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Sample records for lunar surface science

  1. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  2. Near-Term Lunar Surface Gravimetry Science Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S.; Urbancic, N.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2015-10-01

    Three near-term mission opportunities are discussed for lunar surface gravity surveys, employing a 1 milliGal repeatability planetary surface gravimeter (VEGA). For each mission, the scientific and/or resource exploration objectives are discussed.

  3. A Preliminary Examination of Science Backroom Roles and Activities for Robotic Lunar Surface Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, T.; Deans, M.; Smith, T.; Lee, P.; Heldmann, J.; Pacis, E.; Schreckenghost, D.; Landis, R.; Osborn, J.; Kring, D.; Heggy, E.; Mishkin, A.; Snook, K.; Stoker, C.

    2008-07-01

    To understand the utility of a science backroom for the current lunar architecture, we are developing a new ground control structure for human and robot surface activity. In June 2008, we began examining this structure through a series of analog field tests.

  4. Science Operations on the Lunar Surface - Understanding the Past, Testing in the Present, Considering the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    The scientific success of any future human lunar exploration mission will be strongly dependent on design of both the systems and operations practices that underpin crew operations on the lunar surface. Inept surface mission preparation and design will either ensure poor science return, or will make achieving quality science operation unacceptably difficult for the crew and the mission operations and science teams. In particular, ensuring a robust system for managing real-time science information flow during surface operations, and ensuring the crews receive extensive field training in geological sciences, are as critical to mission success as reliable spacecraft and a competent operations team.

  5. Lunar Surface Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Lane, A. L.; Miller, D.

    1992-01-01

    Many questions of lunar science remain unanswered because of a lack of specific data. With the potential for returning humans to the Moon and establishing a long-term presence there, a new realm of exploration is possible. Numerous plans have been outlined for orbital and surface missions. The capabilities and objectives of a small class of rovers to be deployed on the lunar surface are described. The objective of these small rovers is to collect detailed in situ information about the composition and distribution of materials on the lunar surface. Those data, in turn, would be applied to a variety of lunar geoscience questions and form a basis for planning human activities on the lunar surface.

  6. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  7. Two-Phase Thermal Switching System for a Small, Extended Duration Lunar Surface Science Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; OConnor, Brian F.; Wirzburger, Melissa J.; Abel, Elisabeth D.; Stouffer, Chuck J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel thermal control system for the Warm Electronics Box (WEB) on board a small lunar surface lander intended to support science activities anywhere on the lunar surface for an extended duration of up to 6 years. Virtually all lander electronics, which collectively dissipate about 60 W in the reference mission, are contained within the WEB. These devices must be maintained below 323 K (with a goal of 303 K) during the nearly 15-earth-day lunar day, when surface temperatures can reach 390K, and above 263 K during the nearly 15-earth-day lunar night, when surface temperatures can reach 100K. Because of the large temperature swing from lunar day-to-night, a novel thermal switching system was required that would be able to provide high conductance from WEB to radiator(s) during the hot lunar day and low (or negligible) conductance during the cold lunar night. The concept that was developed consists of ammonia variable conductance heat pipes (VCHPs) to collect heat from WEB components and a polymer wick propylene loop heat pipe (LHP) to transport the collected heat to the radiator(s). The VCHPs autonomously maximize transport when the WEB is warm and autonomously shut down when the WEB gets cold. The LHP autonomously shuts down when the VCHPs shut down. When the environment transitions from lunar night to day, the VCHPs and LHP autonomously turn back on. Out of 26 analyzed systems, this novel arrangement was able to best achieve the combined goals of zero control power, autonomous operation, long life, low complexity, low T, and landed tilt tolerance.

  8. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  9. The Role of the Exploration Science Officer in Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, John H.

    2009-01-01

    A review has been performed of exploration science and payload operations during the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs to extract information of potential usefulness to the Constellation program. That work has resulted in creation of the concept for a unique type of flight controller: the exploration science officer. The controller s primary responsibility is to integrate the tasks and goals of the spacecraft flight control team and the science team in order to maximize science return while maximizing crew safety. Far from being just a mouthpiece for either team, this individual must be fluent in the knowledge and language of two communities: spacecraft operations and planetary science. Responsibilities begin during the requirements phase of vehicle and lunar surface systems development and continue through development, training, planning, mission execution, and post-flight mission phases.

  10. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  11. Lunar science - The Apollo legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The progress made in answering a list of fundamental lunar problems is considered, taking into account the nature of the differences in highlands and mare materials, the chemical composition of the moon, the density and internal structure of the moon, and the state of evolution of the moon. Attention is also given to a number of unanticipated results provided by lunar science. Findings concerning an ancient paleomagnetic field are discussed along with the characteristics of exotic components in the regolith, fundamental material differences observed in lunar surface layers, microcraters, and questions regarding an enhanced iron emission in solar flares.

  12. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. W.; Vondrak, R. R.; Garvin, J.; Chin, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has the objectives of mapping the lunar surface, identifying safe landing sites, searching for resources and measuring the space radiation environment. After launch on June 18, 2009, the LRO spacecraft and instruments were activated and calibrated in an eccentric polar lunar orbit until September 15, when LRO was moved to a circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 50 km. LRO will operate for at least one year to support the goals of NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and for at least two years of extended operations for additional lunar science measurements supported by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD). LRO carries six instruments and a technology demonstration. The LRO instruments are: Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Exploration Experiment (DLRE), Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). The technology demonstration is a synthetic aperture radar system (mini-RF). LRO observations also supports the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), the lunar impact mission that was co-manifested with LRO on the Atlas V launch vehicle. This paper describes the LRO objectives and measurements that support exploration of the Moon and that address the science objectives outlined by the National Academy of Science’s report on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (SCEM). We also describe data accessibility by the science community.

  13. Lunar surface vehicle model competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During Fall and Winter quarters, Georgia Tech's School of Mechanical Engineering students designed machines and devices related to Lunar Base construction tasks. These include joint projects with Textile Engineering students. Topics studied included lunar environment simulator via drop tower technology, lunar rated fasteners, lunar habitat shelter, design of a lunar surface trenching machine, lunar support system, lunar worksite illumination (daytime), lunar regolith bagging system, sunlight diffusing tent for lunar worksite, service apparatus for lunar launch vehicles, lunar communication/power cables and teleoperated deployment machine, lunar regolith bag collection and emplacement device, soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site, lunar rated fastening systems for robotic implementation, lunar surface cable/conduit and automated deployment system, lunar regolith bagging system, and lunar rated fasteners and fastening systems. A special topics team of five Spring quarter students designed and constructed a remotely controlled crane implement for the SKITTER model.

  14. Lunar Science for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will return humans to the Moon and will include robotic precursor missions in its early phases, including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, now in development. Many opportunities for scientific investigations will arise from this program of exploration. Such opportunities will span across disciplines of planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science via remote observation and monitoring. This abstract focuses on some of the key lunar science objectives that can be addressed with robotic and human missions. Even after 35+ years of study of Apollo samples and data, and global remote sensing missions of the 1990's, key lunar science questions remain. Apollo provided ground truth for the central nearside, but ground truth is lacking for the lunar farside and poles. Lunar meteorites provide knowledge about areas potentially far distant from the central nearside, but ground truth in key areas such as the farside South Pole-Aitken Basin, which provides access to the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle, will enable more direct correlations between the lunar meteorites and global remotely sensed data. Extending and improving knowledge of surface compositions, including partially buried basalt deposits, globally, is needed to better understand the composition of the Moon's crust as a function of depth and of the mantle, and to provide new tests of the Moon's origin and early surface and internal evolution. These issues can be addressed in part with robotic measurements on the surface; however, samples cached for return to Earth are needed for detailed chemical, lithologic, and geochronologic investigations. Apollo experience has shown that regolith samples and/or rock fragments sieved from regolith provide a wealth of information that can be interpreted within the context of regional geology. Targeted sampling by humans and human/robotic teams can optimize sampling strategies. Detailed knowledge of specific

  15. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John; Chin, Gordon; Garvin, James

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was implemented to facilitate scientific and engineering-driven mapping of the lunar surface at new spatial scales and with new remote sensing methods, identify safe landing sites, search for in situ resources, and measure the space radiation environment. After its successful launch on June 18,2009, the LRO spacecraft and instruments were activated and calibrated in an eccentric polar lunar orbit until September 15, when LRO was moved to a circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 50 km. LRO will operate for at least one year to support the goals of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and for at least two years of extended operations for additional lunar science measurements supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). LRO carries six instruments with associated science and exploration investigations, and a telecommunications/radar technology demonstration. The LRO instruments are: Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE), Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). The technology demonstration is a compact, dual-frequency, hybrid polarity synthetic aperture radar instrument (Mini-RF). LRO observations also support the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), the lunar impact mission that was co-manifested with LRO on the Atlas V (401) launch vehicle. This paper describes the LRO objectives and measurements that support exploration of the Moon and that address the science objectives outlined by the National Academy of Science's report on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (SCEM). We also describe data accessibility by the science and exploration community.

  16. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  17. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  18. Horizons and opportunities in lunar sample science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Moon is the cornerstone of planetary science. Lunar sample studies were fundamental in developing an understanding of the early evolution and continued development of planetary bodies, and have led to major revisions in understanding of processes for the accumulation of planetesimals and the formation of planets. Studies of lunar samples have increased an understanding of impact cratering, meteoroid and micrometeoroid fluxes, the interaction of planetary surfaces with radiations and particles, and even the history of the Sun. The lunar sample research program was especially productive, but by no means have all the important answers been determined; continued study of lunar samples will further illuminate the shadows of our knowledge about the solar system. Further, the treasures returned through the Apollo program provide information that is required for a return to the Moon, beginning with new exploration (Lunar Geoscience Observer (LGO)), followed by intensive study (new sample return missions), and eventually culminating in a lunar base and lunar resource utilization.

  19. ISA accelerometer and Lunar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Carmisciano, C.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Magnafico, C.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.; Nozzoli, S.; Ungaro, D.; Argada, S.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its structure (three one--dimensional sensors assembled in a composite structure) it works both in--orbit and on--ground, with the same configuration. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of the missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the respective experiments.

  20. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L. A.; Kirby, K. W.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    The Moon provides an important window into the early history of the Earth, containing information about planetary composition, magmatic evolution, surface bombardment, and exposure to the space environment. Robotic lunar landers to achieve science goals and to provide precursor technology development and site characterization are an important part of program balance within NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). A Robotic Lunar Lan-der mission complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the Moon.

  1. ISA accelerometer and Lunar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David; Santoli, Francesco; Lefevre, Carlo; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Nozzoli, Sergio; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Milyukov, Vadim

    In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of the Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments: in fact a wide variety of them has been proposed to be conducted on the lunar surface. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its design it works on-ground with the same configuration developed for in-orbit applications. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been the subject of preliminary studies and has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. ISA-S (ISA-Seismometer) has a very high sensitivity, which has already been demonstrated with long time periods of usage on Earth. It features also a wide bandwidth, extended towards the low frequencies. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of landing missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the systems.

  2. Lunar Surface Operations. Part 2; Surface Duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to review the activities on the lunar surface during the stay. The objectives include (1) Summarize Lunar Module Basics emphasizing module layout and storage. (2) Identify the primary activities occurring during each of the lunar s urface timelines, (3) List the EVA Prep tasks, (4) Identify the EVA Objectives, (5) Identify the activities associated with Post EVA (6) Describe the lessons learned during both EVA and Non EVA activities. Included are overview drawings of the Lunar Roving Vehicle, pictures of the tools, and sample return containers. There are also time lines for the Apollo 11, and Apollo 12 through 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16 and Apollo 17. Diagrams of the EVA suits are shown, including the Liquid Cooling Garment, and the Pressure Garment Assembly. The activity prior to the EVA are reviewed. The science mission assignments of each mission are viewed. The activities after the EVA are reviewed

  3. Lunar surface gravimeter experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giganti, J. J.; Larson, J. V.; Richard, J. P.; Tobias, R. L.; Weber, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lunar surface gravimeter used the moon as an instrumented antenna to search for gravitational waves predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. Tidal deformation of the moon was measured. Gravitational radiation is a channel that is capable of giving information about the structure and evolution of the universe.

  4. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  5. Lunar Surface Radiation Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, James; Albalat, Andrea Jaime; Tlustos, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    Effects of the lunar surface environment can be observed with a simple passive experiment consisting of small material samples placed in view of a lander or rover camera. This paper will describe, advocate and demonstrate the creation, ideally by students or young professionals, of a small standard sample holder, for example a string of different glass beads in front of a white or detector background, that can be replicated and installed on any of the coming series of lunar surface spacecraft. Effects of solar and cosmic ionizing radiation and local temperature, such as darkening and annealing, will be readily apparent in different kinds of glass, plastic and crystalline beads. Costs of preparation and installation, and impact on the main mission, can be kept to a level essentially negligible in proportion to project budgets.

  6. Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment: Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Table-top views of one of the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiments. This view is of the Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) (Lunar Mass Spectrometer), Experiment S-205, one of the experiments of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. The LACE will measrue components in the ambient lunar atmosphere in the range of one to 110 atomic mass units (AMU).

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Surface Coatings, Mineralogy, and Surface Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Mars: Surface Coatings, Mineralogy, and Surface Properties" contained the following reports:High-Silica Rock Coatings: TES Surface-Type 2 and Chemical Weathering on Mars; Old Desert Varnish-like Coatings and Young Breccias at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site; Analyses of IR-Stealthy and Coated Surface Materials: A Comparison of LIBS and Reflectance Spectra and Their Application to Mars Surface Exploration; Contrasting Interpretations of TES Spectra of the 2003 Rover:Opportunity-Landing Site: Hematite Coatings and Gray Hematite; A New Hematite Formation Mechanism for Mars; Geomorphic and Diagenetic Analogs to Hematite Regions on Mars: Examples from Jurassic Sandstones of Southern Utah, USA; The Geologic Record of Early Mars: A Layered, Cratered, and "Valley-"ed: Volume; A Simple Approach to Estimating Surface Emissivity with THEMIS; A Large Scale Topographic Correction for THEMIS Data; Thermophysical Properties of Meridiani Planum, Mars; Thermophysical and Spectral Properties of Gusev, the MER-Spirit Landing Site on Mars; Determining Water Content of Geologic Materials Using Reflectance Spectroscopy; and Global Mapping of Martian Bound Water at 6.1 Microns Based on TES Data: Seasonal Hydration.

  8. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Flashlight is an exciting new mission concept in preformulation studies for NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) by a team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, UCLA, and Marshall Space Flight Center. This innovative, low-cost concept will map the lunar south pole for volatiles and demonstrate several technological firsts, including being the first CubeSat to reach the Moon, the first mission to use an 80 m2 solar sail, and the first mission to use a solar sail as a reflector for science observations. The Lunar Flashlight mission spacecraft maneuvers to its lunar polar orbit and uses its solar sail as a mirror to reflect 50 kW of sunlight down into shaded polar regions, while the on-board spectrometer measures surface reflection and composition. The Lunar Flashlight 6U spacecraft has heritage elements from multiple cubesat systems. The deployable solar sail/reflector is based on previous solar sail experiments, scaled up for this mission. The mission will demonstrate a path where 6U CubeSats could, at dramatically lower cost than previously thought possible, explore, locate and estimate size and composition of ice deposits on the Moon. Locating ice deposits in the Moon's permanently shadowed craters addresses one of NASA's Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) to detect composition, quantity, distribution, form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps. Polar volatile data collected by Lunar Flashlight could then ensure that targets for more expensive lander- and rover-borne measurements would include volatiles in sufficient quantity and near enough to the surface to be operationally useful.

  9. Rover exploration on the lunar surface; a science proposal for SELENE-B mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kubota, T.; Akiyama, H.; Hirata, N.; Kunii, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Okada, T.; Otake, M.; Saiki, K.; Sugihara, T.

    LUNARSURFACE:ASCIENCES. Sasaki (1), T. Kubota (2) , H. Akiyama (1) , N. Hirata (3), Y. Kunii (4), K. Matsumoto (5), T. Okada (2), M. Otake (3), K. Saiki (6), T. Sugihara (3) (1) Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Univ. Tokyo, (2) Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, (3) National Space Development Agency of Japan, (4) Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chuo Univ., (5) National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, (6) Research Institute of Materials and Resources, Akita Univ. sho@eps.s.u -tokyo.ac.jp/Fax:+81-3-5841-4569 A new lunar landing mission (SELENE-B) is now in consideration in Japan. Scientific investigation plans using a rover are proposed. To clarify the origin and evolution of the moon, the early crustal formation and later mare volcanic processes are still unveiled. We proposed two geological investigation plans: exploration of a crater central peak to discover subsurface materials and exploration of dome-cone structures on young mare region. We propose multi-band macro/micro camera using AOTF, X-ray spectrometer/diffractometer and gamma ray spectrometer. Since observation of rock fragments in brecciaed rocks is necessary, the rover should have cutting or scraping mechanism of rocks. In our current scenario, landing should be performed about 500m from the main target (foot of a crater central peak or a cone/dome). After the spectral survey by multi-band camera on the lander, the rover should be deployed for geological investigation. The rover should make a short (a few tens meter) round trip at first, then it should perform traverse observation toward the main target. Some technological investigations on SELENE-B project will be also presented.

  10. Science Hybrid Orbiter and Lunar Relay (SCHOLR) Architecture and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trase, Kathryn K.; Barch, Rachel A.; Chaney, Ryan E.; Coulter, Rachel A.; Gao, Hui; Huynh, David P.; Iaconis, Nicholas A.; MacMillan, Todd S.; Pitner, Gregory M.; Schwab, Devin T.

    2011-01-01

    Considered both a stepping-stone to deep space and a key to unlocking the mysteries of planetary formation, the Moon offers a unique opportunity for scientific study. Robotic precursor missions are being developed to improve technology and enable new approaches to exploration. Robots, lunar landers, and satellites play significant roles in advancing science and technologies, offering close range and in-situ observations. Science and exploration data gathered from these nodes and a lunar science satellite is intended to support future human expeditions and facilitate future utilization of lunar resources. To attain a global view of lunar science, the nodes will be distributed over the lunar surface, including locations on the far side of the Moon. Given that nodes on the lunar far side do not have direct line-of-sight for Earth communications, the planned presence of such nodes creates the need for a lunar communications relay satellite. Since the communications relay capability would only be required for a small portion of the satellite s orbit, it may be possible to include communication relay components on a science spacecraft. Furthermore, an integrated satellite has the potential to reduce lunar surface mission costs. A SCience Hybrid Orbiter and Lunar Relay (SCHOLR) is proposed to accomplish scientific goals while also supporting the communications needs of landers on the far side of the Moon. User needs and design drivers for the system were derived from the anticipated needs of future robotic and lander missions. Based on these drivers and user requirements, accommodations for communications payload aboard a science spacecraft were developed. A team of interns identified and compared possible SCHOLR architectures. The final SCHOLR architecture was analyzed in terms of orbiter lifetime, lunar surface coverage, size, mass, power, and communications data rates. This paper presents the driving requirements, operational concept, and architecture views for SCHOLR

  11. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the Russian led science payload, focusing on developing an characterising the resource opportunities offered at the lunar surface. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. In the frame of a broader future international programme under discussion through the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) future missions are under investigation that would provide access to the lunar surface through international cooperation and human-robotic partnerships.

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference covered topics on Mars, planetary origins, planetary analog studies, education,chondrite studies, and meteorite composition. Over 1000 reports were presented at the conference in over 100 sessions. Each session, and presentations,was processed separately for the database.

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The 34th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference was held March 17-21, 2003. Topics included planetary exploration, crater research on Mars, Earth, Moon, and other planets or satellites, imaging techniques and image analysis, age determination, albedo studies, petrographic studies, isotope composition studies, instrument design, sampling methods, landform analysis, asteroids, impact analysis, impact melts, and related research.

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  15. Thermal Control System for a Small, Extended Duration Lunar Surface Science Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, D.; Farmer, J.; OConnor, B.; Wirzburger, M.; Abel, E.; Stouffer, C.

    2010-01-01

    The presentation slides include: Introduction: lunar mission definition, Problem: requirements/methodology, Concept: thermal switching options, Analysis: system evaluation, Plans: dual-radiator LHP (loop heat pipe) test bed, and Conclusions: from this study.

  16. Advances in Lunar Science and Observational Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Lunar science is currently undergoing a renaissance as our understanding of our Moon continues to evolve given new data from multiple lunar mission and new analyses. This talk will overview NASA's recent and future lunar missions to explain the scientific questions addressed by missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (Grail), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The talk will also overview opportunities for participatory exploration whereby professional and amateur astronomers are encouraged to participate in lunar exploration in conjunction with NASA.

  17. Lunar surface magnetometer design review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Design and fabrication parameters of a lunar surface magnetometer are discussed. Drawings and requirements for mechanical design, electronic packaging design, thermal design, quality assurance and systems testing are included.

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: The Future of Mars Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session The Future of Mars Surface Exploration includes the following topics: 1) High Resolution Laser Scanning Techniques for Rock Abrasion and Texture Analyses on Mars and Earth; 2) Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analog Rocks Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument; 3) Quantitative Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analogues Using CHEMIN Data and Rietveld Refinement; 4) In Situ Analytical Strategy for Mars Combining X-Ray and Optical Techniques; 5) In-Situ Dating on Mars: The Potential of OSL Dating; 6) Experiment of Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN): Searching for Water-rich Spots from the Rover on the Surface of Mars; and 7) Developing an Automated Science Analysis System for Mars Surface Exploration for MSL and Beyond.

  19. Planetary science: A lunar perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    An interpretative synthesis of current knowledge on the moon and the terrestrial planets is presented, emphasizing the impact of recent lunar research (using Apollo data and samples) on theories of planetary morphology and evolution. Chapters are included on the exploration of the solar system; geology and stratigraphy; meteorite impacts, craters, and multiring basins; planetary surfaces; planetary crusts; basaltic volcanism; planetary interiors; the chemical composition of the planets; the origin and evolution of the moon and planets; and the significance of lunar and planetary exploration. Photographs, drawings, graphs, tables of quantitative data, and a glossary are provided.

  20. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Banazadeh, P.; Baker, J. D.; Staehle, R. L.; Paine, C..; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Water ice and other volatiles may be located in the Moon's polar regions, with sufficient quantities for in situ extraction and utilization by future human and robotic missions. Evidence from orbiting spacecraft and the LCROSS impactor suggests the presence of surface and/or nearsurface volatiles, including water ice. These deposits are of interest to human exploration to understand their potential for use by astronauts. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits could also reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system, so are of scientific interest. The scientific exploration of the lunar polar regions was one of the key recommendations of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program selected three lowcost 6-U CubeSat missions for launch as secondary payloads on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS) scheduled for 2017. The Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as one of these missions, specifically to address the SKG associated with lunar volatiles. Development of the Lunar Flashlight CubeSat concept leverages JPL's Interplanetary Nano- Spacecraft Pathfinder In Relevant Environment (INSPIRE) mission, MSFC's intimate knowledge of the Space Launch System and EM-1 mission, small business development of solar sail and electric propulsion hardware, and JPL experience with specialized miniature sensors. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and its physical state, and map its concentration at the kilometer scale within the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight deploys its solar panels and solar sail and maneuvers

  1. The Lunar Surface: A Dusty Plasma Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Brain, D.; Kempf, S.; Munsat, T.; Robertson, S. H.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar surface is an excellent laboratory to study dusty plasma processes that are relevant to all airless planetary objects. The solar wind and UV radiation lead to charging of exposed surfaces, and the formation of plasma sheaths above them. Near-surface intense electric fields are thought to be capable of mobilizing and transporting small charged dust particles. Remote sensing and in situ observations indicating dust transport on the Moon date back to the Apollo era and remain highly controversial. There are many unresolved issues about the physical processes that have to this point prevented the development of a coherent explanation for the existing observations. Dust transport on airless bodies can significantly alter our interpretation of spectral identification of asteroids, the small-scale surface features of Mercury, and the Martian moons Phobos and Deimos. Understanding the behavior of dust laden plasma sheaths is of interest in basic plasma and planetary sciences, and holds the key to efficient dust hazard mitigation for the long-term use of optical and mechanical equipment used for robotic and/or human exploration. NASA Lunar Science Institute's Colorado Center of Lunar Dust is focused on experimental and theoretical investigations of dusty plasmas, and the effects of hypervelocity dust impacts on surfaces. This presentation will describe a series of small-scale laboratory experiments investigating the properties of photoelectron sheaths, and the emergence of intense electric fields near boundaries of lit and dark surfaces and regions shielded and exposed to the solar wind plasma flow. Our progress in the analysis and interpretation of the laboratory observations using simple analytic models and complex plasma simulation tools indicates that these models can be used to predict the expected properties of the lunar near-surface environment with increasing confidence. Based on our laboratory and theoretical efforts, we will also report on the status of

  2. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  3. NASA Lunar Robotics for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Lavoie, Anthony R.; Gilbert, Paul A.; Horack, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the robotic missions that NASA and the international partnership are undertaking to investigate the moon to support science and exploration objectives. These missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Moon Mineralogy Mapper (MMM), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), and the International Lunar Network (ILN). The goals and instrumentation of these missions are reviewed.

  4. Construction of manned lunar surface sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzawa, Yoshinori; Horie, Michihiko; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Amagata, Raita; Honda, Tetsuya

    1991-07-01

    A review is conducted on manned lunar surface sites to be constructed in around 2010 to conduct various experiments and observations on the lunar surface in a short time prior to developing permanent lunar bases. Methods of construction and operation of manned lunar surface sites are established, taking requirements from the mission parts and shipping mean constraints. Review results of mission requirements and operation profiles are presented. Experiment subjects, structures and outlines of subsystems, weight balance, electric power balance and functional block diagram of the manned lunar surface sites are presented. Conceptual drawings of air-lock and roving vehicle, operation profiles and conceptual drawing of lunar surface sites are shown.

  5. The ISA accelerometer and Lunar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Massimo Lucchesi, David; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Milyukov, Vadim; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Santoli, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments: in fact a wide variety of them has been proposed to be conducted on the lunar surface. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its structure (three one-dimensional sensors assembled in a composite structure) it works both in-orbit and on-ground, with the same configuration. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been the subject of preliminary studies and has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. ISA-S (ISA-Seismometer) has a very high sensitivity, which has already been demonstrated with long time periods of usage on Earth. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of landing missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the systems.

  6. A Lunar Surface Operations Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayar, H.; Balaram, J.; Cameron, J.; Jain, A.; Lim, C.; Mukherjee, R.; Peters, S.; Pomerantz, M.; Reder, L.; Shakkottai, P.; Wall, S,

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Operations Simulator (LSOS) is being developed to support planning and design of space missions to return astronauts to the moon. Vehicles, habitats, dynamic and physical processes and related environment systems are modeled and simulated in LSOS to assist in the visualization and design optimization of systems for lunar surface operations. A parametric analysis tool and a data browser were also implemented to provide an intuitive interface to run multiple simulations and review their results. The simulator and parametric analysis capability are described in this paper.

  7. Apollo lunar surface experiments package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The ALSEP program status and monthly progress are reported. Environmental and quality control tests and test results are described. Details are given on the Apollo 17 Array E, and the lunar seismic profiling, ejecta and meteorites, mass spectrometer, surface gravimeter, and heat flow experiments. Monitoring of the four ALSEP systems on the moon is also described.

  8. The science of the lunar poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct

  9. Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Table-top views of some of the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment equipment. Included are the Geophone Module and Cable Reels of the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (S-203), a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. After it is triggered, the experiment will settle down into a passive listening mode, detecting Moonquakes, meteorite impacts and the thump caused by the Lunar Module ascent stage impact (37259); The remote antenna for the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (S-203) (37260).

  10. Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

  11. Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-07-01

    The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

  12. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Weird Martian Minerals: Complex Mars Surface Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Complex Mars Surface" included the following reports:A Reappraisal of Adsorbed Superoxide Ion as the Cause Behind the Reactivity of the Martian Soils; Sub-Surface Deposits of Hydrous Silicates or Hydrated Magnesium Sulfates as Hydrogen Reservoirs near the Martian Equator: Plausible or Not?; Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Smectites: The Search for Water on Mars; Aqueous Alteration Pathways for K, Th, and U on Mars; Temperature Dependence of the Moessbauer Fraction in Mars-Analog Minerals; Acid-Sulfate Vapor Reactions with Basaltic Tephra: An Analog for Martian Surface Processes; Iron Oxide Weathering in Sulfuric Acid: Implications for Mars; P/Fe as an Aquamarker for Mars; Stable Isotope Composition of Carbonates Formed in Low-Temperature Terrestrial Environments as Martian Analogs; Can the Phosphate Sorption and Occlusion Properties Help to Elucidate the Genesis of Specular Hematite on the Mars Surface?; Sulfate Salts, Regolith Interactions, and Water Storage in Equatorial Martian Regolith; Potential Pathways to Maghemite in Mars Soils: The Key Role of Phosphate; and Mineralogy, Abundance, and Hydration State of Sulfates and Chlorides at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site.

  14. Lunar Science Conference, 8th, Houston, Tex., March 14-18, 1977, Proceedings. Volume 1 - The moon and the inner solar system. Volume 2 - Petrogenetic studies of mare and highland rocks. Volume 3 - Planetary and lunar surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merril, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Solar system processes are considered along with the origin and evolution of the moon, planetary geophysics, lunar basins and crustal layering, lunar magnetism, the lunar surface as a planetary probe, remote observations of lunar and planetary surfaces, earth-based measurements, integrated studies, physical properties of lunar materials, and asteroids, meteorites, and the early solar system. Attention is also given to studies of mare basalts, the kinetics of basalt crystallization, topical studies of mare basalts, highland rocks, experimental studies of highland rocks, geochemical studies of highland rocks, studies of materials of KREEP composition, a consortium study of lunar breccia 73215, topical studies on highland rocks, Venus, and regional studies of the moon. Studies of surface processes, are reported, taking into account cratering mechanics and fresh crater morphology, crater statistics and surface dating, effects of exposure and gardening, and the chemistry of surfaces.

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The present conference discusses such topics as density crossovers in lunar picrites, the geology of the Cassini impact basin, Mars, nanobacteria in carbonates, the properties of shocked aerogels, a chemical model of Comet Halley, lunar mascons, the impact evolution of icy regoliths, the geology of the Venera 8 landing site, the photogeologic mapping of northern Venus, HST observations of Mars, observational constraints on the rotational dynamics of Mars, and primordial magnetic field measurements from the moon. Also discussed are models of the S2 fluorescence spectra of comets, Martian crater ejecta, the heights of Venusian steep-sided domes, cloud-climate interactions on Venus, the Humorum basin geology from Clementine data, an early Amazonian lake in the Gale crater of Mars, nebular fractionations and Mn-Cr systematics, the Rock Chipper planetary surface sample collection, Mariner 10 stereo images of Mercury, remote and local stresses and Calderas on Mars, the electrostatic charging of saltating particles, SO2 detected on Callisto, the Mars Explorer Planetary Data System, an assessment of explosive venting on Europa, the sequential faulting history of the Mars Valles Marineris, a search for Martian sediments, the composition and internal structure of Europa, long-term and 'diurnal' tidal stresses on Europa, and episodic greenhouse climates on Mars.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Characterization of Non-Organized Soils at Gusev Crater with the Spirit Rover Data; Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions; Analysis of the Lunar Surface with Global Mineral and Mg-Number Maps ALH77005: The Magmatic History from Rehomogenized Melt Inclusions; New 70-cm Radar Mapping of the Moon; Cryptomare Deposits Revealed by 70-cm Radar; Construction of a PZT Sensor Network for Low and Hypervelocity Impact Detection; Palmer Quest: A Feasible Nuclear Fission "Vision Mission" to the Mars Polar Caps; Physical Properties of Volcanic Deposits on Venus from Radar Polarimetry; Science Alert Demonstration with a Rover Traverse Science Data Analysis System; Earth and Mars, Similar Features and Parallel Lives? Didactic Activities; Expected Constraints on Rhea s Interior from Cassini; Microbially Induced Precipitates: Examples from CO3, Si-, Mn- and Fe-rich Deposits; Li, B - Behavior in Lunar Basalts During Shock and Thermal Metamorphism: Implications for H2O in Martian Magmas; Evaluation of CO Self-Shielding as a Possible Mechanism for Anomalous Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Early Solar System Materials; Effect of Ground Ice on Apparent Thermal Inertia on Mars; Utah Marbles and Mars Blueberries: Comparative Terrestrial Analogs for Hematite Concretions on Mars; Newly Discovered Meteor Crater Metallic Impact Spherules: Report and Implications; and Evidence of Very Young Glacial Processes in Central Candor Chasma, Mars.

  17. DREAM Center for Lunar Science: Three Year Summary Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.

    2012-12-01

    In early 2009, the Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) lunar science center became a supporting team of NASA's Lunar Science Institute specifically to study the solar-lunar connection and understand the response of the lunar plasma, exosphere, dust, and surface environments to solar variations. We especially emphasize the effect extreme events like solar storms and impacts have on the plasma-surface-gas dynamic system. One of the center's hallmark contribution is the solar storm - lunar atmosphere modeling (SSLAM) study that cross-integrated a large number of the center's models to determine the effect a strong solar storm has at the Moon. The results from this intramural event will be described herein. A number of other key studies were performed, including a unique ground-based observation of the LCROSS impact-generated sodium plume, LADEE dust and atmosphere expectation studies, ARTEMIS data and model synthesis, polar crater ambipolar modeling, dust transport simulations, and focused studies on the formation and distribution of lunar water. DREAM successfully advanced the understanding of the solar-driven lunar environment from the Apollo era, through the Altair era, to the new flexible era of exploration.

  18. Science objectives in the lunar base advocacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1988-01-01

    The author considers the potential function of astronomy in planning for a lunar base during the 21st century. He is one of the leading advocates for a permanent settlement on the Moon and has given considerable thought to the possible impact of such a station on science. He considers the rationale for a lunar base, research on the Moon, and the definition of science objectives.

  19. Lunar Surface Architecture Utilization and Logistics Support Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienhoff, Dallas; Findiesen, William; Bayer, Martin; Born, Andrew; McCormick, David

    2008-01-01

    Crew and equipment utilization and logistics support needs for the point of departure lunar outpost as presented by the NASA Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) and alternative surface architectures were assessed for the first ten years of operation. The lunar surface architectures were evaluated and manifests created for each mission. Distances between Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) landing sites and emplacement locations were estimated. Physical characteristics were assigned to each surface element and operational characteristics were assigned to each surface mobility element. Stochastic analysis was conducted to assess probable times to deploy surface elements, conduct exploration excursions, and perform defined crew activities. Crew time is divided into Outpost-related, exploration and science, overhead, and personal activities. Outpost-related time includes element deployment, EVA maintenance, IVA maintenance, and logistics resupply. Exploration and science activities include mapping, geological surveys, science experiment deployment, sample analysis and categorizing, and physiological and biological tests in the lunar environment. Personal activities include sleeping, eating, hygiene, exercising, and time off. Overhead activities include precursor or close-out tasks that must be accomplished but don't fit into the other three categories such as: suit donning and doffing, airlock cycle time, suit cleaning, suit maintenance, post-landing safing actions, and pre-departure preparations. Equipment usage time, spares, maintenance actions, and Outpost consumables are also estimated to provide input into logistics support planning. Results are normalized relative to the NASA LAT point of departure lunar surface architecture.

  20. Robotic Lunar Landers For Science And Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Morse, B. J.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. In 2005, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Mission #2 (RLEP-2) was selected as an ESMD precursor robotic lander mission to demonstrate precision landing and determine if there was water ice at the lunar poles; however, this project was canceled. Since 2008, the team has been supporting SMD designing small lunar robotic landers for science missions, primarily to establish anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar geophysical nodes. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science community. This paper describes the current status of the MSFC/APL robotic lunar mission studies and risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing, combined GN&C and avionics testing, and two autonomous lander test articles.

  1. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition.

  2. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  3. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    Our Moon Every person on Earth is familiar with the Moon. Every resident with nominal eyesight on each continent has seen this near-by planetary body with their own eyes countless times. Those fortunate enough to have binoculars or access to a telescope have explored the craters, valleys, domes, and plains across the lunar surface as changing lighting conditions highlight the mysteries of this marvellously foreign landscape. Schoolchildren learn that the daily rhythm and flow of tides along the coastlines of our oceans are due to the interaction of the Earth and the Moon. This continuous direct and personal link is but one of the many reasons lunar science is fundamental to humanity. The Earth-Moon System In the context of space exploration, our understanding of the Earth-Moon system has grown enormously. The Moon has become the cornerstone for most aspects of planetary science that relate to the terrestrial (rocky) planets. The scientific context for exploration of the Moon is presented in a recent report by a subcommittee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council [free from the website: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11954]. Figure 1 captures the interwoven themes surrounding lunar science recognized and discussed in that report. In particular, it is now recognized that the Earth and the Moon have been intimately linked in their early history. Although they subsequently took very different evolutionary paths, the Moon provides a unique and valuable window both into processes that occurred during the first 600 Million years of solar system evolution (planetary differentiation and the heavy bombardment record) as well as the (ultimately dangerous) impact record of more recent times. This additional role of the Moon as keystone is because the Earth and the Moon share the same environment at 1 AU, but only the Moon retains a continuous record of cosmic events. An Initial Bloom of Exploration and Drought The space age celebrated its 50th

  4. Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Wendell

    1970-01-01

    Report of a conference called to discuss the findings of 142 scientists from their investigations of samples of lunar rock and soil brought back by the Apollo 11 mission. Significant findings reported include the age and composition of the lunar samples, and the absence of water and organic matter. Much discussed was the origin and structure of…

  5. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  6. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  7. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hill, L. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Chavers, D. G.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Kirby, K. W.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. In 2005, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Mission #2 (RLEP-2) was selected as a Exploration Systems Mission Directorate precursor robotic lunar lander mission to demonstrate precision landing and definitively determine if there was water ice at the lunar poles; however, this project was canceled. Since 2008, the team has been supporting NASA s Science Mission Directorate designing small lunar robotic landers for diverse science missions. The primary emphasis has been to establish anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar science stations envisioned to be emplaced by multiple nations. This network would consist of multiple landers carrying instruments to address the geophysical characteristics and evolution of the moon. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science community and extensive risk reduction design and testing has been performed to advance the design of the lander system and reduce development risk for flight projects. This paper describes the current status of the robotic lunar mission studies that have been conducted by the MSFC/APL Robotic Lunar Lander Development team, including the ILN Anchor Nodes mission. In addition, the results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing and combined GN&C and avionics testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two autonomous lander test articles: a compressed air system with limited flight durations and a second version using hydrogen peroxide propellant to achieve significantly longer flight times and the ability to

  8. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions mostly from the solar wind play a major role in lunar space weathering because they contribute structural and chemical changes to the space-exposed surfaces of lunar regolith grains. In mature mare soils, ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains in the finest size fraction have been shown in transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to exhibit key differences in their response to space radiation processing relative to silicates [1,2,3]. In ilmenite, solar ion radiation alters host grain outer margins to produce 10-100 nm thick layers that are microstructurally complex, but dominantly crystalline compared to the amorphous radiation-processed rims on silicates [1,2,3]. Spatially well-resolved analytical TEM measurements also show nm-scale compositional and chemical state changes in these layers [1,3]. These include shifts in Fe/Ti ratio from strong surface Fe-enrichment (Fe/Ti >> 1), to Fe depletion (Fe/Ti < 1) at 40-50 nm below the grain surface [1,3]. These compositional changes are not observed in the radiation-processed rims on silicates [4]. Several mechanism(s) to explain the overall relations in the ilmenite grain rims by radiation processing and/or additional space weathering processes were proposed by [1], and remain under current consideration [3]. A key issue has concerned the ability of ion radiation processing alone to produce some of the deeper- penetrating compositional changes. In order to provide some experimental constraints on these questions, we have performed a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field-emission scanning transmission electron (FE-STEM) study of experimentally ion-irradiated ilmenite. A key feature of this work is the combination of analytical techniques sensitive to changes in the irradiated samples at depth scales going from the immediate surface (approx.5 nm; XPS), to deeper in the grain interior (5-100 nm; FE-STEM).

  9. Lunar science. [geophysics, mineralogy and evolution of moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brett, R.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the recent developments in lunar science summarizing the most important lunar findings and the known restraints on the theories of lunar evolution is presented. Lunar geophysics is discussed in sections dealing with the figure of the moon, mascons, and the lunar thermal regime; recent seismic studies and magnetic results are reported. The chemical data on materials taken from lunar orbit are analyzed, and the lunar geology is discussed. Special attention is accorded the subject of minerology, reflecting the information obtained from lunar samples of both mare and nonmare origin. A tentative timetable of lunar events is proposed, and the problem of the moon's origin is briefly treated.

  10. Lunar surface structural concepts and construction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar surface structures construction research areas; lunar crane related disciplines; shortcomings of typical mobile crane in lunar base applications; candidate crane cable suspension systems; NIST six-cable suspension crane; numerical example of natural frequency; the incorporation of two new features for improved performance of the counter-balanced actively-controlled lunar crane; lunar crane pendulum mechanics; simulation results; 1/6 scale lunar crane testbed using GE robot for global manipulation; basic deployable truss approaches; bi-pantograph elevator platform; comparison of elevator platforms; perspective of bi-pantograph beam; bi-pantograph synchronously deployable tower/beam; lunar module off-loading concept; module off-loader concept packaged; starburst deployable precision reflector; 3-ring reflector deployment scheme; cross-section of packaged starburst reflector; and focal point and thickness packaging considerations.

  11. Lunar surface structural concepts and construction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulas, Martin

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar surface structures construction research areas; lunar crane related disciplines; shortcomings of typical mobile crane in lunar base applications; candidate crane cable suspension systems; NIST six-cable suspension crane; numerical example of natural frequency; the incorporation of two new features for improved performance of the counter-balanced actively-controlled lunar crane; lunar crane pendulum mechanics; simulation results; 1/6 scale lunar crane testbed using GE robot for global manipulation; basic deployable truss approaches; bi-pantograph elevator platform; comparison of elevator platforms; perspective of bi-pantograph beam; bi-pantograph synchronously deployable tower/beam; lunar module off-loading concept; module off-loader concept packaged; starburst deployable precision reflector; 3-ring reflector deployment scheme; cross-section of packaged starburst reflector; and focal point and thickness packaging considerations.

  12. Lunar Surface-to-Surface Power Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    A human lunar outpost, under NASA study for construction in the 2020's, has potential requirements to transfer electric power up to 50-kW across the lunar surface from 0.1 to 10-km distances. This power would be used to operate surface payloads located remotely from the outpost and/or outpost primary power grid. This paper describes concept designs for state-of-the-art technology power transfer subsystems including AC or DC power via cables, beamed radio frequency power and beamed laser power. Power transfer subsystem mass and performance are calculated and compared for each option. A simplified qualitative assessment of option operations, hazards, costs and technology needs is also described. Based on these concept designs and performance analyses, a DC power cabling subsystem is recommended to minimize subsystem mass and to minimize mission and programmatic costs and risks. Avenues for additional power transfer subsystem studies are recommended.

  13. Lunar magnetic anomalies and surface optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.; Schubert, G.

    1980-04-01

    Consideration is given to the influence of lunar magnetic anomalies on the darkening of the lunar surface by solar wind ion bombardment. It is shown that lunar magnetic anomalies with dipole moments much greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th gauss cu cm will strongly deflect the typical solar wind, producing local plasma voids at the lunar surface. Direct measurements of lunar magnetic fields have shown most lunar magnetic fields to have moments below this level, with the exception of anomalies detected in the areas of the Reiner Gamma albedo feature, the Van de Graaff-Aitken region and Mare Marginis. Such magnetic anomalies are shown to be capable of accounting for the higher albedo and swirl-like morphology f these features by the deflection and focusing incident solar wind ions, which tend to darken the surface upon impact.

  14. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, R. R.; Keller, J. W.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J. B.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Petro, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. Having marked the two-year anniversary, we will review here the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for an extended science phase out to 2014.

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Concerning Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV session entitled "Concerning Chondrites" includes the following topics: 1) Petrology and Raman Spectroscopy of Shocked Phases in the Gujba CB Chondrite and the Shock History of the CB Parent Body; 2) The Relationship Between CK and CV Chondrites: A Single Parent Body Source? 3) Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites; 4) Composition and Origin of SiO2-rich Objects in Carbonaceous and Ordinary Chondrites; 5) Re-Os Systematics and HSE distribution in Tieschitz (H3.6); Two Isochrons for One Meteorite; 6) Loss of Chromium from Olivine During the Metamorphism of Chondrites; 7) Very Short Delivery Times of Meteorites After the L-Chondrite Parent Body Break-Up 480 Myr Ago; and 8) The Complex Exposure History of a Very Large L/LL5 Chondrite Shower: Queen Alexandra Range 90201.

  16. Artist's rendering of Descent to Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Descent to Lunar Surface: The Commander and Lunar Module Pilot transfer to the IM, separate it from the Command and Service Module, and fire the IM descent engine to land on the Moon. After checking out the spacecraft and eating and resting, the Commander climbs down the ladder and places his left foot on the Moon while his right foot is inside the Lunar Module landing pad.

  17. Kaguya (SELENE) mission: present status and its lunar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Sasaki, S.; Takizawa, Y.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Japanese lunar orbiter Kaguya (SELENE) has been successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center TNSC on September 14, 2007. The Kaguya mission has started in 1999 JFY as a joint mission of ISAS and NASDA, which have been merged into a space agency JAXA in October 1, 2003. On October 4 the Kaguya has been inserted into a large elliptical orbit circulating the Moon after passing the phasing orbit rounding the Earth. After lowering the apolune altitudes the Kaguya has reached the nominal observation orbit with 100 km circular and polar on October 18. On the way to nominal orbit two subsatellites Okina(Rstar) and Ouna(Vstar) have been released into the elliptical orbits of 100 km perilune, and 2400 km and 800 km apolune, respectively. After the checkout of bus system the extension of four sounder antennas with 15 m length and the 12 m mast for magnetometer, and deployment of plasma imager were successfully carried out to start checkout of science instruments. Nominal observation term for ten months has been started on December 21, 2007. Six lunar days have been passed with healthy condition of most instruments. Key questions on lunar science are "What's origin of the Moon?", "How does the Moon have evolved?", and "What history does the lunar environment have passed?" Science topics to be studied by using fourteen science instruments are surface composition of chemistry and mineralogy, evolution tectonics of surface including subsurface to 5 km depth, gravity field of whole moon and magnetic field distribution for the study on origin and evolution of the Moon. Lunar environment are also investigated in observing charged and neutral particles impinged on the surface. High definition TV cameras have extensively taken HDTV movies of Earthrise, Earth set, and stunning lunar surfaces including both polar areas and farside to broadcast for public outreach.

  18. Artist's rendering of Lunar Surface Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Lunar Surface Activities: Instruments erected on the surface are a seismometer to record any subsurface activity of the Moon, a laser reflector, a solar wind collector, and possibly an antenna for improving communications and television picture transmission.

  19. APOLLO 10: Training for Lunar Surface Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Astronauts train on a mock-up lunar surface, practicing the procedures they will follow on the real thing, and adjusting to the demands of the workload. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 10: 'Green Light for a Lunar Landing''. Part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 10: Manned lunar orbital flight with Thomas P Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan to test all aspects of an actual manned lunar landing except the landing. Mission Duration 192hrs 3mins 23 sec

  20. Lunar soil and surface processes studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    Glass particles in lunar soil were characterized and compared to terrestrial analogues. In addition, useful information was obtained concerning the nature of lunar surface processes (e.g. volcanism and impact), maturity of soils and chemistry and heterogeneity of lunar surface material. It is felt, however, that the most important result of the study was that it demonstrated that the investigation of glass particles from the regolith of planetary bodies with little or no atmospheres can be a powerful method for learning about the surface processes and chemistry of planetary surfaces. Thus, the return of samples from other planetary bodies (especially the terrestrial planets and asteroids) using unmanned spacecraft is urged.

  1. Proceedings of the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Chondrites, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Chondrites, Refractory Inclusions, Organics in Chondrites, Meteorites: Techniques, Experiments, and Physical Properties, MESSENGER and Mercury, Lunar Science Present: Kaguya (SELENE) Results, Lunar Remote Sensing: Basins and Mapping of Geology and Geochemistry, Lunar Science: Dust and Ice, Lunar Science: Missions and Planning, Mars: Layered, Icy, and Polygonal, Mars Stratigraphy and Sedimentology, Mars (Peri)Glacial, Mars Polar (and Vast), Mars, You are Here: Landing Sites and Imagery, Mars Volcanics and Magmas, Mars Atmosphere, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observation, Ice is Nice: Mostly Outer Planet Satellites, Galilean Satellites, The Big Giant Planets, Astrobiology, In Situ Instrumentation, Rocket Scientist's Toolbox: Mission Science and Operations, Spacecraft Missions, Presolar Grains, Micrometeorites, Condensation-Evaporation: Stardust Ties, Comet Dust, Comparative Planetology, Planetary Differentiation, Lunar Meteorites, Nonchondritic Meteorites, Martian Meteorites, Apollo Samples and Lunar Interior, Lunar Geophysics, Lunar Science: Geophysics, Surface Science, and Extralunar Components, Mars, Remotely, Mars Orbital Data - Methods and Interpretation, Mars Tectonics and Dynamics, Mars Craters: Tiny to Humongous, Mars Sedimentary Mineralogy, Martian Gullies and Slope Streaks, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Mars Aeolian Processes, Mars Data and Mission,s Venus Mapping, Modeling, and Data Analysis, Titan, Icy Dwarf Satellites, Rocket Scientist's Toolbox: In Situ Analysis, Remote Sensing Approaches, Advances, and Applications, Analogs: Sulfates - Earth and Lab to Mars, Analogs: Remote Sensing and Spectroscopy, Analogs: Methods and Instruments, Analogs: Weird Places!. Print Only Early Solar System, Solar Wind, IDPs, Presolar/Solar Grains, Stardust, Comets, Asteroids, and Phobos, Venus, Mercury, Moon, Meteorites, Mars, Astrobiology, Impacts, Outer Planets, Satellites, and Rings, Support for Mission Operations, Analog

  2. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  3. Lighting constraints on lunar surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    1991-05-01

    An investigation into the levels of ambient lighting on the lunar surface indicates that for most nearside locations, illumination will be adequate throughout most of the lunar night to conduct EVAs with only minor artificial illumination. The maximum lighting available during the lunar night from Earthshine will be similar to the light level on a July evening at approximately 8:00 pm in the southern United States (approximately 15 minutes after sunset). Because of the captured rotation of the Moon about the Earth, the location of the Earth will remain approximately constant throughout the lunar night, with consequent constant shadow length and angle. Variations in the level of Earthside illumination will be solely a function of Earth phase angle. Experience during the Apollo Program suggests that EVA activities during the period around the lunar noon may be difficult due to lack of surface definition caused by elimination of shadows.

  4. Lighting constraints on lunar surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the levels of ambient lighting on the lunar surface indicates that for most nearside locations, illumination will be adequate throughout most of the lunar night to conduct EVAs with only minor artificial illumination. The maximum lighting available during the lunar night from Earthshine will be similar to the light level on a July evening at approximately 8:00 pm in the southern United States (approximately 15 minutes after sunset). Because of the captured rotation of the Moon about the Earth, the location of the Earth will remain approximately constant throughout the lunar night, with consequent constant shadow length and angle. Variations in the level of Earthside illumination will be solely a function of Earth phase angle. Experience during the Apollo Program suggests that EVA activities during the period around the lunar noon may be difficult due to lack of surface definition caused by elimination of shadows.

  5. Lunar Surface Operations. Part 1; Post-Touchdown Lunar Surface and System Checkouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the first part of the post-touchdown lunar surface and system checkout tasks. A stay/no stay decision for the lunar lander was made based on the questions: "Is the Lunar Module (LM) stable on the lunar surface?"; "Are there any time critical systems failures or trends indicating impending loss of capability to ascent and achieve a safe lunar orbit?"; and "Is there loss of capability in critical LM systems?" The sequence of these decisions is given as a time after touchdown on the surface of the moon. After the decision to stay is made the next task is to checkout status of the lunar module. While the status of the lunar module is checking out certain conditions, the Command Service Module was also engaged in certain checkout activities.

  6. ILEWG report and discussion on Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" will include oral papers and posters, and a series of discussions. Members of ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group will debate: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open - Celebrating the lunar legacy of pioneers Gerhard Neukum, Colin Pillinger and Manfred Fuchs planetary science and exploration - Latest results from LADEE and Chang'e 3/4 - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang-E1 and Chang-E2, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS impactor, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs, Chang'E 5, Future landers, Lunar sample return - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar sorties - Preparation: databases, instruments, terrestrial field campaigns - The future international lunar exploration programme towards ILEWG roadmap of a global robotic village and permanent international lunar base - The proposals for an International Lunar Decade and International Lunar Research Parks - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Human Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with the perspective of robotic and human exploration. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.

  7. Lunar Surface Properties from Diviner Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul; Paige, David; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Bandfield, Joshua; Siegler, Matthew; Lucey, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The thermal behavior of planetary bodies can reveal information about fundamental processes shaping their surfaces and interiors. Diviner [1] has been mapping the Moon's diurnal temperatures since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) arrived in 2009, yielding new insights into regolith formation [2, 3], the distribution of volatiles [4, 5], lunar volcanism [6, 7, 8], and impact processes [9]. The Moon's cooling during eclipse provides complementary information on the physical properties of the uppermost surface layer, which can be used to further investigate these and other processes. We used data from Diviner's seven thermal infrared spectral channels to measure surface temperatures before, during and after the 8 Oct., 2014 eclipse. In its standard nadir-pushbroom mode, Diviner maps surface temperatures in a ~6-km swath with a spatial resolution of ~250 m. Using Diviner's independent scanning capability [11], we also targeted two regions of interest on sequential orbits to create a time series of thermal observations: 1) Kepler crater (-38°E, 8°N) and 2) an unnamed nighttime "cold spot" (-33.3°E, 3°N). Pre-eclipse surface temperatures in these regions were ~380 K. As a relatively young Copernican-aged impact crater, Kepler was selected to investigate the abundance and size distribution of rocks in the ejecta and interior. Lunar nighttime "cold spots" are anomalous features around very young impact craters, extending for up to hundreds of crater radii, notable for their low temperatures in the Diviner nighttime data [9]. Although their origins are not fully explained, they are likely the result of in-situ disruption and decompression of regolith during the impact process. The selected cold spot (one of hundreds or even thousands on the lunar surface) was located with good viewing ge- ometry from LRO, and had a diameter of ~10 km surrounding a crater < 1 km in diameter. At Kepler crater, we observed dramatic differences in the amount of cooling related to the

  8. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science Boosted by Citizen Science Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2013-04-01

    From efforts to help scientists remotely monitor meteorites hitting the Moon to campaigns to count craters on raw images of the asteroid Vesta, creative strategies to utilize the public's ability to collect and analyze data are being employed for a variety of lunar and planetary science projects. According to speakers at a session called "Rising to the challenge: Improving public understanding of science in the next decade," held at the 44th annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in The Woodlands, Tex., from 18 to 22 March, these citizen science projects tap into public enthusiasm about worlds beyond our own.

  10. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in bldg 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  11. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    Our Moon Every person on Earth is familiar with the Moon. Every resident with nominal eyesight on each continent has seen this near-by planetary body with their own eyes countless times. Those fortunate enough to have binoculars or access to a telescope have explored the craters, valleys, domes, and plains across the lunar surface as changing lighting conditions highlight the mysteries of this marvellously foreign landscape. Schoolchildren learn that the daily rhythm and flow of tides along the coastlines of our oceans are due to the interaction of the Earth and the Moon. This continuous direct and personal link is but one of the many reasons lunar science is fundamental to humanity. The Earth-Moon System In the context of space exploration, our understanding of the Earth-Moon system has grown enormously. The Moon has become the cornerstone for most aspects of planetary science that relate to the terrestrial (rocky) planets. The scientific context for exploration of the Moon is presented in a recent report by a subcommittee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council [free from the website: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11954]. Figure 1 captures the interwoven themes surrounding lunar science recognized and discussed in that report. In particular, it is now recognized that the Earth and the Moon have been intimately linked in their early history. Although they subsequently took very different evolutionary paths, the Moon provides a unique and valuable window both into processes that occurred during the first 600 Million years of solar system evolution (planetary differentiation and the heavy bombardment record) as well as the (ultimately dangerous) impact record of more recent times. This additional role of the Moon as keystone is because the Earth and the Moon share the same environment at 1 AU, but only the Moon retains a continuous record of cosmic events. An Initial Bloom of Exploration and Drought The space age celebrated its 50th

  12. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-07-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to these seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought fro earth should be less than 1000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield.

  13. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Espinasse, S.; Hufenbach, B.

    2013-09-01

    Lunar exploration continues to be a priority for the European Space Agency (ESA) and is recognized as the next step for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Moon is also recognized as an important scientific target providing vital information on the history of the inner solar system; Earth and the emergence of life, and fundamental information on the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets. The Moon also provides a platform that can be utilized for fundamental science and to prepare the way for exploration deeper into space and towards a human Mars mission, the ultimate exploration goal. Lunar missions can also provide a means of preparing for a Mars sample return mission, which is an important long term robotic milestone. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. These include activities on the ISS and participation with US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017. Future activities planned activities also include participation in international robotic missions. These activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future. We present ESA's plans for Lunar exploration and the current status of activities. In particular we will show that this programme gives rise to unique scientific opportunities and prepares scientifically and technologically for future exploratory steps.

  14. Catalog of lunar and Mars science payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budden, Nancy Ann (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This catalog collects and describes science payloads considered for future robotic and human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. The science disciplines included are geosciences, meteorology, space physics, astronomy and astrophysics, life sciences, in-situ resource utilization, and robotic science. Science payload data is helpful for mission scientists and engineers developing reference architectures and detailed descriptions of mission organizations. One early step in advanced planning is formulating the science questions for each mission and identifying the instrumentation required to address these questions. The next critical element is to establish and quantify the supporting infrastructure required to deliver, emplace, operate, and maintain the science experiments with human crews or robots. This requires a comprehensive collection of up-to-date science payload information--hence the birth of this catalog. Divided into lunar and Mars sections, the catalog describes the physical characteristics of science instruments in terms of mass, volume, power and data requirements, mode of deployment and operation, maintenance needs, and technological readiness. It includes descriptions of science payloads for specific missions that have been studied in the last two years: the Scout Program, the Artemis Program, the First Lunar Outpost, and the Mars Exploration Program.

  15. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  16. Lunar near-surface structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, M. R.; Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic refraction data obtained at the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites permit a compressional wave velocity profile of the lunar near surface to be derived. Beneath the regolith at the Apollo 14 Fra Mauro site and the Apollo 16 Descartes site is material with a seismic velocity of about 300 m/sec, believed to be brecciated material or impact-derived debris. Considerable detail is known about the velocity structure at the Apollo 17 Taurus-Littrow site. Seismic velocities of 100, 327, 495, 960, and 4700 m/sec are observed. The depth to the top of the 4700-m/sec material is 1385 m, compatible with gravity estimates for the thickness of mare basaltic flows, which fill the Taurus-Littrow valley. The observed magnitude of the velocity change with depth and the implied steep velocity-depth gradient of more than 2 km/sec/km are much larger than have been observed on compaction experiments on granular materials and preclude simple cold compaction of a fine-grained rock powder to thicknesses of the order of kilometers.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Rocks from Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: Mineralogy and Petrology of Unbrecciated Lunar Basaltic Meteorite LAP 02205; LAP02205 Lunar Meteorite: Lunar Mare Basalt with Similarities to the Apollo 12 Ilmenite Basalt; Mineral Chemistry of LaPaz Ice Field 02205 - A New Lunar Basalt; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032; KREEP-rich Basaltic Magmatism: Diversity of Composition and Consistency of Age; Mineralogy of Yamato 983885 Lunar Polymict Breccia with Alkali-rich and Mg-rich Rocks; Ar-Ar Studies of Dhofar Clast-rich Feldspathic Highland Meteorites: 025, 026, 280, 303; Can Granulite Metamorphic Conditions Reset 40Ar-39Ar Ages in Lunar Rocks? [#1009] A Ferroan Gabbronorite Clast in Lunar Meteorite ALHA81005: Major and Trace Element Composition, and Origin; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite PCA02007, a New Feldspathic Regolith Breccia; and Troilite Formed by Sulfurization: A Crystal Structure of Synthetic Analogue

  18. Options for a lunar base surface architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-02-01

    The Planet Surface Systems Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has participated in an analysis of the Space Exploration Initiative architectures described in the Synthesis Group report. This effort involves a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define point designs for evolving lunar and Mars bases that support substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. The analysis addresses systems-level designs; element requirements and conceptual designs; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and overall programmatics and schedules. This paper focuses on the results of the study of the Space Resource Utilization Architecture. This architecture develops the capability to extract useful materials from the indigenous resources of the Moon and Mars. On the Moon, a substantial infrastructure is emplaced which can support a crew of up to twelve. Two major process lines are developed: one produces oxygen, ceramics, and metals; the other produces hydrogen, helium, and other volatiles. The Moon is also used for a simulation of a Mars mission. Significant science capabilities are established in conjunction with resource development. Exploration includes remote global surveys and piloted sorties of local and regional areas. Science accommodations include planetary science, astronomy, and biomedical research. Greenhouses are established to provide a substantial amount of food needs.

  19. Options for a lunar base surface architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    The Planet Surface Systems Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has participated in an analysis of the Space Exploration Initiative architectures described in the Synthesis Group report. This effort involves a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define point designs for evolving lunar and Mars bases that support substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. The analysis addresses systems-level designs; element requirements and conceptual designs; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and overall programmatics and schedules. This paper focuses on the results of the study of the Space Resource Utilization Architecture. This architecture develops the capability to extract useful materials from the indigenous resources of the Moon and Mars. On the Moon, a substantial infrastructure is emplaced which can support a crew of up to twelve. Two major process lines are developed: one produces oxygen, ceramics, and metals; the other produces hydrogen, helium, and other volatiles. The Moon is also used for a simulation of a Mars mission. Significant science capabilities are established in conjunction with resource development. Exploration includes remote global surveys and piloted sorties of local and regional areas. Science accommodations include planetary science, astronomy, and biomedical research. Greenhouses are established to provide a substantial amount of food needs.

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 22 is presented. The topics include: 1) Pressure Histories from Thin and Thick Shock-induced Melt Veins in Meteorites; 2) Nano-structured Minerals as Signature of Microbial Activity; 3) The Insoluble Carbonaceous Material of CM Chondrites as Possible Source of Discrete Organics During the Asteroidal Aqueous Phase; 4) Discovery of Abundant Presolar Silicates in Subgroups of Antarctic Micrometeorites; 5) Characteristics of a Seismometer for the LUNAR-A Penetrator; 6) Heating Experiments of the HaH 262 Eucrite and Implication for the Metamorphic History of Highly Metamorphosed Eucrites; 7) Measurements of Ejecta Velocity Distribution by a High-Speed Video Camera; 8) Petrological Comparison of Mongolian Jalanash Ureilite and Twelve Antarctic Ureilites; 9) Metallographic Cooling Rate of IVA Irons Revisited; 10) Inhomogeneous Temperature Distribution in Chondrules in Shock-Wave Heating Model; 11) Subsurface Weathering of Rocks and Soils at Gusev Crater; 12) Extinct Radioactivities in the Early Solar System and the Mean Age of the Galaxy; 13) Correlation of Rock Spectra with Quantitative Morphologic Indices: Evidence for a Single Rock Type at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site; 14) Silicon Isotopic Ratios of Presolar Grains from Supernovae; 15) Current Status and Readiness on In-Situ Exploration of Asteroid Surface by MINERVA Rover in Hayabusa Mission; 16) Long Formation Period of Single CAI: Combination of O and Mg Isotope Distribution; 17) Supra-Canonical Initial 26Al/27Al Indicate a 105 Year Residence Time for CAIs in the Solar Proto-Planetary Disk; 18) Evolution of Mercury's Obliquity; 19) First Results from the Huygens Surface Science Package; 20) Polyhedral Serpentine Grains in CM Chondrites; 21) Mountainous Units in the Martian Gusev Highland Region: Volcanic, Tectonic, or Impact Related? 22) Petrography of Lunar Meteorite MET 01210, A New Basaltic Regolith Breccia; 23) Earth-Moon Impacts at 300 Ma and 500 Ma Ago; 24

  1. Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

  2. Mini-Rf Education and Outreach and the Lunar Science Institute - the Next Leap in Lunar Exploration and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, M.; Butler, L.

    2010-12-01

    Many decades ago, the idea of lunar exploration inspired generations of Americans and provided the foundation for generating excitement for the STEM disciplines, especially as they related to space sciences and aeronautics. Today, this excitement has waned as memories of landing on the moon become more and more distant. However, there are many lunar-related programs that are focused on re-generating this excitement and inspiring future generations of Moon explorers. The Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) office in The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department provides numerous education and outreach activities with a focus on engaging and inspiring the next generation of Moon explorers. The Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF), onboard both the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Chandrayaan-1, is tasked with studying the moon to provide information on possible locations for future lunar exploration and human lunar missions. This information has the potential to again inspire and excite generations of Americans as the space science community prepares to consider more human lunar missions. APL organizes education and outreach activities focusing on Mini-RF science through teacher workshops, and museum and planetarium exhibits. APL also hosts the new Lunar Science Institute (LSI), which studies the lunar polar environment, attempts to characterize the surface, and hypothesizes on the possibility and requirements of having a manned research outpost on the Moon. LSI will focus on education through teacher workshops, summer camps, and a space academy for middle school students. Outreach components will include an interactive website promoting lunar science, podcasts and a partnership with the Museum Alliance.

  3. Observing Solar Radio Bursts from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Lazio, T. J.; Jones, D. L.; Bale, S. D.; Burns, J.; Kasper, J. C.; Weiler, K. W.

    2011-01-01

    Locating low frequency radio observatories on the lunar surface has a number of advantages, including fixes locations for the antennas and no terrestrial interference on the far side of the moon. Here, we describe the Radio Observatory for Lunar Sortie Science (ROLSS), a concept for a low frequency, radio imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration in the corona and inner heliosphere. ROLSS would be deployed during an early lunar sortie or by a robotic rover as part of an unmanned landing. The prime science mission is to image type II and type III solar radio bursts with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by searching for a low radio frequency cutoff of the solar radio emissions and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Furthermore, ROLSS serves a pathfinder function for larger lunar radio arrays designed for faint sources.

  4. Lunar surface chemistry: A new imaging technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andre, C.G.; Bielefeld, M.J.; Eliason, E.; Soderblom, L.A.; Adler, I.; Philpotts, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed chemical maps of the lunar surface have been constructed by applying a new weighted-filter imaging technique to Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 x-ray fluorescence data. The data quality improvement is amply demonstrated by (i) modes in the frequency distribution, representing highland and mare soil suites, which are not evident before data filtering and (ii) numerous examples of chemical variations which are correlated with small-scale (about 15 kilometer) lunar topographic features.

  5. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Foing, Bernard H.; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernado; Schiemann, Jens

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the abundance, composition and isotopes of lunar volatiles in polar regions, and their associated chemistry. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterise and utilise polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the

  6. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the exploration missions of the future.

  7. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface. PMID:26611148

  8. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-11-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface.

  9. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface. PMID:26611148

  10. Lunar International Science Coordination/Calibration Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Issacson, P.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Ohtake, M.; Foing, B.; Grande, M.

    2007-01-01

    A new era of international lunar exploration has begun and will expand over the next four years with data acquired from at least four sophisticated remote sensing missions: KAGUYA (SELENE) [Japan], Chang'E [China], Chandrayaan-l [India], and LRO [United States]. It is recognized that this combined activity at the Moon with modern sophisticated sensors wi II provide unprecedented new information about the Moon and will dramatically improve our understanding of Earth's nearest neighbor. It is anticipated that the blooming of scientific exploration of the Moon by nations involved in space activities will seed and foster peaceful international coordination and cooperation that will benefit all. Summarized here are eight Lunar International Science Coordination/Calibration Targets (L-ISCT) that are intended to a) allow cross-calibration of diverse multi-national instruments and b) provide a focus for training young scientists about a range of lunar science issues. The targets, discussed at several scientific forums, were selected for coordinated science and instrument calibration of orbital data. All instrument teams are encouraged to participate in a coordinated activity of early-release data that will improve calibration and validation of data across independent and diverse instruments.

  11. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology.

  12. LROC Advances in Lunar Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Since entering orbit in 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has acquired over 700,000 Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of the Moon. This new image collection is fueling research into the origin and evolution of the Moon. NAC images revealed a volcanic complex 35 x 25 km (60N, 100E), between Compton and Belkovich craters (CB). The CB terrain sports volcanic domes and irregular depressed areas (caldera-like collapses). The volcanic complex corresponds to an area of high-silica content (Diviner) and high Th (Lunar Prospector). A low density of impact craters on the CB complex indicates a relatively young age. The LROC team mapped over 150 volcanic domes and 90 volcanic cones in the Marius Hills (MH), many of which were not previously identified. Morphology and compositional estimates (Diviner) indicate that MH domes are silica poor, and are products of low-effusion mare lavas. Impact melt deposits are observed with Copernican impact craters (>10 km) on exterior ejecta, the rim, inner wall, and crater floors. Preserved impact melt flow deposits are observed around small craters (25 km diam.), and estimated melt volumes exceed predictions. At these diameters the amount of melt predicted is small, and melt that is produced is expected to be ejected from the crater. However, we observe well-defined impact melt deposits on the floor of highland craters down to 200 m diameter. A globally distributed population of previously undetected contractional structures were discovered. Their crisp appearance and associated impact crater populations show that they are young landforms (<1 Ga). NAC images also revealed small extensional troughs. Crosscutting relations with small-diameter craters and depths as shallow as 1 m indicate ages <50 Ma. These features place bounds on the amount of global radial contraction and the level of compressional stress in the crust. WAC temporal coverage of the poles allowed quantification of highly

  13. Lunar Exploration and Science Opportunities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Schiemann, J.; Patti, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavour. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  14. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Patti, B.; Schiemann, J.; Hufenbach, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  15. Science from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Noble, Sarah; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. The spacecraft impacted the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE’s science objectives were twofold: (1) Determine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for particles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exospheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) acquired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wavelength range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. Among the preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longitudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lunar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization processes. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent “shroud” of small dust particles between 0

  16. Lunar base surface mission operations. Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to perform an analysis of the surface operations associated with a human-tended lunar base. Specifically, the study defined surface elements and developed mission manifests for a selected base scenario, determined the nature of surface operations associated with this scenario, generated a preliminary crew extravehicular and intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) time resource schedule for conducting the missions, and proposed concepts for utilizing remotely operated equipment to perform repetitious or hazardous surface tasks. The operations analysis was performed on a 6 year period of human-tended lunar base operation prior to permanent occupancy. The baseline scenario was derived from a modified version of the civil needs database (CNDB) scenario. This scenario emphasizes achievement of a limited set of science and exploration objectives while emplacing the minimum habitability elements required for a permanent base.

  17. Proceedings of the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    , Galilean Satellites: Geology and Mapping, Titan, Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Early Solar System, Achondrite Hodgepodge, Ordinary Chondrites, Carbonaceous Chondrites, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Impact Cratering from Experiments and Modeling, SMART-1, Planetary Differentiation, Mars Geology, Mars Volcanism, Mars Tectonics, Mars: Polar, Glacial, and Near-Surface Ice, Mars Valley Networks, Mars Gullies, Mars Outflow Channels, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Spirit and Opportunity, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Geology, Layers, and Landforms, Oh, My!, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Viewing Mars Through Multicolored Glasses; Mars Science Laboratory, Phoenix, and ExoMars: Science, Instruments, and Landing Sites; Planetary Analogs: Chemical and Mineral, Planetary Analogs: Physical, Planetary Analogs: Operations, Future Mission Concepts, Planetary Data, Imaging, and Cartography, Outer Solar System, Presolar/Solar Grains, Stardust Mission; Interplanetary Dust, Genesis, Asteroids and Comets: Models, Dynamics, and Experiments, Venus, Mercury, Laboratory Instruments, Methods, and Techniques to Support Planetary Exploration; Instruments, Techniques, and Enabling Techologies for Planetary Exploration; Lunar Missions and Instruments, Living and Working on the Moon, Meteoroid Impacts on the Moon, Lunar Remote Sensing, Lunar Samples and Experiments, Lunar Atmosphere, Moon: Soils, Poles, and Volatiles, Lunar Topography and Geophysics, Lunar Meteorites, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Chondrites, Martian Meteorites, Mars Cratering, Mars Surface Processes and Evolution, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Regolith, Spectroscopy, and Imaging, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Analogs and Mineralogy, Mars: Magnetics and Atmosphere, Mars Aeolian Geomorphology, Mars Data Processing and Analyses, Astrobiology, Engaging Student Educators and the Public in Planetary Science,

  18. Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Shawn; Lipinksi, Ronald; McAlpine, William

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear reactor system could provide power to support a long term human exploration to the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance of oxidizing lunar regolith and its good conversion efficiency (Wright, 2003). The goals of the shielding studies were to provide optimal material shielding configuration that reduces the dose (rem) to the required level in order to protect astronauts, and to estimate the mass of regolith that would provide an equivalent protective effect if it were used as the shielding material. All calculations were performed using MCNPX code, a Monte Carlo transport code.

  19. Lunar surface exploration using mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Sachiko

    2012-06-01

    A lunar exploration architecture study is being carried out by space agencies. JAXA is carrying out research and development of a mobile robot (rover) to be deployed on the lunar surface for exploration and outpost construction. The main target areas for outpost construction and lunar exploration are mountainous zones. The moon's surface is covered by regolith. Achieving a steady traversal of such irregular terrain constitutes the major technical problem for rovers. A newly developed lightweight crawler mechanism can effectively traverse such irregular terrain because of its low contact force with the ground. This fact was determined on the basis of the mass and expected payload of the rover. This paper describes a plan for Japanese lunar surface exploration using mobile robots, and presents the results of testing and analysis needed in their development. This paper also gives an overview of the lunar exploration robot to be deployed in the SELENE follow-on mission, and the composition of its mobility, navigation, and control systems.

  20. Bringing You the Moon: Lunar Education Efforts of the Center for Lunar Science and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.; Halligan, E.; LaConte, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and public outreach. Overarching goals of CLSE education are to strengthen the future science workforce, attract and retain students in STEM disciplines, and develop advocates for lunar exploration. The team's efforts have resulted in a variety of programs and products, including the creation of a variety of Lunar Traveling Exhibits and the High School Lunar Research Project, featured at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/nlsi/education/.

  1. Investigations of the lunar surface. [including lunar photography on the Apollo 17 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, R. G.; Whitaker, E.; Andersson, L.

    1975-01-01

    Scientific programs concerned with investigations of the lunar surface are described along with some results. These include lunar photographs and map collection program, crater measuring and depth calculation (earthside and farside), Schroeter's valley model, and the 61-inch color filter photography. Several graphs and maps of the lunar surface are present along with a method used for depth calculation.

  2. Geological Features Study of the Lunar Surface Using the Lunar Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuping, G.; Yanmei, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Taking typical craters of lunar surface as the test areas, using the Clementine UVVIS, NIR and lidar data, we study the relationship between the geological features and physiognomy, analyze the rule of lithology or mineral distribution of the lunar.

  3. Functional Risk Modeling for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, Fraser; Mathias, Donovan; Go, Susie; Nejad, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an approach to risk modeling that we call functional modeling , which we have developed to estimate the capabilities of a lunar base. The functional model tracks the availability of functions provided by systems, in addition to the operational state of those systems constituent strings. By tracking functions, we are able to identify cases where identical functions are provided by elements (rovers, habitats, etc.) that are connected together on the lunar surface. We credit functional diversity in those cases, and in doing so compute more realistic estimates of operational mode availabilities. The functional modeling approach yields more realistic estimates of the availability of the various operational modes provided to astronauts by the ensemble of surface elements included in a lunar base architecture. By tracking functional availability the effects of diverse backup, which often exists when two or more independent elements are connected together, is properly accounted for.

  4. Chondritic meteorites and the lunar surface.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Scott, R F

    1967-12-01

    The landing dynamics of and soil penetration by Surveyor I indicated that the lunar soil has a porosity in the range 0.35 to 0.45. Experiments with Surveyor III's surface sampler for soil mechanics show that the lunar soil is approximately incompressible (as the word is used in soil mechanics) and that it has an angle of internal friction of 35 to 37 degrees; these results likewise point to a porosity of 0.35 to 0.45 for the lunar soil. Combination of these porosity measurements with the already-determined radar reflectivity fixes limits to the dielectric constant of the grains of the lunar soil. The highest possible value is about 5.9, relative to vacuum; a more plausible value is near 4.3. Either figure is inconsistent with the idea that the lunar surface is covered by chondritic meteorites or other ultrabasic rocks. The data point to acid rocks, or possibly vesicular basalts; carbonaceous chondrites are not excluded. PMID:17734304

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Automation Recognition oF Crater-Like Structures in Terrestrial and Plantary Images; Condensation from Cluster-IDP Enriched Vapor Inside the Snow Line: Implications for Mercury, Asteroids, and Enstatite Chondrites; Tomographic Location of Potential Melt-Bearing Phenocrysts in Lunar Glass Spherules; Source and Evolution of Vapor Due to Impacts into Layered Carbonates and Silicates; Noble Gases and I-Xe Ages of the Zag Meteorite; The MArs Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) for the 209 Mars Science Laboratory; The Sedimentary Rocks of Meridiani Planum, in Context; Three-System Isotopic of Lunar Norite 78238: Rb-Sr Results; Constraints on the Role of Curium-247 as a Source of Fission Xenon in the Early Solar System; New Features in the ADS Abstract Service; Cassini RADAR's First Look at Titan; Volcanism and Volatile Recycling on Venus from Lithospheric Delamination; The Fate of Water in the Martian Magma Ocean and the Formation of an Early Atmosphere; Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer Water-Equivalent Hydrogen: Comparison with Glacial; Landforms on Tharsis; Using Models of Permanent Shadow to Constrain Lunar Polar Water Ice Abundances; Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method; Petrological and Geochemical Consideration on the Tuserkanite Meteorite; and Mineralogy of Asteroids from Observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  6. Lunar Science Opportunities for Students within Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B.; Daou, D.; Minafra, J.

    2011-10-01

    The NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) is a virtual institute focused on lunar science, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and education and public outreach. As part of the NLSI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the public through education and outreach efforts in addition to forming new interdisciplinary, scientific collaborations. This talk will outline several opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students as well as earlycareer scientists and engineers to engage the lunar science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships.

  7. Apollo 17 Astronaut and United States Flag on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an Apollo 17 Astronaut standing upon the lunar surface with the United States flag in the background. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE)and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  8. Analysis of Lunar Surface Charging for a Candidate Spacecraft Using NASCAP-2K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda; Minow, Joseph; Blackwell, William, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a spacecraft in the lunar environment, and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies, is a critical lunar mission design task, as spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for astronaut safety. To that end, we have performed surface charging calculations of a candidate lunar spacecraft for lunar orbiting and lunar landing missions. We construct a model of the spacecraft with candidate materials having appropriate electrical properties using Object Toolkit and perform the spacecraft charging analysis using Nascap-2k, the NASA/AFRL sponsored spacecraft charging analysis tool. We use nominal and atypical lunar environments appropriate for lunar orbiting and lunar landing missions to establish current collection of lunar ions and electrons. In addition, we include a geostationary orbit case to demonstrate a bounding example of extreme (negative) charging of a lunar spacecraft in the geostationary orbit environment. Results from the charging analysis demonstrate that minimal differential potentials (and resulting threat of electrostatic discharge) occur when the spacecraft is constructed entirely of conducting materials, as expected. We compare charging results to data taken during previous lunar orbiting or lunar flyby spacecraft missions.

  9. Lunar volatiles: balancing science and resource development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Dana

    In the context of human exploration of the moon, the volatiles postulated to exist at the lunar poles have value as resources as well as scientific significance. Once sustained human operations commence on the moon, society will move from a paradigm in which examination of planetary materials has been unconstrained to one where use of those materials will support habitability and further exploration. A framework for the scientific investigation of lunar volatiles that allows for eventual economic exploitation can guide both activities and resolve the conflicts that will inevitably develop if the postulated lunar volatiles prove to be both extant and accessible. Scientific constraints on the framework include characterization at both poles of the isotopes, elements, and molecules in the volatiles, their relative and absolute abundances, and their horizontal and vertical distribution. A subset of this data is necessary in order to assess, develop, and initiate resource exploitation. In addition, the scientific record of volatiles in the cold traps can be contaminated by the cold-trapping of migrating volatiles released from operations elsewhere on the moon even if the indigenous, cold-trapped volatiles are not utilized. Possible decision points defining the transition from science-dominated to exploitation-dominated use include technology limits in the 70K environment, evolving science priorities (funding), and the resolution of major science issues. Inputs to policy development include any North vs. South Pole differences in volatile characteristics and the suitability of the volatiles to enable further scientific exploration of the moon. In the absence of national sovereignty on the moon, enforcement of any framework is an open question, particularly if science and commercial interests are in competition. The framework, processes, and precedent set by how we as a society choose to handle the scientific bounty and resource promise of lunar volatiles may eventually

  10. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    The MSFC/APL Robotic Lunar Landing Project (RLLDP) team has developed lander concepts encompassing a range of mission types and payloads for science, exploration, and technology demonstration missions: (1) Developed experience and expertise in lander systems, (2) incorporated lessons learned from previous efforts to improve the fidelity of mission concepts, analysis tools, and test beds Mature small and medium lander designs concepts have been developed: (1) Share largely a common design architecture. (2) Flexible for a large number of mission and payload options. High risk development areas have been successfully addressed Landers could be selected for a mission with much of the concept formulation phase work already complete

  11. Lunar Dust on Heat Rejection System Surfaces: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Heat rejection from power systems will be necessary for human and robotic activity on the lunar surface. Functional operation of such heat rejection systems is at risk of degradation as a consequence of dust accumulation. The Apollo astronauts encountered marked degradation of performance in heat rejection systems for the lunar roving vehicle, science packages, and other components. Although ground testing of dust mitigation concepts in support of the Apollo mission identified mitigation tools, the brush concept adopted by the Apollo astronauts proved essentially ineffective. A better understanding of the issues associated with the impact of lunar dust on the functional performance of heat rejection systems and its removal is needed as planning gets underway for human and robotic missions to the Moon. Renewed emphasis must also be placed on ground testing of pristine and dust-covered heat rejection system surfaces to quantify degradation and address mitigation concepts. This paper presents a review of the degradation in performance of heat rejection systems encountered on the lunar surface to-date, and will discuss current activities underway to evaluate the durability of candidate heat rejection system surfaces and current dust mitigation concepts.

  12. Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shawn; McAlpine, William; Lipinski, Ronald

    2006-01-20

    A nuclear reactor system could provide power to support long term human exploration of the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance of oxidizing lunar regolith and its good conversion efficiency. The goals of the shielding studies were to determine a material shielding configuration that reduces the dose (rem) to the required level in order to protect astronauts, and to estimate the mass of regolith that would provide an equivalent protective effect if it were used as the shielding material. All calculations were performed using MCNPX, a Monte Carlo transport code. Lithium hydride must be kept between 600 K and 700 K to prevent excessive swelling from large amounts of gamma or neutron irradiation. The issue is that radiation damage causes separation of the lithium and the hydrogen, resulting in lithium metal and hydrogen gas. The proposed design uses a layer of B4C to reduce the combined neutron and gamma dose to below 0.5Grads before the LiH is introduced. Below 0.5Grads the swelling in LiH is small (less than about 1%) for all temperatures. This approach causes the shield to be heavier than if the B4C were replaced by LiH, but it makes the shield much more robust and reliable.

  13. Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Sutherlin, Steven G.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.; Jurns, John M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering propulsion system concepts for future missions including human return to the lunar surface. Studies have identified cryogenic methane (LCH4) and oxygen (LO2) as a desirable propellant combination for the lunar surface ascent propulsion system, and they point to a surface stay requirement of 180 days. To meet this requirement, a test article was prepared with state-of-the-art insulation and tested in simulated lunar mission environments at NASA GRC. The primary goals were to validate design and models of the key thermal control technologies to store unvented methane for long durations, with a low-density high-performing Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) system to protect the propellant tanks from the environmental heat of low Earth orbit (LEO), Earth to Moon transit, lunar surface, and with the LCH4 initially densified. The data and accompanying analysis shows this storage design would have fallen well short of the unvented 180 day storage requirement, due to the MLI density being much higher than intended, its substructure collapse, and blanket separation during depressurization. Despite the performance issue, insight into analytical models and MLI construction was gained. Such modeling is important for the effective design of flight vehicle concepts, such as in-space cryogenic depots or in-space cryogenic propulsion stages.

  14. Lunar surface outgassing and alpha particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Moore, K. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Belian, Richard D.; Binder, Alan B.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particle?; produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-2 18 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238.

  15. Heliophysics Science and the Moon: Potential Solar and Space Physics Science for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This report addresses both these features new science enabled by NASAs exploration initiative and enabling science that is critical to ensuring a safe return to the Moon and onward to Mars. The areas of interest are structured into four main themes: Theme 1: Heliophysics Science of the Moon Studies of the Moons unique magnetodynamic plasma environment. Theme 2: Space Weather, Safeguarding the Journey Studies aimed at developing a predictive capability for space weather hazards. Theme 3: The Moon as a Historical Record Studies of the variation of the lunar regolith to uncover the history of the Sun, solar system, local interstellar medium, galaxy, and universe. Theme 4: The Moon as a Heliophysics Science Platform Using the unique environment of the lunar surface as a platform to provide observations beneficial to advancing heliophysics science.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration. Preliminary Study of Polygonal Impact Craters in Argyre Region, Mars. Geochemistry of the Dark Veinlets in the Granitoids from the Souderfjarden Impact Structure, Finland: Preliminary Results. An Experimental Method to Estimate the Chemical Reaction Rate in Vapor Clouds: An Application to the K/T Impact. Study of the Apollo 16 Landing Site: Re-Visit as a Standard Site for the SELENE Multiband Imager. First X-Ray Observation of Lunar Farside from Hayabusa X-Ray Spectrometer. Lunar X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry from SELENE Lunar Polar Orbiter. Origin and Thermal History of Lithic Materials in the Begaa LL3 Chondrite. Evidence of Normal Faulting and Dike Intrusion at Valles Marineris from Pit Crater Topography. Evidence of Tharsis-Radial Dike Intrusion in Southeast Alba Patera from MOLA-based Topography of Pit Crater Chains. Are They Really Intact? Evaluation of Captured Micrometeoroid Analogs by Aerogel at the Flyby Speed of Stardust. Numerical Simulations of Impactor Penetration into Ice-Over-Water Targets. A Probable Fluid Lava Flow in the Hebes Mensa (Mars) Studied by HRSC Images. New Drill-Core Data from the Lockne Crater, Sweden: The Marine Excavation and Ejection Processes, and Post-Impact Environment. Cross-Sectional Profile of Baltis Vallis Channel on Venus: Reconstruction from Magellan SAR Brightness Data.

  17. Imaging Thermal He(+) from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Goldstein, J.; Adrian, M. L.; Spasojevic, M.; Jahn, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet observations of He(+) ions by the EUV instrument on the IMAGE spacecraft have dramatically improved our ability to observe plasmasphere dynamics in the inner magnetosphere. These primarily high latitude observations have revealed the phenomenology of thermal density structures and continue to lead us toward a more complete understanding of inner magnetospheric electric fields and plasmaspheric refilling. Recent analyses have brought attention to the disposition of thermal plasma eroded from the plasmasphere and convected into the outer dayside magnetosphere. The extent to which this plasma is lost into the solar wind or recirculated across the polar cap or through the magnetospheric flanks is an important outstanding question that relates to the influence this plasma has on space weather processes in Geospace. A concept for implementation of enhanced EUV observations from the lunar surface to resolve questions about the global circulation of He(+) plasma in the magnetosphere will be presented. The instrument and science package subsystem elements, including anticipated component capabilities and limitations will be discussed. Attention will also be given to the potential impact of dust contamination.

  18. Apollo program soil mechanics experiment. [interaction of the lunar module with the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The soil mechanics investigation was conducted to obtain information relating to the landing interaction of the lunar module (LM) with the lunar surface, and lunar soil erosion caused by the spacecraft engine exhaust. Results obtained by study of LM landing performance on each Apollo mission are summarized.

  19. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles

  20. Diviner Lunar Radiometer Science Highlights and Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhagen, Benjamin; Paige, David

    2013-04-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer is the first infrared instrument to globally map the thermal emission from the moon's surface and its diurnal and seasonal variability. After over three and a half years in operation, analysis of Diviner's unprecedented dataset has revealed the extreme nature of the Moon's thermal environment, its thermophysical properties, and surface composition. This presentation will highlight contributions from many members of the Diviner Science Team addressing a diverse range of scientific questions with a focus on investigations of the lunar thermal environment and surface composition. The Diviner Lunar Radiometer is a nine-channel, pushbroom mapping radiometer that has operated nearly continuously onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter since July, 2009. Diviner measures broadband reflected solar radiation with two channels, and emitted thermal infrared radiation with seven infrared channels. The two solar channels, which both span 0.3 to 3 µm, are used to characterize the photometric properties of the lunar surface. The three shortest wavelength thermal infrared channels near 8 µm were specifically designed to characterize the mid-infrared "Christiansen Feature" emissivity maximum, which is sensitive to silicate composition. Diviner's longer wavelength thermal infrared channels span the mid- to far-infrared between 13 and 400 µm and are used to characterize the lunar thermal environment and thermophysical properties. Diviner has now acquired observations over six complete diurnal cycles and three complete seasonal cycles. Diviner daytime and nighttime observations (12 hour time bins) have essentially global coverage, and more than 75% of the surface has been measured with at least 6 different local times. During the LRO circular mapping orbit, Diviner's spatial resolution was ~200m. During the LRO elliptical extended mission orbit, Diviner's resolution varies between 150 m to 1300 m. Updated calibrated Diviner data are released to the PDS

  1. Shield Design for Lunar Surface Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gregory A.

    2006-01-20

    A shielding concept for lunar surface applications of nuclear power is presented herein. The reactor, primary shield, reactor equipment and power generation module are placed in a cavity in the lunar surface. Support structure and heat rejection radiator panels are on the surface, outside the cavity. The reactor power of 1,320 kWt was sized to deliver 50 kWe from a thermoelectric power conversion subsystem. The dose rate on the surface is less than 0.6 mRem/hr at 100 meters from the reactor. Unoptimized shield mass is 1,020 kg which is much lighter than a comparable 4{pi} shield weighing in at 17,000 kg.

  2. Shield Design for Lunar Surface Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    A shielding concept for lunar surface applications of nuclear power is presented herein. The reactor, primary shield, reactor equipment and power generation module are placed in a cavity in the lunar surface. Support structure and heat rejection radiator panels are on the surface, outside the cavity. The reactor power of 1,320 kWt was sized to deliver 50 kWe from a thermoelectric power conversion subsystem. The dose rate on the surface is less than 0.6 mRem/hr at 100 meters from the reactor. Unoptimized shield mass is 1,020 kg which is much lighter than a comparable 4π shield weighing in at 17,000 kg.

  3. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  4. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  5. Space environment and lunar surface processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a general rock/soil model capable of simulating in a self consistent manner the mechanical and exposure history of an assemblage of solid and loose material from submicron to planetary size scales, applicable to lunar and other space exposed planetary surfaces is discussed. The model was incorporated into a computer code called MESS.2 (model for the evolution of space exposed surfaces). MESS.2, which represents a considerable increase in sophistication and scope over previous soil and rock surface models, is described. The capabilities of previous models for near surface soil and rock surfaces are compared with the rock/soil model, MESS.2.

  6. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  7. An overnight habitat for expanding lunar surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Samuel S.; Setterfield, Timothy P.; Roberson, Daniel R.; Putbrese, Benjamin; Kotowick, Kyle; Vanegas, Morris D.; Curry, Mike; Geiger, Lynn M.; Barmore, David; Foley, Jordan J.; LaTour, Paul A.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Head, James W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design and analysis of a system intended to increase the range, scientific capability, and safety of manned lunar surface exploration, requiring only a modest increase in capability over the Apollo mission designs. The system is intended to enable two astronauts, exploring with an unpressurized rover, to remove their space suits for an 8-h rest away from the lunar base and then conduct a second day of surface exploration before returning to base. This system is composed of an Environmental Control and Life Support System on the rover, an inflatable habitat, a solar shield and a solar power array. The proposed system doubles the distance reachable from the lunar base, thus increasing the area available for science and exploration by a factor of four. In addition to increasing mission capability, the proposed system also increases fault tolerance with an emergency inflatable structure and additional consumables to mitigate a wide range of suit or rover failures. The mass, volume, and power analyses of each subsystem are integrated to generate a total system mass of 124 kg and a volume of 594 L, both of which can be accommodated on the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle with minor improvements.

  8. Surface Coatings on Lunar Volcanic Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas,-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    We are undertaking a detailed study of surface deposits on lunar volcanic glass beads. These tiny deposits formed by vapor condensation during cooling of the gases that drove the fire fountain eruptions responsible for the formation of the beads. Volcanic glass beads are present in most lunar soil samples in the returned lunar collection. The mare-composition beads formed as a result of fire-fountaining approx.3.4-3.7 Ga ago, within the age range of large-scale mare volcanism. Some samples from the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 landing sites are enriched in volcanic spherules. Three major types of volcanic glass bead have been identified: Apollo 15 green glass, Apollo 17 orange glass, and Apollo 17 "black" glass. The Apollo 15 green glass has a primitive composition with low Ti. The high-Ti compositions of the orange and black glasses are essentially identical to each other but the black glasses are opaque because of quench crystallization. A poorly understood feature common to the Apollo 15 and 17 volcanic glasses is the presence of small deposits of unusual materials on their exterior surfaces. For example, early studies indicated that the Apollo 17 orange glasses had surface enrichments of In, Cd, Zn, Ga, Ge, Au, and Na, and possible Pb- and Zn-sulfides, but it was not possible to characterize the surface features in detail. Technological advances now permit us to examine such features in detail. Preliminary FE-TEM/X-ray studies of ultramicrotome sections of Apollo 15 green glass indicate that the surface deposits are heterogeneous and layered, with an inner layer consisting of Fe with minor S and an outer layer of Fe and no S, and scattered Zn enrichments. Layering in surface deposits has not been identified previously; it will be key to defining the history of lunar fire fountaining.

  9. Astronaut John Young leaps from lunar surface to salute flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, leaps from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  10. Synthesis of SMART-1 lunar results: Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We shall give a synthesis on SMART-1 lunar highlights relevant for science and exploration. The SMART-1 spacecraft reached on 15 March 2005 a lunar orbit 400-3000 km for a nominal science period of six months, with 1 year extension until impact on 3 September 2006. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission addresses several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of rocky planets, and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. SMART-1 AMIE camera has been used to map sites of interest that are relevant to the study of cataclysm bombardment, and to preview future sites for sampling return. Lunar North polar maps and South pole repeated high resolution images have been obtained, giving a monitoring of illumination to map potential sites relevant for future exploration. The SMART-1 observations have been coordinated with upcoming missions. SMART-1 has been useful in the preparation of Selene Kaguya, the Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1, Chinese Chang'E 1 , the US Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LCROSS, and subsequent lunar landers. SMART-1 is contributing to prepare the next steps for exploration: survey of resources, search for ice, monitoring polar illumination, and mapping of sites for potential landings, international robotic villages and for future human activities and lunar bases.

  11. Vacuum measurements on the lunar surface.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.; Carroll, J. M.; Evans, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results of measurements of neutral gas pressure on the lunar surface made with a cold cathode ionization gauge carried to the moon by Apollo 14. The vacuum quality at the landing site is much influenced by the adsorption of rocket gases and their later release. During surface operations by the astronauts, the pressure was near 10 to the minus 8th torr. No data were obtained between the time of the surface operations and lunar sunset about 12 days later, at which time the temperature fell rapidly to the vicinity of 100 K. The pressure was about 10 to the minus 12th torr shortly after sunset, but intermittent releases of gas, perhaps from within the moon itself, occasionally raised the pressure by less than an order of magnitude for as long as a day or two at a time and on one occasion to about 10 to the minus 10th torr for about an hour. At lunar sunrise, as the surface was warmed rapidly to about 300 K, the pressure rose rapidly to about 10 to the minus 10th torr, most likely due to the release of absorbed gases in the immediate landing area or on the landing module itself. For comparison with interplanetary vacuum conditions, the directed pressure of the solar wind is usually less than 10 to the minus 11th torr and the pressure of random gas motion within the solar wind, less than 10 to the minus 13th torr.

  12. Lunar/Mars Surface Habitat Mockups Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.; Daues, Katherine R.

    2005-01-01

    Surface habitats play a centric role with respect to integration of the crew operations and supporting surface systems for external operations on the moon and Mars. Up to now the only planetary surface habitat NASA has ever developed is the 2-person, 3-day duration Lunar Module from the 1960 s-era Apollo Program. Today s National Vision for Space Exploration pushes far beyond the safety, performance and operational requirements of the Lunar Module, and NASA needs to develop a basis for making habitat design decisions Experience has shown that using mockups very early in a project s life cycle is extremely beneficial, providing data that influences requirements for human design, volumetrics, functionality, systems hardware and operations. Evaluating and comparing a variety of habitat configurations will provide NASA with a cost-effective basis for trades to support lunar and Martian habitat design selection. This paper describes the NASA project that recently has been created to undertake the development and evaluation of a series of planetary surface habitat mockups. This project is in direct response to the Advanced Space Platforms and Systems (ASPS) Element Program s request for novel systems approaches for robust and reconfigurable habitation systems.

  13. Bibliography of the lunar surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeberg, Jacquelyn H.

    1970-01-01

    The term "surface" in this bibliography is defined to include landforms and surface materials and the nature of, and processes responsible for, their physical characteristics. References are divided into two listings: (1) Surface features and materials; and (2) Telescopic observations. The former is accompanied by a subject index, the latter by a locality index.

  14. Lunar Surface Propagation Modeling and Effects on Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the lunar terrain effects on the signal propagation of the planned NASA lunar wireless communication and sensor systems. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate that the terrain geometry, antenna location, and lunar surface material are important factors determining the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless communication systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, operating frequency, and surface material. The analysis results from this paper are important for the lunar communication link margin analysis in determining the limits on the reliable communication range and radio frequency coverage performance at planned lunar base worksites. Key Words lunar, multipath, path loss, propagation, wireless.

  15. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface siumlation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is opening a sample return container. At the right is the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) and the Lunar Module Mockup.

  16. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface simulation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is standing on Lunar Module mockup foot pad preparing to ascend steps.

  17. Television transmission of Astronaut Eugene Cernan using Lunar Surface Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan operates the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Cernan is the commander of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission.

  18. Line drawing Scientific Instrument Module and lunar orbital science package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A line drawing of the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) with its lunar orbital science package. The SIM will be mounted in a previously vacant sector of the Apollo Service Module. It will carry specialized cameras and instrumentation for gathering lunar orbit scientific data.

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This document contained the following topics: A Miniature Mass Spectrometer Module; SELENE Gamma Ray Spectrometer Using Ge Detector Cooled by Stirling Cryocooler; Lunar Elemental Composition and Investigations with D-CIXS X-Ray Mapping Spectrometer on SMART-1; X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Onboard the SELENE Lunar Orbiter: Its Science and Instrument; Detectability of Degradation of Lunar Impact Craters by SELENE Terrain Camera; Study of the Apollo 16 Landing Site: As a Standard Site for the SELENE Multiband Imager; Selection of Targets for the SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR); Development of a Telescopic Imaging Spectrometer for the Moon; The Lunar Seismic Network: Mission Update.

  20. Lunar Surface Operations with Dual Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Lofgren, Gary E.; Eppler, Dean E.; Ming, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Lunar Electric Rovers (LER) are currently being developed that are substantially more capable than the Apollo vehicle (LRN ,"). Unlike the LRV, the new LERs provide a pressurized cabin that serves as short-sleeve environment for the crew of two, including sleeping accommodations and other provisions that allow for long tern stays, possibly up to 60 days, on the hear surface, without the need to replenish consumables from some outside source, such as a lander or outpost. As a consequence, significantly larger regions may be explored in the future and traverse distances may be measured in a few hundred kilometers (1, 2). However, crew safety remains an overriding concern, and methods other than "walk back", the major operational constraint of all Apollo traverses, must be implemented to assure -at any time- the safe return of the crew to the lander or outpost. This then causes current Constellation plans to envision long-tern traverses to be conducted with 2 LERs exclusively, each carrying a crew of two: in case one rover fails, the other will rescue the stranded crew and return all 4 astronauts in a single LER to base camp. Recent Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) analog field tests simulated a continuous 14 day traverse (3), covering some 135 km, and included a rescue operation that transferred the crew and diverse consumables from one LER to another these successful tests add substantial realism to the development of long-term, dual rover operations. The simultaneous utilization of 2 LERs is of course totally unlike Apollo and raises interesting issues regarding science productivity and mission operations, the thrust of this note.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: Why Small is Beautiful, and How to Detect Another 10 Billion Small Main Belt Asteroids; Basalts in Mare Humorum and S.E. Procellarum; Basalts in Mare Serenitatis, Lacus Somniorum, Lacus Mortis and Part of Mare Tranquillitatis; Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots; Integrating Global-Scale Mission Datasets - Understanding the Martian Crust; Comparing Goldstone Solar System Radar Earth-based Observations of Mars with Orbital Datasets; Water Ice Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere: A View from MGS TES; Lunar Meteorite Northeast Africa 001: An Anorthositic Regolith Breccia with Mixed Highland/Mare Components; One Spectrometer, Two Spectra: Complementary Hemispherical Reflectance and Thermal Emission Spectroscopy Using a Single FTIR Instrument; Alteration Phases Associated with High Concentrations of Orthopyroxene and Olivine on Mars; Experimental Crystallization of Fe-rich Basalt: Application to Cooling Rate and Oxygen Fugacity of Nakhlite MIL-03346; Thermo-Chemical Convection in Europa s Icy Shell with Salinity; Tectonic Pressurization of Aquifers in the Formation of Mangala and Athabasca Valles on Mars; 3D Structural Interpretation of the Eagle Butte Impact Structure, Alberta, Canada; Ultraviolet Views of Enceladus, Tethys, and Dione; Crustal Plateaus as Ancient Large Impact Features: A Hypothesis; New Observations of Crustal Plateau Surface Histories, Venus: Implications for Crustal Plateau Hypotheses; Detailed Mineralogical Characterizations of Four S-Asteroids: 138 Tolosa, 306 Unitas, 346 Hermentaria, and 480 Hansa; Working with Planetary Coordinate Reference Systems; Bilingual Map of Mercury; and The Io Mountain Online Database.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Moon and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session" Moon and Mercury" included the following reports:Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon; Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes; A New Lunar Geologic Mapping Program; Physical Backgrounds to Measure Instantaneous Spin Components of Terrestrial Planets from Earth with Arcsecond Accuracy; Preliminary Findings of a Study of the Lunar Global Megaregolith; Maps Characterizing the Lunar Regolith Maturity; Probable Model of Anomalies in the Polar Regions of Mercury; Parameters of the Maximum of Positive Polarization of the Moon; Database Structure Development for Space Surveying Results by Moon -Zond Program; CM2-type Micrometeoritic Lunar Winds During the Late Heavy Bombardment; A Comparison of Textural and Chemical Features of Spinel Within Lunar Mare Basalts; The Reiner Gamma Formation as Characterized by Earth-based Photometry at Large Phase Angles; The Significance of the Geometries of Linear Graben for the Widths of Shallow Dike Intrusions on the Moon; Lunar Prospector Data, Surface Roughness and IR Thermal Emission of the Moon; The Influence of a Magma Ocean on the Lunar Global Stress Field Due to Tidal Interaction Between the Earth and Moon; Variations of the Mercurian Photometric Relief; A Model of Positive Polarization of Regolith; Ground Truth and Lunar Global Thorium Map Calibration: Are We There Yet?;and Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes.

  3. Back to the Moon: The scientific rationale for resuming lunar surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I. A.; Anand, M.; Cockell, C. S.; Falcke, H.; Green, D. A.; Jaumann, R.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar geological record has much to tell us about the earliest history of the Solar System, the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and the near-Earth cosmic environment throughout Solar System history. In addition, the lunar surface offers outstanding opportunities for research in astronomy, astrobiology, fundamental physics, life sciences and human physiology and medicine. This paper provides an interdisciplinary review of outstanding lunar science objectives in all of these different areas. It is concluded that addressing them satisfactorily will require an end to the 40-year hiatus of lunar surface exploration, and the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the surface of the Moon. Some of these objectives can be achieved robotically (e.g., through targeted sample return, the deployment of geophysical networks, and the placing of antennas on the lunar surface to form radio telescopes). However, in the longer term, most of these scientific objectives would benefit significantly from renewed human operations on the lunar surface. For these reasons it is highly desirable that current plans for renewed robotic surface exploration of the Moon are developed in the context of a future human lunar exploration programme, such as that proposed by the recently formulated Global Exploration Roadmap.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: PoDS: A Powder Delivery System for Mars In-Situ Organic, Mineralogic and Isotopic Analysis Instruments Planetary Differentiation of Accreting Planetesimals with 26Al and 60Fe as the Heat Sources Ground-based Observation of Lunar Surface by Lunar VIS/NIR Spectral Imager Mt. Oikeyama Structure: First Impact Structure in Japan? Central Mounds in Martian Impact Craters: Assessment as Possible Perennial Permafrost Mounds (Pingos) A Further Analysis of Potential Photosynthetic Life on Mars New Insight into Valleys-Ocean Boundary on Mars Using 128 Pixels per Degree MOLA Data: Implication for Martian Ocean and Global Climate Change; Recursive Topography Based Surface Age Computations for Mars: New Insight into Surficial Processes That Influenced Craters Distribution as a Step Toward the Formal Proof of Martian Ocean Recession, Timing and Probability; Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: A New Method for Stand-Off Quantitative Analysis of Samples on Mars; Milk Spring Channels Provide Further Evidence of Oceanic, >1.7-km-Deep Late Devonian Alamo Crater, Southern Nevada; Exploration of Martian Polar Residual Caps from HEND/ODYSSEY Data; Outflow Channels Influencing Martian Climate: Global Circulation Model Simulations with Emplaced Water; Presence of Nonmethane Hydrocarbons on Pluto; Difference in Degree of Space Weathering on the Newborn Asteroid Karin; Circular Collapsed Features Related to the Chaotic Terrain Formation on Mars; A Search for Live (sup 244)Pu in Deep-Sea Sediments: Preliminary Results of Method Development; Some Peculiarities of Quartz, Biotite and Garnet Transformation in Conditions of Step-like Shock Compression of Crystal Slate; Error Analysis of Remotely-Acquired Mossbauer Spectra; Cloud Activity on Titan During the Cassini Mission; Solar Radiation Pressure and Transient Flows on Asteroid Surfaces; Landing Site Characteristics for Europa 1: Topography; and The Crop Circles of Europa.

  5. Sixteenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Press abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A broad range of topics concerned with lunar and planetary science are discussed. Topics among those included are, the sun, the planets, comets, meteorities, asteroids, satellites, space exploration, and the significance of these to Earth.

  6. Design of a lunar surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghi, Sohrob

    The next step for manned exploration and settlement is a return to the Moon. In such a return, the most challenging task is the construction of structures for habitation, considering the Moon's hostile environment. Therefore the question is: What is the best way to erect habitable structures on the lunar surface? Given the cost associated with bringing material to the Moon, In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is viewed by most as the basis for a successful manned exploration and settlement of the Solar system. Along these lines, we propose an advanced concept where the use of freeform fabrication technologies by autonomous mini-robots can form the basis for habitable lunar structures. Also, locally-available magnesium is proposed as the structural material. While it is one of the most pervasive metals in the regolith, magnesium has been only suggested only briefly as a viable option in the past. Therefore, a study has been conducted on magnesium and its alloys, taking into account the availability of the alloying elements on the Moon. An igloo-shaped magnesium structure, covered by sandbags of regolith shielding and supported on a sintered regolith foundation, is considered as a potential design of a lunar base, as well as the test bed for the proposed vision. Three studies are carried out: First a static analysis is conducted which proves the feasibility of the proposed material and method. Second, a thermal analysis is carried out to study the effect of the regolith shielding as well as the sensitivity of such designs to measurement uncertainties of regolith and sintered thermal properties. The lunar thermal environment is modeled for a potential site at 88º latitude in the lunar South Pole Region. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties are in an acceptable range where a three-meter thick shield is considered. Also, the required capacity of a thermal rejection system is estimated, choosing the thermal loads to be those of the Space Station modules. In the

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Destruction of Presolar Silicates by Aqueous Alteration Observed in Murchison CM2 Chondrite. Generation of Chondrule Forming Shock Waves in Solar Nebula by X-Ray Flares. TEM and NanoSIMS Study of Hydrated/Anhydrous Phase Mixed IDPs: Cometary or Asteroidal Origin? Inflight Calibration of Asteroid Multiband Imaging Camera Onboard Hayabusa: Preliminary Results. Corundum and Corundum-Hibonite Grains Discovered by Cathodoluminescence in the Matrix of Acfer 094 Meteorite. Spatial Extent of a Deep Moonquake Nest A Preliminary Report of Reexamination. Modal Abundances of Carbon in Ureilites: Implications for the Petrogenesis of Ureilites. Trapped Noble Gas Components and Exposure History of the Enstatite Chondrite ALH84206. Deep-seated Crustal Material in Dhofar Lunar Meteorites: Evidence from Pyroxene Chemistry. Numerical Investigations of Kuiper Belt Binaries. Dust Devils on Mars: Effects of Surface Roughness on Particle Threshold. Hecates Tholus, Mars: Nighttime Aeolian Activity Suggested by Thermal Images and Mesoscale Atmospheric Model Simulations. Are the Apollo 14 High-Al Basalts Really Impact Melts? Garnet in the Lunar Mantle: Further Evidence from Volcanic Glass Beads. The Earth/Mars Dichotomy in Mg/Si and Al/Si Ratios: Is It Real? Dissecting the Polar Asymmetry in the Non-Condensable Gas Enhancement on Mars: A Numerical Modeling Study. Cassini VIMS Preliminary Exploration of Titan s Surface Hemispheric Albedo Dichotomy. An Improved Instrument for Investigating Planetary Regolith Microstructure. Isotopic Composition of Oxygen in Lunar Zircons Preliminary Design of Visualization Tool for Hayabusa Operation. Size and Shape Distributions of Chondrules and Metal Grains Revealed by X-Ray Computed Tomography Data. Properties of Permanently Shadowed Regolith. Landslides in Interior Layered Deposits, Valles Marineris, Mars: Effects of Water and Ground Shaking on Slope Stability. Mars: Recent and Episodic Volcanic, Hydrothermal, and Glacial

  8. Lunar surface operations. Volume 4: Lunar rover trailer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to design a lunar rover trailer for exploration missions. The trailer was designed to carry cargo such as lunar geological samples, mining equipment and personnel. It is designed to operate in both day and night lunar environments. It is also designed to operate with a maximum load of 7000 kilograms. The trailer has a ground clearance of 1.0 meters and can travel over obstacles 0.75 meters high at an incline of 45 degrees. It can be transported to the moon fully assembled using any heavy lift vehicle with a storage compartment diameter of 5.0 meters. The trailer has been designed to meet or exceed the performance of any perceivable lunar vehicle.

  9. Lunar surface construction and assembly equipment study: Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 5.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A set of construction and assembly tasks required on the lunar surface was developed, different concepts for equipment applicable to the tasks determined, and leading candidate systems identified for future conceptual design. Data on surface construction and assembly equipment systems are necessary to facilitate an integrated review of a complete lunar scenario.

  10. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Garvin, James B.; Rice, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September, 2012. The LRO mission has been extended for two years under SMD. The extended mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution Of the Solar System. Here we will review the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for the extended science phase out to 2014. Results from the LRO mission include but are not limited to the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the day and night time temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs, evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon, and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions as the poles. The objectives for the second and extended science phases of the mission under SMD include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5

  11. Lunar international science coordination/calibration targets (L-ISCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Head, James W.; Isaacson, Peter; Petro, Noah; Runyon, Cassandra; Ohtake, M.; Föing, B.; Grande, M.

    2008-07-01

    Eight lunar areas, each ˜200 km in diameter, are identified as targets for coordinated science and instrument calibration for the orbital missions soon to be flown. Instrument teams from SELENE, Chang'E, Chandrayaan-1, and LRO are encouraged to participate in a coordinated activity of early-release data that will improve calibration and validation of data across independent and diverse instruments. The targets are representative of important lunar terrains and geologic processes and thus will also provide a broad introduction to lunar science for new investigators. We briefly identify additional cross-calibration issues for instruments that produce time series data rather than maps.

  12. The Kaguya (SELENE) Mission and Its Lunar Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Sasaki, S.

    2008-12-01

    Lunar orbiter Kaguya (SELENE) has been successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center TNSC on September 14, 2007. Nominal observation for ten lunar days has already passed and fourteen science instruments are acquiring new data of global Moon to study lunar science in mineralogy, geology, gravimetry, topography, and plasma environment. Multi-band imager and Spectral profiler definitely analyze mineralogy of central peaks of central peaked craters. High resolution images of Terrain Camera show new crater distribution of cratered terrain of farside, Detailed topography and gravitational distribution in farside and polar area are observed by laser altimetry and four way Doppler tracking of main orbiter flying in farside.

  13. Space environment and lunar surface processes, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The top few millimeters of a surface exposed to space represents a physically and chemically active zone with properties different from those of a surface in the environment of a planetary atmosphere. To meet the need or a quantitative synthesis of the various processes contributing to the evolution of surfaces of the Moon, Mercury, the asteroids, and similar bodies, (exposure to solar wind, solar flare particles, galactic cosmic rays, heating from solar radiation, and meteoroid bombardment), the MESS 2 computer program was developed. This program differs from earlier work in that the surface processes are broken down as a function of size scale and treated in three dimensions with good resolution on each scale. The results obtained apply to the development of soil near the surface and is based on lunar conditions. Parameters can be adjusted to describe asteroid regoliths and other space-related bodies.

  14. Lunar Radar Scattering from Near-Surface Buried Crater Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Ustinov, E. A.; Heggy, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Apollo 15, 16, and 17 core tubes show that the uppermost few meters of the lunar regolith are interlaced layers of a fine grained powders and blocky crater ejecta. The layers of crater ejecta have dielectric constants in the range of 7-9 while the fine-grained powders has dielectric constant on the order of 2.7. These differences in dielectric constant, in turn, create radar reflections that are both refracted and reflected back through the space-regolith interface. Note that for a dielectric constant of 2.7 for the lunar regolith, radio waves incident on the lunar surface at the angle of 30-degrees from the normal will propagate in the regolith at an angle of 18-degrees. At the limb, radio waves incident on the lunar surface at an angle near 90-degrees from the normal will propagate in the regolith at an angle of about 37-degrees. These angles are within the range where radar backscatter is in the quasi-specular regime. When these buried crater ejecta layers are modeled using Hagfors’ formulation (Hagfors, 1963), echo powers match the behavior observed for average lunar backscatter at centimeter wavelengths for higher (30° to 90°) angles of incidence. In addition, Hagfors et al. (1965) conducted an experiment where the Moon was illuminated at 23-cm wavelength with circular polarization and the differences were observed in orthogonal linear polarizations. Modeling of these observations and assuming again that the buried crater ejecta scatter in a quasi-specular manner, echo differences in horizontal and vertical linear polarizations are in relatively good agreement with the observations. The data from Chandrayaan Mini-RF radar, which operated at S-Band (13cm) wavelength, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mini-RF radar, which is operating at S-Band and X-Band (4-cm) wavelengths, provide an opportunity for a new examination of whether radar backscatter from buried crater ejecta behaves like a quasi-specular scatter. These radars reproduce the

  15. Apollo 12, A New Vista for Lunar Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Man's second lunar landing, Apollo 12, provided a wealth of scientific information about the moon. The deployment of the magnetometer, seismometer, and ionosphere detector, and other activities on the lunar surface are described. A number of color photographs show the astronauts setting up equipment on the moon as well as close-ups of the lunar…

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Sample Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Global Mixing as a Mechanism for Compositional Anomalies of Agglutinitic Glasses; 2) Electron Microscopy of Apollo 12 Glass Spherules; 3) 40Ar-39Ar Geochronology on Apollo 12 Regolith; 4) LSCC Apollo and Luna Soil Analyses: Update of Soil Evolution Model; 5) Planetary Regolith Microstructure: An Unexpected Opposition Effect Result; 6) Infrared Spectroscopy on a Microscopic Scale: Investigating the Technique of Microspectroscopy and Its Application to a Lunar Breccia; 7) The Most Reduced Rock from the Moon - Apollo 14 Basalt 14053: Extreme Reduction Entirely from a Re-Heating Event.

  17. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc.

  18. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  19. Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the summer of 2004, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate conducted an open call for projects relevant to human and robotic exploration of the Earth-Moon and Mars systems. A project entitled 'Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility' was submitted by JPL and accepted by NASA. The principal investigator of this project describes the robotic vehicle being developed for this effort, which includes six 'wheels-on-legs' so that it can roll efficiently on relatively smooth terrain but walk (using locked wheels as footpads) when "the going gets rough".

  20. Planetary science: Traces of ancient lunar water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauri, Erik H.

    2013-03-01

    The presence of water in lunar volcanic rocks has been attributed to delivery after the Moon formed. Water detected in rocks from the ancient lunar highlands suggests that the Moon already contained water early in its history, and poses more challenges for the giant impact theory of Moon formation.

  1. Lunar science strategy: Exploring the Moon with humans and machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Donald A.; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    Important scientific questions that can be addressed from the lunar surface are reviewed for a number of scientific disciplines. A successful strategy for human exploration of the Moon is outlined. It consists of several elements: thorough preparation; a means of extending the human reach; measurement of the mobility of both human and robotic components; and flexible technologies so as to be able to take the most effective path as successive decision points occur. Part of thorough preparation involves concurrent development of a set of science goals and objectives as well as a supporting information base; neither can evolve independently of the other. This matched set will drive the definition of missions and technologies used to satisfy the requirements of various science disciplines. No single site on the Moon will satisfy all requirements. Thus, global accessibility is a goal of the current Lunar and Mars Exploration Program science strategy. Human mobility on the surface is limited to a few kilometers without the use of vehicles. Unpressurized crew carrying rovers could take explorers to distances tens of kilometers from an outpost; the distance is primarily limited by health and safety concerns. Pressurized rovers could extend the range to hundreds of kilometers, but size, mass, and costs limit such vehicles to missions beyond current planning horizons. The establishment of several outposts instead of one would provide opportunities for effective use of the unique capabilities of humans. Extending the human reach to global dimensions may be accomplished through teleoperation or telepresence. The most effective mix of these techniques is a decision that will evolve as experience is gained on the surface. Planning and technology must be flexible enough to allow a variety of options to be selected.

  2. ARTEMIS Lunar Orbit Insertion and Science Orbit Design Through 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broschart, Stephen B.; Sweetser, Theodore H.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Folta, David; Woodard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    As of late-July 2011, the ARTEMIS mission is transferring two spacecraft from Lissajous orbits around Earth-Moon Lagrange Point #1 into highly-eccentric lunar science orbits. This paper presents the trajectory design for the transfer from Lissajous orbit to lunar orbit insertion, the period reduction maneuvers, and the science orbits through 2013. The design accommodates large perturbations from Earth's gravity and restrictive spacecraft capabilities to enable opportunities for a range of heliophysics and planetary science measurements. The process used to design the highly-eccentric ARTEMIS science orbits is outlined. The approach may inform the design of future planetary moon missions.

  3. Real-time science operations to support a lunar polar volatiles rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Mattes, Greg; Ennico, Kimberly; Fritzler, Erin; Marinova, Margarita M.; McMurray, Robert; Morse, Stephanie; Roush, Ted L.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2015-05-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will likely rely on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to enable long duration lunar missions. Prior to utilizing ISRU on the Moon, the natural resources (in this case lunar volatiles) must be identified and characterized, and ISRU demonstrated on the lunar surface. To enable future uses of ISRU, NASA and the CSA are developing a lunar rover payload that can (1) locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important both for ISRU purposes and for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the ∼ 2-14 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. Due to the limited operational time available, both science and rover operations decisions must be made in real time, requiring immediate situational awareness, data analysis, and decision support tools. Given these constraints, such a mission requires a new concept of operations. In this paper we outline the results and lessons learned from an analog field campaign in July 2012 which tested operations for a lunar polar rover concept. A rover was operated in the analog environment of Hawaii by an off-site Flight Control Center, a rover navigation center in Canada, a Science Backroom at NASA Ames Research Center in California, and support teams at NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas and NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. We find that this type of mission requires highly efficient, real time, remotely operated rover operations to enable low cost, scientifically relevant exploration of the distribution and nature of lunar polar volatiles. The field

  4. Levitated lunar surface dust as evidenced by the LEAM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, S.; Berg, O. E.

    2008-09-01

    The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment was deployed by the Apollo 17 astronauts in the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon in December 1972. The science objectives of LEAM were (1) to investigate the interplanetary dust flux (primary particles) bombarding the lunar surface; (2) to investigate the properties of the lunar ejecta (secondary) particles; (3) to follow the temporal variability of these fluxes along the lunar orbit; and (4) to observe interstellar particles. The design and expected performance was similar to the dust experiments flown on Pioneers 8 and 9 in heliocentric orbits [1]. They responded to plasma generated by hypervelocity dust impacts. The pulse height generated was a function of mv2.6 of the particle (where m [g] is its mass and v [km/s] is its impact velocity) with a detection threshold of typically m = 10-13 g at v = 25 km s-1. Particle velocity was measured directly by its time of flight between two films spaced 5 cm apart. The LEAM contained three sensor systems. The east sensor was pointed 25° north of east, so that once per lunation its field of view swept into the direction of the interstellar dust flow. The west sensor was pointing in the opposite direction, while the up sensor was parallel to the lunar surface and viewing particles coming from above. Only the west sensor was lacking the front film. It was designed to identify low-speed ejecta impacts that were not expected to penetrate the front film. It soon became evident that most events registered by the sensors had to be attributed not to meteorites or lunar ejecta but to slow moving, highly charged lunar surface dust. Most puzzling were two facts: (1) the event rates increased with the passage of the terminators and (2) the events registered in the front film only and with the maximum possible pulse height. The event rate started to increase up to 60 hours before the local sunrise and persisted after sunrise for about 30-60 hours. In this interval the east sensor's rates

  5. Dust Particle Release from the Lunar Surface: Influence of Adhesion and Meteoroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey; Golub', Anatoliy; Izvekova, Yulia; Lisin, Evgeniy; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Dolnikov, Gennadiy; Zakharov, Aleksandr; Zelenyi, Lev

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that for consideration of dust particle release from the lunar surface one has to take into account (among other effects) both adhesion and meteoroid impacts. The effect of surface roughness on the adhesion intensity on the Moon is discussed. The rate of meteoroid impacts with the lunar surface per unit area is determined. The strength of the regolith due to the adhesion effect is estimated. The processes occurring when a high-speed meteoroid impacts with the lunar surface are described. In particular, the characteristic parameters of zones of evaporation of the substance, its melting, destruction of particles constituting lunar regolith, their irreversible deformations, and elastic deformation of the regolith substance are found. A possibility of the rise of micrometer-sized dust particles above the lunar surface is shown. It is demonstrated that most of the particles rising over lunar surface due to the meteoroid impact originates from the elastic deformation zone. The number of dust particles raised over the lunar surface as result of a meteoroid impact is estimated. The size-distribution function of particles released from the lunar surface due to meteoroid impacts is determined. It is noted that micrometeoroid impacts can result in rise of dust particles of the size of a few μm up to an altitude of about 30 cm that explains the effect of "horizon glow" observed by Surveyor lunar lander. This work was carried out as part of the Russian Academy of Sciences Presidium program no. 7 and was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects nos. 15-02-05627, 15-32-21159) and the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2), as well as NCN grant Rezonans 2012/07/B/ST9/04414.

  6. Rover wheel charging on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Telana L.; Farrell, William M.; Zimmerman, Michael I.

    2015-03-01

    The environment at the Moon is dynamic, with highly variable solar wind plasma conditions at the lunar dayside, terminator, and night side regions. Moving objects such as rover wheels will charge due to contact electrification with the surface, but the degree of charging is controlled by the local plasma environment. Using a dynamic charging model of a wheel, it is demonstrated herein that moving tires will tribocharge substantially when venturing into plasma-current starved regions such as polar craters or the lunar nightside. The surface regolith distribution and the overall effect on charge accumulation of grains cohesively sticking to the rover tire has been incorporated into the model. It is shown that dust sticking can limit the overall charge accumulated on the system. However charge dissipation times are greatly increased in shadowed regions and can present a potential hazard to astronauts and electrical systems performing extra-vehicular activities. We show that dissipation times change with wheel composition and overall system tribocharging is dependent upon wheel velocity.

  7. Laser Ranging for Gravitational, Lunar and Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.; Dabney, Philip W.; Livas, Jeffrey C.; McGarry, Jan F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.

    More precise lunar and Martian ranging will enable unprecedented tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity as well as lunar and planetary science. NASA is currently planning several missions to return to the Moon, and it is natural to consider if precision laser ranging instruments should be included. New advanced retroreflector arrays at carefully chosen landing sites would have an immediate positive impact on lunar and gravitational studies. Laser transponders are currently being developed that may offer an advantage over passive ranging, and could be adapted for use on Mars and other distant objects. Precision ranging capability can also be combined with optical communications for an extremely versatile instrument. In this paper we discuss the science that can be gained by improved lunar and Martian ranging along with several technologies that can be used for this purpose.

  8. A short course in lunar geology for earth science instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Shultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A four-day short course in lunar geology was developed, leading to the publication of a primer in lunar geology. The course was offered to 22 sponsored participants (community college teachers) and to representatives from the Lunar Science Institute, Houston, Texas, and from the Educational Program Office of NASA-Ames, on April 25-28, 1974. A follow-up survey of the course participants was made in two steps: on the last day of the course, and one year later. In general, the participants felt that the course was well organized and that the speakers were effective. Most of the participants introduced some aspects of what they learned into their own teaching material. Finally, a well-panel display about 7 1/2 feet high and 16 feet long designed to acquaint the viewer with elementary facts of lunar geology was constructed and permanently installed at the Space Science Center of Foothill College.

  9. Life Sciences Investigations for ESA's First Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Angerer, O.; Durante, M.; Linnarson, D.; Pike, W. T.

    2010-12-01

    Preparing for future human exploration of the Moon and beyond is an interdisciplinary exercise, requiring new technologies and the pooling of knowledge and expertise from many scientific areas. The European Space Agency is working to develop a Lunar Lander, as a precursor to future human exploration activities. The mission will demonstrate new technologies and perform important preparatory investigations. In the biological sciences the two major areas requiring investigation in advance of human exploration are radiation and its effects on human physiology and the potential toxicity of lunar dust. This paper summarises the issues associated with these areas and the investigations planned for the Lunar Lander to address them.

  10. Lunar surface operations. Volume 3: Robotic arm for lunar surface vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A robotic arm for a lunar surface vehicle that can help in handling cargo and equipment, and remove obstacles from the path of the vehicle is defined as a support to NASA's intention to establish a lunar based colony by the year 2010. Its mission would include, but not limited to the following: exploration, lunar sampling, replace and remove equipment, and setup equipment (e.g. microwave repeater stations). Performance objectives for the robotic arm include a reach of 3 m, accuracy of 1 cm, arm mass of 100 kg, and lifting capability of 50 kg. The end effectors must grip various sizes and shapes of cargo; push, pull, turn, lift, or lower various types of equipment; and clear a path on the lunar surface by shoveling, sweeping aside, or gripping the obstacle present in the desired path. The arm can safely complete a task within a reasonable amount of time; the actual time is dependent upon the task to be performed. The positioning of the arm includes a manual backup system such that the arm can be safely stored in case of failure. Remote viewing and proximity and positioning sensors are incorporated in the design of the arm. The following specific topic are addressed in this report: mission and requirements, system design and integration, mechanical structure, modified wrist, structure-to-end-effector interface, end-effectors, and system controls.

  11. A theoretical model for lunar surface material thermal conductivity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khader, M. S.; Vachon, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical thermal conductivity model for the uppermost layer of lunar surface material under the lunar vacuum environment. The model assumes that the lunar soil can be simulated by spherical particles in contact with each other and that the effective thermal conductivity is a function of depth, temperature, porosity, particle dimension, and mechanical-thermal properties of the solid particles. Two modes of heat transport are considered, conduction and radiation - with emphasis on the contact resistance between particles. The model gives effective conductivity values that compare favorably with the experimental data from lunar surface samples obtained on Apollo 11 and 12 missions.

  12. Reliability of telescopes for the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaroya, Haym

    1995-02-01

    The subject of risk and reliability for lunar structures, in particular lunar-based telescopes, is introduced and critical issues deliberated. General discussions are made more specific regarding the lunar telescope, but this paper provides a framework for further quantitative reliability studies.

  13. Lunar Flashlight: Exploration and Science at the Moon with a 6U Cubesat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as a secondary payload on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS), currently scheduled for 2018. Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest volatiles may be present on the surface, though the detection is not yet definitive. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and map its concentration at the 1-2 kilometer scale within the PSRs. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight maneuvers into a low-energy transfer to lunar orbit and then an elliptical polar orbit, spiraling down to a perilune of 10-30 km above the south pole for data collection. Lunar Flashlight will illuminate permanently shadowed regions, measuring surface albedo with point spectrometer at 1.1, 1.5 1.9, and 2.0 mm. Water ice will be distinguished from dry regolith in two ways: 1) spatial variations in absolute reflectance (water ice is much brighter in the continuum channels), and 2) reflectance ratios between absorption and continuum channels. Derived reflectance and water ice band depths will be mapped onto the lunar surface in order to distinguish the composition of the PSRs from that of the sunlit terrain, and to compare with lunar datasets such as LRO and Moon Mineralogy Mapper. Lunar Flashlight enables a low-cost path to science and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) by identifying ice deposits (if there are any), which would be a game-changing result for expanded human exploration.

  14. The Apollo Program and Lunar Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiper, Gerard P.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Vanguard project and the findings in Ranger records and Apollo missions, including lunar topography, gravity anomalies, figure, and chemistry. Presented are speculative remarks on the research of the origin of the Moon. (CC)

  15. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, D. G.; Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L. A.; Eng, D.; Ballard, B. W.; Kubota, S. D.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Holloway, T. A.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. This paper describes some of the lunar lander concepts derived from these studies conducted by the MSFC/APL Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project team. In addition, the results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing and combined GN&C and avionics testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two autonomous lander flight test vehicles: a compressed air system with limited flight durations and a second version using hydrogen peroxide propellant to achieve significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms.

  16. Detection of Impact Ejecta on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanwei; Srama, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    One of the highest-priority issues for a future human or robotic lunar exploration is the lunar dust. This problem should be studied in depth in order to develop an environment model for a future lunar exploration. The impact ejecta of interplanetary meteoroids is one of the source mechanics of the lunar dust environment. A dust detector placed on the lunar surface is exposed to strong variations in the impact ejecta environment. The purpose of this article is a study of the speed and trajectory information of ejecta created by micrometeoroid impacts. Autodyn14.0/2D software was used to simulate the impacting by micrometeoroids bombarding the lunar surface. The projectiles were selected as 10 μm spheres in diameter with the speed of 17 km-s-1. We used impact angles of 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°. A part of impact ejecta grains created in the early stage of impact process can be captured by a sensor placed on the lunar surface (e.g. Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment) or mounted on a lunar lander (e.g. Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX)). Most of the detectable ejecta grains have very-low-speeds (< 100 m-s-1) together with a few of high-speed ejecta grains (> 1 km-s-1). Comparing with the most recently analysis of LEAM data, the impact ejecta grains are considered as one of the most possible sources for the recorded events. Furthermore, a sensor mounted on a lander instead of directly placed on the lunar surface has more chances to measure high-speed ejecta. A new developed instrument, such as LDX, will be a powerful tool to study the lunar dust environment.

  17. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  18. Surface magnetometer experiments: Internal lunar properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are respectively 38 gammas, 103 gammas (maximum), 3 gammas, and 327 gammas. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites are compressed and that the scale size of the Apollo 16 remanent field is 5 or = L 100 km. The global eddy current fields, induced by magnetic step transients in the solar wind, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile. From nightside data it was found that deeper than 170 km into the moon, the conductivity rises from 0.0003 mhos/m to 0.01 mhos/m at 1000 km depth. Analysis of dayside transient data using a spherically symmetric two-layer model yields a homogeneous conducting core of radios 0.9 R and conductivity sigma = 0.001 mhos/m, surrounded by a nonconducting shell of thickness 0.1 R. This result is in agreement with a nonconducting profile determined from nightside data. The conductivity profile is used to calculate the temperature for an assumed lunar material of peridotite. In an outer layer the temperature rises to 850 to 1050 K, after which it gradually increases to 1200 to 1500 K at a depth of approximately 1000 km.

  19. Potential of a New Lunar Surface Radiator Concept for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochoa, Dustin A.; Vogel, Matthew R.; Trevino, Luis A.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    The optimum radiator configuration in hot lunar thermal environments is one in which the radiator is parallel to the ground and has no view to the hot lunar surface. However, typical spacecraft configurations have limited real estate available for top-mounted radiators, resulting in a desire to use the spacecraft s vertically oriented sides. Vertically oriented, flat panel radiators will have a large view factor to the lunar surface, and thus will be subjected to significant incident lunar infrared heat. Consequently, radiator fluid temperatures will need to exceed approx.325 K (assuming standard spacecraft radiator optical properties) in order to provide positive heat rejection at lunar noon. Such temperatures are too high for crewed spacecraft applications in which a heat pump is to be avoided. A recent study of vertically oriented radiator configurations subjected to lunar noon thermal environments led to the discovery of a novel radiator concept that yielded positive heat rejection at lower fluid temperatures. This radiator configuration, called the Upright Lunar Terrain Radiator Assembly (ULTRA), has exhibited superior performance to all previously analyzed concepts in terms of heat rejection in the lunar noon thermal environment. A key benefit of the ULTRA is the absence of louvers or other moving parts and its simple geometry. Analysis of the ULTRA for a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support system (PLSS) is shown to provide moderate heat rejection, on average, at all solar incident angles assuming an average radiator temperature of 294 K, whereas prior concepts exhibited insignificant heat rejection or heat absorption at higher incident angles. The performance of the ULTRA for a lunar lander is also discussed and compared to the performance of a vertically oriented, flat panel radiator at various lunar latitudes.

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) Using a Monochromated TEM/STEM. Dynamical Evolution of Planets in Open Clusters. Experimental Petrology of the Basaltic Shergottite Yamato 980459: Implications for the Thermal Structure of the Martian Mantle. Cryogenic Reflectance Spectroscopy of Highly Hydrated Sulfur-bearing Salts. Implications for Core Formation of the Earth from High Pressure-Temperature Au Partitioning Experiments. Uranium-Thorium Cosmochronology. Protracted Core Differentiation in Asteroids from 182Hf-182W Systematics in the Eagle Station Pallasite. Maximizing Mission Science Return Through Use of Spacecraft Autonomy: Active Volcanism and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment. Classification of Volcanic Eruptions on Io and Earth Using Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Data. Isotopic Mass Fractionation Laws and the Initial Solar System (sup26)Al/(sup27)Al Ratio. Catastrophic Disruption of Porous and Solid Ice Bodies (sup187)Re-(sup187)Os Isotope Disturbance in LaPaz Mare Basalt Meteorites. Comparative Petrology and Geochemistry of the LaPaz Mare Basalt Meteorites. A Comparison of the Structure and Bonding of Carbon in Apex Chert Kerogenous Material and Fischer-Tropsch-Type Carbons. Broad Spectrum Characterization of Returned Samples: Orientation Constraints of Small Samples on X-Ray and Other Spectroscopies. Apollo 14 High-Ti Picritic Glass: Oxidation/Reduction by Condensation of Alkali Metals. New Lunar Meteorites from Oman: Dhofar 925, 960 and 961. The First Six Months of Iapetus Observations by the Cassini ISS Camera. First Imaging Results from the Iapetus B/C Flyby of the Cassini Spacecraft. Radiative Transfer Calculations for the Atmosphere of Mars in the 200-900 nm Range. Geomorphologic Map of the Atlantis Basin, Terra Sirenum, Mars. The Meaning of Iron 60: A Nearby Supernova Injected Short-lived Radionuclides into Our Protoplanetary Disk.

  1. Lunar surface vehicle evolution - FY89-90 NASA studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John F.; Pivirotto, Donna

    1990-01-01

    A return to the moon in the first decade of the next century, as called for by President Bush in his July 20, 1989 speech, will challenge the talents of the engineers and designers faced for the first time with the task of designing elements and systems for a 'permanent' extraterrestrial outpost. The set of surface vehicles for such a permanent outpost will require not only rovers for crew and science package transport, but autonomous rovers for site surveying and remote science, construction vehicles for outpost set-up and mining vehicles for using the resources of the moon to benefit the outpost. Studies conducted in FY 1989, including those supporting NASA's 90-day Study activity, and others continuing throughout FY 1990 are defining the lunar surface vehicle set in increasing detail. This paper describes recent work performed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Johnson Space Center, as well as by other supporting NASA installations in the definition of the lunar vehicle set. Classification of vehicle functions and mission requirements are first examined, and vehicle characteristics and reference designs are synthesized. The paper concludes with a discussion of current work and future goals.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: A Model for Multiple Populations of Presolar Diamonds. Characterization of Martian North Polar Geologic Units Using Mars Odyssey THEMIS Data. Effect of Flow on the Internal Structure of the Martian North Polar Layered Deposits. Elemental Abundance Distributions in Basalt Clays and Meteorites: Is It a Biosignature? Early Results on the Saturn System from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. NanoSIMS D/H Imaging of Isotopically Primitive Interplanetary Dust Particles. Presolar (Circumstellar and Interstellar) Phases in Renazzo: The Effects of Parent Body Processing. Catastrophic Disruption of Hydrated Targets: Implications for the Hydrated Asteroids and for the Production of Interplanetary Dust Particles. Chemical and Mineralogical Analyses of Particles from the Stratospheric Collections Coinciding with the 2002 Leonid Storm and the 2003 Comet Grigg-Skjellerup Trail Passage. An Analysis of the Solvus in the CaS-MnS System. ESA s SMART-1 Mission at the Moon: First Results, Status and Next Steps. Europa Analog Ice-splitting Measurements and Experiments with Ice-Hunveyor on the Frozen Balaton-Lake, Hungary. Chromium on Eros: Further Evidence of Ordinary Chondrite Composition. Dust Devil Tracks on Mars: Observation and Analysis from Orbit and the Surface. Spatial Variation of Methane and Other Trace Gases Detected on Mars: Interpretation with a General Circulation Model. Mars Water Ice and Carbon Dioxide Seasonal Polar Caps: GCM Modeling and Comparison with Mars Express Omega Observations. Component Separation of OMEGA Spectra with ICA. Clathrate Formation in the Near-Surface Environment of Titan. Space Weathering: A Proposed Laboratory Approach to Explaining the Sulfur Depletion on Eros. Sample Collection from Small Airless Bodies: Examination of Temperature Constraints for the TGIP. Sample Collector for the Hera Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission. A Rugged Miniature Mass-Spectrometer for Measuring Aqueous Geochemistry on Mars

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the folowing: Experimental Study of Fe-, Co- and Ni-partitioning Between Forsterite and low-Co Fe,Ni-Alloys: Implications for Formation of Olivine Condensates in Equilibrium with Primitive Metal. Channels and Fan-like Features on Titan Surface Imaged by the Cassini RADAR. The Oxygen Isotope Similarity of the Earth and Moon: Source Region or Formation Process? The Mn-53-Cr-53 System in CAIs: An Update. Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: Valence State Partitioning of Cr, Fe, Ti, and V Among Crystallographic Sites in Olivine, Pyroxene, and Spinel from Planetary Basalts. CAI Thermal History Constraints from Spinel: Ti Zoning Profiles and Melilite Boundary Clinopyroxenes. Noble Gas Study of New Enstatite SaU 290 with High Solar Gases. A Marine Origin for the Meridiani Planum Landing Site? A Mechanism for the Formation and Evolution of Tharsis as a Consequence of Mantle Overturn: Large Scale Lateral Heterogeneity in a Stably Stratified Mantle. Endolithic Colonization of Fluid Inclusion Trails in Mineral Grains. Microbial Preservation in Sulfates in the Haughton Impact Structure Suggests Target in Search for Life on Mars. Ascraeus Mons Fan-shaped Deposit, Mars: Geological History and Volcano-Ice Interactions of a Cold-based Glacier. Weathering Pits in the Antarctic Dry Valleys: Insolation-induced Heating and Melting, and Applications to Mars. Mineralogy and Petrography of Lunar Mare Regolith Breccia Meteorite MET 01-210. Geological Mapping of Ganymede. A Quantitative Analysis of Plate Motion on Europa: Implications for the Role of Rigid vs. Nonrigid Behavior of the Lithosphere. Comparison of Terrestrial Morphology, Ejecta, and Sediment Transport of Small Craters: Volcanic and Impact Analogs to Mars. An Integrated Study of OMEGA-Identified Mineral Deposits in Eastern Hebes Chasma, Mars. Global Spectral and Compositional Diversity of Mars: A Test of CRISM Global Mapping with Mars Express OMEGA Data. On Origin of Sedna. Processing ISS Images of Titan s

  4. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission - Six years of science and exploration at the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2016-07-01

    Since entering lunar orbit on June 23, 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has made comprehensive measurements of the Moon and its environment. The seven LRO instruments use a variety of primarily remote sensing techniques to obtain a unique set of observations. These measurements provide new information regarding the physical properties of the lunar surface, the lunar environment, and the location of volatiles and other resources. Scientific interpretation of these observations improves our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what its history can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Scientific results from LRO observations overturned existing paradigms and deepened our appreciation of the complex nature of our nearest neighbor. This paper summarizes the capabilities, measurements, and some of the science and exploration results of the first six years of the LRO mission.

  5. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a nearperfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a higheccentricity geocentric orbit. The launch, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, was visible from much of the eastern seaboard. Over the next 30 days, LADEE performed three phasing orbits, with near-perfect maneuvers that placed apogee at ever higher altitudes in preparation for rendezvous with the Moon. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any.

  6. Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

  7. NASA SSERVI Contributions to Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Brad; Pendleton, Yvonne; Schmidt, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration that will enable deeper understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies as we move further out of low-Earth orbit. The new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) will focus on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars. The Institute focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science centered around all airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study reported here will represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. We will provide a detailed look at research being conducted by each of the 9 domestic US teams as well as our 7 international partners. The research profile of the Institute integrates investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies.

  8. NASA SSERVI Contributions to Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration that will enable deeper understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies as we move further out of low-Earth orbit. The new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) will focus on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars. The Institute focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science centered around all airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study reported here will represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. We will provide a detailed look at research being conducted by each of the 9 domestic US teams as well as our 7 international partners. The research profile of the Institute integrates investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies.

  9. The Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Journal

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1995-08-01

    The material included in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Journal has been assembled so that an uninitiated reader can understand, in some detail, what happened during Apollo 17 and why and what was learned, particularly about living and working on the Moon. At its heart, the Journal consists a corrected mission transcript which is interwoven with commentary by the crew and by Journal Editor -- commentary which, we hope, will make the rich detail of Apollo 17 accessible to a wide audience. To make the Journal even more accessible, this CD-ROM publication contains virtually all of the Apollo 17 audio, a significant fraction of the photographs and a selection of drawings, maps, video clips, and background documents.

  10. Lunar Resource Assessment: Strategies for Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    Use of the indigenous resources of space to support long-term human presence is an essential element of the settlement of other planetary bodies. We are in a very early stage of understanding exactly how and under what circumstances space resources will become important. The materials and processes to recover them that we now think are critical may not ultimately be the raison d'etre for a resource utilization program. However, the need for strategic thinking proceeds in parallel with efforts to implement such plans and it is not too soon to begin thinking how we could and should use the abundant resources of materials and energy available from the Moon. The following commodities from the Moon are discussed: (1) bulk regolith, for shielding and construction on the lunar surface (ultimately for export to human-tended stations in Earth-Moon space), and (2) oxygen and hydrogen, for propellant and life support.

  11. Examining the Uppermost Surface of the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the examination of the uppermost surface of the lunar regolith. It shows the mechanism (i.e. a Clam Shell Sampling Device) that was used to retrieve samples of the surface of the lunar soil. Samples were obtained from the devices, and they were examined in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using a lunar simulant, JSC-1a, test were run to ascertain if the sample from the clam shell device were biased due to the collection. The results of the test were that all the fine grains analyzed to the limit of the capabilities were found to be lunar in composition, though non-lunar contaminants may exist in the submicron population. Further work is required, though the initial study shows that the uppermost surface is enriched in fine (< 2 micron grains) compared to the bulk soil.

  12. Thermal characteristics of the lunar surface layer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, C. J.; Birkebak, R. C.; White, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of the fines from the Apollo 12 landing site have been determined as a function of their relevant parameters. These properties include the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, directional reflectance and emittance. The density used was the same as that observed from the returned core-tube samples and so should be close to the true density of the surface layer at the Apollo 12 site. The measured properties are used to calculate the diurnal temperature variation of the moon's surface as well as for several depths below the surface. The maximum surface of 389 K is obtained at lunar noon while the minimum temperature of 86.1 K is obtained at sunrise. It is shown that the most significant effects on temperature, as compared with previous calculations, are caused by using the directional reflectance which controls the amount of solar energy absorption during the day in place of a constant hemispherical reflectance. The results are compared with previous analyses and remote measurements.

  13. The geomorphic evolution of the lunar surface.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of the function relating craters of the continuous degradation sequence with degree of erosion was defined as the geomorphic index of the area. Studies of the geomorphic index of stratigraphic surfaces show that areas covered by considerable ballistic sediments have a geomorphic index which is not a monotonic function of time. On the other hand, areas covered almost exclusively by mare flooding show an index which is a monotonic function of the age of the flooding. As each mare surface shows a considerable range in indices, it is concluded that maria are covered by surfaces formed through a considerable length of time. By using Apollo 11 and 12 radiometric ages it is suggested that the time of mare flooding lasted on the order of one billion years. The geomorphic index of highland surfaces shows a remarkable degree of order - i.e., the farther an area is inland from the mare shores, the higher will be the index. No explanation is given for this phenomenon, but it is suggested that lunar erosion is not just a localized phenomenon centered on the locus of an impact, but has lateral trends of regional dimensions.

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topics include: 1) The abundances of Iron-60 in Pyroxene Chondrules from Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites; 2) LL-Ordinary Chondrite Impact on the Moon: Results from the 3.9 Ga Impact Melt at the Landing Site of Appolo 17; 3) Evaluation of Chemical Methods for Projectile Identification in Terrestrial and Lunar Impactites; 4) Impact Cratering Experiments in Microgravity Environment; 5) New Achondrites with High-Calcium Pyroxene and Its implication for Igneous Differentiation of Asteroids; 6) Climate History of the Polar Regions of Mars Deduced form Geologic Mapping Results; 7) The crater Production Function for Mars: A-2 Cumulative Power-Law Slope for Pristine Craters Greater than 5 km in Diameter Based on Crater Distribution for Northern Plains Materials; 8) High Resolution Al-26 Chronology: Resolved Time Interval Between Rim and Interior of a Highly Fractionated Compact Type a CAI from Efremovka; 9) Assessing Aqueous Alteration on Mars Using Global Distributions of K and Th; 10) FeNi Metal Grains in LaPaz Mare Basalt Meteorites and Appolo 12 Basalts; 11) Unique Properties of Lunar Soil for In Situ Resource Utilization on the Moon; 12) U-Pb Systematics of Phosphates in Nakhlites; 13) Measurements of Sound Speed in Granular Materials Simulated Regolith; 14) The Effects of Oxygen, Sulphur and Silicon on the Dihedral Angles Between Fe-rich Liquid Metal and Olivine, Ringwoodite and Silicate Perovskite: Implications for Planetary Core Formation; 15) Seismic Shaking Removal of Craters 0.2-0.5 km in Diameter on Asteroid 433 Eros; 16) Focused Ion Beam Microscoopy of ALH84001 Carbonate Disks; 17) Simulating Micro-Gravity in the Laboratory; 18) Mars Atmospheric Sample Return Instrument Development; 19) Combined Remote LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy Measurements; 20) Unusual Radar Backscatter Properties Along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin; 21) The Mars Express/NASAS Project at JPL; 22) The Geology of the Viking 2 Lander Site Revisited; 23) An Impact Genesis for Loki

  15. The average chemical composition of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The available analytical data from twelve locations on the moon are used to estimate the average amounts of the principal chemical elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe) in the mare, the terra, and the average lunar surface regolith. These chemical elements comprise about 99% of the atoms on the lunar surface. The relatively small variability in the amounts of these elements at different mare (or terra) sites, and the evidence from the orbital measurements of Apollo 15 and 16, suggest that the lunar surface is much more homogeneous than the surface of the earth. The average chemical composition of the lunar surface may now be known as well as, if not better than, that of the solid part of the earth's surface.

  16. Ground Simulations of Near-Surface Plasma Field and Charging at the Lunar Terminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polansky, J.; Ding, N.; Wang, J.; Craven, P.; Schneider, T.; Vaughn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Charging in the lunar terminator region is the most complex and is still not well understood. In this region, the surface potential is sensitively influenced by both solar illumination and plasma flow. The combined effects from localized shadow generated by low sun elevation angles and localized wake generated by plasma flow over the rugged terrain can generate strongly differentially charged surfaces. Few models currently exist that can accurately resolve the combined effects of plasma flow and solar illumination over realistic lunar terminator topographies. This paper presents an experimental investigation of lunar surface charging at the terminator region in simulated plasma environments in a vacuum chamber. The solar wind plasma flow is simulated using an electron bombardment gridded Argon ion source. An electrostatic Langmuir probe, nude Faraday probes, a floating emissive probe, and retarding potential analyzer are used to quantify the plasma flow field. Surface potentials of both conducting and dielectric materials immersed in the plasma flow are measured with a Trek surface potential probe. The conducting material surface potential will simultaneously be measured with a high impedance voltmeter to calibrate the Trek probe. Measurement results will be presented for flat surfaces and objects-on-surface for various angles of attack of the plasma flow. The implications on the generation of localized plasma wake and surface charging at the lunar terminator will be discussed. (This research is supported by the NASA Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research program.)

  17. Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the President announced a 'Vision for Space Exploration' that is bold and forward-thinking, yet practical and responsible. The vision explores answers to longstanding questions of importance to science and society and will develop revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, while maintaining good stewardship of taxpayer dollars. One crucial technology area enabling all space exploration is electric power systems. In this paper, the author evaluates surface power technology options in order to identify leading candidate technologies that will accomplish lunar design reference mission three (LDRM-3). LDRM-3 mission consists of multiple, 90-day missions to the lunar South Pole with 4-person crews starting in the year 2020. Top-level power requirements included a nominal 50 kW continuous habitat power over a 5-year lifetime with back-up or redundant emergency power provisions and a nominal 2-kW, 2-person unpressurized rover. To help direct NASA's technology investment strategy, this lunar surface power technology evaluation assessed many figures of merit including: current technology readiness levels (TRLs), potential to advance to TRL 6 by 2014, effectiveness of the technology to meet the mission requirements in the specified time, mass, stowed volume, deployed area, complexity, required special ground facilities, safety, reliability/redundancy, strength of industrial base, applicability to other LDRM-3 elements, extensibility to Mars missions, costs, and risks. For the 50-kW habitat module, dozens of nuclear, radioisotope and solar power technologies were down-selected to a nuclear fission heat source with Brayton, Stirling or thermoelectric power conversion options. Preferred energy storage technologies included lithium-ion battery and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). Several AC and DC power management and distribution architectures and component technologies were defined consistent with the preferred habitat

  18. Multispectral mapping of the lunar surface using groundbased telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Feirberg, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    Images of the lunar surface were obtained at several wavelengths using a silicon vidicon imaging system and groundbased telescopes. These images were recorded and processed in digital form so that quantitative information is preserved. The photometric precision of the images is shown to be better than 1 percent. Ratio images calculated by dividing images obtained at two wavelengths (0.40/0.56 micrometer) and 0.95/0.56 micrometer are presented for about 50 percent of the lunar frontside. Spatial resolution is about 2 km at the sub-earth point. A complex of distinct units is evident in the images. Earlier work with the reflectance spectrum of lunar materials indicates that for the most part these units are compositionally distinct. Digital images of this precision are extremely useful to lunar geologists in disentangling the history of the lunar surface.

  19. The Kaguya Mission: Present Status and its Lunar Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Kaguya Team

    2009-04-01

    Lunar orbiter Kaguya(SELENE) has been successfully launched on September 14, 2007. After insertion into lunar orbit on October 4 , release of two subsatellites into the elliptical orbits of 100 km perilune, and 2400 km and 800 km apolune, reach the nominal observation orbit with 100 km circular and polar on October 18, and the extension of four sounder antennas with 15 m length and the 12 m mast for magnetometer, and deployment of plasma imager, Kaguya has started nominal observation for ten months on December 21. Most of science instruments show excellent performance for ten months, and continue to acquire their data in extention mission term using saved fuel. New information and insights have been brought to lunar sciences in topography, gravimetry, geology, mineralogy, lithology, plasma physics.

  20. The Kaguya (SELENE) Mission: Present Status and Lunar Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Manabu; Takizawa, Y.; Kaguya, S.; Kaguya Project Team

    2008-09-01

    Lunar orbiter Kaguya (SELENE) has been successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center TNSC on September 14, 2007. On October 4 the Kaguya has been inserted into large elliptical orbit circulating the Moon after passing the phasing orbit rounding the Earth with 2.5 times. After lowering the apolune altitudes the Kaguya has reached the nominal observation orbit with 100 km circular and polar on October 18. On the way to nominal orbit two subsatellites Okina (Rstar) and Ouna (Vstar) have been released into the elliptical orbits of 100 km perilune, and 2400 km and 800 km apolune, respectively. After the checkout of bus system the extension of four sounder antennas with 15 m length and the 12 m mast for magnetometer, and deployment of plasma imager were successfully carried out. Nominal observation for seven lunar days has already passed and fourteen science instruments are acquiring data to study lunar science in mineralogy, geology, gravimetry, topography, and plasma environment.

  1. Lunar Surface Habitat Configuration Assessment: Methodology and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Habitat Configuration Assessment evaluated the major habitat approaches that were conceptually developed during the Lunar Architecture Team II Study. The objective of the configuration assessment was to identify desired features, operational considerations, and risks to derive habitat requirements. This assessment only considered operations pertaining to the lunar surface and did not consider all habitat conceptual designs developed. To examine multiple architectures, the Habitation Focus Element Team defined several adequate concepts which warranted the need for a method to assess the various configurations. The fundamental requirement designed into each concept included the functional and operational capability to support a crew of four on a six-month lunar surface mission; however, other conceptual aspects were diverse in comparison. The methodology utilized for this assessment consisted of defining figure of merits, providing relevant information, and establishing a scoring system. In summary, the assessment considered the geometric configuration of each concept to determine the complexity of unloading, handling, mobility, leveling, aligning, mating to other elements, and the accessibility to the lunar surface. In theory, the assessment was designed to derive habitat requirements, potential technology development needs and identify risks associated with living and working on the lunar surface. Although the results were more subjective opposed to objective, the assessment provided insightful observations for further assessments and trade studies of lunar surface habitats. This overall methodology and resulting observations will be describe in detail and illustrative examples will be discussed.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topics include: 1) Virtual Reality Technology as a Tool to Enhance Collaboration Between Space Exploration and Public Outreach: The Case Using the Mars Exploration Rover Images; 2) Atmospheric Electron-induced X-Ray Spectrometer (AEXS) Instrument Development; 3) Impact of Low Thermal Conductivity Layers on the Bulk Conductivity of a Martian Crustal Column; 4) Impacting Classroom Teachers Through Long-Term Professional Development; 5) Oxygen, Ca, and Ti Isotopic Compositions of Hibonite-bearing Inclusions; 6) Phenomenological Excitation Functions of Xe Isotopes with Protons on Nuclei of Cs, La and Ce; 7) Double-Diffusive Convection and Other Modes of Salinity-modulated Heat and Material Transport in Europa s Ocean; 8) Slope Morphologies of the Hellas Mensae Constructs, Eastern Hellas Planitia, Mars; 9) Development of Polygonal Thermal Contraction Patterns in a South Polar Trough, Mars 3 Years of Observations; 10) Martian Relevance of Dehydration and Rehydration in the Mg-Sulfate System; 11) Formation of Martian Volcanic Provinces by Lower Mantle Flushing? 12) Can Glasses Help Us to Unravel the Origin of Barred Olivine Chondrules? 13) Loki Patera: A Magma Sea Story; 14) Compositions of Partly Altered Olivine and Replacement Serpentine in the CM2 Chondrite QUE93005; 15) Model of Light Scattering by Lunar Regolith at Moderate Phase Angles: New Results; 16) Radiation Resistance of a Silicone Polymer Grease Based Regolith Collector for the HERA Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission; 17) Analysis of the Tectonic Lineaments in the Ganiki Planitia (V14) Quadrangle, Venus; 18) Nanometer-sized Diamonds from AGB Stars; 19) Quantifying Exact Motions Along Lineaments on Europa; 20) Geometry of Thrust Faults Beneath Amenthes Rupes, Mars; 21) Mapping of the Physical Characteristics and Mineral Composition of a Superficial Layer of the Moon or Mars and Ultra-Violet Polarimetry from the Orbital Station; 22) Negative Searches for Evidence of Aqueous Alteration on Asteroid

  3. Astronaut Eugene Cernan salutes deployed U.S. flag on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 commander, salutes the deployed U.S. flag on the lunar surface during extravehicular activity (EVA) of NASA's final lunar landing mission in the Apollo series. The lunar module is at the left background and the lunar roving vehicle, also in background, is partially obscured. The photo was made by Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot.

  4. Apollo lunar surface experiments package. Apollo 17 ALSEP (array E) familiarization course handout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The familiarization course for the Apollo 17 ALSEP (ARRAY E) is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) power and data subsystems, (2) lunar surface gravimeter, (3) lunar mass spectrometer, (4) lunar seismic profiling experiment, and (5) heat flow experiment.

  5. Recent outgassing from the lunar surface: The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Stefanie L.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; Moore, Kurt R.; Elphic, Richard C.; Belian, Richard D.; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2005-09-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (APS) was designed to detect characteristic-energy alpha particles from the decay of Rn-222, Po-218, and Po-210 and to therefore map sites of radon release on the lunar surface. These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of U-238 hence the background level of alpha particle activity is a function of the lunar crustal uranium distribution. Radon reaches the lunar surface either at areas of high soil porosity or where fissures release the trapped gases in which radon is entrained. Once released, the radon spreads out by ``bouncing'' across the surface on ballistic trajectories in a random-walk process. The half-life of Rn-222 allows the gas to spread out by several hundred kilometers before it decays (depositing approximately half of the Po-218 recoil nuclides on the lunar surface) and allows the APS to detect gas release events up to several days after they occur. The long residence time of the Pb-210 precursor to Po-210 allows the mapping of gas vents which have been active over the last approximately 60 years. The APS found only a faint indication of Po-218 alpha particles. However, the Rn-222 alpha particle map shows that radon gas was emanating from the vicinity of craters Aristarchus and Kepler at the time of Lunar Prospector. The Po-210 alpha particle distribution reveals a variability in time and space of lunar gas release events. Po-210 and Rn-222 detections are associated with both thorium enhancements and lunar pyroclastic deposits.

  6. Lunar surface heat flow mapping from radioactive elements measured by Lunar Prospector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Xiongyao; Li, Qingxia; Lang, Liang; Zheng, Yongchun

    2014-06-01

    An accurate estimate of global surface heat flow is important because it provides strong constraints on interior thermal model and understanding of the thermal state and geologic evolution of the Moon. In this paper, a distribution map of lunar surface heat flow is derived from calibrated Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer data (K, U and Th abundances). It shows that surface heat flow varies regionally from about 10.6 mW/m2 to 66.1 mW/m2, which is in the same order of magnitude as previous results. In the calculation, lunar surface heat flow includes the heat flow from the non-uniform distribution of radioactive elements K, U and Th and that from secular cooling of the Moon. The calculation of heat flow from radioactive elements is based on the assumption that the radioactive decay of K, U and Th on the Moon is the same as that on the Earth. The heat flow from secular cooling of the Moon is assumed to be equal to the global average radioactive heat flow. Firstly we construct a relationship between radioactive elements K, U and Th and lunar surface heat flow. The key parameter of the characteristic length scale in the relationship is determined by measured surface heat flow and Th abundances at Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites. Then the distribution of lunar surface heat flow is derived by combining other parameters such as lunar crustal thickness measured by Clementine and lunar crustal density. In addition, correlation analysis of the three radioactive elements is carried out due to the higher resolution of Th abundance and for ease of calculation.

  7. Scientific and administrative activities at the Lunar Science Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The scientific and administrative activities of the Lunar Science Institute during the period 15 July through 31 December 1973 are reported. The subjects discussed are: (1) contributions of the organization, (2) organization of the staff, (3) administration functions, and (4) scientific and professional meetings held at the institute.

  8. Surface roughness and infrared emission from the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogler, Karl Joseph

    1994-01-01

    In order to understand thermal infrared spectra of the moon and solid-surfaced planetary bodies in terms of surface roughness and composition, a two-part project involving thermophysical computer models and infrared photometry has been pursued. The computer models calculate the infrared radiation emitted by an atmosphereless body with a macroscopically rough surface using radiative heat transfer methods. Multiple scattering of incident solar radiation, and multiple scattering and remission of thermal infrared radiation onto surrounding surface elements are included in the model. Surface roughness is modeled as paraboloidal holes characterized by a fractional coverage of a spherical object and a single depth-to-diameter ratio. Thermal emission from the rough surface is anisotropic and deviates from a gray body emission assumed by standard thermal models. The model explains to first-order published, mid infrared, measurements of the moon and Galilean Satellites. Surface composition is included by using results from Hapke for reflectance and emittance properties of a particulate surface. It is concluded that negative surface relief is required to explain the continuum behavior of the lunar thermal spectrum. An infrared photometer was constructed from an existing design and was configured in order to perform whole disk photometry of the moon at various phase angles. Measurements at 5.03, 8.4 and 11.5 micron were made at seven phase angles, ranging from -151 deg 55 min to 53 deg 27 min. The thermophysical computer models were modified so that disk-integrated emission as a function of phase angle could be calculated. Effects due to thermal inertia of the surface are not included in this simplified version of the model. The model calculations compare favorably with measurements of the moon made by the author, Sarri and Shorthill and Murdock. It is concluded that surface roughness is necessary in explaining the shape of the lunar thermal emission with phase angle.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Terrestrial Planets: included:Lunar Soils May Tell Us When the Geomagnetic Field First Appeared; Metal-Silicate Segregation in Deforming Dunitic Rocks: Applications to Core Formation in Europa and Ganymede; Diamond Formation in Core Segregation Experiments; The Effect of Pressure on Potassium Partitioning Between Metallic Liquid and Silicate Melt; Reduction of W, Mn, and Fe, During High-Temperature Vaporization; Micrometeoritic Neon in the Earth s Mantle ; and New Analyses of Diverse Hadean Zircon Inclusions from Jack Hills.

  10. Science Operations for the 2008 NASA Lunar Analog Field Test at Black Point Lava Flow, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry W. D.; Horz, F.; Lofgren, G. E.; Kring, D. A.; Chapman, M. G.; Eppler, D. B.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Nelson, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Walheim, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Surface science operations on the Moon will require merging lessons from Apollo with new operation concepts that exploit the Constellation Lunar Architecture. Prototypes of lunar vehicles and robots are already under development and will change the way we conduct science operations compared to Apollo. To prepare for future surface operations on the Moon, NASA, along with several supporting agencies and institutions, conducted a high-fidelity lunar mission simulation with prototypes of the small pressurized rover (SPR) and unpressurized rover (UPR) (Fig. 1) at Black Point lava flow (Fig. 2), 40 km north of Flagstaff, Arizona from Oct. 19-31, 2008. This field test was primarily intended to evaluate and compare the surface mobility afforded by unpressurized and pressurized rovers, the latter critically depending on the innovative suit-port concept for efficient egress and ingress. The UPR vehicle transports two astronauts who remain in their EVA suits at all times, whereas the SPR concept enables astronauts to remain in a pressurized shirt-sleeve environment during long translations and while making contextual observations and enables rapid (less than or equal to 10 minutes) transfer to and from the surface via suit-ports. A team of field geologists provided realistic science scenarios for the simulations and served as crew members, field observers, and operators of a science backroom. Here, we present a description of the science team s operations and lessons learned.

  11. Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.; Keller, J. W.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; Petro, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18,2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and the measurement of the lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and was completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September of 2012. Under SMD, the Science Mission focused on a new set of goals related to understanding the history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having recently marked the completion of the two-year Science Mission, we will review here the major results from the LRO for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives for the Extended Science that will last until September, 2014. Some results from the LRO mission are: the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  12. Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. W.; Vondrak, R. R.; Petro, N. E.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and the measurement of the lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and was completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September of 2012. Under SMD, the Science Mission focused on a new set of goals related to understanding the history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having recently marked the completion of the two-year Science Mission, we will review here the major results from the LRO for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives for the Extended Science that will last until September, 2014. Some results from the LRO mission are: the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  13. Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction processes as a means to provide pure elements for lunar resource utilization have many advantages. Such processes have. the potential of removing all the oxygen from the lunar soil for use in life support and for propellant. Electrochemical reduction also provides a direct path for the. production of pure metals and silicon which can be utilized for in situ manufacturing and power production. Some of the challenges encountered in the electrolytic reduction processes include the feeding of the electrolytic cell (the transfer of electrolyte containing lunar soil), the withdrawal of reactants and refined products such as the liquidironsiliconalloy with a number of impurities, and the spent regolith slag, produced in the hot electrolytic cell for the reduction of lunar regolith. The paper will discuss some of the possible solutions to the challenges of handling molten materials on the lunar surface, as well as the path toward the construction and testing of a proof-of-concept facility.

  14. Characterization of lunar surface materials for use in construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.

    1992-01-01

    The Workshop on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, which was held at the NASA Johnson Space Center on July 1 and 2, 1991, discussed potential payloads to be placed on the Moon by a common, generic, unmanned, vehicle beginning late in this decade. At this workshop, a variety of payloads were identified including a class of one-meter (and larger) optical telescopes to operate on the lunar surface. These telescopes for lunar-based astronomy are presented in an earlier section of this report. The purpose of this section is to suggest that these and other payloads for the Common Lunar Lander be used to facilitate technology development for the proposed 16-meter Aperture UV/Visible/IR Large Lunar Telescope (LLT) and a large optical aperture-synthesis instrument analogous to the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  15. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  16. Photodocumentation of long-term lunar surface exposure experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.

    1974-01-01

    Preflight photographs of selected Apollo 17 equipment taken for use in determining the effects on various surfaces of long-term exposure to the lunar environment are presented. Photographs of the articles deployed on the lunar surface also are included. The photographic procedure and the coding system used for the photodocumentation are explained. Other documentation measures planned to obtain items for use as controls in projected analyses are discussed.

  17. Aldrin and U.S. Flag on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin Aldrin poses beside the deployed U.S. flag on the moon's surface. The first manned lunar mission, the Apollo 11 launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, mission commander; Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) Pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. Astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  18. Apollo 14 visibility tests: Visibility of lunar surface features and lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    An in-flight visibility test conducted on the Apollo 14 mission is discussed. The need for obtaining experimental data on lunar feature visibility arose from visibility problems associated with various aspects of the Apollo missions; and especially from anticipated difficulties of recognizing lunar surface features at the time of descent and landing under certain illumination conditions. Although visibility problems have influenced many other aspects of the Apollo mission, they have been particularly important for descent operations, due to the criticality of this mission phase and the crew's guidance and control role for landing site recognition and touchdown point selection. A series of analytical and photographic studies were conducted during the Apollo program (prior to as well as after the initial manned lunar operations) to delineate constraints imposed on landing operations by visibility limitations. The purpose of the visibility test conducted on Apollo 14 was to obtain data to reduce uncertainties and to extend the analytical models of visibility in the lunar environment.

  19. Recovery and Restoration of Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Data by the NSSDC and the PDS Lunar Data Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Taylor, P. T.; McBride, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts on the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions deployed long-lived (5 to 8 years) automated instrument suites on the Moon, the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEP). The instruments were all turned off in September of 1977, but long before this the Apollo program and most of its funding had been abruptly cancelled. One result of this sudden cancellation was the loss of resources to properly archive these experiment data. Much of the data, particularly from the later years, were lost or saved in obsolete or difficult to access formats, and not properly documented. None of the surface data archived at National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) were in a form which could be easily archived with the Planetary Data System (PDS). The Lunar Data Project was started at NSSDC in order to recover and restore Apollo data into usable, well-documented digital formats. The PDS Lunar Data Node was established at NSSDC under the auspices of the PDS Geosciences Node to produce validated PDS data sets from the restored data. Six ALSEP data sets are archived at PDS: Apollo 12 and 15 Solar Wind Spectrometer 28-sec and hourly averages, and Apollo 14 and 15 Cold Cathode Ion Gage plots. (Other surface data, from the Apollo 17 Traverse Gravimeter and the Apollo 15 and 16 Penetrometer Soil Mechanics Experiments, have also been restored and are archived with PDS.) Apollo 14 and 15 Dust Detector data and Apollo 15 and 17 Heat Flow data have been restored and gone through a PDS review. They are now undergoing lien resolution. We are currently recovering data and restoring Apollo 12, 14, and 15 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment, Apollo 14 Charged Particle Lunar Environment Experiment, Apollo 17 Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment, and Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite data. Lunar Surface Magnetometer data from Apollo 15 and 16 are being restored by another group led by Peter Chi at U.C.L.A. We are also restoring, in conjunction with Yosio Nakamura (University of

  20. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf" vacuum cleaner has been used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating percent removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner

  1. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  2. Matching method of the vision image captured by the lunar rover exploring on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lichun; Zhou, Jianliang; Sun, Jun; Shang, Desheng; Xu, Yinghui; Zhang, Wei; Wan, Wenhui

    2014-11-01

    Facing the lunar surface survey of the Lunar Exploring Engineering, the paper summarizes the environment sensing technology based on vision image. For the image matching is the most important step in the process of the lunar exploring images, the accuracy and speed of the matching method is the key problem of the lunar exploring, which play an important role in the rover auto navigating and tele-operating. To conquer difficult problem that there are significant illumination variation of the imaging, lack of image texture, and non-uniform distribution of the image texture, the huge change of the disparity for the prominent target in the scene, in the image process Engineering, the image matching method is proposed which divided the whole image into M×N regions, and each region employs the Forstner algorithm to extract features by which the semi-uniform distribution features of whole image and avoiding of the features gathering is achieved. According to the semi- uniform distribution features, the Sift and Least Square Matching method are used to realize accurate image matching. Guided by the matched features of the first step, the locale plane is detected to restrict dense image registering. The matching experiments show that the method is effective to deal with the image captured by the lunar exploring rover, that has large variation of illumination and lacking of image texture. The robustness and high accuracy of the method is also proved. The method satisfied the request of the lunar surface exploring.

  3. Mass fractionation of the lunar surface by solar wind sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switkowski, Z. E.; Haff, P. K.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the mass-fractionation effects produced in connection with the bombardment of the moon by the solar wind. Most of the material ejected by sputtering escapes the moon's gravity, but some returning matter settles back onto the lunar surface. This material, which is somewhat richer in heavier atoms than the starting surface, is incorporated into the heavily radiation-damaged outer surfaces of grains. The investigation indicates that sputtering of the lunar surface by the solar wind will give rise to significant surface heavy atom enrichments if the grain surfaces are allowed to come into sputtering equilibrium.

  4. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  5. Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: petrology, petrography, meteoritic composition, planetary geology, atmospheric composition, astronomical spectroscopy, lunar geology, Mars (planet), Mars composition, Mars surface, volcanology, Mars volcanoes, Mars craters, lunar craters, mineralogy, mineral deposits, lithology, asteroids, impact melts, planetary composition, planetary atmospheres, planetary mapping, cosmic dust, photogeology, stratigraphy, lunar craters, lunar exploration, space exploration, geochronology, tectonics, atmospheric chemistry, astronomical models, and geochemistry.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Some topics covered: Implications of internal fragmentation on the structure of comets; Atmospheric excitation of mars polar motion; Dunite viscosity dependence on oxygen fugacity; Cross profile and volume analysis of bahram valles on mars; Calculations of the fluxes of 10-250 kV lunar leakage gamma rays; Alluvian fans on mars; Investigating the sources of the apollo 14 high-Al mare basalts; Relationship of coronae, regional plains and rift zones on venus; and Chemical differentiation and internal structure of europa and callisto.

  7. The Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface for Solar studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, Jack O.; Jones, D. L.; Weiler, K. W.; Demaio, L.; Cohen, A.; Paravastu Dalal, N.; Polisensky, E.; Stewart, K.; Bale, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M.; Kasper, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface for Solar studies (ROLSS) is a concept for a near-side low radio frequency imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration at the Sun and in the inner heliosphere. The prime science mission is to image the radio emission generated by Type II and III solar radio burst processes with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Specific questions to be addressed include the following: (1) Isolating the sites of electron acceleration responsible for Type II and III solar radio bursts during coronal mass ejections (CMEs); and (2) Determining if and the mechanism(s) by which multiple, successive CMEs produce unusually efficient particle acceleration and intense radio emission. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by searching for a low radio frequency cutoff to solar radio emission and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Key design requirements on ROLSS include the operational frequency and angular resolution. The electron densities in the solar corona and inner heliosphere are such that the relevant emission occurs at frequencies below 10 MHz. Second, resolving the potential sites of particle acceleration requires an instrument with an angular resolution of at least 2°, equivalent to a linear array size of approximately 1000 m. Operations would consist of data acquisition during the lunar day, with regular data downlinks. No operations would occur during lunar night. ROLSS is envisioned as an interferometric array, because a single aperture would be impractically large. The major components of the ROLSS array are 3 antenna arms arranged in a Y shape, with a central electronics package (CEP) located at the center. The Y configuration for the antenna arms both allows for the formation of reasonably high dynamic range images on short time scales as well as relatively easy

  8. The Use of Solar Heating and Heat Cured Polymers for Lunar Surface Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul; Curran, Jerry; Back, Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Dust ejecta can affect visibility during a lunar landing, erode nearby coated surfaces and get into mechanical assemblies of in-place infrastructure. Regolith erosion was observed at many of the Apollo landing sites. This problem needs to be addressed at the beginning of the lunar base missions, as the amount of infrastructure susceptible to problems will increase with each landing. Protecting infrastructure from dust and debris is a crucial step in its long term functionality. A proposed way to mitigate these hazards is to build a lunar launch pad. Other areas of a lunar habitat will also need surface stabilization methods to help mitigate dust hazards. Roads would prevent dust from being lifted during movement and dust free zones might be required for certain areas critical to crew safety or to critical science missions. Work at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is investigating methods of stabilizing the lunar regolith including: sintering the regolith into a solid and using heat or UV cured polymers to stabilize the surface. Sintering, a method in which powders are heated until fusing into solids, has been proposed as one way of building a Lunar launch/landing pad. A solar concentrator has been built and used in the field to sinter JSC-1 Lunar stimulant. Polymer palliatives are used by the military to build helicopter landing pads and roads in dusty and sandy areas. Those polymers are dispersed in a solvent (water), making them unsuitable for lunar use. Commercially available, solvent free, polymer powders are being investigated to determine their viability to work in the same way as the solvent borne terrestrial analog. This presentation will describe the ongoing work at KSC in this field. Results from field testing will be presented. Physical testing results, including compression and abrasion, of field and laboratory prepared samples will be presented.

  9. Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yunlong

    Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Lunar Geologic Mapping: Preliminary Mapping of Copernicus Quad High-Resolution Topography of Layers in the Valles Marineris Via Thermoclinometry ; The Critical Importance of Data Reduction Calibrations in the Interpretability of S-type Asteroid Spectra; (sup 238)U-(sup 206)Pb Age and Uranium-Lead Isotope Systematics of Mare Basalt 10017; Morphological Investigations of Martian Spherules, Comparisons to Collected Terrestrial Counterparts; The Vapor Pressure of Palladium at Temperatures up to 1973K; Areas of Favorable Illumination at the Lunar Poles Calculated from Topography; An Indigenous Origin for the South Pole-Aitken Basin Thorium Anomaly; Ar-Ar Ages of Nakhlites Y000593, NWA998, and Nakhla and CRE Ages of NWA998; Experiments on the Acoustic Properties of Titan-like Atmospheres; Analysis of Downstream Transitions in Morphology and Structure of Lava Channels on Mars; Structure and Bonding of Carbon in Clays from CI Carbonaceous Chondrites; Comparison of Three Hydrogen Distributions at the Equator of Mars; An Impact Origin for the Foliation of Ordinary Chondrites; A New Micrometeorite Collection from Antarctica and Its Preliminary Characterization by Microobservation, Microanalysis and Magnetic Methods; Volcanic Plumes and Plume Deposits on Io; Results of the Alpha-Particle-X-Ray Spectrometer on Board of the Mars Exploration Rovers; Effects of Oceans on Atmospheric Loss During the Stage of Giant Impacts; and Identification of Predominant Ferric Signatures in Association to the Martian Sulfate Deposits

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: A Model for the Formation of Paterae on Io; LIBS-based Detection of As, Br, C, Cl, P, and S in the VUV Spectral Region in a Mars Atmosphere; Mass Independent Sulfur in Achondrites: Possible Evidence of Photochemistry in the Solar Nebula; Grain Size-dependent Viscosity and Oceans in Icy Satellites; Claritas Paleolake Studied from the MEX HRSC Data; Mars Express HRSC Colors of White Rock, Arabia, Mars; Lava and Flows of the Arcadia Region of Mars; Isotopic Composition of Lunar Soils and the Early Differentiation of the Moon; Trace Element Analysis of Lunar Soils by ICP-MS; Highly Siderophile Elements and Osmium Isotope Systematics in Ureilites: Are the Carbonaceous Veins Primary Components?; Evaporative Evolution of Martian Brines Based on Halogens in Nakhlites and MER Samples; Io from High-Resolution Galileo PPR Data Taken Simultaneously with SSI or NIMS Observations; Loki, Io: Groundbased Observations and a Model for Periodic Overturn; Deconstructing a Few Myths in the Interpretation of Satellite-Altitude Crustal Magnetic Field: Examples from Mars Global Surveyor; Semi-Autonomous Rover Operations: A Mars Technology Program Demonstration; Rotational Studies of Asteroids with Small Telescopes; Mineralogy and Temperature-induced Spectral Investigations of A-type Asteroids 246 Asporina and 446 Aeternitas; and Thermal History Calculations Versus Full Convection Models: Application to the Thermal Evolution of Mercury. Recent Solar-Proton Fluxes

  12. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    PubMed

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition. PMID:26678876

  13. Simulation of a Lunar Surface Base Power Distribution Network for the Constellation Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Toby; Maslowski, Edward A.; Colozza, Anthony; McFarland, Willard; Prokopius, Kevin P.; George, Patrick J.; Hussey, Sam W.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Power Distribution Network Study team worked to define, breadboard, build and test an electrical power distribution system consistent with NASA's goal of providing electrical power to sustain life and power equipment used to explore the lunar surface. A testbed was set up to simulate the connection of different power sources and loads together to form a mini-grid and gain an understanding of how the power systems would interact. Within the power distribution scheme, each power source contributes to the grid in an independent manner without communication among the power sources and without a master-slave scenario. The grid consisted of four separate power sources and the accompanying power conditioning equipment. Overall system design and testing was performed. The tests were performed to observe the output and interaction of the different power sources as some sources are added and others are removed from the grid connection. The loads on the system were also varied from no load to maximum load to observe the power source interactions.

  14. Lunar surface base propulsion system study. Volume 2: Lunar propellant manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teeter, Ronald R.

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency, capability, and evolution of a lunar base will be largely dependent on the transportation system that supports it. Beyond the space station in low Earth orbit, a lunar-derived propellant supply could provide the most important resource for the transportation infrastructure. The key to an efficient lunar base propulsion system is the degree of lunar self-sufficiency and reasonable propulsion system performance. Lunar surface propellant production requirements must be accounted in the measurement of efficiency of the entire space transportation system. Of all chemical propellant/propulsion systems considered, hydrogen/oxygen (H/O) OTVs appear most desirable, while both H/O and aluminum/oxygen propulsion systems may be considered for the lander. Aluminized-hydrogen/oxygen and silane/oxygen propulsion systems are also promising candidates. Lunar propellant availability and processing techniques, chemical propulsion/vehicle design characteristics, and the associated performance of the total transportation infrastructure are reviewed, conceptual propulsion system designs and vehicle/basing concepts, and technology requirements are assessed.

  15. Lunar Meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 and the Iron Concentration of the Lunar Highlands Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 is a clast-rich, glassy-matrix regolith breccia of ferroan, highly aluminous bulk composition. It is similar in composition to other feldspathic lunar meteorites but differs in having higher concentrations of siderophile elements and incompatible trace elements. Based on electron microprobe analyses of the fusion crust, glassy matrix, and clasts, and instrumental neutron activation analysis of breccia fragments, QUE 93069 is dominated by nonmare components of ferroan, noritic- anorthosite bulk composition. Thin section QUE 93069,31 also contains a large, impact-melted, partially devitrified clast of magnesian, anorthositic-norite composition. The enrichment in Fe, Sc, and Cr and lower Mg/Fe ratio of lunar meteorites Yamato 791197 and Yamato 82192/3 compared to other feldspathic lunar meteorites can be attributed to a small proportion (5-10%) of low-Ti mare basalt. It is likely that the non- mare components of Yamato 82192/3 are similar to and occur in similar abundance to those of Yamato 86032, with which it is paired. There is a significant difference between the average FeO concentration of the lunar highlands surface as inferred from the feldspathic lunar meteorites (mean: approx. 5.0%; range: 4.3-6.1 %) and a recent estimate based on data from the Clementine mission (3.6%).

  16. Lunar polar rover science operations: Lessons learned and mission architecture implications derived from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) terrestrial field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Lim, Darlene; Deans, Matthew; Cook, Amanda; Roush, Ted; Skok, J. R.; Button, Nicole E.; Karunatillake, S.; Stoker, Carol; Marquez, Jessica J.; Shirley, Mark; Kobayashi, Linda; Lees, David; Bresina, John; Hunt, Rusty

    2016-08-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal of producing critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. Specifically, MVP focuses on studying a lunar mission analog to characterize the form and distribution of lunar volatiles. Although lunar volatiles are known to be present near the poles of the Moon, the three dimensional distribution and physical characteristics of lunar polar volatiles are largely unknown. A landed mission with the ability to traverse the lunar surface is thus required to characterize the spatial distribution of lunar polar volatiles. NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) mission is a lunar polar rover mission that will operate primarily in sunlit regions near a lunar pole with near-real time operations to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of volatiles. The MVP project was conducted as a field campaign relevant to the RP lunar mission to provide science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. To achieve these goals, the MVP project conducted a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural environment with an unknown volatile distribution within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon.

  17. Lunar Riometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  18. Recovery of Lunar Surface Access Module Residual and Reserve Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William U.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration calls for human exploration of the lunar surface in the 2020 timeframe. Sustained human exploration of the lunar surface will require supply, storage, and distribution of consumables for a variety of mission elements. These elements include propulsion systems for ascent and descent stages, life support for habitats and extra-vehicular activity, and reactants for power systems. NASA KSC has been tasked to develop technologies and strategies for consumables transfer for lunar exploration as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program. This paper will investigate details of operational concepts to scavenge residual propellants from the lunar descent propulsion system. Predictions on the mass of residuals and reserves are made. Estimates of heat transfer and boiloff rates are calculated and transient tank thermodynamic issues post-engine cutoff are modeled. Recovery and storage options including cryogenic liquid, vapor and water are discussed, and possible reuse of LSAM assets is presented.

  19. The Lunar Surface Gravimeter as a Lunar Seismometer: New Identification of Unlocated Deep Moonquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Taichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Lognonné, Philippe; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine

    2010-05-01

    The internal structure of the Moon is an essential piece of information to investigate its origin and evolution. The seismic analyses using the data from Apollo Passive Seismic Exploration (Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16) are one of the most successful methods carried out to estimate the inner structure of the Moon. From the seismic analyses, it was found that the Moon is still seismically active and the Moon has layered structure with 40~60 km crust with mantle below. However, because of the limitation of seismic network, only with 4 seismic stations all on the nearside, the experiment could not fully uncover the lunar interior, especially for the region deeper than 1000 km. This is still an important question of the lunar science and new data were desired. In our previous studies, we showed that the Lunar Surface Gravimeter on Apollo 17 can be used as a seismometer. We succeeded in relocating the known seismic event and improving its location by using the additional seismic data of the LSG. In this study, we attempted to locate deep moonquakes that could not be located with the previous data set by using the LSG data. Deep moonquakes are said to occur periodically, at certain seismic source or nests. It is known that seismic events of the same nest have almost identical waveforms at one station. This is the unique characteristic of deep moonquakes and classification by waveform cross-correlation is possible. In this way, more than 300 nests were identified. 106 of them provided sufficient data to locate their sources. Among the remaining unlocated deep moonquakes, 60 provided usable waveform data at more than one station. In this study we focused on these 60 nests and examined whether they are locatable by adding data of the LSG. First, we picked up data for seismic event whose LSG data were available. This leaves 40 nests to be examined with the additional data of LSG. We examined all the seismic events from the 40 nests and identified seismic events from 5 nests

  20. High Angular Resolution Imaging of Solar Radio Bursts from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Lazio, J.; Bale, S.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Weiler, K.

    2011-12-01

    Locating low frequency radio observatories on the lunar surface has a number of advantages, including positional stability and a very low ionospheric radio cutoff. Here, we describe the Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface for Solar studies (ROLSS), a concept for a low frequency, radio imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration in the corona and inner heliosphere. ROLSS would be deployed during an early lunar sortie or by a robotic rover as part of an unmanned landing. The preferred site is on the lunar near side to simplify the data downlink to Earth. The prime science mission is to image type II and type III solar radio bursts with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by measuring the low radio frequency cutoff of the solar radio emissions or background galactic radio emission, measuring the flux, particle mass, and arrival direction of interplanetary and interstellar dust, and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Furthermore, ROLSS serves a pathfinder function for larger lunar radio arrays. Key design requirements on ROLSS include the operational frequency and angular resolution. The electron densities in the solar corona and inner heliosphere are such that the relevant emission occurs below 10 MHz, essentially unobservable from Earth's surface due to the terrestrial ionospheric cutoff. Resolving the potential sites of particle acceleration requires an instrument with an angular resolution of at least 2 deg at 10 MHz, equivalent to a linear array size of approximately one kilometer. The major components of the ROLSS array are 3 antenna arms, each of 500 m length, arranged in a Y formation, with a central electronics package (CEP) at their intersection. Each antenna arm is a linear strip of polyimide film (e.g., Kapton) on which 16 single polarization

  1. ALSEP arrays A, B, C, and A-2. [lunar surface exploration instrument specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the lunar surface exploration packages are defined and the preliminary design of scientific systems hardware is reported. Instrument packages are to collect and transmit to earth scientific data on the lunar interior, the lunar surface composition, and the lunar geomorphology

  2. Risk-Assessment for Equipment Operating on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. C.; Kusiak, A.; Ramachandran, N.

    2008-01-01

    Particle-size distribution of lunar dust simulant is evaluated using scanning electron spectroscopy in order to consider approaches to evaluating risk to individual mechanical components operating on the lunar surface. Assessing component risk and risk-mitigation during actual operations will require noninvasive continuous data gathering on numerous parameters. Those data sets would best be evaluated using data-mining algorithms to assess risk, and recovery from risk, of individual mechanical components in real-time.

  3. ``Moon Beyond 2000'' Workshop Participants Discuss Next Steps in Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David J.

    A lunar science workshop titled The Moon Beyond 2002: Next Steps in Lunar Science and Exploration was recently held in order to focus the planetary science community on the following: What are the key questions that should now be addressed to advance lunar science and exploration? and What actions should the planetary science community carry out to best answer these questions? A total of 102 scientists, engineers, and others gathered at the Taos Ski Valley from September 12-14 to discuss these and other issues about lunar science. This report describes and summarizes this meeting.

  4. Lunar surface base propulsion system study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency, capability, and evolution of a lunar base will be largely dependent on the transportation system that supports it. Beyond Space Station in low Earth orbit (LEO), a Lunar-derived propellant supply could provide the most important resource for the transportation infrastructure. The key to an efficient Lunar base propulsion system is the degree of Lunar self-sufficiency (from Earth supply) and reasonable propulsion system performance. Lunar surface propellant production requirements must be accounted in the measurement of efficiency of the entire space transportation system. Of all chemical propellant/propulsion systems considered, hydrogen/oxygen (H/O) OTVs appear most desirable, while both H/O and aluminum/oxygen propulsion systems may be considered for the lander. Aluminized-hydrogen/oxygen and Silane/oxygen propulsion systems are also promising candidates. Lunar propellant availability and processing techniques, chemical propulsion/vehicle design characteristics, and the associated performance of the total transportation infrastructure are reviewed, conceptual propulsion system designs and vehicle/basing concepts, and technology requirements are assessed in context of a Lunar Base mission scenario.

  5. Modeling the detection of impact ejecta on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanwei; Srama, Ralf; Wu, Yiyong; Grün, Eberhard

    2015-12-01

    The lunar surface is continuously exposed to the micrometeoroid environment. Hypervelocity impacts of interplanetary dust particles with speeds around 17 kms-1 generate secondary ejecta on the lunar surface. A dust detector placed on the moon is capable of characterizing the secondary ejecta population. The purpose of this paper is to study the speed and trajectory information of ejecta by impact simulations and its implications for the location of a dust sensor on the surface. AUTODYN15.0/2D software was used to simulate the velocity and angular distributions of ejecta created by the primary impacts of interplanetary dust particles. We considered projectiles with sizes of 10 μm spheres in diameter with speeds of 17 kms-1. We used impact angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° with respect to the surface. A significant percentage of the impact ejecta are created in the early-time stage of the impact process. This population can be captured by a sensor placed on the lunar surface (e.g. Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment) or by a sensor mounted directly on a lander (e.g. Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX)). The secondary ejecta population above the lunar surface is considered to explain the results of the LEAM experiment. A sensor directly placed on the surface like LEAM is not very well suited to measure the high-speed ejecta component - a sensor located at a few meters height (e.g. on top of a lunar lander) would measure higher fluxes.

  6. Astronauts Alan Bean and Charles Conrad on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn Five launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Their lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. In this photograph, one of the astronauts on the Moon's surface is holding a container of lunar soil. The other astronaut is seen reflected in his helmet. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  7. Enabler operator station. [lunar surface vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Keitzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). This LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an earth-bound model. Several recommendations are made in the appendix as to the changes needed in material selection for the lunar environment. The operator station is designed dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which includes life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of grid members, semi-rigid members and woven fabrics.

  8. Analysis of Fractal Parameters of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Petrova, Natalia; Andreev, Alexey; Demina, Natalya; Demin, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    very complex structure and traditional research methods are unacceptable. After considering this, it was decided to use the method of fractal dimensionsd comparisons. For this purpose lunar marginal zone maps made in the celestial coordinate system (maps N1) and oneconstructed on the basis of data obtained from heliometric observations with taking into account thefirst model of the figure of the Moon given by Jakovkin (maps N2) were taken. The charts contain isohypses of the lunar marginal zone extending over 10" on both sides of the mean position of the limb line. In order to find thevariations of irregularities for thelimb points above the mean level of lunar surface werecomputed the position angles of this pointsP (reckoned from the centre of the Moon's disc) and D coordinates. This coordinates introduced by Hayn: P is the selenocentric longitude reckoned along the mean limb from the north pole of the Moon, like the position angles, and D is the latitude counted positively for that part of the disc that is nearer to the observer. Thus the data of our studies was obtained by identical types. Then the first, segments of a lunar marginal zone for every 45" on P were considered. For each segment profile of the surface for a constant D were constructed with a step of 2". Thus 80 profiles were obtained. Secondly the fractal dimensions d for each considered structure was defined. Third the obtained values d werecompared with the othersmaps considered in this work. The obtained results show some well agreement between the mean fractal dimensions for maps N1 and N2. Thus it can be concluded that the using of fractal method for lunar maps analysis to determine the accuracy of the presented to themdata give good results. The work was supported by grants RFBR 15-02-01638-a, 16-32-60071-mol-dk-a and 16-02-00496-a.

  9. Surface Buildup Scenarios and Outpost Architectures for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Troutman, Patrick A.; Culbert, Christopher J.; Leonard, Matthew J.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program Architecture Team and the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office have developed an initial set of lunar surface buildup scenarios and associated polar outpost architectures, along with preliminary supporting element and system designs in support of NASA's Exploration Strategy. The surface scenarios are structured in such a way that outpost assembly can be suspended at any time to accommodate delivery contingencies or changes in mission emphasis. The modular nature of the architectures mitigates the impact of the loss of any one element and enhances the ability of international and commercial partners to contribute elements and systems. Additionally, the core lunar surface system technologies and outpost operations concepts are applicable to future Mars exploration. These buildup scenarios provide a point of departure for future trades and assessments of alternative architectures and surface elements.

  10. Mass fractionation of the lunar surface by solar wind sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switkowski, Z. E.; Haff, P. K.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The sputtering of the lunar surface by the solar wind is examined as a possible mechanism of mass fractionation. Simple arguments based on current theories of sputtering and the ballistics of the sputtered atoms suggest that most ejected atoms will have sufficiently high energy to escape lunar gravity. However, the fraction of atoms which falls back to the surface is enriched in the heavier atomic components relative to the lighter ones. This material is incorporated into the heavily radiation-damaged outer surfaces of grains where it is subject to resputtering. Over the course of several hundred years an equilibrium surface layer, enriched in heavier atoms, is found to form. The dependence of the calculated results upon the sputtering rate and on the details of the energy spectrum of sputtered particles is investigated. It is concluded that mass fractionation by solar wind sputtering is likely to be an important phenomenon on the lunar surface.

  11. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, E; Ozawa, S; Miyahara, M; Ito, Y; Mikouchi, T; Kimura, M; Arai, T; Sato, K; Hiraga, K

    2011-01-11

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO(2) in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8-30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the (39)Ar/(40)Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment. PMID:21187434

  12. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, E.; Ozawa, S.; Miyahara, M.; Ito, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Arai, T.; Sato, K.; Hiraga, K.

    2011-01-01

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO2 in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8–30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the 39Ar/40Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment. PMID:21187434

  13. Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface Air Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface air temperature are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher temperatures occurs near full moon and lower temperatures at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean temperature range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.

  14. Electrical Transmission on the Lunar Surface. Part 1; DC Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes a portion of the results from a grant at Auburn University to study the electrical and thermal energy management for lunar facilities. Over the past year (June 1989 to May 1990) the following topics have been investigated: June 1989 to November 1989 - Literature survey, assessment of lunar power needs, and overview study of the requirements of a lunar power system; November 1989 to April 1990 - Develop models for the study of dc electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface; March 1990 to May 1990 - Develop models for the study of ac electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface. Because of the large amount of information in the model development and application to a wide parameter space this report is being bound separately. This report specifically contains the model development and parameter study for dc electrical power transmission lines. The end of the funding year (May 1990) will conclude with an annual report including the literature survey, the overview of the requirements of a lunar power system, and summaries of the dc and ac models of electrical transmission lines.

  15. SP-100 reactor with Brayton conversion for lunar surface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Rodriguez, Carlos D.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Hanlon, James C.; Mansfield, Brian C.

    1992-04-01

    Examined here is the potential for integrating Brayton-cycle power conversion with the SP-100 reactor for lunar surface power system applications. Two designs were characterized and modeled. The first design integrates a 100-kWe SP-100 Brayton power system with a lunar lander. This system is intended to meet early lunar mission power needs while minimizing on-site installation requirements. Man-rated radiation protection is provided by an integral multilayer, cylindrical lithium hydride/tungsten (LiH/W) shield encircling the reactor vessel. Design emphasis is on ease of deployment, safety, and reliability, while utilizing relatively near-term technology. The second design combines Brayton conversion with the SP-100 reactor in a erectable 550-kWe powerplant concept intended to satisfy later-phase lunar base power requirements. This system capitalizes on experience gained from operating the initial 100-kWe module and incorporates some technology improvements. For this system, the reactor is emplaced in a lunar regolith excavation to provide man-rated shielding, and the Brayton engines and radiators are mounted on the lunar surface and extend radially from the central reactor. Design emphasis is on performance, safety, long life, and operational flexibility.

  16. SP-100 reactor with Brayton conversion for lunar surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Rodriguez, Carlos D.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Hanlon, James C.; Mansfield, Brian C.

    1992-01-01

    Examined here is the potential for integrating Brayton-cycle power conversion with the SP-100 reactor for lunar surface power system applications. Two designs were characterized and modeled. The first design integrates a 100-kWe SP-100 Brayton power system with a lunar lander. This system is intended to meet early lunar mission power needs while minimizing on-site installation requirements. Man-rated radiation protection is provided by an integral multilayer, cylindrical lithium hydride/tungsten (LiH/W) shield encircling the reactor vessel. Design emphasis is on ease of deployment, safety, and reliability, while utilizing relatively near-term technology. The second design combines Brayton conversion with the SP-100 reactor in a erectable 550-kWe powerplant concept intended to satisfy later-phase lunar base power requirements. This system capitalizes on experience gained from operating the initial 100-kWe module and incorporates some technology improvements. For this system, the reactor is emplaced in a lunar regolith excavation to provide man-rated shielding, and the Brayton engines and radiators are mounted on the lunar surface and extend radially from the central reactor. Design emphasis is on performance, safety, long life, and operational flexibility.

  17. Twenty-Third Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of papers from the Twenty-Third Lunar and Planetary Science Conference that were chosen for having the greatest potential interest for the general reading public. The presentations avoid jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. Topics covered include electron microscopy studies of a circumstellar rock, the fractal analysis of lava flows, volcanic activity on Venus, the isotopic signature of recent solar wind nitrogen, and the implications of impact crater distribution on Venus.

  18. Photometric Calibration of the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope for Its First Six Months of Operation on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Cao, Li; Meng, Xian-Min; Cai, Hong-Bo; Deng, Jing-Song; Han, Xu-Hui; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Wang, Fang; Wang, Shen; Wen, Wei-Bin; Wu, Chao; Wei, Jian-Yan; Hu, Jing-Yao

    2015-07-01

    We describe the photometric calibration of the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT), the first robotic astronomical telescope working on the lunar surface, for its first six months of operation on the lunar surface. Two spectral datasets (set A and B) from near-ultraviolet (NUV) to the optical band were constructed with 44 International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) standards, because of the LUT's relatively wide wavelength coverage. Set A was obtained by extrapolating the IUE NUV spectra (λ < 3200 Å) to the optical band based upon the theoretical spectra of stellar atmosphere models. Set B was composed of theoretical spectra from 2000 Å to 8000 Å extracted from the same model grid. In total, seven standards have been observed in 15 observational runs until May 2014. The calibration results show that the photometric performance of LUT is highly stable in its first six months of operation. The magnitude zero points obtained from the two spectral datasets are also consistent with each other, i.e., zp = 17.54 ± 0.09 mag (set A) and zp = 17.52 ± 0.07 mag (set B). Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  19. Global Energetic Neutral Atom Map of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, Audrey; Wurz, Peter; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Lue, Charles; Holmström, Mats; Bhardwaj, Anil; Dhanya, Mb; Asamura, Kazushi

    2013-04-01

    Until recently, it was tacitly assumed that the solar wind ions that impinge onto the lunar surface are almost completely absorbed ( < 1% reflection). This assumption has been invalidated by recent observations made by IBEX and SARA/Chandrayaan-1, which showed an average global energetic neutral atom (ENA) albedo of 10% - 20% (e.g. McComas et al. [GRL 2009] and Wieser et al. [PSS, 2009]). Having analysed all available measurements from the Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutral Analyzer (SARA/CENA), we present two global ENA maps of the lunar surface. The low energy map contains ENAs in the energy range (7 eV - 169 eV) and the high energy map contains ENAs in the energy range (169 eV - 3.5 keV). Together, the maps contain all ENAs within SARA/CENA's complete energy range (7 eV - 3.5 keV). The maps cover ~82% of the lunar surface, with almost complete coverage of the lunar farside. In the high energy part of the lunar ENA map several magnetic anomalies can be identified, whereas in the low energy part only the large magnetic anomaly associated with the South Pole-Aitken basin is clearly observed. By comparing SARA/CENA ENA maps to different lunar magnetic field maps, we found that they correlate better with the surface crustal magnetic field map than with the map showing the magnetic field at an altitude of 30 km. This implies that the main interaction between the solar wind plasma and the Moon occurs close to surface. Our high energy ENA map exhibits a strong anti-correlation with the map showing the flux of lunar deflected protons (Lue et al. [GRL 2011]) and appears to be an inverted image thereof. In addition, features in the ENA maps correlate with albedo features of swirls in the South Pole-Aitken basin. No obvious correlation with either the lunar topography or lunar geology map was found. The strength of ENA imaging together with ion reflection imaging lies in the fact that details of solar wind interaction with surfaces in the presence of electric and magnetic

  20. Lunar dusty plasma: A result of interaction of the solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisin, E. A.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Popel, S. I.; Petrov, O. F.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main problems of future missions to the Moon is associated with lunar dust. Solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation interact with the lunar surface. As a result, there is a substantial surface change and a near-surface plasma sheath. Dust particles from the lunar regolith, which turned in this plasma because of any mechanical processes, can levitate above the surface, forming dust clouds. In preparing of the space experiments “Luna-Glob” and “Luna-Resource” particle-in-cell calculations of the near-surface plasma sheath parameters are carried out. Here we present some new results of particle-in-cell simulation of the plasma sheath formed near the surface of the moon as a result of interaction of the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface. The conditions of charging and stable levitation of dust particles in plasma above the lunar surface are also considered.

  1. COSPAR-16-B0.1/ICEUM12A: Lunar Exploration and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    Lunar science and exploration are having a renaissance with as many as twelve missions (and 18 vehicles) sent to Moon during the last "International Lunar decade". This session is aimed at discussing new progress in lunar science from recent missions, latest science results, newer insight into our understanding of Moon, modelling and synthesis of different scientific data, future missions, and science questions. It will include invited, contributed, and poster papers. Papers on new lunar mission concepts, instrumentation for the future missions, the upcoming lunar decade of landers and lunar robotic village, and preparations for human lunar exploration towards a "Moon Village" are also welcome in this session. COSPAR-16-B0.1 will also be ICEUM12A, part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Problem of Incomplete Mixing of Interstellar Components in the Solar Nebula: Very High Precision Isotopic Measurements with Isoprobes P and T. Finally: Presolar Graphite Grains Identified in Orgueil. Basaltic Ring Structures as an Analog for Ring Features in Athabasca Valles, Mars. Experimental Studies of the Water Sorption Properties of Mars-Relevant Porous Minerals and Sulfates. Silicon Isotope Ratio Variations in CAI Evaporation Residues Measured by Laser Ablation Multicollector ICPMS. Crater Count Chronology and Timing of Ridged Plains Emplacement at Schiaparelli Basin, Mars. Martian Valley Networks and Associated Fluvial Features as Seen by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Field Study at the Mars Analog Site of Rio Tinto, Spain. Time Domain Electromagnetics for Mapping Mineralized and Deep Groundwater in Mars Analog Environments. Mineralogical and Seismological Models of the Lunar Mantle. Photometric Observations of Soils and Rocks at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites. Thermal Infrared Spectral Deconvolution of Experimentally Shocked Basaltic Rocks Using Experimentally Shocked Plagioclase Endmembers.

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Meteorites" included the following reports:Description of a New Stony Meteorite Find from Bulloch County, Georgia; Meteorite Ablation Derived from Cosmic Ray Track Data Dhofar 732: A Mg-rich Orthopyroxenitic Achondrite Halogens, Carbon and Sulfur in the Tagish Lake Meteorite: Implications for Classification and Terrestrial Alteration; Electromagnetic Scrape of Meteorites and Probably Columbia Tiles; Pre-Atmospheric Sizes and Orbits of Several Chondrites; Research of Shock-Thermal History of the Enstatite Chondrites by Track, Thermoluminescence and Neutron-Activation (NAA) Methods; Radiation and Shock-thermal History of the Kaidun CR2 Chondrite Glass Inclusions; On the Problem of Search for Super-Heavy Element Traces in the Meteorites: Probability of Their Discovery by Three-Prong Tracks due to Nuclear Spontaneous Fission Trace Element Abundances in Separated Phases of Pesyanoe, Enstatite Achondrite; Evaluation of Cooling Rate Calculated by Diffusional Modification of Chemical Zoning: Different Initial Profiles for Diffusion Calculation; Mineralogical Features and REE Distribution in Ortho- and Clinopyroxenes of the HaH 317 Enstatite Chondrite Dhofar 311, 730 and 731: New Lunar Meteorites from Oman; The Deuterium Content of Individual Murchison Amino Acids; Clues to the Formation of PV1, an Enigmatic Carbon-rich Chondritic Clast from the Plainview H-Chondrite Regolith Breccia ;Numerical Simulations of the Production of Extinct Radionuclides and ProtoCAIs by Magnetic Flaring.

  4. Lunar surface transportation systems conceptual design lunar base systems study Task 5.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Conceptual designs for three categories of lunar surface transportation were described. The level of understanding for the capabilities and design approach varies between the vehicles representing these categories. A summary of the vehicle categories and current state of conceptual design is provided. Finally, a brief evaluation and discussion is provided for a systematic comparison of transportation categories and effectiveness in supporting transportation objectives.

  5. Lunar Lander Offloading Operations Using a Heavy-Lift Lunar Surface Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Doggett, William R.; Chrone, Jonathan; Angster, Scott; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Haddad, Michael E.; Helton, David A.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a heavy-lift variant of the Lunar Surface Manipulator System (LSMS-H) to lift and handle a 12 metric ton payload. Design challenges and requirements particular to handling heavy cargo were examined. Differences between the previously developed first-generation LSMS and the heavy-lift version are highlighted. An in-depth evaluation of the tip-over risk during LSMS-H operations has been conducted using the Synergistic Engineering Environment and potential methods to mitigate that risk are identified. The study investigated three specific offloading scenarios pertinent to current Lunar Campaign studies. The first involved offloading a large element, such as a habitat or logistics module, onto a mobility chassis with a lander-mounted LSMS-H and offloading that payload from the chassis onto the lunar surface with a surface-mounted LSMS-H. The second scenario involved offloading small pressurized rovers with a lander-mounted LSMS-H. The third scenario involved offloading cargo from a third-party lander, such as the proposed ESA cargo lander, with a chassis-mounted LSMS-H. In all cases, the analyses show that the LSMS-H can perform the required operations safely. However, Chariot-mounted operations require the addition of stabilizing outriggers, and when operating from the Lunar surface, LSMS-H functionality is enhanced by adding a simple ground anchoring system.

  6. The Apollo lunar surface experiment package suprathermal ion detector experiment. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of reports and scientific papers is presented for the following topics: (1) the lunar ionosphere; (2) electric potential of the lunar surface; (3) ion activity on the lunar nightside; (4) bow shock protons; (5) magnetosheath and magnetotail; (6) solar wind-neutral gas cloud interactions at the lunar surface; (7) penetrating solar particles; and (8) rocket exhaust products from Apollo missions. Descriptions and photographs of ion detecting equipment at the lunar sites of Apollo 12, 13, 14, and 15 are given.

  7. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leich, D. A.; Goldberg, R. H.; Burnett, D. S.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19 (p, alpha gamma)0-16 has been used to perform depth sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction has been applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths of about 1/2 micrometer. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H2O surface contamination and a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H2O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with 0-16 to simulate the radiation damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations have been performed in a 1 pm surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19 alpha gamma)0-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint of lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination.

  8. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leich, D. A.; Goldberg, R. H.; Burnett, D. S.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19(p, alpha gamma)O-16 has been used to perform depth-sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction has been applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths up to 0.45 microns. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H2O surface contamination and of a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H2O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with O-16 to simulate the radiation-damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations have been performed in a 1-micron surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19(p, alpha gamma)O-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint that observed fluorine concentrations are a mixture of true lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination.

  9. Morphology and surface mapping. [surface properties of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1974-01-01

    Of the many boulders photographed at the Apollo 17 site, boulder 1 from Station 2 is unique in having a strongly developed foliation. Resistant layers form four steeply inclined ridges separated by joint planes or by deeply eroded beds of softer materials. A prominent cleavage, or set of cross joints, is oriented almost normal to the foliation. The cleavage is expressed as subparallel cracks, some of which are open fissures. The entire surface of the boulder is rough and studded by dark colored knobs ranging in diameter from 1 to 15 cm. It is a polymict breccia containing at least one type of rock that has not been recognized in any other lunar sample, and it records an unusual minor element distribution and magnetic history.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: A Fast, Non-Destructive Method for Classifying Ordinary Chondrite Falls Using Density and Magnetic Susceptibility. An Update on Results from the Magnetic Properties Experiments on the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. Measurement Protocols for In Situ Analysis of Organic Compounds at Mars and Comets. Piping Structures on Earth and Possibly Mars: Astrobiological Implications. Uranium and Lead in the Early Planetary Core Formation: New Insights Given by High Pressure and Temperature Experiments. The Mast Cameras and Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory. MGS MOC: First Views of Mars at Sub-Meter Resolution from Orbit. Analysis of Candor Chasma Interior Layered Deposits from OMEGA/MEX Spectra. Analysis of Valley Networks on Valles Marineris Plateau Using HRSC/MEX Data. Solar Abundance of Elements from Neutron-Capture Cross Sections. Preliminary Evaluation of the Secondary Ion/Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, MegaSIMS. Equilibrium Landforms in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica: Implications for Landscape Evolution and Climate Change on Mars. Continued Study of Ba Isotopic Compositions of Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Supernovae. Paleoenviromental Evolution of the Holden-Uzboi Area. Stability of Magnesium Sulfate Minerals in Martian Environments. Tungsten Isotopic Constraints on the Formation and Evolution of Iron Meteorite Parent Bodies. Migration of Dust Particles and Volatiles Delivery to the Inner Planets. On the Sitting of Trapped Noble Gases in Insoluble Organic Matter of Primitive Meteorites. Trapping of Xenon Upon Evaporation-Condensation of Organic Matter Under UV Irradiation: Isotopic Fractionation and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Analysis. Stability of Water on Mars. A Didactic Activity. Analysis of Coronae in the Parga Chasma Region, Venus. Photometric and Compositional Surface Properties of the Gusev Crater Region, Mars, as Derived from Multi-Angle, Multi-Spectral Investigation of

  11. Magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface and the interpretation of permanent remanence in lunar surface samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1972-01-01

    A magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface is presented. It was found that there is a distinct correlation between natural remanence (NRM), saturation magnetization, and the hysteresis ratios for the rock samples. The hysteresis classification is able to explain some aspects of time dependent magnetization in the lunar samples and relates the initial susceptibility to NRM, viscous remanence, and to other aspects of magnetization in lunar samples. It is also considered that since up to 60% of the iron in the lunar soil may be super paramagnetic at 400 K, and only 10% at 100 K, the 50% which becomes ferromagnetic over the cycle has the characteristics of thermoremanence and may provide for an enhancement in measurable field on the dark side during a subsatellite magnetometer circuit.

  12. Lunar fission surface power system design and implementation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  13. Lunar Fission Surface Power System Design and Implementation Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-20

    At the request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  14. Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alarez, Erika; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform minor mid-course corrections, a Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) burn, a de-orbit burn, and the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

  15. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  16. Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers: Effective Professional Development Experiences for Future Members of Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, D.; Bleacher, L.; Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Noble, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers (NGLSE) group is a grass roots effort devoted to growing the community of early career lunar scientists and engineers. Recent lunar missions, along with an increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, have resulted in a substantial increase in the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers in recent years. With plans for future US and international lunar missions, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific study. The lunar community is fortunate to be in a position to develop the next generation of lunar researchers and engineers with the support of the first generation of lunar scientists and engineers, ensuring continuity of lunar knowledge and expertise. Established informally in 2008 by early career scientists and education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, the NGLSE group has since grown tremendously. With over 190 current members from academia, industry, and NASA, the NGLSE is building a representative cross-section of the lunar science and engineering communities. The group's founders have received funding to formally design and implement experience-building and networking activities for group members, such as professional development workshops and other community-building events. The professional development opportunities provided to the NGLSE group enable the members to become better equipped to contribute to the current and future success of the lunar program. The NGLSE has received NASA funding, as well as support from the NASA Lunar Science Institute, to host workshops and meetings for its members, including providing small travel stipends for student participants, in association with major lunar conferences, such as the NASA Lunar Science Forum (LSF) and the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC). The goals of the workshops are to provide attendees with professional development, to familiarize them with best practices for communicating their science to

  17. A traverse gravimeter for the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamon, G.

    1971-01-01

    A semi-automatic, self-levelling lunar gravimeter was designed for the purpose of measuring gravity at predetermined stops along the route of a lunar rover vehicle to obtain a gravity profile. The traverse gravimeter is completely self-contained and is powered by an internal battery. The gravity sensor is a vibrating string accelerometer (VSA) which is enclosed in a precision oven. Gravity data are obtained by initiating a measurement. After the gravimeter has levelled, the VSA difference frequency is counted down and a gate is generated to enable a crystal-controlled clock to a BCD counter. The BCD counter stores the data which are a measurement of gravity. These data, displayed upon command by the astronaut, are transmitted by voice back to earth. It is expected that the accuracy of the gravimeter will be better than one milligal. Low power, light weight, reliability, and simplicity of operation are major considerations in the design of the gravimeter.

  18. Lunar Flashlight: Exploration and Science at the Moon with a 6U CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Lunar Flashlight mission, manifested on the SLS EM-1 flight scheduled for 2018, will illuminate permanently shadowed regions at the lunar south pole to measure the abundance and distribution of surface water ice for human resource utilization.

  19. Low-Latency Lunar Surface Telerobotics from Earth-Moon Libration Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    Concepts for a long-duration habitat at Earth-Moon LI or L2 have been advanced for a number of purposes. We propose here that such a facility could also have an important role for low-latency telerobotic control of lunar surface equipment, both for lunar science and development. With distances of about 60,000 km from the lunar surface, such sites offer light-time limited two-way control latencies of order 400 ms, making telerobotic control for those sites close to real time as perceived by a human operator. We point out that even for transcontinental teleoperated surgical procedures, which require operational precision and highly dexterous manipulation, control latencies of this order are considered adequate. Terrestrial telerobots that are used routinely for mining and manufacturing also involve control latencies of order several hundred milliseconds. For this reason, an Earth-Moon LI or L2 control node could build on the technology and experience base of commercially proven terrestrial ventures. A lunar libration-point telerobotic node could demonstrate exploration strategies that would eventually be used on Mars, and many other less hospitable destinations in the solar system. Libration-point telepresence for the Moon contrasts with lunar telerobotic control from the Earth, for which two-way control latencies are at least six times longer. For control latencies that long, telerobotic control efforts are of the "move-and-wait" variety, which is cognitively inferior to near real-time control.

  20. Lunar Surface Material - Spacecraft Measurements of Density and Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1969-01-01

    The relation of the density of the lunar surface layer to depth is probably best determined from spacecraft measurements of the bearing capacity as a function of depth. A comparison of these values with laboratory measurements of the bearing capacity of low-cohesion particulate materials as a function of the percentage of solid indicates that the bulk density at the lunar surface is about 1.1 grams per cubic centimeter and that it increases nearly linearly to about 1.6 grams per cubic centimeter at a depth of 5 centimeters.

  1. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  2. Beagle to the Moon: An Experiment Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Near the beginning of the next decade we will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface and have the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration

  3. Digital Elevation Models of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A. C.; Robinson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Several digital elevation models (DEMs) have been produced at a scale of 1km/pixel and covering approximately one-fifth of the lunar surface. These were produced mostly by semiautomatically matching the stereo available between Clementine UV/VIS images, although some localized DEMs have been produced by applying this technique to Apollo Metric stereo pairs, or by digitizing an existing Apollo Metric contour map. The DEMS that result from Clementine UV/VIS images, although Of Poorer height accuracy (1300-600 in for a single matched point) than the Clementine laser altimeter point measurements (<+/-100 m), do provide considerably higher spatial resolution (e.g., every kilometer vs. every tens of kilometers) and allow topography in the polar regions to be determined. Nadir-pointing Clementine UV-VIS stereo pairs are automatically stereo matched using a patch-based matcher and fed through A stereo intersection camera model to yield a digital terrain model (DTM) of longitude, latitude, and height points. The DTM for each stereo pair is then replotted and interpolated to form map-projected DEM tiles. The DEM files can then be fitted to absolute height laser altimeter points, or iteratively to each other, to form a DEM mosaic. Uncertainties in UV-VIS camera pointing and the need to accumulate a sufficiently good topographic S/N ratio necessitates the use of 1 km pixels for the UV-VIS derived DEMs. For Apollo Metric stereo, an internal camera geometry correction and a full photogrammetric block adjustment must be performed using ground- control points to derive a DEM. The image scale of Apollo Metric, as well as the stereo angle, allow for a DEM with 100 m pixels and a height accuracy of +/- 25m. Apollo Metric imagery had previously been used to derive contour maps for much of the lunar equatorial regions; however, to recover this information in digital form these maps must be digitized. Most of the mare areas mapped contain noticeable topographic noise. This results from

  4. Lunar Science: Using the Moon as a Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Moon is an excellent test bed for innovative instruments and spacecraft. Excellent science can be done, the Moon has a convenient location, and previous measurements have calibrated many parts of it. I summarize these attributes and give some suggestions for the types of future measurements. The Lunar Scout missions planned by NASA's Office of Exploration will not make all the measurements needed. Thus, test missions to the Moon can also return significant scientific results, making them more than technology demonstrations. The Moon is close to Earth, so cruise time is insignificant, tracking is precise, and some operations can be controlled from Earth, but it is in the deep space environment, allowing full tests of instruments and spacecraft components. The existing database on the Moon allows tests of new instruments against known information. The most precise data come from lunar samples, where detailed analyses of samples from a few places on the Moon provide data on chemical and mineralogical composition and physical properties.

  5. Luna-25 lander: science of the first lunar day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Litvak, Maxim; Prokhorov, Vasily; Kozyrev, Alexander; Mokrousov, Maxim; Vostrukhin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Luna-25 lander is a Roscosmos mission to investigate the southern lunar pole to launch in 2018. The mission aims at testing the landing capability of the spacecraft as well as conducting a number of science experiments. The instrument suite consists of 10 scientific experiments to study both, the landing site and the moon as a whole. These include measurements of soil composition and volatiles in the vicinity of the lander, environmental conditions such as temperature variations, plasma and dust exosphere of Moon, measurements of Moon inner structure through seismic, radio and laser ranging sensors. Luna-25 will also provide a number of images of the lander surroundings and samples collected in its robotic arm. We present the details of the investigations program for the first lunar day for the entire instruments suite.

  6. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Plans for the Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Rice, James; Garvin, James

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), which was launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's primary objectives included the search for resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. This phase of the mission was completed on September 15,2010 when the operational responsibility for LRO was transferred from ESMD to NASA's Science Mission directorate (SMD). Under SMD, the mission focuses on a new set of goals related to the history of the Moon, its current state and what its history can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System.

  7. The challenges of designing a lightweight spacecraft structure for landing on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Timothy J.; Bassler, Julie; Cooper, Scott; Stephens, Vince; Ponnusamy, Devamanohar; Briere, Marc; Betenbaugh, Theresa

    2012-02-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has been working with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on a lunar lander design that would take scientific measurements on the surface of the moon. This effort is part of NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander (RLL) Development Project. The requirements imposed on the design of the lander are: (1) Provide a lightweight lander structure to minimize the launch costs and maximize the payload carrying capability, (2) Minimize the lander launch envelope to allow for launching multiple landers on a single launch vehicle, (3) Given specific approach velocities, design a lander with geometric properties (low center-of-gravity, etc.) that maximizes the chances for a controlled landing on the lunar surface, (4) Provide a stable platform for all of the various scientific instruments.The lightweight lander requirement originates from the desire to minimize the launch costs and possibly package multiple landers on a single launch vehicle. The use of lightweight composite materials and advanced manufacturing techniques are employed throughout the design and construction of the structure in order to minimize mass and maximize structural stiffness.Minimizing the launch envelope enables the potential packaging of several spacecraft into one launch vehicle shroud. By having multiple landers, the scientific return is enhanced. Multiple spacecraft on the lunar surface provides independent confirmation of science measurements taken and also highlights any variance in the science data taken at differing lunar latitudes. Naturally, the launch cost per lander is greatly reduced if more than one lander can be packaged on a single launch vehicle.The lunar lander vehicle must arrive at the lunar surface at an upright orientation. In order to accomplish this, the structure geometry must be designed to accommodate attitude errors in roll, pitch and yaw. In addition, the structure must be able to withstand various landing

  8. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    THE NEED FOR RESOURCES: When mankind returns to the moon, there will be an aspect of the architecture that will totally change how we explore the solar system. We will take the first steps towards breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables by extracting resources from planetary bodies. Our first efforts in this area, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), will be to extract the abundant oxygen found in the lunar regolith. But the "holy grail" of lunar ISRU will be finding an exploitable source of lunar hydrogen. If we can find a source of extractable hydrogen, it would provide a foundation for true independence from Earth. With in-situ hydrogen (or water) and oxygen we can produce many of the major consumables needed to operate a lunar outpost. We would have water to drink, oxygen to breath, as well as rocket propellants and fuel cell reagents to enable extended access and operations on the moon. These items make up a huge percentage of the mass launched from the Earth. Producing them in-situ would significantly reduce the cost of operating a lunar outpost while increasing payload availability for science. PROSPECTING: The Lunar Prospector found evidence of elevated hydrogen at the lunar poles, and measurements made at these locations from the Clementine mission bistatic radar have been interpreted as correlating to water/ice concentrations. At the South Pole, there is reasonably strong correlation between the elevated areas of hydrogen and permanently shadowed craters. However, there is considerable debate on the form and concentration of this hydrogen since the orbiting satellites had limited resolution and their data can be interpreted in different ways. The varying interpretations are based on differing opinions and theories of lunar environment, evolution, and cometary bombardment within the lunar Science community. The only way to truly answer this question from both a Science and resource availability perspective is to go to the lunar poles

  9. The Evolution and Development of the Lunar Regolith and Implications for Lunar Surface Operations and Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David

    2009-01-01

    The lunar regolith consists of about 90% submillimeter particles traditionally termed lunar soil. The remainder consists of larger particles ranging up to boulder size rocks. At the lower size end, soil particles in the 10s of nanometer sizes are present in all soil samples. Lunar regolith overlies bedrock which consists of either lava flows in mare regions or impact-produced megaregolith in highland regions. Lunar regolith has been produced over billions of years by a combination of breaking and communition of bedrock by meteorite bombardment coupled with a variety of complex space weathering processes including solar wind implantation, solar flare and cosmic ray bombardment with attendant radiation damage, melting, vaporization, and vapor condensation driven by impact, and gardening and turnover of the resultant soil. Lunar regolith is poorly sorted compared to most terrestrial soils, and has interesting engineering properties including strong grain adhesion, over-compacted soil density, an abundance of agglutinates with sharp corners, and a variety of properties related to soil maturity. The NASA program has supported a variety of engineering test research projects, the production of bricks by solar or microwave sintering, the production of concrete, the in situ sintering and glazing of regolith by microwave, and the extraction of useful resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, iron, aluminum, silicon and other products. Future requirements for a lunar surface base or outpost will include construction of protective berms, construction of paved roadways, construction of shelters, movement and emplacement of regolith for radiation shielding and thermal control, and extraction of useful products. One early need is for light weight but powerful digging, trenching, and regolith-moving equipment.

  10. NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team: Lunar Surface Exploration Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s agency wide Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to support the ongoing effort to characterize NASA s future human exploration strategy. The DRM design effort includes specific articulations of transportation and surface elements, technologies and operations required to enable future human exploration of various destinations including the moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars as well as interim cis-lunar targets. In prior architecture studies, transportation concerns have dominated the analysis. As a result, an effort was made to study the human utilization strategy at each specific destination and the resultant impacts on the overall architecture design. In particular, this paper considers various lunar surface strategies as representative scenarios that could occur in a human lunar return, and demonstrates their alignment with the internationally developed Global Exploration Roadmap (GER).

  11. Direct measurement of surface carbon concentrations for lunar soil breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filleux, C.; Spear, R. H.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reaction depth profiling technique previously described by Filleux et al. (1977) has been used to measure the depth distribution of C on grain surfaces for Apollo 11, 15, 16 and 17 soil breccias. The surface C concentration of all samples studied lies between 2 and 8 times 10 to the 15th atoms per sq cm, showing no correlation with the volume C, which varies over an order of magnitude. If the observed variation represents the presence of unexposed grains on the surfaces studied, these results indicate a steady state surface C concentration of 5 to 10 times 10 to the 15th atoms per sq cm, accumulated over a time scale short compared with that required for the formation of volume-related C and with the mean lifetime of grains at the lunar surface. About one-third to one-half of the total C in lunar soil seems to be surface-correlated.

  12. RESOLVE - Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload is an exploration system designed to be placed on a rover and driven over the surface of the moon for 9 days to map the distribution of the water ice and other useful compounds seen on previous missions. RESOLVE will drill into the lunar surface and heat the material collected in order to measure the amount of water vapor and other compounds that are present, thus showing how future missions could gather and then use these valuable resources. Future missions will benefit from this analysis tool and others because it will be more cost-effective to mine water components, fuel, and other compounds at the point of destination rather than transport them from Earth. NASA is packaging the RESOLVE payload in the Resource Prospector mission targeted for launch in 2020. NASA continues to explore mission solutions by leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry, other nations and academia.

  13. Digital Elevation Models of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A. C.; Robinson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Several digital elevation models (DEMs) have been produced at a scale of 1km/pixel and covering approximately one-fifth of the lunar surface. These were produced mostly by semiautomatically matching the stereo available between Clementine UV/VIS images, although some localized DEMs have been produced by applying this technique to Apollo Metric stereo pairs, or by digitizing an existing Apollo Metric contour map. The DEMS that result from Clementine UV/VIS images, although Of Poorer height accuracy (1300-600 in for a single matched point) than the Clementine laser altimeter point measurements (<+/-100 m), do provide considerably higher spatial resolution (e.g., every kilometer vs. every tens of kilometers) and allow topography in the polar regions to be determined. Nadir-pointing Clementine UV-VIS stereo pairs are automatically stereo matched using a patch-based matcher and fed through A stereo intersection camera model to yield a digital terrain model (DTM) of longitude, latitude, and height points. The DTM for each stereo pair is then replotted and interpolated to form map-projected DEM tiles. The DEM files can then be fitted to absolute height laser altimeter points, or iteratively to each other, to form a DEM mosaic. Uncertainties in UV-VIS camera pointing and the need to accumulate a sufficiently good topographic S/N ratio necessitates the use of 1 km pixels for the UV-VIS derived DEMs. For Apollo Metric stereo, an internal camera geometry correction and a full photogrammetric block adjustment must be performed using ground- control points to derive a DEM. The image scale of Apollo Metric, as well as the stereo angle, allow for a DEM with 100 m pixels and a height accuracy of +/- 25m. Apollo Metric imagery had previously been used to derive contour maps for much of the lunar equatorial regions; however, to recover this information in digital form these maps must be digitized. Most of the mare areas mapped contain noticeable topographic noise. This results from

  14. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  15. Characterizing transient thermal interactions between lunar regolith and surface spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P. B.; Klaus, D. M.; Walter, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present a new method, its development, implementation, and verification, for calculating the transient thermal interaction between lunar regolith and moving spacecraft travelling across the surface of the Moon. Regolith temperatures can be determined for lunar landscapes as defined by laser altimeter remote sensing data refined with local crater and boulder models. The purpose of this approach is to enable more detailed, dynamic thermal analyses of mobile systems on the lunar surface rather than relying on worst case, boundary condition design approaches typically used for spacecraft thermal engineering. This new simulation method is based on integrating models that represent small and large scale landscapes; reproduce regolith and boulder temperatures on the Moon; define the position of the Sun; and perform ray tracing to determine infrared and solar heat fluxes between passing objects and the surface. The thermal model of the lunar regolith enhances established models with a slope- and depth-dependent density. The simulation results were verified against remote sensing data obtained from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and from other sources cited in the literature. The verification results for isolated regolith surface patches showed a deviation from established models of about ±3-6 K (±1-6%) during lunar day, and lunar night. For real landscapes such as Crater Calippus and Crater Marius A, the deviation is less than ±15 K (±10%) compared to remote sensing data for the majority of measured data points. Only in regions with presumed different regolith material properties, such as steep slopes or depressions, or in regions with a low resolution on the topographic map, were the deviations up to 100 K (60%). From the results, empirical equations were derived, which can be used for worst case calculations or to calculate initial temperatures for more elaborate time marching numerical models. The proposed new

  16. Calculation of Excavation Force for ISRU on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Xiangwu (David); Burnoski, Louis; Agui, Juan H.; Wilkinson, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Accurately predicting the excavation force that will be encountered by digging tools on the lunar surface is a crucial element of in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Based on principles of soil mechanics, this paper develops an analytical model that is relatively simple to apply and uses soil parameters that can be determined by traditional soil strength tests. The influence of important parameters on the excavation force is investigated. The results are compared with that predicted by other available theories. Results of preliminary soil tests on lunar stimulant are also reported.

  17. In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jerry; Larson, Bill; Sacksteder, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the benefits of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the surface of the moon. Included in this review is the commercialization of Lunar ISRU. ISRU will strongly influence architecture and critical technologies. ISRU is a critical capability and key implementation of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). ISRU will strongly effects lunar outpost logistics, design and crew safety. ISRU will strongly effect outpost critical technologies. ISRU mass investment is minimal compared to immediate and long-term architecture delivery mass and reuse capabilities provided. Therefore, investment in ISRU constitutes a commitment to the mid and long term future of human exploration.

  18. KAGUYA Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) observation of lunar surface echo and its calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takao; Ryeol Lee, Seung

    2015-04-01

    Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) is an HF radar of which the center frequency of transmitted pulse is 5 MHz. LRS was installed to KAGUYA which flew to the Moon in 2007. During the operation period of 19 months, LRS performed radar sounding observation from the orbit at the nominal altitude of 100 km to cover whole surface of the Moon with its foot print. The total number of LRS observations (pulse transmissions) exceeded 10^8. We extracted the nadir surface echo out of each observation which made a surface echo map of the Moon, i.e. a mosaic image of the Moon of an HF frequency (5 MHz). The observed surface echoes carry information regarding lunar surface and that of shallow subsurface (near-surface) whose depth scale is smaller than the range resolution of the LRS (~ 150 m in vacuum). An inversion algorithm is applied to extract such information. However, inversion algorithms often assume a simple model of Fresnel reflection. One should remove the effect of surface roughness from the LRS data before practicing inversion. For this purpose, we carried out simulation of LRS observation to evaluate the surface roughness effect on the LRS data quantitatively. The simulation is based on Kirchhoff approximation theory. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of KAGUYA Terrain Camera (TC) mission was used in the simulation to simulate the actual lunar terrain. LRS observation simulation was performed in the range from -90 to 70 degrees in longitude and in the range from -30 to 70 degrees in latitude at every 0.1 degree interval in both directions. The simulation revealed 1) LRS surface echo observation is sensible to the surface terrain: even wrinkle ridges and small craters are well recognized in the mosaic image of simulation surface echo map. 2) Little difference was found in the mosaic image of an old mare surface and a young mare surface. 3) However, apparent difference was found in the shape of the distribution functions of echo intensity of an old mare surface and a young mare

  19. Power System Trade Studies for the Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa, L.

    2008-01-01

    A Lunar Lander Preparatory Study (LLPS) was undertaken for NASA's Lunar Lander Pre-Project in 2006 to explore a wide breadth of conceptual lunar lander designs. Civil servant teams from nearly every NASA center responded with dozens of innovative designs that addressed one or more specific lander technical challenges. Although none of the conceptual lander designs sought to solve every technical design issue, each added significantly to the technical database available to the Lunar Lander Project Office as it began operations in 2007. As part of the LLPS, a first order analysis was performed to identify candidate power systems for the ascent and descent stages of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). A power profile by mission phase was established based on LSAM subsystem power requirements. Using this power profile, battery and fuel cell systems were modeled to determine overall mass and volume. Fuel cell systems were chosen for both the descent and ascent stages due to their low mass. While fuel cells looked promising based on these initial results, several areas have been identified for further investigation in subsequent studies, including the identification and incorporation of peak power requirements into the analysis, refinement of the fuel cell models to improve fidelity and incorporate ongoing technology developments, and broadening the study to include solar power.

  20. Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Erika; Forbes, John C.; Thornton, Randall J.

    2010-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform multiple burns including the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine technology testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics covered include: Ringwoodite-olivine assemblages in Dhofar L6 melt veins; Amorphization of forsterite grains due to high energy heavy ion irradiation: Implications for grain processing in ISM; Validation of AUTODYN in replicating large-scale planetary impact events; A network of geophysical observatories for mars; Modelling catastrophic floods on the surface of mars; Impact into coarse grained spheres; The diderot meteorite: The second chassignite; Galileo global color mosaics of Io; Ganymede's sulci on global and regional scales; and The cold traps near the south pole of the moon.

  2. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I; Kapernick, Richard J; Dixon, David D; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  3. Lunar Surface Operations. Part 3; CSM Plane Change and Pre-launch - Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are: to describe the Command Service Module (CSM) plane change task, the prelaunch phase lunar module (LM) activities, and the prelaunch phase CSM activities.

  4. Surface chemistry of selected lunar regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielefeld, M. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Arnold, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A completely new analysis has been carried out on the data from the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma ray spectrometer experiments. The components of the continuum background have been estimated. The elements Th, K, Fe and Mg give useful results; results for Ti are significant only for a few high Ti regions. Errors are given, and the results are checked by other methods. Concentrations are reported for about sixty lunar regions; the ground track has been subdivided in various ways. The borders of the maria seem well-defined chemically, while the distribution of KREEP is broad. This wide distribution requires emplacement of KREEP before the era of mare formation. Its high concentration in western mare soils seems to require major vertical mixing.

  5. Development of soil on the lunar surface.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the dynamic processes involved in the evolution of the lunar soil. Size, shape, and modal analyses of soil returned by Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15, and Luna 16 indicate that the two most important dynamic processes resulting from meteorite impact are vitrification and comminution of the detrital material. The effects of the two processes are mutually opposed. As the glass content of the soil increases over an extended period of time, the statistical parameters of the mature soil tend to stabilize. Comminution probably plays a dominant role early in the development of the soil by reducing the median grain size and producing a logarithmic-normal grain-size distribution. The evolution of the soil does not necessarily progress in a regular manner. Both introduction of freshly comminuted bedrock material by small impact events, as well as local topographic effects, influence the development of the soil and reduce its maturity.

  6. Humanoids for lunar and planetary surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Csaszar, Ambrus; Gan, Quan; Hidalgo, Timothy; Moore, Jeff; Newton, Jason; Sandoval, Steven; Xu, Jiajing

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a vision of humanoid robots as human's key partners in future space exploration, in particular for construction, maintenance/repair and operation of lunar/planetary habitats, bases and settlements. It integrates this vision with the recent plans, for human and robotic exploration, aligning a set of milestones for operational capability of humanoids with the schedule for the next decades and development spirals in the Project Constellation. These milestones relate to a set of incremental challenges, for the solving of which new humanoid technologies are needed. A system of systems integrative approach that would lead to readiness of cooperating humanoid crews is sketched. Robot fostering, training/education techniques, and improved cognitive/sensory/motor development techniques are considered essential elements for achieving intelligent humanoids. A pilot project in this direction is outlined.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Observations with Near Infrared Spectrometer for Hayabusa Mission in the Cruising Phase. First Results of Quadrantid Meteor Spectrum. Compositional Investigation of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid 66063 (1998 RO1): A Potentially Undifferentiated Assemblage. Impact-induced Hydrothermal Activity on Early Mars. HRTEM and EFTEM Studies of Phyllosilicate-Organic Matter Associations in Matrix and Dark Inclusions in the EET92042 CR2 Carbonaceous Chondrite. Volumetric Analysis of Martian Rampart Craters. High Pressure Melting of H-Chondrite: A Match for the Martian Basalt Source Mantle. MERView: A New Computer Program for Easy Display of MER-acquired M ssbauer Data. Distribution, Exchange, and Topographic Control of Subsurface Ice on Mars. Shock-induced Damage Beneath Normal and Oblique Impact Craters. Amphitrites Patera Studied from the Mars Express HRSC Data. Oxygen Isotope Microanalysis of Enveloping Compound Chondrules in CV3 and LL3 Chondrites. Gamma-Ray Irradiation in the Early Solar System and the Conundrum of the Lu-176 Decay Constant. Magnesium Isotope Mapping of Silica-rich Grains Having. Extreme Oxygen Isotope Anomalies Extreme Oxygen Isotopic Anomalies from Irradiation in the Early Solar System, Re-Examining the Role of Chondrules in Producing the Elemental Fractionations in Chondrites. Meteorite Data on the Solar Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays and an Inference on the Solar Activity Influence on Climate of the Earth. Volatiles Enrichments and Composition of Jupiter. Thinking Like a Wildcatter Prospecting for Methane in Arabia Terra, Mars. Size Distribution of Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Fragments. Initial Subdivision of Genesis Early Science Polished Aluminum Collector. Presolar Graphite and Its Noble Gases. Young Pb-Isotopic Ages of Chondrules in CB Carbonaceous Chondrites. Fe Isotopic Composition of Martian Meteorites. Petrology and Geochemistry of Nakhlite MIL 03346: A New Martian Meteorite from Antarctica.

  8. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Distribution of Large Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Comparison with Free-Air Gravity, Crustal Thickness, and Magnetization Models; 2) The Early Thermal and Magnetic State of Terra Cimmeria, Southern Highlands of Mars; 3) Compatible Vector Components of the Magnetic Field of the Martian Crust; 4) Vertical Extrapolation of Mars Magnetic Potentials; 5) Rock Magnetic Fields Shield the Surface of Mars from Harmful Radiation; 6) Loading-induced Stresses near the Martian Hemispheric Dichotomy Boundary; 7) Growth of the Hemispheric Dichotomy and the Cessation of Plate Tectonics on Mars; 8) A Look at the Interior of Mars; 9) Uncertainties on Mars Interior Parameters Deduced from Orientation Parameters Using Different Radio-Links: Analytical Simulations; 10) Refinement of Phobos Ephemeris Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry Radiometry.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) An Extraordinary Magnetic Field Map of Mars; 2) Mapping Weak Crustal Magnetic Fields on Mars with Electron Reflectometry; 3) Analytic Signal in the Interpretation of Mars Southern Highlands Magnetic Field; 4) Modeling of Major Martian Magnetic Anomalies: Further Evidence for Polar Reorientations During the Noachian; 5) An Improved Model of the Crustal Structure of Mars; 6) Geologic Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Plains Magnetization in the Ismenius Area of Mars; 7) Relaxation of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region; 8) Localized Tharsis Loading on Mars: Testing the Membrane Surface Hypothesis; 9) Thermal Stresses and Tharsis Loading: Implications for Wrinkle Ridge Formation on Mars; 10) What Can be Learned about the Martian Lithosphere from Gravity and Topography Data? 11) A Gravity Analysis of the Subsurface Structure of the Utopia Impact Basin; 12) Mechanics of Utopia Basin on Mars; 13) Burying the 'Buried Channels' on Mars: An Alternative Explanation.

  10. Evaluation of infrared emission spectroscopy for mapping the Moon's surface composition from lunar orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.; Salisbury, John W.; Conel, James E.; Lucey, Paul G.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared thermal emission spectroscopy is evaluated for its possible application to compositional mapping of the Moon's surface from lunar orbit. Principles of the mid-IR (approximately 4-25 microns) technique, previous lunar ground-based observations, and laboratory studies of Moon samples are reviewed and summarized. A lunar thermal emission spectrometer experiment is described, patterned after a similar instrument on the Mars Observer spacecraft. Thermal emission spectrometry from a polar-orbiting lunar spacecraft could provide a valuable mapping tool to aid in exploration for lunar resources and help provide understanding of the origin of the Moon and history of lunar surface processes.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Mars" included the following reports:Tentative Theories for the Long-Term Geological and Hydrological Evolution of Mars; Stratigraphy of Special Layers Transient Ones on Permeable Ones: Examples from Earth and Mars; Spatial Analysis of Rootless Cone Groups on Iceland and Mars; Summer Season Variability of the North Residual Cap of Mars from MGS-TES; Spectral and Geochemical Characteristics of Lake Superior Type Banded Iron Formation: Analog to the Martian Hematite Outcrops; Martian Wave Structures and Their Relation to Mars; Shape, Highland-Lowland Chemical Dichotomy and Undulating Atmosphere Causing Serious Problems to Landing Spacecrafts; Shear Deformation in the Graben Systems of Sirenum Fosssae, Mars: Preliminary Results; Components of Martian Dust Finding on Terrestrial Sedimentary Deposits with Use of Infrared Spectra; Morphologic and Morphometric Analyses of Fluvial Systems in the Southern Highlands of Mars; Light Pattern and Intensity Analysis of Gray Spots Surrounding Polar Dunes on Mars; The Volume of Possible Ancient Oceanic Basins in the Northern Plains of Mars MARSES: Possibilities of Long-Term Monitoring Spatial and Temporal Variations and Changes of Subsurface Geoelectrical Section on the Base; Results of the Geophysical Survey Salt/Water Interface and Groundwater Mapping on the Marina Di Ragusa, Sicily and Shalter Island, USA ;A Miniature UV-VIS Spectrometer for the Surface of Mars; Automatic Recognition of Aeolian Ripples on Mars; Absolute Dune Ages and Implications for the Time of Formation of Gullies in Nirgal Vallis, Mars; Diurnal Dust Devil Behaviour for the Viking 1 Landing Site: Sols 1 to 30; Topography Based Surface Age Computations for Mars: A Step Toward the Formal Proof of Martian Ocean Recession, Timing and Probability; Gravitational Effects of Flooding and Filling of Impact Basins on Mars; Viking 2 Landing Site in MGS/MOC Images South Polar Residual Cap of Mars: Features, Stratigraphy, and Changes.

  12. High Angular Resolution Imaging of Solar Radio Bursts from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, Robert J.; Lazio, Joseph; Bale, Stuart; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, William M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Jones, Dayton L.; Kasper, Justin Christophe; Weiler, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Locating low frequency radio observatories on the lunar surface has a number of advantages, including positional stability and a very low ionospheric radio cutoff. Here, we describe the Radio Observatory on the lunar Surface for Solar studies (ROLSS), a concept for a low frequency, radio imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration in the corona and inner heliosphere. ROLSS would be deployed during an early lunar sortie or by a robotic rover as part of an unmanned landing. The preferred site is on the lunar near side to simplify the data downlink to Earth. The prime science mission is to image type II and type III solar radio bursts with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by measuring the low radio frequency cutoff of the solar radio emissions or background galactic radio emission, measuring the flux, particle mass, and arrival direction of interplanetary and interstellar dust, and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Furthermore, ROLSS serves a pathfinder function for larger lunar radio arrays. Key design requirements on ROLSS include the operational frequency and angular resolution. The electron densities in the solar corona and inner heliosphere are such that the relevant emission occurs below 10 M Hz, essentially unobservable from Earth's surface due to the terrestrial ionospheric cutoff. Resolving the potential sites of particle acceleration requires an instrument with an angular resolution of at least 2 deg at 10 MHz, equivalent to a linear array size of approximately one kilometer. The major components of the ROLSS array are 3 antenna arms, each of 500 m length, arranged in a Y formation, with a central electronics package (CEP) at their intersection. Each antenna arm is a linear strip of polyimide film (e.g., Kapton(TradeMark)) on which 16 single

  13. Constraints on the origins of lunar magnetism from electron reflection measurements of surface magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a new method of detecting lunar surface magnetic fields, summarizes electron reflection measurements and correlations of surface field anomalies to moon geologic features, and discusses the constraints on the origin of lunar magnetism. Apollo 15 and 16 measurements of lunar surface magnetic fields by the electron reflection method show patches of strong surface fields distributed over the lunar surface, and a positive statistical correlation is found in lunar mare regions between the surface field strength and the geologic age of the surface. However, there is a lack of correlation of surface field with impact craters indicating that the mare does not have a strong large-scale uniform magnetization as may be expected from an ancient lunar dynamo. Fields were found in lunar highlands which imply that the rille has a strong magnetization associated with it as intrusive, magnetized rock or as a gap in a uniformly magnetic layer of rock.

  14. Direct measurement of surface carbon concentrations. [in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filleux, C.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of surface concentrations of carbon in lunar soils and soil breccias provide information on the origin of carbon in the regolith. The reaction C-12 (d, p sub zero) is used to measure 'surface' and 'volume' concentrations in lunar samples. This method has a depth resolution of 1 micron, which permits only a 'surface' and a 'volume' component to be measured. Three of four Apollo 16 double drive tube samples show a surface carbon concentration of about 8 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm, whereas the fourth sample gave 4 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm. It can be convincingly shown that the measured concentration does not originate from fluorocarbon or hydrocarbon contaminants. Surface adsorbed layers of CO or CO2 are removed by a sputter cleaning procedure using a 2-MeV F beam. It is shown that the residual C concentration of 8 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm cannot be further reduced by increased F fluence, and it is therefore concluded that it is truly lunar. If one assumes that the measured surface C concentration is a steady-state concentration determined only by a balance between solar-wind implantation and sputtering, a sputter erosion rate of 0.1 A/yr is obtained. However, it would be more profitable to use an independently derived sputter erosion rate to test the hypothesis of a solar-wind origin of the surface carbon.

  15. MoonRIDERS: NASA and Hawaii's Lunar Surface Flight Experiment for Late 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    This briefing will update the MoonRIDERS lunar surface flight experiment project between NASA-KSC, PISCES, and two Hawaii high schools investigating critical lunar dust-removal technologies. Launch planned in early 2017 on GLXP mission.

  16. The Use of Field Portable Instrumentation in Preparing for the Next Generation of Lunar Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, A. D.; Evans, C. A.; McAdam, A.; Garry, W. B.; Carter, L.; Graff, T.; Scheidt, S.; Glotch, T. D.; Zeigler, R.; Niles, P.; Abell, P.

    2016-05-01

    While Apollo sample collection was enabled by basic sampling tools, in situ analytical instrumentation is now being developed for fieldwork. It is critical that the lunar community develop this technology for the future of lunar surface exploration.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The presentations in this session are: 1. A Prototype Life Detection Chip 2. The Geology of Atlantis Basin, Mars, and Its Astrobiological Interest 3. Collecting Bacteria Together with Aerosols in the Martian Atmosphere by the FOELDIX Experimental Instrument Developed with a Nutrient Detector Pattern: Model Measurements of Effectivity 4. 2D and 3D X-ray Imaging of Microorganisms in Meteorites Using Complexity Analysis to Distinguish Field Images of Stromatoloids from Surrounding Rock Matrix in 3.45 Ga Strelley Pool Chert, Western Australia 4. Characterization of Two Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia Short Time Scale Evolution of Microbiolites in Rapidly Receding Altiplanic Lakes: Learning How to Recognize Changing Signatures of Life 5. The Effect of Salts on Electrospray Ionization of Amino Acids in the Negative Mode 6. Determination of Aromatic Ring Number Using Multi-Channel Deep UV Native Fluorescence 7. Microbial D/H Fractionation in Extraterrestrial Materials: Application to Micrometeorites and Mars 8. Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Spring-fed Iron-precipitating Microbial Mats 9. Amino Acid Survival Under Ambient Martian Surface UV Lighting Extraction of Organic Molecules from Terrestrial Material: Quantitative Yields from Heat and Water Extractions 10. Laboratory Detection and Analysis of Organic Compounds in Rocks Using HPLC and XRD Methods 11. Thermal Decomposition of Siderite-Pyrite Assemblages: Implications for Sulfide Mineralogy in Martian Meteorite ALH84001 Carbonate Globules 12. Determination of the Three-Dimensional Morphology of ALH84001 and Biogenic MV-1 Magnetite: Comparison of Results from Electron Tomography and Classical Transmission Electron Microscopy 13. On the Possibility of a Crypto-Biotic Crust on Mars Based on Northern and Southern Ringed Polar Dune Spots 14. Comparative Planetology of the Terrestrial Inner Planets: Implications for Astrobiology 15. A Possible Europa Exobiology 16. A Possible Biogeochemical Model for Titan

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: The Ancient Lakes in Hellas Basin Region as Seen Through the First Year of Mars Express HRSC-Camera; DISR Observations of Craters at Titan at the Huygens Landing Site: Insights Anticipated; The Sun s Dust Disk - Discovery Potential of the New Horizons Mission During Interplanetary Cruise; Evidence for Aqueously Precipitated Sulfates in Northeast Meridiani Using THEMIS and TES Data; Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Anhydrous Sulfate Minerals; Venusian Channel Formation as a Subsurface Process; Reexamination of Quartz Grains from the Permian-Triassic Boundary Section at Graphite Peak, Antarctica; Observations of Calcium Sulfate Deposits at High Latitudes by OMEGA/Mex at Km/Pixel Resolutions; Observations of the North Permanent Cap of Mars in Mid-Summer by OMEGA/MEX at km per Pixel Resolutions; Classification and Distribution of Patterned Ground in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars Genesis: Removing Contamination from Sample Collectors; Thermal Characterization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Formed from Poorly Crystalline Siderite; Hydrogen Abundances in Metal Grains from the Hammadah Al Hamra (HaH) 237 Metal-rich Chondrite: A Test of the Nebular-Formation Theory; REE and Some Other Trace Elements Distributions of Mineral Separates in Atlanta (EL6); The Composition and Origin of the Dewar Geochemical Anomaly; Asteroid Modal Mineralogy Using Hapke Mixing Models: Testing the Utility of Spectral Lookup Tables; and The Huygens Mission at Titan: Results Highlights. (sup 182)Hf-(sup 182)W Chronometry and an Early Differentiation in the Parent Body of Ureilites Ground Penetrating Radar in Sedimentary Rocks Mars, Always Cold, Sometimes Wet: New Constraints on Mars Denudation Rates and Climate Evolution from Analog Studies at Haughton Crater, Devon Island, High Arctic Europa s Porous Ice Rheology and Implications for Ice-penetrating Radar Scattering Loss Surface Generated Cracks on Europa

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Achondrite Mishmash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Achondrite Mishmash" included teh following presentations:Constraining the Formation and Evolution of IAB Irons - High Precision; 40Ar/39Ar Ages on Plagioclase Separates from Silicate Inclusions of the Campo Del Cielo Meteorite; Radiogenic 129-Xenon in Silicate Inclusions in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite; Significance of Iron Isotope Mineral Fractionation in Pallasite and Iron Meteorites; An Experimental Study of Phosphoran Olivine and Its Significance in Main Group Pallasites; Characterization of the Distribution of Siderophile and Highly Siderophile Elements in the Milton and Eagle Station Pallasites; Relationships Between HED and Mesosiderite Meteorites: An Iron Isotope Perspective; Production Rates for Noble-Gas Isotopes in Eucrites; Evidence for Subsolidus Metasomatism in the Eucrite Parent Body; Possible Contact Metamorphism of the Polymict Eucrite Petersburg; Early and Late Stage Metals and Sulfides in Diogenites; Constraints on the Lithological Variation near the Surface of the HED Planetoid from the Petrology of 91 & 92 Series Antarctic Achondrites; Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages, Ar-Ar Ages, and the Origin and History of Eucrites; Trace Elements Abundances Vs Closure Temperature in Orthopyroxenes from Howardites; The First Mesosiderite-like Clast in a Howardite; 39Ar-40Ar Dating of Unusual Eucrite NWA 011: Is it from Vesta?; Trace Element Systematics of Northwest Africa 011: A "Eucritic" Basalt from a Non-Eucrite Parent Body ; 33S Anomaly in Acapulcoites and Lodranites; Magnetic Force Microscopy of Primitive Achondrites; Experimental Constraints on Ureilite Petrogenesis; Reflectance Spectra of Ureilites: Nature of the Mafic Silicate Absorption Features; Nitrogen and Noble Gases in Two Monomict Ureilites Acfer 277 and FRO 90036 from Hot and Cold Deserts; Solar Noble Gases in the Angrite Parent Body - Evidence from Volcanic Volatiles Trapped in D'Orbigny Glass; Trace Element Distribution Between Phases of the D'Orbigny Angrite ; Petrological

  20. Remote compositional mapping of lunar titanium and surface maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Larson, S. M.; Singer, Robert B.

    Lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) is a potential resource capable of providing oxygen for life support and spacecraft propellant for future lunar bases. Estimates of TiO2 content in mature mare soils can be made using an empirical relation between the 400/500 nm reflectance ratio and TiO2 wt percent. A TiO2 abundance map was constructed for the entire near-side lunar maria accurate to + or - 2 wt percent TiO2 using CCD images obtained at the Tumamoc Hill 0.5 m telescope in Tucson, employing bandpass filters centered at 400 and 560 nm. Highest TiO2 regions in the maria are located in western Mare Tranquillitatis. Greater contrast differences between regions on the lunar surface can be obtained using 400/730 nm ratio images. The relation might well be refined to accommodate this possibly more sensitive indicator of TiO2 content. Another potential lunar resource is solar wind-implanted He-3 which may be used as a fuel for fusion reactors. Relative soil maturity, as determined by agglutinate content, can be estimated from 950/560 nm ration images. Immature soils appear darker in this ratio since such soils contain abundant pyroxene grains which cause strong absorption centered near 950 nm due Fe(2+) crystal field transitions. A positive correlation exists between the amount of He-3 and TiO2 content in lunar soils, suggesting that regions high in TiO2 should also be high in He-3. Reflectance spectrophotometry in the region 320 to 870 nm was also obtained for several regions. Below about 340 nm, these spectra show variations in relative reflectance that are caused by as yet unassigned near-UV absorptions due to compositional differences.

  1. Remote compositional mapping of lunar titanium and surface maturity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Larson, S. M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) is a potential resource capable of providing oxygen for life support and spacecraft propellant for future lunar bases. Estimates of TiO2 content in mature mare soils can be made using an empirical relation between the 400/500 nm reflectance ratio and TiO2 wt percent. A TiO2 abundance map was constructed for the entire near-side lunar maria accurate to + or - 2 wt percent TiO2 using CCD images obtained at the Tumamoc Hill 0.5 m telescope in Tucson, employing bandpass filters centered at 400 and 560 nm. Highest TiO2 regions in the maria are located in western Mare Tranquillitatis. Greater contrast differences between regions on the lunar surface can be obtained using 400/730 nm ratio images. The relation might well be refined to accommodate this possibly more sensitive indicator of TiO2 content. Another potential lunar resource is solar wind-implanted He-3 which may be used as a fuel for fusion reactors. Relative soil maturity, as determined by agglutinate content, can be estimated from 950/560 nm ration images. Immature soils appear darker in this ratio since such soils contain abundant pyroxene grains which cause strong absorption centered near 950 nm due Fe(2+) crystal field transitions. A positive correlation exists between the amount of He-3 and TiO2 content in lunar soils, suggesting that regions high in TiO2 should also be high in He-3. Reflectance spectrophotometry in the region 320 to 870 nm was also obtained for several regions. Below about 340 nm, these spectra show variations in relative reflectance that are caused by as yet unassigned near-UV absorptions due to compositional differences.

  2. Regionalized Lunar South Pole Surface Navigation System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo missions utilized Earth-based assets for navigation because the landings took place at lunar locations in constant view from the Earth. The new exploration campaign to the lunar south pole region will have limited Earth visibility, but the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in this region is unknown. This report presents a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based, stationary surface navigation analysis of the performance of multiple lunar satellite constellations, Earth-based deep space network assets, and combinations thereof. Results show that kinematic and integrated solutions cannot be provided by the Earth-based deep space network stations. Also, the stationary surface navigation system needs to be operated either as a two-way navigation system or as a one-way navigation system with local terrain information, while the position solution is integrated over a short duration of time with navigation signals being provided by a lunar satellite constellation.

  3. Structural disturbances of the lunar surface caused by spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaydash, V. G.; Shkuratov, Yu. G.

    2012-04-01

    From the lunar surface survey performed with a narrow-angle camera of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, the distributions of the phase ratios of the Apollo 11 and 12 landing sites and the Ranger 9 impact site were mapped. In the acquired images, the traces of the structural disturbances of the lunar regolith layer caused by the jet flows are seen. In the Ranger 9 impact site, one can see the crater of about 15 m across with a ray system, which is hardly noticeable in the brightness picture, but has a high contract in the phase ratio picture. The character of the photometric anomaly of the rays of this crater shows that they are formed by the ejected stones composing the rugged relief, which induces a strong shadow effect. At the same time, the influence of jet flows from the rocket engines smooths the relief and leads to the photometric anomaly of the opposite sign. The estimate of the maturity degree of the lunar regolith in the Apollo 11 and 12 landing sites obtained from the SELENE spectral survey suggests that the depth of the influence of the rocket engines on the soil is small, and the surface of the impact crater formed by the Ranger 9 spacecraft contains a large amount of the immature soil.

  4. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The first decades of the 21st century will be marked by major lunar science and exploration activities. The Moon is a witness to 4.5 billion years of solar system history, recording that history more completely and more clearly than any other planetary body. Lunar science encompasses early planetary evolution and differentiation, lava eruptions and fire fountains, impact scars throughout time, and billions of years of volatile input. I will cover the main outstanding issues in lunar science today and the most intriguing scientific opportunities made possible by renewed robotic and human lunar exploration. Barbara is a planetary scientist at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center. She studies meteorites from the Moon, Mars and asteroids and has been to Antarctica twice to hunt for them. Barbara also works on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity and has an asteroid named after her. She is currently helping the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program on the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, a project tasked by the Exploration System Mission Directorate (ESMD) to develop maps and tools of the Moon to benefit the Constellation Program lunar planning. She is also supporting the Science Mission Directorate s (SMD) lunar flight projects line at Marshall as the co-chair of the Science Definition Team for NASA s next robotic landers, which will be nodes of the International Lunar Network, providing geophysical information about the Moon s interior structure and composition.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Impact-Related Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Impact-Related Deposits" included:Evidence for a Lightning-Strike Origin of the Edeowie Glass; 57Fe M ssbauer Spectroscopy of Fulgurites: Implications for Chemical Reduction; Ca-Metasomatism in Crystalline Target Rocks from the Charlevoix Structure, Quebec, Canada: Evidence for Impact-related Hydrothermal Activity; Magnetic Investigations of Breccia Veins and Basement Rocks from Roter Kamm Crater and Surrounding Region, Namibia; Petrologic Complexities of the Manicouagan Melt Sheet: Implications for 40Ar-39Ar Geochronology; Laser Argon Dating of Melt Breccias from the Siljan Impact Structure, Sweden: Implications for Possible Relationship to Late Devonian Extinction Events; Lunar Impact Crater, India: Occurrence of a Basaltic Suevite?; Age of the Lunar Impact Crater, India: First Results from Fission Track Dating; The Fluidized Chicxulub Ejecta Blanket, Mexico: Implications for Mars; Low Velocity Ejection of Boulders from Small Lunar Craters: Ground Truth for Asteroid Surfaces; Ejecta and Secondary Crater Distributions of Tycho Crater: Effects of an Oblique Impact; Potassium Isotope Systematics of Crystalline Lunar Spherules from Apollo 16; Late Paleocene Spherules from the North Sea: Probable Sea Floor Precipitates: A Silverpit Provenance Unproven; A Lithological Investigation of Marine Strata from the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Interval, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Including a Search for Shocked Quartz; Triassic Cratered Cobbles: Shock Effects or Tectonic Pressure?; Regional Variations of Trace Element Composition Within the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field; Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Microtektite-bearing Sands and Tsunami Beds, Alabama Gulf Coastal Plain; Sand Lobes on Stewart Island as Probable Impact-Tsunami Deposits; Distal Impact Ejecta, Uppermost Eocene, Texas Coastal Plain; and Continental Impact Debris in the Eltanin Impact Layer.

  6. Nongyrotropic electron velocity distribution functions near the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yuki; Machida, Shinobu; Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Asamura, Kazushi; Nishino, Masaki N.; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Futoshi; Matsushima, Masaki; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2012-07-01

    We have analyzed nongyrotropic electron velocity distribution functions (VDFs) obtained near the lunar surface. Electron VDFs, measured at ˜10-100 km altitude by Kaguya in both the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere, exhibit nongyrotropic empty regions associated with the ‘gyroloss’ effect; i.e., electron absorption by the lunar surface combined with electron gyromotion. Particle-trace calculations allow us to derive theoretical forbidden regions in the electron VDFs, thereby taking into account the modifications due to nonuniform magnetic fields caused by diamagnetic-current systems, lunar-surface charging, and electric fields perpendicular to the magnetic field. Comparison between the observed empty regions with the theoretically derived forbidden regions suggests that various components modify the characteristics of the nongyrotropic electron VDFs depending on the ambient-plasma conditions. On the lunar nightside in the magnetotail lobes, negative surface potentials slightly reduce the size of the forbidden regions, but there are no distinct effects of either the diamagnetic current or perpendicular electric fields. On the dayside in the solar wind, the observations suggest the presence of either the diamagnetic-current or solar wind convection electric field effects, or both. In the terrestrial plasma sheet, all three mechanisms can substantially modify the characteristics of the forbidden regions. The observations imply the presence of a local electric field of at least 5 mV/m although the mechanism responsible for production of such a strong electric field is unknown. Analysis of nongyrotropic VDFs associated with the gyroloss effect near solid surfaces can promote a better understanding of the near-surface plasma environment and of plasma-solid-surface interactions.

  7. On the equipotential surface hypothesis of lunar maria floors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar; Konopliv, A. S.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1999-03-01

    The equipotential surface hypothesis suggests that lunar maria floors lie on a surface parallel to the selenoid. This is examined using the spherical harmonic representations of the Clementine topography and Lunar Prospector gravity data. It is demonstrated that the floors of both circular and noncircular maria significantly deviate from an equipotential surface. Deeper circular maria and the deeper part of the noncircular Mare Tranquillitatis have been subsided under larger mass loads in the crust. We calculate the mass beneath the maria to be in excess to the mass required for isostatic compensation of the topography at 60 km depth. A global map of this excess mass shows that the noncircular maria are isostatically compensated, unlike the circular maria. The map also reveals seven new sizable mascons: the three largest are associated with Mendel-Rydberg, Mare Humboldtianum, and Mare Moscoviense.

  8. A Triboelectric Sensor Array for Electrostatic Studies on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Michael R.; Mackey, Paul J.; Calle, C. I.

    2015-01-01

    The moons electrostatic environment requires careful consideration in the development of future lunar landers. Electrostatically charged dust was well documented during the Apollo missions to cause thermal control, mechanical, and visibility issues. The fine dust particles that make up the surface are electrostatically charged as a result of numerous charging mechanisms. The relatively dry conditions on the moon creates a prime tribocharging environment during surface operations. The photoelectric effect is dominant for lunar day static charging, while plasma electrons are the main contributor for lunar night electrostatic effects. Electrostatic charging is also dependent on solar intensity, Earth-moon relative positions, and cosmic ray flux. This leads to a very complex and dynamic electrostatic environment that must be studied for the success of long term lunar missions.In order to better understand the electrostatic environment of planetary bodies, Kennedy Space Center, in previous collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed an electrostatic sensor suite. One of the instruments included in this package is the triboelectric sensor array. It is comprised of strategically selected materials that span the triboelectric series and that also have previous spaceflight history. In this presentation, we discuss detailed testing with the triboelectric sensor array performed at Kennedy Space Center. We will discuss potential benefits and use cases of this low mass, low cost sensor package, both for science and for mission success.

  9. Silicon distribution on the lunar surface obtained by Kaguya GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Kobayashi, Masanori; Elphic, Richard; Karouji, Yuzuru; Hamara, Dave; Kobayashi, Shingo; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Rodriguez, Alexis; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Reedy, Robert; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    Gamma ray spectrometry (GRS) provides a powerful tool to map and characterize the elemental composition of the upper tens centimeters of solid planetary surfaces. Elemental maps generated by the Kaguya GRS (KGRS) include natural radioactive as well as major elements maps (e.g., Fe, Ca, and Ti). Analysis of the Si gamma ray has been investigated using the 4934 keV Si peak produced by the thermal neutron interaction (28) Si(n,gammag) (29) Si, generated during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays and surface material containing Si. The emission rate of gamma rays is directly proportional to the abundance of Si from the lunar surface; however, it is also affected by the thermal neutron density in the lunar surface. Thus, we corrected the Si GRS data by a low energy neutron data (< 0.1 eV) obtained by Lunar Prospector because the Kaguya orbiter did not carry a neutron detector. We used the relative change in thermal neutron flux as a function of topography measured by Lunar Prospector. Normalization of Si elemental abundance using the Kaguya data was accomplished using Apollo 11, 12, 16, and 17 archive data. The normalized Si elemental abundance of the Kaguya GRS data ranged from about 15 to 27% Si. The lowest and highest SiO _{2} abundance correspond to mineral groups like pyroxene group (PKT region) and feldspar group (Northern highlands), respectively. The Si abundance permits the quantification of the relative abundance and distribution of mafic or non-mafic lunar surfaces materials. Our KGRS data analysis shows that highland terrains are Si-enriched relative to lower basins and plains regions, which appear to consist of primarily of mafic rocks. Our elemental map of Si using Kaguya GRS data shows that the highland areas of both near side and far side of the Moon have higher abundance of Si, and the mare regions of the near side of the Moon have the lowest Si abundance on the Moon. Our study clearly shows that there are a number of Si enriched areas compared to

  10. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  11. Lunar rock surfaces as detectors of solar processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartung, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    Lunar rock surfaces exposed at or just below the lunar surface are considered as detectors of the solar wind, solar flares and solar-derived magnetic fields through their interactions with galactic cosmic rays. The degradation of the solar detector capabilities of lunar surface rocks by meteoroid impact erosion, accreta deposition, loose dust, and sputtering, amorphous layer formation and accelerated diffusion due to solar particles and illumination is discussed, and it is noted that the complex interactions of factors affecting the outer micron of exposed surface material has so far prevented the development of a satisfactory model for a particle detector on the submicron scale. Methods for the determination of surface exposure ages based on the accumulation of light solar wind noble gases, Fe and Mg, impact craters, solar flare tracks, and cosmogenic Kr isotopes are examined, and the systematic variations in the ages determined by the various clocks are discussed. It is concluded that a means of obtaining satisfactory quantitative rate or flux data has not yet been established.

  12. Lunar Surface Charging and Dust Transport during the Passage of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Collier, M. R.; Glenar, D. A.; Halekas, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The surface of the Moon is directly exposed to the surrounding space plasma and energetic particle (> 10 keV) populations, as well as solar ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation on the dayside, which result in it becoming electrically charged. Under certain conditions it is possible that the resulting near-surface electric fields could have a significant influence on the transport of charged lunar dust (< ~10 microns in radius). These processes are anticipated to be most extreme at various periods during the passage of a coronal mass ejection (CME). Such an event is studied here using solar wind observations from April/May 1998 as part of the Solar Storm-Lunar Atmosphere Modeling (SSLAM) Lunar Extreme Workshop (LEW) to investigate the entire lunar surface-exosphere-space plasma system during a space weather event at the Moon. This workshop was organized by the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team. In this study, surface charging models are used to predict surface potentials and electric fields during the April/May 1998 CME event, as well as assess the importance of the different current sources and the implications for electrostatic dust transport. As expected, at the subsolar point it is found that surface charging is dominated by photoemission currents, although secondary electron emission due to plasma electrons can often have a noticeable influence. Meanwhile at the terminator, surface charging is dominated by plasma electrons and the associated secondary electron emission. At certain times the secondary electron emission is predicted to be sufficiently intense to be able to charge the shadowed surface positive. In addition, it is found that intervals with high fluxes of particles with energies > 10 keV could be very important when their current contribution exceeds that of the plasma ions. The location of the transition from positive to negative surface charging on the lunar dayside, also referred to

  13. Lunar Surface Access Module Pump-Fed Engine Turbopump Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Randall J.

    2007-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new Exploration architecture. Preliminary studies indicate that a 4 engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a likely configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The main Lunar Surface Access Module engines will likely be responsible for mid-course correction burns, lunar orbit insertion burns, a deorbit burn, and the powered descent to the lunar surface. This multi-task engine philosophy imposes a wide throttling requirement on the engines in the range of 10:1. Marshall Space Flight Center has initiated an internal effort to mature the technologies needed for full scale development of such a LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine. In particular, a fuel turbopump is being designed and fabricated at MSFC to address the issues that a small high speed turbopump of this class will face. These issues include adequate throttling performance of the pump and turbine over a very wide operating range. The small scale of the hardware presents issues including performance scaling, and manufacturing issues like that will challenge the traditional methods we have used to fabricate and assemble larger scale turbopumps. The small high speed turbopump being developed at MSFC will operate at speeds greater than 100,000-rpm. These speeds create issues that include structural dynamics and high cycle fatigue as well as rotordynamic stability. The fuel turbopump development at MSFC will address these issues, and plans are in work for component level testing as well as operation in a test bed engine environment. The fuel turbopump design is nearing completion and described herein.

  14. Robotic lunar surface operations: Engineering analysis for the design, emplacement, checkout and performance of robotic lunar surface systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1990-01-01

    The assembly, emplacement, checkout, operation, and maintenance of equipment on planetary surfaces are all part of expanding human presence out into the solar system. A single point design, a reference scenario, is presented for lunar base operations. An initial base, barely more than an output, which starts from nothing but then quickly grows to sustain people and produce rocket propellant. The study blended three efforts: conceptual design of all required surface systems; assessments of contemporary developments in robotics; and quantitative analyses of machine and human tasks, delivery and work schedules, and equipment reliability. What emerged was a new, integrated understanding of hot to make a lunar base happen. The overall goal of the concept developed was to maximize return, while minimizing cost and risk. The base concept uses solar power. Its primary industry is the production of liquid oxygen for propellant, which it extracts from native lunar regolith. Production supports four lander flights per year, and shuts down during the lunar nighttime while maintenance is performed.

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Isotopes in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session"Isotopes in Meteorites" consisted of the following presentations:The Common Property of Isotopic Anomalies in Meteorites; Revised Production Rates for 22Na and 54Mn in Meteorites Using Cross Sections Measured for Neutron-induced Reactions; Modeling of 14C and 10Be Production Rates in Meteorites and Lunar Samples; Investigating Xenon Isotopic Fractionation During Rayleigh-type Distillation; The Mean Life Squared Relationship for Abundances of Extinct Radioactivities; and Magnesium Isotopic Fractionation of Forsterite During Evaporation from Different Crystallographic Surfaces.

  16. Autonomous Surface Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. P.

    2007-08-01

    Surface science sample acquisition is a critical activity within any planetary and lunar exploration mission, and our research is focused upon the design, implementation, experimentation and demonstration of an onboard autonomous surface sample acquisition capability for a rover equipped with a robotic arm upon which are mounted appropriate science instruments. Images captured by a rover stereo camera system can be processed using shape from stereo methods and a digital elevation model (DEM) generated. We have developed a terrain feature identification algorithm that can determine autonomously from DEM data suitable regions for instrument placement and/or surface sample acquisition. Once identified, surface normal data can be generated autonomously which are then used to calculate an arm trajectory for instrument placement and sample acquisition. Once an instrument placement and sample acquisition trajectory has been calculated, a collision detection algorithm is required to ensure the safe operation of the arm during sample acquisition.We have developed a novel adaptive 'bounding spheres' approach to this problem. Once potential science targets have been identified, and these are within the reach of the arm and will not cause any undesired collision, then the 'cost' of executing the sample acquisition activity is required. Such information which includes power expenditure and duration can be used to select the 'best' target from a set of potential targets. We have developed a science sample acquisition resource requirements calculation that utilises differential inverse kinematics methods to yield a high fidelity result, thus improving upon simple 1st order approximations. To test our algorithms a new Planetary Analogue Terrain (PAT) Laboratory has been created that has a terrain region composed of Mars Soil Simulant-D from DLR Germany, and rocks that have been fully characterised in the laboratory. These have been donated by the UK Planetary Analogue Field Study

  17. Requirements for extravehicular activities on the lunar and Martian surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Mariann F.; Schentrup, Susan M.

    1990-01-01

    Basic design reference requirements pertinent to EVA equipment on lunar and martian surfaces are provided. Environmental factors affecting surface EVA are analyzed including gravity, dust, atmospheric conditions, thermal gradients, lightning conditions, and radiation effects, and activities associated with surface EVA are outlined. Environmental and activity effects on EVA equipment are assessed, and emphasis is placed on planetary surface portable life support systems (PLSS), suit development, protection from micrometeoroids, dust, and radiation, food and water supplies, and the extravehicular mobility-unit thermal-control system. Environmental and activity impacts on PLSS design are studied, with focus on base self-sufficiency and reduction in resupply logistics.

  18. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Science and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Greg; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and development and support of the international community. As part of its mission, SSERVI acts as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. The nine domestic SSERVI teams that comprise the U.S. complement of the Institute engage with the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. SSERVI represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration enabling a deeper, integrated understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies as human exploration moves beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI centers on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, with additional aspects of related technology development, including a major focus on human exploration-enabling efforts such as resolving Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs). The Institute focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science focused on airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. This research profile integrates investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. New opportunities for both domestic and international partnerships are continually generated through these research and

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Geophysics: Rockin' and a-Reelin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This document contained the following topics: The Influence of Tidal, Despinning, and Magma Ocean Cooling Stresses on the Magnitude and Orientation of the Moon#s Early Global Stress Field; New Approach to Development of Moon Rotation Theory; Lunar Core and Tides; Lunar Interior Studies Using Lunar Prospector Line-of-Sight Acceleration Data; A First Crustal Thickness Map of the Moon with Apollo Seismic Data; New Events Discovered in the Apollo Lunar Seismic Data; More Far-Side Deep Moonquake Nests Discovered; and Manifestation of Gas-Dust Streams from Double Stars on Lunar Seismicity.

  20. Dilution-of-Precision-Based Lunar Surface Navigation System Analysis Utilizing Lunar Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Connolly, Joseph W.; Sands, Obed S.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Space Exploration is focused on the return of astronauts to the Moon. Although navigation systems have already been proven in the Apollo missions to the Moon, the current exploration campaign will involve more extensive and extended missions requiring new concepts for lunar navigation. In contrast to Apollo missions, which were limited to the near-side equatorial region of the Moon, those under the Exploration Systems Initiative will require navigation on the Moon's limb and far side. Since these regions have poor Earth visibility, a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will not provide adequate navigation solutions in these areas. In this report, a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based analysis of the performance of a network of Moon orbiting satellites is provided. This analysis extends a previous analysis of a lunar network (LN) of navigation satellites by providing an assessment of the capability associated with a variety of assumptions. These assumptions pertain to the minimum surface user elevation angle and a total single satellite failure in the lunar network. The assessment is accomplished by making appropriately formed estimates of DoP. Different adaptations of DoP, such as geometric DoP and positional DoP (GDoP and PDoP), are associated with a different set of assumptions regarding augmentations to the navigation receiver or transceiver.

  1. Apollo 17 Astronaut Cernan Adjusts U.S. Flag on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan adjusts the U.S. flag deployed upon the Moon. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center developed LRV. The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Viewing the Lunar Interior Through Titanium-Colored Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session"Viewing the Lunar Interior Through Titanium-Colored Glasses" included the following reports:Consequences of High Crystallinity for the Evolution of the Lunar Magma Ocean: Trapped Plagioclase; Low Abundances of Highly Siderophile Elements in the Lunar Mantle: Evidence for Prolonged Late Accretion; Fast Anorthite Dissolution Rates in Lunar Picritic Melts: Petrologic Implications; Searching the Moon for Aluminous Mare Basalts Using Compositional Remote-Sensing Constraints II: Detailed analysis of ROIs; Origin of Lunar High Titanium Ultramafic Glasses: A Hybridized Source?; Ilmenite Solubility in Lunar Basalts as a Function of Temperature and Pressure: Implications for Petrogenesis; Garnet in the Lunar Mantle: Further Evidence from Volcanic Glasses; Preliminary High Pressure Phase Relations of Apollo 15 Green C Glass: Assessment of the Role of Garnet; Oxygen Fugacity of Mare Basalts and the Lunar Mantle. Application of a New Microscale Oxybarometer Based on the Valence State of Vanadium; A Model for the Origin of the Dark Ring at Orientale Basin; Petrology and Geochemistry of LAP 02 205: A New Low-Ti Mare-Basalt Meteorite; Thorium and Samarium in Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses: Insights into the Composition of the Lunar Mantle and Basaltic Magmatism on the Moon; and Eu2+ and REE3+ Diffusion in Enstatite, Diopside, Anorthite, and a Silicate Melt: A Database for Understanding Kinetic Fractionation of REE in the Lunar Mantle and Crust.

  3. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Teranovi Technologies, Inc., has developed innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms for both lunar surface and orbit access networks. A key component of the overall architecture is a medium access control (MAC) protocol that includes a novel mechanism of overlaying time division multiple access (TDMA) and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), ensuring scalable throughput and quality of service. The new MAC protocol is compatible with legacy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 networks. Advanced features include efficiency power management, adaptive channel width adjustment, and error control capability. A hybrid routing protocol combines the advantages of ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing and disruption/delay-tolerant network (DTN) routing. Performance is significantly better than AODV or DTN and will be particularly effective for wireless networks with intermittent links, such as lunar and planetary surface networks and orbit access networks.

  4. Influence of lunar topography on simulated surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiguo, Meng; Yi, Xu; Zhanchuan, Cai; Shengbo, Chen; Yi, Lian; Hang, Huang

    2014-11-01

    The surface temperature of the Moon is one of the essential parameters for the lunar exploration, especially to evaluate the Moon thermophysical features. The distribution of the temperature is heavily influenced by the Moon topography, which, however, is rarely studied in the state-of-art surface temperature models. Therefore, this paper takes the Moon topography into account to improve the surface temperature model, Racca model. The main parameters, such as slopes along the longitude and latitude directions, are estimated with the topography data from Chang'E-1 satellite and the Horn algorithm. Then the effective solar illumination model is then constructed with the slopes and the relative position to the subsolar point. Finally, the temperature distribution over the Moon surface is obtained with the effective illumination model and the improved Racca model. The results indicate that the distribution of the temperature is very sensitive to the fluctuation of the Moon surface. The change of the surface temperature is up to 150 K in some places compared to the result without considering the topography. In addition, the variation of the surface temperature increases with the distance from the subsolar point and the elevation, along both latitude and longitude directions. Furthermore, the simulated surface temperature coincides well with the brightness temperature in 37 GHz observed by the microwave sounder onboard Chang'E-2 satellite. The corresponded emissivity map not only eliminates the influence of the topography, but also hints the inherent properties of the lunar regolith just below the surface. Last but not the least, the distribution of the permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) in the lunar pole area is also evaluated with the simulated surface temperature result.

  5. Beagle 2 the Moon: An Experimental Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2008-01-01

    NASA has announced the selection of several Lunar Science Sortie Concept Studies for potential scientific payloads with future Lunar Missions. The Beagle 2 scientific package was one of those chosen for study. Near the beginning of the next decade will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface with the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package developed to seek the signatures of life on Mars is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration.

  6. Lunar Surface Origins Exploration (LunaSOX) -Virtual observatory facility for solar wind plasma interactions with the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John

    A new virtual observatory facility is being will be implemented in support of solar wind and terrestrial magnetospheric plasma interactions with the lunar surface and atmospheric envi-ronments. The NASA Heliophysics virtual observatory approach of open on-line metadata registration, discovery, access, and supporting value-added tools will be applied to selected data products from lunar surface, lunar orbital, and earth-orbiting solar wind monitors. The LunaSOX facilty at lunasox,gsfc.nasa.gov will be operated by a science focus group for NASA's Virtual Heliospheric Observatory. Initial primary focus will be on the Apollo ALSEP solar wind monitor data products already accessible on-line in through the Coordinated Data Anal-ysis Web (CDAWeb) service of the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF). These data will be recast in forms appropriate for support of the plasma interaction modeling and the new value-added data products will be posted through the virtual observatory. Supporting lunar and Earth orbit data of the Apollo era in the NASA archives will be similarly treated and posted on-line. The LunaSOX virtual observatory will also provide links to other available lunar data. Selected data analysis (e.g., OMNIWeb), orbital ephemeris (SSCWeb), and associated visualization tools of SPDF will be utilized in support of the modeling and virtual observatory efforts. Please contact the author for potential virtual observatory support of specific data products related to plasma interactions with the lunar surface and atmosphere.

  7. Liquid oxygen production and storage on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Gary; Newell, Dave; Pinter, Dave; Snyder, Howard

    1990-01-01

    Once oxygen is produced on the lunar surface, it must be liquefied and stored for use by the lander vehicle. CSC has performed a preliminary design for the cryogenic storage depot for this liquid oxygen (LOX). Estimates have been made of the refrigeration power and equipment weight required for the liquefaction and storage. The determination is that the system is compatible with solar power limitations and will require little new technology development.

  8. Lunar and planetary science XXV; Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 25th, Houston, TX, Mar. 14-18, 1994, Abstracts of Papers. Pts. 1, 2, & 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    The present volume on lunar and planetary science discusses an experimental project regarding Martian fluvio-thermal erosion, radiative signals from the impact of Shoemaker-Levy on Jupiter, evidence for short SiC lifetimes in the ISM, and distributions of the preatmospheric sizes of Antarctic and non-Antarctic chondrites. Attention is given to the calculation of cosmic-ray exposure ages of meteorites, meteorites as differential detectors of events over a long time scale, a comparison of surface characteristics of steep-sided domes on Venus and terrestrial silicic domes, the surface and interior of Phobos, and the hypsometric distribution of impact craters on Venus. Topics addressed include impact craters as indicators of subsurface H2O on Mars, a quantitative assessment of an impact-generated ring vortex, ordinary chondrites in space and time, and a geologic map of Callisto. Also discussed are postshock cooling and annealing within L-Group ordinary chondrites, primitive material in lunar highland soils, refractory carbides in interstellar graphite, and a mineralogical instrument for planetary applications.

  9. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, Barmac K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA's Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of "supportability", in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in a environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test & Verification, Maintenance & Repair, and Scavenging & Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set of

  10. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  11. Assessment of the Lunar Surface Layer and in Situ Materials to Sustain Construction-related Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Chua, Koon Meng

    1992-01-01

    Present and future technologies to facilitate lunar composition and resource assessment with applications to lunar surface construction are presented. We are particularly interested in the construction activity associated with lunar-based astronomy. We address, as an example, the use of ground-probing radar to help assess subsurface conditions at sites for observatories and other facilities.

  12. Mitigation of Lunar Dust Adhesion by Surface Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Wang, X.; Robertson, S. H.; Horanyi, M.; Devaud, J.; Crowder, M.; Lawitzke, A.

    2009-12-01

    Dust has been recognized as one of the greatest hazards in continued lunar exploration. Thus, it is crucial to develop dust mitigation techniques that will minimize both the damages done to hardware and the dangers posed to humans working on the Moon. Passive mitigation techniques, which modify the surface of a material prior to dust exposure, will aid in repelling dust or reducing adhesion for easier dust removal. Our experiments use various surfaces (black Kapton (polymide), quartz, and silicon) that have been treated to have low surface energies by a Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. proprietary surface treatment technique. We use a centrifugal force detachment method to measure the total adhesive force acting between < 25 µm JSC-1 lunar simulant grains and these surfaces, both untreated and treated, in vacuum. Results indicate that the treated surfaces show significant improvement; dust is removed from treated black Kapton with about 4% of the force required for untreated black Kapton, while treated quartz and silicon show about a 50% reduction in force. Further tests will be conducted on additional surfaces, such as stainless steel and polycarbonate, and with different size fractions of JSC-1 in order to evaluate the role of dust grain size on adhesion. Because the Moon’s surface is directly exposed to solar UV radiation, we will also measure adhesion on surfaces that have previously been UV-irradiated.

  13. Expected extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.C.; Priedhorsky, W.C.; Smith, B.W. )

    1991-11-01

    The moon was recently observed to be a source of very soft x-ray emission. The emission was most intense at wavelengths longer than 62 {angstrom} and was attributed to Thomson scattering of solar x-rays. This observation prompted the authors to study the emissions expected from the lunar surface in the wavelength range between 90 and 500 {angstrom}. Photons in this wavelength range scatter inefficiently. Instead, the solar x-rays are absorbed in the first several microns of lunar regolith. The absorbed x-rays can excite the surface elements and result in fluorescent emission. The authors find that much of the L- and M-shell extreme ultraviolet fluorescence, in the wavelength range between 90 and 500 {angstrom}, have higher peak intensities than the scattered solar spectrum. The total integrated fluorescent emission is also higher than the total scattered solar radiation. The L-shell fluorescent radiation can be an indicator of the surface abundances of Si, Al, Mg and other major lunar elements.

  14. Engineering design constraints of the lunar surface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Living and working on the lunar surface will be difficult. Design of habitats, machines, tools, and operational scenarios in order to allow maximum flexibility in human activity will require paying attention to certain constraints imposed by conditions at the surface and the characteristics of lunar material. Primary design drivers for habitat, crew health and safety, and crew equipment are: ionizing radiation, the meteoroid flux, and the thermal environment. Secondary constraints for engineering derive from: the physical and chemical properties of lunar surface materials, rock distributions and regolith thicknesses, topography, electromagnetic properties, and seismicity. Protection from ionizing radiation is essential for crew health and safety. The total dose acquired by a crew member will be the sum of the dose acquired during EVA time (when shielding will be least) plus the dose acquired during time spent in the habitat (when shielding will be maximum). Minimizing the dose acquired in the habitat extends the time allowable for EVA's before a dose limit is reached. Habitat shielding is enabling, and higher precision in predicting secondary fluxes produced in shielding material would be desirable. Means for minimizing dose during a solar flare event while on extended EVA will be essential. Early warning of the onset of flare activity (at least a half-hour is feasible) will dictate the time available to take mitigating steps. Warning capability affects design of rovers (or rover tools) and site layout. Uncertainty in solar flare timing is a design constraint that points to the need for quickly accessible or constructible safe havens.

  15. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  16. Astronaut John Young leaps from lunar surface as he salutes U.S. flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, leaps from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. flag during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) on the Moon, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, is standing in the background.

  17. Statistical analysis of thermal IR (10-12 micron) emission from the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, S. G.

    Brightness data analyzed by Saari and Shorthill are used in a statistical study of thermal 10-12 micron emission from the lunar surface. A digital model of the distribution of surface brightness temperature is described, and isotherm contour maps of the lunar-globe surface for full and new moon periods are constructed. A table of selenographic coordinates and brightness temperatures of 150 sections of the lunar surface with temperature anomalies is presented.

  18. Interaction of Highly Underexpanded Jets with Simulated Lunar Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, Leonard E.

    1961-01-01

    Pressure distributions and erosion patterns on simulated lunar surfaces (hard and soft) and interference effects between the surface and two representative lunar vehicles (cylindrical and spherical) were obtained with cold-air jets at various descent heights and nozzle total-pressure ratios up to 288,000. Surface pressure distributions were dependent on both nozzle area ratio and, nozzle contour. Peak pressures obtained with a sonic nozzle agreed closely with those predicted theoretically for a near-sonic jet expanding into a vacuum. Short bell-shaped nozzles gave annular pressure distributions; the low center pressure resulted from the coalescence of shocks that originated within the nozzle. The high surface pressures were contained within a circle whose diameter was about 16 throat diameters, regardless of nozzle area ratio or contour. The peak pressure increased rapidly as the vehicle approached the surface; for example, at a descent height of 40 throat diameters the peak pressure was 0.4 percent of the chamber pressure, but increased to 6 percent at 13 throat diameters. The exhaust jet eroded a circular concave hole in white sand at descent heights from about 200 to 600 throat diameters. The hole diameter was about 225 throat diameters, while the depth was approximately 60 throat diameters. The sand particles, which formed a conical sheet at a semivertex angle of 50 deg, appeared to follow a ballistic trajectory and at no time struck the vehicle. An increase in pressure was measured on the base of the cylindrical lunar vehicle when it approached to within 14 throat diameters of the hard, flat surface. No interference effects were noted between the spherical model and the surface to descent heights as low as 8 throat diameters.

  19. The Moon Beyond 2002: Next Steps in Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the conference on The Moon Beyond 2002: Next Steps in Lunar Science and Exploration, September 12-14, 2002, in Taos, New Mexico. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  20. Strategies for Ground Testing of Manned Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Jeff; Gill, Tracy; Peacock, Mike

    2009-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is the creation of a permanently manned lunar outpost. Facing the challenge of establishing a human presence on the moon will require new innovations and technologies that will be critical to expanding this exploration to Mars and beyond. However, accomplishing this task presents an unprecedented set of obstacles, one of the more significant of which is the development of new strategies for ground test and verification. Present concepts for the Lunar Surface System (LSS) architecture call for the construction of a series of independent yet tightly coupled modules and elements to be launched and assembled in incremental stages. Many of these will be fabricated at distributed locations and delivered shortly before launch, precluding any opportunity for testing in an actual integrated configuration. Furthermore, these components must operate flawlessly once delivered to the lunar surface since there is no possibility for returning a malfunctioning module to Earth for repair or modification. Although undergoing continual refinement, this paper will present the current state of the plans and models that have been devised for meeting the challenge of ground based testing for Constellation Program LSS as well as the rationale behind their selection.

  1. Production rates of cosmogenic nuclei on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tie-Kuang; Yun, Su-Jun; Ma, Tao; Chang, Jin; Dong, Wu-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Guo-Long; Ren, Zhong-Zhou

    2014-07-01

    A physical model for Geant4-based simulation of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles' interaction with the lunar surface matter has been developed to investigate the production rates of cosmogenic nuclei. In this model the GCRs, mainly very high energy protons and α particles, bombard the surface of the Moon and produce many secondary particles, such as protons and neutrons. The energies of protons and neutrons at different depths are recorded and saved as ROOT files, and the analytical expressions for the differential proton and neutron fluxes are obtained through the best-fit procedure using ROOT software. To test the validity of this model, we calculate the production rates of the long-lived nuclei 10Be and 26Al in the Apollo 15 long drill core by combining the above differential fluxes and the newly evaluated spallation reaction cross sections. Our numerical results show that the theoretical production rates agree quite well with the measured data, which means that this model works well. Therefore, it can be expected that this model can be used to investigate the cosmogenic nuclei in future lunar samples returned by the Chinese lunar exploration program and can be extended to study other objects, such as meteorites and the Earth's atmosphere.

  2. Hierarchical analysis of options for lunar-surface power

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R.B.; Coomes, E.P.; Khan, E.U. )

    1994-05-01

    A decision analysis study was conducted to evaluate potential habitat power concepts for manned lunar-surface operations. The objectives of the study were to rank alternative lunar-surface power systems for the first lunar outpost (FLO). The six alternative power concepts evaluated are the following: photovoltaic with regenerative fuel cell (RFC) storage, solar dynamic with RFC storage, TOPAZ 2 and SP-100 space reactor systems, dynamic isotope power system (DIPS), and laser-beamed power. The analytical hierarchy decision-making process was used for the decision-making methodology. The process provides a systematic approach to managing complex decisions that involve numerous tradeoffs between alternative concepts and evaluation criteria. Safety, risk, performance, lifetime, supportability, special factors, and versatility were selected as the major evaluation criteria. Based on the available information, DIPS was the power system of choice for a 45-day, 12-kWe FLO mission because of its favorable combination of ranking and cost. When launch costs were not considered, the photovoltaic system with RFC storage ranked first. The results of this study reflect the best judgments of the working group, given the set of requirements, the agreed-on set of selection criteria, and the best available concept information. 7 refs.

  3. The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT) - An early lunar-based science and engineering mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgraw, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The Sentinel, the soft-landed lunar telescope of the LTT project, is described. The Sentinel is a two-meter telescope with virtually no moving parts which accomplishes an imaging survey of the sky over almost five octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ultraviolet into the infrared, with an angular resolution better than 0.1 arsec/pixel. The Sentinel will incorporate innovative techniques of interest for future lunar-based telescopes and will return significant engineering data which can be incorporated into future lunar missions. The discussion covers thermal mapping of the Sentinel, measurement of the cosmic ray flux, lunar dust, micrometeoroid flux, the lunar atmosphere, and lunar regolith stability and seismic activity.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture" contained the following reports:Approaches for Approximating Topography in High Resolution, Multispectral Data; Verification of Quality and Compatibility for the Newly Calibrated Clementine NIR Data Set; Near Infrared Spectral Properties of Selected Nearside and Farside Sites ; Global Comparisons of Mare Volcanism from Clementine Near-Infrared Data; Testing the Relation Between UVVIS Color and TiO2 Composition in the Lunar Maria; Color Reflectance Trends in the Mare: Implications for Mapping Iron with Multispectral Images ; The Composition of the Lunar Megaregolith: Some Initial Results from Global Mapping; Global Images of Mg-Number Derived from Clementine Data; The Origin of Lunar Crater Rays; Properties of Lunar Crater Ejecta from New 70-cm Radar Observations ; Permanent Sunlight at the Lunar North Pole; and ESA s SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals, Status and First Results.

  5. The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT) - an early lunar-based science and engineering mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, John T.

    The Sentinel, the soft-landed lunar telescope of the LTT project, is described. The Sentinel is a two-meter telescope with virtually no moving parts which accomplishes an imaging survey of the sky over almost five octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ultraviolet into the infrared, with an angular resolution better than 0.1 arsec/pixel. The Sentinel will incorporate innovative techniques of interest for future lunar-based telescopes and will return significant engineering data which can be incorporated into future lunar missions. The discussion covers thermal mapping of the Sentinel, measurement of the cosmic ray flux, lunar dust, micrometeoroid flux, the lunar atmosphere, and lunar regolith stability and seismic activity.

  6. A New Model of Size-graded Soil Veneer on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, Abhijit; McKay, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. We propose a new model of distribution of submillimeter sized lunar soil grains on the lunar surface. We propose that in the uppermost millimeter or two of the lunar surface, soil-grains are size graded with the finest nanoscale dust on top and larger micron-scale particles below. This standard state is perturbed by ejecta deposition of larger grains at the lunar surface, which have a coating of dusty layer that may not have substrates of intermediate sizes. Distribution of solar wind elements (SWE), agglutinates, vapor deposited nanophase Fe0 in size fractions of lunar soils and ir spectra of size fractions of lunar soils are compatible with this model. A direct test of this model requires bringing back glue-impregnated tubes of lunar soil samples to be dissected and examined on Earth.

  7. A Study of an Optical Lunar Surface Communications Network with High Bandwidth Direct to Earth Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K.; Biswas, A.; Schoolcraft, J.

    2011-01-01

    A lunar surface systems study explores the application of optical communications to support a high bandwidth data link from a lunar relay satellite and from fixed lunar assets. The results show that existing 1-m ground stations could provide more than 99% coverage of the lunar terminal at 100Mb/s data rates from a lunar relay satellite and in excess of 200Mb/s from a fixed terminal on the lunar surface. We have looked at the effects of the lunar regolith and its removal on optical samples. Our results indicate that under repeated dust removal episodes sapphire rather than fused silica would be a more durable material for optical surfaces. Disruption tolerant network protocols can minimize the data loss due to link dropouts. We report on the preliminary results of the DTN protocol implemented over the optical carrier.

  8. A Lunar Laser Retroreflector for the FOR the 21ST Century (LLRRA-21): Selenodesy, Science and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, D. G.; Delle Monache, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.

    2010-12-01

    new LLRRA-21 can provide will be described. In the initial design of the new array, there are three major challenges: 1) Validate the ability to fabricate the required CCR; 2) Address the thermal and optical effects of the absorption of solar radiation within the CCR; 3) Validate an emplacement technique for the CCR package on the lunar surface to remain stable over the lunar day/night cycle and the long term. References: [1] C. O. Alley 1, R. F. Chang 1, D. G. Currie 1, Apollo 11 Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector: Initial Measurements from the McDonald Observatory Science 23 January 1970: Vol. 167. no. 3917, pp. 368 - 370 [2] P. L. Bender, D. G. Currie, S. K. Poultney The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment Science 19 October 1973: Vol. 182. no. 4109, pp. 229 - 238 [3] D. G. Currie; S. Dell-Agnello; G. Delle Monache. A LUNAR LASER REFLECTOR FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Acta Astronatica to be published

  9. Near Real Time Prospecting for Lunar Volatiles: Demonstrating RESOLVE Science in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, Richard; Colaprete, Anthony; Heldmann, Jennifer; Mattes, Gregory W.; Ennico, Kimberly; Sanders, Gerald; Quinn, Jacqueline; Tegnerud, Erin Leigh; Marinova, Margarita; Larson, William E.; Picard, Martin; Morse, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project aims to demonstrate the utility of "in situ resource utilization". In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is a way to rebalance the economics of spaceflight by reducing or eliminating materials that must be brought up from Earth and placed on the surface of the Moon for human use. RESOLVE is developing a rover-borne payload that (1) can locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important not only for ISRU but are also critically important for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar polar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the 4-7 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. In July 2012 the RESOLVE project conducted a full-scale field demonstration. In particular, the ability to perform the real-time measurement analysis necessary to search for volatiles and the ability to combine the various measurement techniques to meet the mission measurement and science goals. With help from the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES), a lunar rover prototype (provided by the Canadian Space Agency) was equipped with prospecting instruments (neutron spectrometer and near-infrared spectrometer), subsurface access and sampling tools, including both an auger and coring drill (provided by CSA) and subsurface sample analysis instrumentation, including a sample oven system, the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN), and Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometer system, the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) system. Given the relatively short time period this

  10. Near Real-Time Prospecting for Lunar Volatiles: Demonstrating RESOLVE Science in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Mattes, G.; Ennico, K.; Sanders, G. B.; Quinn, J.; Fritzler, E.; Marinova, M.; Roush, T. L.; Stoker, C.; Larson, W.; Picard, M.; McMurray, R.; Morse, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project aims to demonstrate the utility of "in situ resource utilization". In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is a way to rebalance the economics of spaceflight by reducing or eliminating materials that must be brought up from Earth and placed on the surface of the Moon for human use. RESOLVE is developing a rover-borne payload that (1) can locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important not only for ISRU but are also critically important for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar polar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the 4-7 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. In July 2012 the RESOLVE project conducted a full-scale field demonstration. In particular, the ability to perform the real-time measurement analysis necessary to search for volatiles and the ability to combine the various measurement techniques to meet the mission measurement and science goals. With help from the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES), a lunar rover prototype (provided by the Canadian Space Agency) was equipped with prospecting instruments (neutron spectrometer and near-infrared spectrometer), subsurface access and sampling tools, including both an auger and coring drill (provided by CSA) and subsurface sample analysis instrumentation, including a sample oven system, the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN), and Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometer system, the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) system. Given the relatively short time period this

  11. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  12. Automatic Identification of Changes on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, Emerson; Wagner, Robert; Robinson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Since June 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has maintained a stable polar orbit enabling the twin Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) to acquire high-resolution observations of the lunar surface (pixel scale of 0.25 to 2 m/pixel). This orbital configuration facilitates occasional repeat coverage with similar lighting geometries. These before and after observations, referred to in this study as temporal pairs, enable the identification of changes to the surface based on applying a series of change detection techniques. Manual inspection of the temporal pairs by LROC team members resulted in the discovery of hundreds of new changes across the lunar surface [1]. However, this manual process is time consuming (2-4 hours per temporal pair) and each analyst must apply their own judgment on whether they have discovered a real change or an artifact in the image pair. Thus far, the LROC team has identified 650 surface changes as well as 19 resolved craters using the manual approach. Leveraging image processing techniques developed by the LROC team, we started automatically scanning and identifying these changes. The new automated algorithm locates changes based on albedo variations and changes in surface texture. The program provides a list of potential new features for later manual inspection and classification (disturbance lacking resolvable crater or crater with a rim diameter of X meters). This new approach eliminates the human inspector from scanning up to 5.22*109 pixels in each temporal pair and instead provides cropped cutouts with the detected changes centered in the thumbnail image. The LROC NACs have already collected thousands of temporal pair observations and will continue to do so over the remaining extended mission. Highest fidelity change detection comes from temporal pairs with nearly identical lighting geometries. In the next two years, the progression of the LRO orbit with respect to beta angle will enable direct illumination matches (<2 degrees

  13. View of Central Station for the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A view of the Central Station for the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), in the center of the photograph, and other ALSEP components deployed on the lunar surface by Apollo 12's two Moon explorers. The three components that can be seen in this photograph, near the Central Station, are the Passive Seismic Experiment (left of Central Station), Lunar Surface Magnetometer (left of center, background) and the Solar Wind Spectrometer (right of Central Station).

  14. Development of Mini-Landers for Very Small Lunar Surface Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, NASA has invested in development and risk-reduction activities for a new generation of planetary landers capable of carrying instruments and technology demonstrations to the lunar surface and other airless bodies. The Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project (RLLDP) is jointly implemented by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The RLLDP team has produced mission architecture designs for multiple airless body missions to meet both science and human precursor mission needs. The mission architecture concept studies encompass small, medium, and large landers, with payloads from a few kilograms to over 1000 kg, to the Moon and other airless bodies. The payload and concept of operations for the U.S. contribution to the ILN was guided by an independent Science Definition Team, which required each node to operate for 6 years continuously, including through lunar eclipse periods, and to carry a seismometer, heatflow probe, retroreflector, and electromagnetic sounding instrument. Some configuration trades using penetrators, hard landers, and soft landers are discussed in [1, 2]; the preferred concept became soft-landing propulsive landers discussed in [3]. The landers were sized primairly according to their power systems: an ASRG lander configuration is estimated at 155 kg dry mass, which includes a payload suite estimated at 23 kg including payload accommodation and deployment; a solar array-battery (SAB) lander configuration is somewhat larger at 265 kg of dry mass including a 19 kg payload suite with payload accommodation

  15. Near-surface daytime thermal conductivity in the lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1979-01-01

    If mass and heat transport properties in the top few cm of the lunar surface correspond, estimates of the daytime thermal conductivity based on the diffusivity calculated from in situ concentration gradients of low temperature volatile elements should be possible. Concentration gradients of Hg and Br in response to the diurnal heat pulse have been measured in samples from cores. The conductivity estimated is either approximately 10 to the -3rd or approximately 2 x 10 to the -4th W/cm-degrees K depending on the assumptions made. The latter value is in agreement with near-surface daytime thermal properties calculated by Keihm et al. (1973) to explain the mean surface temperature. An activation energy for diffusion of Hg in the top few cm of the lunar surface is estimated to be approximately 8 kcal/mole and suggests either vapor or surface migration. Fixation of the concentration gradient after the cores were extracted may be due to lack of a temperature gradient to act as a driving force or to disruption of grain contacts or their corrosion on exposure to air.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Crust as Sampled by Basins and Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Crust as Samples by Basins and Craters" included:Radar Properties of Lunar Basin Deposits; Numerical Modeling of the South Pole-Aitkin Impact; Lunar South Pole-Aitken Impact Basin: Topography and Mineralogy; Comparison of the Geologic Setting of the South Pole-Aitken Basin Interior with Apollo 16: Implications for Regolith Components; Identifying Impact Events Within the Lunar Cataclysm from 40Ar-39Ar Ages of Apollo 16 Impact Melt Rocks; Apollo 16 Mafic Glass: Geochemistry, Provenance, and Implications; Lunar Meteorite PCA 02 007: A Feldspathic Regolith Breccia with Mixed Mare/Highland Components; Compositional Constraints on the Launch Pairing of LAP 02205 and PCA 02007 with Other Lunar Meteorites; An In-Situ Study of REE Abundances in Three Anorthositic Impact Melt Lunar Highland Meteorites; A Crustal Rock Clast in Magnesian Anorthositic Breccia, Dhofar 489 and Its Excavation from a Large Basin; The Origin and Impact History of Lunar Meteorite Yamato 86032; Evolved Lithologies and Their Inferred Sources in the Northwestern Procellarum Region of the Moon; and Revisiting the Interpretation of Thorium Abundances at Hansteen Alpha.

  17. Laboratory simulation of dust interactions close to lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlu, Jiri; Vysinka, Marek; Richterova, Ivana; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek

    2016-04-01

    Dust grains in space can be frequently found close to exposed surfaces, e.g., at the Moon, asteroids, comets, etc. A broad variety of solar particles-dust interactions plays its role - electrons and UV charge the grains, ions can sputter or somewhat modify the grain structure. While the grain levitating above the surface can rotate along all three axes, thus interacting nearly isotropically, the grain lying on the surface cannot move and it is exposed from one side only. We study spherical micron-sized glass grains as a representative of the silicate-type space dust. Particular interactions were experimentally observed in both an electrodynamic trap (levitating dust) and a scanning electron microscope (dust on the surface). We present a comparison of both approaches together with models of particular processes and situations; we predict and discuss dust behaviour at the lunar surface vicinity.

  18. Multi-Beam Surface Lidar for Lunar and Planetary Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, Jack L.; Garvin, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Surface lidar techniques are now being demonstrated in low Earth orbit with a single beam of pulsed laser radiation at 1064 nm that profiles the vertical structure of Earth surface landforms along the nadir track of a spacecraft. In addition, a profiling laser altimeter, called MOLA, is operating in elliptical Martian orbit and returning surface topography data. These instruments form the basis for suggesting an improved lidar instrument that employs multiple beams for extension of sensor capabilities toward the goal of true, 3-dimensional mapping of the Moon or other similar planetary surfaces. In general the lidar waveform acquired with digitization of a laser echo can be used for laser distance measurement (i.e. range-to-the-surface) by time-of-flight measurement and for surface slope and shape measurements by examining the detailed lidar waveform. This is particularly effective when the intended target is the lunar surface or another planetary body free of any atmosphere. The width of the distorted return pulse is a first order measure of the surface incidence angle, a combination of surface slope and laser beam pointing. Assuming an independent and absolute (with respect to inertial space) measurement of laser beam pointing on the spacecraft, it is possible to derive a surface slope with-respect-to the mean planetary surface or its equipotential gravity surface. Higher-order laser pulse distortions can be interpreted in terms of the vertical relief of the surface or reflectivity variations within the area of the laser beam footprint on the surface.

  19. Evaluation of Surface Modification as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Waters, Deborah L.; Misconin, Robert M.; Banks, Bruce A.; Crowder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Three surface treatments were evaluated for their ability to lower the adhesion between lunar simulant dust and AZ93, AlFEP, and AgFEP thermal control surfaces under simulated lunar conditions. Samples were dusted in situ and exposed to a standardized puff of nitrogen gas. Thermal performance before dusting, after dusting, and after part of the dust was removed by the puff of gas, were compared to perform the assessment. None of the surface treatments was found to significantly affect the adhesion of lunar simulants to AZ93 thermal control paint. Oxygen ion beam texturing also did not lower the adhesion of lunar simulant dust to AlFEP or AgFEP. But a workfunction matching coating and a proprietary Ball Aerospace surface treatment were both found to significantly lower the adhesion of lunar simulants to AlFEP and AgFEP. Based on these results, it is recommended that all these two techniques be further explored as dust mitigation coatings for AlFEP and AgFEP thermal control surfaces.

  20. Planetary surface exploration: MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Lentz, Dale; Laux, Richard; Nance, Preston

    1992-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars was designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA-Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray instruments (APX). The system is to be launched with the sixteen MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker was developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian surface. While on Mars the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar-terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation which NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. A detailed description of the designs, methods, and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs are included.

  1. Planetary surface exploration MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Laux, Richard; Lentz, Dale; Nance, Preston

    1992-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars have been designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA/Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray (APX) Instrument. The system is to be launched with the 16 MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker have been developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian Surface. While on Mars, the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation that NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. This report includes a detailed description of the designs and the methods and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs.

  2. Planetary surface exploration MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Laux, Richard; Lentz, Dale; Nance, Preston

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars have been designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA/Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray (APX) Instrument. The system is to be launched with the 16 MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker have been developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian Surface. While on Mars, the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation that NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. This report includes a detailed description of the designs and the methods and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs.

  3. Imaging Thermal He(+)in Geospace from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Adrian, Mark L.; Goldstein, Jerry; Jahn, Joerg-Micha; Spasojevic, Maria; Griffin, Brand

    2007-01-01

    By mass, thermal plasma dominates near-earth space and strongly influences the transport of energy and mass into the earth's atmosphere. It is proposed to play an important role in modifying the strength of space weather storms by its presence in regions of magnetic reconnection in the dayside magnetopause and in the near to mid-magnetotail. Ionospheric-origin thermal plasma also represents the most significant potential loss of atmospheric mass from our planet over geological time. Knowledge of the loss of convected thermal plasma into the solar wind versus its recirculation across high latitudes and through the magnetospheric flanks into the magnetospheric tail will enable determination of the mass balance for this mass-dominant component of the Geospace system and of its influence on global magnetospheric processes that are critical to space weather prediction and hence to the impact of space processes on human technology in space and on Earth. Our proposed concept addresses this basic issue of Geospace dynamics by imaging thermal He(+) ions in extreme ultraviolet light with an instrument on the lunar surface. The concept is derived from the highly successful Extreme Ultraviolet imager (EUV) flown on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. From the lunar surface an advanced EUV imager is anticipated to have much higher sensitivity, lower background noise, and higher communication bandwidth back to Earth. From the near-magnetic equatorial location on the lunar surface, such an imager would be ideally located to follow thermal He(+) ions to high latitudes, into the magnetospheric flanks, and into the magnetotail.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session, "Mars Polar Science and Exploration" included the following reports: Evidence for Possible Exposed Water Ice Deposits in Martian Low Latitude Chasms and Chaos; Stability and Exchange of Subsurface Ice on Mars; Evaporation Rates for Liquid Water and Ice Under Current Martian Conditions; Seasonal Cycle of Carbon Dioxide and Atmospheric Circulation in Mars Southern Hemisphere as Observed by Neutron Spectroscopy; Imaging Polarimetry of Mars with Hubble Space Telescope in 2003 Opposition; GCM Simulations of Tropical Ice Accumulations: Implications for Cold-based Glaciers; Numerical Modeling of Glaciers in Martian Paleoclimates; Valley Glaciers on Mars: Calculation of Flow Rate and Thickness; Internal Structure of the Southern Polar Cap of Mars and Formation Implications; Sublimation at the Base of a Seasonal CO2 Slab on Mars; Impact Crater Abundance of the Martian South Polar Layered Deposits from THEMIS Visible Imaging; Recent Changes in South-Polar-Polygonal Terrain During One Martian Year: Implications for Subsurface Ice-Wedges; and An Historical Search for Unfrozen Water at the Phoenix Landing Site.

  5. Thermophysical Properties of the Lunar Surface from Diviner Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul; Bandfield, Joshua; Vasavada, Ashwin; Ghent, Rebecca; Siegler, Matthew; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Aharonson, Oded; Paige, David

    2013-04-01

    Orbital thermal infrared measurements are sensitive to a variety of properties of the Moon's surface layer, including rock abundance, regolith cover and porosity, and small-scale surface roughness. With its multiple spectral channels and large dynamic temperature range, the Diviner Lunar Radiometer [1] on NASA's LRO spacecraft has enabled the first global, high-resolution maps of these important thermophysical properties. Here we present a summary of the results of Diviner's thermophysical investigation thus far. Maps of surface rock abundance show low typical values of <1% with higher abundances for recent craters and their blocky ejecta, as well as mass wasting on crater walls, rilles, and impact melt features [2]. The extent and abundance of surface rocks decrease systematically with crater age, and rocky surfaces are only preserved on the youngest craters (<1 Ga). We used nighttime regolith surface temperatures and eclipse cooling observations to constrain profiles of density and conductivity in the upper ~1 m, revealing a remarkably homogeneous subsurface structure [3]. Geographic variations in upper regolith density are nonetheless apparent. For example, buried rocks are suggested within young impact ejecta showing strong radar backscatter, high subsurface density, and a lack of surface rocks [2,4]. Rock fragmentation and regolith accumulation rates can be quantified by comparison of the Diviner data with published crater ages, yielding typical erosion rates which rapidly decrease from ~10 kg m-2 yr-1 for crater ages of ~1 Ma to ~1 mg m-2 yr-1 at ~1 Ga [4]. Variations in upper regolith density correlate with the ages of individual mare basalt units, suggesting this layer is actively processed by impacts on geologically short timescales, which may reveal age relationships previously unseen [5]. Vast cold regions surrounding fresh impact craters during lunar night (termed "cold spots") are only apparent in thermal infrared data [2]. These features cannot be

  6. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Rodney L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study techniques are developed which allow an analysis of a range of different types of transfer trajectories from the Earth to the lunar surface. Trajectories ranging from those obtained using the invariant manifolds of unstable orbits to those derived from collision orbits are analyzed. These techniques allow the computation of trajectories encompassing low-energy trajectories as well as more direct transfers. The range of possible trajectory options is summarized, and a broad range of trajectories that exist as a result of the Sun's influence are computed and analyzed. The results are then classified by type, and trades between different measures of cost are discussed.

  7. Field Testing of Utility Robots for Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Deans, Matt; Allan, Mark; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Broxton, Michael; Edwards, Laurence; Lee, Pascal; Lee, Susan Y.; Lees, David; Park, Eric; Pedersen, Liam; Smith, Trey; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Pacis, Estrellina; Schreckenghost, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, NASA has been working to return to the Moon. In contrast to the Apollo missions, two key objectives of the current exploration program is to establish significant infrastructure and an outpost. Achieving these objectives will enable long-duration stays and long-distance exploration of the Moon. To do this, robotic systems will be needed to perform tasks which cannot, or should not, be performed by crew alone. In this paper, we summarize our work to develop "utility robots" for lunar surface operations, present results and lessons learned from field testing, and discuss directions for future research.

  8. Lunar Prospector: a Preliminary Surface Remote Sensing Resource Assessment for the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The potential existence of lunar volatiles is a scientific discovery that could distinctly change the direction of pathways of inner solar system human expansion. With a dedicated germanium gamma ray spectrometer launched in the early 1990's, surface water concentrations of 0.7 percent could be detected immediately upon full lunar polar orbit operations. The expense of lunar base construction and operation would be dramatically reduced over a scenario with no lunar volatile resources. Global surface mineral distribution could be mapped out and integrated into a GIS database for lunar base site selection. Extensive surface lunar mapping would also result in the utilization of archived Apollo images. A variety of remote sensing systems and their parameters have been proposed for use in the detection of these lunar ice masses. The detection or nondetection of subsurface and surface ice masses in lunar polar crater floors could dramatically direct the development pathways that the human race might follow in its radiation from the Earth to habitable locales in the inner terran solar system. Potential sources of lunar volatiles are described. The use of remote sensing to detect lunar volatiles is addressed.

  9. Transient Thermal Model and Analysis of the Lunar Surface and Regolith for Cryogenic Fluid Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Plachta, David W.; Yasan, Mohammad M.

    2008-01-01

    A transient thermal model of the lunar surface and regolith was developed along with analytical techniques which will be used to evaluate the storage of cryogenic fluids at equatorial and polar landing sites. The model can provide lunar surface and subsurface temperatures as a function of latitude and time throughout the lunar cycle and season. It also accounts for the presence of or lack of the undisturbed fluff layer on the lunar surface. The model was validated with Apollo 15 and Clementine data and shows good agreement with other analytical models.

  10. Considerations Regarding the Development of an Environmental Control and Life Support System for Lunar Surface Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is engaged in early architectural analyses and trade studies aimed at identifying requirements, predicting performance and resource needs, characterizing mission constraints and sensitivities, and guiding technology development planning needed to conduct a successful human exploration campaign of the lunar surface. Conceptual designs and resource estimates for environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) within pressurized lunar surface habitats and rovers have been considered and compared in order to support these lunar campaign studies. This paper will summarize those concepts and some of the more noteworthy considerations that will likely remain as key drivers in the evolution of the lunar surface ECLSS architecture.

  11. Reflectance Spectroscopy and Lunar Sample Science: Finally a Marriage After Far Too Long an Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Pieters, Carle; McKay, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Inferences about the igneous and impact evolution of planetary bodies are based upon spectral remote sensing of their surfaces. However, it is not the rocks of a body that are seen by the remote sensing, but rather the regolith, that may contain small pieces of rock but also many other phases as well. Indeed, recent flybys of objects even as small as asteroid Ida have shown that these objects are covered by a regolith. Thus, spectral properties cannot be directly converted into information about the igneous history of the object. It is imperative to fully understand the nature of the regolith, particularly its finer fraction termed "soil," to appreciate the possible effects of "space weathering" on the reflectance spectra. We have initiated a study of our nearest, regolith-bearing body, the Moon, as "ground truth" for further probes of planetary and asteroidal surfaces. the foundation for remote chemical and mineralogical analyses lies in the physics underlying optical absorption and the linking of spectral properties of materials measured in the laboratory to well understood mineral species and their mixtures. From this statement, it is obvious that there should be a thorough integration of the material science of lunar rocks and soils with the remote-sensing observations. That is, the lunar samples returned by the Apollo missions provide a direct means for evaluation of spectral characteristics of the Moon. However, this marriage of the remote-sensing and lunar sample communities has suffered from a prolonged unconsummated betrothal, nurtured by an obvious complacency by both parties. To make more direct and quantitative links between soil chemistry/mineralogy and spectral properties, we have initiated a program to (1) obtain accurate characterization of the petrography of lunar soils (in terms relevant to remote analyses), coupled with (2) measurement of precise reflectance spectra, with testing and use of appropriate analytical tools that identify and

  12. An Analytic Function of Lunar Surface Temperature for Exospheric Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Grava, Cesare; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Retherford, Kurt D.; Siegler, Matthew; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Paige, David

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytic expression to represent the lunar surface temperature as a function of Sun-state latitude and local time. The approximation represents neither topographical features nor compositional effects and therefore does not change as a function of selenographic latitude and longitude. The function reproduces the surface temperature measured by Diviner to within +/-10 K at 72% of grid points for dayside solar zenith angles of less than 80, and at 98% of grid points for nightside solar zenith angles greater than 100. The analytic function is least accurate at the terminator, where there is a strong gradient in the temperature, and the polar regions. Topographic features have a larger effect on the actual temperature near the terminator than at other solar zenith angles. For exospheric modeling the effects of topography on the thermal model can be approximated by using an effective longitude for determining the temperature. This effective longitude is randomly redistributed with 1 sigma of 4.5deg. The resulting ''roughened'' analytical model well represents the statistical dispersion in the Diviner data and is expected to be generally useful for future models of lunar surface temperature, especially those implemented within exospheric simulations that address questions of volatile transport.

  13. Surface electrical properties experiment, part 1. [for measuring lunar surface electrical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupfer, W. S. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    The design evolution, hardware development, and production history of the surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment are discussed. The SEP transmitter and receiver were designed to be used on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission. The equipment was used to measure lunar surface electrical properties over traverses totalling more than 8 kilometers, for a duration of more than 100 minutes. A comprehensive outline of the techniques, is given along with a simplified detailed breakdown of equipment description and function to outline the principles of operation. A history of the design evolution with trade-off criteria and emphasis on changes caused by decisions reached in solving problems inherent in a fast-paced development program are presented from the viewpoint of overall design concept and in detail for each item of deliverable hardware. There is a brief account of lunar operations.

  14. Secondary Impacts on Structures on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric; Walker, James D.; Grosch, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    The Altair Lunar Lander is being designed for the planned return to the Moon by 2020. Since it is hoped that lander components will be re-used by later missions, studies are underway to examine the exposure threat to the lander sitting on the Lunar surface for extended periods. These threats involve both direct strikes of meteoroids on the vehicle as well as strikes from Lunar regolith and rock thrown by nearby meteorite strikes. Currently, the lander design is comprised of up to 10 different types of pressure vessels. These vessels included the manned habitation module, fuel, cryogenic fuel and gas storage containers, and instrument bays. These pressure vessels have various wall designs, including various aluminum alloys, honeycomb, and carbon-fiber composite materials. For some of the vessels, shielding is being considered. This program involved the test and analysis of six pressure vessel designs, one of which included a Whipple bumper shield. In addition to the pressure vessel walls, all the pressure vessels are wrapped in multi-layer insulation (MLI). Two variants were tested without the MLI to better understand the role of the MLI in the impact performance. The tests of performed were to examine the secondary impacts on these structures as they rested on the Lunar surface. If a hypervelocity meteor were to strike the surface nearby, it would throw regolith and rock debris into the structure at a much lower velocity. Also, when the manned module departs for the return to Earth, its rocket engines throw up debris that can impact the remaining lander components and cause damage. Glass spheres were used as a stimulant for the regolith material. Impact tests were performed with a gas gun to find the V50 of various sized spheres striking the pressure vessels. The impacts were then modeled and a fast-running approximate model for the V50 data was developed. This model was for performing risk analysis to assist in the vessel design and in the identification of ideal

  15. Using lunar sounder imagery to distinguish surface from subsurface reflectors in lunar highlands areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Carter, James L.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a method using the Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder imagery data which appears capable of filtering out off-nadir surface noise from highland area profiles, so that subsurface features may now be detected in highland areas as well as mare areas. Previously, this had been impossible because the rough topography in the highland areas created noise in the profiles which could not be distinguished from subsurface echoes. The new method is an image processing procedure involving the computerized selection of pixels which represent intermediate echo intensity values, then manually removing those pixels from the profile. Using this technique, a subsurface feature with a horizontal extent of about 150 km, at a calculated depth of approximately 3 km, has been detected beneath the crater Riccioli in the highlands near Oceanus Procellarum. This result shows that the ALSE data contain much useful information that remains to be extracted and used.

  16. Benefits of Using a Mars Forward Strategy for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David; Maples, Dauphne

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies potential risk reduction, cost savings and programmatic procurement benefits of a Mars Forward Lunar Surface System architecture that provides commonality or evolutionary development paths for lunar surface system elements applicable to Mars surface systems. The objective of this paper is to identify the potential benefits for incorporating a Mars Forward development strategy into the planned Project Constellation Lunar Surface System Architecture. The benefits include cost savings, technology readiness, and design validation of systems that would be applicable to lunar and Mars surface systems. The paper presents a survey of previous lunar and Mars surface systems design concepts and provides an assessment of previous conclusions concerning those systems in light of the current Project Constellation Exploration Architectures. The operational requirements for current Project Constellation lunar and Mars surface system elements are compared and evaluated to identify the potential risk reduction strategies that build on lunar surface systems to reduce the technical and programmatic risks for Mars exploration. Risk reduction for rapidly evolving technologies is achieved through systematic evolution of technologies and components based on Moore's Law superimposed on the typical NASA systems engineering project development "V-cycle" described in NASA NPR 7120.5. Risk reduction for established or slowly evolving technologies is achieved through a process called the Mars-Ready Platform strategy in which incremental improvements lead from the initial lunar surface system components to Mars-Ready technologies. The potential programmatic benefits of the Mars Forward strategy are provided in terms of the transition from the lunar exploration campaign to the Mars exploration campaign. By utilizing a sequential combined procurement strategy for lunar and Mars exploration surface systems, the overall budget wedges for exploration systems are reduced and the

  17. A quasi-economic role for lunar science

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    In broad economic terms, the development of lunar products will begin with a sequence of technology, production, and delivery demonstrations which will have to precede the emergence of markets. Economically viable products will tend to be those for which the sum of production and transport costs are lower for lunar suppliers than for terrestrial suppliers. As long as lunar production costs exceed terrestrial production costs -- as will be the case for most lunar products until such time as lunar development has reached a mature stage -- the most viable industries will be those producing low-tech products for lunar markets. The scale of initial lunar markets will depend on the size of a lunar base and/or its rate of growth. For a given level of public support, maximum base size can be achieved through the conduct, at the base, of a vigorous program of scientific and engineering research making use of as much local production and as many permanently-resident support staff as feasible. 5 refs.

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Fire, Ice, and Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Fire, Ice, and Regolith" included the following:Compositional and Structural Study of the Aristarchus Plateau from Integrated UV-VIS-NIR Spectral Data; Clementine 2.7-?m Data: Mapping the Mare and Searching for Water; On the Search for Water at the Lunar Poles: Results of Forward Modeling of Permanently Shaded Areas and Lunar Prospector Measurements; Searching the Moon for Aluminous Mare Basalts Using Compositional Remote-Sensing Constraints I: Finding the Regions of Interest; Semi-automated Extraction of Contours from Lunar Topographic Maps; Basalts in Mare Humorum and S.E. Procellarum; The Hansteen and Helmet Volcanic Dome Regions on the Moon: Stratigraphy and Ages; Derivation of Elemental Abundance Maps at 15-km Spatial Resolution from the Merging of Clementine Optical and Lunar Prospector Geochemical Data; Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of the Balmer Region of the Moon; Lava Flows in Mare Nubium and Mare Cognitum: A Geological History Based on Analysis of Multispectral Data; Development of Ground-based Lunar VIS/NEAR IR Spectral Imager; A BRDF Measurement Apparatus for Lab-based Samples; A New Source of High Resolution Lunar Images: Amateur Astronomers! ; Leakage of Gamma Rays and Neutrons from Thick Targets Bombarded by Energetic Protons; Progress on Reviving Lunar Orbiter: Scanning, Archiving, and Cartographic Processing at USGS; Modeling Lateral and Vertical Mixing by Impact Cratering with Applications for the Moon; Optical Maturity Study of Stuart#s Crater Candidate Impact; Evidence for Three Basins Beneath Oceanus Procellarum; and Ellipses of the South Pole-Aitken Basin: Implications for Basin Formation.

  19. Surface roughness estimation at three points on the lunar surface using 23-CM monostatic radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Differences in quasi-specular scattering by the lunar surface have been observed at 23-cm wavelength by using earth-based radar. By taking advantage of libration, three subradar points were isolated, and distinct scattering laws were identified for terrain near Hipparchus, Sinus Medii, and the crater Schroeter F. Interpretations of lunar radar data should henceforth incorporate a recognition that these variations take place. Unidirectional rms surface slope estimates of 6-8 deg in the Central Highlands and 4-5 deg in old mare are appropriate to horizontal scales of 100 m.

  20. Organic analysis of lunar samples and the Martian surface.

    PubMed

    Oro, J; Flory, D

    1973-01-01

    In addition to the organogenic elements (H, C, N, O, S, P) which are necessary for the synthesis of organic molecules, the lunar samples from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 contain substantial amounts (approximately equal to 10 to 100 microgram/g) of CO, N2 and CO2, which are released at relatively high temperatures and smaller amounts (approximately equal to 0.1 to 10 microgram/g) of more complex organic compounds (e.g. benzene). Most of these analyses have been performed by mass spectrometry or by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after appropriate volatilization. The release of very small amounts of water has also been observed and is consistent with the findings of goethite (FeO.OH) and with measurements by the suprathermal ion detector. The lunar surface provides one of the less favorable solar system models for the synthesis of organic compounds yet small amounts of these compounds have been detected in the returned samples. It is reasonable to assume that the different physical and developmental features of the planet Mars (increased gravitational field, presence of an atmosphere with CO2, CO and H2O, recent volcanic and tectonic activity, etc.) would favor an increased organic content of the surface of this planet relative to the moon. Therefore the organic molecules present in the Martian soil should be measurable by miniaturized mass spectrometers after fractional distillation or gas chromatographic separation of the volatiles released by moderate heating. PMID:11998860

  1. Interviews with Apollo Lunar Surface Astronauts in Support of EVA Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean

    2010-01-01

    A 3-person team interviewed 8 of the 11 surviving Apollo crewmembers in a series of focused interviews to discuss their experiences on the lunar surface. Eppler presented the results of these interviews, along with recommendations for the design of future lunar surface systems.

  2. Meteoroid activity on the lunar surface from the Surveyor 3 sample examination.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cour-Palais, B. G.; Zook, H. A.; Flaherty, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Surveyor 3 television camera shroud and polished aluminum tube, retrieved as a result of the Apollo 12 mission after 2.5 years on the lunar surface, were examined for evidence of meteoroid impact. Resulting estimates of the meteoroid flux in the lunar vicinity are shown to be in good agreement with the Lunar Orbiter penetration rates. In addition, the relationship between a derived lunar-surface meteoroid cumulative-flux model and the comparable near-earth model is discussed in the light of theoretical predictions. It is shown that the effect of the gravitational field of the earth on the near-earth environment was greater than previously predicted.

  3. A survey of surface structures and subsurface developments for lunar bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, Warren D.; Wright, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Concepts proposed for lunar-base structures and shelters include those fabricated on earth, fabricated locally using lunar materials, and developed from subsurface features. Early bases may rely on evolutionary growth using Space Station modules and nodes covered with regolith for protection against thermal and radiative stresses. Expandable/inflatable shelters used alone on the surface or in conjunction with subselene (beneath the lunar surface) features and spent portions of the Space Shuttle's fuel tanks offer early alternatives. More mature lunar bases may need larger volumes provided by erectable buildings, hybrid inflatable/rigid spheres, modular concrete buildings using locally derived cement, or larger subselene developments.

  4. Megawatt solar power systems for lunar surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Brian; Alhadeff, Sam; Beard, Shawn; Carlile, David; Cook, David; Douglas, Craig; Garcia, Don; Gillespie, David; Golingo, Raymond; Gonzalez, Drew

    1990-01-01

    Lunar surface operations require habitation, transportation, life support, scientific, and manufacturing systems, all of which require some form of power. As an alternative to nuclear power, the development of a modular one megawatt solar power system is studied, examining both photovoltaic and dynamic cycle conversion methods, along with energy storage, heat rejection, and power backup subsystems. For photovoltaic power conversion, two systems are examined. First, a substantial increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency is realized with the use of new GaAs/GaSb tandem photovoltaic cells, offering an impressive overall array efficiency of 23.5 percent. Since these new cells are still in the experimental phase of development, a currently available GaAs cell providing 18 percent efficiency is examined as an alternate to the experimental cells. Both Brayton and Stirling cycles, powered by linear parabolic solar concentrators, are examined for dynamic cycle power conversion. The Brayton cycle is studied in depth since it is already well developed and can provide high power levels fairly efficiently in a compact, low mass system. The dynamic conversion system requires large scale waste heat rejection capability. To provide this heat rejection, a comparison is made between a heat pipe/radiative fin system using advanced composites, and a potentially less massive liquid droplet radiator system. To supply power through the lunar night, both a low temperature alkaline fuel cell system and an experimental high temperature monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell system are considered. The reactants for the fuel cells are stored cryogenically in order to avoid the high tankage mass required by conventional gaseous storage. In addition, it is proposed that the propellant tanks from a spent, prototype lunar excursion vehicle be used for this purpose, therefore resulting in a significant overall reduction in effective storage system mass.

  5. Geological investigations of the lunar surface using Clementine multispectral analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David James

    Several regions of the lunar surface (highland and maria) are studied using the Clementine multispectral data. Two large farside impact craters, King (120° E 5.5° N) and Tsiolkovsky (128° E, 22° S), are examined in detail and compared to provide an indication of the lateral diversity of the lunar crust. The Clementine data show a varied composition between the two sites. King may have excavated a large cryptomare deposit within the upper crust, while Tsiolkovsky formed in more anorthositic highland crust. The north wall of King is further complicated by the presence of a feldspathic intrusion, cut by more localised mafic dykes. On a vertical scale, the highland crust shows a more uniform trend of increasing anorthosite with depth. These results highlight the lateral diversity of the upper crust on a local scale, and show a more uniform vertical trend in composition in this region. The observed lateral heterogeneity appears to be the result of the presence of cryptomaria and stalled intrusions in the upper crust. Techniques are developed and tested to allow for the mapping and characterisation of lunar basalts, and the calculation of thickness limits. These are applied to the Marius Hills, Flamsteed, Damoiseau and Cavalerius regions of southern Oceanus Procellarum, and have resulted in the detection of three previously unrecognised basalts, and the characterisation of three basalts that had not been spectrally classified previously. Basalt thickness ranges from tens to hundreds of metres in localised regions bordering the highlands. Further from the highlands, the basalts are consistently greater than several hundred metres thick. It has been found that the oldest flows are typically lower in TiO2 content (very low titanium to 4 wt%) than the more recent volcanic episodes (6 to 11 wt%). These results are applied to the regional stratigraphy of the Oceanus Procellarum Group.

  6. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning, and

  7. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  8. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  9. Lightweight Bulldozer Attachment for Construction and Excavation on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nick, Andrew J.; Schuler, Jason M.; King, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight bulldozer blade prototype has been designed and built to be used as an excavation implement in conjunction with the NASA Chariot lunar mobility platform prototype. The combined system was then used in a variety of field tests in order to characterize structural loads, excavation performance and learn about the operational behavior of lunar excavation in geotechnical lunar simulants. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the feasibility of lunar excavation for site preparation at a planned NASA lunar outpost. Once the feasibility has been determined then the technology will become available as a candidate element in the NASA Lunar Surface Systems Architecture. In addition to NASA experimental testing of the LANCE blade, NASA engineers completed analytical work on the expected draft forces using classical soil mechanics methods. The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) team utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to study the interaction between the cutting edge of the LANCE blade and the surface of soil. FEA was also used to examine various load cases and their effect on the lightweight structure of the LANCE blade. Overall it has been determined that a lunar bulldozer blade is a viable technology for lunar outpost site preparation, but further work is required to characterize the behavior in 1/6th G and actual lunar regolith in a vacuum lunar environment.

  10. Exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mints, R. I.; Alimov, V. I.; Melekhin, V. P.; Milman, I. I.; Kryuk, V. I.; Kunin, L. L.; Tarasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    A secondary electron multiplier was used to study the thermostimulated exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station. The natural exoemission from fragments of slag, glass, anorthosite, and a metallic particle was recorded in the isochronic and isothermal thermostimulation regimes. The temperature of emission onset depended on the type of regolith fragment. For the first three particles the isothermal drop in emission is described by first-order kinetic equations. For the anorthosite fragment, exoemission at constant temperature is characterized by a symmetric curve with a maximum. These data indicate the presence of active surface defects, whose nature can be due to the prehistory of the particles.

  11. Parameter Analysis of Lunar Surface Navigation Utilizing Dilution-of-Precision Methodology With Lunar Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    With the NASA Vision for Space Exploration focusing on the return of astronauts to the Moon and eventually to Mars, architectures for new navigation concepts must be derived and analyzed. One such concept, developed by the Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG), is to place a constellation of satellites around the Moon. Previously completed analyses examined the performance of multiple satellite constellations and recommended a constellation oriented as a Walker polar 6/2/1 with a semimajor axis (SMA) of 9250 km. One requirement of the constellations that were examined was that they have continuous access to any location on the lunar surface. In this report, the polar 6/2/1 and polar 8/2/1, with equal SMAs, are examined in greater detail. The dilution-of-precision (DoP) methodology is utilized to examine the effects of longitude surface points, latitude surface points, elevation requirements, and modified failure modes for these two constellations with regard to system availability. Longitude study results show that points along a meridian closely approximate the results of a global set of data points. Latitude study results show that previous assumptions with regard to latitude spacing are adequate to simulate global system availability. Elevation study results show that global system availability curves follow a reverse sigmoid function. Modified failure mode study results show that the benefits of reorienting a failure mode constellation depend on the type of navigation system and the length of the integration period being used.

  12. Measuring Pickup Ions to Characterize the Lunar Surface and Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Hartle, R. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    It has been known for some time that measurement of the ion components, born from neutral exospheres imbedded in the solar wind, can be used to determine the composition and structure of the parent neutral exospheres (Hartle et al., 1973, Hartle and Thomas, 1974, Luhmann, 1996). The ion pickup process has been observed and verified for more than two decades, including pickup ions born from cometary comas, exospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan, and interstellar gases. Several observations (Mall, et al., 1998 and Hilchenbach et al., 1992) of lunar pickup ions have been reported from passing spacecraft including observations of metallic elements that were presumably sputtered from the lunar surface. The ions so formed, primarily by photoionization, electron impact and charge exchange, are picked up and accelerated by the motional electric field E = -V × B, where V is the plasma bulk velocity and B the magnetic field. The unique orbital characteristics of pickup ions make it possible to infer important details about their sources. For a given ion mass, energy, and incoming direction, the ion trajectory can be mapped back to a point where the velocity vanishes at the cusp of a cycloid. When the gyroradius is much greater than the neutral source scale height (most cases), this cusp point is, it can be safely assumed, the source point. This also requires that the source velocity is much less than pickup acceleration integrated from the source point to spacecraft (again, true in most cases). This makes it possible to derive the neutral exosphere density at that point, assuming the ionization rate is known. When this measurement scheme is carried out on numerous orbits of a mission, it will be possible to derive neutral exosphere densities of all those species whose pickup ions can be measured. With the exception of H+, ion gyroradii are much greater than their source gas scale heights for typical solar wind conditions. Then, for a given ion mass, a spectrometer in lunar

  13. MyMoon: Engaging the “Missing Link” in Lunar Science Exploration through New Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S. S.; Eriksson, A.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s new scientific exploration of the Moon, coupled with the public’s interest in the Moon and innovative social networking approaches, is being leveraged to engage a fresh adult audience in lunar science and exploration. In July 2009 the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) launched a lunar education new media portal, MyMoon. LPI is collaborating with lunar scientists, educators, artists - and the public - to populate the site with science content, diverse media exhibits, events, and opportunities for involvement. Through MyMoon, the general public interacts with lunar content that informs them about lunar science research and missions, and engages them in future plans for lunar exploration and eventual habitation. MyMoon’s objectives are to: 1) develop a dynamic, new media learning portal that will enable the general public, with a focus on adults ages 18-35; 2) host a growing, active audience that becomes further involved in NASA’s lunar exploration by sharing their ideas about lunar topics, creating their own materials, and participating in events and experiences; 3) build a community of enthusiasts through social networking media; 4) create a model for online engagement of audiences 18 to 35, and provide detailed evaluation data on best practices and strategies for success. Immersive new media technologies are changing the way that people interact, work, learn, and teach. These provide potentially high-impact opportunities for reaching an audience of young adults, age 18 to 35, that largely is not accessed by, or accessing, NASA (Dittmar, 2004). MyMoon strives to engage - and involve - this audience to build a community of enthusiasts for lunar scientific exploration through social networks and current and emerging new media platforms, including posting videos on YouTube, photo contests on Flickr, and sharing events and challenges on Facebook and Twitter. MyMoon features interactive exhibits that are audience driven and added on a quarterly basis

  14. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  15. Lunar and planetary science XXVIII; Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 28th, Houston, TX, Mar. 17-21, 1997, Abstracts. Pt. 3 P-Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    The present volume on lunar and planetary science discusses density crossovers in lunar picrites, the geology of the Cassini Impact Basin on Mars, nanobacteria in carbonates, and properties of shocked aerogel. Attention is given to a chemical model of Comet Halley, the impact evolution of icy regoliths, the geology of the Venera 8 landing site, and meteoritic metal in Apollo 16 agglutinates. Other topics addressed include HST observations of Mars during 1996-1997, observational constraints on the rotational dynamics of Mars, primordial magnetic field measurements from the moon, heights of Venusian steep-sided domes, and cloud-climate interactions on Venus.

  16. Two-Phase Thermal Switching System for a Small, Extended Duration Lunar Science Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, D.; Farmer, J.; OConnor, B.; Wirzburger, M.; Abel, E.; Stouffer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Issue: extended duration lunar science platforms, using solar/battery or radioisotope power, require thermal switching systems that: a) Provide efficient cooling during the 15-earth-day 390 K lunar day; b) Consume minimal power during the 15-earth-day 100 K lunar night. Objective: carry out an analytical study of thermal switching systems that can meet the thermal requirements of: a) International Lunar Network (ILN) anchor node mission - primary focus; b) Other missions such as polar crater landers. ILN Anchor Nodes: network of geophysical science platforms to better understand the interior structure/composition of the moon: a) Rationale: no data since Apollo seismic stations ceased operation in 1977; b) Anchor Nodes: small, low-power, long-life (6-yr) landers with seismographic and a few other science instruments (see next chart); c) WEB: warm electronics box houses ILN anchor node electronics/batteries. Technology Need: thermal switching system that will keep the WEB cool during the lunar day and warm during the lunar night.

  17. Press abstracts of the 21st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Program Committee for the Twenty-fisrt Lunar and Planetary Science Conference has chosen these contributions as having the greatest potential interest for the general public. The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. More technical abstracts will be found in Lunar and Planetary Science XXI. Representative titles are: Ancient Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions on Mars: Global Model and Geological Evidence; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Ordinary Chondrites and Their Chondrules; Exposure Ages and Collisional History of L-Chondrite Parent Bodies; Models of Solar-Powered Geysers on Triton; and Search for Life: A Science Rationale for a Permanent Base on Mars.

  18. Coronagraphic Observations of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere Near the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium exosphere of the Moon was observed using a solar coronagraph to occult the illuminated surface of the Moon. Exceptionally dust-free atmospheric conditions were required to allow the faint emission from sunlight scattered by lunar sodium atoms to be distinguished from moonlight scattered from atmospheric dust. At 0300 UT on April 22, 1994, ideal conditions prevailed for a few hours, and one excellent image of the sodium exosphere was measured, with the Moon at a phase angle of 51 deg, 81 % illuminated. Analysis of the image data showed that the weighted mean temperature of the exosphere was 1280 K and that the sodium column density varied approximately as cosine-cubed of the latitude. A cosine-cubed variation is an unexpected result, since the flux per unit area of solar photons and solar particles varies as the cosine of latitude. It is suggested that this can be explained by a temperature dependence for the sputtering of sodium atoms from the surface. This is a characteristic feature of chemical sputtering, which has been previously proposed to explain the sodium exosphere of Mercury. A possible interaction between chemical sputtering and solar photons is suggested.

  19. Lunar Surface Gravimeter as a lunar seismometer: Investigation of a new source of seismic information on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Taichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Lognonné, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Lunar seismology has always suffered from the limited number of seismic stations and limited coverage of the seismic network. Additional seismic data are necessary to probe the lunar interior in depth. Instead of a costly new deployment of seismometers, the aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Gravimeter (LSG) as a lunar seismometer. The LSG was designed to detect gravitational waves (associated to change in the curvature of spacetime) and tidal ground motion on the Moon, but the data were not investigated for seismic use partially because of a malfunction of the instrument. We first evaluated the influence of the malfunction through comparison with other Apollo seismic data and found that the effect of the malfunction is small, and the LSG detected seismic signals in a manner that was consistent with those of the other Apollo seismometers. Then we carried out source location with the additional station of the LSG. We relocated previously located deep moonquake nests to evaluate the influence of the LSG data, which are generally noisier than other Apollo seismic data. Then we located deep moonquake nests that were previously unlocatable. Forty deep moonquake nests were examined, and we located five new nests. One newly located nest, A284, was most likely to be located on the farside. This series of analyses indicates that the LSG functioned as a lunar seismometer, and that its data are useful for improving seismic analyses with the previous seismic data set of the Moon.

  20. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  1. Analysis of vegetable seedlings grown in contact with Apollo 14 lunar surface fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Johnson, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    Study of plant seedlings treated with lunar material, grown for 14 to 21 days, and then subjected to chemical analyses and other measurements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether plants growing in contact with lunar-surface fines contained a different elemental composition compared with untreated seedlings. The results indicate a direct interaction between germfree plants and lunar material. Treated plants dissolved and absorbed significant quantities of Al, Fe, and Ti from the lunar fines. Cabbage and Brussel sprouts were particularly efficient in the dissolution and absorption of Mn.

  2. The Apollo lunar surface water vapor event revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W., Jr.; Hills, H. K.

    1991-01-01

    On March 7, 1971, the first sunrise following the Apollo 14 mission, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) deployed at the Apollo 14 site reported an intense flux of ions whose mass per charge was consistent with water vapor. The amount of water is examined, and the various acceleration processes, responsible for accelerating ions into the SIDE, are discussed. It is concluded that during most of the event the observed water vapor ions were accelerated by the negative lunar surface electric potential and, secondly, that this event was probably the result of mission associated water vapor, either from the LM ascent and descent stage rockets or from residual water in the descent stage tanks.

  3. A Large Lunar Surface Testbed from Low Cost Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    For users needing to simulate the lunar surface, several distinct avenues have been used. Numerous volcanic areas, including Hawaii, have been used. While providing very large areas and scenic interest, field parties to such an area is expensive and limits testing time. An alternative is to build test facilities locally. This has been done many ways, contrast GRC-1, GSC-1, BP-1 and the KSC Morpheus facility [1-4]. GRC-1 is a mixture of sand and clay; GSC-1 and BP-1 are waste materials created in the process of crushing basaltic rock. The Morpheus field used salvaged concrete and crushed quartz rock [5]. Here I report about a 30 m X 30 m test area at MSFC which was both low cost and relatively high fidelity [6].

  4. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  5. Surface-Correlated Nanophase Iron Metal in Lunar Soils: Petrography and Space Weathering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Space weathering is a term used to include all of the processes that act on material exposed at the surface of a planetary or small body. In the case of the Moon, it includes a variety of processes that formed the lunar regolith, caused the maturation of lunar soils, and formed patina on rock surfaces. The processes include micrometeorite impact and reworking, implantation of solar wind and flare particles, radiation damage and chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputtering erosion and deposition. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. Understanding these effects is critical in order to fully integrate the lunar sample collection with remotely sensed data from recent robotic missions (e.g., Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Galileo). Our objective is to determine the origin of space weathering effects in lunar soils through combined electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry techniques applied to individual soil particles from <20 pm size factions (dry-sieved) of mature lunar soils. It has been demonstrated that it is the finest size fraction (<25 pm) of lunar soils that dominates the optical properties of the bulk soils.

  6. Performance of a small and low-cost chamber to simulate lunar surface environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga Prasad, K.; Murty, S. V. S.

    2013-08-01

    The performance of a small and low-cost metal chamber built to simulate the pressure and temperature conditions of lunar surface was assessed and the results are presented. This chamber is intended for studying the physical properties of lunar surface and subsurface (using soil simulants) and also to validate the technology readiness of certain newly developed payloads planned for future lunar surface missions (Lander/Rover). It is possible to reach down to ∼10-7 Pa under specific conditions and maintain the temperature of the sample under investigation to lunar day and night temperatures. The designed system has been subjected to various tests to evaluate its performance and suitability for carrying out experiments in a simulated lunar environment.

  7. Age of Lunar Meteorite LAP02205 and Implications for Impact-Sampling of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Bogard, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the age of lunar meteorite LAP02205 by the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar methods. Sm-Nd analyses are in progress. The Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar ages indicate a crystallization age of approx. 3 Ga. Comparing the ages of LAP02205 and other lunar mare basaltic meteorites to mare surface ages based on the density of impact craters shows no significant bias in impact- sampling of lunar mare surfaces. Comparing the isotopic and geochemical data for LAP02205 to those for other lunar mare basalts suggests that it is a younger variant of the type of volcanism that produced the Apollo 12 basalts. Representative impact-sampling of the lunar surface

  8. Study of friction properties of lunar surface material and its analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dukhovskoy, Y. A.; Motovilov, E. A.; Silin, A. A.; Smorodinov, M. I.; Shvarev, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of instruments for determining the friction properties of the surficial layer of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic lunar station, as well as the friction properties of its analogs: andesite-basaltic sand and basalts. The experimental method and results are presented.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18th, Houston, TX, Mar. 16-20, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, including petrogenesis and chemistry of lunar samples, geology and petrogenesis of the Apollo 15 landing site, lunar geology and applications, cratering records and cratering effects, differentiated meteorites, chondritic meteorites and asteroids, extraterrestrial grains, Venus, Mars, and icy satellites. The importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium basalt petrogenesis, indentifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments, glasses in ancient and young Apollo 16 regolith breccias, the formation of the Imbrium basin, the chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, lunar mare ridges, studies of Rima Mozart, electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction, detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record, and a search for water on the moon, are among the topics discussed. Other topics include the bidirectional reflectance properties of Fe-Ni meteorites, the nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts, the dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, characteristics of Greenland Fe/Ni cosmic grains, electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle, trapping Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in Si2O3 smokes, gossans on Mars, and a model of the porous structure of icy satellites.

  10. Lunar surface photography - A study of Apollo 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, H. J. P.

    1987-10-01

    Attention is drawn to the perplexing oversight of mission planners to ensure the taking of a photograph of Neil Armstrong by Buzz Aldrin, during the Apollo 11 lunar landing. The ramifications of this oversight for NASA public relations efforts are explored, together with the reasons for its occurrence that have been unearthed during subsequent investigations of both lunar walk planning and communications from earth controllers during the lunar walk activity. From Apollo 12 onwards, both lunar landing module crewmen wore Hasselblad cameras to ensure the appearance of both in numerous operational photographs.

  11. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of what is known about the moon, and draws parallels between the moon and any other terrestrial planet. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets The Moon is a terrestrial body, formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids The Moon is a differentiated body, with a layered internal structure (crust, mantle, and core) The Moon is a cratered body, preserving a record of bombardment history in the inner solar system The Moon is an active body, experiencing moonquakes, releasing primordial heat, conducting electricity, sustaining bombardment, and trapping volatile molecules Lunar robotic missions provide early science return to obtain important science and engineering objectives, rebuild a lunar science community, and keep our eyes on the Moon. These lunar missions, both past and future are reviewed.

  12. Co-registration of lunar topographic models derived from Chang’E-1, SELENE, and LRO laser altimeter data based on a novel surface matchingmethod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Guo, Jian; Hu, Han; Li, Zhilin; Chen, Yongqi

    2013-02-01

    Various lunar digital topographic models (DTMs) have been generated from the data collected from earlier and recent lunar missions. There are usually inconsistencies among them due to differences in sensor configurations, data acquisition periods, and production techniques. To obtain maximum value for science and exploration, the multi-source lunar topographic datasets must be co-registered in a common reference frame. Only such an effort will ensure the proper calibration, registration, and analysis of the datasets, which in turn will permit the full comparative and synergistic use of them. This study presents a multi-feature-based surface matching method for the co-registration of multiple lunar DTMs that incorporates feature points, lines, and surface patches in surface matching to guarantee robust surface correspondence. A combined adjustment model is developed for the determination of seven transformation parameters (one scale factor, three rotations, and three translations), from which the multiple DTMs could be co-registered. The lunar DTMs derived from the Chang’E-1, SELENE, and LRO laser altimeter data in the Apollo 15 landing area and the Sinus Iridum area are examined in this study. Small offsets were found among the Chang’E-1, SELENE, and LRO DTMs. Through experimental analysis, the developed multi-feature-based method was proven able to effectively co-register multiple lunar DTMs. The performances of the multi-feature-based surface matching method were compared with the point-based method, and the former was proven to be superior to the latter.

  13. Orbital-science investigation: Part P: the process of crater removal in the lunar maria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soderblum, L.A.

    1972-01-01

    The processes by which craters disappear from the lunar surface have been of principal concern since the first high-resolution pictures of the lunar maria were returned by Ranger VII. Those pictures revealed that craters smaller than a few hundred meters on the lunar maria vary morphologically from sharp and pristine features to shallow, highly subdued depressions. The constancy of the population density of these smaller craters (with diameters of less than 1000 m) was predicted by Moore (ref. 25-40) and Shoemaker (ref. 25-41), who concluded that these craters were in a steady-state condition.

  14. Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; French, Raymond; Nall,Mark; Muery, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL and USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single, common, intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. LMMP will provide such products as DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data.

  15. Thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianmin; Zhang, Xubing; Wu, Ke

    2016-07-01

    The thorium distribution on the lunar surface is critical for understanding the lunar evolution. This work reports a global map of the thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). Our work exhibits an interesting symmetrical structure of thorium distribution along the two sides of the belt of Th hot spots. Some potential positions of KREEP volcanism are suggested, which are the Fra Mauro region, Montes Carpatus, Aristarchus Plateau and the adjacent regions of Copernicus Crater. Based on the lunar map of thorium distribution, we draw some conclusions on two critical links of lunar evolution: (1) the thorium abundance within the lunar crust and mantle, in the last stage of Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) crystallization, may have a positive correlation with the depth in the crust, reaches a peak when coming through the transitional zone between the crust and mantle, and decreases sharply toward the inside of the mantle; thus, the Th-enhanced materials originated from the lower crust and the layer between the crust and mantle, (2) in PKT, KREEP volcanism might be the primary mechanism of Th-elevated components to the lunar surface, whereas the Imbrium impact acted as a relatively minor role.

  16. Design and Field Test of a Mass Efficient Crane for Lunar Payload Handling and Inspection: The Lunar Surface Manipulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.; King, Bruce D.; Jones, Thomas Carno; Dorsey, John T.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    Devices for lifting, translating and precisely placing payloads are critical for efficient Earthbased construction operations. Both recent and past studies have demonstrated that devices with similar functionality will be needed to support lunar outpost operations. Lunar payloads include: a) prepackaged hardware and supplies which must be unloaded from landers and then accurately located at their operational site, b) sensor packages used for periodic inspection of landers, habitat surfaces, etc., and c) local materials such as regolith which require grading, excavation and placement. Although several designs have been developed for Earth based applications, these devices lack unique design characteristics necessary for transport to and use on the harsh lunar surface. These design characteristics include: a) composite components, b) compact packaging for launch, c) simple in-field reconfiguration and repair, and d) support for tele-operated or automated operations. Also, in contrast to Earth-based construction, where special purpose devices dominate a construction site, a lunar outpost will require versatile devices which provide operational benefit from initial construction through sustained operations. This paper will detail the design of a unique, high performance, versatile lifting device designed for operations on the lunar surface. The device is called the Lunar Surface Manipulation System to highlight the versatile nature of the device which supports conventional cable suspended crane operations as well as operations usually associated with a manipulator such as precise positioning where the payload is rigidly grappled by a tool attached to the tip of the device. A first generation test-bed to verify design methods and operational procedures is under development at the NASA Langley Research Center and recently completed field tests at Moses Lake Washington. The design relied on non-linear finite element analysis which is shown to correlate favorably with

  17. Apollo experience report: Thermal design of Apollo lunar surface experiments package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The evolution of the thermal design of the Apollo lunar surface experiments package central station from the basic concept to the final flight hardware is discussed, including results of development, prototype, and qualification tests that were used to verify that the flight hardware would operate adequately on the lunar surface. In addition, brief discussions of the thermal design of experiments included in the experiments package are presented. The flight thermal performance is compared with analytical results and thermal-vacuum test results, and design modifications for future lunar surface experiment packages are presented.

  18. Electron content near the lunar surface using dual-frequency VLBI tracking data in a single lunar orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Na; Ping, Jin-Song

    2015-05-01

    In VLBI observations of Vstar, a subsatellite of the Japanese lunar mission SELENE, there were opportunities for lunar grazing occultation when Vstar was very close to the limb of the Moon. This kind of chance made it possible to probe the thin plasma layer above the Moon's surface as a meaningful by-product of VLBI, by using the radio occultation method with coherent radio waves from the S/X bands. The dual-frequency measurements were carried out at Earth-based VLBI stations. In the line-of-sight direction between the satellite and the ground-based tracking station where VLBI measurements were made, the effects of the terrestrial ionosphere, interplanetary plasma and the thin lunar ionosphere mixed together in the combined observables of dual-frequency Doppler shift and phase shift. To separate the variation of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) near the surface of the Moon from the mixed signal, the influences of the terrestrial ionosphere and interplanetary plasma have been removed by using an extrapolation method based on a short-term trend. The lunar TEC is estimated from the dual-frequency observation for Vstar from UT 22:18 to UT 22:20 on 2008 June 28 at several tracking stations. The TEC results obtained from VLBI sites are identical, however, they are not as remarkable as the result obtained at the Usuda deep space tracking station.

  19. Heat Rejection Concepts for Lunar Fission Surface Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siamidis, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for lunar surface Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for surface power applications. Surface reactors may be used for the moon to power human outposts enabling extended stays and closed loop life support. The Brayton Heat Rejection System (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Space Brayton conversion system designs tend to optimize at efficiencies of about 20 to 25 percent with radiator temperatures in the 400 K to 600 K range. A notional HRS was developed for a 100 kWe-class Brayton power system that uses a pumped water heat transport loop coupled to a water heat pipe radiator. The radiator panels employ a tube and fin construction consisting of regularly-spaced circular heat pipes contained within two composite facesheets. The water heat pipes interface to the coolant through curved sections partially contained within the cooling loop. The paper evaluates various design parameters including radiator panel orientation, coolant flow path, and facesheet thickness. Parameters were varied to compare design options on the basis of H2O pump pressure rise and required power, heat pipe unit power and radial flux, radiator area, radiator panel areal mass, and overall HRS mass.

  20. Automated Detection of Changes on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A.; Gibbens, M.

    2005-08-01

    Although the Moon is considered to be geologically dormant, surface altering events visible to orbiting spacecraft must still occur, albeit infrequently e.g. fresh impact craters detected from Apollo imagery. Given a surface area of 3.8E7 km2 and the 40 year time frame spanning Lunar Orbiter to SMART-1 missions, it is likely that 10's-100's of surface changes measurable in the > 50m scale range may be detected by automatically comparing temporal images of the same areas under similar (< 5 deg difference) incidence and emission angles. Automated tie-pointing and image footprint overlap detection developed from Clementine stereo research can be used to select suitable overlapping temporal image pairs of a given area. These can then be automatically registered/warped together, photometrically calibrated to each other and subtracted to leave a difference image. Differences that exceed 3 standard deviations across the image can then be compared to the most recent mosaics of optical maturity in order to confirm whether a suspected area of change is aligned with fresh non-spaceweathered parts of the surface. Knowledge that could be gained from such a study could include: 1) confirmation of cratering rate assumptions that were made from the Apollo ALSEP seismometers, 2) identification of surface disturbances by ejecta from impacts detected by Apollo seismometer, or Earth based telescopic impact flash observations; these can then be used to help relate estimated impact energy to crater size, 3) the areal extent of dust transport from impact ejecta, landslides, or other suspected mechanisms such as residual outgassing or electrostaic levitation of dust. All three of these have important implications for future surface based exploration in identifying sites of interest that can be either monitored over time to study the progression of space weathering, or for studying freshly excavated underlying geology.

  1. Interaction of gases with lunar materials. [surface properties of lunar fines, especially on exposure to water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, H. F.; Gammage, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The surface properties of lunar fines were investigated. Results indicate that, for the most part, these properties are independent of the chemical composition and location of the samples on the lunar surface. The leaching of channels and pores by adsorbed water vapor is a distinguishing feature of their surface chemistry. The elements of air, if adsorbed in conjunction with water vapor or liquid water, severely impedes the leaching process. In the absence of air, liquid water is more effective than water vapor in attacking the grains. The characteristics of Apollo 17 orange fines were evaluated and compared with those of other samples. The interconnecting channels produced by water vapor adsorption were found to be wider than usual for other types of fines. Damage tracks caused by heavy cosmic ray nuclei and an unusually high halogen content might provide for stronger etching conditions upon exposure to water vapor.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Exploration and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session, "Exploration and Observations" includes the following topics: 1) Charged Particle dose Measurements by the Odyssey/MARIE Instrument in Mars Orbit and Model Calculations; 2) Earth Thermal Field Variations in Dependence from Lunisolar Tides (by Vorotilovo Deep Well Observations); 3) ASTROHAB: A Modular Construction System for Lunar Bases; and 4) Solar Power Satellites for Orbital and Non-Terrestrial Applications.

  3. Nineteenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Press abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Topics addressed include: origin of the moon; mineralogy of rocks; CO2 well gases; ureilites; antarctic meteorites; Al-26 decay in a Semarkona chondrule; meteorite impacts on early earth; crystal structure and density of helium; Murchison carbonaceous chondrite composition; greenhouse effect and dinosaurs; Simud-Tiu outflow system of Mars; and lunar radar images.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Oxygen in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Oxygen in the Solar System" contained the following reports: Oxygen Isotopes in Lunar Metal Grains: A Natural Genesis Experiment; Determining Possible Building Blocks of the Earth and Mars; and Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from Pigeonite/Melt Partitioning of Samarium.

  5. Nineteenth lunar and planetary science conference. Press abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Topics addressed include: origin of the moon; mineralogy of rocks; CO2 well gases; ureilites; antarctic meteorites; Al-26 decay in a Semarkona chondrule; meteorite impacts on early earth; crystal structure and density of helium; Murchison carbonaceous chondrite composition; greenhouse effect and dinosaurs; Simud-Tiu outflow system of Mars; and lunar radar images.

  6. Chang’E-1 gamma ray spectrometer and preliminary radioactive results on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng-Hua; Ma, Tao; Chang, Jin

    2010-10-01

    The Chang'E-1(CE-1) spacecraft took a gamma-ray spectrometer (hereafter, CGRS) to detect the element distributions on the lunar surface in a circular, 200 km altitude, polar orbit with approximately 2 h periodicity. CGRS consists of two large CsI(Tl) crystals as the main and anticoincidence detectors. The large CsI crystal of CGRS has a higher detector effective area than other lunar gamma ray spectrometers. For its 1-year mission, gamma ray spectra including many peaks of major elements and trace elements on the lunar surface have been measured by CGRS. Global measurement within 0.55-0.75 MeV is given here to describe the distribution of radioactive composition (e.g., uranium and thorium) on the lunar surface. Although CGRS has a lower energy resolution that cannot separate the uranium peak from others in this energy region, 609 keV uranium gamma ray line dominates the shape of the spectrum in this energy region. Therefore, the radioactive map can indirectly describe the uranium distribution on the lunar surface. The radioactive map shows that the higher radiation is concentrated in the Procellarum KREEP Terrene (PKT) on the nearside with an oval shape. The secondary high-radiation is located in South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin. Lunar highlands have lower concentration. The relationship between radiation and topography displays different linear correlations for lunar highlands and SPA basin, which imply the different processes for these two regions.

  7. Anomalous Plagioclase Compositions from Apollo 16 Impact Melts: Modification of Impact Melts on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, A.; Neal, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    A study of Apollo 16 impact melts has been initiated as part of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Center for Lunar Science and Exploration. The investigation uses a novel approach to investigate the crystallization conditions for the igneous textured samples returned by Apollo 16. This approach uses a combination of crystal size distributions and mineral chemistry to develop a crystal stratigraphy approach to examine crystallization conditions. The Apollo 16 impact melts are enriched in Al2O3 (~25-28%) and are highly feldspathic with only minor amounts of pyroxene, olivine, and opaque minerals. Initial studies focused on sample 60635 where previous whole rock analyses show that, surprisingly this sample possesses a small negative Eu anomaly [1,2]. This is intriguing given the feldspathic nature of the sample (~70% modal plagioclase), which should impart a strong positive Eu anomaly on the whole rock signature. The major element compositions of the plagioclases are relatively homogeneous with a range of An94-98 and an average of An97.2. Plagioclase trace element compositions exhibit a much wider compositional range with some crystals having the predicted positive Eu anomaly but other showing an unexpected negative Eu anomaly. There are about the same number of crystals with a negative Eu anomaly as there are with a positive anomaly and both are equally distributed through the thin section (60635,2). Intriguingly, 5 plagioclase crystals from this sample contain both positive and negative Eu anomalies in different sections of the crystals. Subsequent analyses of other impact melt samples show that a further 4 samples from the LM/Station 10 site also contain plagioclase with both positive and negative Eu anomalies (60235,5; 60335,13; 60615,8; 60618,3 and ,4), along with one sample from Station 4 (64817,3). The hypothesis we are considering is that the impact melt(s) represented by these anomalous samples were generated by impact into typical lunar highlands materials

  8. Astronaut David Scott watching hammer and feather fall to lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander, watches a geological hammer and a feather hit the lunar surface simultaneously in a test of Galileo's law of motion concerning falling bodies, as seen in this color reproduction taken from a transmission made by the RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Scott released the hammer from his right hand and the feather from his left at the same instant. This experiment occured toward the end of the third and final lunar surface extravehicular activity.

  9. The Optical and Thermal Features of Selected Regions of Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, S. G.

    The characteristics of optical and thermal features of selected parts of the lunar surface are given by means of analysis of the systematic divergence between the infrared measurements made by Saari and Shorthill (1967) and theoretical data calculated by the linear regression between the photometric brightness and brightness temperature. The formulae for connection of the brightness temperature of selected parts of the lunar surface and the photometric parameters of the photometric function derived by Hapke: albedo, fraction covered by craters, crater angle and density parameter are given. The data for the brightness temperatures and their systematic errors are given in a catalogue for 300 lunar regions.

  10. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (what, again?): A Senior Field Geologist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    Lunar geological exploration should be founded on key elements that form an integrated operational concept, including mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets, and field tools and IT assets.

  11. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  12. Laser Induced-Plasma Ion Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Lunar and Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Blacic, J. D.; Cremers, D. A.; Ritzau, S. M.; Nordholt, J. E.; Funsten, H. O.

    1999-03-01

    LIMS is being developed to perform isotopic and elemental analysis of lunar and planetary surfaces at standoff distances. It uses an advanced ion mass spectrometer to obtain mass and energy spectra from the ionized plume produced by a laser.

  13. Investigating the Sources and Timing of Projectiles Striking the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, K. H.; Kring, D. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; McKay, D. S.; Ross, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    The lunar surface is exposed to bombardment by asteroids, comets, and debris from them. Surviving fragments of those projectiles in the lunar regolith provide a direct measure of the sources of exogenous material delivered to the Moon. Con-straining the temporal flux of their delivery will directly address key questions about the bombardment history of the inner Solar System. Regolith breccias, which are consolidated samples of the lunar regolith, were closed to further impact processing at the time they were assembled into rocks [1]. They are, therefore, time capsules of impact bombardment at different times through lunar history. Here we investigate the impact archive preserved in the Apollo 16 regolith breccias and compare this record to evidence of projectile species in other lunar samples.

  14. Block distributions on the lunar surface: A comparison between measurements obtained from surface and orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Mcbride, Kathleen M.

    1995-01-01

    Among the hazards that must be negotiated by lunar-landing spacecraft are blocks on the surface of the Moon. Unfortunately, few data exist that can be used to evaluate the threat posed by such blocks to landing spacecraft. Perhaps the best information is that obtained from Surveyor photographs, but those data do not extend to the dimensions of the large blocks that would pose the greatest hazards. Block distributions in the vicinities of the Surveyor 1, 3, 6, and 7 sites have been determined from Lunar Orbiter photography and are presented here. Only large (i.e., greater than or equal to 2.5 m) blocks are measurable in these pictures, resulting in a size gap between the Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter distributions. Nevertheless, the orbital data are self-consistent, a claim supported by the similarity in behavior between the subsets of data from the Surveyor 1, 3, and 6 sites and by the good agreement in position (if not slopes) between the data obtained from the Surveyor 3 photography and those derived from the Lunar Orbiter photographs. Confidence in the results is also justified by the well-behaved distribution of large blocks at the surveyor site. Comparisons between the Surveyor distributions and those derived from the orbital photography permit these observations: (1) in all cases but that for Surveyor 3, the density of large blocks is overestimated by extrapolation of the Surveyor-derived trends; (2) the slopes of the Surveyor-derived distributions are consistently lower than those determined for the large blocks; and (3) these apparent disagreements could be mitigated if the overall shapes of the cumulative lunar block populations were nonlinear, allowing for different slopes over different size intervals. The relatively large gaps between the Surveyor-derived and Orbiter-derived data sets, however, do not permit a determination of those shapes.

  15. Lunar Laser Ranging Science: Gravitational Physics and Lunar Interior and Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.; Turyshev, Slava G.; Boggs, Dale H.; Ratcliff, J. Todd

    2004-01-01

    Laser pulses fired at retroreflectors on the Moon provide very accurate ranges. Analysis yields information on Earth, Moon, and orbit. The highly accurate retroreflector positions have uncertainties less than a meter. Tides on the Moon show strong dissipation, with Q=33+/-4 at a month and a weak dependence on period. Lunar rotation depends on interior properties; a fluid core is indicated with radius approx.20% that of the Moon. Tests of relativistic gravity verify the equivalence principle to +/-1.4x10(exp -13), limit deviations from Einstein's general relativity, and show no rate for the gravitational constant G/G with uncertainty 9x10(exp -13)/yr.

  16. A preliminary investigation of the Topaz II reactor as a lunar surface power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Houts, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    Reactor power supplies offer many attractive characteristics for lunar surface applications. The Topaz II reactor resulted from an extensive development program in the former Soviet Union. Flight quality reactor units remain from this program and are currently under evaluation in the United States. This paper examines the potential for applying the Topaz II, originally developed to provide spacecraft power, as a lunar surface power supply.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Asteroids, Meteors, and Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Asteroids, Meteors, and Comets" contained the following reports:Ejecta Generation and Redistribution on 433 Eros: Modeling Ejecta Launch Conditions; Macroscopic Voids in Small Asteroids: Effects of Cohesion; The Seismic Effect of Impacts on Asteroid Surface Morphology: Early Modeling Results; Photometric Studies of Eros from NEAR Data; Quantitative Aspects of Space Weathering: Implications for Regolith Breccia Meteorites and Asteroids; Diversity of Types of Hydrated Minerals on C-Class Asteroids; Mineralogical Variations Among High Albedo E-Type Asteroids: Implications for Asteroid Igneous Processes; Multi-Wavelength Observations of 2100 Ra-Shalom: Radar and Lightcurves; What are the P-type Asteroids Made Of?; Sodium Overabundance in Meteoroids from Meteor Spectroscopy; Migration Processes and Volatiles Inventory to the Inner Planets; Characterization of the Surface Properties of MUSES-C/Hayabusa Spacecraft Target; Asteroid 25143 Itokawa; and Sample Return Science by Hayabusa Near-Earth Asteroid Mission.

  18. Effects of levitated dust on astronomical observations from the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, D. L.; Vondrak, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    It is believed that a substantial population of levitated dust is present in the terminator region of the moon. Stray light scattered by this dust layer may contaminate astronomical observations made from the lunar surface using infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. The evidence for dust levitation stems from: Surveyor vidicon images of horizon glow; anomalous brightness in photographs of the solar corona taken by Apollo astronauts while the spacecraft was just inside the moon's shadow; and observations by Apollo astronauts of streamers just prior to lunar orbital sunrise or just after lunar orbital sunset. It has been proposed that the differential charging of the lunar surface in the terminator region due to photoemission and the consequent strong local electric fields comprise the mechanism responsible for this levitation. Although quantitative data on the levitated lunar dust distribution are meager, it is possible to estimate column densities and sizes. In this paper we summarize the estimates of particulate sizes and number densities of previous authors, and construct a nominal terminator dust distribution, as a function of particulate radius and altitude above the lunar surface. Using the model we estimate the brightness of scattered sunshine for three wavelength bands. For the results in the visible wavelengths, we compare the estimated brightness with the known brightness of selected astronomical objects and discuss the implications for lunar-based astronomy.

  19. Approaches for Promoting Lunar and Planetary Science in Higher Education Curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, J. M.; CenterLunar Science Education; Higher Education Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE) at the Lunar and Planetary Institute has formed a higher-education consortium comprising a group of educators throughout the states of Texas and Oklahoma, all of who are committed to furthering the inclusion of lunar and planetary science in university-level curricula. Members of the Consortium represent the spectrum of higher-educational venues, from research universities to small colleges. They also teach planetary science in a range of settings, from specialized graduate/undergraduate courses to introductory undergraduate courses in general science that incorporate a wide range of other topics. One of the top-level goals of the Consortium is to provide an online forum and a network of educators that can share teaching materials, including: illustrations and animations of scientific concepts; syllabi and lesson plans; and laboratory and other exercises. These materials are being shared with the entire community through the CLSE website (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/nlsi/), and a series of workshops has been held with participating members of the Consortium to continue to develop and solicit content. A specific avenue of bringing lunar and planetary content into the classroom that has been discussed and experimented with over the past two years involves planetary analogs. Participatory exercises developed around the author's work with NASA analog field tests has been used in several classroom lab exercises in a planetary science course, a remote sensing course, and a introductory geologic mapping course. These efforts have proven fruitful in engaging the students in lunar and planetary exploration science.

  20. Numerical simulation of gamma ray and neutron production on lunar surface using MCNPX code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja

    The production of gamma ray and neutron on various planetary surfaces has been investigated for a few decades by remote sensing techniques. The production of these radiations is due to the nuclear reactions between incoming cosmic rays (i.e. galactic cosmic rays and solar cosmic rays) and planetary materials. In the case of the Moon, not like Mars, returned samples from the previous lunar missions provide us much more realistic parameters in understanding of lunar surface composition although it varies a lot. These constraints provide us restricted settings of parameters for model calculations toward the understanding radiation environment. Recent SELENE (KAGUYA) Gamma Ray spectrometer provides elemental lunar surface maps using major important gamma ray lines, such as Fe, Si, Al, U, Th, Ti, etc toward understanding of the evolution of the lunar surfaces. The effect of size or sub-layered soil deposit in the production of gamma rays and neutrons can be effectively understood using model calculations. Our Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) generated provides the gamma ray and neutron productions for various soil settings. Our study demonstrates the gamma ray and neutron production on lunar surfaces of various lunar surface soil settings using numerical simulation of MCNPX.

  1. Solar-Wind Protons and Heavy Ions Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barghouty, N.; Meyer, Fred W; Harris, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Lunar surface materials are exposed to {approx}1 keV/amu solar-wind protons and heavy ions on almost continuous basis. As the lunar surface consists of mostly oxides, these materials suffer, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering due to the actions of the solar-wind ions. Sputtering is an important mechanism affecting the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere. While the contribution of kinetic sputtering to the changes in the composition of the surface layer of these oxides is well understood and modeled, the role and implications of potential sputtering remain unclear. As new potential-sputtering data from multi-charged ions impacting lunar regolith simulants are becoming available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's MIRF, we examine the role and possible implications of potential sputtering of Lunar KREEP soil. Using a non-equilibrium model we demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  2. RESOLVE: Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Baird, Scott; Colaprete, Anthony; Larson, William; Sanders, Gerald; Picard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) is an internationally developed payload that is intended to prospect for resources on other planetary bodies. RESOLVE is a miniature drilling and chemistry plant packaged onto a medium-sized rover to collect and analyze soil for volatile components such as water or hydrogen that could be used in human exploration efforts.

  3. Connecting Children Internationally for Science Instruction: Using the Internet to Support Learning about Lunar Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter S.; Cheon, Jongpil; Jabri, Faiza; Reynolds, Stephen; Zebedi, Amira

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect on children's science understanding of Internet-based instruction in which children from around the world in grades 4 to 8 observed the Moon for several weeks and then shared their lunar data internationally to find global patterns in the Moon's behavior. Students in two American and one Australian class took the…

  4. Thermal mapping of the lunar surface. [using infrared radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raine, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A program of lunar infrared radiometry which uses large area scanning is described, and procedures for atmospheric attenuation correction and data reduction to temperature by relative radiometry are outlined. Flow charts of the computer data reduction program are shown which contain the astrometric analysis from ephemeral data. The scan data, taken on 10 evenings in 1971 and 1972 in the 10 to 12 micron window, are presented as isothermal contour maps of the lunar disc. More than 160 areas of anomalous thermal emission were found in the lunar darkside data. Eclipse cooling curves, measured in the same wavelength band for 7 lunar regions during the eclipse of February 10, 1971, are also presented. Errors of the scan and eclipse data were calculated from accuracy estimates of the parameters.

  5. Lunar Surface Stirling Power Systems Using Isotope Heat Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, NASA has used the decay of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) (in the form of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS)) as a heat source for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), which have provided electrical power for many NASA missions. While RTGs have an impressive reliability record for the missions in which they have been used, their relatively low thermal to electric conversion efficiency and the scarcity of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) has led NASA to consider other power conversion technologies. NASA is considering returning both robotic and human missions to the lunar surface and, because of the long lunar nights (14.75 Earth days), isotope power systems are an attractive candidate to generate electrical power. NASA is currently developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate higher efficiency power system that produces greater than 160 W with two GPHS modules at the beginning of life (BOL) (32% efficiency). The ASRG uses the same Pu-238 GPHS modules, which are used in RTG, but by coupling them to a Stirling convertor provides a four-fold reduction in the number of GPHS modules. This study considers the use of americium-241 (Am-241) as a substitute for the Pu-238 in Stirling- convertor-based Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for power levels from tens of watts to 5 kWe. The Am-241 is used as a substitute for the Pu-238 in GPHS modules. Depending on power level, different Stirling heat input and removal systems are modeled. It was found that substituting Am-241 GPHS modules into the ASRG reduces power output by about one-fifth while maintaining approximately the same system mass. In order to obtain the nominal 160 W of electrical output of the Pu-238 ASRG requires 10 Am-241 GPHS modules. Higher power systems require changing from conductive coupling heat input and removal from the Stirling convertor to either pumped loops or heat pipes. Liquid metal pumped loops are considered as the primary heat transportation on the hot

  6. Lunar Surface Stirling Power Systems Using Am-241

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    For many years NASA has used the decay of Pu-238 (in the form of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS)) as a heat source for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), which have provided electrical power for many NASA missions. While RTG's have an impressive reliability record for the missions in which they have been used, their relatively low thermal to electric conversion efficiency (-5% efficiency) and the scarcity of Plutoinium-238 (Pu-238) has led NASA to consider other power conversion technologies. NASA is considering returning both robotic and human missions to the lunar surface and, because of the long lunar nights (14 earth days) isotope power systems are an attractive candidate to generate electrical power. NASA is currently developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate higher efficiency power system that produces greater than 160 watts with 2 GPHS modules at the beginning of life (BOL) (-30% efficiency). The ASRG uses the same Pu-238 GPHS modules, which are used in RTG, but by coupling them to a Stirling convertor provides a 4-fold reduction in the number of GPHS modules. This study considers the use of Americium 241 (Am-241) as a substitute for the Pu-238 in Stirling convertor based Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for power levels from 1 O's of watts to 5 kWe. The Am-241 is used as a replacement for the Pu-238 in GPHS modules. Depending on power level, different Stirling heat input and removal systems are modeled. It was found that substituting Am-241 GPHS modules into the ASRG reduces power output by about 1/5 while maintaining approximately the same system mass. In order to obtain the nominal 160 watts electrical output of the Pu-238 ASRG requires 10 Am-241 GPHS modules. Higher power systems require changing from conductive coupling heat input and removal from the Stirling convertor to either pumped loops or heat pipes. Liquid metal pumped loops are considered as the primary heat transportation on the hot end and

  7. RESOLVE (Regolith & Environmental Science Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ray; Coan, Mary; Captain, Janine; Cryderman, Kate; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The RESOLVE Project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize component and integrated system performance. Testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments was done. Test procedures were developed to guide experimental tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, knowledge and experience was gained with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer for the Surge Tank (NIRST), WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, the near infrared spectrometer and GC-MS instruments will be tested during the ETU testing phase.

  8. The surface abundance and stratigraphy of lunar rocks from data about their albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevchenko, V. V.

    1977-01-01

    The data pf ground-based studies and surveys of the lunar surface by the Zond and Apollo spacecraft have been used to construct an albedo map covering 80 percent of the lunar sphere. Statistical analysis of the distribution of areas with various albedos shows several types of lunar surface. Comparison of albedo data for maria and continental areas with the results of geochemical orbital surveys allows the identification of the types of surface with known types of lunar rock. The aluminum/silcon and magnesium/silicon ratios as measured by the geochemical experiments on the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 spacecraft were used as an indication of the chemical composition of the rock. The relationship of the relative aluminum content to the age of crystalline rocks allows a direct dependence to be constructed between the mean albedo of areas and the age of the rocks of which they are composed.

  9. Anisotropic Solar Wind Sputtering of the Lunar Surface Induced by Crustal Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Sarantos, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Saito, Y.; Nishino, M.

    2014-01-01

    The lunar exosphere is generated by several processes each of which generates neutral distributions with different spatial and temporal variability. Solar wind sputtering of the lunar surface is a major process for many regolith-derived species and typically generates neutral distributions with a cosine dependence on solar zenith angle. Complicating this picture are remanent crustal magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, which decelerate and partially reflect the solar wind before it strikes the surface. We use Kaguya maps of solar wind reflection efficiencies, Lunar Prospector maps of crustal field strengths, and published neutral sputtering yields to calculate anisotropic solar wind sputtering maps. We feed these maps to a Monte Carlo neutral exospheric model to explore three-dimensional exospheric anisotropies and find that significant anisotropies should be present in the neutral exosphere depending on selenographic location and solar wind conditions. Better understanding of solar wind/crustal anomaly interactions could potentially improve our results.

  10. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  11. Special report, diffuse reflectivity of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The far ultraviolet diffuse reflectivity of samples of lunar dust material is determined. Equipment for measuring the diffuse reflectivity of materials (e.g. paint samples) is already in existence and requires only minor modification for the proposed experiment which will include the measurement of the polarizing properties of the lunar samples. Measurements can be made as a function of both illumination angle and angle of observation.

  12. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter - Six Years of Science and Exploration at the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John W.; Petro, Noah E.; McClanahan, Timothy P.; Vondrak, Richard R.

    2015-11-01

    The LRO mission, currently in an extended mission phase, is producing a remotely sensed dataset that is unrivaled in planetary science. With an ever-increasing baseline of measurements the LRO data has revealed the Moon’s surface and environment to be dynamic, with new craters and distal ejecta, variations in volatiles at and near the surface, a variable exosphere, and a surface that responds to variations in the flux of radiation from the Sun. Taken together the LRO dataset has significant value in forming how we understand airless bodies work in the Solar System and how planets evolve. We will discuss recent observations from the mission including, geologically recent volcanism, contemparay impacts, and polar volatiles.We will also discuss the mission's support of future exploration of the Moon. As initially conceived, one of the primary objectives for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was to identify safe landing sites for future human and robotic exploration, and LRO mission remains capable of targeted high resolution observations to support the planning of future robotic missions to the Moon. The LRO team seeks to engage with mission planners to discuss LRO's enabaling capabilities.

  13. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  14. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Iijima, Y; Sakatani, N; Otake, H; Tanaka, S

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system. PMID:24689621

  15. Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Vapor deposited patinas (VDP) on lunar soil grains consist of a thin (less than 1 micron) layer of amorphous silicate (glass) embedded with nanoscale Fe(sup 0) globules as seen in many TEM images. VDPs are also present on larger space-weathered lunar rocks; these larger samples will not be discussed here although the process of vapor deposition is common to exposed grains of all sizes. Whether or not the majority of the Fe(sup 0) globules present in lunar soils reside in vapor deposited patina is a matter of some concern. Some Fe(sup 0) globules are clearly seen to reside within the glass of agglutinates and might represent remobilized Fe(sup 0) in agglutinitic melts. remobilized Fe(sup 0) in agglutinitic melts. We argue that because VDP coatings are present only on the surfaces of lunar soil grains, their distribution as a surface correlated component (SCC) of lunar soils should parallel those of Solar Wind Elements (SWE) implanted in the outermost rinds of lunar soil grains. SWE residing in the interior of soils grains make up the volume correlated component (VCC). Relative to Fe(sup 0) in VDP, the distribution of various SWE have been studied well. The reason is understandable because instrumentation for nanoscale imaging is not ubiquitous. In this study we use the distribution of SWE in lunar soils as a guide to understanding the fate of Fe(sup 0) in VDP.

  16. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  17. Multi-scale Characterization and Modeling of Surface Slope Probability Distribution for ~20-km Diameter Lunar Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanti, P.; Robinson, M. S.; Boyd, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Craters ~20-km diameter and above significantly shaped the lunar landscape. The statistical nature of the slope distribution on their walls and floors dominate the overall slope distribution statistics for the lunar surface. Slope statistics are inherently useful for characterizing the current topography of the surface, determining accurate photometric and surface scattering properties, and in defining lunar surface trafficability [1-4]. Earlier experimental studies on the statistical nature of lunar surface slopes were restricted either by resolution limits (Apollo era photogrammetric studies) or by model error considerations (photoclinometric and radar scattering studies) where the true nature of slope probability distribution was not discernible at baselines smaller than a kilometer[2,3,5]. Accordingly, historical modeling of lunar surface slopes probability distributions for applications such as in scattering theory development or rover traversability assessment is more general in nature (use of simple statistical models such as the Gaussian distribution[1,2,5,6]). With the advent of high resolution, high precision topographic models of the Moon[7,8], slopes in lunar craters can now be obtained at baselines as low as 6-meters allowing unprecedented multi-scale (multiple baselines) modeling possibilities for slope probability distributions. Topographic analysis (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) 2-m digital elevation models (DEM)) of ~20-km diameter Copernican lunar craters revealed generally steep slopes on interior walls (30° to 36°, locally exceeding 40°) over 15-meter baselines[9]. In this work, we extend the analysis from a probability distribution modeling point-of-view with NAC DEMs to characterize the slope statistics for the floors and walls for the same ~20-km Copernican lunar craters. The difference in slope standard deviations between the Gaussian approximation and the actual distribution (2-meter sampling) was

  18. Estimates of the Lunar Surface Composition with Clementine Images and LSCC Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkuratov, Yu.; Pieters, C.; Omelchenko, V.; Stankevich, D.; Kaydash, V.; Taylor, L.

    2003-01-01

    There have been several approaches to develop remote sensing technique to estimate composition of the lunar surface using multispectral observations. We present a new approach based on statistical analysis of spectral and compositional data for lunar samples by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) and using the UVVIS Clementine data with 1 km resolution. This technique allows us to estimate and map the abundance of TiO2, SiO2, and FeO, pyroxene and plagioclase content, and maturity degree (Is/FeO).

  19. Battery and Fuel Cell Development Goals for the Lunar Surface and Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a return to the moon and requires advances in energy storage technology for its planned lunar lander and lunar outpost. This presentation describes NASA s overall mission goals and technical goals for batteries and fuel cells to support the mission. Goals are given for secondary batteries for the lander s ascent stage and suits for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface, and for fuel cells for the lander s descent stage and regenerative fuel cells for outpost power. An overall approach to meeting these goals is also presented.

  20. Interactions of the plasma sheet with the lunar surface at the Apollo 14 site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Burke, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Calculations of the magnetic shadow zones of lunar-based particle detectors are extended to include the effects of local remanent magnetic fields. At the Apollo 14 site, the local magnetic field is approximated as that of a dipole. Numerically calculated open and shadowed zones are shown to be in agreement with quiet-time plasma-sheet observations of the charged-particle lunar-environment experiment. An analysis of three storm-time observations indicates that magnetic shadowing can significantly alter the near-lunar-surface electrostatic potential distribution.