carol; Marquez, Jessica J.; Shirley, Mark; Kobayashi, Linda; Lees, David; Bresina, John; Hunt, Rusty

    2016-08-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal of producing critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. Specifically, MVP focuses on studying a lunar mission analog to characterize the form and distribution of lunar volatiles. Although lunar volatiles are known to be present near the poles of the Moon, the three dimensional distribution and physical characteristics of lunar polar volatiles are largely unknown. A landed mission with the ability to traverse the lunar surface is thus required to characterize the spatial distribution of lunar polar volatiles. NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) mission is a lunar polar rover mission that will operate primarily in sunlit regions near a lunar pole with near-real time operations to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of volatiles. The MVP project was conducted as a field campaign relevant to the RP lunar mission to provide science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. To achieve these goals, the MVP project conducted a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural environment with an unknown volatile distribution within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon.

  9. Integration and Comparison of Clementine and Lunar Prospector Data: Global Scale Multielement Analysis1 (Fe, Ti, and Th) of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, S. D.; Pinet, P. C.; Daydou, Y.; Feldman, W. C.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, we present (1) a statistical analysis, based on a systematic clustering method, of a dataset integrating the global abundance maps of the three elements iron, titanium, and thorium derived from Clementine and Lunar Prospector and (2) a comparison of iron abundances between Clementine and Lunar Prospector. Homogeneous geologic units are compositionally characterized and spatially defined in relation to the major rock types sampled on the Moon. With the lowest abundances of Fe, Ti, and Th found on the Moon, the lunar highland terrains are quite homogeneous with two major large feldspathic units, one being slightly more mafic than the other. Two distinct regions with unique compositions are unambiguously identified: the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) and the South Pole-Aitken (SPA). The PKT, which includes all the units with Th abundances higher than 3.5 ppm (KREEP-rich materials), is delimited by an almost continuous ringlike unit. In particular, it includes the western nearside maria, except for Mare Humorum. With concentrations in Fe, Ti, and Th enhanced relative to the surrounding highlands, the South Pole-Aitken basin floor represents a large mafic anomaly on the far side, suggesting wide deposits of lower crust and possible mantle materials. However, due to indirect residual latitude effects in the CSR (Clementine spectral reflectance) measurements, iron abundances might have been overestimated in SPA, thus implying that crustal materials, rather than mantle materials, might represent the dominant contributor to the mafic component exposed on the basin floor.

  10. A Hybrid Method for Calculating TiO2 Concentrations Using Clementine UVVIS Data, and Verified with Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for extracting TiO2 concentrations from Clementine UVVIS data, which accounts for soil darkness and UV/VIS ratio. The accuracy of these TiO2 estimates are examined with Lunar Prospector thermal/epithermal neutron flux data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Lunar prospector epithermal neutrons from impact craters and landing sites: Implications for surface maturity and hydrogen distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Maurice, S.; Swindle, T.D.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Initial studies of neutron spectrometer data returned by Lunar Prospector concentrated on the discovery of enhanced hydrogen abundances near both lunar poles. However, the nonpolar data exhibit intriguing patterns that appear spatially correlated with surface features such as young impact craters (e.g., Tycho). Such immature crater materials may have low hydrogen contents because of their relative lack of exposure to solar wind-implanted volatiles. We tested this hypothesis by comparing epithermal* neutron counts (i.e., epithermal -0.057 ?? thermal neutrons) for Copernican-age craters classified as relatively young, intermediate, and old (as determined by previous studies of Clementine optical maturity variations). The epithermal* counts of the crater and continuous ejecta regions suggest that the youngest impact materials are relatively devoid of hydrogen in the upper 1 m of regolith. We also show that the mean hydrogen contents measured in Apollo and Luna landing site samples are only moderately well correlated to the epithermal* neutron counts at the landing sites, likely owing to the effects of rare earth elements. These results suggest that further work is required to define better how hydrogen distribution can be revealed by epithermal neutrons in order to understand more fully the nature and sources (e.g., solar wind, meteorite impacts) of volatiles in the lunar regolith.

  12. Optimized traverse planning for future polar prospectors based on lunar topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J. D.; Gläser, P.; Robinson, M. S.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2016-07-01

    To fully understand the extensive collection of remotely sensed polar observations by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and other recent lunar missions, we must acquire an array of ground-truth measurements. A polar rover can sample and assay potential polar resources both laterally and at shallow depths. To identify ideal, least-energy traverses for such a polar prospecting mission, we developed a traverse planning tool, called R-Traverse, using a fundamental wheel-regolith interaction model and datasets from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment. Using the terramechanics model, we identified least-energy traverses at the 20 m scale around Shackleton crater and located one traverse plan that enables the rover to remain illuminated for 94.4% of the lunar year. By incorporating this path planning tool during mission planning, the feasibility of such a mission can be quantified.

  13. New Analysis of Lunar Prospector Radio Tracking Data Brings the Nearside Gravity Field of the Moon with an Unprecedented Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Goossens, Sander

    2011-01-01

    A new analysis of the Doppler tracking data from the Lunar Prospector mission in 1999 revealed a number of previously-unseen gravity anomalies at spatial scales as small as 27 km over the nearside. The tracking data at low altitudes (50 km or below) were better analyzed to resolve the nearside features without dampening from a power law constraint, by partitioning the gravity parameters concentrated on either the nearside or farside. The resulting model presents gravity anomalies correlated with topography with a correlation coefficient of 0.7 or higher from degree 50 to 150, the widest bandwidth yet. The gravity-topography admittance of approx. 70 mGal/km is found from numerous craters of which diameters are 60 km or less. In addition, the new model produces orbits that fit to independent radio tracking data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Kaguya (SELENE) better than previous gravity models. This high-resolution model can be of immediate use to geophysical analysis of small craters. Our technique could be applied to an upcoming mission, the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory and useful to extract short wavelength signals from the MESSENGER Doppler data.

  14. Radiation measurement above the lunar surface by Kaguya gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Kusano, Hiroki; Hareyama, Matoko; Ideguchi, Yusuke; Shimizu, Sota; Shibamura, Eido

    The lunar surface is filled with various ionizing radiations such as high energy galactic particles, albedo particles and secondary radiations of neutrons, gamma rays and other elementary particles. A high-resolution Kaguya Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (KGRS) was carried on the Japan’s lunar explorer SELENE (Kaguya), the largest lunar orbiter since the Apollo missions. The KGRS instrument employed, for the first time in lunar exploration, a high-purity Ge crystal to increase the identification capability of elemental gamma-ray lines. The Ge detector is surrounded by BGO and plastic counters as for anticoincidence shields. The KGRS measured gamma rays in the energy range from 200 keV to 13 MeV with high precision to determine the chemical composition of the lunar surface. It provided data on the abundance of major elements over the entire lunar surface. In addition to the gamma-ray observation by the KGRS, it successfully measured the global distribution of fast neutrons. In the energy spectra of gamma-rays observed by the KGRS, several saw-tooth- peaks of Ge are included, which are formed by the collision interaction of lunar fast neutrons with Ge atoms in the Ge crystal. With these saw-tooth-peaks analysis, global distribution of neutrons emitted from the lunara surface was successfully created, which was compared with the previous results obtained by Lunar Prospector neutron maps. Another anticoincidence counter, the plastic counter with 5 mm thickness, was used to veto radiation events mostly generated by charged particles. A single photomultiplier serves to count scintillation light from the plastic scintillation counter. The global map of counting rates observed by the plastic counter was also created, implying that the radiation counting rate implies the geological distribution, in spite that the plastic counter mostly measures high energy charged particles and energetic neutrons. These results are presented and discussed.

  15. Regional Mapping of the Lunar Crustal Magnetic Field: Correlation of Strong Anomalies with Curvilinear Albedo Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Zakharian, A.; Lin, R. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Halekas, J.; Acuna, M. H.; Binder, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    Using high-resolution regional Lunar Prospector magnetometer magnetic field maps, we report here a close correlation of the strongest individual crustal anomalies with unusual curvilinear albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class.

  16. Gamma ray spectrometer for Lunar Scout 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, C. E.; Burt, W. W.; Edwards, B. C.; Martin, R. A.; Nakano, George H.; Reedy, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    We review the current status of the Los Alamos program to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for the Lunar Scout-II mission, which is the second of two Space Exploration Initiative robotic precursor missions to study the Moon. This instrument will measure gamma rays in the energy range of approximately 0.1 - 10 MeV to determine the composition of the lunar surface. The instrument is a high-purity germanium crystal surrounded by an CsI anticoincidence shield and cooled by a split Stirling cycle cryocooler. It will provide the abundance of many elements over the entire lunar surface.

  17. Gamma Rays, Meteorites, Lunar Samples, and the Composition of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2005-11-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer built at Los Alamos National Laboratory and carried on the Lunar Prospector orbiter in 1997-1998 allowed scientists to measure the concentrations of several elements on the entire lunar surface. The data have been widely used by planetary scientists to determine the chemical composition of the Moon and infer something about the processes operating when it formed. However, specialists in the study of lunar samples have been a bit uneasy about the details of the elemental compositions and have offered modest, but significant, corrections to the gamma ray data to make them more in line with what we know from samples. The latest of these approaches to correcting the gamma-ray data has been done by Paul Warren (University of California, Los Angeles), a renowned lunar sample specialist. He concentrated on correcting the analysis for the element thorium (Th), whose natural radioactive decay releases characteristic gamma rays. Thorium is an important element because we understand its behavior during the formation and subsequent evolution of magma, and because it is a refractory element-that is, it condenses at a high temperature from a gas. This means that if you know the thorium concentration, you also know the concentrations of all other refractory elements with similar geochemical behavior, which includes the rare earth elements, uranium, zirconium, titanium, calcium, and aluminum. Using his revised global thorium concentration as a springboard, Warren then estimated the concentration of numerous elements in the entire rocky portion of the Moon, which makes up more than 95% of the orb that graces the night sky. His estimates do not agree with those produced by others, which will lead to continued debate and refinement of the Moon's chemical composition.

  18. Launch Lock Mechanism for Resource Prospector Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamasy, Gabor J.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector Rover is being designed to carry the RESOLVE (Regolith Environment Science, and Oxygen Lunar Volatile Extraction) payload on a mission to the Moon to prospect for water ice. This is a joint project between KSC Swamp Works UB-R1 and JSC. JSC is building the Resource Prospector 2015 (RP15) rover and KSC designed and fabricated a Launch-Lock (LL) hold down mechanism for the rover. The LL mechanism will attach and support the rover on a Lunar Lander during launch and transit to the moon, then release the RP15 rover after touchdown on the lunar surface. This report presents the design and development of the LL mechanism and its unique features which make it suitable for this lunar exploration mission. An EDU (engineering development unit) prototype of the LL has been built and tested at KSC which is the subject of this paper.

  19. Combined Gamma Ray/neutron Spectroscopy for Mapping Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Byrd, R. C.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Masarik, J.; Moss, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    Some elements in the Moon can be resources, such as hydrogen and oxygen. Other elements, like Ti or the minerals in which they occur, such as ilmenite, could be used in processing lunar materials. Certain elements can also be used as tracers for other elements or lunar processes, such as hydrogen for mature regoliths with other solar-wind-implanted elements like helium, carbon, and nitrogen. A complete knowledge of the elemental composition of a lunar region is desirable both in identifying lunar resources and in lunar geochemical studies, which also helps in identifying and using lunar resources. The use of gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy together to determine abundances of many elements in the top few tens of centimeters of the lunar surface is discussed. To date, very few discussions of elemental mapping of planetary surfaces considered measurements of both gamma rays and the full range of neutron energies. The theories for gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy of the Moon and calculations of leakage fluxes are presented here with emphasis on why combined gamma ray/neutron spectroscopy is much more powerful than measuring either radiation alone.

  20. Lunar Prospector Technical Design Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Topics considered include: Ames Mission Management Office Rolls and Responsibilities; Program Overview/Requirements/Description; Project Status; Management; Science Goals and Objectives; Science Instruments; and Systems Requirements.

  1. Prospecting for Lunar Oxygen with Gamma-Ray Spectrometry and Multispectral Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Weitz, Catherine M.; McKay, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Oxygen is a potentially abundant lunar resource that could be used for life support and spacecraft propulsion. The recent identification by Prospector of ice at the lunar poles has renewed interest in the use of in situ 0 production to supply a future base. Siting a lunar base at any significant distance from the poles, however, would require costly transport of 0 or its extraction from the local regolith. More than 20 different processes have been proposed for regolith 0 extraction. Among the simplest and best studied of these processes is the reduction of oxides in lunar minerals and glass using H gas. Oxides, predominantly those containing FeO, are first reduced; 0 is then liberated to form water. The water is then electrolyzed to yield 0, and the H is recycled to the reactor.

  2. Resource Prospector Propulsion Cold Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Hunter; Pederson, Kevin; Dervan, Melanie; Holt, Kimberly; Jernigan, Frankie; Trinh, Huu; Flores, Sam

    2014-01-01

    For the past year, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center have been working on a government version of a lunar lander design for the Resource Prospector Mission. A propulsion cold flow test system, representing an early flight design of the propulsion system, has been fabricated. The primary objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the Resource Prospector propulsion system operation through water flow testing and obtain data for anchoring analytical models. This effort will also provide an opportunity to develop a propulsion system mockup to examine hardware integration to a flight structure. This paper will report the work progress of the propulsion cold flow test system development and test preparation. At the time this paper is written, the initial waterhammer testing is underway. The initial assessment of the test data suggests that the results are as expected and have a similar trend with the pretest prediction. The test results will be reported in a future conference.

  3. Evidence for Mini-Magnetospheres at four Lunar Magnetic Anomalies: Reiner-Gamma, Airy, Descartes and Crozier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, M.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Hemingway, D.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar swirls are enigmatic high-albedo surface markings co-located with magnetic anomalies. The existence of mini-magnetospheres has been proposed as a formation mechanism, making small-scale magnetic field interactions with the solar wind of interest. Using data from the Lunar Prospector, Clementine, and Advanced Composition Explorer missions, we develop three metrics for the identification of mini-magnetospheres: 1) presence of coherent magnetism at low altitude for magnetic field measurements taken in the solar wind; 2) directional field distortions that are correlated with changes in incident solar wind azimuth; 3) intensification of total field strength. These metrics are applied to four lunar magnetic anomalies with various reflectances and magnetic field strengths, ranging from fully developed swirls (Reiner-Gamma, Airy) to diffuse albedo patches which may or may not be swirls (Descartes, Crozier). Specifically, we compare magnetic field measurements in the solar wind to source magnetization models constructed from observations in the lunar wake and Earth's magnetotail. By applying these criteria, we confirm previous findings of magnetosphere-like phenomena at Reiner-Gamma. We also find evidence of these phenomena at Descartes and Airy, and propose that mini-magnetospheres may exist here. At Airy, very large upwind distortions are observed, comparable to the length scale of the anomaly itself. At Reiner-Gamma and Descartes, this distortion is significantly smaller, yet the average field strengths are higher, implying that the scale of distortion is linked to the anomaly's field strength. Interestingly, at Crozier, the weakest anomaly considered, we do not observe this distortion. However, we do observe evidence of field intensification at high solar wind pressures (16 nPa). While Descartes and Reiner-Gamma are among the strongest anomalies on the Moon, and both exhibit magnetospheric properties, only Reiner-Gamma shows a well-developed swirl pattern

  4. OVEN & LAVA Subsystems in the RESOLVE Payload for Resource Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine E.

    2015-01-01

    A short briefing in Power Point of the status of the OVEN subsystem and the LAVA subsystems of the RESOLVE payload being developed under the Resource Prospector mission. The purpose of the mission is to sample and analyze volatile ices embedded in the lunar soil at the poles of the Moon and is expected to be conducted in the 2020 time frame.

  5. Solar Wind Interaction with Lunar Magnetic Anomalies: Reiner Gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deca, Jan; Divin, Andrey; Wang, Xu; Lembège, Bertrand; Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Discovered by early astronomers during the Renaissance, the Reiner Gamma formation is one of the most peculiar lunar surface features. Observations have shown that the tadpole-shaped albedo marking, the so-called swirl, found on the Oceanus Procellarum is co-located with one of the strongest magnetic anomalies (LMA) on our Moon. In previous work, using a horizontal dipole model [Deca et al. 2014, 2015], we have described the formation of a mini-magnetosphere structure surrounding the swirl pattern, locally shielding the underlying lunar surface from the impinging solar wind, and hinting at a correlation with its main surface albedo brightness marking in a distinctive concentric oval shape. Using the observed magnetic field model [Tsunakawa et al. 2015] in our full-kinetic electromagnetic framework, iPic3D, we reproduce a surface weathering pattern closely resembling the details of the Reiner Gamma swirls. This work therefore provides strong evidence that the solar wind standoff theory for lunar swirl formation is the dominant process to explain the albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma region. This work was supported by NASA's SSSERVI/IMPACT and by the Swedish National Space Board, Grant No. 136/11. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center. Test simulations utilised the Janus supercomputer, supported by NSF (CNS-0821794) and CU Boulder.

  6. High-Resolution Mapping of Lunar Crustal Magnetic Fields: Correlations with Albedo Markings of the Reiner Gamma Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M.; Binder, A.

    1999-01-01

    During the last eight months of the Lunar Prospector mission (December 1999-July 1999), the spacecraft was placed in a relatively low-altitude (15-30-km perapsis), near-polar orbit that allowed high-resolution mapping of crustal magnetic fields. We report here initial studies of the correlation of locally strong magnetic anomalies with unusual, swirl-like albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class. Based on this correlation, which is known from earlier studies of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data, it has been proposed that the swirls represent regions whose higher albedos have been preserved via deflection of the solar-wind ion bombardment by strong crustal fields. This model in turn depends on the hypothesis that solar-wind implanted H is at least one component of the process that optically matures exposed silicate surfaces in the inner solar system . Specifically, it is hypothesized that implanted H acts as an effective reducing agent to enhance the rate of production of nanophase metallic Fe particles from preexisting silicates during micrometeoroid impacts. According to the model, the curvilinear shapes of these albedo markings are caused, at least in part, by the geometry of ion deflections in a magnetic field. The improved resolution and coverage of the Prospector data allow more detailed mapping of the fields, especially on the lunar farside. This permits a more quantitative test of whether all albedo markings of this class are associated with strong local magnetic fields.Only if the latter condition is met can the solar-wind deflection hypothesis he valid. The basic procedure for mapping crustal magnetic fields using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data follows that developed for analysis of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data. The specific mapping steps are (1) selection of mission time intervals suitable for mapping crustal fields; these are limited essentially either to times when the Moon is in a lobe of the geomagnetic tail or to times when the Moon

  7. High-Resolution Mapping of Lunar Crustal Magnetic Fields: Correlations with Albedo Markings of the Reiner Gamma Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M.; Binder, A.

    1999-01-01

    During the last eight months of the Lunar Prospector mission (December 1999-July 1999), the spacecraft was placed in a relatively low-altitude (15-30-km perapsis), near-polar orbit that allowed high-resolution mapping of crustal magnetic fields. We report here initial studies of the correlation of locally strong magnetic anomalies with unusual, swirl-like albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class. Based on this correlation, which is known from earlier studies of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data, it has been proposed that the swirls represent regions whose higher albedos have been preserved via deflection of the solar-wind ion bombardment by strong crustal fields. This model in turn depends on the hypothesis that solar-wind implanted H is at least one component of the process that optically matures exposed silicate surfaces in the inner solar system . Specifically, it is hypothesized that implanted H acts as an effective reducing agent to enhance the rate of production of nanophase metallic Fe particles from preexisting silicates during micrometeoroid impacts. According to the model, the curvilinear shapes of these albedo markings are caused, at least in part, by the geometry of ion deflections in a magnetic field. The improved resolution and coverage of the Prospector data allow more detailed mapping of the fields, especially on the lunar farside. This permits a more quantitative test of whether all albedo markings of this class are associated with strong local magnetic fields.Only if the latter condition is met can the solar-wind deflection hypothesis he valid. The basic procedure for mapping crustal magnetic fields using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data follows that developed for analysis of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data. The specific mapping steps are (1) selection of mission time intervals suitable for mapping crustal fields; these are limited essentially either to times when the Moon is in a lobe of the geomagnetic tail or to times when the Moon

  8. Surface chemistry of selected lunar regions. [using gamma ray spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielefeld, M. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, A. I.; Arnold, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A completely new analysis has been carried out on the data from the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma ray spectrometer experiments. The components of the continuum background have been estimated. The elements Th, K, Fe and Mg give useful results; results for Ti are significant only for a few high Ti regions. Errors are given, and the results are checked by other methods. Concentrations are reported for about sixty lunar regions; the ground track has been subdivided in various ways. The borders of the maria seem well-defined chemically, while the distribution of KREEP is broad. This wide distribution requires emplacement of KREEP before the era of mare formation. Its high concentration in western mare soils seems to require major vertical mixing.

  9. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  10. Numerical simulation of gamma ray and neutron production on lunar surface using MCNPX code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja

    The production of gamma ray and neutron on various planetary surfaces has been investigated for a few decades by remote sensing techniques. The production of these radiations is due to the nuclear reactions between incoming cosmic rays (i.e. galactic cosmic rays and solar cosmic rays) and planetary materials. In the case of the Moon, not like Mars, returned samples from the previous lunar missions provide us much more realistic parameters in understanding of lunar surface composition although it varies a lot. These constraints provide us restricted settings of parameters for model calculations toward the understanding radiation environment. Recent SELENE (KAGUYA) Gamma Ray spectrometer provides elemental lunar surface maps using major important gamma ray lines, such as Fe, Si, Al, U, Th, Ti, etc toward understanding of the evolution of the lunar surfaces. The effect of size or sub-layered soil deposit in the production of gamma rays and neutrons can be effectively understood using model calculations. Our Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) generated provides the gamma ray and neutron productions for various soil settings. Our study demonstrates the gamma ray and neutron production on lunar surfaces of various lunar surface soil settings using numerical simulation of MCNPX.

  11. Chang’E-1 gamma ray spectrometer and preliminary radioactive results on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng-Hua; Ma, Tao; Chang, Jin

    2010-10-01

    The Chang'E-1(CE-1) spacecraft took a gamma-ray spectrometer (hereafter, CGRS) to detect the element distributions on the lunar surface in a circular, 200 km altitude, polar orbit with approximately 2 h periodicity. CGRS consists of two large CsI(Tl) crystals as the main and anticoincidence detectors. The large CsI crystal of CGRS has a higher detector effective area than other lunar gamma ray spectrometers. For its 1-year mission, gamma ray spectra including many peaks of major elements and trace elements on the lunar surface have been measured by CGRS. Global measurement within 0.55-0.75 MeV is given here to describe the distribution of radioactive composition (e.g., uranium and thorium) on the lunar surface. Although CGRS has a lower energy resolution that cannot separate the uranium peak from others in this energy region, 609 keV uranium gamma ray line dominates the shape of the spectrum in this energy region. Therefore, the radioactive map can indirectly describe the uranium distribution on the lunar surface. The radioactive map shows that the higher radiation is concentrated in the Procellarum KREEP Terrene (PKT) on the nearside with an oval shape. The secondary high-radiation is located in South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin. Lunar highlands have lower concentration. The relationship between radiation and topography displays different linear correlations for lunar highlands and SPA basin, which imply the different processes for these two regions.

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Fire, Ice, and Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Fire, Ice, and Regolith" included the following:Compositional and Structural Study of the Aristarchus Plateau from Integrated UV-VIS-NIR Spectral Data; Clementine 2.7-?m Data: Mapping the Mare and Searching for Water; On the Search for Water at the Lunar Poles: Results of Forward Modeling of Permanently Shaded Areas and Lunar Prospector Measurements; Searching the Moon for Aluminous Mare Basalts Using Compositional Remote-Sensing Constraints I: Finding the Regions of Interest; Semi-automated Extraction of Contours from Lunar Topographic Maps; Basalts in Mare Humorum and S.E. Procellarum; The Hansteen and Helmet Volcanic Dome Regions on the Moon: Stratigraphy and Ages; Derivation of Elemental Abundance Maps at 15-km Spatial Resolution from the Merging of Clementine Optical and Lunar Prospector Geochemical Data; Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of the Balmer Region of the Moon; Lava Flows in Mare Nubium and Mare Cognitum: A Geological History Based on Analysis of Multispectral Data; Development of Ground-based Lunar VIS/NEAR IR Spectral Imager; A BRDF Measurement Apparatus for Lab-based Samples; A New Source of High Resolution Lunar Images: Amateur Astronomers! ; Leakage of Gamma Rays and Neutrons from Thick Targets Bombarded by Energetic Protons; Progress on Reviving Lunar Orbiter: Scanning, Archiving, and Cartographic Processing at USGS; Modeling Lateral and Vertical Mixing by Impact Cratering with Applications for the Moon; Optical Maturity Study of Stuart#s Crater Candidate Impact; Evidence for Three Basins Beneath Oceanus Procellarum; and Ellipses of the South Pole-Aitken Basin: Implications for Basin Formation.

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Moon and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session" Moon and Mercury" included the following reports:Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon; Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes; A New Lunar Geologic Mapping Program; Physical Backgrounds to Measure Instantaneous Spin Components of Terrestrial Planets from Earth with Arcsecond Accuracy; Preliminary Findings of a Study of the Lunar Global Megaregolith; Maps Characterizing the Lunar Regolith Maturity; Probable Model of Anomalies in the Polar Regions of Mercury; Parameters of the Maximum of Positive Polarization of the Moon; Database Structure Development for Space Surveying Results by Moon -Zond Program; CM2-type Micrometeoritic Lunar Winds During the Late Heavy Bombardment; A Comparison of Textural and Chemical Features of Spinel Within Lunar Mare Basalts; The Reiner Gamma Formation as Characterized by Earth-based Photometry at Large Phase Angles; The Significance of the Geometries of Linear Graben for the Widths of Shallow Dike Intrusions on the Moon; Lunar Prospector Data, Surface Roughness and IR Thermal Emission of the Moon; The Influence of a Magma Ocean on the Lunar Global Stress Field Due to Tidal Interaction Between the Earth and Moon; Variations of the Mercurian Photometric Relief; A Model of Positive Polarization of Regolith; Ground Truth and Lunar Global Thorium Map Calibration: Are We There Yet?;and Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes.

  14. Resource Prospector: Mission Goals, Relevance and Site Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Andrews, D.; Sanders, G.; McGovern, A.; Vaughan, R.; Heldmann, J.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades a wealth of new observations of the moon have demonstrated a lunar water system dramatically more complex and rich than was deduced following the Apollo era. Observation from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) revealed enhancements of hydrogen near the lunar poles. This observation has since been confirmed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission targeted a permanently shadowed, enhanced hydrogen location within the crater Cabeus. The LCROSS impact showed that at least some of the hydrogen enhancement is in the form of water ice and molecular hydrogen (H2). Other volatiles were also observed in the LCROSS impact cloud, including CO2, CO, an H2S. These volatiles, and in particular water, have the potential to be a valuable or enabling resource for future exploration. In large part due to these new findings, the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) have selected a lunar volatiles prospecting mission for a concept study and potential flight in CY2020. The mission includes a rover-borne payload that (1) can locate surface and near-subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith (up to 1 meter), and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials.

  15. Thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianmin; Zhang, Xubing; Wu, Ke

    2016-07-01

    The thorium distribution on the lunar surface is critical for understanding the lunar evolution. This work reports a global map of the thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). Our work exhibits an interesting symmetrical structure of thorium distribution along the two sides of the belt of Th hot spots. Some potential positions of KREEP volcanism are suggested, which are the Fra Mauro region, Montes Carpatus, Aristarchus Plateau and the adjacent regions of Copernicus Crater. Based on the lunar map of thorium distribution, we draw some conclusions on two critical links of lunar evolution: (1) the thorium abundance within the lunar crust and mantle, in the last stage of Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) crystallization, may have a positive correlation with the depth in the crust, reaches a peak when coming through the transitional zone between the crust and mantle, and decreases sharply toward the inside of the mantle; thus, the Th-enhanced materials originated from the lower crust and the layer between the crust and mantle, (2) in PKT, KREEP volcanism might be the primary mechanism of Th-elevated components to the lunar surface, whereas the Imbrium impact acted as a relatively minor role.

  16. Probing the halo dark matter. gamma. ray line from a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Salati, P.; Bouquet, A.; Silk, J. Department of Astronomy and Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1990-03-15

    We study the possibility of detecting halo cold dark matter through the annihilation process {chi}{bar {chi}}{r arrow}{gamma}{gamma}. This process produces monoenergetic {gamma} rays, and may be a clear signature of particle dark matter. If there is a closure density of dark matter, we show that it will be very difficult to observe this annihilation line from a space station borne experiment. On the contrary, a large lunar based {gamma}-ray telescope could detect hundreds of events per year.

  17. Resource Prospector Propulsion System Cold Flow Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Addona, Brad; Trinh, Huu

    2015-01-01

    Resource Prospector (RP) is a NASA mission being led by NASA Ames Research Center with current plans to deliver a scientific payload package aboard a rover to the lunar surface. As part of an early risk reduction activity, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) have jointly developed a government-version concept of a lunar lander for the mission. The spacecraft consists of two parts, the lander and the rover which carries the scientific instruments. The lander holds the rover during launch, cruise, and landing on the surface. Following terminal descent and landing the lander portion of the spacecraft become dormant after the rover embarks on the science mission. The lander will be equipped with a propulsion system for lunar descent and landing, as well as trajectory correction and attitude control maneuvers during transit to the moon. Hypergolic propellants monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide will be used to fuel sixteen 70-lbf descent thrusters and twelve 5-lbf attitude control thrusters. A total of four metal-diaphragm tanks, two per propellant, will be used along with a high-pressure composite-overwrapped pressure vessel for the helium pressurant gas. Many of the major propulsion system components are heritage missile hardware obtained by NASA from the Air Force. In parallel with the flight system design activities, a simulated propulsion system based on flight drawings was built for conducting a series of water flow tests to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. The primary objective of the cold flow testing was to simulate the RP propulsion system fluid flow operation through water flow testing and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. All design and

  18. Global Map of Lunar Effective Dose Equivalents Observed by Kaguya Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayatsu, Kanako; Takeda, Yuko; Karouji, Yuzuru; Hareyama, Makoto; Kobayashi, Shingo; Hasebe, N.

    The Kaguya Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (KGRS) onboard the Japanese large-scale lunar ex-plorer, Kaguya (SELENE) measured gamma rays emitted from the global lunar surface with a large germanium crystal as a main detector [1]. In this study, we estimated the preliminary global maps of the effective dose equivalents due to gamma rays and neutrons from the Moon on the basis of the KGRS data. Especially, the global distribution of effective equivalent dose caused from neutrons on the Moon was evaluated for the first time by this study. Firstly, the effective dose equivalents at each Apollo and Luna landing site were calculated by using the Monte Carlo simulation and the conversion coefficients of gamma rays and neutrons [2]. Secondly, the preliminary global maps of annual effective dose equivalents due to gamma rays and neutrons on the lunar surface were made by the radiation data measured by KGRS and they were compared with the estimated values of effective dose equivalents at Apollo and Luna landing sites. The distribution of the effective dose equivalent due to gamma rays on the Moon mainly corresponds to the abundance distribution of natural radioactive elements as uranium, thorium and potassium. While the global distribution of effective dose equivalent due to neu-trons is closely similar to that of the abundance distribution of iron and titanium, because such elements have a large cross section of fast neutron production [3]. These results obtained by the KGRS will be precious and useful for a future manned exploration of the Moon. [1] Hasebe et al.: Earth, Planets and Space 60 (2008) 299. [2] ICRP: ICRP Publication 74: Conversion Coefficients for use in Radiological Protection against External Radiation (Elsevier Science, Oxford, 1997). [3] Yamashita et al.: Earth, Planets and Space 60 (2008) 313.

  19. Lunar elemental analysis obtained from the Apollo gamma-ray and X-ray remote sensing experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.; Arnold, J. R.; Adler, I.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Gamma ray and X-ray spectrometers carried in the service module of the Apollo 15 and 16 spacecraft were employed for compositional mapping of the lunar surface. The measurements involved the observation of the intensity and characteristics energy distribution of gamma rays and X-rays emitted from the lunar surface. A large scale compositional map of over 10 percent of the lunar surface was obtained from an analysis of the observed spectra. The objective of the X-ray experiment was to measure the K spectral lines from Mg, Al, and Si. Spectra were obtained and the data were reduced to Al/Si and Mg/Si intensity ratios and ultimately to chemical ratios. The objective of the gamma-ray experiment was to measure the natural and cosmic ray induced activity emission spectrum. At this time, the elemental abundances for Th, U, K, Fe, Ti, Si, and O have been determined over a number of major lunar regions.

  20. Development of gamma-ray detector for lunar and planetary landing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitani, Takefumi; Inoue, Yousuke; Kobayashi, Shingo; Iijima, Yuichi; Takashima, Takeshi

    For a study of the origin and eveolution of a planet, its chemical composition holds an important information. The abundances of certain elements with different condensation temperature and with various types of geochemical behavior can provide valuable information for its history. Gamma-ray lines from the planet are generally used to determine the chemical composition of a planet without atmosphere. These gamma-ray lines are produded by the decay of nat-ural radionuclides or nuclear-reactions between planetary material and galactic cosmic rays. Abundance of elements is determined by measuring the intensity of gamma-ray lines specific to each element. From a orbital remote-sensing observation, global distribution of elements is acquired but its spatial resolution is limited, sim 10s km, because of difficulty of collimation of gamma-rays. Therefore in-situ gamma-ray observation is necessary to measure the elemental abundances in meter-scale topography. To survey the gamma-ray flux, a gamma-ray detec-tor aboard a rover on a planet is desired. Because of its limited electrical power and weight resources, we are developing small gamma-ray detector using a Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) semiconductor. CdTe has been regarded as a promising semiconductor material for gamma-ray detector because of such features as room temperature operation and large band-gap energy. The high atomic number of the materials gives a high absorption efficiency. On the surface of the moon, CdTe must be used in high temperature condition without any cooling system. Since CdTe spectral performance above room temperature is not established, we have examined the detector property in detail up to 40 degrees Celsius. Based on the results, we design total observation system and estimate the sensitivity of specific elements. Here we present the development status of gamma-ray detector system and the sensitivty estimate for the lunar observation.

  1. Lunar Crustal Magnetism: Correlations with Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Frey, S.; Acuna, M. H.; Hood, L. L.; Binder, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    With Lunar Prospector reflectometry data we now have sufficient surface coverage to allow detailed comparisons between crustal magnetism and geology. We find substantial evidence that lunar magnetism is dominated by the effects of impact processes. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Global Elemental Maps of the Moon Using Gamma Rays Measured by the Kaguya (SELENE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, Robert C.; Hasebe, N.; Yamashita, N.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Hayatsu, K.; Okudaira, O.; Kobayashi, M.; d'Uston, C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Diez, B.; Kim, K.

    2009-09-01

    The Kaguya spacecraft was in a circular polar lunar orbit from 17 October 2007 until 10 June 2009 as part of JAXA's SELENE lunar exploration program. Among the 13 instruments, an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) studied the distributions of many elements. The gamma rays were from the decay of the naturally-radioactive elements K, Th, and U and from cosmic-ray interactions with H, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and other elements. They are emitted from the top few tens of centimeters of the lunar surface. The main detector of the GRS was high-purity germanium, which was surrounded by bismuth germanate and plastic scintillators to reduce backgrounds. Gamma-ray spectra were sent to the Earth every 17 seconds (1 degree of the lunar surface) with energies from 0-12 MeV. These spectra were adjusted to a standard gain and then summed over many lunar regions. Background spectra were also determined. Over 200 gamma rays have been observed, with most being backgrounds but many being from the lunar surface, an order more gamma rays than from any previous lunar GRS missions. Elemental results have been determined for K, Th, and U. Results for K and Th are consistent with those from the GRS on Apollo and Lunar Prospector. The first lunar global maps for U have been determined. These 3 elements show strong correlations among themselves, which implies that the Moon is homogeneous in these elements over the entire Moon. Their elemental ratios agree well with those measured in lunar samples and meteorites. Preliminary maps for Fe are consistent with earlier maps. Other elements, including O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, are being mapped, and their distributions vary over the lunar surface and appear consistent with previous lunar elemental results. This work was supported by JAXA, NASA, and CNRS, France.

  3. Nuclear chemistry of returned lunar samples: Nuclide analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelley, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Primordial and cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations are determined nondestructively by gamma-ray spectrometry in soil and rock samples from the returned Apollo 17 sample collection from Taurus-Littrow and Descartes. Geochemical evidence in support of field geology speculation concerning layering of the subfloor basalt flows is demonstrated along with a possible correlation of magmatic fractionation of K/U as a function of depth. The pattern of radionuclide concentrations observed in these samples is distinct due to proton bombardment by the intense solar flares of August 4-9, 1972. Such radionuclide determinations are used in determining lunar sample orientation and characterizing solar flare activity.

  4. Expected gamma-ray emission spectra from the lunar surface as a function of chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    The gamma rays emitted from the moon or any similar body carry information on the chemical composition of the surface layer. The elements most easily measured are K, U, Th and major elements such as O, Si, Mg, and Fe. The expected fluxes of gamma ray lines were calculated for four lunar compositions and one chondritic chemistry from a consideration of the important emission mechanisms: natural radioactivity, inelastic scatter, neutron capture, and induced radioactivity. The models used for cosmic ray interactions were those of Reedy and Arnold and Lingenfelter. The areal resolution of the experiment was calculated to be around 70 to 140 km under the conditions of the Apollo 15 and 16 experiments. Finally, a method was described for recovering the chemical information from the observed scintillation spectra obtained in these experiments.

  5. Expected gamma ray emission spectra from the lunar surface as a function of chemical composition.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    The gamma rays emitted from the moon or any similar body carry information on the chemical composition of the surface layer. The elements most easily measured are K, U, Th, and major elements such as O, Si, Mg, and Fe. The expected fluxes of gamma ray lines are calculated for four lunar compositions and one chondritic chemistry from a consideration of the important emission mechanisms: natural radioactivity, inelastic scatter, neutron capture, and induced radioactivity. The models used for cosmic ray interactions are those of Reedy and Arnold (1972) and Lingenfelter et al. (1972). The areal resolution of the experiment is calculated to be around 70-140 km under the conditions of the Apollo 15 and 16 experiments. Finally, a method is described for recovering the chemical information from the observed scintillation spectra obtained in these experiments.

  6. Lunar Silicon Abundance determined by Kaguya Gamma-ray Spectrometer and Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong; Berezhnoy, Alexey; Wöhler, Christian; Grumpe, Arne; Rodriguez, Alexis; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Van Gasselt, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    Using Kaguya GRS data, we investigated Si distribution on the Moon, based on study of the 4934 keV Si gamma ray peak caused by interaction between thermal neutrons and lunar Si-28 atoms. A Si peak analysis for a grid of 10 degrees in longitude and latitude was accomplished by the IRAP Aquarius program followed by a correction for altitude and thermal neutron density. A spectral parameter based regression model of the Si distribution was built for latitudes between 60°S and 60°N based on the continuum slopes, band depths, widths and minimum wavelengths of the absorption bands near 1 μμm and 2 μμm. Based on these regression models a nearly global cpm (counts per minute) map of Si with a resolution of 20 pixels per degree was constructed. The construction of a nearly global map of lunar Si abundances has been achieved by a combination of regression-based analysis of KGRS cpm data and M ^{3} spectral reflectance data, it has been calibrated with respect to returned sample-based wt% values. The Si abundances estimated with our method systematically exceed those of the LP GRS Si data set but are consistent with typical Si abundances of lunar basalt samples (in the maria) and feldspathic mineral samples (in the highlands). Our Si map shows that the Si abundance values on the Moon are typically between 17 and 28 wt%. The obtained Si map will provide an important aspect in both understanding the distribution of minerals and the evolution of the lunar surface since its formation.

  7. Lunar elemental analysis obtained from the Apollo gamma-ray and X-ray remote sensing experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.; Arnold, J. R.; Adler, I.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma-ray and X-ray spectrometers carried in the service modules of the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 spacecraft were employed for compositional mapping of the lunar surface. The measurements involved the observation of the intensity and characteristic energy distribution of gamma rays and X-rays emitted from the lunar surface. A large-scale compositional map of over 10 percent of the lunar surface was obtained from an analysis of the observed spectra. The objective of the X-ray experiment was to measure the K spectral lines from Mg, Al, and Si. Spectra were obtained and the data were reduced to Al/Si and Mg/Si intensity ratios and ultimately to chemical ratios. Analyses of the results have indicated (1) that the Al/Si ratios are highest in the lunar highlands and considerably lower in the maria, and (2) that the Mg/Si concentrations generally show the opposite relationship. The objective of the gamma-ray experiment was to measure the natural and cosmic-ray-induced activity emission spectrum. At this time, the elemental abundances for Th, U, K, Fe, Ti, Si, and O have been determined over a number of major lunar regions. Regions of relatively high natural radioactivity were found in the Mare Imbrium and Oceanus Procellarum regions.

  8. Identification of lunar rock types and search for polar ice by gamma ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Albert E.; Drake, Darrell M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of mapping the surface composition of the moon from an orbiting spin-stabilized spacecraft, using gamma ray spectroscopy and a cooled germanium solid-state device as a detector. A design for accommodating the germanium detector gamma ray spectrometer was devised, and the detection sensitivity was applied to typical lunar-rock compositions. For sets comprising nine highland and 16 mare types, the most useful elements were found to be Mg, Al, K, Ti, Fe, U, and Th. An analysis of the expected instrument response to the gamma ray and neutron fluxes of water ice indicated that a neutron mode added to the spectrometer will be more sensitive than the gamma ray mode to the possible presence of polar ice. It was calculated that, with a pair of selected neutron absorbers and a model which provides that 2.5 percent of the area above 75-deg latitude is occupied by trapping sites, the instrument will provide a 1-yr mission detection limit of 0.056 percent H2O by weight for each polar region.

  9. Lunar radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

    One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of

  10. Test and Recommendation of Flight-forward Resistive Temperature Detector for Resource Prospector Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinricher, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission planned to launch in 2018. The mission will use the Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) Payload to prospect for lunar volatiles such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. These compounds will validate ISRU capability. The payload, particularly the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem, requires numerous temperature measurements to accurately control on-board heaters that keep the volatiles in the vapor phase to allow quantification and prevent the clogging of delivery lines. Previous spaceflight missions have proven that Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) failure impedes mission success. The research resulted in a recommendation for a flight-forward RTD. The recommendation was based on accuracy, consistency, and ease of installation of RTDs procured from IST, QTI, and Honeywell.

  11. LAVA Subsystem Integration and Testing for the RESOLVE Payload of the Resource Prospector Mission: Mass Spectrometers and Gas Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.; Stewart, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload is part of Resource Prospector (RP) along with a rover and a lander that are expected to launch in 2020. RP will identify volatile elements that may be combined and collected to be used for fuel, air, and water in order to enable deeper space exploration. The Resource Prospector mission is a key part of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The demand for this method of utilizing resources at the site of exploration is increasing due to the cost of resupply missions and deep space exploration goals. The RESOLVE payload includes the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The main instrument used to identify the volatiles evolved from the lunar regolith is the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). LAVA analyzes the volatiles emitted from the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) Subsystem. The objective of OVEN is to obtain, weigh, heat and transfer evolved gases to LAVA through the connection between the two subsystems called the LOVEN line. This paper highlights the work completed during a ten week internship that involved the integration, testing, data analysis, and procedure documentation of two candidate mass spectrometers for the LAVA subsystem in order to aid in determining which model to use for flight. Additionally, the examination of data from the integrated Resource Prospector '15 (RP' 15) field test will be presented in order to characterize the amount of water detected from water doped regolith samples.

  12. Silicon distribution on the lunar surface obtained by Kaguya GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Kobayashi, Masanori; Elphic, Richard; Karouji, Yuzuru; Hamara, Dave; Kobayashi, Shingo; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Rodriguez, Alexis; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Reedy, Robert; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    Gamma ray spectrometry (GRS) provides a powerful tool to map and characterize the elemental composition of the upper tens centimeters of solid planetary surfaces. Elemental maps generated by the Kaguya GRS (KGRS) include natural radioactive as well as major elements maps (e.g., Fe, Ca, and Ti). Analysis of the Si gamma ray has been investigated using the 4934 keV Si peak produced by the thermal neutron interaction (28) Si(n,gammag) (29) Si, generated during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays and surface material containing Si. The emission rate of gamma rays is directly proportional to the abundance of Si from the lunar surface; however, it is also affected by the thermal neutron density in the lunar surface. Thus, we corrected the Si GRS data by a low energy neutron data (< 0.1 eV) obtained by Lunar Prospector because the Kaguya orbiter did not carry a neutron detector. We used the relative change in thermal neutron flux as a function of topography measured by Lunar Prospector. Normalization of Si elemental abundance using the Kaguya data was accomplished using Apollo 11, 12, 16, and 17 archive data. The normalized Si elemental abundance of the Kaguya GRS data ranged from about 15 to 27% Si. The lowest and highest SiO _{2} abundance correspond to mineral groups like pyroxene group (PKT region) and feldspar group (Northern highlands), respectively. The Si abundance permits the quantification of the relative abundance and distribution of mafic or non-mafic lunar surfaces materials. Our KGRS data analysis shows that highland terrains are Si-enriched relative to lower basins and plains regions, which appear to consist of primarily of mafic rocks. Our elemental map of Si using Kaguya GRS data shows that the highland areas of both near side and far side of the Moon have higher abundance of Si, and the mare regions of the near side of the Moon have the lowest Si abundance on the Moon. Our study clearly shows that there are a number of Si enriched areas compared to

  13. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of Luna 16 sample of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkov, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.; Sobornov, O. P.; Nazarkina, G. B.; Bachina, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    Using a scintillation gamma spectrometer with shielding against anticoincidences, the content of the natural radioelements (K, U, and Th) and long-lived cosmogenic radioisotopes (Al-26, Na-22, and Mn-54) in a sample of Sea of Fertility regolith was determined. Based on the content data of natural radioelements, an attempt was made to classify this sample in the scale of petrochemical types of terrestrial rocks arranged in accordance with their silicic content and alkalinity. Within the frame of reference of calcium-uranium systematics of lunar samples, a comparison was made of the K/U ratio obtained for the Sea of Fertility sample with analogous data for other regions of the moon. Also discussed are problems on the depthwise distribution of cosmogenic radioisotopes along the regolith profile.

  14. Solar Wind Interaction with Lunar Crustal Magnetic Fields: Relation to Albedo Swirls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Harrison, L.; Halekas, J. S.; Hood, L. L.; Acuna, M. H.; Binder, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer onboard Lunar Prospector has observed the solar wind interaction with remanent crustal magnetic fields at altitudes from 20 to 120 km. This interaction may be responsible for the formation of albedo swirls.

  15. Elemental mapping of the moon using gamma rays : past, present, and future /

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    The energies and intensities of gamma rays From a planetary surface can be used to infer the elemental composition of an object with no or a thin atmosphere. The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers in 1972 and 1973 produced many of the results for the distribution of elements in the Moon that are now generally well accepted. Lunar Prospector in 1998 and 1999 globally mapped the Moon with gamma rays and neutrons. Both missions used spectrometers with poor energy resolution ({approx}8-10%). The Japanese plan to send a high-resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometer to the Moon in about 2004 on their SELENE mission. However, little has been done since the 1970s on the models used to unfold planetary gamma-ray spectra. More work needs to be done on understanding what to expect in future gamma-ray spectra and how to unfold such data.

  16. Estimation of lunar FeO abundance based on imaging by LRO Diviner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiao; Luo, Xiao-Xing; Jiang, Yun; Xu, Ao-Ao; Wang, Zhen-Chao; Zhang, Xue-Wei; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Cai, Wei; Wu, Yun-Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the abundance and distribution characteristics of FeO on the surface of the Moon is important for investigating its evolution. The current high resolution maps of the global FeO abundance are mostly produced with visible and near infrared reflectance spectra. The Christiansen Feature (CF) in mid-infrared has strong sensitivity to lunar minerals and correlates to major elements composing minerals. This paper investigates the possibility of mapping global FeO abundance using the CF values from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. A high correlation between the CF values and FeO abundances from the Apollo samples was found. Based on this high correlation, a new global map (±60°) of FeO was produced using the CF map. The results show that the global FeO average is 8.2 wt.%, the highland average is 4.7 wt.%, the global modal abundance is 5.4 wt.% and the lunar mare mode is 15.7 wt.%. These results are close to those derived from data provided by Clementine, the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer (LP-GRS) and the Chang'e-1 Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIM), demonstrating the feasibility of estimating FeO abundance based on the Diviner CF data. The near global FeO abundance map shows an enrichment of lunar major elements.

  17. Integration and Ruggedization of a Commercially Available Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) for the Resource Prospector Mission (RPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Kathleen; Griffin, Timothy; Captain, Janine

    2013-01-01

    The Resource Prospector is a mission to prospect for lunar volatiles (primarily water) at one of the two lunar poles, as well as demonstrate In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the Moon. The Resource Prospector consists of a lander, a rover, and a rover-borne scientific payload. The Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload, will be able to (1) locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. The gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) is the primary instrument in the RESOLVE instrumentation suite responsible for identification and quantification of the volatiles evolved from the lunar regolith. Specifically, this instrument must have: a low mass, a low power consumption, be able to perform fast analyses of samples ranging from less than one to greater than ninety nine percent water by mass, be autonomously controlled by the payload's software and avionics platform, and be able to operate in the harsh lunar environment. The RPM's short mission duration is the primary driver of the requirement for a very fast analysis time currently base lined at less than 2 minutes per sample. This presentation will discuss the requirements levied upon the GCMS design, lessons learned from a preliminary field demonstration deployment, the current design, and the path forward.

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Geophysics: Rockin' and a-Reelin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This document contained the following topics: The Influence of Tidal, Despinning, and Magma Ocean Cooling Stresses on the Magnitude and Orientation of the Moon#s Early Global Stress Field; New Approach to Development of Moon Rotation Theory; Lunar Core and Tides; Lunar Interior Studies Using Lunar Prospector Line-of-Sight Acceleration Data; A First Crustal Thickness Map of the Moon with Apollo Seismic Data; New Events Discovered in the Apollo Lunar Seismic Data; More Far-Side Deep Moonquake Nests Discovered; and Manifestation of Gas-Dust Streams from Double Stars on Lunar Seismicity.

  19. Sample Acqusition Drilling System for the the Resource Prospector Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; Kleinhenz, J.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Lunar Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) is to capture and identify volatiles species within the top meter of the lunar regolith. The RPM drill has been designed to 1. Generate cuttings and place them on the surface for analysis by the the Near InfraRed Volatiles Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), and 2. Capture cuttings and transfer them to the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) coupled with the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The RPM drill is based on the Mars Icebreaker drill developed for capturing samples of ice and ice cemented ground on Mars. The drill weighs approximately 10 kg and is rated at ~300 Watt. It is a rotary-percussive, fully autonomous system designed to capture cuttings for analysis. The drill consists of: 1. Rotary-Percussive Drill Head, 2. Sampling Auger, 3. Brushing station, 4. Z-stage, 5. Deployment stage. To reduce sample handling complexity, the drill auger is designed to capture cuttings as opposed to cores. High sampling efficiency is possible through a dual design of the auger. The lower section has deep and low pitch flutes for retaining of cuttings. The upper section has been designed to efficiently move the cuttings out of the hole. The drill uses a "bite" sampling approach where samples are captured in ~10 cm intervals. The first generation drill was tested in Mars chamber as well as in Antarctica and the Arctic. It demonstrated drilling at 1-1-100-100 level (1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watt and 100 N Weight on Bit) in ice, ice cemented ground, soil, and rocks. The second generation drill was deployed on a Carnegie Mellon University rover, called Zoe, and tested in Atacama in 2012. The tests demonstrated fully autonomous sample acquisition and delivery to a carousel. The third generation drill was tested in NASA GRC's vacuum chamber, VF13, at 10-5 torr and approximately 200 K. It demonstrated successful capture and transfer of icy samples to a crucible. The drill has been modified and

  20. Regolith Volatile Recovery at Simulated Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Schmidt, Sherry; Boucher, Dale

    2016-01-01

    Lunar Polar Volatiles: Permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles contain water, 5 wt according to LCROSS. Interest in water for ISRU applications. Desire to ground truth water using surface prospecting e.g. Resource Prospector and RESOLVE. How to access subsurface water resources and accurately measure quantity. Excavation operations and exposure to lunar environment may affect the results. Volatile capture tests: A series a ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations. Sample removal and transfer. Volatiles loss during sampling operations. Concept of operations, Instrumentation. This presentation is a progress report on volatiles capture results from these tests with lunar polar drill prototype hardware.

  1. Constraining the source regions of lunar meteorites using orbital geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzada-Diaz, A.; Joy, K. H.; Crawford, I. A.; Nordheim, T. A.

    2015-02-01

    Lunar meteorites provide important new samples of the Moon remote from regions visited by the Apollo and Luna sample return missions. Petrologic and geochemical analysis of these meteorites, combined with orbital remote sensing measurements, have enabled additional discoveries about the composition and age of the lunar surface on a global scale. However, the interpretation of these samples is limited by the fact that we do not know the source region of any individual lunar meteorite. Here, we investigate the link between meteorite and source region on the Moon using the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer remote sensing data set for the elements Fe, Ti, and Th. The approach has been validated using Apollo and Luna bulk regolith samples, and we have applied it to 48 meteorites excluding paired stones. Our approach is able broadly to differentiate the best compositional matches as potential regions of origin for the various classes of lunar meteorites. Basaltic and intermediate Fe regolith breccia meteorites are found to have the best constrained potential launch sites, with some impact breccias and pristine mare basalts also having reasonably well-defined potential source regions. Launch areas for highland feldspathic meteorites are much less well constrained and the addition of another element, such as Mg, will probably be required to identify potential source regions for these.

  2. Abundance and distribution of radioelements in lunar terranes: Results of Chang'E-1 gamma ray spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Ling, Zongcheng; Li, Bo; Zhang, Jiang; Sun, Lingzhi; Liu, Jianzhong

    2016-02-01

    The gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) onboard Chang'E-1 has acquired valuable datasets recording the gamma ray intensities from radioelements (Potassium (K), Thorium (Th) and Uranium (U), etc.) on lunar surface. We extracted the elemental concentrations from the GRS data with spectral fitting techniques and mapped the global absolute abundance of radioelements in terms of the ground truths from lunar samples and meteorites. The obtained global concentration maps of these radioelements indicate heterogeneous distribution among three major lunar crustal terranes (i.e., Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (FHT), and South Pole Aitken Terrane (SPAT)) in relation with their origin and distinct geologic history. The majority of radioelements are restricted in PKT, approving the scenario of KREEP (Potassium (K), rare earth elements (REE), Phosphorus (P)) residua concentrating under the Procellarum region. Moreover, we found the consistency of distribution for radioelements and basalts, concluding that the subsequent volcanism might be associated with local concentrations of radioelements in western Oceanus Procellarum and northwestern South Pole Aitken Basin. The prominent and asymmetric radioactive signatures were confirmed in SPAT comparing to FHT dominated by low level radioactivity, while the magnitudes are much lower than that of PKT, indicating a primary geochemical heterogeneity for the Moon.

  3. Estimation method of planetary fast neutron flux by a Ge gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hareyama, M.; Fujibayashi, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Karouji, Y.; Nagaoka, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Reedy, R. C.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; d'Uston, C.; Kim, K. J.; Hasebe, N.

    2016-08-01

    An intensity map of lunar fast neutrons (LFNs) and their temporal variation has been estimated by fitting "sawtooth" peaks in the energy spectra of lunar gamma rays observed by the Kaguya (SELENE) Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) consisting of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector with a BGO scintillator. While an ordinary peak in the spectrum is produced by only gamma ray lines, the sawtooth peak is produced by gamma ray lines and recoil nuclei in the detector by Ge(n ,n‧ γ) reaction. We develop a model for the shape of the sawtooth peak and apply it to fit sawtooth peaks together with ordinary peaks in actual observed spectra on the Moon. The temporal variation of LFNs is synchronous with that of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), and the global distribution of fast neutrons on the lunar surface agrees well with the past observation reported by the Neutron Spectrometer aboard Lunar Prospector. Based on these results, a new method is established to estimate the flux of fast neutrons by fitting sawtooth peaks on the gamma ray spectrum observed by the HPGe detector.

  4. Cosmic Ray Albedo Proton Yield Correlated with Lunar Elemental Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. K.; Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Blake, J. B.; Golightly, M. J.; Kasper, J. C.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. In general the yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1.1% ± 0.4% higher than the flux from the highlands. In addition there appear to be localized peaks in the albedo proton yield that are co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer. References: [1] Feldman W. C. et al. (1998) Sci-ence, 281, 1496-1500. [2] Gasnault, O. et al. (2001) GRL, 28, 3797-3800. [3] Maurice, S. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E07S04. [4] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483-486. [5] Feldman W. C. et al. (1997) JGR, 102, 25565-25574. [6] Wilson, J. K. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H23.

  5. Resource Prospector Lander: Architecture and Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Josh; Calvert, Derek; Frady, Greg; Chavers, Greg; Wayne, Andrew; Hull, Patrick; Lowery, Eric; Farmer, Jeff; Trinh, Huu; Rojdev, Kristina; Piatek, Irene; Ess, Kim; Vitalpur, Sharada; Dunn, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) is a multi-center and multi-institution collaborative project to investigate the polar regions of the Moon in search of volatiles. The mission is rated Class D and is approximately 10 days. The RP vehicle comprises three elements: the Lander, the Rover, and the Payload. The Payload is housed on the Rover and the Rover is on top of the Lander. The focus of this paper is on the Lander element for the RP vehicle. The design of the Lander was requirements driven and focused on a low-cost approach. To arrive at the final configuration, several trade studies were conducted. Of those trade studies, there were six primary trade studies that were instrumental in determining the final design. This paper will discuss each of these trades in further detail and show how these trades led to the final architecture of the RP Lander.

  6. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  7. Lunar surface chemistry of regions common to the orbital X-ray and gamma-ray experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielefeld, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Concentration ratios of Al/Si and Mg/Si have been determined from the orbital X-ray data for twenty-two regions for which the concentrations of Th, K, Fe, and Mg has previously been specified from orbital gamma-ray data. The strong anticorrelation between Fe and Al seen in returned samples is confirmed for large areas of the lunar surface. The natural radioactivity of the large maria increases from east to west whereas an inverse in true for the aluminum concentration. The difficulty in determining Mg concentrations in each experiment is discussed.

  8. Challenges of Rover Navigation at the Lunar Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara; Deans, Matt; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Edwards, Larry; Dille, Michael; Fong, Terry; Colaprete, Tony; Miller, Scott; Vaughan, Ryan; Andrews, Dan; Allan, Mark; Furlong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Observations from Lunar Prospector, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and other missions have contributed evidence that water and other volatiles exist at the lunar poles in permanently shadowed regions. Combining a surface rover and a volatile prospecting and analysis payload would enable the detection and characterization of volatiles in terms of nature, abundance, and distribution. This knowledge could have impact on planetary science, in-situ resource utilization, and human exploration of space. While Lunar equatorial regions of the Moon have been explored by manned (Apollo) and robotic missions (Lunokhod, Cheng'e), no surface mission has reached the lunar poles.

  9. Analyses of the gamma-ray pulse-height spectra from the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    The method of inferring photon spectra from an analysis of the measured pulse-height spectrum is considered along with the spectrum shape and its variation energy. The case is examined where photoelastic absorption predominates, and Compton scattering and pair production are negligible. The analytic method for obtaining the elemental composition from the observed lunar surface spectrum is described, and theoretical and calculated weight fraction fluxes for average lunar composition are tabulated.

  10. Estimation of lunar major elemental abundances in Chang'E-3 landing site based on Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianmin

    2015-09-01

    Elemental abundance provides an effective vehicle to understand lunar petrologic characteristics and evolutional history. The APXS mounted on the Yutu rover provides a valuable opportunity to determine the major elemental abundances in lunar soil within a short distance. In this study, we processed the APXS spectra including energy calibration, dead time correction and nonlinear least-squares fitting, and determined the abundances of the lunar major elements using the fundamental parameter method. In the calculation of X-ray fluorescence yield, a finite element method (FEM) was employed to improve the accuracy. The major elemental abundances derived from Chang'E-3 (CE-3) APXS possess a good consistency with the result of LP-GRS (Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer) data in the landing region. Compared with the chemical composition of the returned lunar rock samples, we draw the conclusion that the lunar soils in CE-3 landing site are fragments of mare basalts. Our conclusion is supported by the geological map of Mare Imbrium.

  11. Lunar Meteorites Sayh Al Uhaymir 449 and Dhofar 925, 960, and 961: Windows into South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, Ryan A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, three lunar meteorites were collected in close proximity to each other in the Dhofar region of Oman: Dhofar 925 (49 g), Dhofar 960 (35 g), and Dhofar 961 (22 g). In 2006, lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 449 (16.5 g) was found about 100 km to the NE. Despite significant differences in the bulk composition of Dhofar 961 relative to Dhofar 925/960 and SaU 449 (which are identical to each other), these four meteorites are postulated to be paired based on their find locations, bulk composition, and detailed petrographic analysis. Hereafter, they will collectively be referred to as the Dhofar 961 clan. Comparison of meteorite and component bulk compositions to Lunar Prospector 5-degree gamma-ray data suggest the most likely provenance of this meteorite group is within the South Pole-Aitken Basin. As the oldest, largest, and deepest recognizable basin on the Moon, the composition of the material within the SPA basin is of particular importance to lunar science. Here we review and expand upon the geochemistry and petrography of the Dhofar 961 clan and assess the likelihood that these meteorites come from within the SPA basin based on their bulk compositions and the compositions and characteristics of the major lithologic components found within the breccia.

  12. Radiation Dose from Lunar Neutron Albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Bhattacharya, M.; Lin, Zi-Wei; Pendleton, G.

    2006-01-01

    The lunar neutron albedo from thermal energies to 8 MeV was measured on the Lunar Prospector Mission in 1998-1999. Using GEANT4 we have calculated the neutron albedo due to cosmic ray bombardment of the moon and found a good-agreement with the measured fast neutron spectra. We then calculated the total effective dose from neutron albedo of all energies, and made comparisons with the effective dose contributions from both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events to be expected on the lunar surface.

  13. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PROSPECTOR AND FUTURE EXPERT SYSTEMS IN REGIONAL RESOURCE EVALUATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1984-01-01

    PROSPECTOR was developed to aid the geologist in evaluating the mineral potential of a site or an area. Recent developments include enhancements of the existing PROSPECTOR program and the creation of two new programs, muPROSPECTOR and HYDRO. It is predicted that PROSPECTOR and similar programs will develop most rapidly for applications which geologists feel ill-prepared to handle unaided and for focusing on undetected deposits for which more systematic evaluation of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data are required.

  14. Prospecting for Lunar Resources with Global Geochemical and Multispectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    scale, Fe concentration in the near surface has been estimated from data returned by a variety of spacecraft. Iron was one of several elements measured from near equatorial orbits during the Apollo 15 and 16 missions, using gamma ray spectrometry. These data covered approximately 20% of the lunar surface, with spatial resolutions of about 100 km. An improved gamma ray spectrometer and a neutron spectrometer, flown on the Lunar Prospector spacecraft in a polar orbit, provided Fe abundance data for the entire lunar surface, again at a spatial resolution of about 100 km. A technique for iron assessment based on orbital multispectral imaging has been developed. This method correlates Fe abundance to a parameter derived from reflectance values at 750 and900nm. The authors use data from the Clementine spacecraft to map Fe abundances across nearly the entire lunar surface. These data can support identification of Fe-rich regions as small as a few hundred meters across. Researchers find good agreement between gamma-ray/neutron and multispectral Fe determinations for most areas on the Moon. The H-reduction experiments cited above also showed submillimeter volcanic glass beads could be highly desirable feedstocks for lunar O production. Iron-rich species, represented by glassy (orange) and crystalline (black) beads, promise particularly high O yields. Apollo 17 volcanic glass sample 74220, composed predominantly of orange glass beads with an average diameter of 40 mm, contains 17.8 wt% Fe2+. Reduction of this sample yielded 4.3 wt% O, well above the regression line defined by the experiments on 16 lunar soils. Sample 74001 is dominated by black crystalline beads, the isochemical equivalent of orange glasses. Reduction of 74001 yielded 4.7 wt% O, the highest value for any lunar sample. Extensive areas of the lunar surface covered by volcanic glass beads have been delineated using Earth based data and spacecraft orbital photography. Chemical compositions of the deposits have been

  15. Arcsec source location measurements in gamma-ray astronomy from a lunar observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David G.; Hughes, E. B.

    1990-01-01

    The physical processes typically used in the detection of high energy gamma-rays do not permit good angular resolution, which makes difficult the unambiguous association of discrete gamma-ray sources with objects emitting at other wavelengths. This problem can be overcome by placing gamma-ray detectors on the moon and using the horizon as an occulting edge to achieve arcsec resolution. For the purpose of discussion, this concept is examined for gamma rays above about 20 MeV for which pair production dominates the detection process and locally-generated nuclear gamma rays do not contribute to the background.

  16. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  17. Preliminary Radiation Analysis of the Total Ionizing Dose for the Resource Prospector Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Tylka, Allan J.; Atwell, William

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) is a collaborative project between multiple centers and institutions to search for volatiles at the polar regions of the Moon as a potential resource for oxygen and propellant production. The mission is rated Class D and will be the first In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) demonstration on the lunar surface and at the lunar poles. Given that this mission is rated Class D, the project is considering using commercial off the shelf (COTS) electronics parts to reduce cost. However, COTS parts can be more susceptible to space radiation than typical aerospace electronic parts and carry some additional risk. Thus, prior to parts selection, having a better understanding of the radiation environment can assist designers in the parts selection process. The focus of this paper is to provide a preliminary analysis of the radiation environment from launch, through landing on the surface, and some surface stay as an initial step in determining worst case mission doses to assist designers in screening out electronic parts that would not meet the potential dose levels experienced on this mission.

  18. Prospector II: Towards a knowledge base for mineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCammon, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    What began in the mid-seventies as a research effort in designing an expert system to aid geologists in exploring for hidden mineral deposits has in the late eighties become a full-sized knowledge-based system to aid geologists in conducting regional mineral resource assessments. Prospector II, the successor to Prospector, is interactive-graphics oriented, flexible in its representation of mineral deposit models, and suited to regional mineral resource assessment. In Prospector II, the geologist enters the findings for an area, selects the deposit models or examples of mineral deposits for consideration, and the program compares the findings with the models or the examples selected, noting the similarities, differences, and missing information. The models or the examples selected are ranked according to scores that are based on the comparisons with the findings. Findings can be reassessed and the process repeated if necessary. The results provide the geologist with a rationale for identifying those mineral deposit types that the geology of an area permits. In future, Prospector II can assist in the creation of new models used in regional mineral resource assessment and in striving toward an ultimate classification of mineral deposits. ?? 1994 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. Sensitivity of Lunar Resource Economic Model to Lunar Ice Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, Brad; Diaz, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Lunar Prospector mission data indicates sufficient concentration of hydrogen (presumed to be in the form of water ice) to form the basis for lunar in-situ mining activities to provide a source of propellant for near-Earth and solar system transport missions. A model being developed by JPL, Colorado School of Mines, and CSP, Inc. generates the necessary conditions under which a commercial enterprise could earn a sufficient rate of return to develop and operate a LEO propellant service for government and commercial customers. A combination of Lunar-derived propellants, L-1 staging, and orbital fuel depots could make commercial LEO/GEO development, inter-planetary missions and the human exploration and development of space more energy, cost, and mass efficient.

  20. Attempt of Serendipitous Science During the Mojave Volatile Prospector Field Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, T. L.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J.; Lim, D. S. S.; Cook, A.; Elphic, R.; Deans, M.; Fluckiger, L.; Fritzler, E.; Hunt, David

    2015-01-01

    On 23 October a partial solar eclipse occurred across parts of the southwest United States between approximately 21:09 and 23:40 (UT), with maximum obscuration, 36%, occurring at 22:29 (UT). During 21-26 October 2014 the Mojave Volatile Prospector (MVP) field expedition deployed and operated the NASA Ames Krex2 rover in the Mojave desert west of Baker, California (Fig. 1, bottom). The MVP field expedition primary goal was to characterize the surface and sub-surface soil moisture properties within desert alluvial fans, and as a secondary goal to provide mission operations simulations of the Resource Prospector (RP) mission to a Lunar pole. The partial solar eclipse provided an opportunity during MVP operations to address serendipitous science. Science instruments on Krex2 included a neutron spectrometer, a near-infrared spectrometer with associated imaging camera, and an independent camera coupled with software to characterize the surface textures of the areas encountered. All of these devices are focused upon the surface and as a result are downward looking. In addition to these science instruments, two hazard cameras are mounted on Krex2. The chief device used to monitor the partial solar eclipse was the engineering development unit of the Near-Infrared Volatile Spectrometer System (NIRVSS) near-infrared spectrometer. This device uses two separate fiber optic fed Hadamard transform spectrometers. The short-wave and long-wave spectrometers measure the 1600-2400 and 2300-3400 nm wavelength regions with resolutions of 10 and 13 nm, respectively. Data are obtained approximately every 8 seconds. The NIRVSS stares in the opposite direction as the front Krex2.

  1. Search for Correlations Between Crustal Magnetic Fields and Other Lunar Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Halekas, J. S.; Lin, R. P.; Frey, S.; Hood, L. L.

    2002-01-01

    The correlation of surface magnetic fields with other known properties of the Moon can provide clues to the origin of the magnetization. In principle, crustal magnetization can exist anywhere from the surface down to the Curie isotherm (770 C for iron), which is at least several tens of kilometers beneath the surface. Thus, we must search for correlations of the magnetic field with both surface and subsurface properties. The significance of any statistical analysis depends on the amount of data available. The sparse electron reflection data from the Apollo program, which was confined within approximately 35 degrees of the lunar equator and undersampled by a factor of approximately 100, made statistical analysis difficult. With the exception of a linear magnetic feature that follows Rima Sirsalis and a tendency for strong anomalies to occur in association with unusual albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class, no clear-cut association of surface magnetic fields with surface selenological features was found. Lunar Prospector MAG/ER data provide global coverage and improve the sampling of the surface magnetic field by more than an order of magnitude. The power of this new data set was demonstrated in a study of the magnetic properties of lunar nearside geologic units, which clearly showed that Cayley deposits are associated with magnetic anomalies. Another correlation appears to exist between the surface magnetic field and thorium concentration in the region antipodal to the Imbrium basin. Both of these correlations suggest that ejecta from the Imbium impact may be a significant source of anomalies.

  2. RESOLVE for Lunar Polar Ice/Volatile Characterization Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Larson, W. E.; Quinn, J. W.; Colaprete, A.; Picard, M.; Boucher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since data from the neutron spectrometer instrument on the Lunar Prospector mission indicated the possibility of significant concentrations of hydrogen at the lunar poles, speculation on the form and concentration of the hydrogen has been debated. The recent impact of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) along with thermal, topographic, neutron spectrometry, and radar frequency data obtained from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) have provided more information suggesting significant amounts of water/ice and other volatiles may be available in the top 1 to 2 meters of regolith at the lunar poles. The next step in understanding what resources are available at the lunar poles is to perform a mission to obtain ground truth. data. To meet this need, the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) along with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) have been working on a prototype payload known as the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction experiment, or RESOLVE.

  3. Lunar surface outgassing and alpha particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Moore, K. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Belian, Richard D.; Binder, Alan B.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particle?; produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-2 18 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238.

  4. Computer-generated maps of lunar composition from gamma-ray data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Processing of some of the gamma-ray data obtained by Apollo 15 and 16 has been accomplished by analyzing count rates in three energy bands. The count rate variations in the three energy bands are due in various degrees to thorium, uranium, potassium, iron and titanium. The mapping which results from the gamma-ray count rates has an effective resolution of about two degrees. Regions of high titanium content in certain maria, the low values of iron in a zone of the central equatorial highland and the relatively low value of iron near Archimedes are noted.

  5. Lunar polar ice deposits: scientific and utilization objectives of the Lunar Ice Discovery Mission proposal.

    PubMed

    Duke, Michael B

    2002-03-01

    The Clementine mission has revived interest in the possibility that ice exists in shadowed craters near the lunar poles. Theoretically, the problem is complex, with several possible sources of water (meteoroid, asteroid, comet impact), several possible loss mechanisms (impact vaporization, sputtering, photoionization), and burial by meteorite impact. Opinions of modelers have ranged from no ice to several times 10(16) g of ice in the cold traps. Clementine bistatic radar data have been interpreted in favor of the presence of ice, while Arecibo radar data do not confirm its presence. The Lunar Prospector mission, planned to be flown in the fall of 1997, could gather new evidence for the existence of ice. If ice is present, both scientific and utilitarian objectives would be addressed by a lunar polar rover, such as that proposed to the NASA Discovery program, but not selected. The lunar polar rover remains the best way to understand the distribution and characteristics of lunar polar ice. PMID:11902177

  6. Magnetization of the Lunar Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carley, R. A.; Whaler, K. A.; Purucker, M. E.; Halekas, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields measured by the satellite Lunar Prospector show large scale features resulting from remanently magnetized crust. Vector data synthesized at satellite altitude from a spherical harmonic model of the lunar crustal field, and the radial component of the magnetometer data, have been used to produce spatially continuous global magnetization models for the lunar crust. The magnetization is expressed in terms of localized basis functions, with a magnetization solution selected having the smallest root-mean square magnetization for a given fit to the data, controlled by a damping parameter. Suites of magnetization models for layers with thicknesses between 10 and 50 km are able to reproduce much of the input data, with global misfits of less than 0.5 nT (within the uncertainties of the data), and some surface field estimates. The magnetization distributions show robust magnitudes for a range of model thicknesses and damping parameters, however the magnetization direction is unconstrained. These global models suggest that magnetized sources of the lunar crust can be represented by a 30 km thick magnetized layer. Average magnetization values in magnetized regions are 30-40 mA/m, similar to the measured magnetizations of the Apollo samples and significantly weaker than crustal magnetizations for Mars and the Earth. These are the first global magnetization models for the Moon, providing lower bounds on the magnitude of lunar crustal magnetization in the absence of multiple sample returns, and can be used to predict the crustal contribution to the lunar magnetic field at a particular location.

  7. Lunar orbital gamma ray measurements from Apollo 15 and Apollo 16.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Trombka, J. I.; Metzger, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of the data obtained by gamma-ray spectrometers on the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 spacecraft has been carried out in part by summing up broad regions of the energy spectrum. The most instructive of these energy regions is 0.55 to 2.75 MeV, where the difference in count rates observed can be accounted for mainly by variations in the Th, U, and K content of the surface layers. The highest values are found in Mare Imbrium and Oceanus Procellarum, where a good deal of local variation is observed. By contrast, little increase is seen in the eastern maria surveyed compared with count rates in highland areas. The broad highland regions are low in radioactivity, but there is a measurable rise near the southernmost latitude on the far side. In addition to the radioactive lines, gamma-ray lines which can be ascribed to O, Si, Fe, Mg, and Al have been identified.

  8. The Lunar Potential Determination Using Apollo-Era Data and Modern Measurements and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Espley, Jared; Webb, Phillip; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Webb, Phillip; Hills, H. Kent; Delory, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. More recently, the Lunar Prospector (LP) Electron Reflectometer used electron distributions to infer negative lunar surface potentials, primarily in shadow. We will present initial results from a study to combine lunar surface potential measurements from both SIDE and the LP/Electron Reflectometer to calibrate an advanced model of lunar surface charging which includes effects from the plasma environment, photoemission, secondaries ejected by ion impact onto the lunar surface, and the lunar wake created downstream by the solar wind-lunar interaction.

  9. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  10. Direct Observations of Magnetic Anomalies on the Lunar Surface under Varying Solar Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, A.; Wurz, P.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Futaana, Y.; Holmström, M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dhanya, M. B.; Sridharan, R.; Asamura, K.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to Earth, the Moon does not have a global dipolar magnetic field. Since the first lunar landing with Apollo 11, we know, though, that localised magnetic fields exist on the lunar surface. Measurements conducted by the Lunar Prospector magnetometer and electron reflectometer suggested that these localised magnetic fields are able to deflect the impinging solar wind in favourable cases (Lin et al., Science 1998). Magnetohydrodynamic simulations support the implication that mini-magnetospheres are formed above the locations of strong localised magnetic fields and can hold off the impinging solar wind (Harnett and Winglee, JGR 2002). Analysis of magnetic field data from Lunar Prospector of the Reiner Gamma anomaly region showed that the distortion of the magnetic field of this anomaly strongly depends on the impinging solar wind parameters, which was interpreted that the size and shape of the mini-magnetosphere changed with the solar wind parametes (Kurata et al., GRL 2005). Wieser et al., GRL 2010 showed that SARA, the Sub-KeV Atom Analyzer on board Chandrayaan-1, is able to detect an ENA image of the mini-magnetosphere in the measured energetic neutral atom flux. Here we analysed all orbits where CENA, the Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutral Analyzer, recorded data when a magnetic anomaly was in CENA's field-of-view. Our goal was to determine if 1) a signature of the magnetic anomaly is always visible in the ENA signal and if 2) there is a correlation between the solar wind dynamic pressure, the solar wind magnetic field, the local magnetic field strength and the reduction in the reflected ENA flux. Our results show that for the simplest case, i.e., the Gerasimovich anomaly, there is indeed a clear correlation between the shielding efficiency, the magnetic field strength and the solar wind dynamic pressure. For the other observed magnetic anomalies, for which the magnetic fields are not only weaker but also spatially more variable than that of the

  11. Elemental compositions and ages of lunar samples by nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    O'kelley, G D; Eldridge, J S; Schonfeld, E; Bell, P R

    1970-01-30

    A gamma-ray spectrometry system with low background was used to determine the radioactivity of crystalline rocks, breccias, and fine material. Nuclides identified were (40)K, (232)Th, (238)U, (7)Be, (22)Na (26)A1, (44)Ti, (46)Sc, (48)V, (52)Mn, (54)Mn, and (56)Co. Concentrations of K, Th, and U ranged between 480 and 2550, 1.01 and 3.30, and 0.26 and 0.83 parts per million, respectively. Concentrations of thorium and uranium were those of terrestrial basalts, while the potassium concentrations were near values for chondrites. Products of low-energy nuclear reactions showed pronounced concentration gradients at rock surfaces. Concentrations of K and of (22)Na determined here were combined with concentrations of rare gases to estimate gas-retention ages and cosmic-ray exposure ages with ranges of 2200 to 3200 and 34 to 340 million years, respectively, for three rocks. PMID:17781504

  12. Bounding Extreme Spacecraft Charging in the Lunar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda N.

    2008-01-01

    Robotic and manned spacecraft from the Apollo era demonstrated that the lunar surface in daylight will charge to positive potentials of a few tens of volts because the photoelectron current dominates the charging process. In contrast, potentials of the lunar surface in darkness which were predicted to be on the order of a hundred volts negative in the Apollo era have been shown more recently to reach values of a few hundred volts negative with extremes on the order of a few kilovolts. The recent measurements of night time lunar surface potentials are based on electron beams in the Lunar Prospector Electron Reflectometer data sets interpreted as evidence for secondary electrons generated on the lunar surface accelerated through a plasma sheath from a negatively charged lunar surface. The spacecraft potential was not evaluated in these observations and therefore represents a lower limit to the magnitude of the lunar negative surface potential. This paper will describe a method for obtaining bounds on the magnitude of lunar surface potentials from spacecraft measurements in low lunar orbit based on estimates of the spacecraft potential. We first use Nascap-2k surface charging analyses to evaluate potentials of spacecraft in low lunar orbit and then include the potential drops between the ambient space environment and the spacecraft to the potential drop between the lunar surface and the ambient space environment to estimate the lunar surface potential from the satellite measurements.

  13. The Imbrium and Serenitatis Basins: Impacts in an Anomalous Lunar Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Mark A.; Haskin, Larry A.; Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Brad L.; Phillips, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent geophysical analyses of the Imbrium and Serenitatis Basins suggest that the crustal structure beneath these basins is highly anomalous. Specifically, Imbrium and Serenitatis appear to have only excavated material from shallow crustal depths, whereas proportional scaling laws (valid for basins at least as large as Crisium) predict that the entire crustal column, as well as a small fraction of mantle material, should have been excavated during these events. Gamma-ray data from the Apollo and Lunar Prospector missions suggest that the Imbrium and Serenitatis Basins lie within (or on the boundary of) an anomalous nearside high-Th geochemical province. We believe that the anomalous crustal structure associated with the Imbrium and Serenitatis Basins is directly related to these impacts occurring within this anomalous region of the lunar crust. We postulate that the high-Th geochemical province is a manifestation of the final stages of cooling of a global "magma ocean" and that a residual KREEP-rich magma body was located beneath the crust in this region approximately 3.9 Ga. An impact into this province at this time would have led to voluminous KREEP-basalt volcanism (filling in the excavation cavity of these basins), and the dispersal of KREEP-rich ejecta (the Th-rich mafic impact melt breccias). The next two sections discuss our motivation for postulating such a scenario from both the geophysical and geochemical perspective. Following this discussion we expand the hypothesis presented above and end with a list of testable predictions. .

  14. User's Guide Virtual Hydropower Prospector Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall; Sera E. White; Julie A. Brizzee; Randy D. Lee

    2005-11-01

    The Virtual Hydropower Prospector is a web-based geographic information system (GIS) application for displaying U.S. water energy resource sites on hydrologic region maps. The application assists the user in locating sites of interest and performing preliminary, development feasibility assessments. These assessments are facilitated by displaying contextual features in addition to the water energy resource sites such as hydrograpy, roads, power infrastructure, populated places, and land use and control. This guide provides instructions for operating the application to select what features are displayed and the extent of the map view. It also provides tools for selecting features of particular interest and displaying their attribute information.

  15. The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S.; French, R.; Nall, M.; Muery, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) is managing the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling tools and data products that support lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test, and operations associated with crewed and/or robotic operations on the lunar surface. In addition, LMMP should prove to be a convenient and useful tool for scientific analysis and for education and public outreach (E/PO) activities. LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, and Chandrayaan-1) as available and appropriate. LMMP will provide such products as image mosaics, DEMs, hazard assessment maps, temperature maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. A beta version of the LMMP software was released for limited distribution in December 2009, with the public release of version 1 expected in the Fall of 2010.

  16. COMBINED GAMMA-RAY AND NEUTRON DETECTOR FOR MEASURING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AIRLESS PLANETARY BODIES.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David J. ,; Barraclough, B. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Wiens, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) constant1,y itnpinge all planetary bodies and produce characteristic gamma-ray lines and leakage neutrons as reaction products. Together with gamma-ray lines produced by radioactive decay, these nuclear emissions provide a powerful technique for remotely measuring the chemical composition of airless planetary surfaces. While lunar gamma-ray spectroscopy was first demonstrated with Apollo Gamma-Ray measurements, the full value of combined gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy was shown for the first time with the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray (LP-GRS) and Neutron Spectrometers (LP-NS). Any new planetary mission will likely have the requirement that instrument mass and power be kept to a minimum. To satisfy such requirements, we have been designing a GR/NS instrument which combines all the functionality of the LP-GRS and LP-NS for a fraction of the mass and power. Specifically, our design uses a BGO scintillator crystal to measure gamma-rays from 0.5-10 MeV. A borated plastic scintillator and a lithium gliiss scintillator are used to separately measure thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons as well as serve as an anticoincidence shield for the BGO. All three scintillators are packaged together in a compact phoswich design. Modifications to this design could include a CdZnTe gamma-ray detector for enhanced energy resolution at low energies (0.5-3 MeV). While care needs to be taken to ensure that an adequate count rate is achieved for specific mission designs, previous mission successes demonstrate that a cornbined GR/NS provides essential information about planetary surfaces.

  17. Planetary Geochemistry Using Active Neutron and Gamma Ray Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Pulsed Neutron Generator-Gamma Ray And Neutron Detector (PNG-GRAND) experiment is an innovative application of the active neutron-gamma ray technology so successfully used in oil field well logging and mineral exploration on Earth, The objective of our active neutron-gamma ray technology program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is to bring the PNG-GRAND instrument to the point where it can be flown on a variety of surface lander or rover missions to the Moon, Mars, Venus, asterOIds, comets and the satellites of the outer planets, Gamma-Ray Spectrometers have been incorporated into numerous orbital planetary science missions and, especially in the case of Mars Odyssey, have contributed detailed maps of the elemental composition over the entire surface of Mars, Neutron detectors have also been placed onboard orbital missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Prospector to measure the hydrogen content of the surface of the moon, The DAN in situ experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory not only includes neutron detectors, but also has its own neutron generator, However, no one has ever combined the three into one instrument PNG-GRAND combines a pulsed neutron generator (PNG) with gamma ray and neutron detectors to produce a landed instrument that can determine subsurface elemental composition without drilling. We are testing PNG-GRAND at a unique outdoor neutron instrumentation test facility recently constructed at NASA/GSFC that consists of a 2 m x 2 m x 1 m granite structure in an empty field, We will present data from the operation of PNG-GRAND in various experimental configurations on a known sample in a geometry that is identical to that which can be achieved on a planetary surface. We will also compare the material composition results inferred from our experiments to both an independent laboratory elemental composition analysis and MCNPX computer modeling results,

  18. Lunar cryptomaria: Mineralogy and composition of ancient volcanic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, Jennifer; Head, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Ancient lunar volcanic deposits, known as cryptomaria, have been detected by remote telescopic and orbital measurements since the 1970s. Cryptomaria are most easily identified by the presence of dark-halo impact craters and are associated with a mare basalt mineralogy, which is indicated by two pyroxene spectral absorption features near 1 μm and 2 μm in the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths. However, there are many early igneous lithologies that have been identified in the Apollo sample collection that have a similar VNIR spectral signal, implying a pyroxene-dominant mineralogy. In this study we use high resolution Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) VNIR spectral data and the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) to determine cryptomare mineralogy as well as Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer (LP GRS) FeO and Th compositional measurements to evaluate which ancient igneous rocks (e.g., low-Ti mare basalt, high-Ti mare basalt, Mg-suite rocks, dunite, high-Al mare basalt, KREEP basalt) are consistent with our mineralogical observations. In addition, spectra from different M3 optical periods were compared to determine how the MGM-derived absorption band centers vary between datasets. Band center differences between optical periods are on the order of ~6±4 nm and ~25±10 nm for the 1 μm and 2 μm features, respectively. Cryptomare mineralogies are dominated by clinopyroxene and are consistent with measurements from locally exposed mare basalts. LP GRS measurements support a mare basalt rock type when regolith mixing is taken into account.

  19. The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal: Capabilities and Lunar Data Products to support Return to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, E.; Bui, B.; Chang, G.; Goodale, C. E.; Kim, R.; Malhotra, S.; Ramirez, P.; Rodriguez, L.; Sadaqathulla, S.; Nall, M.; Muery, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a multi-center project led by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LMMP is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable lunar scientists, engineers, and mission planners to access mapped lunar data products from past and current lunar missions, e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Lunar Prospector, and Clementine. The Portal allows users to search, view and download a vast number of the most recent lunar digital products including image mosaics, digital elevation models, and in situ lunar resource maps such as iron and hydrogen abundance. The Portal also provides a number of visualization and analysis tools that perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution. In this talk, we will give a brief overview of the project. After that, we will highlight various key features and Lunar data products. We will further demonstrate image viewing and layering of lunar map images via our web portal as well as mobile devices.

  20. Design of a Particle Beam Satellite System for Lunar Prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berwald, D. H.; Nordin, P.

    1993-01-01

    One potential use for neutral particle beam (NPB) technology is as an active orbital probe to investigate the composition of selected locations on the lunar surface. Because the beam is narrow and can be precisely directed, the NPB probe offers possibilities for high resolution experiments that cannot be accomplished using passive techniques. Rather, the combination of both passive and active techniques can be used to provide both full-coverage mapping (passively) at low resolution (tens of kilometers) and high-resolution information for discrete locations of special interest. A preliminary study of NPB applicability for this dual-use application was recently conducted. The study was completed in Feb. 1993. A novel feature was the consideration of the use of a Russian launch vehicle (e.g., the Proton). The use of other Russian space hardware and capabilities was also encouraged. This paper describes the lunar prospector system design. Other researchers discuss the issues and opportunities involving lunar scientific experimentation using an NPB. The NPB lunar prospector utilizes a modified design of the Far Field Optics Experiment (FOX). Like the Earth-orbiting FOX, the core capability of the NPB lunar prospector will be a pulsed RF LINAC that produces a 5-MeV proton beam that is projected to the target with a 30-micro-r beam divergence and a 10-micro-r beam-pointing accuracy. Upon striking the lunar surface, the proton beam will excite characteristic radiation (e.g., X-rays) that can be sensed by one or more detectors on the NPB platform or on a separate detector satellite.

  1. Seismic shaking effects on grain size and density sorting with implications for constraining lunar regolith bulk composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrach, L. R.; Robinson, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Different remote sensing techniques measure different depths within the lunar regolith, and measurements of the optical surface may not accurately represent the regolith mixture beneath the surface, even at a few centimeters depth. For example, ilmenite (FeTiO3) is a high-density oxide that is sometimes abundant in lunar samples [1]. Compositional information derived from Clementine UVVIS spectral reflectance, which assumes that ilmenite is the dominant opaque in mare basalts and the primary carrier of titanium, uses ilmenite absorptions in the UV as a proxy for titanium abundance [e.g., 2]. The UVVIS titanium estimates do not match well with those measured by the Lunar Prospector neutron/gamma-ray spectrometers [3]; UVVIS reflectance is controlled by only the top few microns while the neutron spectrometer senses to a depth greater than 10 cm. The goal of this investigation is to determine whether the lunar regolith may exhibit compositional sorting at the optical surface (few 100 μm) compared to the subsurface (10 cm). Regolith samples from the Apollo missions reveal that relative concentrations of ferromagnesian minerals, such as ilmenite, decrease with decreasing grain size and different minerals are thought to comminute at different rates [4]. These observations suggest that ilmenite may persist in larger grain size fractions than other regolith components. We investigate the possibility of mechanical sorting of the topmost layer of regolith such that denser particles preferentially sink. Mechanical sorting of the regolith may occur in two different regimes: 1) during ejecta emplacement following an impact event of any size, and 2) as a result of seismic disturbance created by nearby impacts or moonquakes. We created an experimental procedure to mimic seismic shaking, which may be a primary process promoting density-driven mechanical sorting of particles within the regolith. We tested a vertical shaking regime and horizontal shaking tests are in progress

  2. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  3. Field Testing Near-IR and Neutron Spectrometer Prospecting: Applications to Resource Prospector on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Deans, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    While we know there are volatiles sequestered at the poles of the Moon, the detailed 3-D distribution, abundance, and physical and chemical form are largely unknown. The next giant leap, Resource Prospector (RP), will use landed assets to fully characterize the volatile composition and distribution at scales of tens to hundreds of meters. To achieve this range of scales, mobility is required. Near real-time operation of surface assets is desirable, with a concept of operations very different from that of rovers on Mars. For RP, new operational approaches are required to carry out real-time robotic exploration. The Mojave Volatiles Project (MVP) is a Moon- Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) program effort aimed at (1) determining effective approaches to operating a real-time but short-duration lunar surface robotic mission, and (2) performing prospecting science in a natural setting, as a test of these approaches. Here we describe some results from the first such test, carried out in the Mojave Desert between 16 and 24 October, 2014. The test site was an alluvial fan just E of the Soda Mountains, SW of Baker, California. This site contains desert pavements, ranging from the late Pleistocene to early-Holocene in age. These pavements are dissected by the ongoing development of washes. A principal objective was to determine the hydration state of different types of desert pavement and bare ground features. The mobility element of the test was the KREX-2 rover, designed and operated by the Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center.

  4. Thorium abundances of basalt ponds in South Pole-Aitken basin: Insights into the composition and evolution of the far side lunar mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagerty, J.J.; Lawrence, D.J.; Hawke, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Imbrian-aged basalt ponds, located on the floor of South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, are used to provide constraints on the composition and evolution of the far side lunar mantle. We use forward modeling of the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer thorium data, to suggest that at least five different and distinct portions of the far side lunar mantle contain little or no thorium as of the Imbrian Period. We also use spatial correlations between local thorium enhancements and nonmare material on top of the basalt ponds to support previous assertions that lower crustal materials exposed in SPA basin have elevated thorium abundances, consistent with noritic to gabbronoritic lithologies. We suggest that the lower crust on the far side of the Moon experienced multiple intrusions of thorium-rich basaltic magmas, prior to the formation of SPA basin. The fact that many of the ponds on the lunar far side have elevated titanium abundances indicates that the far side of the Moon experienced extensive fractional crystallization that likely led to the formation of a KREEP-like component. However, because the Imbrian-aged basalts contain no signs of elevated thorium, we propose that the SPA impact event triggered the transport of a KREEP-like component from the lunar far side and concentrated it on the nearside of the Moon. Because of the correlation between basaltic ponds and basins within SPA, we suggest that Imbrian-aged basaltic volcanism on the far side of the Moon was driven by basin-induced decompressional melting. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Field Testing Near-IR and Neutron Spectrometer Prospecting: Applications to Resource Prospector on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Deans, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    The Resource Prospector payload includes a near-infrared spectrometer and neutron spectrometer for surficial and near-surface volatile prospecting. Here we describe results from a field test in the Mojave Desert using the two instruments.

  6. Integration of Lunar Polar Remote-Sensing Data Sets: Evidence for Ice at the Lunar South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, Stewart; Spudis, Paul D.; Robinson, Mark S.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Lichtenberg, Chris; Bonner, Robert

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of ice deposits at the lunar south pole, we have integrated all relevant lunar polar data sets. These include illumination data, Arecibo ground-based monostatic radar data, newly processed Clementine bistatic radar data, and Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer measurements. The possibility that the lunar poles harbor ice deposits has important implications not only as a natural resource for future human lunar activity but also as a record of inner solar system volatiles (e.g., comets and asteroids) over the past billion years or more. We find that the epithermal neutron flux anomalies, measured by Lunar Prospector, are coincident with permanently shadowed regions at the lunar south pole, particularly those associated with Shackleton crater. Furthermore, these areas also correlate with the beta=0 circular polarization ratio (CPR) enhancements revealed by new processing of Clementine bistatic radar echoes, which in turn are colocated with areas of anomalous high CPR observed by Arecibo Observatory on the lower, Sun-shadowed wall of Shackleton crater. Estimates of the extent of high CPR from Arecibo Observatory and Clementine bistatic radar data independently suggest that approximately 10 square kilometers of ice may be present on the inner Earth-facing wall of Shackleton crater. None of the experiments that obtained the data presented here were ideally suited for definitively identifying ice in lunar polar regions. By assessing the relative merits of all available data, we find that it is plausible that ice does occur in cold traps at the lunar south pole and that future missions with instruments specifically designed to investigate these anomalies are worthy.

  7. NASA Propulsion Sub-System Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's exploration roadmap is focused on developing technologies and performing precursor missions to advance the state of the art for eventual human missions to Mars. One of the key components of this roadmap is various robotic missions to Near-Earth Objects, the Moon, and Mars to fill in some of the strategic knowledge gaps. The Resource Prospector (RP) project is one of these robotic precursor activities in the roadmap. RP is a multi-center and multi-institution project to investigate the polar regions of the Moon in search of volatiles. The mission is rated Class D and is approximately 10 days, assuming a five day direct Earth to Moon transfer. Because of the mission cost constraint, a trade study of the propulsion concepts was conducted with a focus on available low-cost hardware for reducing cost in development, while technical risk, system mass, and technology advancement requirements were also taken into consideration. The propulsion system for the lander is composed of a braking stage providing a high thrust to match the lander's velocity with the lunar surface and a lander stage performing the final lunar descent. For the braking stage, liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems, derived from the Morpheus experimental lander, and storable bi-propellant systems, including the 4th stage Peacekeeper (PK) propulsion components and Space Shuttle orbital maneuvering engine (OME), and a solid motor were considered for the study. For the lander stage, the trade study included miniaturized Divert Attitude Control System (DACS) thrusters (Missile Defense Agency (MDA) heritage), their enhanced thruster versions, ISE-100 and ISE-5, and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. The lowest cost configuration of using the solid motor and the PK components while meeting the requirements was selected. The reference concept of the lander is shown in Figure 1. In the current reference configuration, the solid stage is the primary provider of delta

  8. Lunar Ion Transport Near Magnetic Anomalies: Possible Implications for Swirl Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Killen, R. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    The bright swirling features on the lunar surface in areas around the Moon but most prominently at Reiner Gamma, have intrigued scientists for many years. After Apollo and later Lunar Prospector (LP} mapped the Lunar magnetic fields from orbit, it was observed that these features are generally associated with crustal magnetic anomalies. This led researchers to propose a number of explanations for the swirls that invoke these fields. Prominent among these include magnetic shielding in the form of a mini-magnetosphere which impedes space weathering by the solar wind, magnetically controlled dust transport, and cometary or asteroidal impacts that would result in shock magnetization with concomitant formation ofthe swirls. In this presentation, we will consider another possibility, that the ambient magnetic and electric fields can transport and channel secondary ions produced by micrometeorite or solar wind ion impacts. In this scenario, ions that are created in these impacts are under the influence of these fields and can drift for significant distances before encountering the magnetic anomalies when their trajectories are disrupted and concentrated onto nearby areas. These ions may then be responsible for chemical alteration of the surface leading either to a brightening effect or a disruption of space weathering processes. To test this hypothesis we have run ion trajectory simulations that show ions from regions about the magnetic anomalies can be channeled into very small areas near the anomalies and although questions remain as to nature of the mechanisms that could lead to brightening of the surface it appears that the channeling effect is consistent with the existence of the swirls.

  9. A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON OF LUNAR ORBITAL NEUTRON DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Eke, V. R.; Teodoro, L. F. A.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.

    2012-03-01

    Data from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) Collimated Sensors for Epithermal Neutrons (CSETN) are used in conjunction with a model based on results from the Lunar Prospector (LP) mission to quantify the extent of the background in the LEND CSETN. A simple likelihood analysis implies that at least 90% of the lunar component of the LEND CSETN flux results from high-energy epithermal (HEE) neutrons passing through the walls of the collimator. Thus, the effective FWHM of the LEND CSETN field of view is comparable to that of the omni-directional LP Neutron Spectrometer. The resulting map of HEE neutrons offers the opportunity to probe the hydrogen abundance at low latitudes and to provide constraints on the distribution of lunar water.

  10. Lunar Polar Cold Traps: Spatial Distribution and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, David A.; Siegler, M.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2006-09-01

    We have developed a ray-tracing and radiosity model that can accurately calculate lunar surface and subsurface temperatures for arbitrary topography. Using available digital elevation models for the lunar north and south polar regions derived from Clementine laser altimeter and image data, as well as ground-based radar data, we have calculated lunar surface and subsurface temperatures at 2 km resolution that include full effects of indirect solar and infrared radiation due to topography. We compare our thermal model results with maps of epithermal neutron flux measured by Lunar Prospector. When we use the ray tracing and thermal model to account for the effects of temperature and topography on the neutron measurements, our results show that the majority of the moon's polar cold traps are not filled with water ice.

  11. Rover Traverse Planning to Support a Lunar Polar Volatiles Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, J.L.; Colaprete, A.C.; Elphic, R. C.; Bussey, B.; McGovern, A.; Beyer, R.; Lees, D.; Deans, M. C.; Otten, N.; Jones, H.; Wettergreen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of lunar polar volatile depositsare of interest for scientific purposes to understandthe nature and evolution of the volatiles, and alsofor exploration reasons as a possible in situ resource toenable long term exploration and settlement of theMoon. Both theoretical and observational studies havesuggested that significant quantities of volatiles exist inthe polar regions, although the lateral and horizontaldistribution remains unknown at the km scale and finerresolution. A lunar polar rover mission is required tofurther characterize the distribution, quantity, andcharacter of lunar polar volatile deposits at thesehigher spatial resolutions. Here we present two casestudies for NASA’s Resource Prospector (RP) missionconcept for a lunar polar rover and utilize this missionarchitecture and associated constraints to evaluatewhether a suitable landing site exists to support an RPflight mission.

  12. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and

  13. Perspective Lunar exploration instrumentation based on the methods of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrousov, M.; Kozyrev, A.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Sanin, A.; Tretyakov, V.; Vostrukhin, A.

    2009-04-01

    that 100 times smaller by the area of footprint) than presently available maps from the Lunar Prospector mission. Such high spatial resolution of surface composition is necessary for planning future landing missions for experiments of utilization of lunar resources. Another future instrument for nuclear measurements will be presented for future Lunokhod (Moon rover) mission. This instrument uses neutron activation and neutron logging methods for subsurface exploration. It is farther development of the concept of DAN/MSL instrument. One of the main benefits of the suggested instrument is active neutron generator, which allow to generate pulses with high intensity of high energy neutrons (up to 10e7-10e8 neutrons per pulse) in a very short time scale (1-2 microseconds). This neutron activation technique can be used in the similar way as it is already done on Earth for various geological applications. Such instrument, as the combination of neutron generator with neutron detectors and gamma-ray spectrometer, shall be able to measure die-away time profiles of induced neutron and gamma-ray emission. Very high counting rate immediately after a neutron pulse imposes very strict requirements for the primary read-out electronics concerning fast signal processing. Results of measurements will be recorded in different spectral channels for time intervals of die-away curves for gamma-rays and neutrons. By detailed analysis of these curves one may estimate the presence and depth distribution of hydrogen-rich minerals (from the neutron data) and depth distribution of soil-constituting elements (from the gamma-ray data).

  14. Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, T. K. P.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the first lunar mapping program ended in the 1970s, new topographical, multispectral, elemental and albedo imaging datasets have become available (e.g., Clementine, Lunar Prospector, Galileo). Lunar science has also advanced within the intervening time period. A new systematic lunar geologic mapping effort endeavors to build on the success of earlier mapping programs by fully integrating the many disparate datasets using GIS software and bringing to bear the most current understanding of lunar geologic history. As part of this program, we report on a 1:2,500,000-scale preliminary map of a subset of Lunar Quadrangle 10 ("LQ-10" or the "Marius Quadrangle," see Figures 1 and 2), and discuss the first-order science results. By generating a geologic map of this region, we can constrain the stratigraphic and geologic relationships between features, revealing information about the Moon s chemical and thermal evolution.

  15. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  16. Connecting Lunar Meteorites to Source Terrains on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Carpenter, P. K.; Korotev, R. L.; North-Valencia, S. N.; Wittmann, A.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    The number of named stones found on Earth that have proven to be meteorites from the Moon is approx. 180 so far. Since the Moon has been mapped globally in composition and mineralogy from orbit, it has become possible to speculate broadly on the region of origin on the basis of distinctive compositional characteristics of some of the lunar meteorites. In particular, Lunar Prospector in 1998 [1,2] mapped Fe and Th at 0.5 degree/pixel and major elements at 5 degree/pixel using gamma ray spectroscopy. Also, various multispectral datasets have been used to derive FeO and TiO2 concentrations at 100 m/pixel spatial resolution or better using UV-VIS spectral features [e.g., 3]. Using these data, several lunar meteorite bulk compositions can be related to regions of the Moon that share their distinctive compositional characteristics. We then use EPMA to characterize the petrographic characteristics, including lithic clast components of the meteorites, which typically are breccias. In this way, we can extend knowledge of the Moon's crust to regions beyond the Apollo and Luna sample-return sites, including sites on the lunar farside. Feldspathic Regolith Breccias. One of the most distinctive general characteristics of many lunar meteorites is that they have highly feldspathic compositions (Al2O3 approx. 28% wt.%, FeO <5 wt.%, Th <1 ppm). These compositions are significant because they are similar to a vast region of the Moon's farside highlands, the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane, which are characterized by low Fe and Th in remotely sensed data [4]. The meteorites provide a perspective on the lithologic makeup of this part of the Moon, specifically, how anorthositic is the surface and what, if any, are the mafic lithic components? These meteorites are mostly regolith breccias dominated by anorthositic lithic clasts and feldspathic glasses, but they do also contain a variety of more mafic clasts. On the basis of textures, we infer these clasts to have formed by large impacts

  17. The great lunar hot spot and the composition and origin of the Apollo mafic (``LKFM'') impact-melt breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    2000-02-01

    Thorium-rich, mafic impact-melt breccias from the Apollo 14-17 missions, that is, those breccias identified with the composition known as ``LKFM,'' are regarded largely as products of basin-forming impacts that penetrated the feldspathic crust and sampled underlying mafic material and magma-ocean residuum carrying the compositional signature of KREEP (potassium, rare earth elements, phosphorous). Despite considerable compositional variation among such breccias, compositions of all of them correspond to mixtures of only four components: (1) a norite with composition generally similar to that of Apollo 15 basalt (mean abundance: 58% range: ~30-95%), (2) Fo~90 dunite (mean: 13%, range: 1-27%), (3) feldspathic upper crust (mean: 29%, range: 4-50%), and FeNi metal (0.1-1.7%). Petrographic evidence has shown that much of the feldspathic component, but none of the KREEP component, is clastic. This observation and the high proportion of KREEP norite component in the breccias suggest that the melt zone of the impact or impacts forming the breccias contained little feldspathic material but consisted predominantly of material with the average composition of KREEP norite. The dunite component probably derives ultimately from the upper mantle. These conclusions support the hypothesis that the breccias were not formed in typical feldspathic crust but instead by one or more impacts into what is designated here ``the great lunar hot spot,'' that is, the anomalous Th-rich terrane in the Imbrium-Procellarum area identified by the Apollo and Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometers. The LKFM composition is a special product of the great lunar hot spot and is not the average composition of the lower crust in typical feldspathic highlands. Similarly, Mg-suite and alkali-suite plutonic rocks of the Apollo collection are likely all differentiation products of the hot spot, not of plutons that might occur in typical feldspathic crust.

  18. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  19. Global Maps of Lunar Neutron Fluxes from the LEND Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sanin, A.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mazarico, E.; Milikh, G.; Neumann, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The latest neutron spectrometer measurements with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) are presented. It covers more than 1 year of mapping phase starting on 15 September 2009. In our analyses we have created global maps showing regional variations in the flux of thermal (energy range < 0.015 eV) and fast neutrons (>0.5 MeV), and compared these fluxes to variances in soil elemental composition, and with previous results obtained by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS). We also processed data from LEND collimated detectors and derived a value for the collimated signal of epithermal neutrons based on the comparative analysis with the LEND omnidirectional detectors. Finally, we have compared our final (after the data reduction) global epithermal neutron map with LPNS data.

  20. THE FIRST LUNAR MAP OF THE AVERAGE SOIL ATOMIC MASS

    SciTech Connect

    O. GASNAULT; W. FELDMAN; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of indexes of lunar surface composition were successfully made during Lunar Prospector (LP) mission, using the Neutron Spectrometers (NS) [1]. This capability is demonstrated for fast neutrons in Plates 1 of Maurice et al. [2] (similar to Figure 2 here). Inspection shows a clear distinction between mare basalt (bright) and highland terranes [2]. Fast neutron simulations demonstrate the sensitivity of the fast neutron leakage flux to the presence of iron and titanium in the soil [3]. The dependence of the flux to a third element (calcium or aluminum) was also suspected [4]. We expand our previous work in this study by estimating fast neutron leakage fluxes for a more comprehensive set of assumed lunar compositions. We find a strong relationship between the fast neutron fluxes and the average soil atomic mass: . This relation can be inverted to provide a map of from the measured map of fast neutrons from the Moon.

  1. Water Energy Resource Data from Idaho National Laboratory's Virtual Hydropower Prospector

    DOE Data Explorer

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hydropower Program is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will improve the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower and provide cost-competitive technologies that enable the development of new and incremental hydropower capacity, adding diversity to the nation's energy supply. The Virtual Hydropower Prospector is a GIS application to locate and evaluate natural stream water energy resources. In the interactive data map the U.S. is divided into 20 hydrologic regions. The Prospector tool applies an analytical process to determine the gross power potential of these regions and helps users to site potential hydropower projects.

  2. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential

  3. New lunar meteorite Northwest Africa 2996: A window into farside lithologies and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Treiman, Allan H.; Joy, Katherine H.

    2013-02-01

    The Northwest Africa (NWA) 2996 meteorite is a lunar regolith breccia with a "mingled" bulk composition and slightly elevated incompatible element content. NWA 2996 is dominated by clasts of coarse-grained noritic and troctolitic anorthosite containing calcic plagioclase (An#~98) and magnesian mafic minerals (Mg#~75), distinguishing it from Apollo ferroan anorthosites and magnesian-suite rocks. This meteorite lacks basalt, and owes its mingled composition to a significant proportion of coarse-grained mafic clasts. One group of mafic clasts has pyroxenes similar to anorthosites, but contains more sodic plagioclase (An#~94) distinguishing it as a separate lithology. Another group contains Mg-rich, very low-titanium pyroxenes, and could represent an intrusion parental to regional basalts. Other clasts include granophyric K-feldspar, disaggregated phosphate-bearing quartz monzodiorites, and alkali-suite fragments (An#~65). These evolved lithics are a minor component, but contain minerals rich in incompatible elements. Several anorthosite clasts contain clusters of apatite, suggesting that the anorthosites either assimilated evolved rocks or were metasomatized by a liquid rich in incompatible elements. We used Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer remote sensing data to show that NWA 2996 is most similar to regoliths in and around the South Pole Aitken (SPA) basin, peripheral regions of eastern mare, Nectaris, Crisium, and southern areas of Mare Humorum. However, the mineralogy of NWA 2996 is distinctive compared with Apollo and Luna mission samples, and is likely consistent with an origin near the SPA basin: anorthosite clasts could represent local crustal material, mafic clasts could represent intrusions beneath basalt flows, and apatite-bearing rocks could carry the SPA KREEP signature.

  4. Lunar surface radioactivity - Preliminary results of the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Peterson, L. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometers on the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 missions have been used to map the moon's radioactivity over 20 percent of its surface. The highest levels of natural radioactivity are found in Mare Imbrium and Oceanus Procellarum with contrastingly lower enhancements in the eastern maria. The ratio of potassium to uranium is higher on the far side than on the near side, although it is everywhere lower than commonly found on the earth.

  5. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  6. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  7. The JPL lunar gravity field to spherical harmonic degree 660 from the GRAIL Primary Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopliv, Alex S.; Park, Ryan S.; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Asmar, Sami W.; Watkins, Michael M.; Williams, James G.; Fahnestock, Eugene; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Strekalov, Dmitry; Harvey, Nate; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2013-07-01

    The lunar gravity field and topography provide a way to probe the interior structure of the Moon. Prior to the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, knowledge of the lunar gravity was limited mostly to the nearside of the Moon, since the farside was not directly observable from missions such as Lunar Prospector. The farside gravity was directly observed for the first time with the SELENE mission, but was limited to spherical harmonic degree n ≤ 70. The GRAIL Primary Mission, for which results are presented here, dramatically improves the gravity spectrum by up to ~4 orders of magnitude for the entire Moon and for more than 5 orders-of-magnitude over some spectral ranges by using interspacecraft measurements with near 0.03 μm/s accuracy. The resulting GL0660B (n = 660) solution has 98% global coherence with topography to n = 330, and has variable regional surface resolution between n = 371 (14.6 km) and n = 583 (9.3 km) because the gravity data were collected at different spacecraft altitudes. The GRAIL data also improve low-degree harmonics, and the uncertainty in the lunar Love number has been reduced by ~5× to k2 = 0.02405 ± 0.00018. The reprocessing of the Lunar Prospector data indicates ~3× improved orbit uncertainty for the lower altitudes to ~10 m, whereas the GRAIL orbits are determined to an accuracy of 20 cm.

  8. Lunar Exploration Manned and Unmanned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Duxbury, N.; Friesen, L. J.; Gillis, J. J.; Hawke, B. R.; Heiken, G.; Lawrence, D.; Manifold, J.; Slade, M. A.; Smith, A.; Taylor, G. J.; Yingst, R. A.

    2002-08-01

    The past decade has seen two global reconnaissance missions to the Moon, Clementine and Lunar Prospector, which have mapped the surface in multiple wavelengths, determined the Moon's topography and gravity fields, and discovered the presence of water ice in the permanently dark regions near the poles. Although we have learned much about the Moon, many key aspects of its history and evolution remain obscure. The three highest priority questions in lunar science are: 1) the Moon's global composition, particularly the abundance of aluminum and magnesium; 2) the extent, composition, and physical state of polar deposits, including the extent, purity, and thickness of ice, the elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition of polar volatiles, the environment of the polar regions; and 3) the cratering chronology of the Moon and the implications of a possibly unique history, such as a cataclysm, for our understanding of other Solar System objects. Answering and addressing these questions require a series of new missions, including an orbiter (carrying XRF, imaging radar, and other instruments), the deployment of surface network stations equipped with seismometers and heat flow probes, selected robotic sample return missions from geologically simple areas (e.g., youngest lava flow or crater melt sheet), and complex geological field work, conducted by human explorers. Because the Moon is a touchstone for the history and evolution of other rocky bodies in the solar system, we believe that these questions are of very high scientific priority and that lunar missions should receive much more serious attention and detailed study than they have in the past by the NASA Office of Space Science.

  9. Lunar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

  10. How Cold are the Floors of Lunar Polar Shadowed Craters?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    2010-01-01

    Almost five decades ago Watson, et al, [1] speculated that molecules of volatile species might accumulate within the cryogenic environments of permanently shadowed polar craters. The subject was largely a scientific curiosity until recently. In the mid-1980's, people began to seriously discuss the feasibility of long-term or permanent human settlement of the Moon. Given that the Moon was known be missing the compounds need to support life and that importing volatiles from Earth is prohibitively expensive, lunar colonists were pictured as processing the putative polar volatiles. A bistatic radar experiment performed with the Clementine spacecraft was interpreted to suggest the presence of large quantities of ice at some polar locations. [2] The neutron spectrometer aboard the Lunar Prospector spacecraft reported high concentrations of hydrogen in the polar regolith, [3] and some interpretations of the data set pointed to very high concentrations in permanently shadowed craters. The reformulation of civilian space policy in 2004, known as the Vision for Space Exploration, emphasized lunar exploration with eye toward development of economic returns from cislunar space and long-tern human presence on the Moon. The theme of finding lunar resources was an impetus for the inclusion of the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Preliminary results from Diviner report an unexpectedly low temperature down to 35K in the depths of some craters. [4

  11. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  12. Geochemistry of the lunar highlands as revealed by measurements of thermal neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peplowski, Patrick N.; Beck, Andrew W.; Lawrence, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Thermal neutron emissions from the lunar surface provide a direct measure of bulk elemental composition that can be used to constrain the chemical properties of near-surface (depth <1 m) lunar materials. We present a new calibration of the Lunar Prospector thermal neutron map, providing a direct link between measured count rates and bulk elemental composition. The data are used to examine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the lunar surface, with an emphasis on constraining the plagioclase concentration across the highlands. We observe that the regions of lowest neutron absorption, which correspond to estimated plagioclase concentrations of >85%, are generally associated with large impact basins and are colocated with clusters of nearly pure plagioclase identified with spectral reflectance data.

  13. Anisotropic Solar Wind Sputtering of the Lunar Surface Induced by Crustal Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Sarantos, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Saito, Y.; Nishino, M.

    2014-01-01

    The lunar exosphere is generated by several processes each of which generates neutral distributions with different spatial and temporal variability. Solar wind sputtering of the lunar surface is a major process for many regolith-derived species and typically generates neutral distributions with a cosine dependence on solar zenith angle. Complicating this picture are remanent crustal magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, which decelerate and partially reflect the solar wind before it strikes the surface. We use Kaguya maps of solar wind reflection efficiencies, Lunar Prospector maps of crustal field strengths, and published neutral sputtering yields to calculate anisotropic solar wind sputtering maps. We feed these maps to a Monte Carlo neutral exospheric model to explore three-dimensional exospheric anisotropies and find that significant anisotropies should be present in the neutral exosphere depending on selenographic location and solar wind conditions. Better understanding of solar wind/crustal anomaly interactions could potentially improve our results.

  14. Surface-Correlated Nanophase Iron Metal in Lunar Soils: Petrography and Space Weathering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Space weathering is a term used to include all of the processes that act on material exposed at the surface of a planetary or small body. In the case of the Moon, it includes a variety of processes that formed the lunar regolith, caused the maturation of lunar soils, and formed patina on rock surfaces. The processes include micrometeorite impact and reworking, implantation of solar wind and flare particles, radiation damage and chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputtering erosion and deposition. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. Understanding these effects is critical in order to fully integrate the lunar sample collection with remotely sensed data from recent robotic missions (e.g., Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Galileo). Our objective is to determine the origin of space weathering effects in lunar soils through combined electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry techniques applied to individual soil particles from <20 pm size factions (dry-sieved) of mature lunar soils. It has been demonstrated that it is the finest size fraction (<25 pm) of lunar soils that dominates the optical properties of the bulk soils.

  15. Lunar Riometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  16. Estimating Background and Lunar Contribution to Neutrons Detected by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Chin, G.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Su, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The fraction of hydrogen-bearing species embedded in planetary regolith can be determined from the ratio between measured epithermal neutron leakage flux and the flux measured from similar dry regolith. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft is equipped with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument to measure embedded hydrogen in the Moon's polar regions and elsewhere. We have investigated the relative contribution of lunar and non-lunar (spacecraft-sourced) neutrons by modeling maps of the measured count rate from three of the LEND detector systems using linear combinations of maps compiled from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) and the LEND detectors, demonstrating that the two systems are compatible and enabling reference signal to be inferred to enable detecting hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing volatiles. The pole-to-equator contrast ratio in epithermal neutrons indicates that the average concentration of hydrogen in the Moon's polar regolith above 80° north or south latitude is ~110 ppmw, or 0.10±0.01 wt% water-equivalent hydrogen. Above 88° north or south, the concentration increases to ~140 ppmw, or 0.13±0.02 wt% water-equivalent hydrogen. Nearly identical suppression of neutron flux at both the north and south poles, despite differences in topography and distribution of permanently-shadowed regions, supports the contention that hydrogen is broadly distributed in the polar regions and increasingly concentrated approaching the poles. Similarity in the degree of neutron suppression in low-energy and high-energy epithermal neutrons suggests that the hydrogen fraction is relatively uniform with depth down to ~1 m; the neutron leakage flux is insensitive to greater depth.

  17. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  18. Permanent Darkness at the Lunar North Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, B.; Robinson, M. S.; Spudis, P. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2001-12-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first dynamic temporal look at the illumination conditions of both lunar poles. Data of the lunar north pole were collected during summer in the northern hemisphere and are therefore ideal for placing a constraint on the maximum amount of permanent shadowed regions that exist. An early estimate of permanent shadow using Clementine data by Nozette and coworkers, based on a conservative measurement of permanently shadowed small craters close to the pole, was 530 km2. A later estimate, produced using Earth based radar topography data (by Margot et al), extended the area analyzed to lower latitudes (85oN), and indicated an increased permanently shadowed area of 2650 km2. By producing movies using Clementine UVVIS data it is possible to study dynamically how the illumination conditions vary during the length of a lunar day (708 hours). These movies show that small areas of permanent shadow possibly exist at lower latitudes than included in the Margot study, including regions of the farside that are inaccessible to Earth based study. An initial analysis shows that portions of north facing crater walls, as far out as 80oN, appear to be permanently shadowed. A preliminary examination of such features has raised the value of the permanently shadowed terrain area to greater than 10,000km2. A recent control network for the north pole will permit a more precise determination of the amount of permanently shadowed terrain. Comparison of this value, together with the data returned by Lunar Prospectors neutron spectrometer will place constraints on the amount of ice present at the lunar north pole as presented by Feldman and coworkers.

  19. TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-05-20

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: {approx}50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, {approx}16% from Plato, {approx}6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that {approx}80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  20. Lunar Prospecting: Searching for Volatiles at the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Carvalho, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission, planned for a 2021 launch to search for and analyze volatiles at the Lunar South Pole. The mission poses unique operational challenges. Operating at the Lunar South Pole requires navigating a surface with lighting, shadow and regolith characteristics unlike those of previous missions. The short round trip communications time enables reactive surface operations for science and engineering. Navigation of permanently shadowed regions with a solar powered rover creates risks, including power and thermal management, and requires constant real time decision making for safe entry, path selection and egress. The mission plan requires a faster rover egress from the lander than any previous NASA rover mission.

  1. On the equipotential surface hypothesis of lunar maria floors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar; Konopliv, A. S.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1999-03-01

    The equipotential surface hypothesis suggests that lunar maria floors lie on a surface parallel to the selenoid. This is examined using the spherical harmonic representations of the Clementine topography and Lunar Prospector gravity data. It is demonstrated that the floors of both circular and noncircular maria significantly deviate from an equipotential surface. Deeper circular maria and the deeper part of the noncircular Mare Tranquillitatis have been subsided under larger mass loads in the crust. We calculate the mass beneath the maria to be in excess to the mass required for isostatic compensation of the topography at 60 km depth. A global map of this excess mass shows that the noncircular maria are isostatically compensated, unlike the circular maria. The map also reveals seven new sizable mascons: the three largest are associated with Mendel-Rydberg, Mare Humboldtianum, and Mare Moscoviense.

  2. South Pole Hydrogen Distribution for Present Lunar Conditions: Implications for Past Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Paige, D. A.; Siegler, M. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; Eke, V. R.; Teodoro, L. F. A.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since the Lunar Prospector mission that the poles of the Moon evidently harbor enhanced concentrations of hydrogen [1,2]. The physical and chemical form of the hydrogen has been much debated. Using imagery from Clementine it was possible to roughly estimate permanently-shadowed regions (PSRs), and to perform image reconstructions of the Lunar Prospector epithermal neutron flux maps [3,4]. The hydrogen concentrations resulting from these reconstructions were consistent with a few weight percent water ice in selected locations. With the LCROSS impact, we now know that hydrogen in the form of ice does exist in lunar polar cold traps [5]. Armed with this information, and new data from LRO/Diviner, we can examine whether the pre-sent-day distribution of hydrogen in the form of water ice is consistent with a past large impact that delivered a large mass of volatiles to the lunar surface. These volatiles, mixed with solid impact ejecta, would then be lost from locations having high mean temperatures but would otherwise remain trapped in locations with sufficiently low mean annual temperatures [6]. The time scales for loss would depend on the location-dependent temperatures as well as impact history.

  3. Gamma-ray spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    The experiments in gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the geochemical composition of the lunar surface are reported. The theory is discussed of discrete energy lines of natural radioactivity, and the lines resulting from the bombardment of the lunar surface by high energy cosmic rays. The gamma-ray spectrometer used in lunar orbit and during transearth coast is described, and a preliminary analysis of the results is presented.

  4. Lunar magnetic anomalies and surface optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.; Schubert, G.

    1980-04-01

    Consideration is given to the influence of lunar magnetic anomalies on the darkening of the lunar surface by solar wind ion bombardment. It is shown that lunar magnetic anomalies with dipole moments much greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th gauss cu cm will strongly deflect the typical solar wind, producing local plasma voids at the lunar surface. Direct measurements of lunar magnetic fields have shown most lunar magnetic fields to have moments below this level, with the exception of anomalies detected in the areas of the Reiner Gamma albedo feature, the Van de Graaff-Aitken region and Mare Marginis. Such magnetic anomalies are shown to be capable of accounting for the higher albedo and swirl-like morphology f these features by the deflection and focusing incident solar wind ions, which tend to darken the surface upon impact.

  5. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  6. First Results from ARTEMIS, A New Two-Spacecraft Lunar Mission: Counter-Streaming Plasma Populations in the Lunar Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.; Ergun, R. E.; Plaschke, F.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at approximately 3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.

  7. First Results from ARTEMIS, a New Two-Spacecraft Lunar Mission: Counter-Streaming Plasma Populations in the Lunar Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.; Ergun, R. E.; Plaschke, F.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at 3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.

  8. Improved calibration of reflectance data from the LRO Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and implications for space weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, M.; Lucey, P. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E. M.; Barker, M. K.; Kakazu, A.; Trang, D.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-07-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) experiment on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a laser altimeter that also measures the strength of the return pulse from the lunar surface. These data have been used to estimate the reflectance of the lunar surface, including regions lacking direct solar illumination. A new calibration of these data is presented that features lower uncertainties overall and more consistent results in the polar regions. We use these data, along with newly available maps of the distribution of lunar maria, also derived from LRO instrument data, to investigate a newly discovered dependence of the albedo of the lunar maria on latitude (Hemingway et al., [2015]). We confirm that there is an increase in albedo with latitude in the lunar maria, and confirm that this variation is not an artifact arising from the distribution of compositions within the lunar maria, using data from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. Radiative transfer modeling of the albedo dependence within the lunar maria is consistent with the very weak to absent dependence of albedo on latitude in the lunar highlands; the lower abundance of the iron source for space weathering products in the lunar highlands weakens the latitude dependence to the extent that it is only weakly detectable in current data. In addition, photometric models and normalization may take into account the fact that the lunar albedo is latitude dependent, but this dependence can cause errors in normalized reflectance of at most 2% for the majority of near-nadir geometries. We also investigate whether the latitude dependent albedo may have obscured detection of small mare deposits at high latitudes. We find that small regions at high latitudes with low roughness similar to the lunar maria are not mare deposits that may have been misclassified owing to high albedos imposed by the latitude dependence. Finally, we suggest that the only modest correlations among space weathering indicators defined

  9. Persistence of the lunar dynamo: The role of compositional convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderlund, K. M.; Schubert, G.; Scheinberg, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Although the Moon does not currently have an active magnetic field, it does have magnetic anomalies associated with magnetized materials in the lunar crust. The crustal magnetic anomalies, originally detected during the Apollo era, have been mapped in detail by instruments on the Lunar Prospector and Kaguya (SELENE) spacecraft. Laboratory analyses of the magnetization of some lunar basalts returned from Apollo suggest that a field of approximately 10 microTesla persisted until 3.56 Gyr. Seismic measurements further imply that the Moon has a metallic core with both solid iron and liquid iron alloy components at present day. Thus, it is generally agreed that the early lunar magnetic field was generated by a dynamo. However, the mechanism driving the dynamo is a subject of current debate. Thermal convection alone is likely not sufficient to explain the duration of the dynamo because thermal evolution models predict lunar heat flow through the core to become sub-adiabatic within a few hundred million years. Alternatively, power for the dynamo may be derived from precession of the lunar mantle, impact-induced changes in the Moon's rotation rate, and/or compositional convection due to the formation of a solid inner core. Here, we will present results from a numerical dynamo model designed to simulate magnetic field generation at a number of different times during the Moon's history as predicted by thermal evolution models. These simulations will test the hypothesis that thermo-compositional convection can explain the persistence of the lunar dynamo and advance our understanding of how terrestrial bodies evolve through geologic time.

  10. Geothermal Prospector: Supporting Geothermal Analysis Through Spatial Data Visualization and Querying Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Getman, Daniel; Anderson, Arlene; Augustine, Chad

    2015-09-02

    Determining opportunities for geothermal energy can involve a significant investment in data collection and analysis. Analysts within a variety of industry and research domains collect and use these data; however, determining the existence and availability of data needed for a specific analysis activity can be challenging and represents one of the initial barriers to geothermal development [2]. This paper describes the motivating factors involved in designing and building the Geothermal Prospector application, how it can be used to reduce risks and costs related to geothermal exploration, and where it fits within the larger collection of tools that is the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) [5].

  11. Simulating the star tracks in the field of view of the Lunar polar telescope of the ILOM project in dependence on the Lunar dynamical figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, N.; Gusev, A.

    2009-04-01

    The measurement of the rotation of the Moon is one of techniques to get the information of the internal structure of celestial body. The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) has given unprecedented data on the lunar rotation, and gives some proposals of the state of the core. In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement (ILOM) is an experiment to measure the lunar physical librations in situ on the Moon with a small telescope which tracks stars. Simulating the trajectory of stars due to the lunar rotation observed by the ILOM-telescope in the polar region was already made by using numerical theory DE405 (Noda et al., 2008). We have executed calculations of libration tracks of stars on the basis of analytical libration theory (Petrova, 1996; Chapront et al, 1999). It allowed us to do simulating for various models of Lunar gravity field (Lunar dynamical figure). We used dynamical figures constructed on the basis of data received in the current mission Kaguya (SELENE), and then we compared the results with calculations with other dynamic models constructed on the data obtained by the Clementine (GLGM-2) and the Lunar Prospector (LP150Q). The differences between the models GLGM-2, LP150Q and the Kaguya model are larger than 10 milliseconds of arc. This means that proposed accuracy of ILOM observations - 1 millisecond of arc will be enough to improve many parameters of the Lunar interior. In particular, residual estimations will allow to detect small amplitudes of free libration caused by a liquid Lunar core and to estimate its characteristic, first of all - core's ellipticity. All calculation and comparisons, graphic presentation were executed in the VBA environment for MS Excel. The research was supported by the Russian-Japanese grant RFFI-JSPS N 07-02-91212, (2007 - 2009).

  12. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  13. Lunar anorthosites.

    PubMed

    Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

    1970-01-30

    Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context. PMID:17781512

  14. Modeling the Stability of Volatile Deposits in Lunar Cold Traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crider, D. H.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    There are several mechanisms acting at the cold traps that can alter the inventory of volatiles there. Primarily, the lunar surface is bombarded by meteoroids which impact, melt, process, and redistribute the regolith. Further, solar wind and magnetospheric ion fluxes are allowed limited access onto the regions in permanent shadow. Also, although cold traps are in the permanent shadow of the Sun, there is a small flux of radiation incident on the regions from interstellar sources. We investigate the effects of these space weathering processes on a deposit of volatiles in a lunar cold trap through simulations. We simulate the development of a column of material near the surface of the Moon resulting from space weathering. This simulation treats a column of material at a lunar cold trap and focuses on the hydrogen content of the column. We model space weathering processes on several time and spatial scales to simulate the constant rain of micrometeoroids as well as sporadic larger impactors occurring near the cold traps to determine the retention efficiency of the cold traps. We perform the Monte Carlo simulation over many columns of material to determine the expectation value for hydrogen content of the top few meters of soil for comparison with Lunar Prospector neutron data.

  15. Evidence for Phyllosilicates near the Lunar South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Faith; Jensen, E.; Domingue, Deborah; McFadden, L.; Coombs, Cassandraa; Mendell, Wendell

    1998-01-01

    While theoretically water ice could be stable in permanently shadowed areas near the lunar poles, there is conflicting observational evidence for the existence of water ice at either pole. Clementine's bistatic radar resumed a weak signal commensurate with water ice in the South Pole Aitken Basin; however, groundbased radar searches have not detected such a signal at either pole. Lunar Prospector measured large amounts of H (attributed to water) at both poles; however, Galileo near-infrared spectral measurements of the north polar region did not detect the prominent 3.0 micron absorption feature due to interlayer and adsorbed water in phyllosilicates. Evidence for the existence of water at the lunar poles is still ambiguous and controversial. We present evidence, based on the analysis of Galileo SSI images, for the presence of phyllosilicates near the lunar south pole. Using the color image sequence (560 nm, 670 nm, 756 nm, and 889 nm) of Lunmap 14 taken during the Galileo Earth-Moon pass I, we have identified areas that show evidence for a 0.7 microns absorption feature present in Fe-bearing phyllosilicates.

  16. Lunar regolith densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    centrifuge is operated to generate an acceleration of 10 times Earth's gravity or 60 times the lunar gravity, thus simulating a lunar regolith thickness of 30 ft. The shake table is then operated using the scaled 'moonquake' as the input motion. One or more model moonquakes are used in each experiment, after which the soil is analyzed for its density profile with depth. This is accomplished by removing from the soil bed a column of soil contained within a thin rubber sleeve which has been previously embedded vertically in the soil during pluviation. This column of soil is transferred to a gamma ray device, in which the gamma ray transmission transversely through the soil is measured and compared with standard calibration samples. In this manner, the density profile can be determined. Preliminary results to date are encouraging, and the Center plans to study the effects of duration of shaking, intensity of the shaking motion, and the frequency of the motion.

  17. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  18. Lunar oasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Niehoff, John

    1989-01-01

    The 'lunar oasis' emphasizes development toward self-sufficiency in order to reduce dependence on the earth for resupply, and to enable expansion utilizing indigeneous resources. The oasis phase includes: (1) habitation and work facilities for 10 people, (2) capability for extraction of volatile consumables (H2O, O2, N2, etc.) from indigenous resources for resupply of losses and filling of reservoirs, and (3) a highly closed life support system, including food production. In the consolidation phase, the base grows from 10 to 30 crewmembers. Lunar resources are used for expanding the lunar foothold, including construction of habitats, extraction of metals for the fabrication of products for maintenance and repair, and expansion of the power system. The strategy does not produce propellants for space transportation. A 10-year scenario is laid out, which contains all elements needed to allow the base to enter a self-expanding utilization phase. Three lunar missions yer year, two cargo missions and one crew flight, are required. At the end of a decade, the base is producing more than it requires for its continued support, although it is unlikely to be completely self-sufficient.

  19. Lunar philosophers.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2007-03-01

    A close associate of the Lunar Society, Joseph Wright of Derby painted several industrial and scientific scenes. This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) shows how two of his works - featuring an orrery and an alchemist - reveal the ideas and aspirations of the provincial philosophers who made up the Society. PMID:17336378

  20. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  1. Trial Prospector: Matching Patients with Cancer Research Studies Using an Automated and Scalable Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Satya S; Tao, Shiqiang; Parchman, Andrew; Luo, Zhihui; Cui, Licong; Mergler, Patrick; Lanese, Robert; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Meropol, Neal J; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is responsible for approximately 7.6 million deaths per year worldwide. A 2012 survey in the United Kingdom found dramatic improvement in survival rates for childhood cancer because of increased participation in clinical trials. Unfortunately, overall patient participation in cancer clinical studies is low. A key logistical barrier to patient and physician participation is the time required for identification of appropriate clinical trials for individual patients. We introduce the Trial Prospector tool that supports end-to-end management of cancer clinical trial recruitment workflow with (a) structured entry of trial eligibility criteria, (b) automated extraction of patient data from multiple sources, (c) a scalable matching algorithm, and (d) interactive user interface (UI) for physicians with both matching results and a detailed explanation of causes for ineligibility of available trials. We report the results from deployment of Trial Prospector at the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated Case Comprehensive Cancer Center (Case CCC) with 1,367 clinical trial eligibility evaluations performed with 100% accuracy. PMID:25506198

  2. The Chang'E-1 orbiter plays a distinctive role in China's first successful selenodetic lunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Jinsong; Su, Xiaoli; Huang, Qian; Yan, Jianguo

    2011-12-01

    The first Chinese lunar orbiter Chang'E-1 is a successful mission with many fruitful results obtained in various disciplines. The scientific data acquired by the Chang'E-1 payloads can benefit studies of the lunar origin and evolution, as well as other relevant research areas, after careful validation of the data. Among the new results, the Chang'E-1 selenodetic products are continually uncovering characteristics of the lunar surface, undersurface and inner structure. Successful lunar orbiters such as the Clementine, Lunar Prospector, KAGUYA/SELENE, Chang'E-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and GRAIL have been revealing, with increasing clarity, global selenodetic characteristics with state-of-the-art fine resolution and high precision. In particular, the Chang'E-1 plays an important distinctive role in selenodetic exploration through enhancing lunar topography and gravity models. The gravity model has been successfully improved with a factor of two after applying the Chang'E-1 long-wavelength tracking data. Using the new models, some medium-scale lunar surface characteristics such as basins and volcanoes have been identified. Furthermore, the old mascon basins of Bouguer, gravity anomaly and craters have been discovered with the Chang'E-1 selenodetic data.

  3. Magnetic Anomalies Within Lunar Impact Basins: Constraints on the History of the Lunar Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, N. C.; Hood, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    Previous work has shown that lunar crustal magnetization has a combination of origins including shock remanent magnetization in transient magnetic fields and thermoremanent magnetization in a steady core dynamo magnetic field (e.g., Hood and Artemieva, Icarus, 2008; Richmond and Hood, JGR, 2008; Garrick-Bethell et al., Science, 2009; Hood, Icarus, 2011). In particular, magnetic anomalies within the interiors of lunar impact basins and large craters provide a potentially valuable means of constraining the history of the former dynamo (Halekas et al., MAPS, 2003; Hood, 2011). These anomalies likely have a thermoremanent origin owing to high subsurface temperatures reached at the time of impact and therefore require a long-lived, steady magnetic field to explain their magnetization. Central anomalies have previously been confirmed to be present using Lunar Prospector magnetometer (LP MAG) data within several Nectarian-aged basins (Moscoviense, Mendel-Rydberg, Crisium, and Humboldtianum), implying that a dynamo existed during this lunar epoch (Hood, 2011). Here, we further analyze low altitude LP MAG data for several additional basins, ranging in age from Nectarian to Imbrian. Results indicate that magnetic anomalies with a probable basin-related origin are present within at least two additional Nectarian-aged basins (Serenitatis and Humorum) and one Imbrian-aged basin (Schrodinger). No discernible anomalies are present within the largest Imbrian-aged basins, Imbrium and Orientale. While there is uncertainty regarding the age of the Schrodinger basin, it has been reported to be slightly more recent than Imbrium (Wilhelms, 1984). Our initial interpretation is therefore that a dynamo likely existed during the Imbrian epoch. The absence of anomalies within Imbrium and Orientale can be explained by insufficient conditions for acquisition of strong magnetization (e.g., inadequate concentrations of efficient remanence carriers) following these relatively large impacts.

  4. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  5. LSPECS: A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared/submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared/submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. The presence of ice has been inferred independently from Clementine and Lunar Prospector, providing another incentive for a south polar mission. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Operation without the use of expendable cryogenics for cooling might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive

  6. Direct Solar Wind Proton Access into Permanently Shadowed Lunar Polar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent analyses of Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (LPNS) data have suggested that high abundances of hydrogen exist within cold traps at the lunar poles, and it has often been assumed that hydrogen-bearing volatiles sequestered in permanent shadow are topographically shielded from sputtering by solar wind protons. However, recent simulation results are presented showing that solar wind protons clearly access the floor of an idealized, shadowed lunar crater through a combination of thermal and ambipolar processes, in effect creating a plasma "miniwake". These simulations are the first to model the mini-wake environment in two spatial dimensions with a self-consistent lunar surface-plasma interaction. Progress is reported on constraining the nonzero particle fluxes and energies incident on kilometer-scale shadowed topography, such as a small crater embedded within a larger one. The importance of direct solar wind proton bombardment is discussed within the context of understanding the stability and inventory of hydrogen-bearing volatiles in shadow at the lunar poles. The support of the National Lunar Science institute, the DREAM institute, LPROPS, and the NASA Postdoctoral Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center administered by ORAU are gratefully acknowledged.

  7. The science of the lunar poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    imaging of interiors of polar shadowed craters has been accomplished by many instruments from the ultraviolet to the radar. Imaging radars on Chandrayaan-1 and LRO have identified anomalous craters that may contain rich water ice deposits. Neutron spectrometers on Lunar Prospector and LRO directly detected hydrogen enhancements at both poles. Spectacularly, the LCROSS impact experiment detected a wide range of volatile elements and species at Cabeus crater in the lunar south polar region. While these measurements have catapulted polar science forward, much remains to be understood about the polar system, both from analysis of the current data, and new missions planned and in development. The general state of the lunar atmosphere is planned to be addressed by the UV and neutral mass spectrometers carried by the planned NASA LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere And Dust Environment Explorer) spacecraft creating an important baseline. But more data is necessary, from an in situ direct assay of polar volatiles to measurements of species and fluxes into and out of the cold traps over lengthy timescales.

  8. NASA Propulsion Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Williams, Hunter; Burnside, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector mission is to investigate the Moon's polar regions in search of volatiles. The government-version lander concept for the mission is composed of a braking stage and a liquid-propulsion lander stage. A propulsion trade study concluded with a solid rocket motor for the braking stage while using the 4th-stage Peacekeeper (PK) propulsion components for the lander stage. The mechanical design of the liquid propulsion system was conducted in concert with the lander structure design. A propulsion cold-flow test article was fabricated and integrated into a lander development structure, and a series of cold flow tests were conducted to characterize the fluid transient behavior and to collect data for validating analytical models. In parallel, RS-34 PK thrusters to be used on the lander stage were hot-fire tested in vacuum conditions as part of risk reduction activities.

  9. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. C.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Joint interpretation of disparate geophysical datasets helps to reduce drawbacks that can result from analyzing them individually. The Apollo seismic network was situated on the lunar nearside surface in a roughly equilateral triangle having sides approximately 1000 km long, with stations 12/14 nearly co-located at one corner. Due to this limited geographical extent, near-surface ray coverage from moonquakes is low, but increases with depth. In comparison, gravity surveys and their resulting gravity anomaly maps have traditionally offered optimal resolution at crustal depths. Gravimetric maps and seismic data sets are therefore well suited to joint inversion, since the complementary information reduces inherent model ambiguity. Previous joint inversions of the Apollo seismic data (seismic phase arrival times) and Clementine- or Lunar Prospector-derived gravity data (mass and moment of inertia) attempted to recover the subsurface structure of the Moon by focusing on hypothetical lunar compositions that explored the density/velocity relationship. These efforts typically searched for the best fitting thermodynamically calculated velocity/density model, and allowed variables like core size, velocity, and/or composition to vary freely. Seismic velocity profiles previously derived from the Apollo seismic data through inversion of travel times vary both in the depth of the crust and mantle layers, and the seismic velocities and densities assigned to those layers. The lunar mass and moment of inertia likewise only constrain gross variations in the density profile beyond that of a uniform density sphere. As a result, composition and structure models previously obtained by jointly inverting these data retain the original uncertainties inherent in the input data sets. We will perform a joint inversion of Apollo seismic delay times and gravity data collected by the GRAIL lunar gravity mission, in order to recover seismic velocities and density as a function of latitude

  10. Lunar Photometry and Composition of Ejecta Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Pugacheva, S. G.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Daydou, Y.

    One scientific goal of the AMIE experiment to fly onboard the SMART-1 mission is to investigate, at low polar orbit, the South Pole regions of the Moon. The AMIE camera will observe the surface in nadir direction within a large phase angle interval, thus providing photometric investigation of selected regions, in particular the South Pole- Aitken basin. The view is taken here that information retrieved from the local surface photometric behaviour of the Moon could be used for guiding the remote sensing anal- yses of specific geological targets. In a preliminary investigation, we have compared the Lunar Prospector thorium contents for some regions of the lunar near side with surface roughness estimated by means of the local photometric function. The aver- age structure of the lunar surface consists in a porous upper layer with various small fragments. Reflecting properties of this layer gives the uniform shape of photometric function. The average integrated lunar indicatrix was used as a background photomet- ric model. Taken as a reference, it permits to intercompare in a uniform system the shape of the phase function of different areas located at different longitude and lati- tude on the Moon. If the observed surface is represented by significant fields of ejecta materials, with many fragments of rocks, a shadow-hiding mechanism is involved, showing up at low phase angles. Thus, the fast decrease of the brightness in the phase function curve should reveal the presence of fragments on the surface. The Saari and Shorthill catalog data were used as observed phase functions. Both kinds of photo- metric functions were converted to symmetric form. Then, the difference between the modeled and observed phase functions for phase angle about 18 degree was used as a photometric parameter of the surface roughness. In the areas under study, this pa- rameter (which can vary between 0 and 1) varies from 0.05 (smooth mare surface) to 0.25 (crater Tycho and its ejecta

  11. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Schmerr, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Joint interpretation of disparate geophysical datasets helps reduce drawbacks that can result from analyzing them individually. The Apollo seismic network was situated on the lunar nearside surface in a roughly equilateral triangle having sides approximately 1000 km long, with stations 12/14 nearly co-located at one corner. Due to this limited geographical extent, near-surface ray coverage from moonquakes is low, but increases with depth. In comparison, gravity surveys and their resulting gravity anomaly maps have traditionally offered optimal resolution at crustal depths. Gravimetric maps and seismic data sets are therefore well suited to joint inversion, since the complementary information reduces inherent model ambiguity. Previous joint inversions of the Apollo seismic data (seismic phase arrival times) and Clementine- or Lunar Prospector-derived gravity data (mass and moment of inertia) attempted to recover the subsurface structure of the Moon by focusing on hypothetical lunar compositions that explored the density/velocity relationship. These efforts typically searched for the best fitting thermodynamically calculated velocity/density model, and allowed variables like core size, velocity, and/or composition to vary freely. Seismic velocity profiles derived from the Apollo seismic data through travel time inversion vary both in the depth of the crust and mantle layers, and the seismic velocities and densities assigned to those layers. The lunar mass and moment of inertia likewise only constrain gross variations in the density profile beyond that of a uniform density sphere. As a result, composition and structure models previously obtained by jointly inverting these data retain the original uncertainties inherent in the input data sets. We perform a joint inversion of Apollo seismic delay times and gravity data collected by the GRAIL lunar gravity mission, in order to recover seismic velocity and density as a function of latitude, longitude, and depth within the

  12. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Schmerr, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    Joint interpretation of disparate geophysical datasets helps to reduce drawbacks that can result from analyzing them individually. The Apollo seismic network was situated on the lunar nearside surface in a roughly equilateral triangle having sides approximately 1000 km long, with stations 12/14 nearly co-located at one corner. Due to this limited geographical extent, near-surface ray coverage from moonquakes is low, but increases with depth. In comparison, gravity surveys and their resulting gravity anomaly maps have traditionally offered optimal resolution at crustal depths. Gravimetric maps and seismic data sets are therefore well suited to joint inversion, since the complementary information reduces inherent model ambiguity. Previous joint inversions of the Apollo seismic data (seismic phase arrival times) and Clementine- or Lunar Prospector-derived gravity data (mass and moment of inertia) attempted to recover the subsurface structure of the Moon by focusing on hypothetical lunar compositions that explore the density/velocity relationship. These efforts typically search for the best fitting thermodynamically calculated velocity/density model, allowing variables like core size, velocity, and/or composition to vary freely. Seismic velocity profiles previously derived from the Apollo seismic data through inversion of travel times vary both in the depth of the crust and mantle layers, and the seismic velocities and densities assigned to those layers. The lunar mass and moment of inertia likewise only constrain gross variations in the density profile beyond that of a uniform density sphere. As a result, composition and structure models previously obtained by jointly inverting these data retain the original uncertainties inherent in the input data sets. We will perform a joint inversion of Apollo seismic delay times and gravity data collected by the GRAIL lunar gravity mission, in order to recover seismic velocities and density as a function of latitude, longitude

  13. Challenges from new lunar data: ILEWG report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    Recent lunar missions including Clementine, Lunar Prospector, SMART-1, Selene Kaguya, Chang'E 1 , Chandrayaan-1 have been producing new data in large volumes. We shall discuss the challenges in data calibration and intercalibration, integration, the defin ition of an accurate coordinate systems and geodesic grid, incorporation of latest altimetry and gravimetry data. LRO Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and subsequent missions will go even futher in data volume and diversity of instruments. We shall discuss the upcoming challenges in data archiving, management and interpretative tools, to merge orbital remote sensing with surface data from landers and rovers for the various elements of ILEWG lunar robotic village. Co-authors: ILEWG Task Groups on Science, Data and Outreach Relevant ILEWG Reference documents: http://sci.esa.int/ilewg -10th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, NASA Lunar Ex-ploration Analysis Group-Space Resources Roundtable, Cape Canaveral October 2008, pro-gramme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -9th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ICEUM9 Sorrento 2007, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Beijing July 2006, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -7th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Toronto Sept 2005, Programme and Proceedings on line at www.ilewg.org, R. Richards et al Editors -6th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Udaipur Nov. 2004, Proceedings ( N. Bhandari Editor), Journal Earth System Science, India, 114, No6, Dec 2005, pp. 573-841 -5th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Hawaii Nov 2003, Pro-ceedings ILC2005/ICEUM5 (S.M. Durst et al Editors), Vol 108, 1-576 pp, Science and Tech-nology Series, American Astronautical Society, 2004 -4th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ESTEC, 2000, ESA SP-462 (B

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This document contained the following topics: A Miniature Mass Spectrometer Module; SELENE Gamma Ray Spectrometer Using Ge Detector Cooled by Stirling Cryocooler; Lunar Elemental Composition and Investigations with D-CIXS X-Ray Mapping Spectrometer on SMART-1; X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Onboard the SELENE Lunar Orbiter: Its Science and Instrument; Detectability of Degradation of Lunar Impact Craters by SELENE Terrain Camera; Study of the Apollo 16 Landing Site: As a Standard Site for the SELENE Multiband Imager; Selection of Targets for the SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR); Development of a Telescopic Imaging Spectrometer for the Moon; The Lunar Seismic Network: Mission Update.

  15. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  16. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  17. Lunar Seimology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Lognonné, P.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Chenet, H.; Mosegaard, K.

    2003-04-01

    Seismology has the highest resolving power of all geophysical methods used to study the Earth's structure, and, for this reason, it carries the responsibility of determining many parameters critically important to our understanding of the dynamic behaviour of the Earth. This was probably the main scientific motivation for NASA to deploy seismometers on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions. In the period from 1969 to 1972 the US Apollo missions landed seismographs on the lunar surface. These, of which four of the landed stations constituted a seismic array, were positioned in an approximate equilateral triangle with distances between stations being about 1100 km. The array recorded more than 12000 events in the period 1969-1977 which were continuously signaled to Earth. Subsequent examination of the seismograms revealed a highly complex wave train unlike anything observed on the Earth, hampering at times even the detection of the first-arriving P and S-waves, due to intense scattering in a highly porous regolith. The seismic events constitute man-made impacts, meteoroid impacts, shallow moonquakes and deep moonquakes, of which the latter are by far the most numerous. The deep moonquakes are found to occur half-way toward the center of the moon and are believed to be correlated with the tides raised on the moon by the Earth and the Sun. The shallow moonquakes occur in the depth range from 50-220 km and are thought to be akin to intraplate earthquakes. Generally, the Apollo-era studies were successful in determining the gross features of the lunar interior which resulted in the recognition of the Moon as being a differentiated body with a crust and a mantle whose lower parts were thought to be partially molten. However, details remained perfunctory with questions concerning seismic velocity variations and possible discontinuities in the mantle left unanswered. In the present study we show how we have obtained somewhat more detailed information on the lunar

  18. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  19. RESOLVE - Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload is an exploration system designed to be placed on a rover and driven over the surface of the moon for 9 days to map the distribution of the water ice and other useful compounds seen on previous missions. RESOLVE will drill into the lunar surface and heat the material collected in order to measure the amount of water vapor and other compounds that are present, thus showing how future missions could gather and then use these valuable resources. Future missions will benefit from this analysis tool and others because it will be more cost-effective to mine water components, fuel, and other compounds at the point of destination rather than transport them from Earth. NASA is packaging the RESOLVE payload in the Resource Prospector mission targeted for launch in 2020. NASA continues to explore mission solutions by leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry, other nations and academia.

  20. Lunar surface vehicle model competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During Fall and Winter quarters, Georgia Tech's School of Mechanical Engineering students designed machines and devices related to Lunar Base construction tasks. These include joint projects with Textile Engineering students. Topics studied included lunar environment simulator via drop tower technology, lunar rated fasteners, lunar habitat shelter, design of a lunar surface trenching machine, lunar support system, lunar worksite illumination (daytime), lunar regolith bagging system, sunlight diffusing tent for lunar worksite, service apparatus for lunar launch vehicles, lunar communication/power cables and teleoperated deployment machine, lunar regolith bag collection and emplacement device, soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site, lunar rated fastening systems for robotic implementation, lunar surface cable/conduit and automated deployment system, lunar regolith bagging system, and lunar rated fasteners and fastening systems. A special topics team of five Spring quarter students designed and constructed a remotely controlled crane implement for the SKITTER model.

  1. Apollo orbital geochemistry: Gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar gamma ray spectra obtained during Apollo-15 and -16 flights show a natural radioactivity due to potassium, thorium, and uranium as well as a cosmic ray induced activity in the lunar surface due to high neutron interactions produced by (p,n) reaction in the lunar surface. The radioactivity is at a low in the highlands on the backside of the moon; most of the radioactivity is confined to the Oceanus Procellarum/Mare Imbrium region and to the Van de Graff area on the lunar backside.

  2. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  3. Lunar Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Weiss, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    We have completed a reanalysis of the old Apollo paleomagnetic data using modern techniques of analysis and presentation. The principal result from the mare basalts is that several samples, such as 10020, 10017, 10049, and 70215 appear to be carrying primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) acquired on the Moon as they cooled initially on the lunar surface, but in almost every case alternating field (AF) demagnetization was not carried out to strong enough fields to isolate this primary magnetization properly. When modern measurements are available, the agreement between old Apollo era data and new data is strikingly good. It also appears that the fields recorded by the basalts of Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 are stronger than those recorded by Apollo 12 and Apollo 15 basalts. Indeed it is not clear that any reliable records have come from these younger samples. The histories of breccias are more complicated than those of mare basalts and their NRM is harder to interpret. For regolith breccias, interpretations are complicated because of their strong superparamagnetic components and their complex, polymict lithologies. It would be unwise to use these samples for paleointensity estimates unless one can be sure that the NRM was entirely acquired as TRM during cooling after the shock event, as may be the case for 15498. In contrast, the melt rock and melt breccias, which include samples formed at high temperatures far above the Curie point of any magnetic carriers, have an excellent chance of recording lunar fields faithfully as they cool. This cooling may have taken place in a melt pool in a simple crater, or in a melt layer in a complex crater. Such samples would then have been excavated and deposited in the regolith and some appear to have recorded strong fields, but more work needs to be done to test this suggestion. Other melt rocks and melt breccias have had more complicated histories and appear to have been deposited in ejecta blankets, where final cooling took

  4. RESOLVE - Starting Point for Partnerships in Lunar and Mars Resource Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Rosenbaum, Bernard; Simon, Thomas; Larson, William E.; Luecke, Dale; Captain, Jainine; Sacksteder, Kurt; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Boucher, Dale; Taylor, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The mystery and controversy surrounding the possibility of finding water/ice at the lunar poles of the Moon based on the interpretation of neutron spectrometer data from Lunar Prospector and radar data from Clementine raises questions that both Science and the Human Exploration proponents want answered. From the Science perspective, the determination of lunar volatiles and in particular the increased hydrogen concentration detected at the lunar poles was identified as an important objectives for lunar exploration and understanding the history of the Moon, Sun, and the solar system. From the Human Exploration perspective, the potential for large concentrations of accessible water opens up possibilities for utilizing in-situ resources, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), to implement a sustained and affordable human exploration program of the Moon and beyond through production of propellants, fuel cell reagents, and life support consumables for lunar surface operations and mobility, and Earth-Moon transportation. Both the Science and Human Exploration proponents agree that a mission to the lunar poles to obtain ground truth data is the only means to conclusively answer the questions of whether water/ice exists, how much, what form, and where did it come from. In 2005, NASA initiated the Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatiles Extraction (RESOLVE) project, and is currently developing hardware under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). The purpose of the project was to begin developing technologies and operations that would answer the fundamental science questions, such as What resources are available on the Moon, where are they, what form, and where did they come from? as well as critical engineering questions, such as How will we mine these resources, what chemical extraction processes are the most practical and efficient, and what are the engineering challenges to be faced in this environment? .

  5. Lunar resources: Toward living off the lunar land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) lunar resources and surface conditions; (2) guidelines for early lunar technologies; (3) the lunar farm; (4) the lunar filling station; (5) lunar construction materials; (6) the lunar power company; (7) the electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the Moon and in near-Earth space.

  6. Formation of lunar mare domes along crustal fractures: Rheologic conditions, dimensions of feeder dikes, and the role of magma evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhler, Christian; Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim

    2007-08-01

    In this study we examine a set of lunar mare domes located in the Hortensius/Milichius/T. Mayer region and in northern Mare Tranquillitatis with respect to their formation along crustal fractures, their rheologic properties, the dimensions of their feeder dikes, and the importance of magma evolution processes during dome formation. Many of these domes display elongated summit vents oriented radially with respect to major impact basins, and several dome locations are also aligned in these preferential directions. Analysis of Clementine UV/VIS and Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer data reveals that the examined mare domes formed from low-Si basaltic lavas of high FeO and low to moderate TiO 2 content. Based on their morphometric properties (diameter, height, volume) obtained by photoclinometric and shape from shading analysis of telescopic CCD images, we derive rheologic quantities (lava viscosity during eruption, effusion rate, duration of the effusion process, magma rise speed) and the dimensions of the feeder dikes. We establish three rheologic groups characterised by specific combinations of rheologic properties and dike dimensions, where the most relevant discriminative parameter is the lava viscosity η. The first group is characterised by 10 Pas<η<10 Pas and contains the domes with elongated vents in the Milichius/T. Mayer region and two similar domes in northern Mare Tranquillitatis. The second group with 10 Pas<η<10 Pas comprises the very low aligned domes in northern Mare Tranquillitatis, and the third group with 10 Pas<η<10 Pas the relatively steep domes near Hortensius and in the T. Mayer region. The inferred dike dimensions in comparison to lunar crustal thickness data indicate that the source regions of the feeder dikes are situated within the upper crust for six of the domes in northern Mare Tranquillitatis, while they are likely to be located in the lower crust and in the upper mantle for the other examined domes. By comparing the time scale

  7. Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters: A Model of Effective Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hymers, L.; Heenan, S.

    2009-05-01

    Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters is a charitable organization whose mandate is to bring the wonders of Canada's geology and mineral resources to students, educators and industry. The organization provides current information about rocks, minerals, metals, and mining and offers exceptional educational resources, developed by teachers and for teachers that meet Junior, Intermediate and Senior Provincial Earth Science and Geography curriculum expectations. Since 1994, Mining Matters has reached more than 400,000 educators, students, industry representatives, and Aboriginal Youth through Earth Science resources. At the time of the program's inception, members of the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) realized that their mining and mineral industry expertise could be of help to teachers and students. Consulting experts in education, government, and business, and the PDAC worked together to develop the first Mining Matters Earth Science curriculum kit for Grades 6 and 7 teachers in Ontario. PDAC Mining Matters became the official educational arm of the Association and a charitable organization in 1997. Since then, the organization has partnered with government, industry, and educators to develop bilingual Earth science teaching units for Grades 4 and 7, and senior High School. The teaching units consist of kits that contain curriculum correlated lesson plans, inform bulletins, genuine data sets, rock and mineral samples, equipment and additional instructional resources. Mining Matters offers instructional development workshops for the purposes of training pre-service and in- service educators to use our teaching units in the classroom. The workshops are meant to provide teachers with the knowledge and confidence they need to successfully employ the units in the classroom. Formal mechanisms for resource and workshop evaluations are in place. Overwhelmingly teacher feedback is positive, describing the excellence

  8. Global Geochemical Variation on the Lunar Surface: A Three-Element Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, D. R.; Lawrence, D. J.; Vaniman, D.; Feldman, W. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Maurice, S.; Lucey, P. G.; Binder, A. B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a method for displaying the relative abundances of three important elements (Th, Fe, and Ti) on the same map projection of the lunar surface. Using Th-, Fe-, and Ti-elemental abundances from orbital geochemical data and assigning each element a primary color, a false-color map of the lunar surface was created. This approach is similar to the ternary diagram approach presented by Davis and Spudis with some important differences, discussed later. For the present maps, Th abundances were measured by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer(GRS).The new LPGRS low-altitude dataset was used in this analysis. Iron and Ti weight percentages were based on Clementine spectral reflectance data smoothed to the LP low altitude footprint. This method of presentation was designed to aid in the location and recognition of three principal lunar compositions: ferroan anorthosite (FAN), mare basalts (MB), and the Mg suite/ KREEP-rich rocks on the lunar surface, with special emphasis on the highlands and specific impact basins. In addition to the recognition of these endmember rock compositions, this method is an attempt to examine the relationship between elemental compositions that do not conform readily to previously accepted or observed endmember rocks in various specific regions of interest, including eastern highlands regions centered on 150 deg longitude, and a northern highlands Th-rich region observed. The LP low-altitude data has full width at half-maximum spatial resolution of about 40 km. The Clementine spectral reflectance datasets were adapted using an equal-area, gaussian smoothing routine to this footprint. In addition, these datasets, reported in weight percent of FeO and of Ti02, were adjusted to Fe and Ti weight percentages. Each dataset was then assigned one of the three primary colors: blue for Th, red for Fe, and green for Ti. For each element, the data range was normalized to represent the ratio of each point to the maximum in the dataset. (To

  9. Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE): Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) Integration and Testing - Evaluation of Lee Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Hannah; Cryderman, Kate; Captain, Janine

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) mission with the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload will prospect for water within the lunar regolith and provide a proof of concept for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) techniques, which could be used on future lunar and Martian missions. One system within the RESOLVE payload is the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem, which consists of a Fluid Sub System (FSS) that transports volatiles to the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) instrument. In order for the FSS to transport precise and accurate amounts of volatiles to the GC-MS instrumentation, high performance valves are used within the system. The focus of this investigation is to evaluate the redesigned Lee valve. Further work is needed to continue to evaluate the Lee valve. Initial data shows that the valve could meet our requirements however further work is required to raise the TRL to an acceptable level to be included in the flight design of the system. At this time the risk is too high to change our baseline design to include these non-latching Lee solenoid valves.

  10. Genesis lunar outpost: An evolutionary lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Gary T. (Compiler); Baschiera, Dino; Fieber, Joe; Moths, Janis

    1990-01-01

    Students at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Department of Agriculture undertook a series of studies of lunar habitats during the 1989 to 1990 academic year. Undergraduate students from architecture and mechanical and structural engineering with backgrounds in interior design, biology and construction technology were involved in a seminar in the fall semester followed by a design studio in the spring. The studies resulted in three design alternatives for lunar habitation and an integrated design for an early stage lunar outpost.

  11. Lunar South Polar Hydrogen Concentrations in the Context of LRO/Diviner Results and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Paige, D. A.; Siegler, M. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; Lawrence, D. J.; James, M. R.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    At the Moon, the leakage flux of cosmic ray-generated epithermal neutrons depends strongly on soil hydrogen content, and less strongly on other factors such as soil temperature [Lawrence et al., 2006]. For the lunar polar regions where warm sunlit features lie adjacent to permanently-shadowed (and very cold) areas, and where significant seasonal changes occur, it is important to take soil temperature into account. Here we investigate the effects of the subsurface soil temperature profile on epithermal leakage flux. As a starting point, we use a model of seasonally-averaged LRO/Diviner subsurface temperature to predict the effect on epithermal leakage flux. An isothermal depth profile is assumed. The relationship between Lunar Prospector epithermal detector count rates and surface temperature comes from Lawrence et al. [2006], and assumes the average soil near the south pole is of typical ferroan anorthosite highlands composition: epi = a + bT, where a = 19.65 counts/sec, b = 2.505x10-3 counts/sec/K, and T is the uniform soil temperature. We have adjusted the constant a to a value consistent with the epithermal measurements at lower latitudes. The temperature-dependent flux is convolved with the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer instrument spatial response for 30-km altitude to produce a map of predicted epithermal count rate that would be measured from orbit, in the absence of any soil hydrogen variations. We find that the predicted epithermal neutron count rates vary only over a narrow range: 19.85 to 20.1 counts/sec across a scene 600 x 600 km centered on the pole. The instrument-convolved prediction map shows a count rate low over the trio of large craters Faustini (87.2S, 89E), Shoemaker (88.5S, 50E), and Haworth (87.4S, 355E), and a separate low over Cabaeus (85.6S, 308.9E). The variation in predicted count rate is much smaller than what is observed in smoothed maps of the Lunar Prospector epithermal count rate. For example, the lowest epithermal count

  12. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  13. AIRID: an application of the KAS/Prospector expert system builder to airplane identification

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The Knowledge Acquisition System/Prospector expert system building tool developed by SRI, International, has been used to construct an expert system to identify aircraft on the basis of observables such as wing shape, engine number/location, fuselage shape, and tail assembly shape. Additional detailed features are allowed to influence the identification as other favorable features. Constraints on the observations imposed by bad weather and distant observations have been included as contexts to the models. Models for Soviet and US fighter aircraft have been included. Inclusion of other types of aircraft such as bombers, transports, and reconnaissance craft is straightforward. Two models permit exploration of the interaction of semantic and taxonomic networks with the models. A full set of text data for fluid communication with the user has been included. The use of demons as triggered output responses to enhance utility to the user has been explored. This paper presents discussion of the ease of building the expert system using this powerful tool and problems encountered in the construction process.

  14. LOLA: Defining Lunar Terrain

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on board NASA's LRO spacecraft builds the highest detail topography currently available of the lunar terrain. In this video David Smith, LOLA's P...

  15. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  16. Microcracks in lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1979-01-01

    Lunar samples contain abundant open microcracks that have closure characteristics completely unlike any shocked terrestrial rock; however, the microcracks present in the lunar rocks before the rocks reached the surface of the moon were likely similar to the microcracks in the shocked terrestrial rocks. Because the microcracks present in the lunar rocks in situ inside the moon were different, radically different, from the microcracks present today in returned lunar samples, any property that is sensitive to microcracks measured on the returned lunar samples is inappropriate for predicting that property as a function of depth in the moon. Therefore, many data that have been measured already on lunar samples simply do not apply to rocks in situ inside the moon. A plausible mechanism with which to account for the difference in microcrack characteristics of lunar samples on the surface of the moon and the microcrack characteristics of lunar rock in situ inside the moon is thermal cycling during residence on the moon's surface.

  17. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  18. Electrified Lunar Polar Craters?

    NASA Video Gallery

    New research from NASA's Lunar Science Institute indicates that the solar wind may be charging certain regions at the lunar poles to hundreds of volts. In this short video Dr. Bill Farrell discusse...

  19. Lunar composition from Apollo orbital measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Yin, L. I.; Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.; Gerald, J.

    1972-01-01

    Several spectrometers carried in the Service Module of the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 spacecraft were employed for the compositional mapping of the lunar surface. The observations involved the measurements of secondary (fluorescent) X-rays, gamma rays and alpha particle emissions. A large scale compositional map of over 20 percent of the lunar surface was obtained for the first time. It was possible to demonstrate interesting chemical differences between the mare and the highlands, to find specific areas of high radioactivity and to learn something about the composition of the moon's hidden side. Further the same devices were used to obtain useful astronomical data during the return to earth.

  20. Far-Ultraviolet Characteristics of Lunar Swirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Retherford, K. D.; Mandt, K. E.; Gladstone, G. R.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Hurley, D. M.; Feldman, P. D.; Pryor, W. R.; Bullock, M. A.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    Lunar swirls are often described as bright sinuous regions of the Moon that appear to be relatively immature -i.e. less space-weathered than surrounding regions. Swirls are mysterious but seem to be linked to the interaction between the solar wind and the lunar magnetic anomalies (e.g., [1]). Commonly-studied swirls include Mare Ingenii (in a mare- highlands boundary region), Reiner Gamma (in a mare region), and Gerasimovich (in a highlands region). Swirls are known to be surface features: they have no expression at radar depths [2], exhibit no topography, and craters on swirls that penetrate the bright surface terrain reveal underlying dark material [3].

  1. Use of particle beams for lunar prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toepfer, A. J.; Eppler, D.; Friedlander, A.; Weitz, R.

    1993-01-01

    A key issue in choosing the appropriate site for a manned lunar base is the availability of resources, particularly oxygen and hydrogen for the production of water, and ores for the production of fuels and building materials. NASA has proposed two Lunar Scout missions that would orbit the Moon and use, among other instruments, a hard X-ray spectrometer, a neutron spectrometer, and a Ge gamma ray spectrometer to map the lunar surface. This passive instrumentation will have low resolution (tens of kilometers) due to the low signal levels produced by natural radioactivity and the interaction of cosmic rays and the solar wind with the lunar surface. This paper presents the results of a concept definition effort for a neutral particle beam lunar mapper probe. The idea of using particle beam probes to survey asteroids was first proposed by Sagdeev et al., and an ion beam device was fielded on the 1988 Soviet probe to the Mars moon Phobos. During the past five years, significant advances in the technology of neutral particle beams (NPB) have led to a suborbital flight of a neutral hydrogen beam device in the SDIO-sponsored BEAR experiment. An orbital experiment, the Neutral Particle Beam Far Field Optics Experiment (NPB-FOX) is presently in the preliminary design phase. The development of NPB accelerators that are space-operable leads one to consider the utility of these devices for probing the surface of the Moon using gamma ray, X-ray, and optical/UV spectroscopy to locate various elements and compounds. We consider the utility of the NPB-FOX satellite containing a 5-MeV particle beam accelerator as a probe in lunar orbit. Irradiation of the lunar surface by the particle beam will induce secondary and back scattered radiation from the lunar surface to be detected by a sensor that may be co-orbital with or on the particle beam satellite platform, or may be in a separate orbit. The secondary radiation is characteristic of the make-up of the lunar surface. The size of the

  2. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  3. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  4. Russian Lunar Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

  5. Bulk hydrogen abundances in the lunar highlands: Measurements from orbital neutron data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David J.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Plescia, Jeffrey B.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2015-07-01

    The first map of bulk hydrogen concentrations in the lunar highlands region is reported. This map is derived using data from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LP-NS). We resolve prior ambiguities in the interpretation of LP-NS data with respect to non-polar hydrogen concentrations by comparing the LP-NS data with maps of the 750 nm albedo reflectance, optical maturity, and the wavelength position of the thermal infrared Christiansen Feature. The best explanation for the variations of LP-NS epithermal neutron data in the lunar highlands is variable amounts of solar-wind-implanted hydrogen. The average hydrogen concentration across the lunar highlands and away from the lunar poles is 65 ppm. The highest hydrogen values range from 120 ppm to just over 150 ppm. These values are consistent with the range of hydrogen concentrations from soils and regolith breccias at the Apollo 16 highlands landing site. Based on a moderate-to-strong correlation of epithermal neutrons and orbit-based measures of surface maturity, the map of highlands hydrogen concentration represents a new global maturity index that can be used for studies of the lunar soil maturation process. We interpret these hydrogen concentrations to represent a bulk soil property related to the long-term impact of the space environment on the lunar surface. Consequently, the derived hydrogen concentrations are not likely related to the surficial enhancements (top tens to hundreds of microns) or local time variations of OH/H2O measured with spectral reflectance data.

  6. New Elemental Maps of the Nearside Lunar Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J. A.; Grande, M.; Bisi, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    A set of elemental maps obtained by the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) and covering the Southern Nearside Lunar Highland region will be presented. This region broadly covers the area below 10 S latitude and between -10 to +30 E longitude. It has never been the subject of a sample return mission; the nearest ground truth measurements are Apollo 16 at 8.56 S, 15.3 E and Surveyor 7 at 41 S, -11 E - this is mainly due to the uneven, mountainous terrain which makes spacecraft landings hazardous. The region has very high relief, with large slopes and rough surface features - these characteristics complicate the analysis of X-ray fluorescence analysis. Chandrayaan-1 flew at a time coinciding with a predicted increase in solar activity. For an X-ray fluorescence instrument, which relies on incident solar X-rays to illuminate the surface, this increase in activity would be enough to guarantee ~100% surface coverage in Mg, Al and Si, and significant areas in Fe, Ti, and Ca. However, the solar cycle was delayed, and instead C1XS launched into the quietest solar conditions seen in 100 years. Regardless, the excellent stability and low noise level of the instrument meant that small flares (A and B class) were able to generate statistically significant findings. The elements mapped will include Magnesium, Silicon and Aluminium, as well as relevant elemental ratios. These will be compared to other datasets including Lunar Prospector, Clementine and M3 mineral maps.

  7. Lunar sample 14425 - Not a lunar tektite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of a polished section of lunar sample 14425 shows, in contradiction to a previous report, that it has a composition similar to Apollo 14 breccias, but not to high-magnesium microtektites. Lunar sample 14425 is a large (8.006±0.006 mm dia.) glass bead. Sample 14425 is one of the largest glass beads returned from the moon. Semiquantitative analysis of the bead indicated that it has a composition unlike other lunar samples, but similar to high-magnesium microtektites (O'Keefe and Glass, 1985). A polished section was prepared at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Quantitative analysis of this section shows that the spherule is extremely homogenous in composition and that the composition is similar to Apollo 14 impact breccias and not to any known terrestrial tektite. It appears that the glass bead was formed by impact melting and that it is not a lunar tektite.

  8. The Distribution of Titanium in Lunar Soils on the Basis of Sensor and In Situ Data Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Evans, L.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of remote-sensing measurements have been used to map the distribution of elements on the Moon as a means of providing constraints on the processes from which its crust and major terranes originated. Discussed here is Ti, which is incorporated into refractory minerals such as ilmenite during the latter stages of differentiation, and is thus a most useful element for understanding mare basalt petrogenesis. One of the earliest Ti maps showed Ti variations in nearside maria on the basis of groundbased spectral reflectance measurements. A map of Ti derived from gamma-ray measurements on Apollo 15 and 16 was produced at about the same time, and was improved upon considerably by Davis and coworkers, who effectively removed sources of spurious variation from Fe and Al or REE (e.g., Th) interference, and calibrated Ti on the bases of landing-site soil averages. In recent years, spectral reflectance measurements from Clementine have been used by Lucey and coworkers to produce global Ti distribution maps as well. As we indicated previously, the Lucey and Davis maps agree to first order. Meanwhile, we are using the concept of sensor data fusion to combine measurements from the AGR (Apollo gamma-ray) and CSR (Clementine Spectral Reflectance) techniques with ground truth from lunar soils to utilize the differences between the two maps to understand the distribution of Ti within lunar soil components, as we have done with Fe. This technique should be verified and applied on Lunar Prospector gamma-ray measurements of Ti, as the calibrated data become available within the next couple of years. Lunar Ti is found principally in the mineral ilmenite, and is associated with certain components of lunar soil: crystalline Ilmenite mineral fragments and high Ti-bearing glass. All data indicate that Ti is associated with maria and mafic minerals. In AGR and CSR datasets, Ti is highest on the nearside and in the maria, particularly in southern Serenitatis/northern Tranquillitatis

  9. The Distribution of Titanium in Lunar Soils on the Basis of Sensor and In Situ Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Evans, L.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of remote-sensing measurements have been used to map the distribution of elements on the Moon as a means of providing constraints on the processes from which its crust and major terranes originated. Discussed here is Ti, which is incorporated into refractory minerals such as ilmenite during the latter stages of differentiation, and is thus a most useful element for understanding mare basalt petrogenesis. One of the earliest Ti maps showed Ti variations in nearside maria on the basis of groundbased spectral reflectance measurements. A map of Ti derived from gamma-ray measurements on Apollo 15 and 16 was produced at about the same time, and was improved upon considerably by Davis and coworkers, who effectively removed sources of spurious variation from Fe and Al or REE (e.g., Th) interference, and calibrated Ti on the bases of landing-site soil averages. In recent years, spectral reflectance measurements from Clementine have been used by Lucey and coworkers to produce global Ti distribution maps as well. As we indicated previously, the Lucey and Davis maps agree to first order. Meanwhile, we are using the concept of sensor data fusion to combine measurements from the AGR (Apollo gamma-ray) and CSR (Clementine Spectral Reflectance) techniques with ground truth from lunar soils to utilize the differences between the two maps to understand the distribution of Ti within lunar soil components, as we have done with Fe. This technique should be verified and applied on Lunar Prospector gamma-ray measurements of Ti, as the calibrated data become available within the next couple of years. Lunar Ti is found principally in the mineral ilmenite, and is associated with certain components of lunar soil: crystalline Ilmenite mineral fragments and high Ti-bearing glass. All data indicate that Ti is associated with maria and mafic minerals. In AGR and CSR datasets, Ti is highest on the nearside and in the maria, particularly in southern Serenitatis/northern Tranquillitatis

  10. Magnetic signature of the lunar South Pole-Aitken basin: Character, origin, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purucker, Michael E.; Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    2012-05-01

    A new magnetic map of the Moon, based on Lunar Prospector magnetometer observations, sheds light on the origin of the South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest of the recognized lunar basins. A set of WNW-trending linear to arcuate magnetic features, evident in both the radial and scalar observations, covers much of a 1000 km wide region centered on the NW portion of SPA. The source bodies are not at the surface because the magnetic features show no first-order correspondence to any surface topographic or structural feature. Patchy mare basalts of possible late Imbrian-age are emplaced within SPA and are inferred to have been emplaced through dikes, directly from mantle sources. We infer that the magnetic features represent dike swarms that served as feeders for these mare basalts, as evident from the location of the Thomson/Mare Ingenii, Van de Graaff, and Leeuwenhoek mare basalts on the two largest magnetic features in the region. Modeling suggests that the dike zone is between 25 and 50 km wide at the surface, and dike magnetization contrasts are in the range of 0.2 A/m. We theorize that the basaltic dikes were emplaced in the lunar crust when a long-lived dynamo was active. Based on pressure, temperature, and stress conditions prevalent in the lunar crust, dikes are expected to be a dominantly subsurface phenomenon, consistent with the observations reported here.