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Sample records for lung function tests

  1. What Are Lung Function Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD How the Lungs Work Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... caused by conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis). Also, these tests might ...

  2. [Problems of lung function testing in the laboratory].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Naoko

    2006-08-01

    Spirometry is indispensable for the screening test of general respiratory function, and measurements of lung volume and diffusing capacity play an important role in the assessment of disease severity, functional disability, disease activity and response to treatment. Pulmonary function testing requires cooperation between the subjects and the examiner, and the results obtained depend on technical as well as personal factors. In order to diminish the variability of results and improve measurement accuracy, the Japan Respiratory Society published the first guidelines on the standardization of spirometry and diffusing capacity for both technical and clinical staff in 2004. It is therefore essential to distribute the guidelines to both laboratory personnel and general physicians. Furthermore, training workshops are mandatory to improve their understanding of the basics of lung function testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in noninvasive methods of lung function testing without requiring the patient's cooperation during spontaneous breathing. Three alternative techniques, i.e. the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) method to detect expiratory flow limitation, impulse oscillation system (IOS) to measure respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs), and interruption resistance (Rint) to measure respiratory resistance have been introduced. Further study is required to determine the advantage of these methods. PMID:16989403

  3. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Bishawi, Muath; Kim, Bong; Moore, William H.; Bilfinger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and

  4. Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level. PMID:25257934

  5. Updates on Functional Characterization of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia – The Contribution of Lung Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Anne; Pahuja, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that predominantly affects prematurely born infants. Initially, BPD was described in infants who had suffered severe respiratory failure and required high pressure, mechanical ventilation with high concentrations of supplementary oxygen. Now, it also occurs in very prematurely born infants who initially had minimal or even no signs of lung disease. These differences impact the nature of the lung function abnormalities suffered by “BPD” infants, which are also influenced by the criteria used to diagnose BPD and the oxygen saturation level used to determine the supplementary oxygen requirement. Key also to interpreting lung function data in this population is whether appropriate lung function tests have been used and in an adequately sized population to make meaningful conclusions. It should also be emphasized that BPD is a poor predictor of long-term respiratory morbidity. Bearing in mind those caveats, studies have consistently demonstrated that infants who develop BPD have low compliance and functional residual capacities and raised resistances in the neonatal period. There is, however, no agreement with regard to which early lung function measurement predicts the development of BPD, likely reflecting different techniques were used in different populations in often underpowered studies. During infancy, lung function generally improves, but importantly airflow limitation persists and small airway function appears to decline. Improvements in lung function following administration of diuretics or bronchodilators have not translated into long-term improvements in respiratory outcomes. By contrast, early differences in lung function related to different ventilation modes have led to investigation and demonstration that prophylactic, neonatal high-frequency oscillation appears to protect small airway function. PMID:26131449

  6. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    PubMed

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint. PMID:26657268

  7. Lung function testing in COPD: when everything is not so simple

    PubMed Central

    Barisione, Giovanni; Brusasco, Claudia; Garlaschi, Alessandro; Crimi, Emanuele; Brusasco, Vito

    2014-01-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema is a condition occurring mainly in male smokers, presenting different lung mechanics and gas exchange abnormalities than emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis alone. We report the case of an elderly man, former heavy smoker, who presented with progressive exertional dyspnea for 1 year. Lung function tests showed near normal spirometry and lung volumes but marked reduction of diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and even more nitric oxide. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen was reduced with a markedly increased alveolar-to-arterial difference. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed a pattern consistent with upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe pulmonary fibrosis. In conclusion, this case report confirms the limitations of a simplistic approach to lung function in the diagnosis of symptomatic smokers. PMID:25530864

  8. Regional lung function determined by electrical impedance tomography during bronchodilator reversibility testing in patients with asthma.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, I; Zhao, Z; Becher, T; Zabel, P; Weiler, N; Vogt, B

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of rapid regional lung volume changes by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could determine regional lung function in patients with obstructive lung diseases during pulmonary function testing (PFT). EIT examinations carried out before and after bronchodilator reversibility testing could detect the presence of spatial and temporal ventilation heterogeneities and analyse their changes in response to inhaled bronchodilator on the regional level. We examined seven patients suffering from chronic asthma (49  ±  19 years, mean age  ±  SD) using EIT at a scan rate of 33 images s(-1) during tidal breathing and PFT with forced full expiration. The patients were studied before and 5, 10 and 20 min after bronchodilator inhalation. Seven age- and sex-matched human subjects with no lung disease history served as a control study group. The spatial heterogeneity of lung function measures was quantified by the global inhomogeneity indices calculated from the pixel values of tidal volume, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak flow and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC as well as histograms of pixel FEV1/FVC values. Temporal heterogeneity was assessed using the pixel values of expiration times needed to exhale 75% and 90% of pixel FVC. Regional lung function was more homogeneous in the healthy subjects than in the patients with asthma. Spatial and temporal ventilation distribution improved in the patients with asthma after the bronchodilator administration as evidenced mainly by the histograms of pixel FEV1/FVC values and pixel expiration times. The examination of regional lung function using EIT enables the assessment of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ventilation distribution during bronchodilator reversibility testing. EIT may become a new tool in PFT, allowing the estimation of the natural disease progression and therapy effects on the regional and not only global level. PMID

  9. Lung mechanics and pulmonary function testing in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H; Levine, Gregg; Rocho-Levine, Julie; Austin, Trevor; Brodsky, Micah

    2015-07-01

    We measured esophageal pressures, respiratory flow rates, and expired O2 and CO2 in six adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during voluntary breaths and maximal (chuff) respiratory efforts. The data were used to estimate the dynamic specific lung compliance (sCL), the O2 consumption rate (V̇O2 ) and CO2 production rates (V̇CO2 ) during rest. Our results indicate that bottlenose dolphins have the capacity to generate respiratory flow rates that exceed 130 l s(-1) and 30 l s(-1) during expiration and inspiration, respectively. The esophageal pressures indicated that expiration is passive during voluntary breaths, but active during maximal efforts, whereas inspiration is active for all breaths. The average sCL of dolphins was 0.31±0.04 cmH2O(-1), which is considerably higher than that of humans (0.08 cmH2O(-1)) and that previously measured in a pilot whale (0.13 cmH2O(-1)). The average estimated V̇O2  and V̇CO2  using our breath-by-breath respirometry system ranged from 0.857 to 1.185 l O2 min(-1) and 0.589 to 0.851 l CO2 min(-1), respectively, which is similar to previously published metabolic measurements from the same animals using conventional flow-through respirometry. In addition, our custom-made system allows us to approximate end tidal gas composition. Our measurements provide novel data for respiratory physiology in cetaceans, which may be important for clinical medicine and conservation efforts. PMID:26157159

  10. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This is an important part of lung testing , because ... Gender Height Hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen) level

  11. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  12. Exercise testing in severe emphysema: association with quality of life and lung function.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cynthia D; Benditt, Joshua O; Sciurba, Frank C; Lee, Shing M; Criner, Gerard J; Mosenifar, Zab; Shade, David M; Slivka, William A; Wise, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    Six-minute walk testing (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) are used to evaluate impairment in emphysema. However, the extent of impairment in these tests as well as the correlation of these tests with each other and lung function in advanced emphysema is not well characterized. During screening for the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, maximum ergometer CPX and 6MWT were performed in 1,218 individuals with severe COPD with an average FEV(1) of 26.9 +/- 7.1 % predicted. Predicted values for 6MWT and CPX were calculated from reference equations. Correlation coefficients and multivariable regression models were used to determine the association between lung function, quality of life (QOL) scores, and exercise measures. The two forms of exercise testing were correlated with each other (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001). However, the impairment of performance on CPX was greater than on the 6MWT (27.6 +/- 16.8 vs. 67.9 +/- 18.9 % predicted). Both exercise tests had similar correlation with measures of QOL, but maximum exercise capacity was better correlated with lung function measures than 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment, 6MWD had a slightly greater association with total SGRQ score than maximal exercise (effect size 0.37 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.03 %predicted/unit). Despite advanced emphysema, patients are able to maintain 6MWD to a greater degree than maximum exercise capacity. Moreover, the 6MWT may be a better test of functional capacity given its greater association with QOL measures whereas CPX is a better test of physiologic impairment. PMID:18415810

  13. Altered Lung Function Test in Asymptomatic Women Using Biomass Fuel for Cooking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: One third of the world’s population use biomass fuel like wood, dung or charcoal for cooking. The smoke from these organic materials increases the incidence of respiratory illness including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Aim: To evaluate forced expiratory lung volumes in asymptomatic women previously exposed to biomass fuel smoke. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 74 healthy asymptomatic women divided into two age matched groups of 37 each. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were assessed by computerised spirometry and statistical comparisons done on women using biomass fuel (study group) and women using other sources of fuel (LPG/ electric stove) for cooking (control group). Results: The PFT results showed significant reduction in forced expiratory lung volumes like Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st sec (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Flow between 25-75% (FEF 25-75%) and Forced Expiratory Volume percentage (FEV1%) in biomass fuel users as compared to those not exposed to biomass fuel smoke. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that biomass fuel smoke may produce definite impairment in lung function, especially with regard to the smaller airways. PMID:25478331

  14. Quantification of heterogeneity in lung disease with image-based pulmonary function testing

    PubMed Central

    Stahr, Charlene S.; Samarage, Chaminda R.; Donnelley, Martin; Farrow, Nigel; Morgan, Kaye S.; Zosky, Graeme; Boucher, Richard C.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Mall, Marcus A.; Parsons, David W.; Dubsky, Stephen; Fouras, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and spirometry are the mainstays of clinical pulmonary assessment. Spirometry is effort dependent and only provides a single global measure that is insensitive for regional disease, and as such, poor for capturing the early onset of lung disease, especially patchy disease such as cystic fibrosis lung disease. CT sensitively measures change in structure associated with advanced lung disease. However, obstructions in the peripheral airways and early onset of lung stiffening are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, CT imaging poses a radiation risk, particularly for young children, and dose reduction tends to result in reduced resolution. Here, we apply a series of lung tissue motion analyses, to achieve regional pulmonary function assessment in β-ENaC-overexpressing mice, a well-established model of lung disease. The expiratory time constants of regional airflows in the segmented airway tree were quantified as a measure of regional lung function. Our results showed marked heterogeneous lung function in β-ENaC-Tg mice compared to wild-type littermate controls; identified locations of airway obstruction, and quantified regions of bimodal airway resistance demonstrating lung compensation. These results demonstrate the applicability of regional lung function derived from lung motion as an effective alternative respiratory diagnostic tool. PMID:27461961

  15. Quantification of heterogeneity in lung disease with image-based pulmonary function testing.

    PubMed

    Stahr, Charlene S; Samarage, Chaminda R; Donnelley, Martin; Farrow, Nigel; Morgan, Kaye S; Zosky, Graeme; Boucher, Richard C; Siu, Karen K W; Mall, Marcus A; Parsons, David W; Dubsky, Stephen; Fouras, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and spirometry are the mainstays of clinical pulmonary assessment. Spirometry is effort dependent and only provides a single global measure that is insensitive for regional disease, and as such, poor for capturing the early onset of lung disease, especially patchy disease such as cystic fibrosis lung disease. CT sensitively measures change in structure associated with advanced lung disease. However, obstructions in the peripheral airways and early onset of lung stiffening are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, CT imaging poses a radiation risk, particularly for young children, and dose reduction tends to result in reduced resolution. Here, we apply a series of lung tissue motion analyses, to achieve regional pulmonary function assessment in β-ENaC-overexpressing mice, a well-established model of lung disease. The expiratory time constants of regional airflows in the segmented airway tree were quantified as a measure of regional lung function. Our results showed marked heterogeneous lung function in β-ENaC-Tg mice compared to wild-type littermate controls; identified locations of airway obstruction, and quantified regions of bimodal airway resistance demonstrating lung compensation. These results demonstrate the applicability of regional lung function derived from lung motion as an effective alternative respiratory diagnostic tool. PMID:27461961

  16. Pulmonary function tests in the preoperative evaluation of lung cancer surgery candidates. A review of guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyński, Szymon; Pierzchała, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Before planned surgical treatment of lung cancer, the patient's respiratory system function should be evaluated. According to the current guidelines, the assessment should start with measurements of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and DLco (carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity). Pneumonectomy is possible when FEV1 and DLco are > 80% of the predicted value (p.v.). If either of these parameters is < 80%, an exercise test with VO2 max (oxygen consumption during maximal exercise) measurement should be performed. When VO2 max is < 35 % p.v. or < 10 ml/kg/min, resection is associated with high risk. If VO2 max is in the range of 35-75% p.v. or 10-20 ml/kg/min, the postoperative values of FEV1 and DLco (ppoFEV1, ppoDLco) should be determined. The exercise test with VO2 max measurement may be replaced with other tests such as the shuttle walk test and the stair climbing test. The distance covered during the shuttle walk test should be > 400 m. Patients considered for lobectomy should be able to climb 3 flights of stairs (12 m) and for pneumonectomy 5 flights of stairs (22 m). PMID:26336435

  17. A systematic review of lung function testing in asthmatic young children.

    PubMed

    Ioan, Iulia; Varechova, Silvia; Marchal, François; Pleşca, Doina-Anca

    2015-01-01

    Asthma diagnosis is difficult in young children being mainly based on clinical signs and parents' history, which is sometimes difficult to obtain. Lung function testing may improve asthma diagnosis by objectively assessing its main features, airway obstruction, spontaneously reversible or after use of a bronchodilator drug, ventilation inhomogeneity during an acute bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness. In young children that cannot cope with classical tests, it is important to use and develop simple, short lasting methods, made in spontaneous ventilation without active cooperation. Such techniques are a measurement of respiratory resistance by forced oscillations or the interrupter technique, of specific airway resistance by plethysmography and capnography. All these parameters are sensitive to the presence of an airway obstruction and to a bronchodilator or bronchoconstrictor agent, but their cutoff values in differentiating between asthmatic and healthy children as well as their specific indications in asthma management remain to be established. PMID:26506667

  18. High-Resolution Time-Frequency Spectrum-Based Lung Function Test from a Smartphone Microphone.

    PubMed

    Thap, Tharoeun; Chung, Heewon; Jeong, Changwon; Hwang, Ki-Eun; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a smartphone-based lung function test, developed to estimate lung function parameters using a high-resolution time-frequency spectrum from a smartphone built-in microphone is presented. A method of estimation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV₁/FVC) based on the variable frequency complex demodulation method (VFCDM) is first proposed. We evaluated our proposed method on 26 subjects, including 13 healthy subjects and 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, by comparing with the parameters clinically obtained from pulmonary function tests (PFTs). For the healthy subjects, we found that an absolute error (AE) and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of the FEV₁/FVC ratio were 4.49% ± 3.38% and 5.54%, respectively. For the COPD patients, we found that AE and RMSE from COPD patients were 10.30% ± 10.59% and 14.48%, respectively. For both groups, we compared the results using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and short-time Fourier transform (STFT), and found that VFCDM was superior to CWT and STFT. Further, to estimate other parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁), and peak expiratory flow (PEF), regression analysis was conducted to establish a linear transformation. However, the parameters FVC, FEV1, and PEF had correlation factor r values of 0.323, 0.275, and -0.257, respectively, while FEV₁/FVC had an r value of 0.814. The results obtained suggest that only the FEV1/FVC ratio can be accurately estimated from a smartphone built-in microphone. The other parameters, including FVC, FEV1, and PEF, were subjective and dependent on the subject's familiarization with the test and performance of forced exhalation toward the microphone. PMID:27548164

  19. Lung function and six-minute walk test performance in individuals with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Daniela G.; Ruas, Gualberto; Walsh, Isabel A. P.; Castro, Shamyr S.; Jamami, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), which is characterized by a mutation in the gene encoding beta hemoglobin, causes bodily dysfunctions such as impaired pulmonary function and reduced functional capacity. Objective To assess changes in pulmonary function and functional capacity in patients with SCD and to identify the relationships between these variables. Method We evaluated sociodemographic, anthropometric, lung function (spirometry), respiratory (manovacuometer), peripheral muscle strength (Handgrip strength - HS) and functional capacity (i.e., the six-minute walk test) parameters in 21 individuals with SCD (average age of 29±6 years). Shapiro-Wilk, paired Student's, Wilcoxon, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used for statistical analyses, and the significance threshold was set at p<0.05. Results A total of 47.6% of the study subjects exhibited an altered ventilation pattern, 42.8% had a restrictive ventilatory pattern (RVP) and 4.8% exhibited a mixed ventilatory pattern (MVP). The observed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) values were below the predicted values for women (64 cmH2O), and the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) values, HS values and distance walked during the 6MWT were below the predicted values for both men (103 cmH2O, 39 Kgf and 447 m, respectively) and women (64 cmH2O; 27 Kgf; 405 m, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and MEP (r=0.4; p=0.046); MVV and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.003); and between HS and MIP (r=0.7; p=0.001), MEP (r=0.6; p=0.002), MVV (r=0.5; p=0.015), distance walked in the 6MWT (r=0.4; p=0.038) and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.004). Conclusions SCD promoted changes in lung function and functional capacity, including RVPs and a reduction in the distance walked in the 6MWT when compared to the predictions. In addition, significant correlations between the variables were observed. PMID:24675916

  20. [Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE)--limitation of usual lung function test and challenge at practice].

    PubMed

    Takai, Daiya

    2014-12-01

    Spirometry and the flow-volume curve test are commonly performed lung function tests. However, a unique clinical entity occasionally shows almost normal data in these tests, and is therefore missed on screening tests. The clinical entity of combined pulmonary emphysema and pulmdoary fibrosis was recognized and documented in the 90's in Japan, the USA, and Europe. Typical emphysema shows obstructive disorders, and pulmonary fibrosis shows restrictive disorders. Thus, the combination of both should lead to a combined disorder pattern in lung function tests, but this is not the case. In 2005, Cottin reported and redefined this combination of emphysema and fibrosis of the lung as "Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema" (CPFE). The patients are typically heavily smoking males who show an almost normal lung function. The upper lobe of these patients usually shows severe emphysema, which contributes to a static volume and a late phase in the forced volume test. On the other hand their lower lobe shows fibrotic change. The fibrotic portion contributes to early phase flow in the flow-volume curve. These mechanisms are a reason for the normal pattern appearance in lung function tests in CPFE patients. As a matter of course, these patients have damaged upper and lower lobes: their diffusing capacity of the lung shows a low performance, their saturation of blood hemoglobin decreases soon after light exercise, and their KL-6 (a blood marker of pulmonary fibrosis) usually shows a high value. They are considered a high risk group regarding complications of post-surgical treatment. Thus, when medical technologists identify suspicious cases, they should advise doctors to add diffusing capacity and KL-6 tests. (Review). PMID:25823238

  1. Predictive Effects of Lung function test on Postoperative Pneumonia in Squamous Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ran; Dong, Wei; Shen, Hongchang; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Wang, Yibing; Du, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests had prospective implications for postoperative pneumonia, which occurred frequently after esophagectomy. Understanding factors that were associated with pulmonary infection may help in patient selection and postoperative management. We performed a retrospective review of 2 independent cohorts including 216 patients who underwent esophagectomy between November 2011 and May 2014, aiming at identifying predictors of primary pneumonia. Univariate analysis was used to identify potential covariates for the development of primary pneumonia. Adjustments for multiple comparisons were made using False Discovery Rate (FDR) (Holm-Bonferroni method). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors and construct a regression model based on a training cohort (n = 166) and then the regression model was validated using an independent cohort (n = 50). It showed that low PEF (hazard ratio 0.97, P = 0.009) was independent risk factors for the development of primary pneumonia in multivariate analyses and had a predictive effect for primary pneumonia (AUC = 0.691 and 0.851 for training and validation data set, respectively). Therefore, PEF has clinical value in predicting postoperative pneumonia after esophagectomy and it may serve as an indicator of preoperative lung function training. PMID:27004739

  2. Predictive Effects of Lung function test on Postoperative Pneumonia in Squamous Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ran; Dong, Wei; Shen, Hongchang; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Wang, Yibing; Du, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests had prospective implications for postoperative pneumonia, which occurred frequently after esophagectomy. Understanding factors that were associated with pulmonary infection may help in patient selection and postoperative management. We performed a retrospective review of 2 independent cohorts including 216 patients who underwent esophagectomy between November 2011 and May 2014, aiming at identifying predictors of primary pneumonia. Univariate analysis was used to identify potential covariates for the development of primary pneumonia. Adjustments for multiple comparisons were made using False Discovery Rate (FDR) (Holm-Bonferroni method). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors and construct a regression model based on a training cohort (n = 166) and then the regression model was validated using an independent cohort (n = 50). It showed that low PEF (hazard ratio 0.97, P = 0.009) was independent risk factors for the development of primary pneumonia in multivariate analyses and had a predictive effect for primary pneumonia (AUC = 0.691 and 0.851 for training and validation data set, respectively). Therefore, PEF has clinical value in predicting postoperative pneumonia after esophagectomy and it may serve as an indicator of preoperative lung function training. PMID:27004739

  3. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    PubMed Central

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange. PMID:27311826

  4. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  5. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange. PMID:27311826

  6. Morpho-Functional 1H-MRI of the Lung in COPD: Short-Term Test-Retest Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Jobst, Bertram J.; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Triphan, Simon M. F.; Anjorin, Angela; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Biederer, Jürgen; Ley, Sebastian; Sedlaczek, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Non-invasive end-points for interventional trials and tailored treatment regimes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for monitoring regionally different manifestations of lung disease instead of global assessment of lung function with spirometry would be valuable. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (1H-MRI) allows for a radiation-free assessment of regional structure and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term reproducibility of a comprehensive morpho-functional lung MRI protocol in COPD. Materials and Methods 20 prospectively enrolled COPD patients (GOLD I-IV) underwent 1H-MRI of the lung at 1.5T on two consecutive days, including sequences for morphology, 4D contrast-enhanced perfusion, and respiratory mechanics. Image quality and COPD-related morphological and functional changes were evaluated in consensus by three chest radiologists using a dedicated MRI-based visual scoring system. Test-retest reliability was calculated per each individual lung lobe for the extent of large airway (bronchiectasis, wall thickening, mucus plugging) and small airway abnormalities (tree in bud, peripheral bronchiectasis, mucus plugging), consolidations, nodules, parenchymal defects and perfusion defects. The presence of tracheal narrowing, dystelectasis, pleural effusion, pulmonary trunk ectasia, right ventricular enlargement and, finally, motion patterns of diaphragma and chest wall were addressed. Results Median global scores [10(Q1:8.00;Q3:16.00) vs.11(Q1:6.00;Q3:15.00)] as well as category subscores were similar between both timepoints, and kappa statistics indicated “almost perfect” global agreement (ĸ = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.81–0.91). Most subscores showed at least “substantial” agreement of MRI1 and MRI2 (ĸ = 0.64–1.00), whereas the agreement for the diagnosis of dystelectasis/effusion (ĸ = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.00–0.93) was “moderate” and of tracheal abnormalities (ĸ = 0.21, 95%CI = 0.00–0.75) “fair”. Most

  7. Impulse oscillometry: The state-of-art for lung function testing.

    PubMed

    Desiraju, Koundinya; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a variant of forced oscillation technique, described by Dubois over 50 years ago, which permits passive measurement of lung mechanics. In this method, sound waves are superimposed on normal tidal breathing, and the disturbances in flow and pressure caused by the external waves are used to calculate parameters describing the resistance to airflow and reactive parameters that mostly relate to efficient storage and return of energy by the lung. It requires minimal patient cooperation and can be done easily in subjects who are unable to perform spirometry. Importantly, IOS can differentiate small airway obstruction from large airway obstruction and is more sensitive than spirometry for peripheral airway disease. It has been used to study various respiratory disorders, especially asthma and is suitable for measuring bronchodilatory response as well as bronchoprovocation testing. IOS parameters seem to be able to pick up early changes in lung functon such that they are superior to spirometry in predicting loss of control in asthmatic patients and possibly in identifying early airway disease in smokers. Such comparisons, especially for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are made difficult by widespread use of spirometric parameters as the diagnostic gold standard. Here, we discuss the principles and technique of IOS and review its application in obstructive airway diseases. PMID:27578934

  8. Impulse oscillometry: The state-of-art for lung function testing

    PubMed Central

    Desiraju, Koundinya; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a variant of forced oscillation technique, described by Dubois over 50 years ago, which permits passive measurement of lung mechanics. In this method, sound waves are superimposed on normal tidal breathing, and the disturbances in flow and pressure caused by the external waves are used to calculate parameters describing the resistance to airflow and reactive parameters that mostly relate to efficient storage and return of energy by the lung. It requires minimal patient cooperation and can be done easily in subjects who are unable to perform spirometry. Importantly, IOS can differentiate small airway obstruction from large airway obstruction and is more sensitive than spirometry for peripheral airway disease. It has been used to study various respiratory disorders, especially asthma and is suitable for measuring bronchodilatory response as well as bronchoprovocation testing. IOS parameters seem to be able to pick up early changes in lung functon such that they are superior to spirometry in predicting loss of control in asthmatic patients and possibly in identifying early airway disease in smokers. Such comparisons, especially for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are made difficult by widespread use of spirometric parameters as the diagnostic gold standard. Here, we discuss the principles and technique of IOS and review its application in obstructive airway diseases. PMID:27578934

  9. CAVEOLINS AND LUNG FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Maniatis, Nikolaos A.; Chernaya, Olga; Shinin, Vasily; Minshall, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary function of the mammalian lung is to facilitate diffusion of oxygen to venous blood and to ventilate carbon dioxide produced by catabolic reactions within cells. However, it is also responsible for a variety of other important functions, including host defense and production of vasoactive agents to regulate not only systemic blood pressure, but also water, electrolyte and acid-base balance. Caveolin-1 is highly expressed in the majority of cell types in the lung, including epithelial, endothelial, smooth muscle, connective tissue cells, and alveolar macrophages. Deletion of caveolin-1 in these cells results in major functional aberrations, suggesting that caveolin-1 may be crucial to lung homeostasis and development. Furthermore, generation of mutant mice that under-express caveolin-1 results in severe functional distortion with phenotypes covering practically the entire spectrum of known lung diseases, including pulmonary hypertension, fibrosis, increased endothelial permeability, and immune defects. In this Chapter, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding caveolin-1-dependent regulation of pulmonary cell functions and discuss recent research findings on the role of caveolin-1 in various pulmonary disease states, including obstructive and fibrotic pulmonary vascular and inflammatory diseases. PMID:22411320

  10. Caveolins and lung function.

    PubMed

    Maniatis, Nikolaos A; Chernaya, Olga; Shinin, Vasily; Minshall, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The primary function of the mammalian lung is to facilitate diffusion of oxygen to venous blood and to ventilate carbon dioxide produced by catabolic reactions within cells. However, it is also responsible for a variety of other important functions, including host defense and production of vasoactive agents to regulate not only systemic blood pressure, but also water, electrolyte and acid-base balance. Caveolin-1 is highly expressed in the majority of cell types in the lung, including epithelial, endothelial, smooth muscle, connective tissue cells, and alveolar macrophages. Deletion of caveolin-1 in these cells results in major functional aberrations, suggesting that caveolin-1 may be crucial to lung homeostasis and development. Furthermore, generation of mutant mice that under-express caveolin-1 results in severe functional distortion with phenotypes covering practically the entire spectrum of known lung diseases, including pulmonary hypertension, fibrosis, increased endothelial permeability, and immune defects. In this Chapter, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding caveolin-1-dependent regulation of pulmonary cell functions and discuss recent research findings on the role of caveolin-1 in various pulmonary disease states, including obstructive and fibrotic pulmonary vascular and inflammatory diseases. PMID:22411320

  11. [Use of pulmonary function tests and biomarkers studies to diagnose and follow-up interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Hua-Huy, T; Rivière, S; Tiev, K P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

    2014-12-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is becoming one of the main causes of death of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The prevalence of ILD associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) varies from 33% to 100% according to diagnostic methods. Clinical features such as dyspnea on exertion, dry cough, and chest pains are not specific and usually late-appearing, implying more specific tests in the diagnostic, prognosis, and follow-up of ILD in patients with SSc. High resolution thoracic CT scanner (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray in the detection of SSc-ILD. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) are non-invasive and periodically used to assess the impacts of SSc on respiratory function. Diagnostic values of bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examination on lung biopsy are controversial. However, these techniques are essential for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of SSc-ILD. Several biomarkers such as surfactant-A (SP-A), -D (SP-D), mucin-like high molecular weight glycoprotein (KL-6), and chemokine CCL-18 have been implicated in SSc-PID. Serum levels of these proteins are correlated with the severity of SSc-ILD, as assessed by HRCT and/or PFT. Finally, alveolar concentration of exhaled nitric oxide can be used to screen SSc patients with high risk of deterioration of respiratory function, in whom immunosuppressant treatment could be useful in preventing the evolution to irreversible lung fibrosis. PMID:25457218

  12. Functional respiratory assessment in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Reyes, José Luis; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect, to a greater or lesser degree, the alveolus, peripheral airway, and septal interstitium. Functional assessment in patients suspected of having an interstitial lung disease has implications for diagnosis and makes it possible to objectively analyze both response to treatment and prognosis. Recently the clinical value of lung-diffusing capacity and the six-minute walking test has been confirmed, and these are now important additions to the traditional assessment of lung function that is based on spirometry. Here we review the state-of-the-art methods for the assessment of patients with interstitial lung disease. PMID:25857578

  13. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Emphysema Interstitial fibrosis Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary hypertension Sarcoidosis Lung hemorrhage Asthma Risks There are no significant ... Read More Asbestosis Interstitial lung disease Lung disease Sarcoidosis Update Date 11/19/2015 Updated by: Denis ...

  14. Lung function in insulation workers.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, J; Netterstrøm, B; Wolff, C

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of working with modern insulation materials (rock and glass wool), the members of the Copenhagen Union of Insulation Workers were invited to participate in a study based on a health examination that included lung function tests. Three hundred and forty men (74%) agreed to participate, and 166 bus drivers served as the control group. Age distribution, height, and smoking habits were similar in the two groups. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used as tests for lung function. There were no differences in FVC between the study and control groups, but the insulation workers had significantly lower values of FEV1 (mean 2.51) compared with the controls (mean 3.4 1), independent of smoking habits. Six years before the present study, 114 of the insulation workers participated in a similar study, and eight years after the initial study, the lung function of 59 of the bus drivers was tested. The decline in FVC in insulation workers who smoked was significantly higher (7.7 cl/year) than in bus drivers who smoked (3.1 cl/year); the decline in FEV1 was significantly higher in insulation workers independent of smoking habits (17.0 cl/year v 2.9 cl/year). Self assessed former exposure to asbestos was not associated with lung function in insulation workers. The study concludes that working with modern insulation materials is associated with increased risk of developing obstructive lung disease. PMID:8457492

  15. Lung function and radiation response.

    PubMed

    Hong, A; Dische, S; Saunders, M I; Lockwood, P; Crocombe, K

    1991-12-01

    This study investigated whether impaired respiratory function affected the response to radiotherapy. A prospective study was performed in which lung function, arterial oxygen and haemoglobin concentration were examined, before treatment with radical radiotherapy, in 141 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer. The findings were considered to reflect the physiological conditions present at the time of radiotherapy and these were related to acute normal tissue reactions and tumour control. Although 53% of the patients showed some impairment of lung function and 47% demonstrated a haemoglobin oxygen saturation below the normal range, oxygen partial pressure was below expected levels in fewer patients (27%) and total arterial oxygen content was below normal in only 12% of patients. No correlation was found between the tests performed and the severity of acute morbidity or with local tumour control. In the patients with carcinoma of the bronchus, there was a trend for incomplete tumour control to be associated with a lower haemoglobin level, but this did not reach statistical significance. In patients selected for curative radiotherapy, lung function would not appear to be an important factor influencing the response of normal tissues or tumour to irradiation. PMID:1663411

  16. Lung ultrasound in systemic sclerosis: correlation with high-resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function tests and clinical variables of disease.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Antonietta; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Lucci, Silvio; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Quarta, Silvia; Barbano, Biagio; Giovannetti, Antonello; Amoroso, Antonio; Rosato, Edoardo

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the gold standard to diagnose ILD, recently lung ultrasound (LUS) has emerged in SSc patients as a new promising technique for the ILD evaluation, noninvasive and radiation-free. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a correlation between LUS, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests findings and clinical variables of the disease. Thirty-nine patients (33 women and 6 men; mean age 51 ± 15.2 years) underwent clinical examination, HRCT, pulmonary function tests and LUS for detection of B-lines. A positive correlation exists between the number of B-lines and the HRCT score (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001), conversely a negative correlation exists between the number of B-lines and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r = -0.63, p < 0.0001). The number of B-lines increases along with the progression of the capillaroscopic damage. A statistically significant difference in the number of B-lines was found between patients with and without digital ulcers [42 (3-84) vs 16 (4-55)]. We found that the number of B-lines increased with the progression of both HRCT score and digital vascular damage. LUS may therefore, be a useful tool to determine the best timing for HRCT execution, thus, preventing for many patients a continuous and useless exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:26494471

  17. Development of an aerosol dispersion test to detect early changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    McCawley, M.; Lippmann, M.

    1988-07-01

    The dispersion of a 0.5 micron aerosol bolus during tidal breathing differs significantly (p less than 0.0001) between a group of smokers (with approximately 20 pack-years average exposure) and a comparable group of nonsmokers. Their mean differences in standard respiratory function indexes from spirometry (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75)) were smaller and not statistically significant. The test is simple to perform and may be done as quickly as spirometry but without using a forced exhalation. Comparison of the coefficients of variation for the dispersion test and FEV1 indicate that the aerosol dispersion test may be useful in epidemiologic investigations either by reducing the required population size or increasing the level of confidence.

  18. CUMULATIVE AND REVERSIBLE EFFECTS OF LIFETIME SMOKING ON SIMPLE TESTS OF LUNG FUNCTION IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from a random sample of 8191 men and women from six U.S. cities are used to fit a model describing the effects of cumulative and current cigarette smoking on pulmonary function. he data show that smokers suffer an irreversible loss of FVC and FEV1 which is described by a lin...

  19. Relative risk of lung obstruction in relation to PM10 concentration as assessed by pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Łukasz; Gayer, Anna; Mucha, Dominika; Badyda, Artur J; Dąbrowiecki, Piotr; Grabski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that long-term exposure to air pollution may increase the relative risk of obstructive lung diseases such as COPD or asthma. The risk of increased obstruction is higher among residents living in close proximity to high traffic routes where there are high concentrations of PM(10). The present study consists of two parts: the measurement of the concentration of air pollutants and of pulmonary function in selected groups of people. The study was conducted in Warsaw, Poland, in seven localizations with typical urban canyon characteristics and roads with high traffic. The control group consisted of people living in other regions of Poland with a significantly lower (p < 0.05) concentration of air pollutants. The study was performed in the years 2008-2012. The incidence of obstructive lung disease was determined according to the GOLD guidelines. The study subjects were all non-smokers. The relative risk of disease took into account different exposure times to air pollutants. The findings indicate that an increase in PM(10) concentration by each 10 μg/m(3) caused an increase in the relative risk of lung obstruction by a factor of 1.27, 1.24, and 1.19 for the residence period in the vicinity to heavy traffic city roads for 20, 30, and 40 years, respectively as compared with the residence of rural unpolluted areas. A decrease in the number of people with lung obstruction with the length of residence actually indicates that people exposed to high concentrations of PM(10) become affected by lung obstruction at a lower age. The study shows a positive relative risk of lung obstruction due to an exposure to high PM(10) emission. PMID:25523626

  20. Pulmonary Function Testing in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... are s pirometry and airway resistance tests . What is spirometry? Spirometry is the most common lung function test done. ... follow very specific instructions. Most children can do spirometry by age 6, though some preschoolers are able ...

  1. Chronic effort dyspnea explained by lung function tests and by HRCT and CRX radiographic patterns in COPD: a post-hoc analysis in 51 patients.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Carlo; Camiciottoli, Gianna; Maluccio, Nazzarena Maria; Mariani, Laura; Lavorini, Federico; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a post-hoc analysis of a previous study performed to investigate the relationship between computerized tomography (CT) and lung function in 51 outpatients with mild-to-moderate COPD. We studied whether changes in lung function and radiographic patterns may help to explain dyspnea, the most disturbing symptom in patients with COPD. The Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale shows, by univariate analysis, a similar strength of association to CT expiratory lung density and to DL(CO), a functional index of lung parenchymal loss. The MRC dyspnea scale shows a somewhat less strength of association with a small vertical heart on plain chest films. In multivariate analysis, the model with the strongest association to the MRC dyspnea scale (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001) contains 4 explanatory variables (DL(CO), FRC, PaCO(2), and radiographic pattern of pulmonary hypertension). We suggest that diffusing capacity reflects the emphysematous component of hyperinflation, associated by definition with destruction of terminal airspace walls, as distinct from the air trapping component, which is ascribed to airway obstruction and associated with FRC. PaCO(2) mainly reflects the ventilatory components, i.e., ventilatory drive and ventilatory constraints, of pulmonary gas exchange in COPD, while radiographic pattern of pulmonary hypertension likely reflects hypoxic vascular changes, which depend mainly on ventilation/perfusion mismatch and give rise to pulmonary arterial hypertension that may contribute per se to dyspnea. In conclusion, our analysis points out that chronic effort dyspnea variance may account for up to 58% (r(2) = 0.58) by lung function tests and radiographic patterns. Thus, about 42% of the MRC dyspnea variance remains unexplained by this model. On the other hand, dyspnea ascertainment is dependent on subjective behavior and evaluation and in tests is influenced by individual performance and perception. For example in the 6-minute walk test, a similar or

  2. Functional imaging in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harders, S W; Balyasnikowa, S; Fischer, B M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer represents an increasingly frequent cancer diagnosis worldwide. An increasing awareness on smoking cessation as an important mean to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality, an increasing number of therapy options and a steady focus on early diagnosis and adequate staging have resulted in a modestly improved survival. For early diagnosis and precise staging, imaging, especially positron emission tomography combined with CT (PET/CT), plays an important role. Other functional imaging modalities such as dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) have demonstrated promising results within this field. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a brief and balanced introduction to these three functional imaging modalities and their current or potential application in the care of patients with lung cancer. PMID:24289258

  3. Cross sectional study on lung function of coke oven workers: a lung function surveillance system from 1978 to 1990

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Kreis, I; Griffiths, D; Darling, C

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the association between lung function of coke oven workers and exposure to coke oven emissions. Methods: Lung function data and detailed work histories for workers in recovery coke ovens of a steelworks were extracted from a lung function surveillance system. Multiple regressions were employed to determine significant predictors for lung function indices. The first sets of lung function tests for 613 new starters were pooled to assess the selection bias. The last sets of lung function tests for 834 subjects with one or more year of coke oven history were pooled to assess determinants of lung function. Results: Selection bias associated with the recruitment process was not observed among the exposure groups. For subjects with a history of one or more years of coke oven work, each year of working in the most exposed "operation" position was associated with reductions in FEV1 of around 9 ml (p = 0.006, 95% CI: 3 ml to 16 ml) and in FVC of around 12 ml (p = 0.002, 95% CI: 4 ml to 19 ml). Negative effects of smoking on lung function were also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to coke oven emissions was found to be associated with lower FEV1 and FVC. Effects of work exposure on lung function are similar to those found in other studies. PMID:12468747

  4. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning Following Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of RTOG Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    PubMed Central

    Gondi, Vinai; Paulus, Rebecca; Bruner, Deborah W.; Meyers, Christina A.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Wolfson, Aaron; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Sun, Alexander Y.; Choy, Hak; Movsas, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Prior studies have demonstrated an association between prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and subsequent decline in the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT). In this analysis, prophylactic cranial irradiation is also associated with a higher rate of decline in self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF). This study provides novel observations regarding the absence of a close correlation between decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum. Purpose Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been associated with decline in tested cognitive functioning, using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT). The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of PCI on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on EORTC QLQ-C30. Methods and Materials RTOG 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation. RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, HVLT-recall (R) and -delayed recall (DR) and SRCF were assessed at baseline (following locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months (mos). Patients developing brain relapse prior to follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. PCI was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 mos (Odds Ratio (OR), 3.60, 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 2.34-6.37, p<0.0001) and 12 mos (OR 3.44, 95%CI 1.84-6.44, p<0.0001). HVLT-R decline at 6 and 12 mos was also associated with

  5. Lung Function Monitoring; A Randomized Agreement Study

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Sveinung; Stølevik, Solvor B.; Mowinckel, Petter; Nystad, Wenche; Stensrud, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between devices and repeatability within devices of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50) values measured using the four spirometers included in the study. Methods: 50 (24 women) participants (20-64 years of age) completed maximum forced expiratory flow manoeuvres and measurements were performed using the following devices: MasterScreen, SensorMedics, Oxycon Pro and SpiroUSB. The order of the instruments tested was randomized and blinded for both the participants and the technicians. Re-testing was conducted on a following day within 72 hours at the same time of the day. Results: The devices which obtained the most comparable values for all lung function variables were SensorMedics and Oxycon Pro, and MasterScreen and SpiroUSB. For FEV1, mean difference was 0.04 L (95% confidence interval; -0.05, 0.14) and 0.00 L (-0.06, 0.06), respectively. When using the criterion of FVC and FEV1 ≤ 0.150 L for acceptable repeatability, 67% of the comparisons of the measured lung function values obtained by the four devices were acceptable. Overall, Oxycon Pro obtained most frequently values of the lung function variables with highest precision as indicated by the coefficients of repeatability (CR), followed by MasterScreen, SensorMedics and SpiroUSB (e.g. min-max CR for FEV1; 0.27-0.46). Conclusion: The present study confirms that measurements obtained by the same device at different times can be compared; however, measured lung function values may differ depending on spirometers used. PMID:27583055

  6. Association Between RT-Induced Changes in Lung Tissue Density and Global Lung Function

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jinli; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Foltz, Rodney J.; Hollis, Donna R.; Light, Kim L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between radiotherapy (RT)-induced changes in computed tomography (CT)-defined lung tissue density and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing incidental partial lung RT were prospectively assessed for global (PFTs) and regional (CT and single photon emission CT [SPECT]) lung function before and, serially, after RT. The percent reductions in the PFT and the average changes in lung density were compared (Pearson correlations) in the overall group and subgroups stratified according to various clinical factors. Comparisons were also made between the CT- and SPECT-based computations using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Between 1991 and 2004, 343 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 111 patients had a total of 203 concurrent post-RT evaluations of changes in lung density and PFTs available for the analyses, and 81 patients had a total of 141 concurrent post-RT SPECT images. The average increases in lung density were related to the percent reductions in the PFTs, albeit with modest correlation coefficients (range, 0.20-0.43). The analyses also indicated that the association between lung density and PFT changes is essentially equivalent to the corresponding association with SPECT-defined lung perfusion. Conclusion: We found a weak quantitative association between the degree of increase in lung density as defined by CT and the percent reduction in the PFTs.

  7. Correlation of Apical Fluid-Regulating Channel Proteins with Lung Function in Human COPD Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Meimi; Liu, Shan-Lu; Huang, Yao; Idell, Steven; Li, Xiumin; Ji, Hong-Long

    2014-01-01

    Links between epithelial ion channels and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are emerging through animal model and in vitro studies. However, clinical correlations between fluid-regulating channel proteins and lung function in COPD remain to be elucidated. To quantitatively measure epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) proteins in human COPD lungs and to analyze the correlation with declining lung function, quantitative western blots were used. Spearman tests were performed to identify correlations between channel proteins and lung function. The expression of α and β ENaC subunits was augmented and inversely associated with lung function. In contrast, both total and alveolar type I (ATI) and II (ATII)-specific CFTR proteins were reduced. The expression level of CFTR proteins was associated with FEV1 positively. Abundance of AQP5 proteins and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) was decreased and correlated with spirometry test results and gas exchange positively. Furthermore, these channel proteins were significantly associated with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that expression of ENaC, AQP5, and CFTR proteins in human COPD lungs is quantitatively associated with lung function and severity of COPD. These apically located fluid-regulating channels may thereby serve as biomarkers and potent druggable targets of COPD. PMID:25329998

  8. PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small...

  9. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal supplements you are taking. What are normal ranges for liver function tests? Normal ranges for liver function tests can vary by age, ... other factors. Laboratory test results usually provide normal ranges for each liver function test with your results. ...

  10. Biomarker tests for fetal lung maturity.

    PubMed

    Leung-Pineda, Van; Gronowski, Ann M

    2010-12-01

    The production of surfactant is a key step in fetal lung development. Surfactant decreases alveolar surface tension, thereby preventing alveolar collapse and allowing efficient gas exchange. The lack of adequate amounts of lung surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome. Tests that assess surfactant concentrations in amniotic fluid are good predictors of infants that will not develop respiratory distress syndrome. The most frequently used test to assess fetal lung maturity (TDx FLM II) will not be available after December 2011. Therefore, we review the currently available tests for fetal lung maturity including lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio, phosphatidyl glycerol, surfactant:albumin ratio and lamellar body counts. Herein, we discuss their clinical utility and consider a suitable replacement for the future. PMID:21133706

  11. Lung function in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Koumbourlis, Anastassios C

    2014-03-01

    Although some of the most severe complications of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) tend to be acute and severe (e.g. acute chest syndrome, stroke etc.), the chronic ones can be equally debilitating. Prominent among them is the effect that the disease has on lung growth and function. For many years the traditional teaching has been that SCD is associated with the development of a restrictive lung defect. However, there is increasing evidence that this is not a universal finding and that at least during childhood and adolescence, the majority of the patients have a normal or obstructive pattern of lung function. The following article reviews the current knowledge on the effects of SCD on lung growth and function. Special emphasis is given to the controversies among the published articles in the literature and discusses possible causes for these discrepancies. PMID:24268618

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Biederer, J; Heussel, C P; Puderbach, M; Wielpuetz, M O

    2014-02-01

    Beyond being a substitute for X-ray, computed tomography, and scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inherently combines morphologic and functional information more than any other technology. Lung perfusion: The most established method is first-pass contrast-enhanced imaging with bolus injection of gadolinium chelates and time-resolved gradient-echo (GRE) sequences covering the whole lung (1 volume/s). Images are evaluated visually or semiquantitatively, while absolute quantification remains challenging due to the nonlinear relation of T1-shortening and contrast material concentration. Noncontrast-enhanced perfusion imaging is still experimental, either based on arterial spin labeling or Fourier decomposition. The latter is used to separate high- and low-frequency oscillations of lung signal related to the effects of pulsatile blood flow. Lung ventilation: Using contrast-enhanced first-pass perfusion, lung ventilation deficits are indirectly identified by hypoxic vasoconstriction. More direct but still experimental approaches use either inhalation of pure oxygen, an aerosolized contrast agent, or hyperpolarized noble gases. Fourier decomposition MRI based on the low-frequency lung signal oscillation allows for visualization of ventilation without any contrast agent. Respiratory mechanics: Time-resolved series with high background signal such as GRE or steady-state free precession visualize the movement of chest wall, diaphragm, mediastinum, lung tissue, tracheal wall, and tumor. The assessment of volume changes allows drawing conclusions on regional ventilation. With this arsenal of functional imaging capabilities at high spatial and temporal resolution but without radiation burden, MRI will find its role in regional functional lung analysis and will therefore overcome the sensitivity of global lung function analysis for repeated short-term treatment monitoring. PMID:24481761

  13. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  14. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  15. Regulation of Immunoproteasome Function in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Ilona E.; Vosyka, Oliver; Takenaka, Shinji; Kloß, Alexander; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Willems, Lianne I.; Verdoes, Martijn; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Marcos, Elisabeth; Adnot, Serge; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Ruppert, Clemens; Günther, Andreas; Herold, Susanne; Ohno, Shinji; Adler, Heiko; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Impaired immune function contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Disease progression is further exacerbated by pathogen infections due to impaired immune responses. Elimination of infected cells is achieved by cytotoxic CD8+  T cells that are activated by MHC I-mediated presentation of pathogen-derived antigenic peptides. The immunoproteasome, a specialized form of the proteasome, improves generation of antigenic peptides for MHC I presentation thereby facilitating anti-viral immune responses. However, immunoproteasome function in the lung has not been investigated in detail yet. In this study, we comprehensively characterized the function of immunoproteasomes in the human and murine lung. Parenchymal cells of the lung express low constitutive levels of immunoproteasomes, while they are highly and specifically expressed in alveolar macrophages. Immunoproteasome expression is not altered in whole lung tissue of COPD patients. Novel activity-based probes and native gel analysis revealed that immunoproteasome activities are specifically and rapidly induced by IFNγ treatment in respiratory cells in vitro and by virus infection of the lung in mice. Our results suggest that the lung is potentially capable of mounting an immunoproteasome-mediated efficient adaptive immune response to intracellular infections. PMID:25989070

  16. [A comparative study of clinical score and lung function tests in the classification of asthma by severity of disease].

    PubMed

    Nakaie, C M; Rozov, T; Manissadjian, A

    1998-01-01

    Fifty nine asthmatic children and adolescents, clinically stable, aged 6 to 15 years, 37 boys and 22 girls, from Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, were studied from September to November, 1994. The patients were classified by the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. They performed baseline spirometry and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), before and after bronchodilator, and measured PEFR three times a day (6 pm, at bedtime and on waking), for one day, at home. Five PEF measurements were made serially and the best readings were considered. Variability of PFE was calculated for 24 hours, as assessed by maximal amplitude. The results were summited to statistical analysis of the Laboratorio de Informática Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da USP. The results of PEFR and it's variability were compared to spirometry, (functional score, FEV1-forced expiratory volume in the first second) and to the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. In case of disagreement between the clinical parameters, the more severe one was chosen. The clinical score classified 20.3% of our patients as mild obstruction, 49.2% as moderate and 30.5% as severely compromised. According to FEV1, 58% of patients were classified as normal while the PEFR and its variability classified as normal 76% and 71%. The PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, correlated with the VEF1, as gold standard, showed good specificity, 91% and 76% respectively and low sensibility, 44% and 32%. It was detected a low level of agreement between FEV1, PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, in the clinical severity classification of asthma. The results of this study showed that FEV1 and PEFR had a low level of agreement in the clinical severity classification of asthma and when they were correlated to the clinical score of the International Consensus, they both presented low sensitivity. PMID:9699357

  17. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  18. Claudins: Gatekeepers of lung epithelial function.

    PubMed

    Schlingmann, Barbara; Molina, Samuel A; Koval, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The lung must maintain a proper barrier between airspaces and fluid filled tissues in order to maintain lung fluid balance. Central to maintaining lung fluid balance are epithelial cells which create a barrier to water and solutes. The barrier function of these cells is mainly provided by tight junction proteins known as claudins. Epithelial barrier function varies depending on the different needs within the segments of the respiratory tree. In the lower airways, fluid is required to maintain mucociliary clearance, whereas in the terminal alveolar airspaces a thin layer of surfactant enriched fluid lowers surface tension to prevent airspace collapse and is critical for gas exchange. As the epithelial cells within the segments of the respiratory tree differ, the composition of claudins found in these epithelial cells is also different. Among these differences is claudin-18 which is uniquely expressed by the alveolar epithelial cells. Other claudins, notably claudin-4 and claudin-7, are more ubiquitously expressed throughout the respiratory epithelium. Claudin-5 is expressed by both pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cells. Based on in vitro and in vivo model systems and histologic analysis of lungs from human patients, roles for specific claudins in maintaining barrier function and protecting the lung from the effects of acute injury and disease are being identified. One surprising finding is that claudin-18 and claudin-4 control lung cell phenotype and inflammation beyond simply maintaining a selective paracellular permeability barrier. This suggests claudins have more nuanced roles for the control of airway and alveolar physiology in the healthy and diseased lung. PMID:25951797

  19. Lung Extracellular Matrix and Fibroblast Function

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a tissue-specific macromolecular structure that provides physical support to tissues and is essential for normal organ function. In the lung, ECM plays an active role in shaping cell behavior both in health and disease by virtue of the contextual clues it imparts to cells. Qualities including dimensionality, molecular composition, and intrinsic stiffness all promote normal function of the lung ECM. Alterations in composition and/or modulation of stiffness of the focally injured or diseased lung ECM microenvironment plays a part in reparative processes performed by fibroblasts. Under conditions of remodeling or in disease states, inhomogeneous stiffening (or softening) of the pathologic ECM may both precede modifications in cell behavior and be a result of disease progression. The ability of ECM to stimulate further ECM production by fibroblasts and drive disease progression has potentially significant implications for mesenchymal stromal cell–based therapies; in the setting of pathologic ECM stiffness or composition, the therapeutic intent of progenitor cells may be subverted. Taken together, current data suggest that lung ECM actively contributes to health and disease; thus, mediators of cell–ECM signaling or factors that influence ECM stiffness may represent viable therapeutic targets in many lung disorders. PMID:25830832

  20. Divers' lung function: small airways disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, E; Segadal, K; Kambestad, B; Gulsvik, A

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary function was measured in 152 professional saturation divers and in a matched control group of 106 subjects. Static lung volumes, dynamic lung volumes and flows, transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1CO), transfer volume per unit alveolar volume (KCO), delta-N2, and closing volume (CV) were measured and compared with reference values from recent Scandinavian studies, British submariners, and the European Community for Coal and Steel (ECCS) recommended reference values. Diving exposure was assessed as years of diving experience, total number of days in saturation and depth, and as the product of days in saturation and mean depth. Divers had significantly lower values for forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, FEF25-75%, FEF75-85%, FEF50%, FEF75%, T1CO, and KCO compared with the controls and a significantly higher CV. There was a positive correlation between diving exposure and CV, whereas the other variables had negative correlations with diving exposure. Values for the control group were not different from the predictive values of Scandinavian reference studies or British submariners, although the ECCS standard predicted significantly lower values for the lung function variables both in divers and the control group. The pattern of the differences in lung function variables between the divers and controls is consistent with small airways dysfunction and with the transient changes in lung function found immediately after a single saturation dive. The association between reduced pulmonary function and previous diving exposure further indicates the presence of cumulative long term effects of diving on pulmonary function. PMID:2393630

  1. LUNG FUNCTION AND ITS GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence that certain uncomplicated upper respiratory infections (URI) induce pulmonary function abnormalities in adults prompted a study in children where such infections occur more frequently. In a longitudinal study, 55 children aged 2.5-9 years were observed for a mean durati...

  2. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  3. Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

    2011-10-01

    Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

  4. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibrosis (scarring or thickening of the lung tissue) Sarcoidosis and scleroderma Muscular weakness can also cause abnormal ... Emphysema Interstitial Lung Diseases Lung Diseases Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  5. Pulmonary function testing in small laboratory mammals.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, J J; Raub, J A

    1984-01-01

    The lung is the primary organ likely to be exposed by inhalation studies and, therefore, measurement of changes in lung function are of particular interest to the pulmonary physiologist and toxicologist. Tests of pulmonary function have been developed which can be used with small animals to measure spirometry (lung volumes), mechanics, distribution of ventilation, gas exchange or control of ventilation. These tests were designed on the basis of similar tests which are used in humans to diagnose and manage patients with lung disease. A major difference is that many of the measurements are performed in anesthetized animals, while human pulmonary function is usually measured in awake cooperating individuals. In addition, the measurement of respiratory events in small animals requires sensitive and rapidly responding equipment, because signals may be small and events can occur quickly. In general, the measurements described provide information on the change in normal lung function which results primarily from structural changes. These tests of pulmonary function can be repetitively and routinely accomplished and the results appear to be highly reproducible. Although some are quite sophisticated, many can be undertaken with relatively inexpensive equipment and provide useful information for toxicological testing. PMID:6434299

  6. Lung function after bone marrow grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Depledge, M.H.; Barrett, A.; Powles, R.L.

    1983-02-01

    Results of a prospective lung function study are presented for 48 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1978 and 1980. Patients with active disease or who were in remission following cytoreductive chemotherapy had mildly impaired gas exchange prior to grafting. After TBI and BMT all patients studied developed progressive deterioration of lung function during the first 100 days, although these changes were subclinical. Infection and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) were associated with further worsening of restrictive ventilatory defects and diffusing capacity (D/sub L/CO). Beyond 100 days, ventilatory ability returned to normal and gas transfer improved, although it failed to reach pre-transplant levels. There was no evidence of progressive pulmonary fibrosis during the first year after grafting.

  7. Lung function in West Sussex firemen: a four year study.

    PubMed

    Horsfield, K; Guyatt, A R; Cooper, F M; Buckman, M P; Cumming, G

    1988-02-01

    Although firefighting is a hazardous occupation, published evidence of long-term lung damage in firemen is inconsistent. A group of 96 men from the West Sussex Fire Brigade, which covers a simi-rural, semi-urban area, were followed up for between one and four years. They included 31 non-smokers, 40 smokers, and 25 ex-smokers. After four years 12 firemen had been lost to the study. A control group of 69 volunteers, consisting of non-smoking men from various other occupations, were followed up in parallel. Lung function tests, covering a wider range than has been previously used in similar studies, were repeated six monthly for two years and annually for a further two years. The results were expressed in terms of the rate of change with time of the lung function variables. Many of the variables deteriorated in both firemen and controls, but the rate of deterioration was greater in the controls than the firemen for vital capacity, ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity, FEV1, FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF), flow at 50% and 25% remaining vital capacity (V50 and V25 respectively), and airways resistance (Raw). With respect to PEF, V50, V25, and Raw the control subjects deteriorated more rapidly even than the smokers and ex-smokers among the firemen. Alveolar mixing efficiency (AME), a measure of small airways function, did not change significantly over the study period in any group. Non-smoking firemen had the highest mean value of AME, decreasing through ex-smokers, controls, and smokers. We conclude that these results show no evidence of chronic lung damage in West Sussex firemen; indeed, the firemen as a group show a lower rate of deterioration of lung function with age than do the control subjects. This is attributed to the selection of fit men for the service, continued physical training, and the regular use of breathing apparatus. PMID:3342193

  8. Gas cooking and reduced lung function in school children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Neuberger, Manfred

    RationaleOutdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) is associated with reduced respiratory health. This could be due to a unique biological effect of this gaseous pollutant or because it serves as a surrogate of fine particles from incineration sources. Cooking with gas in small kitchens produces high concentrations of gaseous irritants (mainly nitrogen dioxide), but not fine particles. ObjectivesTo study the relative impact of cooking with gas on lung function parameters in a cross sectional study of school children. MethodsNearly all elementary school children (2898 children aged 6-10 years) living in the city of Linz (capital of Upper Austria) underwent lung function testing. In a questionnaire administered simultaneously to their parents, information on household conditions including cooking and tobacco smoke exposure was collected. Impact of cooking with gas on lung function controlling for various confounders was analyzed using loglinear multiple regression. ResultsGas cooking reduced lung function parameters ranging from 1.1% (not significant) for MEF 25 up to 3.4% ( p=0.01) for peak expiratory flow (PEF). ConclusionsGas stoves can have an adverse impact on children's respiratory health. Parents and caretakers should be advised to insure good ventilation while and after cooking, especially in small and poorly ventilated rooms. This study adds to the growing evidence that gaseous pollutants from incineration sources affect respiratory health directly.

  9. Extraocular muscle function testing

    MedlinePlus

    Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. A health care provider observes the movement of ... evaluate weakness or other problem in the extraocular muscles. These problems may result in double vision or ...

  10. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers Predict Lung Function Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Bushra; Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Gracely, Edward J.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Ferrier, Natalia; Kasturiarachchi, Kusali J.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Rom, William N.; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Cross-sectional studies demonstrate an association between metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function. Objectives: To define if metabolic syndrome biomarkers are risk factors for loss of lung function after irritant exposure. Methods: A nested case-control study of Fire Department of New York personnel with normal pre–September 11th FEV1 and who presented for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation before March 10, 2008. We correlated metabolic syndrome biomarkers obtained within 6 months of World Trade Center dust exposure with subsequent FEV1. FEV1 at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation within 6.5 years defined disease status; cases had FEV1 less than lower limit of normal, whereas control subjects had FEV1 greater than or equal to lower limit of normal. Measurements and Main Results: Clinical data and serum sampled at the first monitoring examination within 6 months of September 11, 2001, assessed body mass index, heart rate, serum glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), leptin, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin. Cases and control subjects had significant differences in HDL less than 40 mg/dl with triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dl, heart rate greater than or equal to 66 bpm, and leptin greater than or equal to 10,300 pg/ml. Each increased the odds of abnormal FEV1 at pulmonary evaluation by more than twofold, whereas amylin greater than or equal to 116 pg/ml decreased the odds by 84%, in a multibiomarker model adjusting for age, race, body mass index, and World Trade Center arrival time. This model had a sensitivity of 41%, a specificity of 86%, and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.77. Conclusions: Abnormal triglycerides and HDL and elevated heart rate and leptin are independent risk factors of greater susceptibility to lung function impairment after September 11, 2001, whereas elevated amylin is protective. Metabolic biomarkers are predictors of lung disease, and may be useful for assessing

  12. The Utility of Exercise Testing in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, Duc; Mazzone, Peter J; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul; Fuster, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The harm associated with lung cancer treatment include perioperative morbidity and mortality and therapy-induced toxicities in various organs, including the heart and lungs. Optimal treatment therefore entails a need for risk assessment to weigh the probabilities of benefits versus harm. Exercise testing offers an opportunity to evaluate a patient's physical fitness/exercise capacity objectively. In lung cancer, it is most often used to risk-stratify patients undergoing evaluation for lung cancer resection. In recent years, its use outside this context has been described, including in nonsurgical candidates and lung cancer survivors. In this article we review the physiology of exercise testing and lung cancer. Then, we assess the utility of exercise testing in patients with lung cancer in four contexts (preoperative evaluation for lung cancer resection, after lung cancer resection, lung cancer prognosis, and assessment of efficiency of exercise training programs) after systematically identifying original studies involving the most common forms of exercise tests in this patient population: laboratory cardiopulmonary exercise testing and simple field testing with the 6-minute walk test, shuttle walk test, and/or stair-climbing test. Lastly, we propose a conceptual framework for risk assessment of patients with lung cancer who are being considered for therapy and identify areas for further studies in this patient population. PMID:27156441

  13. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  14. Platelet Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the clotting process in the body ( in vivo ). A person with normal platelet function test results may still experience excessive bleeding or inappropriate clotting during and after a surgery. Most samples for platelet function testing are only stable for a very short period ...

  15. Lung cancer tissue diagnosis in poor lung function: addressing the ongoing percutaneous lung biopsy FEV1 paradox using Heimlich valve.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, R; Tavare, A N; Creamer, A; Creer, D; Vancheeswaran, R; Hare, S S

    2016-08-01

    Many centres continue to decline percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB) in patients with poor lung function (particularly FEV1 <1 L) due to the theoretically increased risk of pneumothorax. This practice limits access to novel lung cancer therapies and minimally invasive surgical techniques. Our retrospective single-centre analysis of 212 patients undergoing PLB, all performed prospectively and blinded to lung function, demonstrates that using ambulatory Heimlich valve chest drain (HVCD) to treat significant postbiopsy pneumothorax facilitates safe, diagnostic, early discharge lung biopsy irrespective of lung function with neither FEV1 <1 L nor transfer coefficient for carbon monoxide (TLCO) <40% predicted shown to be independent predictors of HVCD insertion or pneumothorax outcomes. Incorporating ambulatory HVCD into standard PLB practice thereby elegantly bridges the gap that currently exists between tissue diagnosis in patients with poor lung function and the advanced therapeutic options available for this cohort. PMID:26980011

  16. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Paulus, Rebecca; Bruner, Deborah W.; Meyers, Christina A.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Wolfson, Aaron; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Sun, Alexander Y.; Choy, Hak; Movsas, Benjamin

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

  17. Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo with the Lung Diffusing Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Fallica, Jonathan; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Datta, Kausik; Gabrielson, Matthew; Horton, Maureen; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models. PMID:25590416

  18. Sperm function test

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  19. Sperm function test.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  20. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Naheed

    2015-01-01

    The anaesthetic management of patients with pre-existing pulmonary disease is a challenging task. It is associated with increased morbidity in the form of post-operative pulmonary complications. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function helps in reducing these complications. Patients are advised to stop smoking for a period of 4–6 weeks. This reduces airway reactivity, improves mucociliary function and decreases carboxy-haemoglobin. The widely used incentive spirometry may be useful only when combined with other respiratory muscle exercises. Volume-based inspiratory devices have the best results. Pharmacotherapy of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be optimised before considering the patient for elective surgery. Beta 2 agonists, inhaled corticosteroids and systemic corticosteroids, are the main drugs used for this and several drugs play an adjunctive role in medical therapy. A graded approach has been suggested to manage these patients for elective surgery with an aim to achieve optimal pulmonary function. PMID:26556913

  1. Lung Function Measurements in Rodents in Safety Pharmacology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hoymann, Heinz Gerd

    2012-01-01

    The ICH guideline S7A requires safety pharmacology tests including measurements of pulmonary function. In the first step – as part of the “core battery” – lung function tests in conscious animals are requested. If potential adverse effects raise concern for human safety, these should be explored in a second step as a “follow-up study”. For these two stages of safety pharmacology testing, both non-invasive and invasive techniques are needed which should be as precise and reliable as possible. A short overview of typical in vivo measurement techniques is given, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and out of these the non-invasive head-out body plethysmography and the invasive but repeatable body plethysmography in orotracheally intubated rodents are presented in detail. For validation purposes the changes in the respective parameters such as tidal midexpiratory flow (EF50) or lung resistance have been recorded in the same animals in typical bronchoconstriction models and compared. In addition, the technique of head-out body plethysmography has been shown to be useful to measure lung function in juvenile rats starting from day two of age. This allows safety pharmacology testing and toxicological studies in juvenile animals as a model for the young developing organism as requested by the regulatory authorities (e.g., EMEA Guideline 1/2008). It is concluded that both invasive and non-invasive pulmonary function tests are capable of detecting effects and alterations on the respiratory system with different selectivity and area of operation. The use of both techniques in a large number of studies in mice and rats in the last years have demonstrated that they provide useful and reliable information on pulmonary mechanics in safety pharmacology and toxicology testing, in investigations of respiratory disorders, and in pharmacological efficacy studies. PMID:22973226

  2. Scintigraphy at 3 months after single lung transplantation and observations of primary graft dysfunction and lung function.

    PubMed

    Belmaati, Esther Okeke; Iversen, Martin; Kofoed, Klaus F; Nielsen, Michael B; Mortensen, Jann

    2012-06-01

    Scintigraphy has been used as a tool to detect dysfunction of the lung before and after transplantation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the development of the ventilation-perfusion relationships in single lung transplant recipients in the first year, at 3 months after transplantation, and to investigate whether scintigraphic findings at 3 months were predictive for the outcome at 12 months in relation to primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and lung function. A retrospective study was carried out on all patients who prospectively and consecutively were referred for a routine lung scintigraphy procedure 3 months after single lung transplantation (SLTX). A total of 41 patients were included in the study: 20 women and 21 men with the age span of patients at transplantation being 38-66 years (mean ± SD: 54.2 ± 6.0). Patient records also included lung function tests and chest X-ray images. We found no significant correlation between lung function distribution at 3 months and PGD at 72 h. There was also no significant correlation between PGD scores at 72 h and lung function at 6 and 12 months. The same applied to scintigraphic scores for heterogeneity at 3 months compared with lung function at 6 and 12 months. Fifty-five percent of all patients had decreased ventilation function measured in the period from 6 to 12 months. Forty-nine percent of the patients had normal perfusion evaluations, and 51% had abnormal perfusion evaluations at 3 months. For ventilation evaluations, 72% were normal and 28% were abnormal. There was a significant difference in the normal versus abnormal perfusion and ventilation scintigraphic images evaluated from the same patients. Ventilation was distributed more homogenously in the transplanted lung than perfusion in the same lung. The relative distribution of perfusion and ventilation to the transplanted lung of patients with and without a primary diagnosis of fibrosis did not differ significantly from each other. We conclude that PGD

  3. Adenosine A2A Agonist Improves Lung Function During Ex-vivo Lung Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Emaminia, Abbas; LaPar, Damien J.; Zhao, Yunge; Steidle, John F.; Harris, David A.; Linden, Joel; Kron, Irving L.; Lau, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel technique to assess, and potentially repair marginal lungs that may otherwise be rejected for transplantation. Adenosine has been shown to protect against lung ischemia-reperfusion injury through its A2A receptor. We hypothesized that combining EVLP with adenosine A2A receptor agonist treatment would enhance lung functional quality and increase donor lung usage. Methods Eight bilateral pig lungs were harvested and flushed with cold Perfadex. After 14 hours storage at 4°C, EVLP was performed for 5 hours on two explanted lung groups: 1) Control group lungs (n=4), were perfused with Steen Solution and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 2) treated group lungs (n=4) received 10μM CGS21680, a selective A2A receptor agonist, in a Steen Solution-primed circuit. Lung histology, tissue cytokines, gas analysis and pulmonary function were compared between groups. Results Treated lungs demonstrated significantly less edema as reflected by wet-dry weight ratio (6.6 vs. 5.2, p<0.03) and confirmed by histology. In addition, treated lung demonstrated significantly lower levels of interferon gamma (45.1 vs. 88.5, p<0.05). Other measured tissue cytokines (interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8) were lower in treatment group, but values failed to reach statistical significance. Oxygenation index was improved in the treated group (1.5 vs. 2.3, p<0.01) as well as mean airway pressure (10.3 vs. 13 p<0.009). Conclusions EVLP is a novel and efficient way to assess and optimize lung function and oxygen exchange within donor lungs, and the use of adenosine A2A agonist potentiates its potential. EVLP with the concomitant administration of A2A agonist may enhance donor lung quality and could increase the donor lung pool for transplantation. PMID:22051279

  4. Lymphatic function is required prenatally for lung inflation at birth.

    PubMed

    Jakus, Zoltán; Gleghorn, Jason P; Enis, David R; Sen, Aslihan; Chia, Stephanie; Liu, Xi; Rawnsley, David R; Yang, Yiqing; Hess, Paul R; Zou, Zhiying; Yang, Jisheng; Guttentag, Susan H; Nelson, Celeste M; Kahn, Mark L

    2014-05-01

    Mammals must inflate their lungs and breathe within minutes of birth to survive. A key regulator of neonatal lung inflation is pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex which increases lung compliance by reducing alveolar surface tension (Morgan, 1971). Whether other developmental processes also alter lung mechanics in preparation for birth is unknown. We identify prenatal lymphatic function as an unexpected requirement for neonatal lung inflation and respiration. Mice lacking lymphatic vessels, due either to loss of the lymphangiogenic factor CCBE1 or VEGFR3 function, appear cyanotic and die shortly after birth due to failure of lung inflation. Failure of lung inflation is not due to reduced surfactant levels or altered development of the lung but is associated with an elevated wet/dry ratio consistent with edema. Embryonic studies reveal active lymphatic function in the late gestation lung, and significantly reduced total lung compliance in late gestation embryos that lack lymphatics. These findings reveal that lymphatic vascular function plays a previously unrecognized mechanical role in the developing lung that prepares it for inflation at birth. They explain respiratory failure in infants with congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia, and suggest that inadequate late gestation lymphatic function may also contribute to respiratory failure in premature infants. PMID:24733830

  5. The relation of airway size to lung function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, J. Ken; Zheng, Bin; Sciurba, Frank C.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Bon, Jessica M.; Park, Sang C.; Pu, Jiantao; Gur, David

    2008-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may cause airway remodeling, and small airways are the mostly likely site of associated airway flow obstruction. Detecting and quantifying airways depicted on a typical computed tomography (CT) images is limited by spatial resolution. In this study, we examined the association between lung function and airway size. CT examinations and spirometry measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percent predicted (FEV I%) from 240 subjects were used in this study. Airway sections depicted in axial CT section were automatically detected and quantified. Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC) were computed to compare lung function across three size categories: (1) all detected airways, (2) the smallest 50% of detected airways, and (3) the largest 50% of detected airways using the CORANOVA test. The mean number of all airways detected per subject was 117.4 (+/- 40.1) with mean size ranging from 20.2 to 50.0 mm2. The correlation between lung function (i.e., FEV I) and airway morphometry associated with airway remodeling and airflow obstruction (i.e., lumen perimeter and wall area as a percent of total airway area) was significantly stronger for smaller compared to larger airways (p < 0.05). The PCCs between FEV I and all airways, the smallest 50%, and the largest 50% were 0.583, 0.617, 0.523, respectively, for lumen perimeter and -0.560, -0.584, and -0.514, respectively, for wall area percent. In conclusion, analyzing a set of smaller airways compared to larger airways may improve detection of an association between lung function and airway morphology change.

  6. Genetic Ancestry Influences Asthma Susceptibility and Lung Function Among Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, Maria; Thakur, Neeta; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine K.; Oh, Sam S.; Vora, Hita; Huntsman, Scott; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Hu, Donglei; Drake, Katherine A.; Conti, David V.; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Lurmann, Fred; Islam, Talat S.; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro C.; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A.; Ford, Jean G.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M.; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Williams, L. Keoki; Gilliland, Frank D.; Gauderman, W. James; Kumar, Rajesh; Torgerson, Dara G.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood asthma prevalence and morbidity varies among Latinos in the United States, with Puerto Ricans having the highest and Mexicans the lowest. Objective To determine whether genetic ancestry is associated with the odds of asthma among Latinos, and secondarily whether genetic ancestry is associated with lung function among Latino children. Methods We analyzed 5,493 Latinos with and without asthma from three independent studies. For each participant we estimated the proportion of African, European, and Native American ancestry using genome-wide data. We tested whether genetic ancestry was associated with the presence of asthma and lung function among subjects with and without asthma. Odds ratios (OR) and effect sizes were assessed for every 20% increase in each ancestry. Results Native American ancestry was associated with lower odds of asthma (OR=0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66–0.78, p=8.0×10−15), while African ancestry was associated with higher odds of asthma (OR=1.40, 95%CI: 1.14–1.72, p=0.001). These associations were robust to adjustment for covariates related to early life exposures, air pollution and socioeconomic status. Among children with asthma, African ancestry was associated with lower lung function, including both pre- and post-bronchodilator measures of forced expiratory volume in the first second (−77±19 ml, p=5.8×10−5 and −83±19 ml, p=1.1×10−5, respectively) and forced vital capacity (−100±21 ml, p=2.7×10−6 and −107±22 ml, p=1.0×10−6, respectively). Conclusion Differences in the proportions of genetic ancestry can partially explain disparities in asthma susceptibility and lung function among Latinos. PMID:25301036

  7. Systematic phenotyping and correlation of biomarkers with lung function and histology in lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Isis E; Amarie, Oana V; Mutze, Kathrin; Königshoff, Melanie; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2016-05-15

    To date, phenotyping and disease course prediction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) primarily relies on lung function measures. Blood biomarkers were recently proposed for diagnostic and outcome prediction in IPF, yet their correlation with lung function and histology remains unclear. Here, we comprehensively assessed biomarkers in liquid biopsies and correlated their abundance with lung function and histology during the onset, progression, and resolution of lung fibrosis, with the aim to more precisely evaluate disease progression in the preclinical model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Importantly, the strongest correlation of lung function with histological extent of fibrosis was observed at day 14, whereas lung function was unchanged at days 28 and 56, even when histological assessment showed marked fibrotic lesions. Although matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), MMP-9, and PAI-1 were significantly elevated in broncheoalveolar lavage of fibrotic mice, only soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) was elevated in the peripheral blood of fibrotic mice and was strongly correlated with the extent of fibrosis. Importantly, tissue-bound ICAM-1 was also elevated in lung homogenates, with prominent staining in hyperplastic type II alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells. In summary, we show that lung function decline is not a prerequisite for histologically evident fibrosis, particularly during the onset or resolution thereof. Plasma levels of sICAM-1 strongly correlate with the extent of lung fibrosis, and may thus be considered for the assessment of intraindividual therapeutic studies in preclinical studies of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26993522

  8. Hypothermic lung preservation functions, six or more years later.

    PubMed Central

    Garzon, A A; Goldstein, S; Okadigwe, C I; Paley, N B; Minkowitz, S

    1977-01-01

    The functions of each lung were measured 41 and 79 months following hypothermic twenty-four four lung preservation and autotransplantation in six and four dogs respectively. Functional results were compared with long-term autotransplanted canine lungs. Compliance, total lung capacity, functional reserve capacity and ventilation of preserved lungs were similar to autotransplanted lungs, and only slightly decreased as compared with normal animals. There was no statistically significant difference between the pulmonary diffusion capacity and oxygen uptake of the preserved and autotransplanted lungs group and autotransplants alone. However, in both groups, diffusion capacity and oxygen uptake were decreased as compared with intact animals. Pulmonary hypertension was found on occlusion of the contralateral lung's artery: it was due to increased pulmonary vascular resistance. No gross narrowing of the pulmonary artery or venous anastomosis was found that could explain the increased resistance. Diffuse emphysema of various degrees was observed in all animals. This study seems to indicate that hypothermic preservation of the lung does not affect significantly the long-term functional ability of the organ, and probably will have practical value in future clinical lung transplantation. Images Fig. 1. PMID:341822

  9. GENETIC ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HUMAN CHITINASES AND LUNG FUNCTION IN COPD

    PubMed Central

    Aminuddin, F.; Akhabir, L.; Stefanowicz, D.; Paré, P.D.; Connett, J.E.; Anthonisen, N.R.; Fahy, J.V.; Seibold, M.A.; Burchard, E.G.; Eng, C.; Gulsvik, A.; Bakke, P.; Cho, M. H.; Litonjua, A.; Lomas, D.A.; Anderson, W. H.; Beaty, T.H.; Crapo, J.D.; Silverman, E.K.; Sandford, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Two primary chitinases have been identified in humans – acid mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1). Mammalian chitinases have been observed to affect the host’s immune response. The aim of this study was to test for association between genetic variation in the chitinases and phenotypes related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Polymorphisms in the chitinase genes were selected based on previous associations with respiratory diseases. Polymorphisms that were associated with lung function level or rate of decline in the Lung Health Study (LHS) cohort were analyzed for association with COPD affection status in four other COPD case-control populations. Chitinase activity and protein levels were also related to genotypes. In the Caucasian LHS population, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was significantly different between the AA and GG genotypic groups of the AMCase rs3818822 polymorphism. Subjects with the GG genotype had higher AMCase protein and chitinase activity compared with AA homozygotes. For CHIT1 rs2494303, a significant association was observed between rate of decline in FEV1 and the different genotypes. In the African American LHS population, CHIT1 rs2494303 and AMCase G339T genotypes were associated with rate of decline in FEV1. Although a significant effect of chitinase gene alleles was found on lung function level and decline in the LHS, we were unable to replicate the associations with COPD affection status in the other COPD study groups. PMID:22200767

  10. Circulating MicroRNAs: Association with Lung Function in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Alvin T.; Sharma, Sunita; Davis, Joshua S.; Spina, Joseph; Howard, Dagnie; McEnroy, Kevin; Moore, Kip; Sylvia, Jody; Qiu, Weiliang; Weiss, Scott T.; Tantisira, Kelan G.

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are key transcriptional and network regulators previously associated with asthma susceptibility. However, their role in relation to asthma severity has not been delineated. Objective We hypothesized that circulating microRNAs could serve as biomarkers of changes in lung function in asthma patients. Methods We isolated microRNAs from serum samples obtained at randomization for 160 participants of the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Using a TaqMan microRNA array containing 754 microRNA primers, we tested for the presence of known asthma microRNAs, and assessed the association of the individual microRNAs with lung function as measured by FEV1/FVC, FEV1% and FVC%. We further tested the subset of FEV1/FVC microRNAs for sex-specific and lung developmental associations. Results Of the 108 well-detected circulating microRNAs, 74 (68.5%) had previously been linked to asthma susceptibility. We found 22 (20.3%), 4 (3.7%) and 8 (7.4%) microRNAs to be associated with FEV1/FVC, FEV1% and FVC%, respectively. 8 (of 22) FEV1/FVC, 3 (of 4) FEV1% and 1 (of 8) FVC% microRNAs had functionally validated target genes that have been linked via genome wide association studies to asthma and FEV1 change. Among the 22 FEV1/FVC microRNAs, 9 (40.9%) remain associated with FEV1/FVC in boys alone in a sex-stratified analysis (compared with 3 FEV1/FVC microRNAs in girls alone), 7 (31.8%) were associated with fetal lung development, and 3 (13.6%) in both. Ontology analyses revealed enrichment for pathways integral to asthma, including PPAR signaling, G-protein coupled signaling, actin and myosin binding, and respiratory system development. Conclusions Circulating microRNAs reflect asthma biology and are associated with lung function differences in asthmatics. They may represent biomarkers of asthma severity. PMID:27362794

  11. LUNG FUNCTION IN SCHOOL CHILDREN: 1971-1972 CHATTANOOGA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies of lung function in children have indicated that decreases in lung function are associated with higher air pollution exposures. For this reason, three quarter second timed forced expiratory volume was chosen as one of the health indicators in the Environmental Pr...

  12. The Lung Physiome: merging imaging-based measures with predictive computational models of structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2009-01-01

    Global measurements of the lung provided by standard pulmonary function tests do not give insight into the regional basis of lung function and lung disease. Advances in imaging methodologies, computer technologies, and subject-specific simulations are creating new opportunities for studying structure-function relationships in the lung through multi-disciplinary research. The digital Human Lung Atlas is an imaging-based resource compiled from male and female subjects spanning several decades of age. The Atlas comprises both structural and functional measures, and includes computational models derived to match individual subjects for personalized prediction of function. The computational models in the Atlas form part of the Lung Physiome project, which is an international effort to develop integrative models of lung function at all levels of biological organization. The computational models provide mechanistic interpretation of imaging measures; the Atlas provides structural data upon which to base model geometry, and functional data against which to test hypotheses. The example of simulating air flow on a subject-specific basis is considered. Methods for deriving multi-scale models of the airway geometry for individual subjects in the Atlas are outlined, and methods for modeling turbulent flows in the airway are reviewed. PMID:20835982

  13. Metabolic Functions of the Lung, Disorders and Associated Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Alcibey; Arce, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The primary function of the lungs is gas exchange. Approximately 400 million years ago, the Earth’s atmosphere gained enough oxygen in the gas phase for the animals that emerged from the sea to breathe air. The first lungs were merely primitive air sacs with a few vessels in the walls that served as accessory organs of gas exchange to supplement the gills. Eons later, as animals grew accustomed to a solely terrestrial life, the lungs became highly compartmentalized to provide the vast air-blood surface necessary for O2 uptake and CO2 elimination, and a respiratory control system was developed to regulate breathing in accordance with metabolic demands and other needs. With the evolution and phylogenetic development, lungs were taking a variety of other specialized functions to maintain homeostasis, which we will call the non-respiratory functions of the lung and that often, and by mistake, are believed to have little or no connection with the replacement gas. In this review, we focus on the metabolic functions of the lung, perhaps the least known, and mainly, in the lipid metabolism and blood-adult lung vascular endothelium interaction. When these functions are altered, respiratory disorders or diseases appear, which are discussed concisely, emphasizing how they impact the most important function of the lungs: external respiration.

  14. Adrenal function testing.

    PubMed

    Dluhy, R G

    1978-12-01

    Glucocorticoid stimulation and suppression tests are essential to the definitive diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, because they document abnormal physiologic control of hormonal secretion. Similarly, diseases of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis are diagnosed by mineralocorticoid stimulation and suppression testing. [Ed. Note: See Moore TJ, Williams GH: Adrenal causes of hypertension, in this issue.] Unlike tests of glucocorticoid function, testing of the renin-angiotension-aldosterone system is more complicated, because knowledge of posture and dietary sodium are necessary to interpret the results. However, measurement of the tropic hormone renin and plasma levels of aldosterone can be accurately made, allowing precise definition of this system. Errors are most commonly encountered when dynamic tests of cortisol output are performed in patients taking medications that may interfere with the assays or with the metabolism of the administered compounds, such as dexamethasone or metyrapone. Abnormal, spurious values may also be obtained in some individuals who do not have adrenocortical hyperfunction if they are very obese or if testing is performed in a setting of clinical stress. Careful attention to these pitfalls will avoid errors and allow the clinician to arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:216524

  15. SQUID method of lung contamination testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinická, F.; Šimáček, I.; Jurdák, P.; Cigáň, A.; Maňka, J.

    2006-03-01

    We are reporting on the development of a SQUID magnetometric method of ferromagnetic dust quantification in the human lungs. In order to solve this problem we utilize a forward method of magnetized ferromagnetic particle (dipole) distribution 3D modeling in human lung torso and in an arc welder's lungs. We also solve the inverse problem, by which the amount of dust in the lungs is estimated using the results of the remanent magnetic induction Br measurement upon the human chest. We state the formula for SQUID measured output voltage U to Br conversion for the second order gradiometer, which is in a highly dipole position and density dependent. We utilize a low-Tc second order rf SQUID gradiometer with the sensitivity of 10-14 T in the unit frequency range.

  16. Effect of Five Genetic Variants Associated with Lung Function on the Risk of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, and Their Joint Effects on Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Soler Artigas, María; Wain, Louise V.; Repapi, Emmanouela; Obeidat, Ma'en; Sayers, Ian; Burton, Paul R.; Johnson, Toby; Zhao, Jing Hua; Albrecht, Eva; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kerr, Shona M.; Smith, Blair H.; Cadby, Gemma; Hui, Jennie; Palmer, Lyle J.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Whincup, Peter H.; Ebrahim, Shah; Smith, George Davey; Barroso, Inês; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Cooper, Cyrus; Dennison, Elaine; Shaheen, Seif O.; Liu, Jason Z.; Marchini, Jonathan; Dahgam, Santosh; Naluai, Åsa Torinsson; Olin, Anna-Carin; Karrasch, Stefan; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger; McKeever, Tricia M.; Pavord, Ian D.; Heliövaara, Markku; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Blakey, John D.; Kähönen, Mika; Britton, John R.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Holloway, John W.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; James, Alan L.; Jackson, Cathy M.; Hall, Ian P.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Genomic loci are associated with FEV1 or the ratio of FEV1 to FVC in population samples, but their association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not yet been proven, nor have their combined effects on lung function and COPD been studied. Objectives: To test association with COPD of variants at five loci (TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER, and THSD4) and to evaluate joint effects on lung function and COPD of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and variants at the previously reported locus near HHIP. Methods: By sampling from 12 population-based studies (n = 31,422), we obtained genotype data on 3,284 COPD case subjects and 17,538 control subjects for sentinel SNPs in TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER, and THSD4. In 24,648 individuals (including 2,890 COPD case subjects and 13,862 control subjects), we additionally obtained genotypes for rs12504628 near HHIP. Each allele associated with lung function decline at these six SNPs contributed to a risk score. We studied the association of the risk score to lung function and COPD. Measurements and Main Results: Association with COPD was significant for three loci (TNS1, GSTCD, and HTR4) and the previously reported HHIP locus, and suggestive and directionally consistent for AGER and TSHD4. Compared with the baseline group (7 risk alleles), carrying 10–12 risk alleles was associated with a reduction in FEV1 (β = –72.21 ml, P = 3.90 × 10−4) and FEV1/FVC (β = –1.53%, P = 6.35 × 10−6), and with COPD (odds ratio = 1.63, P = 1.46 × 10−5). Conclusions: Variants in TNS1, GSTCD, and HTR4 are associated with COPD. Our highest risk score category was associated with a 1.6-fold higher COPD risk than the population average score. PMID:21965014

  17. Pediatric Arm Function Test

    PubMed Central

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Rowe, Jan; Vogtle, Laura; Barman, Joydip

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although there are several validated upper-extremity measures in young children with cerebral palsy (CP), none primarily assess capacity to carry out actions and tasks with the more-affected arm. To address this need, we developed the Pediatric Arm Function Test (PAFT), which involves behavioral observation of how children use their more-affected arm during structured play in the laboratory or clinic. This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the PAFT Functional Ability scale. Design In Study 1, 20 children between 2–8 years with a wide range of upper-extremity hemiparesis due to CP completed the PAFT on two occasions separated by three weeks. In Study 2, 41 children between 2–6 years with similar characteristics completed the PAFT and received a grade reflecting severity of more-affected arm motor impairment. Results In Study 1, the PAFT test-retest reliability correlation coefficient was 0.74. In Study 2, convergent validity was supported by a strong, inverse correlation (r = −0.6, p < .001) between PAFT scores and grade of impairment. Conclusions The PAFT Functional Ability scale is a reliable and valid measure of more-affected arm motor capacity in children with CP between 2–6 years. It can be employed to measure upper-extremity neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:23103486

  18. Natural variability of lung function in young healthy school children.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Jane; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Lum, Sooky; Wade, Angie; Stocks, Janet

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge about long-term variability of lung function in healthy children is essential when monitoring and treating those with respiratory disease over time. The aim of this study was to define the natural variability in spirometry in young children after an interval of 12 months.The Size and Lung function In Children study was a prospective study designed to assess spirometry and body size, shape and composition in a multi-ethnic population of London school children. 14 schools with a wide range of socioeconomic circumstances were recruited. Spirometric and anthropometric assessments and parental questionnaires pertaining to respiratory symptoms, previous medical history, pubertal status and socioeconomic circumstances were completed at baseline and ∼1 year later.Technically acceptable spirometry data on two occasions ∼1 year apart (range 9-16 months) were available in 758 children (39% boys, mean±sd age 8.1±1.6 years), 593 of whom were classified as "healthy". Mean±sd within-subject between-test variability was 0.05±0.6 z-scores, with 95% of all the children achieving a between-test variability within ±1.2 z-scores (equating to ∼13% predicted).Natural variations of up to 1.2 z-scores occur in healthy children over ∼1 year. These must be considered when interpreting results from annual reviews in those with lung disease who are otherwise stable, if unnecessary further investigations or changes in treatment are to be avoided. PMID:27076582

  19. Nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms, gene expression and lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the pleiotropic effects of nitric oxide (NO) within the lungs, it is likely that NO is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to test for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three NO synthase (NOS) genes and lung function, as well as to examine gene expression and protein levels in relation to the genetic variation. Methods One SNP in each NOS gene (neuronal NOS (NOS1), inducible NOS (NOS2), and endothelial NOS (NOS3)) was genotyped in the Lung Health Study (LHS) and correlated with lung function. One SNP (rs1800779) was also analyzed for association with COPD and lung function in four COPD case–control populations. Lung tissue expression of NOS3 mRNA and protein was tested in individuals of known genotype for rs1800779. Immunohistochemistry of lung tissue was used to localize NOS3 expression. Results For the NOS3 rs1800779 SNP, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second in the LHS was significantly higher in the combined AG + GG genotypic groups compared with the AA genotypic group. Gene expression and protein levels in lung tissue were significantly lower in subjects with the AG + GG genotypes than in AA subjects. NOS3 protein was expressed in the airway epithelium and subjects with the AA genotype demonstrated higher NOS3 expression compared with AG and GG individuals. However, we were not able to replicate the associations with COPD or lung function in the other COPD study groups. Conclusions Variants in the NOS genes were not associated with lung function or COPD status. However, the G allele of rs1800779 resulted in a decrease of NOS3 gene expression and protein levels and this has implications for the numerous disease states that have been associated with this polymorphism. PMID:24192154

  20. PREOPERATIVE PREDICTION OF LUNG FUNCTION IN PNEUMONECTOMY BY SPIROMETRY AND LUNG PERFUSION SCINTIGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused by common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Loss of lung tissue in such patients can worsen much the postoperative pulmonary function. So it is necessary to asses the postoperative pulmonary function especially after maximal resection, i.e. pneumonectomy. Objective: To check over the accuracy of preoperative prognosis of postoperative lung function after pneumonectomy using spirometry and lung perfusion scinigraphy. Material and methods: The study was done on 17 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery, who were treated previously at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01. 12. 2008. to 01. 06. 2011. Postoperative pulmonary function expressed as ppoFEV1 (predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second) was prognosticated preoperatively using spirometry, i.e.. simple calculation according to the number of the pulmonary segments to be removed and perfusion lung scintigraphy. Results: There is no significant deviation of postoperative achieved values of FEV1 from predicted ones obtained by both methods, and there is no significant differences between predicted values (ppoFEV1) obtained by spirometry and perfusion scintigraphy. Conclusion: It is necessary to asses the postoperative pulmonary function before lung resection to avoid postoperative respiratory failure and other cardiopulmonary complications. It is absolutely necessary for pneumonectomy, i.e.. maximal pulmonary resection. It can be done with great possibility using spirometry or perfusion lung scintigraphy. PMID:23378687

  1. The Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Chris; Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of phthalate exposure on lung function in the Canadian population. Methods: We tested the association between 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEVl), forced vital capacity (FVC), and urinary phthalate metabolite levels in a nationally representative sample of 3147, from 6 to 49 years old. Results: An interquartile increase in mono-n-butyl phthalate was associated with decreases in percent predicted FEV1 of 0.8% (95% confidence interval = 0.3 to 1.4) and in FVC of 0.9% (95% confidence interval = 0.3 to 1.5). Results were similar for mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites, but significant effects of the latter were only seen in males and those at least 17 years old. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that phthalate exposure may adversely affect lung function in the Canadian population. Given that these chemicals are ubiquitous, the population health burden may be significant if the associations were causal. PMID:24709763

  2. Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Functional Lung Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dregely, Isabel

    Hyperpolarized 129Xe (HXe) is a non-invasive contrast agent for lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which upon inhalation follows the functional pathway of oxygen in the lung by dissolving into lung tissue structures and entering the blood stream. HXe MRI therefore provides unique opportunities for functional lung imaging of gas exchange which occurs from alveolar air spaces across the air-blood boundary into parenchymal tissue. However challenges in acquisition speed and signal-to-noise ratio have limited the development of a HXe imaging biomarker to diagnose lung disease. This thesis addresses these challenges by introducing parallel imaging to HXe MRI. Parallel imaging requires dedicated hardware. This work describes design, implementation, and characterization of a 32-channel phased-array chest receive coil with an integrated asymmetric birdcage transmit coil tuned to the HXe resonance on a 3 Tesla MRI system. Using the newly developed human chest coil, a functional HXe imaging method, multiple exchange time xenon magnetization transfer contrast (MXTC) is implemented. MXTC dynamically encodes HXe gas exchange into the image contrast. This permits two parameters to be derived regionally which are related to gas-exchange functionality by characterizing tissue-to-alveolar-volume ratio and alveolar wall thickness in the lung parenchyma. Initial results in healthy subjects demonstrate the sensitivity of MXTC by quantifying the subtle changes in lung microstructure in response to orientation and lung inflation. Our results in subjects with lung disease show that the MXTC-derived functional tissue density parameter exhibits excellent agreement with established imaging techniques. The newly developed dynamic parameter, which characterizes the alveolar wall, was elevated in subjects with lung disease, most likely indicating parenchymal inflammation. In light of these observations we believe that MXTC has potential as a biomarker for the regional quantification of 1

  3. Regional lung function and mechanics using image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kai

    The main function of the respiratory system is gas exchange. Since many disease or injury conditions can cause biomechanical or material property changes that can alter lung function, there is a great interest in measuring regional lung function and mechanics. In this thesis, we present a technique that uses multiple respiratory-gated CT images of the lung acquired at different levels of inflation with both breath-hold static scans and retrospectively reconstructed 4D dynamic scans, along with non-rigid 3D image registration, to make local estimates of lung tissue function and mechanics. We validate our technique using anatomical landmarks and functional Xe-CT estimated specific ventilation. The major contributions of this thesis include: (1) developing the registration derived regional expansion estimation approach in breath-hold static scans and dynamic 4DCT scans, (2) developing a method to quantify lobar sliding from image registration derived displacement field, (3) developing a method for measurement of radiation-induced pulmonary function change following a course of radiation therapy, (4) developing and validating different ventilation measures in 4DCT. The ability of our technique to estimate regional lung mechanics and function as a surrogate of the Xe-CT ventilation imaging for the entire lung from quickly and easily obtained respiratory-gated images, is a significant contribution to functional lung imaging because of the potential increase in resolution, and large reductions in imaging time, radiation, and contrast agent exposure. Our technique may be useful to detect and follow the progression of lung disease such as COPD, may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy.

  4. Systematic review of pleural plaques and lung function

    PubMed Central

    Kerper, Laura E.; Lynch, Heather N.; Zu, Ke; Tao, Ge; Utell, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context US EPA proposed a Reference Concentration for Libby amphibole asbestos based on the premise that pleural plaques are adverse and cause lung function deficits. Objective We conducted a systematic review to evaluate whether there is an association between pleural plaques and lung function and ascertain whether results were dependent on the method used to identify plaques. Methods Using the PubMed database, we identified studies that evaluated pleural plaques and lung function. We assessed each study for quality, then integrated evidence and assessed associations based on the Bradford Hill guidelines. We also compared the results of HRCT studies to those of X-ray studies. Results We identified 16 HRCT and 36 X-ray studies. We rated six HRCT and 16 X-ray studies as higher quality based on a risk-of-bias analysis. Half of the higher quality studies reported small but statistically significant mean lung function decrements associated with plaques. None of the differences were clinically significant. Many studies had limitations, such as inappropriate controls and/or insufficient adjustment for confounders. There was little consistency in the direction of effect for the most commonly reported measurements. X-ray results were more variable than HRCT results. Pleural plaques were not associated with changes in lung function over time in longitudinal studies. Conclusion The weight of evidence indicates that pleural plaques do not impact lung function. Observed associations are most likely due to unidentified abnormalities or other factors. PMID:25518994

  5. Rapamycin inhibited the function of lung CSCs via SOX2.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Xia; Sun, Feng-Feng; He, Bin-Feng; Zhan, Xiao-Feng; Song, Juan; Chen, Sheng-Song; Yu, Shi-Cang; Ye, Xiao-Qun

    2016-04-01

    The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is the source of occurrence, aggravation, and recurrence of lung cancer. Accordingly, targeting killing the lung CSCs has been suggested to be an effective approach for lung cancer treatment. In this study, we showed that rapamycin inhibited the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction in A549 cells and improved the sensitivity to cisplatin (DDP). The mechanisms involve inhibition of the SOX2 expression, cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, and sphere formation. Interestingly, knocked down SOX2 was a similar effect with rapamycin in A549 sphere. Furthermore, we showed that ectopic expression of Sox2 in A549 cells was sufficient to render them more resistant to rapamycin treatment in vitro. These data suggested that rapamycin inhibited the function of lung CSCs via SOX2. It will be of great interest to further explore the therapeutic strategies of lung cancer. PMID:26526583

  6. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil mist-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvholm, B.; Bake, B.; Lavenius, B.; Thiringer, G.; Vokmann, R.

    1982-06-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to oil mist. The average exposure time was 16.2 years. One hundred fifty-nine office workers served as controls. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed nonsmokers v. 2% of the nonsmoking controls having cough at least three months a year. There were non significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the office workers. The lung function of 25 nonsmoking exposed men was further examined with other lung function tests. The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly.

  7. Exercise testing and training in chronic lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Research examining the clinical value of exercise testing and training in patients with chronic lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is less robust compared with cardiac populations but nevertheless highly supportive. Functional limitations are common in these patients, and exercise testing provides important information pertaining to the degree of this limitation, disease severity, and prognosis. Moreover, exercise testing, particularly in conjunction with ventilatory expired gas analysis, serves as a valuable diagnostic tool when the mechanism of the functional limitation and abnormal exertional symptoms is uncertain. Most work with respect to the benefits of exercise training has been performed in chronic obstructive lung disease cohorts and is used to support pulmonary rehabilitation. Emerging data indicate that exercise training is likewise beneficial in patients with interstitial lung disease and PAH. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the value of exercise testing and training and provides recommendations for clinical practice. PMID:21545932

  8. Microbial colonization and lung function in adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hector, Andreas; Kirn, Tobias; Ralhan, Anjali; Graepler-Mainka, Ute; Berenbrinker, Sina; Riethmueller, Joachim; Hogardt, Michael; Wagner, Marlies; Pfleger, Andreas; Autenrieth, Ingo; Kappler, Matthias; Griese, Matthias; Eber, Ernst; Martus, Peter; Hartl, Dominik

    2016-05-01

    With intensified antibiotic therapy and longer survival, patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are colonized with a more complex pattern of bacteria and fungi. However, the clinical relevance of these emerging pathogens for lung function remains poorly defined. The aim of this study was to assess the association of bacterial and fungal colonization patterns with lung function in adolescent patients with CF. Microbial colonization patterns and lung function parameters were assessed in 770 adolescent European (German/Austrian) CF patients in a retrospective study (median follow-up time: 10years). Colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA were most strongly associated with loss of lung function, while mainly colonization with Haemophilus influenzae was associated with preserved lung function. Aspergillus fumigatus was the only species that was associated with an increased risk for infection with P. aeruginosa. Microbial interaction analysis revealed three distinct microbial clusters within the longitudinal course of CF lung disease. Collectively, this study identified potentially protective and harmful microbial colonization patterns in adolescent CF patients. Further studies in different patient cohorts are required to evaluate these microbial patterns and to assess their clinical relevance. PMID:26856310

  9. Clinical value of CT-based preoperative software assisted lung lobe volumetry for predicting postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Beyer, Florian; Hoffknecht, Petra; Dicken, Volker; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Lange, Tobias; Thomas, Michael; Heindel, Walter

    2005-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate a morphology-based approach for prediction of postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after lung resection from preoperative CT scans. Fifteen Patients with surgically treated (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) bronchogenic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. A preoperative chest CT and pulmonary function tests before and after surgery were performed. CT scans were analyzed by prototype software: automated segmentation and volumetry of lung lobes was performed with minimal user interaction. Determined volumes of different lung lobes were used to predict postoperative FEV1 as percentage of the preoperative values. Predicted FEV1 values were compared to the observed postoperative values as standard of reference. Patients underwent lobectomy in twelve cases (6 upper lobes; 1 middle lobe; 5 lower lobes; 6 right side; 6 left side) and pneumonectomy in three cases. Automated calculation of predicted postoperative lung function was successful in all cases. Predicted FEV1 ranged from 54% to 95% (mean 75% +/- 11%) of the preoperative values. Two cases with obviously erroneous LFT were excluded from analysis. Mean error of predicted FEV1 was 20 +/- 160 ml, indicating absence of systematic error; mean absolute error was 7.4 +/- 3.3% respective 137 +/- 77 ml/s. The 200 ml reproducibility criterion for FEV1 was met in 11 of 13 cases (85%). In conclusion, software-assisted prediction of postoperative lung function yielded a clinically acceptable agreement with the observed postoperative values. This method might add useful information for evaluation of functional operability of patients with lung cancer.

  10. Can infant lung function predict respiratory morbidity during the first year of life in preterm infants?

    PubMed

    Proietti, Elena; Riedel, Thomas; Fuchs, Oliver; Pramana, Isabelle; Singer, Florian; Schmidt, Anne; Kuehni, Claudia; Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Compared with term-born infants, preterm infants have increased respiratory morbidity in the first year of life. We investigated whether lung function tests performed near term predict subsequent respiratory morbidity during the first year of life and compared this to standard clinical parameters in preterms. The prospective birth cohort included randomly selected preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lung function (tidal breathing and multiple-breath washout) was measured at 44 weeks post-menstrual age during natural sleep. We assessed respiratory morbidity (wheeze, hospitalisation, inhalation and home oxygen therapy) after 1 year using a standardised questionnaire. We first assessed the association between lung function and subsequent respiratory morbidity. Secondly, we compared the predictive power of standard clinical predictors with and without lung function data. In 166 preterm infants, tidal volume, time to peak tidal expiratory flow/expiratory time ratio and respiratory rate were significantly associated with subsequent wheeze. In comparison with standard clinical predictors, lung function did not improve the prediction of later respiratory morbidity in an individual child. Although associated with later wheeze, noninvasive infant lung function shows large physiological variability and does not add to clinically relevant risk prediction for subsequent respiratory morbidity in an individual preterm. PMID:24696112

  11. AB 40. Six minute walking test and DLCO for non-small cell lung cancer. Easy performed tests in every day practice

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Kerenidi, Theodora; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Tremma, Ourania; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Ageliki; Foroulis, Christoforos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mylwnaki, Efi; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated that reduced lung function is a significant risk factor for lung cancer and increase surgical risk in patients with operable stages of lung cancer. The aim of the study was to perform pulmonary function tests and investigate which is a favorable respiratory function test for overall survival between lung cancer stages. Methods Lung function tests were performed to lung cancer patients with non-small cell lung cancer of stage I, II, III and IV (241 patients in total). They had the last follow-up consecutively between December 2006 and July 2008. The staging was decided according to the sixth edition of TNM classification of NSCLC. The Forced Expiratory Volume in 1sec (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLCO) were measured according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines. The 6 Minute Walking Test (6MWT) was measured according to the American Thoracic Society. Results There was a significant association of the DLCO upon diagnosis and overall survival for stage II (P<0.007) and IV (P<0.003). Furthermore, there was a significant association between 6MWT and overall survival for stage III (P<0.001) and stage IV (P<0.010). Conclusions The significance for each lung function test is different among the stages of NSCLC. DLCO and 6MWT upon admission are the most valuable prognostic factors for overall survival of NSCLC.

  12. Six minute walking test and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity for non-small cell lung cancer: easy performed tests in every day practice

    PubMed Central

    Kerenidi, Theodora; Huang, Haidong; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Tremma, Ourania; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Kalianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Ageliki; Foroulis, Christoforos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated that reduced lung function is a significant risk factor for lung cancer and increased surgical risk in patients with operable stages of lung cancer. The aim of the study was to perform pulmonary function tests and investigate which is a favorable respiratory function test for overall survival between lung cancer stages. Methods Lung function tests were performed to lung cancer patients with non-small cell lung cancer of stage I, II, III and IV (241 patients in total). They had the last follow-up consecutively between December 2006 and July 2008. The staging was decided according to the sixth edition of TNM classification of NSCLC. The Forced Expiratory Volume in 1sec (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLCO) were measured according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines. The 6 Minute Walking Test (6MWT) was measured according to the American Thoracic Society. Results There was a significant association of the DLCO upon diagnosis and overall survival for stage II (P<0.007) and IV (P<0.003). Furthermore, there was a significant association between 6MWT and overall survival for stage III (P<0.001) and stage IV (P<0.010). Conclusions The significance for each lung function test is different among the stages of NSCLC. DLCO and 6MWT upon admission are the most valuable prognostic factors for overall survival of NSCLC. PMID:23205280

  13. Validating Excised Rodent Lungs for Functional Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lilburn, David M. L.; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Six, Joseph S.; Stupic, Karl F.; Shaw, Dominick E.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ex vivo rodent lung models are explored for physiological measurements of respiratory function with hyperpolarized (hp) 129Xe MRI. It is shown that excised lung models allow for simplification of the technical challenges involved and provide valuable physiological insights that are not feasible using in vivo MRI protocols. A custom designed breathing apparatus enables MR images of gas distribution on increasing ventilation volumes of actively inhaled hp 129Xe. Straightforward hp 129Xe MRI protocols provide residual lung volume (RV) data and permit for spatially resolved tracking of small hp 129Xe probe volumes during the inhalation cycle. Hp 129Xe MRI of lung function in the excised organ demonstrates the persistence of post mortem airway responsiveness to intravenous methacholine challenges. The presented methodology enables physiology of lung function in health and disease without additional regulatory approval requirements and reduces the technical and logistical challenges with hp gas MRI experiments. The post mortem lung functional data can augment histological measurements and should be of interest for drug development studies. PMID:24023683

  14. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways. PMID:22835436

  15. Partial liquid ventilation improves lung function in ventilation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Vazquez de Anda, G F; Lachmann, R A; Verbrugge, S J; Gommers, D; Haitsma, J J; Lachmann, B

    2001-07-01

    Disturbances in lung function and lung mechanics are present after ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Therefore, the authors investigated whether partial liquid ventilation can re-establish lung function after ventilation-induced lung injury. Adult rats were exposed to high PIP without PEEP for 20 min. Thereafter, the animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first group was killed immediately after randomization and used as an untreated control. The second group received only sham treatment and ventilation, and three groups received treatment with perfluorocarbon (10 mL x kg(-1), 20 mL x kg(-1), and 20 ml x kg(-1) plus an additional 5 mL x kg(-1) after 1 h). The four groups were maintained on mechanical ventilation for a further 2-h observation period. Blood gases, lung mechanics, total protein concentration, minimal surface tension, and small/large surfactant aggregates ratio were determined. The results show that in ventilation-induced lung injury, partial liquid ventilation with different amounts of perflubron improves gas exchange and pulmonary function, when compared to a group of animals treated with standard respiratory care. These effects have been observed despite the presence of a high intra-alveolar protein concentration, especially in those groups treated with 10 and 20 mL of perflubron. The data suggest that replacement of perfluorocarbon, lost over time, is crucial to maintain the constant effects of partial liquid ventilation. PMID:11510811

  16. Thyroid Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Irving T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes two tests, T-4 and T-3, for hypothyroid based on the binding of the hormones by proteins. The tests were performed in courses for physicians, clinical chemists, laboratory technicians, and undergraduate science students by the individuals involved and on their own sera. These tests are commercially available in kit form. (GA)

  17. [Lung function changes during anesthesia and thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Bigler, Dennis R

    2003-01-13

    After anaesthesia and thorax surgery, a significant reduction in pulmonary function with up to a 50% decrease in FEV1, FVC, and FRC is seen, leading to a high risk of atelectasis and hypoxia, and therefore making respiratory complications the major course of perioperative morbidity and mortality in this group of patients. This severe reduction in lung function gradually diminishes within three weeks, but postoperative pain and sedation increase the deterioration in lung function, and treatment is therefore based on anaesthetic drugs with a short elimination time and effective postoperative pain treatment with epidural analgesia or other regional blockade, and minimal use of opioids. Together with more sparing surgical methods, it is possible to operate on patients with severely reduced preoperative lung function (FEV1 = 0.651 or 22% of predicted value) with lung resection and immediate extubation. A reduction in pulmonary complications after thoracic surgery from 25-30% down to 10-15% is also seen, depending on age and preoperative lung function. PMID:12555706

  18. Surgical trauma and immune functional changes following major lung resection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Calvin S H; Lau, Kelvin K W

    2015-02-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has evolved greatly over the last two decades. VATS major lung resection for early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has been shown to result in less postoperative pain, less pulmonary dysfunction postoperatively, shorter hospital stay, and better patient tolerance to adjuvant chemotherapy compared with patients who underwent thoracotomy. Several recent studies have even reported improved long-term survival in those who underwent VATS major lung resection for early stage NSCLC when compared with open technique. Interestingly, the immune status and autologous tumor killing ability of lung cancer patients have previously been associated with long-term survival. VATS major lung resection can result in an attenuated postoperative inflammatory response. Furthermore, the minimal invasive approach better preserve patients' postoperative immune function, leading to higher circulating natural killer and T cells numbers, T cell oxidative activity, and levels of immunochemokines such as insulin growth factor binding protein 3 following VATS compared with thoracotomy. Apart from host immunity, the angiogenic environment following surgery may also have a role in determining cancer recurrence and possibly survival. Whether differences in immunological and biochemical mediators contribute significantly towards improved clinical outcomes following VATS major lung resection for lung cancer remains to be further investigated. Future studies will also need to address whether the reduced access trauma from advanced thoracic surgical techniques, such as single-port VATS, can further attenuate the postoperative inflammatory response. PMID:25829712

  19. Effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on lung function: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bablekos, George D; Michaelides, Stylianos A; Analitis, Antonis; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To present and integrate findings of studies investigating the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on various aspects of lung function. METHODS: We extensively reviewed literature of the past 24 years concerning the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in comparison to the open procedure on many aspects of lung function including spirometric values, arterial blood gases, respiratory muscle performance and aspects of breathing control, by critically analyzing physiopathologic interpretations and clinically important conclusions. A total of thirty-four articles were used to extract information for the meta-analysis concerning the impact of the laparoscopic procedure on lung function and respiratory physiopathology. The quality of the literature reviewed was evaluated by the number of their citations and the total impact factor of the corresponding journals. A fixed and random effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled standardized mean difference of studied parameters for laparoscopic (LC) and open (OC) procedures. A crude comparison of the two methods using all available information was performed testing the postoperative values expressed as percentages of the preoperative ones using the Mann-Whitney two-sample test. RESULTS: Most of the relevant studies have investigated and compared changes in spirometric parameters.The median percentage and interquartile range (IQR) of preoperative values in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced expiratory flow (FEF) at 25%-75% of FVC (FEF25%-75%) expressed as percentage of their preoperative values 24 h after LC and OC were respectively as follows: [77.6 (73.0, 80.0) L vs 55.4 (50.0, 64.0) L, P < 0.001; 76.0 (72.3, 81.0) L vs 52.5 (50.0, 56.7) L, P < 0.001; and 78.8 (68.8, 80.9) L/s vs 60.0 (36.1, 66.1) L/s, P = 0.005]. Concerning arterial blood gases, partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2 (kPa)] at 24 or 48 h after surgical treatment showed reductions that were significantly

  20. Cadaver lung donors: effect of preharvest ventilation on graft function.

    PubMed

    Ulicny, K S; Egan, T M; Lambert, C J; Reddick, R L; Wilcox, B R

    1993-05-01

    The pulmonary donor pool would increase substantially if lungs could be safely transplanted after cessation of circulation. To determine whether ventilation of cadaver lungs could improve graft function, canine donors were sacrificed and then ventilated with 100% oxygen (n = 6) or 100% nitrogen (n = 6); 6 served as nonventilated controls. Four hours after death, the lungs were flushed with modified Euro-Collins solution and harvested. Controls were ventilated with 100% oxygen only during flush and harvest. Recipients were rendered dependent on the transplanted lung by occlusion of the right pulmonary artery and bronchus 1 hour after transplantation. Ventilation was maintained at a constant inspired oxygen fraction of 0.4. Four controls died of pulmonary edema shortly after occlusion of the native lung. The mean arterial oxygen tensions in the oxygen-ventilated, nitrogen-ventilated, and control groups at the end of 8 hours were 81 mm Hg (n = 4), 88 mm Hg (n = 3), and 55 mm Hg (n = 2), respectively. Postmortem oxygen ventilation improved early recipient survival and gas exchange. Postmortem nitrogen ventilation improved early gas exchange and delayed recipient death compared with non-ventilated controls. The mechanics of ventilation appears to confer a functional advantage independent of a continued supply of oxygen. Transplantation of lungs harvested from cadavers after cessation of circulation might be feasible. PMID:8494430

  1. Hyperpolarized helium-3 mouse lung MRI: Studies of lung structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugas, Joseph Paul

    Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human and animal lungs has displayed promising and useful applications to studies of lung structure and function in both healthy and diseased lungs. Hyperpolarized 3He MRI allows the visualization of gas in the gas-exchange spaces of the lungs (as opposed to tissue) and has proven especially effective in studying diseases that are characterized by ventilation defects, such as emphysema. In particular, in-vivo measurements of the 3He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can quantify lung structure by measuring its restrictive effects on the motion of 3He spins. This allows for detection and longitudinal tracking of changes in micro-architecture that result from disease destruction of alveolar walls. Due, in part, to the difficulties inherent in administering and imaging hyperpolarized 3He within the small (0.5 cc volume) mouse lung, applications of hyperpolarized 3He MRI techniques to laboratory mice are scarce. We have been able to implement and improve the techniques of hyperpolarized 3He mouse lung MRI and subsequently apply them to studies of several mouse models of disease, including elastase-induced emphysema, smoking-induced emphysema, and lung cancer. Here we detail the design, development, and implementation of a versatile, electronically-controlled, small animal ventilator that is capable of delivering tiny volumes of hyperpolarized 3He, mixed with oxygen, to the mouse and is also compatible with both the easily depolarized 3He gas and the highly magnetic environment within and around an imaging magnet. Also described are NM techniques developed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of our images and effectively utilize the gas hyperpolarization. Applications of these technologies and techniques to small animal models of disease are presented wherein we have measured up to a 35% increase in 3He ADC in mice with elastase-induced emphysema as compared to healthy mice. We also demonstrate the potential

  2. Functions and mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhenzi; Zhang, Chunfang; Duan, Chaojun

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and there is a lack of adequate biomarkers for diagnosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as an important set of molecules because of their roles in various key pathophysiological pathways, including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. We review the current knowledge of the lncRNAs in lung cancer. In-depth analyses of lncRNAs in lung cancer have increased the number of potential effective biomarkers, thus providing options to increase the therapeutic benefit. In this review, we summarize the functions, mechanisms, and regulatory networks of lncRNAs in lung cancer, providing a basis for further research in this field. PMID:27499635

  3. Exploring Heart and Lung Function in Space: ARMS Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Andre; Cork, Michael; LeGouic, Marine

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System (ARMS) is a suite of monitoring instruments and supplies used to study the heart, lungs, and metabolism. Many experiments sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA) will be conducted using ARMS during STS-107. The near-weightless environment of space causes the body to undergo many physiological adaptations, and the regulation of blood pressure is no exception. Astronauts also experience a decrease in blood volume as an adaptation to microgravity. Reduced blood volume may not provide enough blood pressure to the head during entry or landing. As a result, astronauts often experience light-headedness, and sometimes even fainting, when they stand shortly after returning to Earth. To help regulate blood pressure and heart rate, baroreceptors, sensors located in artery walls in the neck and near the heart, control blood pressure by sending information to the brain and ensuring blood flow to organs. These mechanisms work properly in Earth's gravity but must adapt in the microgravity environment of space. However, upon return to Earth during entry and landing, the cardiovascular system must readjust itself to gravity, which can cause fluctuation in the control of blood pressure and heart rate. Although the system recovers in hours or days, these occurrences are not easily predicted or understood - a puzzle investigators will study with the ARMS equipment. In space, researchers can focus on aspects of the cardiovascular system normally masked by gravity. The STS-107 experiments using ARMS will provide data on how the heart and lungs function in space, as well as how the nervous system controls them. Exercise will also be combined with breath holding and straining (the Valsalva maneuver) to test how heart rate and blood pressure react to different stresses. This understanding will improve astronauts' cardiopulmonary function after return to Earth, and may well help Earthbound patients who experience similar effects after long

  4. Pulmonary Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... enters your body. The most common PFT’s are spirometry (spy-RAH-me-tree), diffusion studies and body ... on the day of your test. What is spirometry? Spirometry is one of the most commonly ordered ...

  5. Thyroid function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... free T4 (the main thyroid hormone in your blood) TSH (the hormone from the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid to produce T4) T3 (also included sometimes) Other thyroid tests include: T3 resin uptake Thyroid scan

  6. The optical properties of lung as a function of respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beek, J. F.; van Staveren, H. J.; Posthumus, P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.

    1997-11-01

    Lung consists of alveoli enclosed by tissue and both structures contribute to volume-dependent scattering of light. It is the purpose of this paper to determine the volume-dependent optical properties of lung. In vivo interstitial fibre measurements of the effective attenuation coefficient at 632.8 nm differed during inspiration from that during expiration . In vitro measurements on a piglet lung insufflated with oxygen from 50 to 150 ml showed the effective attenuation coefficient at 632.8 nm decreases as a function of oxygen volume in the lung (at 50 ml , at 100 ml , and at 150 ml ). This was explained by combining scattering of alveoli (Mie theory) with optical properties of collapsed lung tissue using integrating sphere measurements. Theory and measured in vitro values showed good agreement (deviation ). Combination of these data yields the absorption coefficient and scattering parameters of lung tissue as a function of lung volume. We conclude that the light fluence rate in lung tissue should be estimated using optical properties that include scattering by the alveoli.

  7. Advances in functional and structural imaging of the human lung using proton MRI.

    PubMed

    Miller, G Wilson; Mugler, John P; Sá, Rui C; Altes, Talissa A; Prisk, G Kim; Hopkins, Susan R

    2014-12-01

    The field of proton lung MRI is advancing on a variety of fronts. In the realm of functional imaging, it is now possible to use arterial spin labeling (ASL) and oxygen-enhanced imaging techniques to quantify regional perfusion and ventilation, respectively, in standard units of measurement. By combining these techniques into a single scan, it is also possible to quantify the local ventilation-perfusion ratio, which is the most important determinant of gas-exchange efficiency in the lung. To demonstrate potential for accurate and meaningful measurements of lung function, this technique was used to study gravitational gradients of ventilation, perfusion, and ventilation-perfusion ratio in healthy subjects, yielding quantitative results consistent with expected regional variations. Such techniques can also be applied in the time domain, providing new tools for studying temporal dynamics of lung function. Temporal ASL measurements showed increased spatial-temporal heterogeneity of pulmonary blood flow in healthy subjects exposed to hypoxia, suggesting sensitivity to active control mechanisms such as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and illustrating that to fully examine the factors that govern lung function it is necessary to consider temporal as well as spatial variability. Further development to increase spatial coverage and improve robustness would enhance the clinical applicability of these new functional imaging tools. In the realm of structural imaging, pulse sequence techniques such as ultrashort echo-time radial k-space acquisition, ultrafast steady-state free precession, and imaging-based diaphragm triggering can be combined to overcome the significant challenges associated with proton MRI in the lung, enabling high-quality three-dimensional imaging of the whole lung in a clinically reasonable scan time. Images of healthy and cystic fibrosis subjects using these techniques demonstrate substantial promise for non-contrast pulmonary angiography and detailed

  8. Sustained Effects of Sirolimus on Lung Function and Cystic Lung Lesions in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianhua; Jones, Amanda M.; Julien-Williams, Patricia; Stylianou, Mario; Moss, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Sirolimus therapy stabilizes lung function and reduces the size of chylous effusions and lymphangioleiomyomas in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Objectives: To determine whether sirolimus has beneficial effects on lung function, cystic areas, and adjacent lung parenchyma; whether these effects are sustained; and whether sirolimus is well tolerated by patients. Methods: Lung function decline over time, lung volume occupied by cysts (cyst score), and lung tissue texture in the vicinity of the cysts were quantified with a computer-aided diagnosis system in 38 patients. Then we compared cyst scores from the last study on sirolimus with studies done on sirolimus therapy. In 12 patients, we evaluated rates of change in lung function and cyst scores off and on sirolimus. Measurements and Main Results: Sirolimus reduced yearly declines in FEV1 (−2.3 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.3% predicted; P < 0.001) and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (−2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2% predicted; P < 0.001). Cyst scores 1.2 ± 0.8 years (30.5 ± 11.9%) and 2.5 ± 2 years (29.7 ± 12.1%) after initiating sirolimus were not significantly different from pretreatment values (28.4 ± 12.5%). In 12 patients followed for 5 years, a significant reduction in rates of yearly decline in FEV1 (−1.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.3 ± 0.4% predicted; P = 0.025) was observed. Analyses of 104 computed tomography scans showed a nonsignificant (P = 0.23) reduction in yearly rates of change of cyst scores (1.8 ± 0.2 vs. 0.3 ± 0.3%; P = 0.23) and lung texture features. Despite adverse events, most patients were able to continue sirolimus therapy. Conclusions: Sirolimus therapy slowed down lung function decline and increase in cystic lesions. Most patients were able to tolerate sirolimus therapy. PMID:25329516

  9. Older Adults with Chronic Lung Disease Report Less Limitation Compared with Younger Adults with Similar Lung Function Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Han, Meilan K.; Thompson, Bruce; Limper, Andrew H.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Schwarz, Marvin I.; Sciurba, Frank C.; Criner, Gerald J.; Wise, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Disability guidelines are often based on pulmonary function testing, but factors other than lung function influence how an individual experiences physiologic impairment. Age may impact the perception of impairment in adults with chronic lung disease. Objectives: To determine if self-report of physical functional impairment differs between older adults with chronic lung disease compared with younger adults with similar degrees of lung function impairment. Methods: The Lung Tissue Research Consortium provided data on 981 participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease who were well characterized with clinical, radiological, and pathological diagnoses. We used multiple logistic regression to determine if responses to health status questions (from the Short Form-12 and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire) related to perception of impairment differed in older adults (age ≥ 65 yr, n = 427) compared with younger adults (age < 65 yr, n = 393). Measurements and Main Results: Pulmonary function was higher in older adults (median FEV1 %, 70) compared with younger adults (median FEV1 %, 62) (P < 0.001), whereas the median 6-minute-walk distance was similar between groups (372 m vs. 388 m, P = 0.21). After adjusting for potential confounders, older adults were less likely to report that their health limited them significantly in performing moderate activities (odds ratio [OR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22–0.58) or climbing several flights of stairs (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34–0.77). The odds of reporting that their physical health limited the kinds of activities they performed were reduced by 63% in older adults (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24–0.58), and, similarly, the odds of reporting that their health caused them to accomplish less than they would like were also lower in older adults (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.25–0.60). The OR for reporting that their breathing problem stops them from doing most

  10. [Endothelial function test].

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi

    2015-11-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is thought to have pivotal roles for the development of hypertension, initiation/progression of hypertensive organ damages, and prognosis. In clinical setting, flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of brachial artery is used as a marker of endothelial function. However, well-trained sonographer is needed to conduct FMD measurement, and therefore, FMD has not been fully standardized (i.e., the reference value of FMD has not been established). Even so, FMD predicts future cardiovascular events. Lifestyle modifications (i.e., smoking cessation, exercise, or weight loss) and antihypertensive medication provide beneficial effects on endothelial function. Thus, FMD have a potential as a useful surrogate marker for the management of hypertension. PMID:26619655

  11. Integrative pathway genomics of lung function and airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Sina A; Loth, Daan W; Soler Artigas, María; Birkland, Timothy P; Wilk, Jemma B; Wain, Louise V; Brody, Jennifer A; Obeidat, Ma'en; Hancock, Dana B; Tang, Wenbo; Rawal, Rajesh; Boezen, H Marike; Imboden, Medea; Huffman, Jennifer E; Lahousse, Lies; Alves, Alexessander C; Manichaikul, Ani; Hui, Jennie; Morrison, Alanna C; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Evans, David M; Strachan, David P; Deary, Ian J; Hofman, Albert; Gläser, Sven; Wilson, James F; North, Kari E; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heckbert, Susan R; Jarvis, Deborah L; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schulz, Holger; Barr, R Graham; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Connor, George T; Kähönen, Mika; Cassano, Patricia A; Hysi, Pirro G; Dupuis, Josée; Hayward, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M; Hall, Ian P; Parks, William C; Tobin, Martin D; London, Stephanie J

    2015-12-01

    Chronic respiratory disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of lung function measures have identified several trait-associated loci, but explain only a modest portion of the phenotypic variability. We postulated that integrating pathway-based methods with GWASs of pulmonary function and airflow obstruction would identify a broader repertoire of genes and processes influencing these traits. We performed two independent GWASs of lung function and applied gene set enrichment analysis to one of the studies and validated the results using the second GWAS. We identified 131 significantly enriched gene sets associated with lung function and clustered them into larger biological modules involved in diverse processes including development, immunity, cell signaling, proliferation and arachidonic acid. We found that enrichment of gene sets was not driven by GWAS-significant variants or loci, but instead by those with less stringent association P-values. Next, we applied pathway enrichment analysis to a meta-analyzed GWAS of airflow obstruction. We identified several biologic modules that functionally overlapped with those associated with pulmonary function. However, differences were also noted, including enrichment of extracellular matrix (ECM) processes specifically in the airflow obstruction study. Network analysis of the ECM module implicated a candidate gene, matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10), as a putative disease target. We used a knockout mouse model to functionally validate MMP10's role in influencing lung's susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. By integrating pathway analysis with population-based genomics, we unraveled biologic processes underlying pulmonary function traits and identified a candidate gene for obstructive lung disease. PMID:26395457

  12. The potential for resident lung mesenchymal stem cells to promote functional tissue regeneration: understanding microenvironmental cues.

    PubMed

    Foronjy, Robert F; Majka, Susan M

    2012-12-01

    Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with such inflammatory lung diseases including, but not limited to, chronic lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema and asthma. However, our current understanding of tissue resident lung MSCs remains limited. This review addresses how environmental cues impact on the phenotype and function of this endogenous stem cell pool. In addition, it examines how these local factors influence the efficacy of cell-based treatments for lung diseases. PMID:23626909

  13. Pulmonary function tests in children with beta-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ekteish, F M; Al-Rimawi, H S; Al-Ali, M K; Shehabi, I M

    2007-01-01

    Lung function abnormality is a known complication of thalassemia, but the results of studies in pulmonary function have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to describe the type of lung impairment in thalassemic children. Pulmonary function tests were conducted in 40 children with beta-thalassemia major, 23 males and 17 females. Tests included spirometry, total lung capacity (TLC), single breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) and arterial blood gases. Serum ferritin level was measured in all children to study its relationship to lung function impairment. A predominantly restrictive pattern was seen in 14 patients (35%). These patients had a significant reduction in RV, FVC, TLC and PEF with an FEV1/FVC ratio of more than 75%. Obstructive airway disease was found in six patients (15%), with an FEV1/FVC ratio less than 75%, increased RV and reduced FEF(25%-75%). Impairment of diffusion was found in 10 patients (25%), with DL(CO) reduced to less than 80% of the predicted value. Arterial blood gases results showed that no patient was hypoxic. No correlation was found between the severity of restrictive or obstructive disease and the serum ferritin level. There was a significant linear correlation between age and serum ferritin level (P < 0.019). Patients with thalassemia have a predominantly restrictive lung dysfunction pattern. This may be due to pulmonary parenchymal pathology, although the reason for the obstructive pattern seen in a small proportion of patients remains obscure. PMID:17416149

  14. Imaging Phenotype of Occupational Endotoxin-Related Lung Function Decline

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Peggy S.; Hang, Jing-qing; Zhang, Feng-ying; Sun, J.; Zheng, Bu-Yong; Su, Li; Washko, George R.; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    accelerated lung function decline. Citation: Lai PS, Hang J, Zhang F, Sun J, Zheng BY, Su L, Washko GR, Christiani DC. 2016. Imaging phenotype of occupational endotoxin-related lung function decline. Environ Health Perspect 124:1436–1442; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP195 PMID:27138294

  15. The effects of ambient NO[sub 2] on lung function in primary schoolchildren

    SciTech Connect

    Frischer, T.; Studnicka, M.; Beer, E.; Neumann, M. )

    1993-08-01

    The effect of ambient NO2 on lung function was investigated in a sample of 423 schoolchildren. At each of four locations NO2 was monitored continuously. Over a 6-month period from January to June 1990 two surveys were performed and spirometry recorded each time for each child. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of NO2 for different time intervals preceding lung function testing. A decrease of NO2 between surveys was significantly associated with a higher forced vital capacity (FVC) at the second survey. For each microgram/m3 NO2 decrease the model predicted an increase in FVC of 1.5 ml [for the 2-hr mean (P < 0.05)] and 3.1 ml [for the 12-hr mean (P < 0.01)]. We conclude that even at NO2 levels below current air-quality standards children demonstrate significant changes in lung function.

  16. Assessing lung function and respiratory health in schoolchildren as a means to improve local environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Borsoi, Livia; Wallner, Peter; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    2009-07-01

    In response to the World Health Organization Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE), a town near Vienna initiated a health survey of schoolchildren. To create recommendations for the community's decision makers, the health survey tried to identify the environmental factors influencing the respiratory health of children. The survey consisted of a questionnaire and spirometry. For 186 of 207 children of first and second grade, parents consented to include their children and answered a questionnaire. Spirometry was performed in 177 children. Results of lung function testing revealed that lung function was significantly reduced in children with visible mould infestation at home and living on a street with frequent lorry traffic. Larger family size and living in a rural area had positive effects on lung function. Our study provides an example for a feasible strategy to provide local decision makers with recommendations based on scientific evidence and actual observations and to help them implement measures in accordance with CEHAPE. PMID:19597446

  17. A Proposed In Vitro Method to Assess Effects of Inhaled Particles on Lung Surfactant Function.

    PubMed

    Sørli, Jorid B; Da Silva, Emilie; Bäckman, Per; Levin, Marcus; Thomsen, Birthe L; Koponen, Ismo K; Larsen, Søren T

    2016-03-01

    The lung surfactant (LS) lining is a thin liquid film covering the air-liquid interface of the respiratory tract. LS reduces surface tension, enabling lung surface expansion and contraction with minimal work during respiration. Disruption of surface tension is believed to play a key role in severe lung conditions. Inhalation of aerosols that interfere with the LS may induce a toxic response and, as a part of the safety assessment of chemicals and inhaled medicines, it may be relevant to study their impact on LS function. Here, we present a novel in vitro method, based on the constrained drop surfactometer, to study LS functionality after aerosol exposure. The applicability of the method was investigated using three inhaled asthma medicines, micronized lactose, a pharmaceutical excipient used in inhaled medication, and micronized albumin, a known inhibitor of surfactant function. The surfactometer was modified to allow particles mixed in air to flow through the chamber holding the surfactant drop. The deposited dose was measured with a custom-built quartz crystal microbalance. The alterations allowed the study of continuously increasing quantified doses of particles, allowing determination of the dose of particles that affects the LS function. The tested pharmaceuticals did not inhibit the function of a model LS even at extreme doses--neither did lactose. Micronized albumin, however, impaired surfactant function. The method can discriminate between safe inhaled aerosols--as exemplified by the approved inhaled medicines and the pharmaceutical excipient lactose--and albumin known to impair lung functionality by inhibiting LS function. PMID:26524226

  18. Lung function in Greenlandic and Danish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krause, Tyra Grove; Pedersen, Bo V; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Koch, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Backer, Vibeke; Melbye, Mads

    2005-03-01

    Respiratory morbidity in Inuit children is high. However, little is know regarding lung function measures in this population. The forced expiratory volumes in one second (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in 888 Greenlandic Inuits (N=888) and Danes (N=477) aged 6-18 years were compared. Furthermore, associations between level of lung function and atopy and lifestyle factors were estimated in Greenlanders. The effect of height on FEV(1) and FVC was significantly different in Greenlanders and Danes, this difference in lung function increased with increasing height, and could not be explained by differences in age weight and BMI. Thus, Greenlanders taller than 130 cm had up to 300-400 ml higher FEV(1) and FVC compared with Danes of the same height. Among Greenlanders, those living in settlements had the highest levels of both FEV(1) and FVC. Greenlanders had elevated levels of FEV(1) and FVC compared with Danes. The Inuit having a shorter limb length in relation to trunk height may account for these differences. However, our finding that Greenlanders living in settlements had the highest lung function level also suggests a possible role of factors in the traditional Greenlandic lifestyle. PMID:15733513

  19. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  20. Socioeconomic Status and Longitudinal Lung Function of Healthy Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Briseño, David; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES) on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents. Materials and Methods A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD]) and parents’ years completed at school were used as proxies of SES. Results Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents’ schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) increased 8.5 (0.4%) and 10.6 mL (0.4%), respectively (p <0.05) when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone. Conclusions Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age. PMID:26379144

  1. The Correlation between Lung Sound Distribution and Pulmonary Function in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mineshita, Masamichi; Kida, Hirotaka; Handa, Hiroshi; Nishine, Hiroki; Furuya, Naoki; Nobuyama, Seiichi; Inoue, Takeo; Matsuoka, Shin; Miyazawa, Teruomi

    2014-01-01

    Background Regional lung sound intensity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is influenced by the severity and distribution of emphysema, obstructed peripheral airways, and altered ribcage and diaphragm configurations and movements due to hyperinflation. Changes in the lung sound distribution accompanied by pulmonary function improvements in COPD patients were observed after bronchodilator inhalation. We investigated the association of lung sound distribution with pulmonary functions, and the effects of emphysematous lesions on this association. These studies were designed to acquire the basic knowledge necessary for the application of lung sound analysis in the physiological evaluation of COPD patients. Methods Pulmonary function tests and the percentage of upper- and lower-lung sound intensity (quantitative lung data [QLD]) were evaluated in 47 stable male COPD patients (54 - 82 years of age). In 39 patients, computed tomography taken within 6 months of the study was available and analyzed. Results The ratio of lower QLD to upper QLD showed significant positive correlations with FEV1 %predicted (%FEV1; ρ = 0.45, p<0.005) and MEF50 %predicted (%MEF50; ρ = 0.46, p<0.005). These correlations were not observed in COPD patients with dominant emphysema (% low attenuation area >40%, n = 20) and were stronger in less emphysematous patients (n = 19, %FEV1; ρ = 0.64, p<0.005, %MEF50; ρ = 0.71, p<0.001). Conclusions In COPD patients, the ratio of lower- to upper-lung sound intensities decreased according to the severity of obstructive changes, although emphysematous lesions considerably affected lung sound distribution. PMID:25244247

  2. Effects of nanoparticles on the mechanical functioning of the lung.

    PubMed

    Arick, Davis Q; Choi, Yun Hwa; Kim, Hyun Chang; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-11-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding field that has very promising applications that will improve industry, medicine, and consumer products. However, despite the growing widespread use of engineered nanoparticles in these areas, very little has been done to assess the potential health risks they may pose to high-risk areas of the body, particularly the lungs. In this review we first briefly discuss the structure of the lungs and establish that the pulmonary surfactant (PS), given its vulnerability and huge contribution to healthy lung function, is a mechanism of great concern when evaluating potential nanoparticle interactions within the lung. To warrant that these interactions can occur, studies on the transport of nanoaerols are reviewed to highlight that a plethora of factors contribute to a nanoparticle's ability to travel to the deep regions of the lung where PS resides. The focus of this review is to determine the extent that physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, hydrophobicity, and surface charge effect PS function. Numerous nanoparticle types are taken into consideration in order to effectively evaluate observed consistencies across numerous nanoparticle types and develop general trends that exist among the physicochemical characteristics of interest. Biological responses from other mechanisms/components of the lung are briefly discussed to provide further insights on how the toxicology of different nanoparticles is determined. We conclude by discussing general trends that summarize consistencies observed among the studies in regard to physicochemical properties and their effects on monolayer function, addressing current gaps in our understanding, and discussing the future outlook of this field of research. PMID:26494653

  3. Predicting ventilator-induced lung injury using a lung injury cost function.

    PubMed

    Hamlington, Katharine L; Smith, Bradford J; Allen, Gilman B; Bates, Jason H T

    2016-07-01

    Managing patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requires mechanical ventilation that balances the competing goals of sustaining life while avoiding ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). In particular, it is reasonable to suppose that for any given ARDS patient, there must exist an optimum pair of values for tidal volume (VT) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) that together minimize the risk for VILI. To find these optimum values, and thus develop a personalized approach to mechanical ventilation in ARDS, we need to be able to predict how injurious a given ventilation regimen will be in any given patient so that the minimally injurious regimen for that patient can be determined. Our goal in the present study was therefore to develop a simple computational model of the mechanical behavior of the injured lung in order to calculate potential injury cost functions to serve as predictors of VILI. We set the model parameters to represent normal, mildly injured, and severely injured lungs and estimated the amount of volutrauma and atelectrauma caused by ventilating these lungs with a range of VT and PEEP. We estimated total VILI in two ways: 1) as the sum of the contributions from volutrauma and atelectrauma and 2) as the product of their contributions. We found the product provided estimates of VILI that are more in line with our previous experimental findings. This model may thus serve as the basis for the objective choice of mechanical ventilation parameters for the injured lung. PMID:27174922

  4. INTERPRETATIONS AND LIMITATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING IN SMALL LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary function tests are tools available to the researcher and clinician to evaluate the ability of the lung to perform its essential function of gas exchange. o meet this principal function, the lung needs to operate efficiently with minimal mechanical work as well as provid...

  5. Violence exposure, a chronic psychosocial stressor, and childhood lung function

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Ryan, Louise; Laden, Francine; Dockery, Douglas; Wright, Rosalind J

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic psychosocial stressors, including violence, have been linked to neuropsychological and behavioral development in children as well as physiologic alterations that may lead to broader health effects. Methods We examined the relationship between violence and childhood lung function in a prospective birth cohort of 313 urban children 6 and 7 years of age. Mothers reported on their child’s lifetime exposure to community violence (ETV) and interparental conflict in the home [Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS)] within one year of the lung function assessment. Results In linear regression analyses, adjusting for maternal education, child’s age, race, birthweight, tobacco smoke exposure, and medical history, girls in the highest CTS verbal aggression tertile had a 5.5% (95% CI: −9.6, −1.5) decrease in percent predicted FEV1 and a 5.4% (95% CI: −9.7, −1.1) decrease in FVC compared to girls in the lowest tertile. The CTS verbal aggression subscale was associated with lung function among boys in the same direction, albeit this was not statistically significant. Boys in the highest ETV tertile had a 3.4% (95% CI: −8.0, 1.1) lower FEV1 and 5.3% lower (95% CI: −10.2, −0.4) FVC compared to boys in the lowest tertile. The ETV score was not a significant predictor of girl’s lung function. Conclusions Interparental conflict, specifically verbal aggression, and exposure to community violence were associated with decreased childhood lung function independent of socioeconomic status, tobacco smoke exposure, birthweight and respiratory illness history. Gender differences were noted based on the type of violence exposure which may warrant further exploration. PMID:18158365

  6. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  7. Deterioration in lung function following hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Maasilta, P. )

    1991-03-01

    Thirty-four patients receiving high-dose hemithorax irradiation as part of the treatment for pleural mesothelioma were studied with regard to changes in lung function following irradiation, and these changes were correlated with the radiologically-assessed lung injury. The latter was scored from 0 to 500 and found to be severe by 6 months (mean score 360), very severe by 9 months (mean score 430), and nearly total by 12 months (mean score 480) after treatment. Forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity both showed a significant decline at 1.5-2 months following the end of radiotherapy and thereafter up to the end of the 1 year follow-up period. Neither of these variables could be correlated consistently with the radiologically-assessed changes. Hypoxemia and pathological physiological shunting increased transiently 1-2 months after irradiation in 2 of the 6 patients monitored. The observed radiologically-assessed final effects of high-dose hemithorax irradiation are compatible with a total loss of lung function on the irradiated side. Before this form of treatment is used, lung function should be evaluated as for pneumonectomy.

  8. Effects of Lung Expansion Therapy on Lung Function in Patients with Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Huey; Yeh, Ming-Chu; Hu, Han-Chung; Lee, Chung-Shu; Li, Li-Fu; Chen, Ning-Hung; Huang, Chung-Chi; Kao, Kuo-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Common complications in PMV include changes in the airway clearance mechanism, pulmonary function, and respiratory muscle strength, as well as chest radiological changes such as atelectasis. Lung expansion therapy which includes IPPB and PEEP prevents and treats pulmonary atelectasis and improves lung compliance. Our study presented that patients with PMV have improvements in lung volume and oxygenation after receiving IPPB therapy. The combination of IPPB and PEEP therapy also results in increase in respiratory muscle strength. The application of IPPB facilitates the homogeneous gas distribution in the lung and results in recruitment of collapsed alveoli. PEEP therapy may reduce risk of respiratory muscle fatigue by preventing premature airway collapse during expiration. The physiologic effects of IPPB and PEEP may result in enhancement of pulmonary function and thus increase the possibility of successful weaning from mechanical ventilator during weaning process. For patients with PMV who were under the risk of atelectasis, the application of IPPB may be considered as a supplement therapy for the enhancement of weaning outcome during their stay in the hospital.

  9. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar; Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Lantz, R. Clark; González-Cortes, Tania; Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar; Froines, John R.; Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A.

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  10. High peripheral blood th17 percent associated with poor lung function in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Emily M; Hudson, Jo B; Beggs, Sean A; Reid, David W; Roddam, Louise F; Cooley, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    People with cystic fibrosis (CF) have been reported to make lung T cell responses that are biased towards T helper (Th) 2 or Th17. We hypothesized that CF-related T cell regulatory defects could be detected by analyzing CD4+ lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 42 CF patients (6 months-53 years old) and 78 healthy controls (2-61 years old) were analyzed for Th1 (IFN-γ+), Th2 (IL-4+), Th17 (IL-17+), Treg (FOXP3+), IL-10+ and TGF-β+ CD4+ cells. We observed higher proportions of Treg, IL-10+ and TGF-β+ CD4+ cells in CF adults (≥ 18 years old), but not children/adolescents, compared with controls. Within the CF group, high TGF-β+% was associated with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection (p < 0.006). We observed no significant differences between control and CF groups in the proportions of Th1, Th2 or Th17 cells, and no association within the CF group of any subset with sex, CFTR genotype, or clinical exacerbation. However, high Th17% was strongly associated with poor lung function (FEV1 % predicted) (p = 0.0008), and this association was strongest when both lung function testing and blood sampling were performed within one week. Our results are consistent with reports of CF as a Th17 disease and suggest that peripheral blood Th17 levels may be a surrogate marker of lung function in CF. PMID:25803862

  11. How should we measure function in patients with chronic heart and lung disease?

    PubMed

    Guyatt, G H; Thompson, P J; Berman, L B; Sullivan, M J; Townsend, M; Jones, N L; Pugsley, S O

    1985-01-01

    To elucidate the characteristics of measures of function in patients with chronic heart failure and chronic lung disease we administered four functional status questionnaires, a 6-min walk test and a cycle ergometer exercise test, to 43 patients limited in their day to day activities as a result of their underlying heart or lung disease. Correlations between these measures were calculated using Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient. The walk test correlated well with the cycle ergometer (r = 0.579), and almost as well with the four functional status questionnaires (r = 0.473-0.590) as the questionnaires did with one another (0.423-0.729). On the other hand, correlations between cycle ergometer results and the questionnaires was in each case 0.295 or lower, and none of these correlations reached statistical significance. These results suggest that exercise capacity in the laboratory can be differentiated from functional exercise capacity (the ability to undertake physically demanding activities of daily living) and that the walk test provides a good measure of function in patients with heart and lung disease. PMID:4008592

  12. The lectin-like domain of tumor necrosis factor improves lung function after rat lung transplantation—Potential role for a reduction in reactive oxygen species generation*

    PubMed Central

    Hamacher, Jürg; Stammberger, Uz; Roux, Jeremie; Kumar, Sanjiv; Yang, Guang; Xiong, Chenling; Schmid, Ralph A.; Fakin, Richard M.; Chakraborty, Trinad; Hossain, Hamid M. D.; Pittet, Jean-François; Wendel, Albrecht; Black, Stephen M.; Lucas, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the lectin-like domain of tumor necrosis factor, mimicked by the TIP peptide, can improve lung function after unilateral orthotopic lung isotransplantation. Because of a lack of a specific treatment for ischemia reperfusion-mediated lung injury, accompanied by a disrupted barrier integrity and a dysfunctional alveolar liquid clearance, alternative therapies restoring these parameters after lung transplantation are required. Design Prospective, randomized laboratory investigation. Setting University-affiliated laboratory. Subjects Adult female rats. Interventions Tuberoinfundibular peptide, mimicking the lectin-like domain of tumor necrosis factor, mutant TIP peptide, N,N′-diacetylchitobiose/TIP peptide, and amiloride/TIP peptide were instilled intratracheally in the left lung immediately before the isotransplantation was performed. An additional group received an intravenous TIP peptide treatment, 1.5 mins before transplantation. Studies using isolated rat type II alveolar epithelial cell monolayers and ovine pulmonary endothelial cells were also performed. Measurements and Main Results Intratracheal pretreatment of the transplantable left lung with the TIP peptide, but not with an inactive mutant TIP peptide, resulted in significantly improved oxygenation 24 hrs after transplantation. This treatment led to a significantly reduced neutrophil content in the lavage fluid. Both the effects on oxygenation and neutrophil infiltration were inhibited by the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride. The TIP peptide blunted reactive oxygen species production in pulmonary artery endothelial cells under hypoxia and reoxygenation and reduced reactive oxygen species content in the transplanted rat lungs in vivo. Ussing chamber experiments using monolayers of primary type II rat pneumocytes indicated that the primary site of action of the peptide was on the apical side of these cells. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the TIP

  13. Vitamin D-responsive SGPP2 variants associated with lung cell expression and lung function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is associated with lung health in epidemiologic studies, but mechanisms mediating observed associations are poorly understood. This study explores mechanisms for an effect of vitamin D in lung through an in vivo gene expression study, an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in lung tissue, and a population-based cohort study of sequence variants. Methods Microarray analysis investigated the association of gene expression in small airway epithelial cells with serum 25(OH)D in adult non-smokers. Sequence variants in candidate genes identified by the microarray were investigated in a lung tissue eQTL database, and also in relation to cross-sectional pulmonary function in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study, stratified by race, with replication in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Results 13 candidate genes had significant differences in expression by serum 25(OH)D (nominal p < 0.05), and a genome-wide significant eQTL association was detected for SGPP2. In Health ABC, SGPP2 SNPs were associated with FEV1 in both European- and African-Americans, and the gene-level association was replicated in European-American FHS participants. SNPs in 5 additional candidate genes (DAPK1, FSTL1, KAL1, KCNS3, and RSAD2) were associated with FEV1 in Health ABC participants. Conclusions SGPP2, a sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase, is a novel vitamin D-responsive gene associated with lung function. The identified associations will need to be followed up in further studies. PMID:24274704

  14. Contribution of alpha- and beta-defensins to lung function decline and infection in smokers: an association study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Alison M; He, Jian-Qing; Burkett, Kelly M; Ruan, Jian; Connett, John E; Anthonisen, Nicholas R; Paré, Peter D; Sandford, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Background Alpha-defensins, which are major constituents of neutrophil azurophilic granules, and beta-defensins, which are expressed in airway epithelial cells, could contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by amplifying cigarette smoke-induced and infection-induced inflammatory reactions leading to lung injury. In Japanese and Chinese populations, two different beta-defensin-1 polymorphisms have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes. We conducted population-based association studies to test whether alpha-defensin and beta-defensin polymorphisms influenced smokers' susceptibility to lung function decline and susceptibility to lower respiratory infection in two groups of white participants in the Lung Health Study (275 = fast decline in lung function and 304 = no decline in lung function). Methods Subjects were genotyped for the alpha-defensin-1/alpha-defensin-3 copy number polymorphism and four beta-defensin-1 polymorphisms (G-20A, C-44G, G-52A and Val38Ile). Results There were no associations between individual polymorphisms or imputed haplotypes and rate of decline in lung function or susceptibility to infection. Conclusion These findings suggest that, in a white population, the defensin polymorphisms tested may not be of importance in determining who develops abnormally rapid lung function decline or is susceptible to developing lower respiratory infections. PMID:16700921

  15. Relationship between lung inflammation, changes in lung function and severity of exposure in victims of the Bhopal tragedy.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V K; Sankaran, K

    1996-10-01

    The world's worst chemical industrial disaster, which occurred at Bhopal on 2-3 December, 1984, resulted in considerable respiratory morbidity in the exposed population. Therefore, a study was planned to evaluate the relationship between lower respiratory tract inflammation, lung function and severity of exposure. Sixty patients exposed to methyl isocyanate and presenting with respiratory symptoms were studied using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 1-7 yrs after the accident. Pulmonary function tests included forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). An index of severity of exposure was derived retrospectively on the basis of the acute symptoms in the victims themselves or the occurrence of death among their family members. Total lung inflammatory cells (p < 0.01) and absolute numbers of macrophages (p = 0.01) and lymphocytes (p < 0.05) increased as severity of exposure increased. FEV1/FVC % (p = 0.05) was also significantly lower as severity of exposure increased. Moderately exposed subjects had significantly lower FEV1/FVC % (p < 0.05) compared to those mildly exposed. In nonsmokers, BAL neutrophils, both percentage and absolute numbers, showed significant negative correlations with FEV1 % predicted (rs = -0.350, p < 0.05; and rs = -0.374, p < 0.01, respectively). Neutrophil percentage was negatively correlated with FEV1/FVC % (rs = -0.378; p < 0.01). Absolute lymphocytes had significant negative correlations with FVC % pred (rs = -0.318; p < 0.05). Macrophages had significant positive correlations with FVC % pred (rs = 0.322; p < 0.05) and FEV1 % pred (rs = 0.433; p < 0.01). Radiographic abnormalities (International Labour Organization (ILO) classification) were associated with decline in FEV1 % pred (p < 0.05). This study suggests that pulmonary function abnormalities occur in gas-exposed subjects as a consequence of an abnormal accumulation of lung inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and neutrophils), and that the intensity of lung

  16. Respiratory and lower limb muscle function in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Panagiotou, Marios; Polychronopoulos, Vlasis; Strange, Charlie

    2016-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that respiratory and limb muscle function may be impaired in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Importantly, muscle dysfunction could promote dyspnoea, fatigue and functional limitation all of which are cardinal features of ILD. This article examines the risk factors for skeletal muscle dysfunction in ILD, reviews the current evidence on overall respiratory and limb muscle function and focuses on the occurrence and implications of skeletal muscle dysfunction in ILD. Research limitations and pathways to address the current knowledge gaps are highlighted. PMID:26768011

  17. Respiratory sequelae and lung function after whooping cough in infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Krantz, I; Bjure, J; Claesson, I; Eriksson, B; Sixt, R; Trollfors, B

    1990-01-01

    The lung function of 31 children, aged 6-13 years, who had whooping cough as infants and 32 control children matched for age, sex, and residence area were compared in a community based cohort study. Family history of obstructive airway disease, smoking habits in the family, atopy, and other background factors examined were similar in the two groups. The ratios of recalled repeated acute respiratory infections did not differ among the groups. Children in the control group were slightly more involved in physical activities. History of obstructive airway disease, findings on chest radiography, and distribution of immunoglobulin concentrations, including IgE, did not differ significantly. Lung function before and after exercise and after inhalation of salbutamol were not different. No impairment of small airways was detected. Our data do not support the hypothesis that whooping cough in itself is a causal factor for later obstructive respiratory disease. PMID:2378512

  18. High frequency ventilation trial. Nine year follow up of lung function.

    PubMed

    Pianosi, P T; Fisk, M

    2000-03-01

    The high frequency ventilation (HIFI) trial for hyaline membrane disease (HMD) showed no advantage of high frequency over conventional ventilation in pulmonary outcomes after 24 months. The present study tested the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in childhood lung function between patients who had been ventilated by either method. Thirty-two children aged 8-9 years who completed the HIFI trial were asked to return for pulmonary function tests. For purposes of analysis, the patient population was divided according to mode of ventilation, and by diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or HMD. Results were compared to those of 15 term-born, matched, controls. Lung function tests showed a mildly obstructive pattern in prematurely born children. More severe obstruction was seen in those children who had physician-diagnosed asthma or who had used bronchodilators in the past. The prevalence of mild obstructive pattern on pulmonary function testing in preterm infants with HMD or BPD was similar in those who received high frequency vs. conventional ventilation. Factors other than the mode of ventilation exert greater influence on pulmonary outcome in survivors of lung disease of prematurity. PMID:10742612

  19. Lung function over six years among professional divers

    PubMed Central

    Skogstad, M; Thorsen, E; Haldorsen, T; Kjuus, H

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To analyse longitudinal changes in pulmonary function in professional divers and their relation with cumulative diving exposure. Methods: The study included 87 men at the start of their education as professional divers. At follow up one, three, and six years later, 83, 81, and 77 divers were reexamined. The median number of compressed air dives in the 77 divers over the follow up period was 196 (range 37–2000). A group of non-smoking policemen (n = 64) were subjected to follow up examinations in parallel with the divers. Assessment of lung function included dynamic lung volumes, maximal expiratory flow rates, and transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TlCO). The individual rates of change of the lung function variables were calculated by fitting linear regression lines to the data, expressed as percent change per year. Results: The annual reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expired volume in one second (FEV1) were 0.91 (SD 1.22) and 0.84 (SD 1.28) per cent per year in divers, which were significantly higher than the reductions in the policemen of 0.24 (SD 1.04) and 0.16 (SD 1.07) per cent per year (p < 0.001). The annual reduction in the maximal expiratory flow rates at 25% and 75% of FVC expired (FEF25% and FEF75%) were related to the log10 transformed cumulative number of dives in a multiple regression analysis (p < 0.05). The annual reductions in TlCO were 1.33 (SD 1.85) and 0.43 (SD 1.53) per cent per year in divers and policemen (p < 0.05). Conclusions: FVC, FEV1, maximal expiratory flow rates, and TlCO were significantly reduced in divers over the follow up period when compared with policemen. The contrasts within and between groups suggest that diving has contributed to the reduction in lung function. PMID:12205238

  20. Association between lung function and airway wall density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, J. Ken; Zheng, Bin; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Tedrow, John; Park, Sang C.; Tan, Jun; Pu, Jiantao; Drescher, John M.; Gur, David; Sciurba, Frank C.

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) examination is often used to quantify the relation between lung function and airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this preliminary study, we examined the association between lung function and airway wall computed attenuation ("density") in 200 COPD screening subjects. Percent predicted FVC (FVC%), percent predicted FEV1 (FEV1%), and the ratio of FEV1 to FVC as a percentage (FEV1/FVC%) were measured post-bronchodilator. The apical bronchus of the right upper lobe was manually selected from CT examinations for evaluation. Total airway area, lumen area, wall area, lumen perimeter and wall area as fraction of the total airway area were computed. Mean HU (meanHU) and maximum HU (maxHU) values were computed across pixels assigned membership in the wall and with a HU value greater than -550. The Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC) between FVC%, FEV1%, and FEV1/FVC% and meanHU were -0.221 (p = 0.002), -0.175 (p = 0.014), and -0.110 (p = 0.123), respectively. The PCCs for maxHU were only significant for FVC%. The correlations between lung function and the airway morphometry parameters were slightly stronger compared to airway wall density. MeanHU was significantly correlated with wall area (PCC = 0.720), airway area (0.498) and wall area percent (0.611). This preliminary work demonstrates that airway wall density is associated with lung function. Although the correlations in our study were weaker than a recent study, airway wall density initially appears to be an important parameter in quantitative CT analysis of COPD.

  1. A Function of Lung Surfactant Protein SP-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, M. L.; Bisagno, A. M.; Zasadzinski, J. A. N.; Bruni, R.; Waring, A. J.

    1993-07-01

    The primary function of lung surfactant is to form monolayers at the alveolar interface capable of lowering the normal surface tension to near zero. To accomplish this process, the surfactant must be capable of maintaining a coherent, tightly packed monolayer that avoids collapse during expiration. The positively charged amino-terminal peptide SP-B1-25 of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B increases the collapse pressure of an important component of lung surfactant, palmitic acid (PA), to nearly 70 millinewtons per meter. This alteration of the PA isotherms removes the driving force for "squeeze-out" of the fatty acids from the primarily dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of lung surfactant. An uncharged mutant of SP-B1-25 induced little change in the isotherms, suggesting that a specific charge interaction between the cationic peptide and the anionic lipid is responsible for the stabilization. The effect of SP-B1-25 on fatty acid isotherms is remarkably similar to that of simple poly-cations, suggesting that such polymers might be useful as components of replacement surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

  2. Normalization of lung function following treatment of secondary usual interstitial pneumonia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hohberger, Laurie A; Montero-Arias, Felicia; Roden, Anja C; Vassallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and is associated with a poor prognosis and poor responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy. We present a case of a woman with steroid-responsive biopsy-proven UIP with significant and sustained improvement in pulmonary function. A female in her 40s presented following a one-year history of progressive dyspnea, a 20 lb weight loss, and fatigue. Imaging of the chest with computed tomography (CT) showed bibasilar subpleural reticular opacities and minimal peripheral honeycombing. Comprehensive connective tissue disease (CTD) antibody testing was negative. Pulmonary function testing showed moderate impairment with reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC, 69% predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 73% predicted), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO, 52% predicted). Surgical lung biopsy showed UIP with prominent inflammatory infiltrates. Following treatment with prednisone and azathioprine, the patient's symptoms resolved, while objective pulmonary function testing showed normalization of lung function, which is sustained at >4 years of follow-up. Improvement in lung function following immunosuppressive therapy is distinctly uncommon in either idiopathic or secondary UIP. This report suggests that occasionally, patients with secondary UIP occurring in the context of otherwise undefinable autoimmune clinical syndromes may be responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25922588

  3. Normalization of Lung Function Following Treatment of Secondary Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hohberger, Laurie A; Montero-Arias, Felicia; Roden, Anja C; Vassallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and is associated with a poor prognosis and poor responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy. We present a case of a woman with steroid-responsive biopsy-proven UIP with significant and sustained improvement in pulmonary function. A female in her 40s presented following a one-year history of progressive dyspnea, a 20 lb weight loss, and fatigue. Imaging of the chest with computed tomography (CT) showed bibasilar subpleural reticular opacities and minimal peripheral honeycombing. Comprehensive connective tissue disease (CTD) antibody testing was negative. Pulmonary function testing showed moderate impairment with reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC, 69% predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 73% predicted), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO, 52% predicted). Surgical lung biopsy showed UIP with prominent inflammatory infiltrates. Following treatment with prednisone and azathioprine, the patient’s symptoms resolved, while objective pulmonary function testing showed normalization of lung function, which is sustained at >4 years of follow-up. Improvement in lung function following immunosuppressive therapy is distinctly uncommon in either idiopathic or secondary UIP. This report suggests that occasionally, patients with secondary UIP occurring in the context of otherwise undefinable autoimmune clinical syndromes may be responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25922588

  4. [Analysis and realization of new methods of testing the artificial ventilation of lungs (AVL) equipment].

    PubMed

    Gal'perin, Iu Sh; Alkhimova, L R; Safronov, A Iu

    2003-01-01

    The requirements applicable to the canal of the artificial ventilation of the lungs (AVL), volume measuring and to methods of appropriate monitoring based on GOST R ISO 10651.1-99 "Medical equipment of artificial ventilation of the lungs. Part 1. Technical requirements" (now valid). The recommendations on the testing methods and means and, in particular, on modeling the stretching properties and resistance of pulmonary phantoms are motivated. The influence of the internal stretching properties of AVL equipment and of the inertia system's specificity, comprising an apparatus and patient's respiratory organs, produced on the apparatus characteristics and functional curves (gas flow velocity, respiratory volume as well as pressure in the lungs and at the apparatus outlet) is analyzed. PMID:14518108

  5. Pyrosequencing Unveils Cystic Fibrosis Lung Microbiome Differences Associated with a Severe Lung Function Decline

    PubMed Central

    Bacci, Giovanni; Paganin, Patrizia; Lopez, Loredana; Vanni, Chiara; Dalmastri, Claudia; Cantale, Cristina; Daddiego, Loretta; Perrotta, Gaetano; Dolce, Daniela; Morelli, Patrizia; Tuccio, Vanessa; De Alessandri, Alessandra; Fiscarelli, Ersilia Vita; Taccetti, Giovanni; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Chronic airway infection is a hallmark feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) disease. In the present study, sputum samples from CF patients were collected and characterized by 16S rRNA gene-targeted approach, to assess how lung microbiota composition changes following a severe decline in lung function. In particular, we compared the airway microbiota of two groups of patients with CF, i.e. patients with a substantial decline in their lung function (SD) and patients with a stable lung function (S). The two groups showed a different bacterial composition, with SD patients reporting a more heterogeneous community than the S ones. Pseudomonas was the dominant genus in both S and SD patients followed by Staphylococcus and Prevotella. Other than the classical CF pathogens and the most commonly identified non-classical genera in CF, we found the presence of the unusual anaerobic genus Sneathia. Moreover, the oligotyping analysis revealed the presence of other minor genera described in CF, highlighting the polymicrobial nature of CF infection. Finally, the analysis of correlation and anti-correlation networks showed the presence of antagonism and ecological independence between members of Pseudomonas genus and the rest of CF airways microbiota, with S patients showing a more interconnected community in S patients than in SD ones. This population structure suggests a higher resilience of S microbiota with respect to SD, which in turn may hinder the potential adverse impact of aggressive pathogens (e.g. Pseudomonas). In conclusion, our findings shed a new light on CF airway microbiota ecology, improving current knowledge about its composition and polymicrobial interactions in patients with CF. PMID:27355625

  6. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar; Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Lantz, R. Clark; González-Cortes, Tania; Alba, Cesar Gonzalez-De; Froines, John R.; Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero is associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms and diseases in adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero was associated with impairment in the lung function in children and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammatory response to the metalloid. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was designed in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their As levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsenic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. PMID:26048584

  7. Functional genomics of chlorine-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Leikauf, George D; Pope-Varsalona, Hannah; Concel, Vincent J; Liu, Pengyuan; Bein, Kiflai; Brant, Kelly A; Dopico, Richard A; Di, Y Peter; Jang, An-Soo; Dietsch, Maggie; Medvedovic, Mario; Li, Qian; Vuga, Louis J; Kaminski, Naftali; You, Ming; Prows, Daniel R

    2010-07-01

    Acute lung injury can be induced indirectly (e.g., sepsis) or directly (e.g., chlorine inhalation). Because treatment is still limited to supportive measures, mortality remains high ( approximately 74,500 deaths/yr). In the past, accidental (railroad derailments) and intentional (Iraq terrorism) chlorine exposures have led to deaths and hospitalizations from acute lung injury. To better understand the molecular events controlling chlorine-induced acute lung injury, we have developed a functional genomics approach using inbred mice strains. Various mouse strains were exposed to chlorine (45 ppm x 24 h) and survival was monitored. The most divergent strains varied by more than threefold in mean survival time, supporting the likelihood of an underlying genetic basis of susceptibility. These divergent strains are excellent models for additional genetic analysis to identify critical candidate genes controlling chlorine-induced acute lung injury. Gene-targeted mice then could be used to test the functional significance of susceptibility candidate genes, which could be valuable in revealing novel insights into the biology of acute lung injury. PMID:20601635

  8. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in animal feed workers.

    PubMed

    Jorna, T H; Borm, P J; Valks, J; Houba, R; Wouters, E F

    1994-10-01

    In a study among 194 male workers exposed to endotoxin-containing organic dust in animal feed mills, lung function was measured by flow volume curves and impedance measurements and respiratory symptoms were recorded by means of a validated questionnaire. The aims were to detect and localize airway obstruction caused by fodder dust and endotoxin, and to relate respiratory symptoms to both types of lung function measurements. Flow volume and impedance parameters were significantly related to present exposure. All impedance parameters, of the spirometric measures only FEF25, were significantly related to cumulative dust or endotoxin exposure. The changes in impedance parameters were for overall increasing resistance at 8 Hz and decreasing reactance at 8 Hz, reflecting an increase in peripheral airflow obstruction, with increasing exposure. The changes in all lung function parameters were more strongly related to (cumulative) endotoxin exposure than to inspirable dust exposure. All impedance parameters and FEV1 showed a good correlation with complaints of chronic bronchitis and breathlessness. Impedance measurement of the respiratory system proved to be a useful tool for objectively assessing (early) airflow obstruction in workers exposed to inspirable dust and endotoxin and in localizing airflow obstruction. PMID:7924472

  9. Influence of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Lung Function Changes After the Lung Resection for Primary Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Mujovic, Natasa; Mujovic, Nebojsa; Subotic, Dragan; Ercegovac, Maja; Milovanovic, Andjela; Nikcevic, Ljubica; Zugic, Vladimir; Nikolic, Dejan

    2015-11-01

    Influence of physiotherapy on the outcome of the lung resection is still controversial. Study aim was to assess the influence of physiotherapy program on postoperative lung function and effort tolerance in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that are undergoing lobectomy or pneumonectomy. The prospective study included 56 COPD patients who underwent lung resection for primary non small-cell lung cancer after previous physiotherapy (Group A) and 47 COPD patients (Group B) without physiotherapy before lung cancer surgery. In Group A, lung function and effort tolerance on admission were compared with the same parameters after preoperative physiotherapy. Both groups were compared in relation to lung function, effort tolerance and symptoms change after resection. In patients with tumors requiring a lobectomy, after preoperative physiotherapy, a highly significant increase in FEV1, VC, FEF50 and FEF25 of 20%, 17%, 18% and 16% respectively was registered with respect to baseline values. After physiotherapy, a significant improvement in 6-minute walking distance was achieved. After lung resection, the significant loss of FEV1 and VC occurred, together with significant worsening of the small airways function, effort tolerance and symptomatic status. After the surgery, a clear tendency existed towards smaller FEV1 loss in patients with moderate to severe, when compared to patients with mild baseline lung function impairment. A better FEV1 improvement was associated with more significant loss in FEV1. Physiotherapy represents an important part of preoperative and postoperative treatment in COPD patients undergoing a lung resection for primary lung cancer. PMID:26618048

  10. Changes in Functional Lung Regions During the Course of Radiation Therapy and Their Potential Impact on Lung Dosimetry for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xue; Frey, Kirk; Matuszak, Martha; Paul, Stanton; Ten Haken, Randall; Yu, Jinming; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To study changes in functional activity on ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during radiation therapy (RT) and explore the impact of such changes on lung dosimetry in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifteen NSCLC patients with centrally located tumors were enrolled. All patients were treated with definitive RT dose of ≥60 Gy. V/Q SPECT-CT scans were performed prior to and after delivery of 45 Gy of fractionated RT. SPECT images were used to define temporarily dysfunctional regions of lung caused by tumor or other potentially reversible conditions as B3. The functional lung (FL) was defined on SPECT by 2 separate approaches: FL1, a threshold of 30% of the maximum uptake of the patient's lung; and FL2, FL1 plus B3 region. The impact of changes in FL between initiation of RT and delivery of 45 Gy on lung dosimetry were analyzed. Results: Fourteen patients (93%) had larger FL2 volumes than FL1 pre-RT (P<.001). Dysfunctional lung became functional in 11 patients (73%) on V SPECT and in 10 patients (67%) on Q SPECT. The dosimetric parameters generated from CT-based anatomical lung had significantly lower values in FL1 than FL2, with a median reduction in the volume of lung receiving a dose of at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20}) of 3%, 5.6%, and mean lung dose of 0.95 and 1.55 on V and Q SPECT respectively. Conclusions: Regional ventilation and perfusion function improve significantly during RT in centrally located NSCLC. Lung dosimetry values vary notably between different definitions of functional lung.

  11. Efficacy of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with more preserved lung function.

    PubMed

    Albera, Carlo; Costabel, Ulrich; Fagan, Elizabeth A; Glassberg, Marilyn K; Gorina, Eduard; Lancaster, Lisa; Lederer, David J; Nathan, Steven D; Spirig, Dominique; Swigris, Jeff J

    2016-09-01

    This post hoc analysis examined the differences in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis disease progression and the effects of pirfenidone in patients stratified by more preserved versus less preserved baseline lung function status using forced vital capacity (FVC) or GAP (gender, age and physiology) index stage.Efficacy outcomes, i.e. FVC, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and dyspnoea (University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (UCSD SOBQ)), were analysed at 12 months in patients randomised to pirfenidone 2403 mg·day(-1) or placebo in the pooled phase 3 CAPACITY/ASCEND population (n=1247), with subgroups stratified by baseline FVC ≥80% versus <80% or GAP stage I versus II-III. Treatment-by-subgroup interaction was tested based on a rank ANCOVA model; factors in the model included study, region, treatment, subgroup and treatment-by-subgroup interaction term.Patients with both more preserved (FVC ≥80% or GAP stage I) and less preserved (FVC <80% or GAP stage II-III) lung function at baseline demonstrated clinically significant disease progression at 12 months in terms of categorical decline in FVC, 6MWD and UCSD SOBQ. The magnitude of pirfenidone treatment effect was comparable between subgroups, regardless of whether lung function was classified using FVC or GAP index stage.These findings support the initiation of treatment with pirfenidone, irrespective of stage of baseline lung function in this patient population. PMID:27471208

  12. Healthy Eating Index 2005 and selected macronutrients are correlated with improved lung function in humans.

    PubMed

    Root, Martin M; Houser, Shannon M; Anderson, John J B; Dawson, Hannah R

    2014-04-01

    A number of dietary components have been associated with lung function. However, a comprehensive measure of a healthy diet has not been compared with lung function. Herein, we test the hypothesis that a healthy overall diet, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005), will be associated with increased lung function. This is an investigation using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Research Materials obtained from the National Heart Lung Blood Institute. The study surveyed dietary habits of 15 567 American subjects from 4 communities in 1987 to 1990. Spirometric measures of lung function were also taken at entry to the study and a second time 3 years later. Based on food and nutritional data collected by food frequency questionnaire, an HEI-2005 score was calculated for each subject. This total score, together with its 12 components scores and associated macronutrient, was compared with lung function results by linear regression. Models were controlled for smoking behavior, demographics, and other important covariates. The HEI-2005 total scores were positively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second per forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) at visit 1 (β = .101 per increase in 1 quintile of HEI-2005) and visit 2 (β = .140), and FEV(1) as percentage of the predicted FEV(1) at visit 2 (β = .215) (P < .05). In addition, HEI-2005 component scores that represented high intakes of whole grains (β = .127 and .096); saturated fats (β = -.091); and solid fats, alcohol, and added sugar (β = -.109 and -.131) were significantly associated with FEV(1)/FVC at either visit 1 or visit 2. Intakes of total calories (β =-.082 at visit 1) and saturated fatty acids (β = -.085 at visit 2) were negatively associated with FEV(1)/FVC. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (β = .085 and .116) and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (β = .109 and .103), animal protein (β = .132 and .093), and dietary fiber (β = .129) were positively associated with lung health

  13. Second to fourth digit ratio: A predictor of adult lung function

    PubMed Central

    Park, I-Nae; Yum, Ho-Kee; Lee, Sang Chul; Oh, Jin Kyu; Kim, Tae Beom

    2014-01-01

    Sex and sex hormones play a major role in lung physiology. It has been proposed that the ratio of the second to fourth digits (digit ratio) is correlated with fetal sex hormones. We therefore hypothesized that digit ratio might help predict lung function. We investigated the relationship between digit ratio and pulmonary function test (PFT) findings. A total of 245 South Korean patients (162 male, 83 female) aged from 34 to 90 years who were hospitalized for urological surgery were prospectively enrolled. Before administering the PFTs, the lengths of the second and fourth digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital Vernier caliper. In males (n = 162), univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that digit ratio was a significant predictive factor of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (FVC: r = 0.156, P = 0.047; FEV1: r = 0.160, P = 0.042). In male ever-smokers (n = 69), lung functions (FVC and FEV1) were correlated with smoking exposure rather than digit ratio. In female never-smokers (n = 83), lung functions (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio) were positively correlated with digit ratio on univariate analysis (FEV1: r = 0.242, P = 0.027; FEV1/FVC ratio: r = 0.245, P = 0.026). Patients with lower digit ratios tend to have decreased lung function. These results suggest that digit ratio is a predictor of airway function. PMID:24369148

  14. Somatic growth and lung function in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Tina; Koumbourlis, Anastassios C

    2014-03-01

    Somatic growth is a key indicator of overall health and well-being with important prognostic implications in the management of chronic disease. Worldwide studies of growth in children and adults with SCD have predominantly shown delayed growth (especially in terms of body weight) that is gradual and progressive in nature. However, more recent studies have shown that a substantial number of patients with SCD have normal weight gain whereas some are even obese. Height in patients with SCD is not universally affected even among those with suboptimal weight gain, whereas some achieve the same or greater height than healthy controls. The relationship between somatic growth and lung function in SCD is not yet clearly defined. As a group, patients with SCD tend to have lower lung volumes compared with healthy controls. These findings are similar across the age spectrum and across ethnic/racial lines regardless of the differences in body weight. Several mechanisms and risk factors have been proposed to explain these findings. These include malnutrition, racial differences and socioeconomic status. In addition, there are structural changes of the thorax (specifically the anterio-posterior chest diameter and anterio-posterior to lateral chest ratio) specific to sickle cell disease, that potentially interfere with normal lung growth. Although, caloric and protein intake have been shown to improve both height and weight, the composition of an optimal diet remains unclear. The following article reviews the current knowledge and controversies regarding somatic growth and its relationship with lung function in sickle cell disease (SCD) as well as the role of specific deficiencies of certain micronutrients. PMID:24268619

  15. [Diagnosis and examination for COPD. Pulmonary function tests].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Masaru

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary function tests are essential for the diagnosis and management of COPD. It is important to understand the inspection method of tests and the interpretation of test results. The presence of a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC<0.70 confirms the presence of persistent airflow limitation and the diagnosis of COPD. On the other hand, the classification of severity of airflow limitation in COPD is based on %FEV1. In COPD patients, as airflow limitation worsens gas trapping and static hyperinflation occurs. These changes can be documented by lung volume measurement as increases in functional residual capacity, residual volume and total lung capacity. Measurement of diffusing capacity (DLco) provides information on the functional impact of emphysema in COPD. PMID:27254943

  16. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Göran; Jarenbäck, Linnea; Peterson, Stefan; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions. Patients and methods Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV) and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points. Results Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz) were segmented with break-points at 60%–70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of −5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and −3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61%. Conclusion Continuous analyses of different lung function parameters over the spirometric COPD severity range gave valuable information additional to categorical analyses. Parameters related to volume, diffusion capacity, and reactance showed break-points around 65% of FEV1, indicating that air trapping starts to dominate

  17. Acute effects of volcanic ash from Mount Saint Helens on lung function in children.

    PubMed

    Buist, A S; Johnson, L R; Vollmer, W M; Sexton, G J; Kanarek, P H

    1983-06-01

    To evaluate the acute effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens on the lung function of children, we studied 101 children 8 to 13 yr of age who were attending a 2-wk summer camp for children with diabetes mellitus in an area where about 1.2 cm of ash had fallen after the June 12, 1980, eruption. The outcome variables used were forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, their ratio and mean transit time. Total and respirable dust levels were measured using personal sampling pumps. The children were tested on arrival and twice (early morning [A.M.] and late afternoon [P.M.]) every second or third day during the session. A within-day effect was measured by the P.M./A.M. ratio for the lung function variables; a between-day effect was measured by the change in the P.M. measurements over the 2 wk of camp. We found no strong evidence of either a within-day or a between-day effect on lung function, even in a subgroup of children who had preexisting lung disease or symptoms, despite daytime dust/ash levels that usually exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's significant harm level for particulate matter. PMID:6859654

  18. Computational Multiscale Toxicodynamic Modeling of Silver and Carbon Nanoparticle Effects on Mouse Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Botelho, Danielle; Gow, Andrew J.; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2013-01-01

    A computational, multiscale toxicodynamic model has been developed to quantify and predict pulmonary effects due to uptake of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in mice. The model consists of a collection of coupled toxicodynamic modules, that were independently developed and tested using information obtained from the literature. The modules were developed to describe the dynamics of tissue with explicit focus on the cells and the surfactant chemicals that regulate the process of breathing, as well as the response of the pulmonary system to xenobiotics. Alveolar type I and type II cells, and alveolar macrophages were included in the model, along with surfactant phospholipids and surfactant proteins, to account for processes occurring at multiple biological scales, coupling cellular and surfactant dynamics affected by nanoparticle exposure, and linking the effects to tissue-level lung function changes. Nanoparticle properties such as size, surface chemistry, and zeta potential were explicitly considered in modeling the interactions of these particles with biological media. The model predictions were compared with in vivo lung function response measurements in mice and analysis of mice lung lavage fluid following exposures to silver and carbon nanoparticles. The predictions were found to follow the trends of observed changes in mouse surfactant composition over 7 days post dosing, and are in good agreement with the observed changes in mouse lung function over the same period of time. PMID:24312506

  19. Chest imaging and lung function impairment after long-term occupational exposure to low concentrations of chrysotile.

    PubMed

    Spyratos, Dionisios; Chloros, Diamantis; Haidich, Bettina; Dagdilelis, Loukas; Markou, Stamatia; Sichletidis, Lazaros

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the investigation of radiographic findings in relation to lung function after occupational exposure to permissible levels of relatively pure chrysotile (0.5-3% amphiboles). We studied 266 out of the total 317 employees who have worked in an asbestos cement factory during the period 1968-2004 with chest x-ray, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and lung function tests. Sensitivity of chest x-ray was 43% compared to HRCT. Abnormal HRCT findings were found in 75 subjects (67%) and were related to age, occupational exposure duration, and spirometric data. The presence of parenchymal or visceral pleural lesions (exclusively or as the predominant abnormality) was being accompanied by lower total lung capacity and diffusion capacity. HRCT was much more sensitive than chest x-ray for occupational chrysotile exposure. Lung function impairment was related with parenchymal but not with pleural HRCT abnormalities. PMID:22524648

  20. Lung function, atopy, and chronic exposure to air pollution in schoolchildren living in two cities of different air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurzau, Eugen S.; Gurzau, Anca; Muresan, Marius; Bodor, Ecaterina; Zehan, Zoe; Radulescu, Nicolae

    1993-03-01

    The question of a causative interrelation between air pollution and respiratory status has received considerable attention by the mass media in our country. Schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 living in two communities with different levels of air pollution were studied. The parents of these children filled out a health questionnaire. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases was found to be significantly higher among children growing up in the polluted area (Tirnaveni) as compared with the low-pollution area (Dej). Lung function tests point out FEF25-75 disorders (and other lung disorders) at higher frequencies in schoolchildren living in the polluted area. Over 90% of schoolchildren living in the polluted area. Over 90% of schoolchildren with lung function disorders had a positive response to bronchodilatation. Of the schoolchildren with lung function disorders, 75.47% (p < 0,001) were atopic all of whom were sensitized to the down and house-dust.

  1. Functional imaging of the lungs with gas agents.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Stanley J; Nagle, Scott K; Couch, Marcus J; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Albert, Mitchell; Fain, Sean B

    2016-02-01

    This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of the three major classes of gas contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-hyperpolarized (HP) gas, molecular oxygen, and fluorinated gas--and their application to clinical pulmonary research. During the past several years there has been accelerated development of pulmonary MRI. This has been driven in part by concerns regarding ionizing radiation using multidetector computed tomography (CT). However, MRI also offers capabilities for fast multispectral and functional imaging using gas agents that are not technically feasible with CT. Recent improvements in gradient performance and radial acquisition methods using ultrashort echo time (UTE) have contributed to advances in these functional pulmonary MRI techniques. The relative strengths and weaknesses of the main functional imaging methods and gas agents are compared and applications to measures of ventilation, diffusion, and gas exchange are presented. Functional lung MRI methods using these gas agents are improving our understanding of a wide range of chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis in both adults and children. PMID:26218920

  2. Cognitive Function, Mental Health, and Health-related Quality of Life after Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David G.; Christie, Jason D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Diamond, Joshua M.; Judy, Ryan P.; Shah, Rupal J.; Cantu, Edward; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Blumenthal, Nancy P.; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Hopkins, Ramona O.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Cognitive and psychiatric impairments are threats to functional independence, general health, and quality of life. Evidence regarding these outcomes after lung transplantation is limited. Objectives: Determine the frequency of cognitive and psychiatric impairment after lung transplantation and identify potential factors associated with cognitive impairment after lung transplantation. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, we assessed cognitive function, mental health, and health-related quality of life using a validated battery of standardized tests in 42 subjects post-transplantation. The battery assessed cognition, depression, anxiety, resilience, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, a validated screening test with a range of 0 to 30. We hypothesized that cognitive function post-transplantation would be associated with type of transplant, cardiopulmonary bypass, primary graft dysfunction, allograft ischemic time, and physical therapy post-transplantation. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between candidate risk factors and cognitive function post-transplantation. Measurements and Main Results: Mild cognitive impairment (score, 18–25) was observed in 67% of post-transplant subjects (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50–80%) and moderate cognitive impairment (score, 10–17) was observed in 5% (95% CI, 1–16%) of post-transplant subjects. Symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety and depression were observed in 21 and 3% of post-transplant subjects, respectively. No transplant recipients reported symptoms of PTSD. Higher resilience correlated with less psychological distress in the domains of depression (P < 0.001) and PTSD (P = 0.02). Prolonged graft ischemic time was independently associated with worse cognitive performance after lung transplantation (P = 0.001). The functional gain in 6-minute-walk distance achieved at the end of post

  3. Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi-ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-min; Lin, Zhi-min; Zheng, Jin-ping; Chen, Rong-chang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2014-01-01

    Background Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood. Objectives To determine the factors associated with lung function impairment and to compare changes in spirometry during bronchiectasis exacerbation and convalescence (1 week following 14-day antibiotic therapy). Methods We recruited 142 patients with steady-state bronchiectasis, of whom 44 with acute exacerbations in the follow-up were included in subgroup analyses. Baseline measurements consisted of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), sputum volume, purulence and bacteriology, spirometry and diffusing capacity. Spirometry, but not diffusing capacity, was examined during acute exacerbations and convalescence. Results In the final multivariate models, having bronchiectasis symptoms for 10 years or greater (OR = 4.75, 95%CI: 1.46–15.43, P = 0.01), sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 4.93, 95%CI: 1.52–15.94, P<0.01) and HRCT total score being 12 or greater (OR = 7.77, 95%CI: 3.21–18.79, P<0.01) were the major variables associated with FEV1 being 50%pred or less; and the only variable associated with reduced DLCO was 4 or more bronchiectatic lobes (OR = 5.91, 95%CI: 2.20–17.23, P<0.01). Overall differences in FVC and FEV1 during exacerbations and convalescence were significant (P<0.05), whereas changes in other spirometric parameters were less notable. This applied even when stratified by the magnitude of FEV1 and DLCO reduction at baseline. Conclusion Significant lung function impairment should raise alert of chest HRCT abnormality and sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in patients with predominantly mild to moderate steady-state bronchiectasis. Acute exacerbations elicited reductions in FVC and FEV1. Changes of other spirometric parameters were less significant during exacerbations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01761214 PMID:25405614

  4. Farmer's lung

    PubMed Central

    Hapke, E. J.; Seal, R. M. E.; Thomas, G. O.; Hayes, M.; Meek, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    In assessing patients suffering from farmer's lung, the acute stage must be distinguished from the chronic stage of the disease. The conspicuous radiographic signs in the acute farmer's lung episode and the often dramatic clearing make an important contribution to the diagnosis. The radiographic changes in chronic farmer's lung are not specific and cover a wide range of appearances. Even minor nodular changes are significant. Farmer's lung, acute and chronic, is not a disease predominantly characterized by a defect in gas exchange. During the acute illness the reduction in diffusing capacity is often accompanied by a decrease in lung volumes; the pulmonary function profile of the chronic stage is variable. In only a relatively small proportion of chronic farmer's lung patients does a defect in gas exchange predominate, and in some it may be manifest only during exercise. Airway obstruction is a feature of chronic farmer's lung. In chronic farmer's lung patients discrepancies between the severity of complaints and results of pulmonary function tests are not infrequent. In some patients with considerable disability conventional pulmonary function studies may demonstrate little or no impairment of the functions measured. In patients suffering from an acute farmer's lung episode, serological tests should be positive, possibly in high titre. In the chronic stage of the disease the chance of finding positive serology in a patient diminishes with the length of time elapsed since the last acute episode. The period of serological transition appears to be the third year. Images PMID:4971361

  5. Budesonide ameliorates lung function of the cigarette smoke-exposed rats through reducing matrix metalloproteinase-1 content

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiawei; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Bin; Li, Kang; Li, Zhu; Li, Junhong; Zhang, Yongjian; Sun, Wuzhuang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate an effect of inhaled budesonide on cigarette smoke-exposed lungs with a possible mechanism involved in the event. Methods: Rats were exposed to air (control) and cigarette smoke (smoking) in presence and absence of budesonide. Inflammatory cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung function testing, mean liner intercept (MLI) in lung tissue, mean alveolar number (MAN) and a ratio of bronchial wall thickness and external diameter (BWT/D) were determined in the grouped rats, respectively. Contents of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 productions in BALF were examined as well. Results: There were significant changes in the above assessments in the smoking rats as compared to those in the control rats (all P < 0.01 and 0.05). Budesonide inhalation significantly decreased the numbers of the BALF cells and partly reversed lung function decline in the challenged rats (P < 0.01 and 0.05). However, this corticosteroid did not influence pathological changes in fine structures of the tobacco smoke-exposed lungs. Treatment with budesonide resulted in an obvious decrease in the MMP-1 but not MMP-2 and TIMP-2 productions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Inhaled budesonide mitigates the ongoing inflammatory process in the smoked lungs and ameliorates declining lung function through reducing MMP-1 content. PMID:26191209

  6. Potentially Functional Polymorphisms in POU5F1 Gene Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Rui; Wang, Yuzhuo; Zhu, Meng; Wen, Yifan; Sun, Jie; Shen, Wei; Cheng, Yang; Zhang, Jiahui; Jin, Guangfu; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Dai, Juncheng

    2015-01-01

    POU5F1 is a key regulator of self-renewal and differentiation in embryonic stem cells and may be associated with initiation, promotion, and progression in cancer. We hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in POU5F1 may play an important role in modifying the lung cancer risk. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to explore the association between 17 potentially functional SNPs in POU5F1 gene and the lung cancer risk in 1,341 incident lung cancer cases and 1,982 healthy controls in a Chinese population. We found that variant alleles of rs887468 and rs3130457 were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer after multiple comparison (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.11–1.51, Pfdr = 0.017 for rs887468; OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10–1.51, Pfdr = 0.034 for rs3130457, resp.). In addition, we detected a significant interaction between rs887468 genotypes and smoking status on lung cancer risk (P = 0.017). Combined analysis of these 2 SNPs showed a significant allele-dosage association between the number of risk alleles and increased risk of lung cancer (Ptrend < 0.001). These findings indicate that potentially functional polymorphisms in POU5F1 gene may contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population. PMID:26824036

  7. Measurement of lung function using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) during mechanical ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebuya, Satoru; Koike, Tomotaka; Imai, Hiroshi; Noshiro, Makoto; Brown, Brian H.; Soma, Kazui

    2010-04-01

    The consistency of regional lung density measurements as estimated by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), in eleven patients supported by a mechanical ventilator, was validated to verify the feasibility of its use in intensive care medicine. There were significant differences in regional lung densities between the normal lung and diseased lungs associated with pneumonia, atelectasis and pleural effusion (Steel-Dwass test, p < 0.05). Temporal changes in regional lung density of patients with atelectasis were observed to be in good agreement with the results of clinical diagnosis. These results indicate that it is feasible to obtain a quantitative value for regional lung density using EIT.

  8. Acute lung function responses to ambient acid aerosol exposures in children

    SciTech Connect

    Raizenne, M.E.; Burnett, R.T.; Stern, B.; Franklin, C.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1989-02-01

    We examined the relationship between lung function changes and ambient acid aerosol episodes in children attending a residential summer camp. Young females (112) performed daily spirometry, and 96 were assessed on one occasion for airway hyperresponsiveness using a methacholine bronchoprovocation test. Air quality measurements were performed on site and four distinct acid aerosol episodes were observed during the 41-day study. The maximum values observed during the 41-day study were: O/sub 3/ at 143 ppb; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 47.7 micrograms/m/sup 3/; and (H+) at 550 nmole/m/sup 3/. Maximum decrements of 3.5 and 7% for FEV1 and PEF, respectively, were observed to be associated with the air pollution episodes. There was some evidence of a differential lung function response to the episodes where children with a positive response to a methacholine challenge had larger decrements compared to their nonresponsive counterparts.

  9. GALACSI integration and functional tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Penna, P.; Ströbele, S.; Aller Carpentier, E.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Duchateau, M.; Fedrigo, E.; Gago, F.; Hubin, N.; Quentin, J.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Madec, P.-.; Manescau, A.; Mehrgan, L.; Sedghi, B.; Suarez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.; Zampieri, S.

    2014-07-01

    GALACSI is the Adaptive Optics (AO) modules of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) that will correct the wavefront delivered to the MUSE Integral Field Spectrograph. It will sense with four 40×40 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors the AOF 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS), acting on the 1170 voice-coils actuators of the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM). GALACSI has two operating modes: in Wide Field Mode (WFM), with the four LGS at 64" off axis, the collected energy in a 0.2"×0.2" pixel will be enhanced by a factor 2 at 750 nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1'×1' using the Ground Layer AO (GLAO) technique. The other mode, the Narrow Field Mode (NFM), provides an enhanced wavefront correction (Strehl Ratio (SR) of 5% (goal 10%) at 650 nm) but in a smaller FoV (7.5"×7.5"), using Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), with the 4 LGS located closer, at 10" off axis. Before being shipped to Paranal, GALACSI will be first integrated and fully tested in stand-alone, and then moved to a dedicated AOF facility to be tested with the DSM in Europe. At present the module is fully assembled, its main functionalities have been implemented and verified, and AO system tests with the DSM are starting. We present here the main system features and the results of the internal functional tests of GALACSI.

  10. Lung distensibility and airway function in intermediate alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (Pi MZ).

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, S F; Pereira, R P; Hunter, D; Blundell, G; Pride, N B

    1979-01-01

    We examined the role of intermediate alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency in predisposing to abnormalities of lung distensibility and airway function in 20 heterozygotes (Pi MZ) who were individually matched with a control Pi M subject of similar age, height, and smoking habits drawn from the same male, working population. There were no significant differences between the heterozygotes and their controls in the results of spirometry, maximum expiratory flow-volume curves (breathing air), single breath nitrogen test, arterialised capillary blood oxygen pressure, or single breath carbon monoxide transfer. Additional studies were made in 12 of the pairs of Pi MZ and Pi M subjects. Comparison of maximum expiratory flow-volume curves breathing air and 80% helium-20% oxygen showed no differences between the Pi MZ and Pi M subjects. Although airway function was similar in the two groups, four of 12 Pi MZ subjects showed abnormalities of the pressure-volume curve of the lung (reduction in lung recoil pressure, abnormal shape factor, increase in functional residual capacity). Abnormalities of washout of a helium-sulphur hexafluoride gas mixture, of a type previously described as characteristic of emphysema, were found in two of the men with abnormal pressure-volume curves. The results suggest that Pi MZ subjects have an increased susceptibility to alveolar abnormalities without increased abnormalities of airway function; this may explain the increased frequency of emphysema at necropsy despite many studies showing no predisposition to abnormal airway function in life. The functional changes we observed would be unlikely to cause symptoms. The risk of disablement from chronic lung disease appears to be only slightly enhanced by intermediate alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:316207

  11. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Alexander; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Sly, Peter D; Baraldi, Eugenio; Piacentini, Giorgio; Pavord, Ian; Lex, Christiane; Saglani, Sejal

    2015-06-01

    This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases. PMID:26028633

  12. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function

  13. Computer-Aided Tomographic Analysis of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Correlation with Pulmonary Physiologic Tests and Patient-Centred Measures of Perceived Dyspnea and Functional Disability

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Di Donato, Eleonora; Di Carlo, Marco; Ceccarelli, Luca; Giuseppetti, Gianmarco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed (a) to evaluate an improved quantitative lung fibrosis score based on a computer-aided diagnosis (CaM) system in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc),—related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD), (b) to investigate the relationship between physiologic parameters (forced vital capacity [FVC] and single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]), patient-centred measures of dyspnea and functional disability and CaM and visual reader-based (CoVR) methods, and (c) to identify potential surrogate measures from quantitative and visual HRCT measurement. Methods 126 patients with SSc underwent chest radiography, HRCT and PFTs. The following patient-centred measures were obtained: modified Borg Dyspnea Index (Borg score), VAS for breathing, and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). HRCT abnormalities were scored according to the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR) and by a CaM. The relationships among the HRCT scores, physiologic parameters (FVC and DLCO, % predicted) results and patient-centred measures, were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation. Multivariate regression models were performed to identify the predictor variables on severity of pulmonary fibrosis. Results Subjects with limited cutaneous SSc had lower HAQ-DI scores than subjects with diffuse cutaneous SSc (p <0.001). CaM and CoVR scores were similar in the 2 groups. In univariate analysis, a strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (p <0.0001). In multivariate analysis the CaM and CoVR scores were predicted by DLco, FVC, Borg score and HAQ-DI. Age, sex, disease duration, anti-topoisomerase antibodies and mRSS were not significantly associated with severity of pulmonary fibrosis on CaM- and CoVR methods. Conclusions Although a close correlation between CaM score results and CoVR total score was found, CaM analysis showed a more significant correlation with DLco (more so than the FVC

  14. Recovery from silver-nanoparticle-exposure-induced lung inflammation and lung function changes in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung Seuk; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jong Seong; Ryu, Hyeon Ryol; Lee, Jin Kyu; Chung, Yong Hyun; Park, Hyun Min; Shin, Beom Soo; Chang, Hee Kyung; Kelman, Bruce; Yu, Il Je

    2013-03-01

    In a previous study, the lung function, as indicated by the tidal volume, minute volume, and peak inspiration flow, decreased during 90 days of exposure to silver nanoparticles and was accompanied by inflammatory lesions in the lung morphology. Therefore, this study investigated the recovery from such lung function changes in rats following the cessation of 12 weeks of nanoparticle exposure. Male and female rats were exposed to silver nanoparticles (14-15 nm diameter) at concentrations of 0.66 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (49 μg/m(3), low dose), 1.41 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (117 μg/m(3), middle dose), and 3.24 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (381 μg/m(3), high dose) for 6 h/day in an inhalation chamber for 12 weeks. The rats were then allowed to recover. The lung function was measured every week during the exposure period and after the cessation of exposure, plus animals were sacrificed after the 12-week exposure period, and 4 weeks and 12 weeks after the exposure cessation. An exposure-related lung function decrease was measured in the male rats after the 12-week exposure period and 12 weeks after the exposure cessation. In contrast, the female rats did not show a consistent lung function decrease either during the exposure period or following the exposure cessation. The histopathology showed a gradual recovery from the lung inflammation in the female rats, whereas the male rats in the high-dose group exhibited persistent inflammation throughout the 12-week recovery period. Therefore, the present results suggest a potential persistence of lung function changes and inflammation induced by silver nanoparticle exposure above the no observed adverse effect level. PMID:22264098

  15. Association of incidental emphysema with annual lung function decline and future development of airflow limitation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jin, Kwang Nam; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Chung, Hee Soon; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Emphysema is one of the prognostic factors for rapid lung function decline in patients with COPD, but the impact of incidentally detected emphysema on population without spirometric abnormalities has not been evaluated. This study aimed to determine whether emphysema detected upon computed tomography (CT) screening would accelerate the rate of lung function decline and influence the possibility of future development of airflow limitation in a population without spirometric abnormalities. Materials and methods Subjects who participated in a routine screening for health checkup and follow-up pulmonary function tests for at least 3 years between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. The percentage of low-attenuation area below −950 Hounsfield units (%LAA−950) was calculated automatically. A calculated value of %LAA−950 that exceeded 10% was defined as emphysema. Adjusted annual lung function decline was analyzed using random-slope, random-intercept mixed linear regression models. Results A total of 628 healthy subjects within the normal range of spriometric values were included. Multivariable analysis showed that the emphysema group exhibited a faster decline in forced vital capacity (−33.9 versus −18.8 mL/year; P=0.02). Emphysema was not associated with the development of airflow limitation during follow-up. Conclusion Incidental emphysema quantified using CT scan was significantly associated with a more rapid decline in forced vital capacity in the population with normative spirometric values. However, an association between emphysema and future development of airflow limitation was not observed. PMID:26893550

  16. The respiratory health and lung function of Anglo-American children in a smelter town

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.

    1983-02-01

    Cooper smelters are large, usually isolated, sources of air pollution. Arizona has several such plants on the periphery of small communities. The smelters emit predominantly sulfur oxides and particulates, and the residents of these communities intermittently are exposed to high concentrations (24-h sulfur dioxide (SO2) . 250 to 500 micrograms/m3) of smelter smoke but little other pollution. This study compared the respiratory health of Anglo-American school children who lived in one smelter community with children living in another small community in Arizona that was free of smelter air pollution. The prevalence of cough, as determined by questionnaire, was 25.6% in the smelter town children and 14.3% in the nonsmelter town children (p less than 0.05). Pulmonary function at the study onset was equal in the two groups. Over the course of the 4 yr of study, lung function growth (measured as actual forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after 4 yr of study minus predicted FEV1) was also equal in the smelter town and nonsmelter town children. These results suggest that children in smelter communities have slightly more cough when compared with children living in other communities, but no differences in initial lung function or lung function at yearly testing over the period of the study.

  17. Lung Growth and Airway Function after Lobectomy in Infancy for Congenital Lobar Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    McBride, John T.; Wohl, Mary Ellen B.; Strieder, Denise J.; Jackson, Andrew C.; Morton, John R.; Zwerdling, Robert G.; Griscom, N. Thorne; Treves, Salvador; Williams, Adrian J.; Schuster, Samuel

    1980-01-01

    To characterize the outcome of lobectomy in infancy and the low expiratory flows which persist after lobectomy for congenital lobar emphysema, 15 subjects with this history were studied at age 8-30 yr. Total lung capacity was normal in all, but higher values (P < 0.05) were observed in nine subjects with upper lobectomy than in five subjects with right middle lobectomy. Ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity was correlated (P < 0.05) with the amount of lung missing as estimated from normal relative weights of the respective lobes. Xe133 radiospirometry in eight subjects showed that the operated and unoperated sides had nearly equal volumes at total lung capacity, but that the operated side was larger than the unoperated side at residual volume. Perfusion was equally distributed between the two sides. Similar findings were detected radiographically in four other subjects. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and maximal midexpiratory flow rate averaged 72 and 45% of predicted, respectively. Low values of specific airway conductance and normal density dependence of maximal flows in 12 subjects suggested that obstruction was not limited to peripheral airways. Pathologic observations at the time of surgery and morphometry of the resected lobes were not correlated with any test of pulmonary function. These data show that lung volume can be completely recovered after lobectomy for congenital lobar emphysema in infancy. The volume increase occurs on the operated side, and probably represents tissue growth rather than simple distension. The response to resection is influenced by the particular lobe resected and may be associated with decreased lung recoil near residual volume. Low expiratory flows in these subjects could be explained by several mechanisms, among which a disproportion between airway and parenchymal growth in infancy (dysanaptic growth) is most compatible with our data. PMID:7430353

  18. Image-based modeling of lung structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, Merryn H.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2010-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art in image-based modeling allows derivation of patient-specific models of the lung, lobes, airways, and pulmonary vascular trees. The application of traditional engineering analyses of fluid and structural mechanics to image-based subject-specific models has the potential to provide new insight into structure-function relationships in the individual via functional interpretation that complements imaging and experimental studies. Three major issues that are encountered in studies of air flow through the bronchial airways are the representation of airway geometry, the imposition of physiological boundary conditions, and the treatment of turbulence. Here we review some efforts to resolve each of these issues, with particular focus on image-based models that have been developed to simulate air flow from the mouth to the terminal bronchiole, and subjected to physiologically meaningful boundary conditions via image registration and soft tissue mechanics models. PMID:21105146

  19. Testing lung cancer drugs and therapies in mice

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigators have designed a genetically engineered mouse for use in the study of human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC is a type of non-small cell lung carcinoma, one of the most common types of lung cancer, with

  20. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  1. Variation in lung function is associated with worse clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Pinto, Leonardo Araujo; Marostica, Paulo José Cauduro; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the variation in lung function over one year is associated with worse clinical outcomes, as well as with a decline in lung function in the following years, in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving CF patients (4-19 years of age), evaluated over a three-year period. We evaluated demographic characteristics, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, antibiotic use, hospitalization, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), and lung function. The inclusion criterion was having undergone pulmonary function testing at least three times in the first year and at least once in each of the next two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 35 CF patients. The variation in FEV1 in the first year (ΔFEV1) was greater among those who, in the third year, showed reduced FEV1, had a below-average 6MWD, or were hospitalized than among those with normal FEV1, normal 6MWD, or no hospital admissions, in that same year (p < 0.05), although no such difference was found for antibiotic use in the third year. Subjects showing a ΔFEV1 ≥ 10% also showed a greater decline in FEV1 over the two subsequent years (p = 0.04). The ΔFEV1 also showed an inverse correlation with absolute FEV1 in the third year (r = −0.340, p = 0.04) and with the rate of FEV1 decline (r = −0.52, p = 0.001). Linear regression identified ΔFEV1 as a predictor of FEV1 decline (coefficient of determination, 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation in lung function over one year seems to be associated with a higher subsequent rate of FEV1 decline and worse clinical outcomes in CF patients. Short-term ΔFEV1 might prove useful as a predictor of CF progression in clinical practice. PMID:26785959

  2. SU-E-J-86: Lobar Lung Function Quantification by PET Galligas and CT Ventilation Imaging in Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Eslick, E; Kipritidis, J; Keall, P; Bailey, D; Bailey, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the lobar lung function using the novel PET Galligas ([68Ga]-carbon nanoparticle) ventilation imaging and the investigational CT ventilation imaging in lung cancer patients pre-treatment. Methods: We present results on our first three lung cancer patients (2 male, mean age 78 years) as part of an ongoing ethics approved study. For each patient a PET Galligas ventilation (PET-V) image and a pair of breath hold CT images (end-exhale and end-inhale tidal volumes) were acquired using a Siemens Biograph PET CT. CT-ventilation (CT-V) images were created from the pair of CT images using deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms and the Hounsfield Unit (HU) ventilation metric. A comparison of ventilation quantification from each modality was done on the lobar level and the voxel level. A Bland-Altman plot was used to assess the difference in mean percentage contribution of each lobe to the total lung function between the two modalities. For each patient, a voxel-wise Spearmans correlation was calculated for the whole lungs between the two modalities. Results: The Bland-Altman plot demonstrated strong agreement between PET-V and CT-V for assessment of lobar function (r=0.99, p<0.001; range mean difference: −5.5 to 3.0). The correlation between PET-V and CT-V at the voxel level was moderate(r=0.60, p<0.001). Conclusion: This preliminary study on the three patients data sets demonstrated strong agreement between PET and CT ventilation imaging for the assessment of pre-treatment lung function at the lobar level. Agreement was only moderate at the level of voxel correlations. These results indicate that CT ventilation imaging has potential for assessing pre-treatment lobar lung function in lung cancer patients.

  3. The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Line, B.R.; Crystal, R.G.

    1983-08-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, /sup 67/Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or /sup 67/Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and /sup 67/Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., /sup 67/Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or /sup 67/Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and /sup 67/Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions.

  4. Thoracic dust exposure is associated with lung function decline in cement production workers.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Karl-Christian; Notø, Hilde; Eduard, Wijnand; Skogstad, Marit; Fell, Anne Kristin; Thomassen, Yngvar; Skare, Øivind; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Abderhalden, Rolf; Kongerud, Johny; Kjuus, Helge

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesised that exposure to workplace aerosols may lead to lung function impairment among cement production workers.Our study included 4966 workers in 24 cement production plants. Based on 6111 thoracic aerosol samples and information from questionnaires we estimated arithmetic mean exposure levels by plant and job type. Dynamic lung volumes were assessed by repeated spirometry testing during a mean follow-up time of 3.5 years (range 0.7-4.6 years). The outcomes considered were yearly change of dynamic lung volumes divided by the standing height squared or percentage of predicted values. Statistical modelling was performed using mixed model regression. Individual exposure was classified into quintile levels limited at 0.09, 0.89, 1.56, 2.25, 3.36, and 14.6 mg·m(-3), using the lowest quintile as the reference. Employees that worked in administration were included as a second comparison group.Exposure was associated with a reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in 6 s and forced vital capacity. For FEV1 % predicted a yearly excess decline of 0.84 percentage points was found in the highest exposure quintile compared with the lowest.Exposure at the higher levels found in this study may lead to a decline in dynamic lung volumes. Exposure reduction is therefore warranted. PMID:27103386

  5. Thoracic dust exposure is associated with lung function decline in cement production workers

    PubMed Central

    Notø, Hilde; Eduard, Wijnand; Skogstad, Marit; Fell, Anne Kristin; Thomassen, Yngvar; Skare, Øivind; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Abderhalden, Rolf; Kongerud, Johny; Kjuus, Helge

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that exposure to workplace aerosols may lead to lung function impairment among cement production workers. Our study included 4966 workers in 24 cement production plants. Based on 6111 thoracic aerosol samples and information from questionnaires we estimated arithmetic mean exposure levels by plant and job type. Dynamic lung volumes were assessed by repeated spirometry testing during a mean follow-up time of 3.5 years (range 0.7–4.6 years). The outcomes considered were yearly change of dynamic lung volumes divided by the standing height squared or percentage of predicted values. Statistical modelling was performed using mixed model regression. Individual exposure was classified into quintile levels limited at 0.09, 0.89, 1.56, 2.25, 3.36, and 14.6 mg·m−3, using the lowest quintile as the reference. Employees that worked in administration were included as a second comparison group. Exposure was associated with a reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in 6 s and forced vital capacity. For FEV1 % predicted a yearly excess decline of 0.84 percentage points was found in the highest exposure quintile compared with the lowest. Exposure at the higher levels found in this study may lead to a decline in dynamic lung volumes. Exposure reduction is therefore warranted. PMID:27103386

  6. Lung function in retired coke oven plant workers.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Bertrand, J P; Guenzi, M; Mayer, L; Téculescu, D; Mur, J M; Patris, A; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T

    1992-01-01

    Lung function was studied in 354 coke oven plant workers in the Lorraine collieries (Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine, France) who retired between 1963 and 1982 and were still alive on 1 January 1988. A spirometric examination was performed on 68.4% of them in the occupational health service. Occupational exposure to respiratory hazards throughout their career was retraced for each subject. No adverse effect of occupational exposure on ventilatory function was found. Ventilatory function was, however negatively linked with smoking and with the presence of a respiratory symptom or discrete abnormalities visible on pulmonary x ray films. The functional values were mostly slightly lower than predicted values and the most reduced index was the mean expiratory flow, FEF25-75%. The decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was often parallel to that in forced vital capacity (FVC), but it was more pronounced for subjects who had worked underground, for smokers of more than 30 pack-years, and for subjects having a respiratory symptom. Pulmonary function indices were probably overestimated because of the exclusion of deceased subjects and the bias of the participants. PMID:1599869

  7. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients. PMID:15719666

  8. Forced expiratory flows' contribution to lung function interpretation in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Bernard; Koskas, Marc; Guillo, Houda; Maingot, Lucia; La Rocca, Marie-Claude; Boulé, Michèle; Just, Jocelyne; Momas, Isabelle; Corinne, Alberti; Beydon, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Forced expiratory flow (FEF) at low lung volumes are supposed to be better at detecting lung-function impairment in asthmatic children than a forced volume. The aim of this study was to examine whether FEF results could modify the interpretation of baseline and post-bronchodilator spirometry in asthmatic schoolchildren in whom forced expiratory volumes are within the normal range. Spirometry, with post-bronchodilator vital capacity within 10% of that of baseline in healthy and asthmatic children, was recorded prospectively. We defined abnormal baseline values expressed as z-scores <-1.645, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) reversibility as a baseline increase >12%, FEF reversibility as an increase larger than the 2.5th percentile of post-bronchodilator changes in healthy children. Among 66 healthy and 50 asthmatic schoolchildren, only two (1.7%) children with normal vital capacity and no airways obstruction had abnormal baseline forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75%). After bronchodilation, among the 45 asthmatic children without FEV1 reversibility, 5 (11.1%) had an FEF25-75% increase that exceeded the reference interval. Isolated abnormal baseline values or significant post-bronchodilator changes in FEF are rare situations in asthmatic schoolchildren with good spirometry quality. PMID:25186269

  9. Gravity effects on regional lung ventilation determined by functional EIT during parabolic flights.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, I; Dudykevych, T; Hinz, J; Bodenstein, M; Hahn, G; Hellige, G

    2001-07-01

    Gravity-dependent changes of regional lung function were studied during normogravity, hypergravity, and microgravity induced by parabolic flights. Seven healthy subjects were followed in the right lateral and supine postures during tidal breathing, forced vital capacity, and slow expiratory vital capacity maneuvers. Regional 1) lung ventilation, 2) lung volumes, and 3) lung emptying behavior were studied in a transverse thoracic plane by functional electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The results showed gravity-dependent changes of regional lung ventilation parameters. A significant effect of gravity on regional functional residual capacity with a rapid lung volume redistribution during the gravity transition phases was established. The most homogeneous functional residual capacity distribution was found at microgravity. During vital capacity and forced vital capacity in the right lateral posture, the decrease in lung volume on expiration was larger in the right lung region at all gravity phases. During tidal breathing, the differences in ventilation magnitudes between the right and left lung regions were not significant in either posture or gravity phase. A significant nonlinearity of lung emptying was determined at normogravity and hypergravity. The pattern of lung emptying was homogeneous during microgravity. PMID:11408411

  10. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  11. Lung function in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease and respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pirogowicz, I; Patyk, M; Popecki, P; Rudnicki, J; Gojny, L; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate lung function in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) who present respiratory symptoms suggestive of the possibility of co-morbid asthma. The study encompassed 20 patients (9 women and 11 men; age range from 11 to 68 years) diagnosed with GERD and presenting with chronic cough and other non-specific periodic respiratory complaints. The control group consisted of closely gender and age-matched 20 subjects without any gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms. All patients and control subjects were tested for lung function, which encompassed spirometric and flow-volume variables. We found that none of the GERD patients had lung function abnormalities characteristic of asthma. There were, however, decreases in forced expired volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity, and in maximal instantaneous forced expiratory flows in the GERD patients compared with the healthy subjects. We conclude that cough accompanying GERD is unlikely to be associated with the presence of co-morbid asthma, but rather suggests a mild airway inflammation developing as a sequel of GERD. The corollary is that chronic cough should prompt physician's attention to consider diagnostic work-up toward the possibility of GERD. PMID:23835974

  12. X-ray findings, lung function, and respiratory symptoms in black South African vermiculite workers

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, P.A.; Sluis-Cremer, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Health effects have been documented among American vermiculite workers who mined and processed vermiculite contaminated with amphibole asbestos, viz., tremolite-actinolite. Workers mining and processing South Africa vermiculite (N = 172), which contains very little asbestos, underwent x-ray examination and lung function testing and completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire. The vermiculite workers were compared with other workers involved in the mining or refining of copper. Only two of the vermiculite workers showed evidence of small opacities of 1/0 or more (according to the ILO 1980 classification); lung function was comparable with the other groups of workers, and there was no excess of respiratory symptoms among the vermiculite workers. It is concluded that workers exposed to vermiculite that is minimally contaminated with asbestos are probably not at risk for pneumoconiosis, lung function impairment, or respiratory symptoms. It is likely that the health effects observed in other studies of vermiculite workers are the result of concomitant asbestos exposure. A risk of mesothelioma caused by the fiber content of the vermiculite cannot be excluded by this study.

  13. Lung Function in Sickle Cell Hemoglobinopathy Patients Compared With Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Young, Roscoe C.; Rachal, Raylinda E.; Reindorf, Carl A.; Armstrong, Earl M.; Polk, Octavius D.; Hackney, Robert L.; Scott, Roland B.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of lung function tests performed on patients with sickle cell disease have shown a restrictive ventilatory defect, usually a diffusion defect, and mild hypoxia at rest. The present study was undertaken to explain the pathophysiology of these changes and to extend these studies to include functional measurements not reported previously. Lung function studies were performed at rest and during treadmill walking on 66 patients with sickle cell anemia and on 16 healthy control subjects. Patients had restrictive ventilatory defects, decreased lung compliance, and uneven ventilation-perfusion ratios. These abnormalities caused an increased alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference that caused hypoxemia. The diffusion defects were because of the sickle cell disease. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were increased in patients with sickle cell disease. This increase may be caused by a combination of factors, including increased cigarette smoking, hemolysis, and preferential survival of red blood cells that contain carbon monoxide and which do not sickle. During treadmill walking, the patients with sickle cell disease showed a decreased work tolerance caused by impaired oxygen delivery. The anaerobic threshold is reached sooner in patients with sickle cell disease and may also account for the limitations in work capacity of these patients. PMID:3418733

  14. [Exercise test and respiratory muscle function test].

    PubMed

    Akashiba, Tsuneto

    2011-10-01

    Dyspnea on exertion is a chief complaint of patients with COPD, and it has a major effect on the quality of their lives. Dyspnea is, by definition, subjective, but objective approaches are needed for a comprehensive understanding of these patients' conditions. Thus, measuring changes in cardiopulmonary variables during exercise can be very helpful when evaluating patients with COPD. The main purpose of exercise testing is to evaluate exercise tolerance and to identify the factors limiting exercise. Although incremental exercise testing is ideal for these purposes, simple walking tests such as 6-minute walking test, are also useful. PMID:22073578

  15. Alterations in Lung Functions Based on BMI and Body Fat % Among Obese Indian Population at National Capital Region

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Ritul; Bihari, Vipin; Sathian, Brijesh; Srivastava, Anup Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, non-asthmatic hospital admission case study has been conducted to find out the relationship between obesity and lung functions. The main objective of the present study was to find out the alterations in lung functions due to obesity among Indian population living at National Capital Region (NCR). Materials and Methods We examined 609 non obese and 211 obese subjects in a cross sectional study from National Capital Region, India with age group ranges between 18-70 years. BMI and body fat % was determined using body fat analyzer. Obese and non-obese subjects were classified based on criteria for BMI and Body fat %. Lung function test viz., FEV1 and PEFR were conducted using portable spirometer (PIKO-1). Results A significant correlation (p<0.05) was observed between BMI and PEFR among non-obese male and female subjects. Decline in PEFR and FEV1 values for corresponding increase in body fat % was observed among study subjects. A significant (p<0.01) decline in mean FEV1 and PEFR was observed among non-obese and obese subjects, compared to their Indian reference standards for lung functions. A significant negative correlation (p<0.01) was observed between body fat % and lung functions (FEV1, PEFR). Conclusion It is concluded that obese subjects are at a risk of lung function impairment, based on the criteria followed for BMI and body fat %. The study also demonstrate that body fat% classification as a better index for determination of obese subjects compared to BMI classification, with respect to lung function impairments. PMID:26913206

  16. Role of Dystrophin in Airway Smooth Muscle Phenotype, Contraction and Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pawan; Basu, Sujata; Mitchell, Richard W.; Stelmack, Gerald L.; Anderson, Judy E.; Halayko, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Dystrophin links the transmembrane dystrophin-glycoprotein complex to the actin cytoskeleton. We have shown that dystrophin-glycoprotein complex subunits are markers for airway smooth muscle phenotype maturation and together with caveolin-1, play an important role in calcium homeostasis. We tested if dystrophin affects phenotype maturation, tracheal contraction and lung physiology. We used dystrophin deficient Golden Retriever dogs (GRMD) and mdx mice vs healthy control animals in our approach. We found significant reduction of contractile protein markers: smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) and calponin and reduced Ca2+ response to contractile agonist in dystrophin deficient cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed reduced stress fibers and number of smMHC positive cells in dystrophin-deficient cells, when compared to control. Immunoblot analysis of Akt1, GSK3β and mTOR phosphorylation further revealed that downstream PI3K signaling, which is essential for phenotype maturation, was suppressed in dystrophin deficient cell cultures. Tracheal rings from mdx mice showed significant reduction in the isometric contraction to methacholine (MCh) when compared to genetic control BL10ScSnJ mice (wild-type). In vivo lung function studies using a small animal ventilator revealed a significant reduction in peak airway resistance induced by maximum concentrations of inhaled MCh in mdx mice, while there was no change in other lung function parameters. These data show that the lack of dystrophin is associated with a concomitant suppression of ASM cell phenotype maturation in vitro, ASM contraction ex vivo and lung function in vivo, indicating that a linkage between the DGC and the actin cytoskeleton via dystrophin is a determinant of the phenotype and functional properties of ASM. PMID:25054970

  17. Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2014-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to VGDF and pesticides is associated with longitudinal decline in lung function. We used 12,772 observations from 2,527 participants in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen Study, a general-population-based cohort study that followed subjects for 25 years, from 1965 to the last survey in 1989/1990. Job-specific exposure was estimated with the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Associations between exposures and annual changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1 as a percentage of inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1%VC) were assessed with linear mixed-effect models including sex, age, and level of lung function at the first measurement and pack-years of smoking at the last measurement. We tested for interaction between smoking and occupational exposure and assessed associations separately for never smokers and ever smokers. Exposure to VGDF was not associated with accelerated lung function decline after adjustment for co-exposure to pesticides. Exposure to pesticides, both in the last-held job and as a cumulative measure, was associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 and FEV1%VC, especially among ever smokers, where we found an excess change in FEV1 of -6.9 mL/year (95% confidence interval: -10.2, -3.7) associated with high pesticide exposure. PMID:24780843

  18. Gaps in Guideline-Concordant Use of Diagnostic Tests Among Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Meghan R.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Backhus, Leah M.; Wood, Douglas E.; Mulligan, Michael S.; Cheng, Aaron M.; Flum, David R.; Farjah, Farhood

    2016-01-01

    Background Practice guidelines recommend routine use of pulmonary function tests (PFTs), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) for the workup of resectable lung cancer patients. Little is known about the frequency of guideline concordance in routine practice. Methods A cohort study (2007 to 2013) of 15,951 lung cancer patients undergoing lobectomy or pneumonectomy was conducted with MarketScan, a claims database of individuals with employer-provided health insurance. Guideline concordance was defined by claims for PFT within 180 days of resection and for CT and PET within 90 days of resection. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate temporal trends, patient characteristics, and costs associated with guideline-concordant care. Results Overall, 61% of patients received guideline-concordant care, increasing from 57% in 2007 to 66% in 2013 (p < 0.001). Compared with patients who received guideline-discordant care, patients with guideline-concordant care more frequently underwent repeat testing (PFT: 21% versus 12%, p < 0.001; CT: 46% versus 22%, p < 0.001; PET: 2.3% versus 1.1%, p < 0.001). Health plan–adjusted mean total test-related costs were higher among guideline-concordant patients who underwent repeat testing than patients who did not ($4,304 versus $3,454, p < 0.001). Conclusions Forty percent of lung cancer patients treated with surgical procedures did not receive recommended noninvasive cancer staging and physiologic assessment before resection. Guideline concordance was associated with repeat testing, and repeat testing was associated with higher costs. These findings support the need for quality improvement interventions that can increase guideline concordance while curbing potential excess use of diagnostic tests. PMID:26507425

  19. Functional Task Test: Data Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

  20. Effect of lung transplantation on diaphragmatic function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wanke, T.; Merkle, M.; Formanek, D.; Zifko, U.; Wieselthaler, G.; Zwick, H.; Klepetko, W.; Burghuber, O. C.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--To date there are no data on the effects of lung transplantation on diaphragmatic function in patients with end stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is not known whether the relation between the transdiaphragmatic pressure (PDI) and lung volume is altered in recipients after transplantation as a result of changes in diaphragmatic structure caused by chronic hyperinflation. The effect of lung transplantation on diaphragmatic strength was determined in patients with COPD and the relation between postoperative PDI and lung volume analysed. METHODS--Diaphragmatic strength was assessed in eight double lung transplant recipients, six single lung transplant recipients, and in 14 patients with COPD whose lung function was similar to those of the transplant recipients preoperatively. PDI obtained during unilateral and bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation at 1 Hz (twitch PDI) at functional residual capacity (FRC) and during maximal sniff manoeuvres (sniff PDI) at various levels of inspiratory vital capacity (VCin) served as parameters for diaphragmatic strength. Sniff PDI assessed at the various VCin levels were used to analyse the PDI/lung volume relation. RESULTS--Lung transplantation caused a reduction in lung volume, especially in the double lung transplant recipients. As a consequence sniff PDI was higher in the double lung transplant recipients than in the patients with COPD at all levels of VCin analysed. However, sniff PDI values analysed at comparable intrathoracic gas volumes were not reduced in the patients with COPD when compared with those who underwent lung transplantation. Bilateral twitch PDI values were similar in the patients with COPD and in the lung transplant recipients. In the single lung transplant recipients unilateral twitch PDI values were similar on the transplanted and the non-transplanted side. The relation between PDI and lung volume was similar in the patients with COPD and in the lung transplant recipients

  1. Effects of grain dust exposure and smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function.

    PubMed

    Cotton, D J; Graham, B L; Li, K Y; Froh, F; Barnett, G D; Dosman, J A

    1983-02-01

    In four groups of individually-matched subjects (nonsmoking grain workers, smoking grain workers, nonsmoking community controls, and smoking community controls) we measured pulmonary function variables from the spirogram, from the maximal expiratory flow-volume curve breathing air and helium, and from the single breath nitrogen test as well as symptom prevalences from a questionnaire in order to assess the relative effects of smoking and occupational exposure to grain dust in Saskatchewan country grain elevators. There were similar increased prevalences of respiratory symptoms and reductions in pulmonary function associated with either grain dust exposure or smoking, but the effects of smoking were slightly more pronounced. The combined effects of grain dust and smoking on lung function appeared to be additive except in the least exposed workers (five years or less) where a synergistic effect was observed in tests of peripheral airways dysfunction. PMID:6834161

  2. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging. PMID:26540298

  3. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age‐related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase‐like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging. PMID:26540298

  4. Exercise Ventilatory Inefficiency Adds to Lung Function in Predicting Mortality in COPD.

    PubMed

    Neder, J Alberto; Alharbi, Abdullah; Berton, Danilo C; Alencar, Maria Clara N; Arbex, Flavio F; Hirai, Daniel M; Webb, Katherine A; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2016-08-01

    Severity of resting functional impairment only partially predicts the increased risk of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Increased ventilation during exercise is associated with markers of disease progression and poor prognosis, including emphysema extension and pulmonary vascular impairment. Whether excess exercise ventilation would add to resting lung function in predicting mortality in COPD, however, is currently unknown. After an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test, 288 patients (forced expiratory volume in one second ranging from 18% to 148% predicted) were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 57 (47) months. Increases in the lowest (nadir) ventilation to CO2 output (VCO2) ratio determined excess exercise ventilation. Seventy-seven patients (26.7%) died during follow-up: 30/77 (38.9%) deaths were due to respiratory causes. Deceased patients were older, leaner, had a greater co-morbidity burden (Charlson Index) and reported more daily life dyspnea. Moreover, they had poorer lung function and exercise tolerance (p < 0.05). A logistic regression analysis revealed that ventilation/VCO2 nadir was the only exercise variable that added to age, body mass index, Charlson Index and resting inspiratory capacity (IC)/total lung capacity (TLC) ratio to predict all-cause and respiratory mortality (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that survival time was particularly reduced when ventilation/VCO2 nadir > 34 was associated with IC/TLC ≤ 0.34 or IC/TLC ≤ 0.31 for all-cause and respiratory mortality, respectively (p < 0.001). Excess exercise ventilation is an independent prognostic marker across the spectrum of COPD severity. Physiological abnormalities beyond traditional airway dysfunction and lung mechanics are relevant in determining the course of the disease. PMID:27077955

  5. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingbo; Cao, Jianzhong; Yuan, Shuanghu; Arenberg, Douglas; Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  6. [Pulmonary diffusion test to NO and CO time course during thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer: the CONORT prospective study protocol].

    PubMed

    Zarza, V; Couraud, S; Hassouni, A; Prévost, C; Souquet, P-J; Letanche, G; Hammou, Y; Girard, N; Viart-Ferber, C; Mornex, F

    2014-10-01

    Thoracic radiotherapy is a usual treatment for lung cancer. Early-stages may be treated in stereotactic mode while locally advanced stages are usually treated with conventional radiotherapy mode. Pulmonary function tests show that thoracic irradiation has no impact on lung volume such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or forced vital capacity (FCV). However, some studies found that CO (carbon monoxide) diffusing capacity (TLCO) may be altered under thoracic radiotherapy. DLCO alteration is usually symptomatic of either a lesion in the alveolar membrane or a pulmonary capillary alteration. Pulmonary diffusion may be also appreciated by the NO (azote monoxide) diffusion capacity. Moreover, using a double measurement of NO and CO diffusing capacities permit to assess which lung compartment (capillary or membrane) is affected. CONORT is an observational prospective monocentric study, aiming to assess the CO and NO diffusing capacity (as well as other pulmonary function tests) during thoracic radiotherapy. Inclusion criteria are patients with lung cancer, treated by thoracic radiotherapy (conformational or stereotactic), who signed consent. Pulmonary function tests are performed before, during, at the end and six weeks and six months after thoracic irradiation. To estimate a difference of 15% in diffusing capacity test, we have to include 112 patients with a 90% power and a 5% alpha risk. Four months after beginning, 36 patients were included. Preliminary data will be presented at the SFRO meeting. PMID:25205426

  7. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  8. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  9. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  10. Pulmonary function testing and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bernstrand, Cecilia; Cederlund, Kerstin; Henter, Jan-Inge

    2007-09-01

    In a long-term single-center follow-up (median 16-years), we studied high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) in pulmonary LCH. Diffusing capacity corrected for alveolar volume (K(CO)) and total lung capacity (TLC) were significantly decreased (P=0.016 and P=0.030, respectively) in patients with extensive HRCT abnormalities. Patients with late stage disease on HRCT had increased forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0)(P=0.037) and vital capacity (VC)(P=0.036). Disease monitoring is important in pulmonary LCH, and since PFT with diffusing capacity provides a measurement of the current lung function, it may be a valuable tool in monitoring pulmonary LCH, and a good complement to imaging. PMID:16317743

  11. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

  12. Diesel exhaust modulates ozone-induced lung function decrements in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min) intermittently on two consecutive days. Day 1 exposures were either to filtered air, DE (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.300 ppm), or the combination of both pollutants. On Day 2 all exposures were to O3 (0.300 ppm), and Day 3 served as a followup observation day. Lung function was assessed by spirometry just prior to, immediately after, and up to 4 hr post-exposure on each exposure day. Functional pulmonary responses to the pollutants were also characterized based on stratification by glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) genotype. On Day 1, exposure to air or DE did not change FEV1 or FVC in the subject population (n = 15). The co-exposure to O3 and DE decreased FEV1 (17.6%) to a greater extent than O3 alone (9.9%). To test for synergistic exposure effects, i.e., in a greater than additive fashion, FEV1 changes post individual O3 and DE exposures were summed together and compared to the combined DE and O3 exposure; the p value was 0.057. On Day 2, subjects who received DE exposure on Day 1 had a larger FEV1 decrement (14.7%) immediately after the O3 exposure than the individuals’ matched response following a Day 1 air exposure (10.9%). GSTM1 genotype did not affect the magnitude of lung function changes in a significant fashion. These data suggest that altered respiratory responses to the combination of O3 and DE exposure can be observed showing a greater than additive manner. In addition, O3-induced lung function decrements are greater with a prior exposure to DE compared to a prior exposure to filtered air. Based on the joint occurrence of these pollutants in the ambient environment, the potential exists for interactions in more than an additive fashion affecting lung physiological

  13. Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Lung Function in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ljungman, Petter L.; Wilker, Elissa H.; Gold, Diane R.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Koutrakis, Petros; Washko, George R.; O’Connor, George T.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with lower lung function. Few studies have examined whether these associations are detectable at relatively low levels of pollution within current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Objectives: To examine exposure to ambient air pollutants within EPA standards and lung function in a large cohort study. Methods: We included 3,262 participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts living within 40 km of the Harvard Supersite monitor in Boston, Massachusetts (5,358 examinations, 1995–2011) who were not current smokers, with previous-day pollutant levels in compliance with EPA standards. We compared lung function (FEV1 and FVC) after previous-day exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in the “moderate” range of the EPA Air Quality Index to exposure in the “good” range. We also examined linear relationships between moving averages of pollutant concentrations 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days before spirometry and lung function. Measurements and Main Results: Exposure to pollutant concentrations in the “moderate” range of the EPA Air Quality Index was associated with a 20.1-ml lower FEV1 for PM2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], −33.4, −6.9), a 30.6-ml lower FEV1 for NO2 (95% CI, −60.9, −0.2), and a 55.7-ml lower FEV1 for O3 (95% CI, −100.7, −10.8) compared with the “good” range. The 1- and 2-day moving averages of PM2.5, NO2, and O3 before testing were negatively associated with FEV1 and FVC. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 within current EPA standards was associated with lower lung function in this cohort of adults. PMID:24200465

  14. Effective avoidance of a functional spect-perfused lung using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): an update of a planning study.

    PubMed

    Lavrenkov, Konstantin; Singh, Shalini; Christian, Judith A; Partridge, Mike; Nioutsikou, Elena; Cook, Gary; Bedford, James L; Brada, Michael

    2009-06-01

    IMRT and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-DCRT) plans of 25 patients with non-small cell lung (NSCLC) were compared in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and sparing of functional lung (FL) defined by a SPECT perfusion scan. IMRT resulted in significant reduction of functional V(20) and mean lung dose in stage III patients with inhomogeneous hypoperfusion. If the dose to FL is shown to be the determinant of lung toxicity, IMRT would allow for effective dose escalation by specific avoidance of functional lung. PMID:18995919

  15. Bisphenol A Exposure is Associated with Decreased Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Spanier, Adam J.; Fiorino, Elizabeth K.; Trasande, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure with lung function measures and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in children. Study design We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample of US children age 6–19 years who participated in the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We assessed univariate and multivariable associations of urinary BPA concentration with the predicted pulmonary function measures for age, sex, race/ethnicity and height (forced expiratory function in 1 second – FEV1, forced vital capacity – FVC, forced expiratory flow 25–75% – FEF2575, and FEV1/FVC) and with FeNO. Results Exposure and outcome data were available for 661 children. Median BPA was 2.4 ng/ml (IQR: 1.3, 4.1). In multivariable analysis a larger urinary BPA concentration was associated with significantly decreased %FEF2575 (3.7%, 95% CI 1.0, 6.5) and %FEV1/FVC (0.8%, 95% CI 0.1, 1.7) but not %FEV1, %FVC, or FeNO. A child in the top quartile of BPA compared with the bottom quartile had a 10% decrease in %FEF2575 (95% CI −1, −19) and 3% decrease in %FEV1/FVC (95% CI −1, −5). Conclusions BPA exposure was associated with a modest decrease in %FEF2575 (small airway function) and %FEV1/FVC (pulmonary obstruction) but not FEV1, FVC, or FeNO. Explanations of the association cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causality. PMID:24657123

  16. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitisation to flour in a British bakery.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Venables, K M; Crook, B; Nunn, A J; Hawkins, R; Crook, G D; Graneek, B J; Tee, R D; Farrer, N; Johnson, D A

    1989-01-01

    A survey of dust exposure, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and response to skin prick tests was conducted in a modern British bakery. Of the 318 bakery employees, 279 (88%) took part. Jobs were ranked from 0 to 10 by perceived dustiness and this ranking correlated well with total dust concentration measured in 79 personal dust samples. Nine samples had concentrations greater than 10 mg/m3, the exposure limit for nuisance dust. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire on symptoms and their relation to work. FEV1 and FVC were measured by a dry wedge spirometer and bronchial reactivity to methacholine was estimated. Skin prick tests were performed with three common allergens and with 11 allergens likely to be found in bakery dust, including mites and moulds. Of the participants in the main exposure group, 35% reported chest symptoms which in 13% were work related. The corresponding figures for nasal symptoms were 38% and 19%. Symptoms, lung function, bronchial reactivity, and response to skin prick tests were related to current or past exposure to dust using logistic or linear regression analysis as appropriate. Exposure rank was significantly associated with most of the response variables studied. The study shows that respiratory symptoms and sensitisation are common, even in a modern bakery. PMID:2789967

  17. Dietary magnesium, lung function, wheezing, and airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population sample.

    PubMed

    Britton, J; Pavord, I; Richards, K; Wisniewski, A; Knox, A; Lewis, S; Tattersfield, A; Weiss, S

    1994-08-01

    Magnesium is involved in a wide range of biological activities, including some that may protect against the development of asthma and chronic airflow obstruction. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary magnesium intake is associated with better lung function, and a reduced risk of airway hyper-reactivity and wheezing in a random sample of adults. In 2633 adults aged 18-70 sampled from the electoral register of an administrative area of Nottingham, UK, we measured dietary magnesium intake by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, lung function as the 1-sec forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and atopy as the mean skin-prick test response to three common environmental allergens. We measured airway reactivity to methacholine in 2415 individuals, defining hyper-reactivity as a 20% fall in FEV1 after a cumulative dose of 12.25 mumol or less. Mean (SD) daily intake of magnesium was 380 (114) mg/day. After adjusting for age, sex, and height, and for the effects of atopy and smoking, a 100 mg/day higher magnesium intake was associated with a 27.7 (95% CI, 11.9-43.5) mL higher FEV1, and a reduction in the relative odds of hyper-reactivity by a ratio of 0.82 (0.72-0.93). The same incremental difference in magnesium intake was also associated with a reduction in the odds of self-reported wheeze within the past 12 months, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, atopy, and kilojoule intake, by a ratio of 0.85 (0.76-0.95). Dietary magnesium intake is independently related to lung function and the occurrence of airway hyper-reactivity and self-reported wheezing in the general population. Low magnesium intake may therefore be involved in the aetiology of asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease. PMID:7914305

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  19. Accuracy of forced oscillation technique to assess lung function in geriatric COPD population

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Hoi Nam; Tseng, Cee Zhung Steven; Wong, King Ying; Yee, Kwok Sang; Ng, Lai Yun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Performing lung function test in geriatric patients has never been an easy task. With well-established evidence indicating impaired small airway function and air trapping in patients with geriatric COPD, utilizing forced oscillation technique (FOT) as a supplementary tool may aid in the assessment of lung function in this population. Aims To study the use of FOT in the assessment of airflow limitation and air trapping in geriatric COPD patients. Study design A cross-sectional study in a public hospital in Hong Kong. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01553812. Methods Geriatric patients who had spirometry-diagnosed COPD were recruited, with both FOT and plethysmography performed. “Resistance” and “reactance” FOT parameters were compared to plethysmography for the assessment of air trapping and airflow limitation. Results In total, 158 COPD subjects with a mean age of 71.9±0.7 years and percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 53.4±1.7 L were recruited. FOT values had a good correlation (r=0.4–0.7) to spirometric data. In general, X values (reactance) were better than R values (resistance), showing a higher correlation with spirometric data in airflow limitation (r=0.07–0.49 vs 0.61–0.67), small airway (r=0.05–0.48 vs 0.56–0.65), and lung volume (r=0.12–0.29 vs 0.43–0.49). In addition, resonance frequency (Fres) and frequency dependence (FDep) could well identify the severe type (percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second <50%) of COPD with high sensitivity (0.76, 0.71) and specificity (0.72, 0.64) (area under the curve: 0.8 and 0.77, respectively). Moreover, X values could stratify different severities of air trapping, while R values could not. Conclusion FOT may act as a simple and accurate tool in the assessment of severity of airflow limitation, small and central airway function, and air trapping in patients with geriatric COPD who have difficulties performing conventional lung function test. Moreover, reactance

  20. Surface biophysics of the surface monolayer theory is incompatible with regional lung function.

    PubMed Central

    Scarpelli, E M; Mautone, A J

    1994-01-01

    The surface monolayer theory of Clements was tested on open surface films of calf lung surfactant extract in a leak-free vertical film surface balance in which alveolar area (A) changes in each lung zone were simulated in accordance with the theory. We found that: 1) physiologically necessary low surface tension (gamma), < 4 dyn/cm, was sustained only by continuous film compression ("expiration"); 2) compression from A equivalent to total lung capacity to functional residual capacity produced fleeting gamma reduction in all zones and quick reversal to high gamma with A changes that simulated tidal volume (VT) breathing at both 14 (adult) and 40 (neonatal) cpm; 3) phase differences between gamma and A axes of VT loops that indicate mixed surface film composition may be attributable to film inertia and viscoelasticity; 4) estimated alveolar retraction pressure due to gamma (P gamma) exceeds "net" transpulmonary pressure, i.e., favors alveolar collapse, under virtually all conditions of the theory in all zones; 5) return to transient, fleeting low gamma in successive VT cycles was determined by the inherent difference in compression and decompression rates, which results in exhaustion of available A in very few cycles; 6) the "sigh", which restores stable low gamma according to the theory, actually produced unstable high gamma during virtually all phases of the maneuver. In contrast, closed bubble films of the surfactant were structurally stable and produce stable near 0 gamma and P gamma. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:7811918

  1. [Criteria of the molecular pathology testing of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Tímár, József

    2014-06-01

    From the aspect of the contemporary pathologic diagnostics of lung cancer the tissue obtained is a key issue since small biopsies and cytology still play a major role. In the non-small cell lung cancer era cytology is considered equal to biopsy however, in recent years it is unable to provide quality diagnosis and must be replaced by biopsy. Various molecular techniques can handle various different tissue samples which must be considered during molecular pathology diagnosis. Moreover, tumor cell-normal cell ratio in the obtained tissue, as well as the absolute tumor cell number have great significance, which information must be provided in the primary lung cancer diagnosis. Last but not least, for continuous sustainable molecular diagnostics of lung cancer rational algorithms, affordable technology and appropriate reimbursement are equally necessary. PMID:25010763

  2. Minimal requirements for the molecular testing of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Popper, Helmut H.; Ryska, Ales; Olszewski, Wlodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    From the aspect of the contemporary pathologic diagnostics of lung cancer, it is a key issue of the tissue obtained since small biopsies and cytology still play a major role. In the non-small cell lung cancer era, cytology considered equal to biopsy. However, in recent years it is unable to provide quality diagnosis and must be replaced by biopsy. Various molecular techniques can handle various different tissue samples which must be considered during molecular pathology diagnosis. Besides, tumor cell-normal cell ratio in the obtained tissue as well as the absolute tumor cell number have great significance whose information must be provided in the primary lung cancer diagnosis. Last but not least, for continuous sustainable molecular diagnostics of lung cancer rational algorythms, affordable technology and appropriate reimbursement are equally necessary. PMID:25806315

  3. Factors Associated with Lung Function Decline in Patients with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Yang, Ching-Yao; Chang, Kai-Ping; Keng, Li-Ta; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Wu, Huey-Dong; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is paucity of risk factors on lung function decline among patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary disease in literature. Methods Patients with NTM pulmonary disease between January 2000 and April 2011 were retrospectively selected. Sixty-eight patients had at least two pulmonary function tests within a mean follow-up period of 47 months. Results Sixty-eight patients were included. They had a median age of 65 years and 65% had impaired lung function (Forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] <80% of predicted value). The mean FEV1 decline was 48 ml/year. By linear regression, younger age (beta: 0.472, p<0.001), initial FEV1>50% of predicted value (beta: 0.349, p = 0.002), male sex (beta: 0.295, p = 0.018), bronchiectasis pattern (beta: 0.232, p = 0.035), and radiographic score >3 (beta: 0.217, p = 0.049) were associated with greater FEV1 decline. Initial FEV1>50% of predicted value (beta: 0.263, p = 0.032) was also associated with greater FVC annual decline, whereas M. kansasii pulmonary disease was marginally associated with greater annual FVC decline (beta: 0.227, p = 0.062). Conclusions NTM pulmonary disease is associated with greater decline in lung function in patients who are young, male, with bronchiectasis, and with a high radiographic score. Special attention should be given to patients with these risk factors. PMID:23483998

  4. Antihistamine medication may alleviate negative effects of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on lung function in children. Birth cohort prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Spengler, Jack; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Camman, David

    2015-05-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the depressed lung growth attributable to prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be modified by the intake of antihistamine medications. Individual prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in 176 children who were followed over nine years, in the course of which outdoor residential air monitoring, allergic skin tests for indoor allergens, lung function tests (FVC, FEV(1), FEV(05), and FEF(25-75)) were performed. The analysis with the General Estimated Equation (GEE) showed no association between prenatal PAH exposure and lung function in the group of children who were reported to be antihistamine users. However, in the group of antihistamine non-users all lung function tests except for FEF(25-75) were significantly and inversely associated with prenatal airborne PAH exposure. The results of the study suggest that the intake of antihistamine medications in early childhood may inhibit the negative effect of fetal PAH exposure on lung growth and provides additional indirect evidence for the hypothesis that lung alterations in young children resulting from PAH exposure may be caused by the allergic inflammation within lung. PMID:25154482

  5. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the endurance test (§ 35.39) must be used in the functional tests and must be driven by a representative engine on a test stand or on an airplane. The propeller must complete these tests without evidence of failure or malfunction. This test may be combined with the endurance test for accumulation...

  6. Lung function changes in mice sensitized to ammonium hexachloroplatinate.

    PubMed

    Williams, W C; Lehmann, J R; Boykin, E; Selgrade, M K; Lehmann, D M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to halogenated platinum salts can trigger the development of asthma. The risk to the general population that may result from the use of platinum in catalytic converters and its emerging use as a diesel fuel additive is unclear. To investigate pulmonary responses to platinum, we developed a mouse model of platinum hypersensitivity. Mice were sensitized through application of ammonium hexachloroplatinate (AHCP) to the shaved back on days 0, 5 and 19, and to each ear on days 10, 11 and 12. On days 24 and 29, mice were challenged by oropharyngeal aspiration with AHCP in saline. Before and immediately after challenge, pulmonary responses were assessed using whole body plethysmography (WBP). A dose-dependent increase in immediate responses was observed in AHCP-sensitized and challenged mice. On days 26 and 31, changes in ventilatory responses to methacholine (Mch) aerosol were assessed by WBP; dose-dependent increases in Mch responsiveness occurred in sensitized mice. Lymph node cell counts indicate a proliferative response in lymph nodes draining the sites of application. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid harvested from sensitized mice contained an average of 5% eosinophils compared to less than 0.5% in non-sensitized mice (p < 0.05); significant increases in total serum immunoglobulin E were observed for all sensitized mice. Although a second airway challenge on day 29 affected some results, only one airway challenge was needed to observe changes in lung function. PMID:26309092

  7. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF LUNG FUNCTION IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using pulmonary function and family respiratory questionnaire data for 16,689 white children 6 to 13 yr of age from 7 geographic areas, the investigators examined the effect of several environmental and other factors on performance in a standard test of breathing. As expected, FE...

  8. Exposure to grass pollen--but not birch pollen--affects lung function in Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Gruzieva, O; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Melén, E; Hallberg, J; Bellander, T; Lõhmus, M

    2015-09-01

    Allergic response to pollen is increasing worldwide, leading to high medical and social costs. However, the effect of pollen exposure on lung function has rarely been investigated. Over 1800 children in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were lung-function- and IgE-tested at the age of 8 and 16 years old. Daily concentrations for 9 pollen types together with measurements for ozone, NO2 , PM10 , PM2.5 were estimated for the index day as well as up to 6 days before the testing. Exposure to grass pollen during the preceding day was associated with a reduced forced expiratory volume in 8-yr-olds; -32.4 ml; 95% CI: -50.6 to -14.2, for an increase in three pollen counts/m³. Associations appeared stronger in children sensitized to pollen allergens. As the grass species flower late in the pollen season, the allergy care routines might be weakened during this period. Therefore, allergy information may need to be updated to increase awareness among grass pollen-sensitized individuals. PMID:26011717

  9. Track/train dynamics test procedure transfer function test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A transfer function vibration test was made on an 80 ton open hopper freight car in an effort to obtain validation data on the car's nonlinear elastic model. Test configuration, handling, test facilities, test operations, and data acquisition/reduction activities necessary to meet the conditions of test requirements are given.

  10. Self-reported physical activity and lung function two months after cardiac surgery – a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity has well-established positive health-related effects. Sedentary behaviour has been associated with postoperative complications and mortality after cardiac surgery. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery often suffer from impaired lung function postoperatively. The association between physical activity and lung function in cardiac surgery patients has not previously been reported. Methods Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were followed up two months postoperatively. Physical activity was assessed on a four-category scale (sedentary, moderate activity, moderate regular exercise, and regular activity and exercise), modified from the Swedish National Institute of Public Health’s national survey. Formal lung function testing was performed preoperatively and two months postoperatively. Results The sample included 283 patients (82% male). Two months after surgery, the level of physical activity had increased (p < 0.001) in the whole sample. Patients who remained active or increased their level of physical activity had significantly better recovery of lung function than patients who remained sedentary or had decreased their level of activity postoperatively in terms of vital capacity (94 ± 11% of preoperative value vs. 91 ± 9%; p = 0.03), inspiratory capacity (94 ± 14% vs. 88 ± 19%; p = 0.008), and total lung capacity (96 ± 11% vs. 90 ± 11%; p = 0.01). Conclusions An increased level of physical activity, compared to preoperative level, was reported as early as two months after surgery. Our data shows that there could be a significant association between physical activity and recovery of lung function after cardiac surgery. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity and postoperative pulmonary recovery needs to be further examined to verify these results. PMID:24678691

  11. Functional characterization of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in lung development, injury, and tumorigenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are proposed to be the first specialized cell type to appear in the lung, but their ontogeny remains obscure. Although studies of PNECs have suggested their involvement in a number of lung functions, neither their in vivo significance nor the molecular mechanis...

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

  13. Lung transplantation in the rat. III. Functional studies in iso- and allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Marck, K.W.; Prop, J.; Wildevuur, C.R.

    1983-08-01

    Recently a microsurgical technique for orthotopic left lung transplantation in the rat was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the operation itself and of an unmodified rejection reaction on the function of the transplanted rat lung. Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in 59 rats (34 isografts and 25 allografts). Isografts demonstrated a mean left lung perfusion of 23.1% in the first two postoperative weeks. Seven out of the 10 animals, subjected to a repeated scintigraphy 5-10 weeks later, had an increased graft perfusion, resulting in an almost normal mean left lung perfusion of 34.8%. At that time chest roentgenography revealed a good aeration of the grafts, that at autopsy had a normal aspect. Allografts showed an initial mean left lung perfusion (24.6%) similar to the isografts, which, however, declined sharply a few days later (4.3%). At that time chest roentgenography revealed totally opalescent grafts that at autopsy had the hepatized aspect characteristic of lung allograft rejection. These results of isogeneic and allogeneic lung transplantation in the rat were comparable with those of canine auto- and allotransplantation. For immunogenetic and economical reasons lung transplantation in the rat is a good alternative animal model in lung transplantation research.

  14. Association between arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) and lung function in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ro, M; Kim, S; Pyun, J-A; Shin, C; Cho, N H; Lee, J-Y; Koh, I; Kwack, K

    2012-08-01

    Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) plays a role in the 5-lipoxygenase (LO) pathway, which includes the LTC(4), LTD(4), LTE(4) and LTB(4). These leukotrienes are known causative factors of asthma, allergy, atopy and cardiovascular diseases. ALOX5AP lacks enzyme activity and acts by helping 5-LO function. In this study, healthy and general subjects who live in rural and urban areas of Korea were tested for the association of ALOX5AP polymorphisms with lung function. Lung function was also estimated by calculating the predicted values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1) _%PRED) and the proportion of the forced vital capacity exhaled in the first second (FEV(1) /FVC_PRED). The linear regression was adjusted for residence area, gender, age, height and smoking status. The analysis revealed associations between FEV(1) and the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9506352 and the haplotype TCAC (permuted P-value < 0.05). The linkage disequilibrium block that included the significant SNPs overlapped with SNPs that were revealed previously to associate with myocardial infarction and asthma and to affect lung function. This study is the first to demonstrate the association between lung function and ALOX5AP polymorphisms in a healthy and general population. PMID:22537113

  15. Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylendiisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylendiisocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersson, R.; Hedenstierna, G.; Plato, N.; Kolmodin-Hedman, B.

    1987-11-01

    Individuals who paint cars often complain to doctors about respiratory problems. Car painters are exposed to isocyanates, especially hexamethylendiisocyanate (HDI), and biuret modified HDI (HDI-BT). The mean exposure to HDI-BT was 115 micrograms/m3 in the air (range 10-385 micrograms/m3), which exceeds the time-weighted Swedish threshold level of 90 micrograms/m3. Exposure to HDI was about 1.0 microgram/m3 with brief peaks. This study investigated the effect of HDI and HDI-BT on lung function and included two control groups: (1) car platers, exposed to the same solvents and grinding dust as car painters, but not to isocyanates, and (2) car mechanics (controls), not exposed to the mentioned agents. Car painters and car platers were compared to car mechanics on Monday before work. Acute effects of car painting were tested by comparing the lung function values on Monday morning with those on Friday afternoon. Pulmonary function was evaluated by means of spirometry and a single breath nitrogen washout. Spirometry in painters and platers did not differ from that in controls, i.e., car mechanics. Closing volume in relation to vital capacity (CV%) was increased in car painters, suggestive of a small airways disease on Monday before work and tended to increase during a work week. Car platers did not differ from controls.

  16. Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation education for caregivers on pulmonary function and pain in patients with lung cancer following lung resection.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong-Hwa; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers on patients who underwent lung resection surgery. [Subjects] Subjects who underwent lung resection by visual assisted thoracotomy (VATs) were selected and divided into a control group of 19 and an experimental group of 22. [Methods] The experimental group received a pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers, while the control group received typical care for 4 weeks. This study assessed the subjects 2 weeks (baseline) and 6 weeks after surgery (4 weeks). The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) were measured to evaluate pulmonary function. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was utilized to evaluate pain. [Results] Pulmonary function (FVC and FEV1) increased more in the experimental group compared with the control group. Furthermore, VAS scores were lower in the experimental group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] A pulmonary rehabilitation education program for caregivers had a positive effect on pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer after lung resection. PMID:25729198

  17. H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics Analysis Identifies Novel Urinary Biomarkers for Lung Function

    SciTech Connect

    MCClay, Joseph L.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Isern, Nancy G.; O'Connell, Thomas M.; Wooten, Jan B.; Zedler, Barbara K.; Dasika, Madhukar S.; Webb, B. T.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Murrelle, Edward L.; Leppert, Mark F.; van den Oord, Edwin J.

    2010-06-04

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by chronic airflow limitation, is a serious and growing public health concern. The major environmental risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoking, but the biological mechanisms underlying COPD are not well understood. In this study, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify metabolites associated with lung function in COPD. Plasma and urine were collected from 197 adults with COPD and from 195 adults without COPD. Samples were assayed using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer, and the resulting spectra were analyzed against quantitative spirometric measures of lung function. After correcting for false discoveries and adjusting for covariates (sex, age, smoking) several spectral regions in urine were found to be significantly associated with baseline lung function. These regions correspond to the metabolites trigonelline, hippurate and formate. Concentrations of each metabolite, standardized to urinary creatinine, were associated with baseline lung function (minimum p-value = 0.0002 for trigonelline). No significant associations were found with plasma metabolites. Two of the three urinary metabolites positively associated with baseline lung function, i.e. hippurate and formate, are often related to gut microflora. This suggests that the microbiome composition is variable between individuals with different lung function. Alternatively, the nature and origins of all three associated metabolites may reflect lifestyle differences affecting overall health. Our results will require replication and validation, but demonstrate the utility of NMR metabolomics as a screening tool for identifying novel biomarkers of lung disease or disease risk.

  18. Radiological progression and lung function in silicosis: a ten year follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T P; Chan, S L; Lam, K P

    1987-01-01

    Chest radiographs and spirometric tests were performed on 81 patients who had silicosis from two granite quarries in 1975, 73 of whom were followed up for two to 10 (mean 7.2) years. Each patient's initial and most recent chest radiographs were assessed independently by three experienced readers, and the yearly declines in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity were estimated from two to four (mean 3.45) serial spirometric readings. Estimates of individual dust exposure were based on extensive historical data on hygiene. All but 11 patients were no longer exposed to dust by the start of follow up, but 24 (45%) of 53 patients who had simple silicosis and 11 (55%) of 20 who had the complicated disease showed radiological evidence of disease progression. In patients who had simple silicosis and showed no radiological progression the yearly declines in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity were modest (64 ml/year and 59 ml/year, respectively), whereas significantly greater declines in lung function were seen in those who showed radiological evidence of progression (97 ml/year and 95 ml/year, respectively). In addition to radiological progression the previous average dust concentration to which patients had been exposed also influenced declines in both forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity after allowing for the effects of age, smoking, duration of exposure, history of tuberculosis, initial state of disease, and baseline lung function. The probability of radiological progression was most strongly influenced by the average dust concentration previously exposed to. The progression of simple silicosis is thus accompanied by appreciable declines in lung function and is strongly affected by previous levels of exposure to dust. PMID:3115361

  19. Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

  20. Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

  1. Evaluation of left and right ventricular myocardial function after lung resection using speckle tracking echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenhua; Yuan, Jianjun; Chu, Wen; Kou, Yuhong; Zhang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of major lung resections on myocardial function has not been well-investigated. We aimed to identify this impact through the use of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to evaluate the right and left ventricular myocardial function in patients who underwent lung resections. Thirty patients who had lung resections were recruited for this study. Ten patients who underwent pneumonectomies were matched by age and sex, with 20 patients who underwent lobectomies. STE was performed on both right and left ventricle (RV and LV). Strain values of pre and postlung resections were compared in both the pneumonectomy group and the lobectomy group. Comparison between the pneumonectomy group and the lobectomy group was also studied. Left ventricular ejection fraction remained normal (>55%), but significantly decreased after lung resection in both the pneumonectomy group and the lobectomy group. An accelerated heart rate was observed in both groups after lung resection, with the pneumonectomy group demonstrating extra rapid heart rate (P < 0.05). Strain values in the RV and LV decreased in both groups after lung resection, with the pneumonectomy group exhibiting a further decrease in longitudinal strain in LV and RV when compared with the lobectomy group (P < 0.05). Right and left ventricular dysfunction can occur after lung resection regardless of pneumonectomy or lobectomy, and lobectomy may have a less significant impact on myocardial functions. This study demonstrated that STE is able to detect acute cardiac dysfunction after lung resection. PMID:27495031

  2. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A Viable Functional Lung Imaging Modality?

    PubMed Central

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO2) by observation of 129Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO2 by observation of 129Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO2 that accounts for both traditional T1 decay from pO2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output. PMID:17890035

  3. The relative balance of GM-CSF and TGF-β1 regulates lung epithelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Christian E.; Schlingmann, Barbara; Dorsainvil White, StevenClaude; Ward, Christina; Fan, Xian; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Brown, Lou Ann S.; Guidot, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Lung barrier dysfunction is a cardinal feature of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alcohol abuse, which increases the risk of ARDS two- to fourfold, induces transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, which increases epithelial permeability and impairs granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent barrier integrity in experimental models. We hypothesized that the relative balance of GM-CSF and TGF-β1 signaling regulates lung epithelial barrier function. GM-CSF and TGF-β1 were tested separately and simultaneously for their effects on lung epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. TGF-β1 alone caused an ∼25% decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER), increased paracellular flux, and was associated with projections perpendicular to tight junctions (“spikes”) containing claudin-18 that colocalized with F-actin. In contrast, GM-CSF treatment induced an ∼20% increase in TER, decreased paracellular flux, and showed decreased colocalization of spike-associated claudin-18 with F-actin. When simultaneously administered to lung epithelial cells, GM-CSF antagonized the effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial barrier function in cultured cells. Given this, GM-CSF and TGF-β1 levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and correlated with markers for pulmonary edema and patient outcome. In patient BAL fluid, protein markers of lung barrier dysfunction, serum α2-macroglobulin, and IgM levels were increased at lower ratios of GM-CSF/TGF-β1. Critically, patients who survived had significantly higher GM-CSF/TGF-β1 ratios than nonsurviving patients. This study provides experimental and clinical evidence that the relative balance between GM-CSF and TGF-β1 signaling is a key regulator of lung epithelial barrier function. The GM-CSF/TGF-β1 ratio in BAL fluid may provide a concentration-independent biomarker that can predict patient outcomes in ARDS. PMID:25888574

  4. The relative balance of GM-CSF and TGF-β1 regulates lung epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Christian E; Schlingmann, Barbara; Dorsainvil White, StevenClaude; Ward, Christina; Fan, Xian; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Brown, Lou Ann S; Guidot, David M; Koval, Michael

    2015-06-15

    Lung barrier dysfunction is a cardinal feature of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alcohol abuse, which increases the risk of ARDS two- to fourfold, induces transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, which increases epithelial permeability and impairs granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent barrier integrity in experimental models. We hypothesized that the relative balance of GM-CSF and TGF-β1 signaling regulates lung epithelial barrier function. GM-CSF and TGF-β1 were tested separately and simultaneously for their effects on lung epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. TGF-β1 alone caused an ∼ 25% decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER), increased paracellular flux, and was associated with projections perpendicular to tight junctions ("spikes") containing claudin-18 that colocalized with F-actin. In contrast, GM-CSF treatment induced an ∼ 20% increase in TER, decreased paracellular flux, and showed decreased colocalization of spike-associated claudin-18 with F-actin. When simultaneously administered to lung epithelial cells, GM-CSF antagonized the effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial barrier function in cultured cells. Given this, GM-CSF and TGF-β1 levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and correlated with markers for pulmonary edema and patient outcome. In patient BAL fluid, protein markers of lung barrier dysfunction, serum α2-macroglobulin, and IgM levels were increased at lower ratios of GM-CSF/TGF-β1. Critically, patients who survived had significantly higher GM-CSF/TGF-β1 ratios than nonsurviving patients. This study provides experimental and clinical evidence that the relative balance between GM-CSF and TGF-β1 signaling is a key regulator of lung epithelial barrier function. The GM-CSF/TGF-β1 ratio in BAL fluid may provide a concentration-independent biomarker that can predict patient outcomes in ARDS. PMID:25888574

  5. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-17

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  6. Relation between lung function, exercise capacity, and exposure to asbestos cement.

    PubMed Central

    Wollmer, P; Eriksson, L; Jonson, B; Jakobsson, K; Albin, M; Skerfving, S; Welinder, H

    1987-01-01

    A group of 137 male workers with known exposure (mean 20 fibre years per millilitre) to asbestos cement who had symptoms or signs of pulmonary disease was studied together with a reference group of 49 healthy industrial workers with no exposure to asbestos. Lung function measurements were made at rest and during exercise. Evidence of lung fibrosis was found as well as of obstructive airways disease in the exposed group compared with the reference group. Asbestos cement exposure was related to variables reflecting lung fibrosis but not to variables reflecting airflow obstruction. Smoking was related to variables reflecting obstructive lung disease. Exercise capacity was reduced in the exposed workers and was related to smoking and to lung function variables, reflecting obstructive airways disease. There was no significant correlation between exercise capacity and exposure to asbestos cement. PMID:3651353

  7. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements in Lung Function in Patients With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Beitollah; Hosseini, Seyyedeh Zahra; Sharifi, Akbar; Ansarin, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is commonly regarded as a risk factor for asthma development, poor asthma control, and poor response to asthma therapy. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 85 asthmatics (37 male and 48 female) participated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and anthropometric parameters were measured for each patient. Results: Mean age and median duration were 43.9 ± 10.61 and 6 (3–14) years, respectively. Among anthropometric parameters, only waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) indicated significant correlation with PFTs in both sex (P < 0.05). There were negative associations between waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR with PFTs only in overweight and obese women (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Some anthropometric parameters affected lung function, and it seems that gender differentially contributes to this effect. PMID:26124947

  8. Asthma phenotypes modify the impact of environmetnal factors on lung function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have examined the role of childhood asthma phenotypes based on clinical history on asthma severity and symptom aggravation by environmental risk factors. The current study focuses on the associations between lung function in childhood and environmental factors an...

  9. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca’ Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2/FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P < 0.05), had lower PaO2/FiO2 (264 ± 78 mmHg vs. 453 ± 119 mmHg, P < 0.05), and more chest X-ray abnormalities (P < 0.05). EVLP recipients were more often admitted to intensive care unit as urgent cases (57% vs. 18%, P = 0.05); lung allocation score at transplantation was higher (79 [40–84] vs. 39 [36–46], P < 0.05). After transplantation, primary graft dysfunction (PGD72 grade 3, 32% vs. 28%, EVLP versus Standard, P = 1), mortality at 30 days (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and overall survival (71% vs. 86%, EVLP versus Standard P = 0.27) were not different between groups. EVLP enabled a 20% increase in available donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953). PMID:24628890

  10. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca' Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2 /FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P < 0.05), had lower PaO2 /FiO2 (264 ± 78 mmHg vs. 453 ± 119 mmHg, P < 0.05), and more chest X-ray abnormalities (P < 0.05). EVLP recipients were more often admitted to intensive care unit as urgent cases (57% vs. 18%, P = 0.05); lung allocation score at transplantation was higher (79 [40-84] vs. 39 [36-46], P < 0.05). After transplantation, primary graft dysfunction (PGD72 grade 3, 32% vs. 28%, EVLP versus Standard, P = 1), mortality at 30 days (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and overall survival (71% vs. 86%, EVLP versus Standard P = 0.27) were not different between groups. EVLP enabled a 20% increase in available donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953). PMID:24628890

  11. Cured Meat Consumption, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rui; Paik, David C.; Hankinson, John L.; Barr, R. Graham

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Cured meats are high in nitrites. Nitrites generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause nitrative and nitrosative damage to the lung resulting in emphysema. Objective: To test the hypothesis that frequent consumption of cured meats is associated with lower lung function and increased odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 7,352 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 45 years of age or more, who had adequate measures of cured meat, fish, fruit, and vegetable intake, and spirometry. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and multiple other potential confounders, frequency of cured meat consumption was inversely associated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC but not FVC. The adjusted differences in FEV1 between individuals who did not consume cured meats and those who consumed cured meats 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 13, and 14 or more times per month were −37.6, −11.5, −42.0, and −110 ml, respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Corresponding differences for FEV1/FVC were −0.91, −0.54, −1.13, and −2.13% (p for trend = 0.001). These associations were not modified by smoking status. The multivariate odds ratio for COPD (FEV1/FVC ⩽ 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–2.47) comparing the highest with the lowest category of cured meat consumption. The corresponding odds ratios for mild, moderate, and severe COPD were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.41, respectively. Conclusions: Frequent cured meat consumption was associated independently with an obstructive pattern of lung function and increased odds of COPD. Additional studies are required to determine if cured meat consumption is a causal risk factor for COPD. PMID:17255565

  12. Lung function in children in relation to ethnicity, physique and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Lum, Sooky; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Sonnappa, Samatha; Wade, Angie; Cole, Tim J; Harding, Seeromanie; Wells, Jonathan C K; Griffiths, Chris; Treleaven, Philip; Bonner, Rachel; Kirkby, Jane; Lee, Simon; Raywood, Emma; Legg, Sarah; Sears, Dave; Cottam, Philippa; Feyeraband, Colin; Stocks, Janet

    2015-12-01

    Can ethnic differences in spirometry be attributed to differences in physique and socioeconomic factors?Assessments were undertaken in 2171 London primary schoolchildren on two occasions 1 year apart, whenever possible, as part of the Size and Lung function In Children (SLIC) study. Measurements included spirometry, detailed anthropometry, three-dimensional photonic scanning for regional body shape, body composition, information on ethnic ancestry, birth and respiratory history, socioeconomic circumstances, and tobacco smoke exposure.Technically acceptable spirometry was obtained from 1901 children (mean (range) age 8.3 (5.2-11.8) years, 46% boys, 35% White, 29% Black-African origin, 24% South-Asian, 12% Other/mixed) on 2767 test occasions. After adjusting for sex, age and height, forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 1.32, 0.89 and 0.51 z-score units lower in Black-African origin, South-Asian and Other/mixed ethnicity children, respectively, when compared with White children, with similar decrements for forced vital capacity (p<0.001 for all). Although further adjustment for sitting height and chest width reduced differences attributable to ethnicity by up to 16%, significant differences persisted after adjusting for all potential determinants, including socioeconomic circumstances.Ethnic differences in spirometric lung function persist despite adjusting for a wide range of potential determinants, including body physique and socioeconomic circumstances, emphasising the need to use ethnic-specific equations when interpreting results. PMID:26493801

  13. Chronic Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Agricultural Workers - Influence of Exposure Duration and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Job exposure in agricultural workers often leads to respiratory impairment. AIM: To assess the influence of exposure duration and smoking on chronic respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity in agricultural workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study covered 75 agricultural workers, compared with an equal number of office workers matched by age, exposure duration and smoking status. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job and smoking history. Lung functional testing was performed by spirometry. RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher in agricultural workers, with significant difference for cough (P = 0.034), and dyspnea (P = 0.028). Chronic respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers were significantly associated with duration of exposure (P < 0.05) and daily smoking (P < 0.01), as well as with daily smoking in controls (P < 0.01). The average values of spirometric parameters in exposed workers were significantly different for MEF50 (P = 0.002), MEF75 (P = 0.000), and MEF25-75 (P = 0.049). Obstructive changes in small airways in exposed workers were strongly related to exposure duration (P < 0.05) and smoking (P < 0.01). Agricultural workers with job exposure more than 15 years had more expressed adverse respiratory symptoms and lung function decline. CONCLUSION: The results confirmed the influence of agricultural exposure and daily smoking on chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, primarily targeting the small airways.

  14. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in a sample of Vermont dairymen and industrial workers.

    PubMed Central

    Babbott, F L; Gump, D W; Sylwester, D L; MacPherson, B V; Holly, R C

    1980-01-01

    This study reviews the respiratory status of a sample of Vermont male dairy farmers, and a comparison group from industry, matched for age, sex and smoking. Survey instruments included a standardized questionnaire and simple pulmonary function tests. In general, past and present smokers had more respiratory symptoms than never-smokers; and farmers, in all smoking categories, reported symptoms with greater frequency than did their counterparts from industry. Forced vital capacity (FVC) tended to be lower among men with a history of smoking but, within each smoking category, dairymen and factory workers had very similar FVCs. Farmers who had never smoked or who were current cigarette users had lower FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume at one second/forced vital capacity) ratios than their controls from industry. Sixteen diarymen demonstrated precipitins to either Micropolyspora faeni (13) or Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, (3), but only one reported a constellation of symptoms compatible with farmer's lung disease. The estimated prevalence of antibodies to thermophilic actinomyces in this farm population was approximately 10 per cent. Although sample sizes were limited, dairymen from small farms tended to be older, have more respiratory symptoms, less satisfactory pulmonary function, and more serologic evidence of exposure to farmer's lung antigens than their counterparts from large farms. PMID:7356085

  15. Relationship of small airway chymase-positive mast cells and lung function in severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Balzar, Silvana; Chu, Hong Wei; Strand, Matthew; Wenzel, Sally

    2005-03-01

    Distal lung inflammation may be important in asthma pathophysiology. The goal of this study was to measure cellular inflammation in the large airway and four distal lung regions (small airway inner and outer wall, alveolar attachments, and peripheral alveolar tissue) and to correlate the specific inflammatory cells with several lung function parameters. Sections of concurrently obtained endobronchial and transbronchial/surgical biopsy tissue from 20 individuals with severe asthma were immunostained for T-lymphocyte, eosinophil, monocyte/macrophage, neutrophil, and two mast cell markers (tryptase and chymase). Specific cell distributions were determined and correlated with lung function measures. The number of inflammatory cells generally increased toward the periphery, but the percentage of T-lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes/macrophages, and neutrophils remained similar or decreased from large to small airways. In contrast, mast cell number, percentage, and the chymase-positive phenotype increased in small airway regions. After the analysis was adjusted for multiple comparisons, only chymase-positive mast cells significantly and positively correlated with lung function. Such a relationship was seen only in the small airway/alveolar attachments lung region (r(s) = 0.61-0.89; p lung function in severe asthma. PMID:15563633

  16. HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the sensitivity and precision of functional tests improves, we become increasingly able to measure responses to pollutant exposures with little, if any, demonstrable health significance. Proper interpretation of such functional responses generally requires an ability to evalua...

  17. Honokiol inhibits lung tumorigenesis through inhibition of mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Qian; Komas, Steven M; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Lubet, Ronald A; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2014-11-01

    Honokiol is an important bioactive compound found in the bark of Magnolia tree. It is a nonadipogenic PPARγ agonist and capable of inhibiting the growth of a variety of tumor types both in vitro and in xenograft models. However, to fully appreciate the potential chemopreventive activity of honokiol, a less artificial model system is required. To that end, this study examined the chemopreventive efficacy of honokiol in an initiation model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This model system uses the carcinogen N-nitroso-trischloroethylurea (NTCU), which is applied topically, reliably triggering the development of SCC within 24 to 26 weeks. Administration of honokiol significantly reduced the percentage of bronchial that exhibit abnormal lung SCC histology from 24.4% bronchial in control to 11.0% bronchial in honokiol-treated group (P = 0.01) while protecting normal bronchial histology (present in 20.5% of bronchial in control group and 38.5% of bronchial in honokiol-treated group. P = 0.004). P63 staining at the SCC site confirmed the lung SCCs phenotype. In vitro studies revealed that honokiol inhibited lung SCC cells proliferation, arrested cells at the G1-S cell-cycle checkpoint, while also leading to increased apoptosis. Our study showed that interfering with mitochondrial respiration is a novel mechanism by which honokiol changed redox status in the mitochondria, triggered apoptosis, and finally leads to the inhibition of lung SCC. This novel mechanism of targeting mitochondrial suggests honokiol as a potential lung SCC chemopreventive agent. PMID:25245764

  18. Ultrafine particles in the airway aggravated experimental lung injury through impairment in Treg function.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanggang; Cao, Yinghua; Sun, Yue; Xu, Ruxiang; Zheng, Zhendong; Song, Haihan

    2016-09-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening condition characterized by rapid-onset alveolar-capillary damage mediated by pathogenic proinflammatory immune responses. Since exposure to airway particulate matter (PM) could significantly change the inflammatory status of the individual, we investigated whether PM instillation in the airway could alter the course of ALI, using a murine model with experimental lung injury induced by intratracheal LPS challenge. We found that PM-treated mice presented significantly aggravated lung injury, which was characterized by further reductions in body weight, increased protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and higher mortality rate, compared to control saline-treated mice. The PM-treated mice also presented elevated lung and systemic type 1 T helper cell (Th1) frequency as well as reduced lung regulatory T cell (Treg) frequency, which was associated with severity of lung injury. Further examinations revealed that the Treg function was impaired in PM-treated mice, characterized by significantly repressed transforming growth factor beta production. Adoptive transfer of functional Tregs from control mice to PM-treated mice significantly improved their prognosis after intratracheal LPS challenge. Together, these results demonstrated that first, PM in the airway aggravated lung injury; second, severity of lung injury was associated with T cell subset imbalance in PM-treated mice; and third, PM treatment induced quantitative as well as qualitative changes in the Tregs. PMID:27179778

  19. FDG-PET Quantification of Lung Inflammation with Image-Derived Blood Input Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Landon W.; Williams, Mark B.; Fairchild, Karen D.; Zhong, Min; Kundu, Bijoy K.; Berr, Stuart S.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic FDG-PET imaging was used to study inflammation in lungs of mice following administration of a virulent strain of Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae. Net whole-lung FDG influx constant (Ki) was determined in a compartment model using an image-derived blood input function. Methods. K. pneumoniae (~3 x 105 CFU) was intratracheally administered to six mice with 6 other mice serving as controls. Dynamic FDG-PET and X-Ray CT scans were acquired 24 hr after K. pneumoniae administration. The experimental lung time activity curves were fitted to a 3-compartment FDG model to obtain Ki. Following imaging, lungs were excised and immunohistochemistry analysis was done to assess the relative presence of neutrophils and macrophages. Results. Mean Ki for control and K. pneumoniae infected mice were (5.1 ± 1.2) ×10−3 versus (11.4 ± 2.0) ×10−3 min−1, respectively, revealing a 2.24 fold significant increase (P = 0.0003) in the rate of FDG uptake in the infected lung. Immunohistochemistry revealed that cellular lung infiltrate was almost exclusively neutrophils. Parametric Ki maps by Patlak analysis revealed heterogeneous inflammatory foci within infected lungs. Conclusion. The kinetics of FDG uptake in the lungs of mice can be noninvasively quantified by PET with a 3-compartment model approach based on an image-derived input function. PMID:22187641

  20. Integrative fascial release and functional testing.

    PubMed

    Hammer, W

    2000-03-01

    Soft tissue techniques, including Integrative Myofascial Release (IFR) can be more effective if the area of treatment can be determined by functional testing. The patient's source of pain may not necessarily be located at the area of complaint and functional testing helps in pinpointing the source. Post-treatment functional testing will provide feedback to both the patient and the doctor as to whether the technique was effective. This paper will describe some typical functional tests and treatment using IFR of the posterior cervical/thoracolumbar fascia. PMID:17987166

  1. Perinatal stress and early life programming of lung structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins during critical periods of prenatal and/or postnatal development may alter the normal course of lung morphogenesis and maturation, potentially resulting in changes that affect both structure and function of the respiratory system. Moreover, these early effects may persist into adult life magnifying the potential public health impact. Aberrant or excessive pro-inflammatory immune responses, occurring both locally and systemically, that result in inflammatory damage to the airway are a central determinant of lung structure-function changes throughout life. Disruption of neuroendocrine function in early development, specifically the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, may alter functional status of the immune system. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) function (sympathovagal imbalance) is another integral component of airway function and immunity in childhood. This overview discusses the evidence linking psychological factors to alterations in these interrelated physiological processes that may, in turn, influence childhood lung function and identifies gaps in our understanding. PMID:20080145

  2. Intermedin Stabilized Endothelial Barrier Function and Attenuated Ventilator-induced Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Redetzky, Holger Christian; Kummer, Wolfgang; Pfeil, Uwe; Hellwig, Katharina; Will, Daniel; Paddenberg, Renate; Tabeling, Christoph; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Witzenrath, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background Even protective ventilation may aggravate or induce lung failure, particularly in preinjured lungs. Thus, new adjuvant pharmacologic strategies are needed to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Intermedin/Adrenomedullin-2 (IMD) stabilized pulmonary endothelial barrier function in vitro. We hypothesized that IMD may attenuate VILI-associated lung permeability in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (HPMVEC) monolayers were incubated with IMD, and transcellular electrical resistance was measured to quantify endothelial barrier function. Expression and localization of endogenous pulmonary IMD, and its receptor complexes composed of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) 1–3 were analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence in non ventilated mouse lungs and in lungs ventilated for 6 h. In untreated and IMD treated mice, lung permeability, pulmonary leukocyte recruitment and cytokine levels were assessed after mechanical ventilation. Further, the impact of IMD on pulmonary vasoconstriction was investigated in precision cut lung slices (PCLS) and in isolated perfused and ventilated mouse lungs. IMD stabilized endothelial barrier function in HPMVECs. Mechanical ventilation reduced the expression of RAMP3, but not of IMD, CRLR, and RAMP1 and 2. Mechanical ventilation induced lung hyperpermeability, which was ameliorated by IMD treatment. Oxygenation was not improved by IMD, which may be attributed to impaired hypoxic vasoconstriction due to IMD treatment. IMD had minor impact on pulmonary leukocyte recruitment and did not reduce cytokine levels in VILI. Conclusions/Significance IMD may possibly provide a new approach to attenuate VILI. PMID:22563471

  3. Relationship Between Lung Function Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in COPD and Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Cristine E.; Drummond, M. Bradley; Han, MeiLan K.; Li, Daner; Fuller, Cathy; Limper, Andrew H.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Schwarz, Marvin I.; Sciurba, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) measures have been correlated with lung function in patients with COPD and interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, different pathophysiologic mechanisms may influence how these distinct diseases affect HRQL, resulting in differing HRQL by pulmonary diagnosis among patients with similar severity of ventilatory impairment. Methods: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Lung Tissue Research Consortium provided data on well-characterized participants with COPD (n = 576) and ILD (n = 405) at four clinical sites. Using multiple linear regression, we examined the effects of FEV1 (% predicted) and diagnosis (ILD vs COPD) on HRQL scores, including total St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores and Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results: Participants with ILD had, on average, higher SGRQ scores (15.33 points; 95% CI, 12.46-18.19; P <.001) and lower SF-12 PCS scores ( − 4.73 points; 95% CI, − 6.31 to − 3.14; P <.001) compared with patients with COPD with similar FEV1 % predicted values, indicating worse HRQL. The specific diagnosis also modified the effect of FEV1 on the total SGRQ score (P = .003) and the SF-12 PCS score (P = .03). There was no relationship between lung function and SF-12 MCS scores. Conclusions: HRQL scores were worse for patients with ILD compared with patients with COPD with similar degrees of ventilatory impairment. Differences in dyspnea mechanism or in the rate of disease progression may account for these differences in HRQL. PMID:22576634

  4. Human lung cancer cells express functionally active Toll-like receptor 9

    PubMed Central

    Droemann, Daniel; Albrecht, Dirk; Gerdes, Johannes; Ulmer, Artur J; Branscheid, Detlev; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Dalhoff, Klaus; Zabel, Peter; Goldmann, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    Background CpG-oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN), which induce signaling through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), are currently under investigation as adjuvants in therapy against infections and cancer. CpG-ODN function as Th-1 adjuvants and are able to activate dendritic cells. In humans TLR9 has been described to be strongly expressed in B-lymphocytes, monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and at low levels in human respiratory cells. We determined whether a direct interaction of bacterial DNA with the tumor cells themselves is possible and investigated the expression and function of TLR9 in human malignant solid tumors and cell lines. TLR9 expression by malignant tumor cells, would affect treatment approaches using CpG-ODN on the one hand, and, on the other hand, provide additional novel information about the role of tumor cells in tumor-immunology. Methods The expression of TLR9 in HOPE-fixed non-small lung cancer, non-malignant tissue and tumor cell lines was assessed using immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, in situ hybridization, RT-PCR and DNA-sequencing. Apoptosis and chemokine expression was detected by FACS analysis and the Bio-Plex system. Results We found high TLR9 signal intensities in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in the majority of lung cancer specimens as well as in all tested tumor cell lines. In contrast to this non-malignant lung tissues showed only sporadically weak expression. Stimulation of HeLa and A549 cells with CpG-ODN induced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and reduction of spontaneous and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced apoptosis. Conclusions Here we show that TLR9 is expressed in a selection of human lung cancer tissues and various tumor cell lines. The expression of functionally active TLR9 in human malignant tumors might affect treatment approaches using CpG-ODN and shows that malignant cells can be regarded as active players in tumor-immunology. PMID:15631627

  5. Association by Spatial Interpolation between Ozone Levels and Lung Function of Residents at an Industrial Complex in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Soon-Won; Lee, Kyoungho; Cho, Yong-Sung; Choi, Ji-Hee; Yang, Wonho; Kang, Tack-Shin; Park, Choonghee; Kim, Geun-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Son, Bu-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Spatial interpolation is employed to improve exposure estimates and to assess adverse health effects associated with environmental risk factors. Since various studies have reported that high ozone (O3) concentrations can give rise to adverse effects on respiratory symptoms and lung function, we investigated the association between O3 levels and lung function using a variety of spatial interpolation techniques and evaluated how different methods for estimating exposure may influence health results for a cohort from an industrial complex (Gwangyang Bay) in South Korea in 2009. To estimate daily concentrations of O3 in each subject, four different methods were used, which include simple averaging, nearest neighbor, inverse distance weighting, and kriging. Also, to compare the association between O3 levels and lung function by age-groups, we explored ozone’s impacts on three age-related groups: children (9–14 years), adults (15–64 years), and the elderly (≥65 years). The overall change of effect size on lung function in each age group tended to show similar patterns for lag and methods for estimating exposure. A significant negative association was only observed between O3 levels and FVC and FEV1 for most of the lag and methods in children. The largest effect of O3 levels was found at the average for the lung function test day and last 2 days (0–2 days). In conclusions, the spatial interpolation methods may benefit in providing individual-level exposure with appropriate temporal resolution from ambient monitors. However, time-activity patterns of residents, monitoring site locations, methodological choices, and other factors should be considered to minimize exposure misclassification. PMID:27447653

  6. Effects of air pollution on lung function and symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Altuğ, Hicran; Gaga, Eftade O; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Ozden, Ozlem; Ornektekin, Sermin; Brunekreef, Bert; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Van Doorn, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Health effects of ambient air pollution were studied in three groups of schoolchildren living in areas (suburban, urban and urban-traffic) with different air pollution levels in Eskişehir, Turkey. This study involved 1,880 students aged between 9 and 13 years from 16 public primary schools. This two-season study was conducted from January 2008 through March 2009. Symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema were determined by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire in 2008. Two lung function tests were performed by each child for summer and winter seasons with simultaneous ambient air measurements of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) by passive sampling. Effects of air pollution on impaired lung function and symptoms in schoolchildren were estimated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Girls with impaired lung function (only for the summer season evaluation) were more observed in suburban and urban areas when compared to urban-traffic area ([odds ratio (OR) = 1.49; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.14] and [OR = 1.69 (95 % CI 1.06-2.71)] for suburban vs. urban-traffic and urban vs. urban-traffic, respectively). Significant association between ambient ozone concentrations and impaired lung function (for an increase of 10 μg m(-3)) was found only for girls for the summer season evaluation [OR = 1.11 (95 % CI 1.03-1.19)]. No association was found for boys and for the winter season evaluation. No association was found between any of the measured air pollutants and symptoms of current wheeze, current rhinoconjunctivitis and current itchy rash. The results of this study showed that increasing ozone concentrations may cause a sub-acute impairment in lung function of school aged children. PMID:23591930

  7. Association by Spatial Interpolation between Ozone Levels and Lung Function of Residents at an Industrial Complex in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soon-Won; Lee, Kyoungho; Cho, Yong-Sung; Choi, Ji-Hee; Yang, Wonho; Kang, Tack-Shin; Park, Choonghee; Kim, Geun-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Son, Bu-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Spatial interpolation is employed to improve exposure estimates and to assess adverse health effects associated with environmental risk factors. Since various studies have reported that high ozone (O₃) concentrations can give rise to adverse effects on respiratory symptoms and lung function, we investigated the association between O₃ levels and lung function using a variety of spatial interpolation techniques and evaluated how different methods for estimating exposure may influence health results for a cohort from an industrial complex (Gwangyang Bay) in South Korea in 2009. To estimate daily concentrations of O₃ in each subject, four different methods were used, which include simple averaging, nearest neighbor, inverse distance weighting, and kriging. Also, to compare the association between O₃ levels and lung function by age-groups, we explored ozone's impacts on three age-related groups: children (9-14 years), adults (15-64 years), and the elderly (≥65 years). The overall change of effect size on lung function in each age group tended to show similar patterns for lag and methods for estimating exposure. A significant negative association was only observed between O₃ levels and FVC and FEV₁ for most of the lag and methods in children. The largest effect of O₃ levels was found at the average for the lung function test day and last 2 days (0-2 days). In conclusions, the spatial interpolation methods may benefit in providing individual-level exposure with appropriate temporal resolution from ambient monitors. However, time-activity patterns of residents, monitoring site locations, methodological choices, and other factors should be considered to minimize exposure misclassification. PMID:27447653

  8. Obesity-induced adipokine imbalance impairs mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial function and primes the lung for injury

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Duong, Michelle; Wang, Nadan; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Sun, Jianxin; Zhu, Ying; Walsh, Kenneth; Summer, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but mechanisms mediating this association are unknown. While obesity is known to impair systemic blood vessel function, and predisposes to systemic vascular diseases, its effects on the pulmonary circulation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the chronic low grade inflammation of obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and primes the lung for acute injury. The lung endothelium from obese mice expressed higher levels of leukocyte adhesion markers and lower levels of cell-cell junctional proteins when compared to lean mice. We tested whether systemic factors are responsible for these alterations in the pulmonary endothelium; treatment of primary lung endothelial cells with obese serum enhanced the expression of adhesion proteins and reduced the expression of endothelial junctional proteins when compared to lean serum. Alterations in pulmonary endothelial cells observed in obese mice were associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced lung injury. Restoring serum adiponectin levels reversed the effects of obesity on the lung endothelium and attenuated susceptibility to acute injury. Our work indicates that obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to acute injury and provides mechanistic insight into the increased prevalence of ARDS in obese humans. PMID:26068229

  9. Obesity-induced adipokine imbalance impairs mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial function and primes the lung for injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Duong, Michelle; Wang, Nadan; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Suratt, Benjamin T; Kallen, Caleb B; Sun, Jianxin; Zhu, Ying; Walsh, Kenneth; Summer, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but mechanisms mediating this association are unknown. While obesity is known to impair systemic blood vessel function, and predisposes to systemic vascular diseases, its effects on the pulmonary circulation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the chronic low grade inflammation of obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and primes the lung for acute injury. The lung endothelium from obese mice expressed higher levels of leukocyte adhesion markers and lower levels of cell-cell junctional proteins when compared to lean mice. We tested whether systemic factors are responsible for these alterations in the pulmonary endothelium; treatment of primary lung endothelial cells with obese serum enhanced the expression of adhesion proteins and reduced the expression of endothelial junctional proteins when compared to lean serum. Alterations in pulmonary endothelial cells observed in obese mice were associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced lung injury. Restoring serum adiponectin levels reversed the effects of obesity on the lung endothelium and attenuated susceptibility to acute injury. Our work indicates that obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to acute injury and provides mechanistic insight into the increased prevalence of ARDS in obese humans. PMID:26068229

  10. Effect of exposures to ambient ozone on ventilatory lung function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, I.T.; D'Arcy, J.B.; Gibbons, D.I.; Avol, E.L.; Gross, K.B. )

    1990-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if the ventilatory capacity of children is affected by hourly concentrations of ozone inhaled during their daily activity. Over a 3-wk period children who were attending a summer camp in the San Bernardino mountains of California performed spirometry up to three times per day during their stay at the camp. Ozone, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity were measured continuously. Daily average measurements of total suspended particulate and the PM10 particulate fraction were also made. Hourly ozone concentrations at the time of testing varied between 20 and 245 ppb. Regressions of each individual's FEV1 and FVC supported the view that high ozone levels reduced these lung function parameters. The average regression coefficient for FEV1 on ozone was -0.39 ml/ppb (SEM = 0.12) and for FVC -0.44 ml/ppb (SEM = 0.15), both of which were significantly different from zero. Statistical allowance for temperature and humidity increased the magnitude of these slopes. Nitrogen dioxide never exceeded 40 ppb during the time of testing and averaged 13 ppb. Sulfur dioxide's highest measurement was 8 ppb and often was at the limit of detection. Neither NO2 nor SO2 was considered in the statistical modeling. Data were divided based on whether each subject had been exposed to levels of ozone in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) during the several hours previous to being tested. Exposures exceeding the NAAQS indicated a significant negative relationship between ozone and FEV1, FVC, and PEFR. Data for nonexceedance periods did not indicate this negative relationship for any of the three lung function parameters, but it could not be determined if this was due to an absence of an ozone effect or to a combination of the increased variability and decreased size of this data subset.

  11. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  12. Influence of Body Composition on Lung Function and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Children With Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Costa Junior, Dirceu; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana S.; Araujo, Poliane N.; Barbalho-Moulin, Marcela C.; Alves, Viviane C.; Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Costa, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity affects lung function and respiratory muscle strength. The aim of the present study was to assess lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children with obesity and determine the influence of body composition on these variables. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 75 children (40 with obesity and 35 within the ideal weight range) aged 6 - 10 years. Body mass index, z score, waist circumference, body composition (tetrapolar bioimpedance), respiratory muscle strength and lung function (spirometry) were evaluated. Results Children with obesity exhibited larger quantities of both lean and fat mass in comparison to those in the ideal weight range. No significant differences were found between groups regarding the respective reference values for respiratory muscle strength. Male children with obesity demonstrated significantly lower lung function values (forced expiratory volume in the first second % (FEV1%) and FEV1/forced vital capacity % (FVC%) : 93.76 ± 9.78 and 92.29 ± 3.8, respectively) in comparison to males in the ideal weight range (99.87 ± 9.72 and 96.31 ± 4.82, respectively). The regression models demonstrated that the spirometric variables were influenced by all body composition variables. Conclusion Children with obesity demonstrated a reduction in lung volume and capacity. Thus, anthropometric and body composition characteristics may be predictive factors for altered lung function. PMID:26767078

  13. Changes in cystic fibrosis airway microbial community associated with a severe decline in lung function.

    PubMed

    Paganin, Patrizia; Fiscarelli, Ersilia Vita; Tuccio, Vanessa; Chiancianesi, Manuela; Bacci, Giovanni; Morelli, Patrizia; Dolce, Daniela; Dalmastri, Claudia; De Alessandri, Alessandra; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Taccetti, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease resulting in chronic polymicrobial infections of the airways and progressive decline in lung function. To gain insight into the underlying causes of severe lung diseases, we aimed at comparing the airway microbiota detected in sputum of CF patients with stable lung function (S) versus those with a substantial decline in lung function (SD). Microbiota composition was investigated by using culture-based and culture-independent methods, and by performing multivariate and statistical analyses. Culture-based methods identified some microbial species associated with a worse lung function, i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Candida albicans, but only the presence of S. pneumoniae and R. mucilaginosa was found to be associated with increased severe decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed a higher bacterial diversity than that detected by culture-based methods. Molecular signatures with a statistically significant odds ratio for SD status were detected, and classified as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Shewanella, while for other Terminal Restriction Fragments (T-RFs) no species assignation was achieved. The analysis of T-RFLP data using ecological biodiversity indices showed reduced Evenness in SD patients compared to S ones, suggesting an impaired ecology of the bacterial community in SD patients. Statistically significant differences of the ecological biodiversity indices among the three sub-groups of FEV1 (normal/mild vs moderate vs severe) were also found, suggesting that the patients with moderate lung disease experienced changes in the airway assembly of taxa. Overall, changes in CF airway microbial community associated with a severe lung function decline were detected, allowing us to define some discriminatory species as well as some discriminatory T-RFs that represent good candidates for the

  14. ELEFUNT. Tests of Fortran Elementary Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, W.J.

    1980-03-14

    ELEFUNT is an aggressive test of one or more of the elementary function subroutines generally supplied with the support library accompanying a FORTRAN compiler. Functions tested are ALOG/ALOG10, ASIN/ACOS, ATAN, EXP, POWER, SIN/COS, SINH/COSH, SQRT, TAN/COTAN, and TANH.

  15. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  16. Kruppel-like factor 5 is required for perinatal lung morphogenesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Huajing; Luo, Fengming; Wert, Susan E.; Zhang, Liqian; Xu, Yan; Ikegami, Machiko; Maeda, Yutaka; Bell, Sheila M.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to air breathing after birth requires both anatomic and biochemical maturation of the lung. Lung morphogenesis is mediated by complex paracrine interactions between respiratory epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells that direct transcriptional programs guiding patterning and cytodifferentiation of the lung. In the present study, transgenic mice were generated in which the Kruppel-like factor 5 gene (Klf5) was conditionally deleted in respiratory epithelial cells in the fetal lung. Lack of KLF5 inhibited maturation of the lung during the saccular stage of development. Klf5Δ/Δ mice died of respiratory distress immediately after birth. Abnormalities in lung maturation and morphogenesis were observed in the respiratory epithelium, the bronchiolar smooth muscle, and the pulmonary vasculature. Respiratory epithelial cells of both the conducting and peripheral airways were immature. Surfactant phospholipids were decreased and lamellar bodies, the storage form of surfactant, were rarely found. mRNA microarray analysis demonstrated that KLF5 influenced the expression of genes regulating surfactant lipid and protein homeostasis, vasculogenesis, including Vegfa, and smooth muscle cell differentiation. KLF5 regulates genes controlling paracrine interactions during lung morphogenesis, as well as those regulating the maturation of the respiratory epithelium that is required for lung function after birth. PMID:18599506

  17. An audit into the efficacy of single use bacterial/viral filters for the prevention of equipment contamination during lung function assessment.

    PubMed

    Unstead, M; Stearn, M D; Cramer, D; Chadwick, M V; Wilson, R

    2006-05-01

    Lung function testing has been suggested to provide a potential risk regarding cross-infection between patients. About 155 patients (86 infectious, 69 non-infectious) used a single use bacterial/viral filter when performing routine lung function tests. Swabs from the patient side of the filter (Proximal) and the equipment side (Distal), and two sections of the filter itself were cultured. About 33/155 samples showed bacterial growth on the Proximal compared with 2/155 on the Distal side (P<0.01). Growth was obtained from the filter in 125/155 (80.6%) of cases. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 cases) and Staphylococcus aureus (5 cases) were isolated. Appropriate infection control measures should be used when performing lung function tests. PMID:16242312

  18. Time course of lung function changes in atypical pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Benusiglio, L N; Stalder, H; Junod, A F

    1980-01-01

    We measured pulmonary function in each of 21 patients suffering from "atypical", non-bacterial pneumonia during the acute illness and during convalescence (two to 18 months) to study the course and the nature of functional impairment at different stages of the disease. In six patients, no aetiological agent was found. An aetiological agent was identified in 15 of the patients: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (seven patients), influenza A (three patients), parainfluenza 3 (one patient), varicella (two patients), Q fever (one patient), coxsackie B3 (one patient). At the time of admission we observed a restrictive pattern in 52%, an obstructive pattern (decreased FEV1/FVC ratio) in 52% abnormalities in distribution of ventilation (abnormal slope of phase 3) in 63%, and abnormalities in gas exchange (increased AaDO2) in 75% of the patients. The frequency of abnormalities in these pulmonary function tests decreased dramatically after two to four weeks and nearly disappeared in most patients during convalescence. The only major residual abnormality was a decreased FEV1/FVC ratio in five subjects, four of whom were smokers. However, when MMEF and V75 were measured at this stage, their average value for all the groups of patients with the exclusion of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae group, was markedly reduced. These data suggest that small airways involvement can be demonstrated during the convalescence of patients recovering from various types of atypical pneumonia other than those caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. PMID:7444825

  19. Lung function measurements over 21 days shiftwork in steelworkers from a strandcasting department.

    PubMed Central

    Nemery, B; Van Leemputten, R; Goemaere, E; Veriter, C; Brasseur, L

    1985-01-01

    On the assumption that short term changes in lung function may reflect the potential for a long term decline the evolution of lung function indices in 25 steelworkers from a strandcasting department and in 11 comparable steelworkers not exposed to dust was investigated over an almost uninterrupted 21 day working period and over three different workshifts. The mean total dust level in the strandcasting department, assessed by personal sampling, was 11.8 mg/m3. All subjects were examined at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of their first (day 1) morning shift (0600 to 1400), their last (day 14) afternoon shift (1400 to 2200), and their last (day 21) night shift (2200 to 0600). Indices measured were vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and in three seconds (FEV3), forced expiratory flow over the middle half of the forced vital capacity (FEF25-75), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), the slope of the N2 plateau (delta N2) and the closing volume (CV) of the single breath oxygen test. Differences in indices between initial values (0600 on day 1) and final values (0500 on day 21) were not significant in the control group (except delta N2 which became lower); in the casting group there were significant (p less than 0.05) decreases in FEF25-75 and FEV3, but these decreases were not significantly greater than in the control group. Lung function changes were not significant in either group over the morning shift. During the afternoon there were significant decreases in spirometric indices in the casting group, with no significant decreases in the control group, but the interactions between exposure and time were generally not significant. During the night shift, however, the decreases in FEV1 and FEF25-75 observed in the strandcasting group were significantly more pronounced than in the control group. The single breath test, which many subjects failed to perform correctly on each occasion, showed no significant changes in closing

  20. Housing conditions, respiratory illness, and lung function in children in South Wales.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, J W; St Leger, A S

    1977-09-01

    The hypothesis was tested that respiratory illness in children occurs more commonly in old housing than in housing built to modern standards. Three areas of housing were chosen in a South Wales valley: a recently constructed council estate with district central heating; a modern council estate heated with open coal fires; and an area of much older, traditional valley housing. Mothers reported the greatest proportion of children free of colds and sore throats during the previous 12 months in the area of traditional valley housing; mothers of children in the centrally heated estate reported the least proportion of children free of colds. Children's lung function was best in the area of traditional valley housing and worst in the centrally heated council estate. Data on demographic indices and respiratory morbidity suggest that the inhabitants of the two council estates have comparable characteristics. Another hypothesis which may explain the findings is proposed. PMID:588858

  1. IMRT treatment plans and functional planning with functional lung imaging from 4D-CT for thoracic cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Currently, the inhomogeneity of the pulmonary function is not considered when treatment plans are generated in thoracic cancer radiotherapy. This study evaluates the dose of treatment plans on highly-functional volumes and performs functional treatment planning by incorporation of ventilation data from 4D-CT. Materials and methods Eleven patients were included in this retrospective study. Ventilation was calculated using 4D-CT. Two treatment plans were generated for each case, the first one without the incorporation of the ventilation and the second with it. The dose of the first plans was overlapped with the ventilation and analyzed. Highly-functional regions were avoided in the second treatment plans. Results For small targets in the first plans (PTV < 400 cc, 6 cases), all V5, V20 and the mean lung dose values for the highly-functional regions were lower than that of the total lung. For large targets, two out of five cases had higher V5 and V20 values for the highly-functional regions. All the second plans were within constraints. Conclusion Radiation treatments affect functional lung more seriously in large tumor cases. With compromise of dose to other critical organs, functional treatment planning to reduce dose in highly-functional lung volumes can be achieved PMID:23281734

  2. Combined effect of urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and impaired lung function on diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jian; Sun, Huizhen; Xiao, Lili; Zhou, Yun; Yin, Wenjun; Xu, Tian; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Weihong; Yuan, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Associations of type 2 diabetes with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and reduced lung function have been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of reduced lung function and exposure to background PAHs on diabetes. A total of 2730 individuals were drawn from the Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) Cohort Study (n=3053). Participants completed physical examination, measurement of lung function and urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). Risk factors for type 2 diabetes were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis, and the presence of additive interaction between levels of urinary OH-PAHs and lower lung function was evaluated by calculation of the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). Urinary OH-PAHs levels was positively associated with type 2 diabetes among individuals with impaired lung function (p<0.05). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, odd ratio (OR): 0.664, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.491-0.900) and forced vital capacity (FVC, OR: 0.693, 95% CI: 0.537-0.893) were negatively associated with diabetes among individuals. Additive interaction of higher urinary levels of OH-PAHs and lower FVC (RERI: 0.679, 95% CI: 0.120-1.238); AP: 0.427, 95% CI: 0.072-0.782) was associated with diabetes. Exposure to background PAHs was related to diabetes among individuals with lower lung function. Urinary levels of OH-PAHs and reduced lung function had an additive effect on diabetes. PMID:27136672

  3. Exposures and cross-shift lung function declines in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Denise M; Piacitelli, Chris A; Chen, Bean T; Law, Brandon F; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Enright, Paul L; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Leonard, Stephen S; Wagner, Gregory R; Kobzik, Lester; Kales, Stefanos N; Hughes, Michael D; Christiani, David C; Siegel, Paul D; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Hoover, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory problems are common among wildland firefighters. However, there are few studies directly linking occupational exposures to respiratory effects in this population. Our objective was to characterize wildland fire fighting occupational exposures and assess their associations with cross-shift changes in lung function. We studied 17 members of the Alpine Interagency Hotshot Crew with environmental sampling and pulmonary function testing during a large wildfire. We characterized particles by examining size distribution and mass concentration, and conducting elemental and morphological analyses. We examined associations between cross-shift lung function change and various analytes, including levoglucosan, an indicator of wood smoke from burning biomass. The levoglucosan component of the wildfire aerosol showed a predominantly bimodal size distribution: a coarse particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter about 12 μm and a fine particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 0.5 μm. Levoglucosan was found mainly in the respirable fraction and its concentration was higher for fire line construction operations than for mop-up operations. Larger cross-shift declines in forced expiratory volume in one second were associated with exposure to higher concentrations of respirable levoglucosan (p < 0.05). Paired analyses of real-time personal air sampling measurements indicated that higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with higher particulate concentrations when examined by mean values, but not by individual data points. However, low CO concentrations did not provide reliable assurance of concomitantly low particulate concentrations. We conclude that inhalation of fine smoke particles is associated with acute lung function decline in some wildland firefighters. Based on short-term findings, it appears important to address possible long-term respiratory health issues for wildland firefighters. [Supplementary materials are

  4. Effect of endurance training on lung function: a one year study

    PubMed Central

    Kippelen, P; Caillaud, C; Robert, E; Connes, P; Godard, P; Prefaut, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify in a follow up study airway changes occurring during the course of a sport season in healthy endurance athletes training in a Mediterranean region. Methods: Respiratory pattern and function were analysed in 13 healthy endurance trained athletes, either during a maximal exercise test, or at rest and during recovery through respiratory manoeuvres (spirometry and closing volume tests). The exercise test was conducted on three different occasions: during basic endurance training and then during the precompetition and competitive periods. Results: During the competitive period, a slight but non-clinically significant decrease was found in forced vital capacity (–3.5%, p = 0.0001) and an increase in slope of phase III (+25%, p = 0.0029), both at rest and after exercise. No concomitant reduction in expiratory flow rates was noticed. During maximal exercise there was a tachypnoeic shift over the course of the year (mean (SEM) breathing frequency and tidal volume were respectively 50 (2) cycles/min and 3.13 (0.09) litres during basic endurance training v 55 (3) cycles/min and 2.98 (0.10) litres during the competitive period; p<0.05). Conclusions: This study does not provide significant evidence of lung function impairment in healthy Mediterranean athletes after one year of endurance training. PMID:16118298

  5. Lung carcinoma presenting with pathologic femur fracture and false-positive pregnancy test result.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Brandon C; Kamat, Achyut

    2012-09-01

    β-Human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) assays are routinely used to test for pregnancy. However, βhCG may be elevated in conditions other than pregnancy. We describe a case of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma presenting with a pathologic femur fracture and a false-positive urine pregnancy test. Lung cancer is the most common nongestational malignancy that produces βhCG among reproductive-age women. Emergency physicians should consider this rare cause of a positive pregnancy test result in women who deny recent sexual intercourse, especially if the patient is older than 40 years, has a history of tobacco use, or presents with respiratory complaints. PMID:22424649

  6. Exhaled nitric oxide levels in childhood asthma: a more reliable indicator of asthma severity than lung function measurement?

    PubMed

    Piacentini, G L; Suzuki, Y; Bodini, A

    2000-04-01

    The level of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to reflect the degree of airway inflammation in patients with asthma and to be related to the severity of asthma, as well as to the efficacy of treatment. In contrast, lung function tests provide information about airway volumes and flows reflecting the level of airway obstruction, but do not allow any direct information about the degree of airway inflammation. Several studies have evaluated the relationships between the level of airway inflammation assessed by exhaled NO and the levels of airway obstruction and/or bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic adults and children. These studies highlight the complex pathophysiology of asthma and suggest that exhaled NO may have a promising role in addition to lung function measurement in the evaluation of asthma severity in children. PMID:18034534

  7. Serum Methylarginines and Spirometry-Measured Lung Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Mark A.; Schofield, Peter W.; Smith, Wayne T.; Agho, Kingsley; Mangoni, Arduino A.; Soiza, Roy L.; Peel, Roseanne; Hancock, Stephen J.; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Attia, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Methylarginines are endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that have been implicated in animal models of lung disease but have not previously been examined for their association with spirometric measures of lung function in humans. Objectives This study measured serum concentrations of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine in a representative sample of older community-dwelling adults and determined their association with spirometric lung function measures. Methods Data on clinical, lifestyle, and demographic characteristics, methylated arginines, and L-arginine (measured using LC-MS/MS) were collected from a population-based sample of older Australian adults from the Hunter Community Study. The five key lung function measures included as outcomes were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second to Forced Vital Capacity ratio, Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, and Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. Measurements and Main Results In adjusted analyses there were statistically significant independent associations between a) higher asymmetric dimethylarginine, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Forced Vital Capacity; and b) lower L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, lower Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. By contrast, no significant associations were observed between symmetric dimethylarginine and lung function. Conclusions After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders, higher serum asymmetric dimethylarginine was independently associated with a reduction in key measures of lung function. Further research is needed to determine if methylarginines predict the decline in lung function. PMID:23690915

  8. Profusion of opacities in simple coal workers’ pneumoconiosis is associated with reduced lung function

    PubMed Central

    Blackley, David J.; Laney, A. Scott; Halldin, Cara N.; Cohen, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence demonstrates dose-response relationships of cumulative coal mine dust exposure with lung function impairment and with small opacity profusion. However, medical literature generally holds that simple coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) is not associated with lung function impairment. This study examines the relationship between small opacity profusion and lung function in U.S. underground coal miners with simple CWP. Methods Miners were examined during 2005–2013 as part of the Enhanced Coal Workers’ Health Surveillance Program. Work histories were obtained, and chest radiographs and spirometry were administered. For those with multiple Program encounters, the most recent visit was used. Lung parenchymal abnormalities consistent with CWP were classified according to International Labour Organization guidelines, and reference values for FEV1 and FVC were calculated using reference equations derived from the 3rd National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Differences in lung function were evaluated by opacity profusion, and regression models were fit to characterize associations between profusion and lung function. Results A total of 8,230 miners were eligible for analysis; 269 had category 1 or 2 simple CWP. Decrements in FEV1 percent predicted were nearly consistent across profusion subcategories. Clear decrements in FVC percent predicted and FEV1/FVC were also observed, although these were less consistent. Controlling for smoking status, BMI, and mining tenure, each one-unit subcategory increase in profusion was associated with decreases of 1.5% (95% CI 1.0% to 1.9%), 1.0% (95% CI 0.6% to 1.3%), and 0.6% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.8%) in FEV1 percent predicted, FVC percent predicted, and FEV1/FVC, respectively. Conclusions We observed progressively lower lung function across the range of small opacity profusion. These findings address a longstanding question in occupational medicine, and point to the importance of medical

  9. The effect of lung orientation on functional imaging of blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrowes, Kelly S.; Tawhai, Merryn H.

    2007-03-01

    Advancing technology has enabled rapid improvements in imaging and image processing techniques providing increasing amounts of structural and functional information. While these imaging modalities now offer a wealth of information about function within the body in health and disease certain limitations remain. We believe these can largely be addressed through a combined medical imaging - computational modeling approach. For example, imaging may only be performed in the prone or supine postures but humans function naturally in the upright position. We have developed an image-based computational model of coupled tissue mechanics and pulmonary blood flow to enable predictions of pulmonary perfusion in various postures and lung volumes. Lung and vascular geometries are derived using a combination of imaging reconstruction and computational algorithms. Solution of finite deformation equations provides predictions of tissue deformation and internal pressure distributions within the lung parenchyma. By embedding vascular models within the lung volume we obtain a coupled model of blood vessel deformation as a result of changes in lung volume. A 1D form of the Navier-Stokes flow equations are solved within the vascular model to predict perfusion. Tissue pressures calculated from the mechanics model are incorporated into the vascular constitutive pressure-radius relationship. Results demonstrated a relatively consistent flow distribution in all postures indicating the large influence of branching structure on flow distribution. It is hoped that this modeling approach may provide insights to enable interpolation of imaging measurements in alternate postures and lung volumes and enable an increased understanding of the mechanisms influencing pulmonary perfusion distribution.

  10. Binomial test statistics using Psi functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2007-01-01

    For the negative binomial model (probability generating function (p + 1 - pt){sup -k}) a logarithmic derivative is the Psi function difference {psi}(k + x) - {psi}(k); this and its derivatives lead to a test statistic to decide on the validity of a specified model. The test statistic uses a data base so there exists a comparison available between theory and application. Note that the test function is not dominated by outliers. Applications to (i) Fisher's tick data, (ii) accidents data, (iii) Weldon's dice data are included.

  11. Effect of yoga regimen on lung functions including diffusion capacity in coronary artery disease patients: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Asha; Singh, Savita; Singh, KP; Pai, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung functions are found to be impaired in coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and after cardiac surgery. Diffusion capacity progressively worsens as the severity of CAD increases due to reduction in lung tissue participating in gas exchange. Aims and Objectives: Pranayama breathing exercises and yogic postures may play an impressive role in improving cardio-respiratory efficiency and facilitating gas diffusion at the alveolo-capillary membrane. This study was done to see the effect of yoga regimen on lung functions particularly diffusion capacity in CAD patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 stable CAD patients below 65 years of age of both sexes were selected and randomized into two groups of 40 each. Group I CAD patients were given yoga regimen for 3 months which consisted of yogic postures, pranayama breathing exercises, dietary modification, and holistic teaching along with their conventional medicine while Group II CAD patients were put only on conventional medicine. Lung functions including diffusion capacity were recorded thrice in both the groups: 0 day as baseline, 22nd day and on 90th day by using computerized MS medisoft Cardio-respiratory Instrument, HYP’AIR Compact model of cardio-respiratory testing machine was manufactured by P K Morgan, India. The recorded parameters were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's test in both the groups. Cardiovascular parameters were also compared before and after intervention in both the groups. Results: Statistically significant improvements were seen in slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, and diffusion factor/ transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide after 3 months of yoga regimen in Group I. Forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), and FEV1 % also showed a trend toward improvement although not statistically significant. HR, SBP and DBP also

  12. Mortality of iron miners in Lorraine (France): relations between lung function and respiratory symptoms and subsequent mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Benamghar, L; Pham, Q T; Teculescu, D; Rebstock, E; Mur, J M

    1993-01-01

    An increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer was found in previous studies on Lorraine iron miners. A detailed analysis, however, was not possible due to the lack of data for survivors. In this study the cohort included 1178 workers selected at random from all the 5300 working miners aged between 35 and 55 at the start of the follow up period, which ranged from 1975 to 1985. Occupational exposures and tobacco consumption, lung function tests, and respiratory symptoms were assessed for each subject in 1975, 1980, and 1985. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 389, p < 0.001) and of stomach cancer (SMR = 273, p < 0.05). There was no excess of lung cancer in non-smokers and moderate smokers (< 20 pack-years) or the miners who worked only at the surface or underground for less than 20 years. A significant excess (SMR = 349, p < 0.001) was found in moderate smokers when they worked underground for between 20 and 29 years. Heavy smokers (over 30 pack-years) or subjects who worked underground for more than 30 years experienced a high risk: SMR = 478 (p < 0.001) for moderate smokers who worked underground for over 30 years; 588 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for between 20 and 29 years; and 877 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for over 30 years. This showed an interaction between smoking and occupational exposure. The excess mortality from lung cancer was because there were some subjects who died young (from 45 years old). Comparison with the results of a previous study showed that additional hazards produced by diesel engines and explosives increased the mortality from lung cancer. The SMR was higher than 400 (p < 0.001) from 45 years old instead of from 56 years. A relation was found between a decrease in vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and of FEV1/VC and mortality from all causes and from lung cancer in heavy smokers or men who had worked

  13. Functional Validation and Comparison Framework for EIT Lung Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Meybohm, Patrick; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz; Adler, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging clinical tool for monitoring ventilation distribution in mechanically ventilated patients, for which many image reconstruction algorithms have been suggested. We propose an experimental framework to assess such algorithms with respect to their ability to correctly represent well-defined physiological changes. We defined a set of clinically relevant ventilation conditions and induced them experimentally in 8 pigs by controlling three ventilator settings (tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the fraction of inspired oxygen). In this way, large and discrete shifts in global and regional lung air content were elicited. Methods We use the framework to compare twelve 2D EIT reconstruction algorithms, including backprojection (the original and still most frequently used algorithm), GREIT (a more recent consensus algorithm for lung imaging), truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD), several variants of the one-step Gauss-Newton approach and two iterative algorithms. We consider the effects of using a 3D finite element model, assuming non-uniform background conductivity, noise modeling, reconstructing for electrode movement, total variation (TV) reconstruction, robust error norms, smoothing priors, and using difference vs. normalized difference data. Results and Conclusions Our results indicate that, while variation in appearance of images reconstructed from the same data is not negligible, clinically relevant parameters do not vary considerably among the advanced algorithms. Among the analysed algorithms, several advanced algorithms perform well, while some others are significantly worse. Given its vintage and ad-hoc formulation backprojection works surprisingly well, supporting the validity of previous studies in lung EIT. PMID:25110887

  14. What does airway resistance tell us about lung function?

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, David A

    2012-01-01

    Spirometry is considered the primary method to detect the air flow limitation associated with obstructive lung disease. However, air flow limitation is the end-result of many factors that contribute to obstructive lung disease. One of these factors is increased airway resistance. Airway resistance is traditionally measured by relating air flow and driving pressure using body plethysmography, thus deriving airway resistance (R(aw)), specific airway resistance (sR(aw)), and specific airway conductance (sG(aw)). Other methods to measure airway resistance include the forced oscillation technique (FOT), which allows calculation of respiratory system resistance (R(RS)) and reactance (X(RS)), and the interrupter technique, which allows calculation of interrupter resistance (R(int)). An advantage of these other methods is that they may be easier to perform than spirometry, making them particularly suited to patients who cannot perform spirometry, such as young children, patients with neuromuscular disorders, or patients on mechanical ventilation. Since spirometry also requires a deep inhalation, which can alter airway resistance, these alternative methods may provide more sensitive measures of airway resistance. Furthermore, the FOT provides unique information about lung mechanics that is not available from analysis using spirometry, body plethysmography, or the interrupter technique. However, it is unclear whether any of these measures of airway resistance contribute clinically important information to the traditional measures derived from spirometry (FEV(1), FVC, and FEV(1)/FVC). The purpose of this paper is to review the physiology and methodology of these measures of airway resistance, and then focus on their clinical utility in relation to each other and to spirometry. PMID:22222128

  15. Influencing the decline of lung function in COPD: use of pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gladysheva, Ekaterina S; Malhotra, Atul; Owens, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and deadly disease. One of the hallmarks of COPD is an accelerated decline in lung function, as measured by spirometry. Inflammation, oxidative stress and other pathways are hypothesized to be important in this deterioration. Because progressive airflow obstruction is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, a major goal of COPD treatment has been to slow or prevent the accelerated decline in lung function. Until recently, the only known effective intervention was smoking cessation. However, newly reported large clinical trials have shown that commonly used medications may help slow the rate of lung function decline. The effect of these medications is modest (and thus required such large, expensive trials) and to be of clinical benefit, therapy would likely need to start early in the course of disease and be prolonged. Such a treatment strategy aimed at preservation of lung function would need to be balanced against the side effects and costs of prolonged therapy. A variety of newer classes of medications may help target other pathophysiologically important pathways, and could be used in the future to prevent lung function decline in COPD. PMID:20631815

  16. A prospective study of decline in lung function in relation to welding emissions

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Sigve W; Bonde, Jens Peter; Omland, Øyvind

    2008-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have reported reduced lung function among welders but limitations of exposure assessment and design preclude causal inference. The aim of this study was to investigate if long-term exposure to welding fume particulates accelerates the age-related decline in lung function. Methods Lung function was measured by spirometry in 1987 and 2004 among 68 steel welders and 32 non-welding production workers. The decline in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was analysed in relation to cumulated exposure to fume particulates among welders during the follow-up period. Results Among smokers the decline in FEV1 through follow-up period was in average 150 ml larger among welders than non-welders while the difference was negligible among non-smokers. The results did not reach statistical significance and within welders the decline in lung function was not related to the cumulated welding particulate exposure during follow-up period Conclusion Long-term exposure to welding emissions may accelerate the age-related decline of lung function but at exposure levels in the range of 1.5 to 6.5 mg/m3 the average annual excess loss of FEV1 is unlikely to exceed 25 ml in smokers and 10 ml in non-smokers. PMID:18302754

  17. Association between the Type of Workplace and Lung Function in Copper Miners

    PubMed Central

    Gruszczyński, Leszek; Wojakowska, Anna; Ścieszka, Marek; Turczyn, Barbara; Schmidt, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the analysis was to retrospectively assess changes in lung function in copper miners depending on the type of workplace. In the groups of 225 operators, 188 welders, and 475 representatives of other jobs, spirometry was performed at the start of employment and subsequently after 10, 20, and 25 years of work. Spirometry Longitudinal Data Analysis software was used to estimate changes in group means for FEV1 and FVC. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess an association between workplace and lung function. Lung function assessed on the basis of calculation of longitudinal FEV1 (FVC) decline was similar in all studied groups. However, multiple linear regression model used in cross-sectional analysis revealed an association between workplace and lung function. In the group of welders, FEF75 was lower in comparison to operators and other miners as early as after 10 years of work. Simultaneously, in smoking welders, the FEV1/FVC ratio was lower than in nonsmokers (p < 0,05). The interactions between type of workplace and smoking (p < 0,05) in their effect on FVC, FEV1, PEF, and FEF50 were shown. Among underground working copper miners, the group of smoking welders is especially threatened by impairment of lung ventilatory function. PMID:27274987

  18. Influencing the decline of lung function in COPD: use of pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gladysheva, Ekaterina S; Malhotra, Atul; Owens, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and deadly disease. One of the hallmarks of COPD is an accelerated decline in lung function, as measured by spirometry. Inflammation, oxidative stress and other pathways are hypothesized to be important in this deterioration. Because progressive airflow obstruction is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, a major goal of COPD treatment has been to slow or prevent the accelerated decline in lung function. Until recently, the only known effective intervention was smoking cessation. However, newly reported large clinical trials have shown that commonly used medications may help slow the rate of lung function decline. The effect of these medications is modest (and thus required such large, expensive trials) and to be of clinical benefit, therapy would likely need to start early in the course of disease and be prolonged. Such a treatment strategy aimed at preservation of lung function would need to be balanced against the side effects and costs of prolonged therapy. A variety of newer classes of medications may help target other pathophysiologically important pathways, and could be used in the future to prevent lung function decline in COPD. PMID:20631815

  19. The effects of in utero vitamin D deficiency on airway smooth muscle mass and lung function.

    PubMed

    Foong, Rachel E; Bosco, Anthony; Jones, Anya C; Gout, Alex; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H; Zosky, Graeme R

    2015-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and airway hyperresponsiveness in whole-life vitamin D-deficient female mice. In this study, we aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms contributing to altered lung structure and function. RNA was extracted from lung tissue of whole-life vitamin D-deficient and -replete female mice, and gene expression patterns were profiled by RNA sequencing. The data showed that genes involved in embryonic organ development, pattern formation, branching morphogenesis, Wingless/Int signaling, and inflammation were differentially expressed in vitamin D-deficient mice. Network analysis suggested that differentially expressed genes were connected by the hubs matrix metallopeptidase 9; NF-κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor, α; epidermal growth factor receptor; and E1A binding protein p300. Given our findings that developmental pathways may be altered, we investigated if the timing of vitamin D exposure (in utero vs. postnatal) had an impact on lung health outcomes. Gene expression was measured in in utero or postnatal vitamin D-deficient mice, as well as whole-life vitamin D-deficient and -replete mice at 8 weeks of age. Baseline lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation were measured and lungs fixed for lung structure assessment using stereological methods and quantification of ASM mass. In utero vitamin D deficiency was sufficient to increase ASM mass and baseline airway resistance and alter lung structure. There were increased neutrophils but decreased lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage. Expression of inflammatory molecules S100A9 and S100A8 was mainly increased in postnatal vitamin D-deficient mice. These observations suggest that in utero vitamin D deficiency can alter lung structure and function and increase inflammation, contributing to symptoms in chronic diseases, such as asthma. PMID:25867172

  20. Synchrotron-based dynamic computed tomography of tissue motion for regional lung function measurement

    PubMed Central

    Dubsky, Stephen; Hooper, Stuart B.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Fouras, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    During breathing, lung inflation is a dynamic process involving a balance of mechanical factors, including trans-pulmonary pressure gradients, tissue compliance and airway resistance. Current techniques lack the capacity for dynamic measurement of ventilation in vivo at sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to allow the spatio-temporal patterns of ventilation to be precisely defined. As a result, little is known of the regional dynamics of lung inflation, in either health or disease. Using fast synchrotron-based imaging (up to 60 frames s−1), we have combined dynamic computed tomography (CT) with cross-correlation velocimetry to measure regional time constants and expansion within the mammalian lung in vivo. Additionally, our new technique provides estimation of the airflow distribution throughout the bronchial tree during the ventilation cycle. Measurements of lung expansion and airflow in mice and rabbit pups are shown to agree with independent measures. The ability to measure lung function at a regional level will provide invaluable information for studies into normal and pathological lung dynamics, and may provide new pathways for diagnosis of regional lung diseases. Although proof-of-concept data were acquired on a synchrotron, the methodology developed potentially lends itself to clinical CT scanning and therefore offers translational research opportunities. PMID:22491972

  1. Ambient air pollution, lung function and airway responsiveness in children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ierodiakonou, Despo; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Melly, Steve; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boezen, H. Marike; Vonk, Judith M.; Williams, Paul V.; Shapiro, Gail G.; McKone, Edward F.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Lumley, Thomas; Fuhlbrigge, Anne N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel; Weiss, Scott T.; Gold, Diane R

    2016-01-01

    Background Although ambient air pollution has been linked to reduced lung function in healthy children, longitudinal analyses of pollution effects in asthma are lacking. Objective To investigate pollution effects in a longitudinal asthma study and effect modification by controller medications. Methods We examined associations of lung function and methacholine responsiveness (PC20) with ozone, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels in 1,003 asthmatic children participating in a 4-year clinical trial. We further investigated whether budesonide and nedocromil modified pollution effects. Daily pollutant concentrations were linked to zip/postal code of residence. Linear mixed models tested associations of within-subject pollutant concentrations with FEV1 and FVC %predicted, FEV1/FVC and PC20, adjusting for seasonality and confounders. Results Same-day and 1-week average CO levels were negatively associated with post-bronchodilator %predicted FEV1 (change(95%CI) per IQR: −0.33(−0.49, −0.16), −0.41(−0.62, −0.21), respectively) and FVC (−0.19(−0.25, −0.07), −0.25(−0.43, −0.07)). Longer-term four-month averages of CO were negatively associated with prebronchodilator %predicted FEV1 and FVC (−0.36(−0.62, −0.10), −0.21(−0.42, −0.01)). Four-month averaged CO and ozone levels were negatively associated with FEV1/FVC (p<0.05). Increased four-month average NO2 levels were associated with reduced post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FVC %predicted. Long-term exposures to SO2 were associated with reduced PC20 (%change(95%CI) per IQR:-6(-11,-1.5)). Treatment augmented the negative short-term CO effect on PC20. Conclusions Air pollution adversely influences lung function and PC20 in asthmatic children. Treatment with controller medications may not protect but worsens the CO effects on PC20. This clinical trial design evaluates modification of pollution effects by treatment without confounding by indication. PMID

  2. Challenges in molecular testing in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with advanced disease.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Crispin T; Le Quesne, John; Santis, George; Sharpe, Rowena; de Castro, David Gonzalez; Middleton, Gary; Swanton, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer diagnostics have progressed greatly in the previous decade. Development of molecular testing to identify an increasing number of potentially clinically actionable genetic variants, using smaller samples obtained via minimally invasive techniques, is a huge challenge. Tumour heterogeneity and cancer evolution in response to therapy means that repeat biopsies or circulating biomarkers are likely to be increasingly useful to adapt treatment as resistance develops. We highlight some of the current challenges faced in clinical practice for molecular testing of EGFR, ALK, and new biomarkers such as PDL1. Implementation of next generation sequencing platforms for molecular diagnostics in non-small-cell lung cancer is increasingly common, allowing testing of multiple genetic variants from a single sample. The use of next generation sequencing to recruit for molecularly stratified clinical trials is discussed in the context of the UK Stratified Medicine Programme and The UK National Lung Matrix Trial. PMID:27598680

  3. Tumor-Associated Neutrophils Show Phenotypic and Functional Divergence in Human Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Saha, Shilpi; Biswas, Subhra K

    2016-07-11

    Studies in murine cancer models have demonstrated the phenotypic and functional divergence of neutrophils; however, their role in pro- or anti-tumor responses in human remains elusive. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Singhal et al. report the existence of specialized subsets of neutrophils in human lung cancer with diverging functions. PMID:27411583

  4. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION DECREMENTS IN HUMANS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short duration exposure to ozone (<8 hr) is known to result in lung function decrements and respiratory symptoms in humans. The magnitudes of these responses are functions of ozone concentration (C), activity level measured by minute ventilation (Ve), duration of exposure (T), a...

  5. Diffusion of Molecular Diagnostic Lung Cancer Tests: A Survey of German Oncologists

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Julius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at examining the diffusion of diagnostic lung cancer tests in Germany. It was motivated by the high potential of detecting and targeting oncogenic drivers. Recognizing that the diffusion of diagnostic tests is a conditio sine qua non for the success of personalized lung cancer therapies, this study analyzed the diffusion of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tests in Germany. Qualitative and quantitative research strategies were combined in a mixed-method design. A literature review and subsequent Key Opinion Leader interviews identified a set of qualitative factors driving the diffusion process, which were then translated into an online survey. The survey was conducted among a sample of 961 oncologists (11.34% response rate). The responses were analyzed in a multiple linear regression which identified six statistically significant factors driving the diffusion of molecular diagnostic lung cancer tests: reimbursement, attitude towards R&D, information self-assessment, perceived attitudes of colleagues, age and test-pathway strategies. Besides the important role of adequate reimbursement and relevant guidelines, the results of this study suggest that an increasing usage of test-pathway strategies, especially in an office-based setting, can increase the diffusion of molecular diagnostic lung cancer tests in the future. PMID:25562146

  6. Respiratory failure associated with the lipodystrophy syndrome in an HIV-positive patient with compromised lung function.

    PubMed

    Press, N; Montessori, V; Bai, T R; Montaner, J

    2001-01-01

    Protease inhibitors, used as treatment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, are associated with a syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, central adiposity, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. An HIV-positive patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is presented who developed the lipodystrophy syndrome that is associated with the use of protease inhibitors. It is postulated that the lipodystrophy syndrome further compromised his lung function, leading to respiratory failure. Patients who have pulmonary disease and are taking protease inhibitors require monitoring of clinical status and pulmonary function tests. PMID:11521144

  7. Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ljungman, Petter L.; Wilker, Elissa H.; Dorans, Kirsten S.; Gold, Diane R.; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros; Washko, George R.; O’Connor, George T.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Few studies have examined associations between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung function decline in adults. Objectives: To determine if exposure to traffic and PM2.5 is associated with longitudinal changes in lung function in a population-based cohort in the Northeastern United States, where pollution levels are relatively low. Methods: FEV1 and FVC were measured up to two times between 1995 and 2011 among 6,339 participants of the Framingham Offspring or Third Generation studies. We tested associations between residential proximity to a major roadway and PM2.5 exposure in 2001 (estimated by a land-use model using satellite measurements of aerosol optical thickness) and lung function. We examined differences in average lung function using mixed-effects models and differences in lung function decline using linear regression models. Current smokers were excluded. Models were adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, pack-years, socioeconomic status indicators, cohort, time, season, and weather. Measurements and Main Results: Living less than 100 m from a major roadway was associated with a 23.2 ml (95% confidence interval [CI], −44.4 to −1.9) lower FEV1 and a 5.0 ml/yr (95% CI, −9.0 to −0.9) faster decline in FEV1 compared with more than 400 m. Each 2 μg/m3 increase in average of PM2.5 was associated with a 13.5 ml (95% CI, −26.6 to −0.3) lower FEV1 and a 2.1 ml/yr (95% CI, −4.1 to −0.2) faster decline in FEV1. There were similar associations with FVC. Associations with FEV1/FVC ratio were weak or absent. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to traffic and PM2.5, at relatively low levels, was associated with lower FEV1 and FVC and an accelerated rate of lung function decline. PMID:25590631

  8. In vitro particulate matter exposure causes direct and lung-mediated indirect effects on cardiomyocyte function.

    PubMed

    Gorr, Matthew W; Youtz, Dane J; Eichenseer, Clayton M; Smith, Korbin E; Nelin, Timothy D; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Wold, Loren E

    2015-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure induces a pathological response from both the lungs and the cardiovascular system. PM is capable of both manifestation into the lung epithelium and entrance into the bloodstream. Therefore, PM has the capacity for both direct and lung-mediated indirect effects on the heart. In the present studies, we exposed isolated rat cardiomyocytes to ultrafine particulate matter (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) and examined their contractile function and calcium handling ability. In another set of experiments, lung epithelial cells (16HBE14o- or Calu-3) were cultured on permeable supports that allowed access to both the basal (serosal) and apical (mucosal) media; the basal media was used to culture cardiomyocytes to model the indirect, lung-mediated effects of PM on the heart. Both the direct and indirect treatments caused a reduction in contractility as evidenced by reduced percent sarcomere shortening and reduced calcium handling ability measured in field-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with various anti-oxidants before culture with DEP was able to partially prevent the contractile dysfunction. The basal media from lung epithelial cells treated with PM contained several inflammatory cytokines, and we found that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was a key trigger for cardiomyocyte dysfunction. These results indicate the presence of both direct and indirect effects of PM on cardiomyocyte function in vitro. Future work will focus on elucidating the mechanisms involved in these separate pathways using in vivo models of air pollution exposure. PMID:25957217

  9. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Douglas; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.; Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT

  10. Air Pollution, Airway Inflammation, and Lung Function in a Cohort Study of Mexico City Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sunyer, Jordi; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria Consuelo; Sienra-Monge, Juan Jose; Ramírez-Aguilar, Matiana; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Holguin, Fernando; Diaz-Sánchez, David; Olin, Anna Carin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. Objective In this study we assessed the association of short-term air pollutant exposure with inflammatory markers and lung function. Methods We studied a cohort of 158 asthmatic and 50 nonasthmatic school-age children, followed an average of 22 weeks. We conducted spirometric tests, measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), interleukin-8 (IL-8) in nasal lavage, and pH of exhaled breath condensate every 15 days during follow-up. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. Results An increase of 17.5 μg/m3 in the 8-hr moving average of PM2.5 levels (interquartile range) was associated with a 1.08-ppb increase in FeNO [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.16] and a 1.07-pg/mL increase in IL-8 (95% CI 0.98–1.19) in asthmatic children and a 1.16 pg/ml increase in IL-8 (95% CI, 1.00–1.36) in nonasthmatic children. The 5-day accumulated average of exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diamter (PM2.5) was significantly inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) (p = 0.048) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.012) in asthmatic children and with FVC (p = 0.021) in nonasthmatic children. FeNO and FEV1 were inversely associated (p = 0.005) in asthmatic children. Conclusions Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in acute airway inflammation and decrease in lung function in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. PMID:18560490

  11. The EPICure Study: Association between Hemodynamics and Lung Function at 11 Years after Extremely Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Charlotte E.; Stocks, Janet; Hennessy, Enid; Cockcroft, John R.; Fawke, Joseph; Lum, Sooky; McEniery, Carmel M.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Marlow, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between disturbed lung function and large-artery hemodynamics in school-age children born extremely preterm (EP) (at 25 completed weeks of gestation or less). Study design This was a cross-sectional study of participants from the EPICure study, now aged 11 years (n = 66), and 86 age- and sex-matched term-born classmates. Spirometry parameters (including forced expiratory volume in 1 second), blood pressure, and augmentation index (AIx, a composite of arterial stiffness and global wave reflections) were measured. Results Compared with their classmates, the EP children had significantly impaired lung function, particularly those with neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Peripheral blood pressure did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, but AIx values were on average 5% higher (95% CI, 2%-8%) in the preterm infants, remaining significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia status was not related to AIx. Lung function and maternal smoking were independently associated with AIx; AIx increased by 2.7% per z-score reduction in baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second and by 4.9% in those whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Conclusion The independent association between impaired lung function and cardiovascular physiology in early adolescence implies higher cardiovascular risk for children born EP, and suggests that prevention of chronic neonatal lung disease may be a priority in reducing later cardiovascular risk in preterm infants. PMID:22575246

  12. Altered lung function at mid-adulthood in mice following neonatal exposure to hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Sozo, Foula; Horvat, Jay C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; O'Reilly, Megan; Hansbro, Philip M; Harding, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Infants born very preterm are usually exposed to high oxygen concentrations but this may impair lung function in survivors in later life. However, the precise changes involved are poorly understood. We determined how neonatal hyperoxia alters lung function at mid-adulthood in mice. Neonatal C57BL/6J mice inhaled 65% oxygen (HE group) from birth for 7 days. They then breathed room air until 11 months of age (P11mo); these mice experienced growth restriction. Controls breathed only room air. To exclude the effects of growth restriction, a group of dams was rotated between hyperoxia and normoxia during the exposure period (HE+DR group). Lung function was measured at P11mo. HE mice had increased inspiratory capacity, work of breathing and tissue damping. HE+DR mice had further increases in inspiratory capacity and work of breathing, and reduced FEV100/FVC. Total lung capacity was increased in HE+DR males. HE males had elevated responses to methacholine. Neonatal hyperoxia alters lung function at mid-adulthood, especially in males. PMID:26197245

  13. Comparison of clinical tests of olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Reden, J; Draf, C; Frank, R A; Hummel, T

    2016-04-01

    To assess olfactory function, various measures are used in clinical routine. In this study, the Sniff Magnitude Test (SMT), a test considering the sniff response to an odor, was applied to patients with olfactory dysfunction (n = 49) and to a control group without subjective olfaction disorder (n = 21). For comparison, the validated "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery, a psychophysical olfactory test consisting of tests for phenyl ethyl alcohol odor threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification was performed. Analyses indicated that the SMT showed significant differences between patients and controls (p = 0.003). Furthermore, results from the SMT and the "Sniffin' Sticks" correlated significantly (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the SMT appears to be a useful addition to the battery of available clinical tests to assess olfactory function. PMID:26050222

  14. Imaging Lung Function in Mice Using SPECT/CT and Per-Voxel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jobse, Brian N.; Rhem, Rod G.; McCurry, Cory A. J. R.; Wang, Iris Q.; Labiris, N. Renée

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lung disease is a major worldwide health concern but better tools are required to understand the underlying pathologies. Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with per-voxel analysis allows for non-invasive measurement of regional lung function. A clinically adapted V/Q methodology was used in healthy mice to investigate V/Q relationships. Twelve week-old mice were imaged to describe normal lung function while 36 week-old mice were imaged to determine how age affects V/Q. Mice were ventilated with Technegas™ and injected with 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin to trace ventilation and perfusion, respectively. For both processes, SPECT and CT images were acquired, co-registered, and quantitatively analyzed. On a per-voxel basis, ventilation and perfusion were moderately correlated (R = 0.58±0.03) in 12 week old animals and a mean log(V/Q) ratio of −0.07±0.01 and standard deviation of 0.36±0.02 were found, defining the extent of V/Q matching. In contrast, 36 week old animals had significantly increased levels of V/Q mismatching throughout the periphery of the lung. Measures of V/Q were consistent across healthy animals and differences were observed with age demonstrating the capability of this technique in quantifying lung function. Per-voxel analysis and the ability to non-invasively assess lung function will aid in the investigation of chronic lung disease models and drug efficacy studies. PMID:22870297

  15. Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation *

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Adalberto Sperb; Nascimento, Douglas Zaione; Sanchez, Letícia; Watte, Guilherme; Holand, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi; Fassbind, Derrick Alexandre; Camargo, José Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure. Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2%) had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30%) died, and 11 (14%) did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66%) were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted), 1.48 L (52% of predicted), and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL) and FEV1 (350 mL). In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL) in FVC and 1% (50 mL) in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL) in FVC and 16% (430 mL) in FEV1. Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF. PMID:26398749

  16. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: Pulmonary function, prediction, and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vivek . E-mail: Vivek.Mehta@swedish.org

    2005-09-01

    Although radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis is a common treatment-related toxicity. Many pulmonary function tests are not significantly altered by pulmonary toxicity of irradiation, but reductions in DL{sub CO}, the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, are more commonly associated with pneumonitis. Several patient-specific factors (e.g. age, smoking history, tumor location, performance score, gender) and treatment-specific factors (e.g. chemotherapy regimen and dose) have been proposed as potential predictors of the risk of radiation pneumonitis, but these have not been consistently demonstrated across different studies. The risk of radiation pneumonitis also seems to increase as the cumulative dose of radiation to normal lung tissue increases, as measured by dose-volume histograms. However, controversy persists about which dosimetric parameter optimally predicts the risk of radiation pneumonitis, and whether the volume of lung or the dose of radiation is more important. Radiation oncologists ought to consider these dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy. Newer radiotherapy techniques and technologies may reduce the exposure of normal lung to irradiation. Several medications have also been evaluated for their ability to reduce radiation pneumonitis in animals and humans, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome. Additional research is warranted to determine the efficacy of these medications and identify nonpharmacologic strategies to predict and prevent radiation pneumonitis.

  17. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables

    PubMed Central

    Porcari, John P.; Probst, Lauren; Forrester, Karlei; Doberstein, Scott; Foster, Carl; Cress, Maria L.; Schmidt, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12) or control (n = 12) group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9%) and mask (16.5% and 13.6%) groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT) (13.9%), power output (PO) at VT (19.3%), respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) (10.2%), and PO at RCT (16.4%) from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170). Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone. Key points Wearing the ETM during a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program may improve performance variables, such as VO2max, PPO, VT, PO at VT, RCT and PO at RCT. Wearing the ETM did not improve lung function, inspiratory

  18. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables.

    PubMed

    Porcari, John P; Probst, Lauren; Forrester, Karlei; Doberstein, Scott; Foster, Carl; Cress, Maria L; Schmidt, Katharina

    2016-06-01

    Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12) or control (n = 12) group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9%) and mask (16.5% and 13.6%) groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT) (13.9%), power output (PO) at VT (19.3%), respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) (10.2%), and PO at RCT (16.4%) from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170). Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone. Key pointsWearing the ETM during a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program may improve performance variables, such as VO2max, PPO, VT, PO at VT, RCT and PO at RCT.Wearing the ETM did not improve lung function, inspiratory

  19. Vitamin D and Lung Function Decline in Adults With Asthma: The HUNT Study.

    PubMed

    Brumpton, Ben Michael; Langhammer, Arnulf; Henriksen, Anne Hildur; Camargo, Carlos Arturo; Chen, Yue; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Mai, Xiao-Mei

    2016-04-15

    We investigated whether low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with more lung function decline in adults with asthma and whether this association was modified by smoking status or inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use. We analyzed data on 395 adults with asthma from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995-2008), Norway. Plasma 25(OH)D and lung function were measured at baseline, and lung function measurements were repeated at follow-up, approximately 11 years later. Linear regression was used to estimate lung function decline. Participants with low 25(OH)D (<50 nmol/L) had more decline in lung function measurements for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (388 mL), forced vital capacity (298 mL), and the FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio (3.7%) over the follow-up, compared with those with high 25(OH)D (≥50 nmol/L) who declined 314 mL, 246 mL, and 3.0%, respectively (P = 0.08, 0.30, and 0.23, respectively). The associations were stronger in never smokers and non-ICS users. In never smokers, low 25(OH)D levels were associated with more decline in FEV1 (445 vs. 222 mL) (P = 0.01). In non-ICS users, low 25(OH)D levels were associated with more decline in FEV1 (467 vs. 320 mL) (P = 0.02). Low serum 25(OH)D levels were weakly associated with more lung function decline in adults with asthma, and stronger associations were observed in never smokers and non-ICS users. PMID:26994061

  20. Alpha1-antitrypsin phenotypes and lung function in a moderately polluted northern Ontario community.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, D. N.; Manfreda, J.; Dorman, T.; Cherniack, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    To determine whether persons with intermediate value alpha1-antitrypsin phenotypes living in a polluted environment manifest significant abnormalities in lung function, a study was undertaken of an age-, sex- and smoking-stratified sample of 391 persons from the town of Fort Frances, Ont., which has elevated values of total dustfall, suspended particulates and hydrogen sulfide. Indices of pulmonary function were derived from the maximum expiratory flow and the single breath expiratory flow and the single breath expiratory nitrogen washout curves. The percentage frequency of the M, MS and MZ pheontypes was 91.7, 7.3 and 0.8, respectively. There was no significant difference between the M and MS groups as indicated by the nitrogen washout curve and maximum expiratory flow curve. There was no significant difference between the three MZ subjects and the M group. In both M and MS groups smokers displayed evidence of airflow obstruction when compared with nonsmokers. It would appear that, when compared with M subjects, persons with the MS phenotype living in a moderately polluted area show no changes in indicators of pulmonary function, including tests of early airway disease, that cannot be attributed to their smoking habit. PMID:306869

  1. Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

  2. Functional and inflammatory alterations in the lung following exposure of rats to nitrogen mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel, Kinal J.; Shen, Jianliang; Reimer, David; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard is a vesicant that causes damage to the respiratory tract. In these studies, we characterized the acute effects of nitrogen mustard on lung structure, inflammatory mediator expression, and pulmonary function, with the goal of identifying mediators potentially involved in toxicity. Treatment of rats (male Wistar, 200-225 g) with nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine hydrochloride, i.t., 0.25 mg/kg) resulted in marked histological changes in the respiratory tract, including necrotizing bronchiolitis, thickening of alveolar septa, and inflammation which was evident within 24 h. This was associated with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, confirming injury to alveolar epithelial regions of the lung. Nitrogen mustard administration also resulted in increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory proteins implicated in lung injury, in alveolar macrophages and alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Expression of connective tissue growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9, mediators regulating extracellular matrix turnover was also increased, suggesting that pathways leading to chronic lung disease are initiated early in the pathogenic process. Following nitrogen mustard exposure, alterations in lung mechanics and function were also observed. These included decreases in baseline static compliance, end-tidal volume and airway resistance, and a pronounced loss of methacholine responsiveness in resistance, tissue damping and elastance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that nitrogen mustard induces rapid structural and inflammatory changes in the lung which are associated with altered lung functioning. Understanding the nature of the injury induced by nitrogen mustard and related analogs may aid in the development of efficacious therapies for treatment of pulmonary injury resulting from exposure to vesicants.

  3. Athletes, yogis and individuals with sedentary lifestyles; do their lung functions differ?

    PubMed

    Prakash, Shivesh; Meshram, Sushant; Ramtekkar, Ujjwal

    2007-01-01

    Buffalo health study concluded that pulmonary function is a long-term predictor for overall survival rates. It is essential to be involved in physical activity or sports which help in achieving better lung function. Cross sectional observation study was conducted to determine if yoga and athletic activity (running) are associated with better lung functions as compared to subjects with sedentary lifestyles and how does athletes and yogis differ in lung function. Spirometric parameters were assessed in randomly selected 60 healthy male, non-smoking; non-obese subjects-athletes, yogis and sedentary workers. The groups differed significantly in FEV1 and PEFR. The highest mean FEV1 and PEFR were observed in yogis. Both yogis and athletes had significantly better FEV1 as compared to sedentary workers. Yogis also had significantly better PEFR as compared to sedentary workers and athletes. Yogis and athletes had similar lung functions except for better PEFR amongst yogis. Involvement in daily physical activity or sport preferably yoga can help in achieving better pulmonary function. PMID:17877296

  4. Short- and Mid-Term Changes in Lung Function after Bilateral Pulmonary Metastasectomy.

    PubMed

    Welter, Stefan; Cheufou, Danjouma; Zahin, Mahmood; Kampe, Sandra; Darwiche, Kaid; Weinreich, Gerhard; Stamatis, Georgios

    2016-03-01

    Introduction The resection of pulmonary metastases is associated with a loss of lung function. The amount of functional impairment after bilateral metastasectomy remains unclear. Because only around 35% of those patients may expect long-term survival, it is important to preserve enough pulmonary function for an adequate quality of life. This analysis of 31 bilaterally operated patients was performed to describe the amount of pulmonary function loss. Methods This is a post-hoc subanalysis and comparison of a population that was published before. All pulmonary metastasectomies were performed through an anteroaxillary thoracotomy in all patients. Resections were performed with staplers, electrocautery, or laser. All patients had pulmonary function tests (PFTs) preoperative and after 3 months at the follow-up visit, including spirometry, diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco) and blood gases. Of the 31 bilaterally operated cases, 15 had additional PFTs after each staged operation before discharge from hospital. Results Altogether, 271 nodules (median 7, mean 8.2) were removed from the 31 patients with a lobectomy in 2, a segmentectomy in 8, and multiple wedge resections in 21 patients, with this being the largest resection. The mean loss of pulmonary function at follow-up visit was forced vital capacity (FVC) - 15.2%, total lung capacity (TLC) - 13.8%, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) - 16.3%, and Dlco - 10.3%, all of which were significant (p = < 0.001). The 15 patients with PFTs after each operation showed a stepwise decrease of volume parameters and Dlco with deepest values after the second surgery of around - -40% from preoperative values. At this time, Po 2 was also significantly reduced by 10 mm Hg (p = 0.01). Comparing the bilateral group with 86 patients after unilateral metastasectomy, we found significantly more nodules removed in the bilateral group (8.2 vs. 3.1; p < 0.001) and that the loss

  5. Physiologic assessment before video thoracoscopic resection for lung cancer in patients with abnormal pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Benattia, Amira; Debeaumont, David; Guyader, Vincent; Tardif, Catherine; Peillon, Christophe; Cuvelier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired respiratory function may prevent curative surgery for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) reduces postoperative morbility-mortality and could change preoperative assessment practices and therapeutic decisions. We evaluated the relation between preoperative pulmonary function tests and the occurrence of postoperative complications after VATS pulmonary resection in patients with abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We included 106 consecutive patients with ≤80% predicted value of presurgical expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and/or diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and who underwent VATS pulmonary resection for NSCLC from a prospective surgical database. Results Patients (64±9.5 years) had lobectomy (n=91), segmentectomy (n=7), bilobectomy (n=4), or pneumonectomy (n=4). FEV1 and DLCO preoperative averages were 68%±21% and 60%±18%. Operative mortality was 1.89%. Only FEV1 was predictive of postoperative complications [odds ratio (OR), 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.926–0.991, P=0.016], but there was no determinable threshold. Twenty-five patients underwent incremental exercise testing. Desaturations during exercise (OR, 0.462; 95% CI, 0.191–0.878, P=0.039) and heart rate (HR) response (OR, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.895–0.993, P=0.05) were associated with postoperative complications. Conclusions FEV1 but not DLCO was a significant predictor of pulmonary complications after VATS pulmonary resection despite a low rate of severe morbidity. Incremental exercise testing seems more discriminating. Further investigation is required in a larger patient population to change current pre-operative threshold in a new era of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:27293834

  6. Determinants of restrictive lung function in asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.A.; Galvin, J.R.; Dayton, C.S.; Stanford, W.; Merchant, J.A.; Hunninghake, G.W. )

    1990-05-01

    We evaluated whether restrictive lung function among asbestos-exposed individuals with pleural fibrosis was caused by radiographically inapparent parenchymal inflammation and/or parenchymal fibrosis. All 24 study participants were sheet metal workers who were nonsmokers with normal parenchyma on posteroanterior chest radiograph. These subjects had either normal pleura (n = 7), circumscribed plaques (n = 9), or diffuse pleural thickening (n = 8). After controlling for age, years in the trade, and pack-years of smoking, we found that sheet metal workers with diffuse pleural thickening had a lower forced vital capacity (P less than 0.001), total lung capacity (P less than 0.01), and CO-diffusing capacity of the lung (P less than 0.05) than those with normal pleura. Similarly, sheet metal workers with circumscribed plaques were found to have a reduced forced vital capacity; however, because of the small number of study subjects, this difference (regression coefficient = -11.0) was only marginally significant (P = 0.06). Although circumscribed plaque and diffuse pleural thickening were both associated with a lymphocytic alveolitis and a higher prevalence of parenchymal fibrosis on high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan, neither a lymphocytic alveolitis nor the finding of parenchymal fibrosis on HRCT scan influenced the relationship between pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function. We conclude that pleural fibrosis is associated with restrictive lung function and abnormally low diffusion that appears to be independent of our measures of parenchymal injury (chest X-ray, bronchoalveolar lavage, and HRCT scan).

  7. Long-chain Acylcarnitines Reduce Lung Function by Inhibiting Pulmonary Surfactant.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Chikara; Bharathi, Sivakama; Uppala, Radha; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Wang, Dongning; McHugh, Kevin; Zou, Ye; Wang, Jieru; Alcorn, John F; Zuo, Yi Y; Hirschey, Matthew D; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-09-25

    The role of mitochondrial energy metabolism in maintaining lung function is not understood. We previously observed reduced lung function in mice lacking the fatty acid oxidation enzyme long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD). Here, we demonstrate that long-chain acylcarnitines, a class of lipids secreted by mitochondria when metabolism is inhibited, accumulate at the air-fluid interface in LCAD(-/-) lungs. Acylcarnitine accumulation is exacerbated by stress such as influenza infection or by dietary supplementation with l-carnitine. Long-chain acylcarnitines co-localize with pulmonary surfactant, a unique film of phospholipids and proteins that reduces surface tension and prevents alveolar collapse during breathing. In vitro, the long-chain species palmitoylcarnitine directly inhibits the surface adsorption of pulmonary surfactant as well as its ability to reduce surface tension. Treatment of LCAD(-/-) mice with mildronate, a drug that inhibits carnitine synthesis, eliminates acylcarnitines and improves lung function. Finally, acylcarnitines are detectable in normal human lavage fluid. Thus, long-chain acylcarnitines may represent a risk factor for lung injury in humans with dysfunctional fatty acid oxidation. PMID:26240137

  8. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-04-01

    Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. PMID:26842972

  9. Airway hyperresponsiveness, prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, and lung function in workers exposed to irritants.

    PubMed

    Kremer, A M; Pal, T M; Boleij, J S; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to airway irritants and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of lung function, and whether these associations were modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, smoking, and a history of allergy were studied in 668 workers from synthetic fibre plants. Respiratory symptoms were recorded with a self administered Dutch version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, with additional questions on allergy. Airway responsiveness was measured by a 30 second tidal breathing histamine challenge test. On the basis of job titles and working department, the current state of exposure of all workers was characterised as (1) no exposure, reference group; (2) white collar workers; (3) SO2 HCl, SO4(2); (4) polyester vapour; (5) oil mist and vapour; (6) polyamide and polyester vapour; (7) multiple exposure. Workers exposed to airway irritants were not simultaneously exposed to airborne dust. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), defined as a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at < or = 32 mg/ml histamine, was present in 23% of the subjects. The association between exposure groups and prevalence of symptoms was estimated by means of multiple logistic regression; the association with level of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEF)) was estimated by means of multiple linear regression. Both methods allow simultaneous adjustment for potential confounding factors. The exposure groups were associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Lower prevalence of symptoms was found for workers exposed to SO2, HCl, and SO4(2-), most likely due to pre-employment selection procedures. Current smoking, AHR, and a history of allergy were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, independent of each other, and independent of irritant exposure. The association between exposure and prevalence of

  10. Outcomes of Anatomical versus Functional Testing for Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Pamela S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Patel, Manesh R.; Mark, Daniel B.; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R.; Cavanaugh, Brendan; Cole, Jason; Dolor, Rowena J.; Fordyce, Christopher B.; Huang, Megan; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Malhotra, Vinay; Picard, Michael H.; Udelson, James E.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Yow, Eric; Cooper, Lawton S.; Lee, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many patients have symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD) and are often evaluated with the use of diagnostic testing, although there are limited data from randomized trials to guide care. METHODS We randomly assigned 10,003 symptomatic patients to a strategy of initial anatomical testing with the use of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or to functional testing (exercise electrocardiography, nuclear stress testing, or stress echocardiography). The composite primary end point was death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or major procedural complication. Secondary end points included invasive cardiac catheterization that did not show obstructive CAD and radiation exposure. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 60.8±8.3 years, 52.7% were women, and 87.7% had chest pain or dyspnea on exertion. The mean pretest likelihood of obstructive CAD was 53.3±21.4%. Over a median follow-up period of 25 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 164 of 4996 patients in the CTA group (3.3%) and in 151 of 5007 (3.0%) in the functional-testing group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.29; P = 0.75). CTA was associated with fewer catheterizations showing no obstructive CAD than was functional testing (3.4% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.02), although more patients in the CTA group underwent catheterization within 90 days after randomization (12.2% vs. 8.1%). The median cumulative radiation exposure per patient was lower in the CTA group than in the functional-testing group (10.0 mSv vs. 11.3 mSv), but 32.6% of the patients in the functional-testing group had no exposure, so the overall exposure was higher in the CTA group (mean, 12.0 mSv vs. 10.1 mSv; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS In symptomatic patients with suspected CAD who required noninvasive testing, a strategy of initial CTA, as compared with functional testing, did not improve clinical outcomes over a median follow-up of 2 years. (Funded by the

  11. COPD phenotypes on computed tomography and its correlation with selected lung function variables in severe patients

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Silvia Maria Doria; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Palhares, Luciana Campanatti; Pereira, Mônica Corso

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) phenotypic characterization helps in understanding the clinical diversity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but its clinical relevance and its relationship with functional features are not clarified. Volumetric capnography (VC) uses the principle of gas washout and analyzes the pattern of CO2 elimination as a function of expired volume. The main variables analyzed were end-tidal concentration of carbon dioxide (ETCO2), Slope of phase 2 (Slp2), and Slope of phase 3 (Slp3) of capnogram, the curve which represents the total amount of CO2 eliminated by the lungs during each breath. Objective To investigate, in a group of patients with severe COPD, if the phenotypic analysis by CT could identify different subsets of patients, and if there was an association of CT findings and functional variables. Subjects and methods Sixty-five patients with COPD Gold III–IV were admitted for clinical evaluation, high-resolution CT, and functional evaluation (spirometry, 6-minute walk test [6MWT], and VC). The presence and profusion of tomography findings were evaluated, and later, the patients were identified as having emphysema (EMP) or airway disease (AWD) phenotype. EMP and AWD groups were compared; tomography findings scores were evaluated versus spirometric, 6MWT, and VC variables. Results Bronchiectasis was found in 33.8% and peribronchial thickening in 69.2% of the 65 patients. Structural findings of airways had no significant correlation with spirometric variables. Air trapping and EMP were strongly correlated with VC variables, but in opposite directions. There was some overlap between the EMP and AWD groups, but EMP patients had signicantly lower body mass index, worse obstruction, and shorter walked distance on 6MWT. Concerning VC, EMP patients had signicantly lower ETCO2, Slp2 and Slp3. Increases in Slp3 characterize heterogeneous involvement of the distal air spaces, as in AWD. Conclusion Visual assessment and

  12. Lung Function Profiles among Individuals with Nonmalignant Asbestos-related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Kee; Yates, Deborah H.; Wilson, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhalation of asbestos fibers can lead to adverse health effects on the lungs. This study describes lung function profiles among individuals with nonmalignant asbestos-related disorders (ARDs). Methods The study population was from the Workers' Compensation (Dust Diseases) Board of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Lung function measurements were conducted in males with asbestosis (n = 26), diffuse pleural thickening (DPT; n = 129), asbestosis and DPT (n = 14), pleural plaques only (n = 160) and also apparently healthy individuals with a history of asbestos exposure (n = 248). Standardized spirometric and single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) measurements were used. Results Mean age [standard deviation (SD)] was 66.7 (10.3) years for all participants. Current and ex-smokers among all participants comprised about 9.0% and 54.8%, respectively. Median pack-years (SD) of smoking for ex- and current-smokers were 22.7 (19.9). Overall 222 participants (38.6%) and 139 participants (24.2%) had forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) measurements < 80% predicted, and 217 participants (37.7%) had FEV1/FVC results < 70%. A total of 249 individuals (43.8%) had DLco values < 80% predicted and only 75 (13.2%) had DLco/VA results < 80% predicted. A total of 147 participants (25.6%) had peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements < 80% predicted. The presence of ARDs lowered the lung function measurements compared to those of healthy individuals exposed to asbestos. Conclusion Lung function measurement differs in individuals with different ARDs. Monitoring of lung function among asbestos-exposed populations is a simple means of facilitating earlier interventions. PMID:25516818

  13. Genome-wide association study of lung function decline in adults with and without asthma

    PubMed Central

    Imboden, Medea; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Curjuric, Ivan; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Kumar, Ashish; Hancock, Dana B; Wilk, Jemma B; Vonk, Judith M; Thun, Gian A; Siroux, Valerie; Nadif, Rachel; Monier, Florent; Gonzalez, Juan R; Wjst, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Loehr, Laura R; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E; Altmüller, Janine; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Guerra, Stefano; Kronenberg, Florian; Lathrop, Mark; Moffatt, Miriam F; O’Connor, George T; Strachan, David P; Postma, Dirkje S; London, Stephanie J; Schindler, Christian; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kauffmann, Francine; Jarvis, Debbie L; Demenais, Florence; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung function level, however none addressed decline in lung function. Aim We conducted the first GWAS on age-related decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and in its ratio to forced vital capacity (FVC) stratified a priori by asthma status. Methods Discovery cohorts included adults of European ancestry (1441 asthmatics, 2677 non-asthmatics; Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA); Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung And Heart Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA); European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)). The associations of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC decline with 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were estimated. Thirty loci were followed-up by in silico replication (1160 asthmatics, 10858 non-asthmatics: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC); Framingham Heart Study (FHS); British 1958 Birth Cohort (B58C); Dutch asthma study). Results Main signals identified differed between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. None of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance. The association between the height related gene DLEU7 and FEV1 decline suggested for non-asthmatics in the discovery phase was replicated (discovery P=4.8×10−6; replication P=0.03) and additional sensitivity analyses point to a relation to growth. The top ranking signal, TUSC3, associated with FEV1/FVC decline in asthmatics (P=5.3×10−8) did not replicate. SNPs previously associated with cross-sectional lung function were not prominently associated with decline. Conclusions Genetic heterogeneity of lung function may be extensive. Our results suggest that genetic determinants of longitudinal and cross-sectional lung function differ and vary by asthma status. PMID:22424883

  14. SUN2 exerts tumor suppressor functions by suppressing the Warburg effect in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiao-bin; Liu, Lijuan; Cheng, Chun; Yu, Bentong; Xiong, Longxin; Hu, Kaishun; Tang, Jianjun; Zeng, Lei; Sang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    SUN2, a key component of LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex located at the inner nuclear membrane, plays unknown role in lung cancer. We found that SUN2 expression was decreased in lung cancer tissue compared with paired normal tissues and that higher SUN2 levels predicted better overall survival and first progression survival. Overexpression of SUN2 inhibits cell proliferation, colony formation and migration in lung cancer, whereas knockdown of SUN2 promotes cell proliferation and migration. Additionally, SUN2 increases the sensitivity of lung cancer to cisplatin by inducing cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, we showed that SUN2 exerts its tumor suppressor functions by decreasing the expression of GLUT1 and LDHA to inhibit the Warburg effect. Finally, our results provided evidence that SIRT5 acts, at least partly, as a negative regulator of SUN2.Taken together, our findings indicate that SUN2 is a key component in lung cancer progression by inhibiting the Warburg effect and that the novel SIRT5/SUN2 axis may prove to be useful for the development of new strategies for treating the patients with lung cancer. PMID:26658802

  15. Pharmacological characterization of the late phase reduction in lung functions and correlations with microvascular leakage and lung edema in allergen-challenged Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Mauser, Peter J; House, Aileen; Jones, Howard; Correll, Craig; Boyce, Christopher; Chapman, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    Late phase airflow obstruction and reduction in forced vital capacity are characteristic features of human asthma. Airway microvascular leakage and lung edema are also present in the inflammatory phase of asthma, but the impact of this vascular response on lung functions has not been precisely defined. This study was designed to evaluate the role of increased lung microvascular leakage and edema on the late phase changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in allergen-challenged Brown Norway rats using pharmacological inhibitors of the allergic inflammatory response. Rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin aerosol and forced expiratory lung functions (FVC, PEF) and wet and dry lung weights were measured 48 h after antigen challenge. Ovalbumin challenge reduced FVC (63% reduction) and PEF (33% reduction) and increased wet (65% increase) and dry (51% increase) lung weights. The antigen-induced reduction in FVC and PEF was completely inhibited by oral treatment with betamethasone and partially attenuated by inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism including indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), 7-TM and MK-7246 (CRTH2 antagonists) and montelukast (CysLT1 receptor antagonist). Antagonists of histamine H1 receptors (mepyramine) and 5-HT receptors (methysergide) had no significant effects indicating that these pre-formed mast cell mediators were not involved. There was a highly significant (P < 0.005) correlation for the inhibition of FVC reduction and increase in wet and dry lung weights by these pharmacological agents. These results strongly support the hypothesis that lung microvascular leakage and the associated lung edema contribute to the reduction in forced expiratory lung functions in antigen-challenged Brown Norway rats and identify an important role for the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism in these responses. PMID:23523662

  16. Mechanical forces contribute to neonatal lung growth: the influence of altered diaphragm function in piglets.

    PubMed

    Price, M R; Galantowicz, M E; Stolar, C J

    1992-03-01

    Neonatal lung growth is controlled in part by mechanical forces. Altered mechanical forces precipitated by phrenectomy or prosthetic replacement of the diaphragm result in altered thoracic volume relationships, which, in turn, change lung distending pressures and or thoracic volume. These effects might contribute to regional lung growth. We postulated a relationship between altered thoracic mechanical forces and changes in lung growth and asked if altered diaphragm function influenced regional lung growth. Piglets (28d, 7-8kg), were assigned to left transthoracic phrenectomy (P), prosthetic diaphragm replacement (PDR), or sham (S), (n = 6). After a mean 10 days, piglets were studied with tracheostomy and regional pleural pressure transducers. Integrated lung volumes (LV) were recorded with intrapleural pressure (Pip). Dynamic compliance (Cdyn) was calculated (dV/dP). After sacrifice continuous pressure volume (P/V) curves were generated. Lungs were then cut into 4 quadrants based on relationship to R/L bronchus and processed for DNA content and total protein indexes. Analysis of data were made within and between groups. Body weight and gain were similar in all. LV, Pip, Cdyn, and P/V were not significantly different in PDR and P compared with S. Pip differences between thoracic regions within each group were significant for PDR and showed LU less than RU, LL less than RL (P less than 0.05). RU and RL Pip in the PDR group were the same as S. Pip in the P group were decreased in the RU, LU, and LL but only the LL approached significance. Whole lung wet weights were decreased (P less than .05) in P compared to PDR and S.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1501014

  17. Incidence of Pneumothorax in Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Undergoing Pulmonary Function and Exercise Testing.

    PubMed

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Julien-Williams, Patricia; Jones, Amanda M; Moss, Joel

    2016-07-01

    Because pneumothorax is frequent in lymphangioleiomyomatosis, patients have expressed concerns regarding the risk of pneumothorax associated with pulmonary function or exercise testing. Indeed, pneumothorax has been reported in patients with lung disease after both of these tests. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of pneumothorax in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis during admissions to the National Institutes of Health Clinical Research Center between 1995 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients who had a pneumothorax during their stay at the National Institutes of Health. A total of 691 patients underwent 4,523 pulmonary function tests and 1,900 exercise tests. Three patients developed pneumothorax after pulmonary function tests and/or exercise tests. The incidence of pneumothorax associated with lung function testing was 0.14 to 0.29 of 100 patients or 0.02 to 0.04 of 100 tests. The incidence of pneumothorax in patients undergoing exercise testing was 0.14 to 0.28 of 100 patients or 0.05 to 0.10 of 100 tests. The risk of pneumothorax associated with pulmonary function or exercise testing in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis is low. PMID:27396798

  18. Systems for Lung Volume Standardization during Static and Dynamic MDCT-based Quantitative Assessment of Pulmonary Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fuld, Matthew K.; Grout, Randall; Guo, Junfeng; Morgan, John H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Multidetector-row Computed Tomography (MDCT) has emerged as a tool for quantitative assessment of parenchymal destruction, air trapping (density metrics) and airway remodeling (metrics relating airway wall and lumen geometry) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Critical to the accuracy and interpretability of these MDCT-derived metrics is the assurance that the lungs are scanned during a breath-hold at a standardized volume. Materials and Methods A computer monitored turbine-based flow meter system was developed to control patient breath-holds and facilitate static imaging at fixed percentages of the vital capacity. Due to calibration challenges with gas density changes during multi-breath xenon-CT an alternative system was required. The design incorporated dual rolling seal pistons. Both systems were tested in a laboratory environment and human subject trials. Results The turbine-based system successfully controlled lung volumes in 32/37 subjects, having a linear relationship for CT measured air volume between repeated scans: for all scans, the mean and confidence interval of the differences (scan1-scan2) was −9 ml (−169, 151); for TLC alone 6 ml (−164, 177); for FRC alone, −23 ml (−172, 126). The dual-piston system successfully controlled lung volume in 31/41 subjects. Study failures related largely to subject non-compliance with verbal instruction and gas leaks around the mouthpiece. Conclusion We demonstrate the successful use of a turbine-based system for static lung volume control and demonstrate its inadequacies for dynamic xenon-CT studies. Implementation of a dual-rolling seal spirometer has been shown to adequately control lung volume for multi-breath wash-in xenon-CT studies. These systems coupled with proper patient coaching provide the tools for the use of CT to quantitate regional lung structure and function. The wash-in xenon-CT method for assessing regional lung function, while not

  19. Lung Function and Inflammatory responses in healthy young adults exposed to 0.06 ppm Ozone for 6.6 hours

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Exposure to ozone causes a decrease in spirometric lung function and an increase in airway inflammation in healthy young adults at concentrations as low as 0.08 ppm close to the the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ground level ozone. Objectives: To test wheth...

  20. Genetic Variation in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Custovic, Adnan; Tepper, Robert; Graves, Penelope; Stern, Debra A.; Jones, Marcus; Hankinson, Jenny; Curtin, John A.; Wu, Jiakai; Blekic, Mario; Bukvic, Blazenka Kljaic; Aberle, Neda; Marinho, Susana; Belgrave, Danielle; Morgan, Wayne J.; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Given the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in lung development, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in VEGF-A may be associated with lung function. Objectives: The current study was designed to assess the role of genetic variants in VEGF-A as determinants of airway function from infancy through early adulthood. Methods: Association between five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VEGF-A and lung function were assessed longitudinally in two unselected birth cohorts and cross-sectionally among infants. Replication with two SNPs was conducted in adults and children with asthma. We investigated the functionality of the SNP most consistently associated with lung function (rs3025028) using Western blotting to measure the ratio of plasma VEGF-A165b/panVEGF-A165 among homozygotes. Measurements and Main Results: In two populations in infancy, C-allele homozygotes of rs3025028 had significantly higher VmaxFRC, forced expiratory flow50, and forced expiratory flow25–75 compared with other genotype groups. Among preschool children (age 3 yr), C allele of rs3025028 was associated with significantly higher specific airway conductance, with similar findings observed for lung function in school-age children. For FEV1/FVC ratio similar findings were observed among adolescents and young adults (birth cohort), and then replicated in adults and schoolchildren with asthma (cross-sectional studies). For rs3025038, plasma VEGF-A165b/panVEGF-A165 was significantly higher among CC versus GG homozygotes (P ≤ 0.02) at birth, in school-age children, and in adults. Conclusions: We report significant associations between VEGF-A SNP rs3025028 and parameters of airway function measured throughout childhood, with the effect persisting into adulthood. We propose that the mechanism may be mediated through the ratios of active and inhibitory isoforms of VEGF-A165, which may be determined by alternative splicing. PMID:22461367

  1. Effect of Disrupting Seven-in-Absentia Homolog 2 Function on Lung Cancer Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Atique U.; Schmidt, Rebecca L.; Park, Cheol Hong; Reed, Nanette R.; Hesse, Shayla E.; Thomas, Charles F.; Molina, Julian R.; Deschamps, Claude; Yang, Ping; Aubry, Marie C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Hyperactivated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and/or RAS signaling drives cellular transformation and tumorigenesis in human lung cancers, but agents that block activated EGFR and RAS signaling have not yet been demonstrated to substantially extend patients’ lives. The human homolog of Drosophila seven-in-absentia—SIAH-1 and SIAH-2—are ubiquitin E3 ligases and conserved downstream components of the RAS pathway that are required for mammalian RAS signal transduction. We examined whether inhibiting SIAH-2 function blocks lung cancer growth. Methods The antiproliferative and antitumorigenic effects of lentiviral expression of anti-SIAH-2 molecules (ie, a dominant-negative protease-deficient mutant of SIAH-2 [SIAH-2PD] and short hairpin RNA [shRNA]–mediated gene knockdown against SIAH-2) were assayed in normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and in human lung cancer BZR, A549, H727, and UMC11 cells by measuring cell proliferation rates, by assessing MAPK and other activated downstream components of the RAS pathway by immunoblotting, assessing apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase–mediated UTP end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, quantifying anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar, and assessing A549 cell–derived tumor growth in athymic nude mice (groups of 10 mice, with two injections of 1 × 106 cells each at the dorsal left and right scapular areas). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results SIAH-2 deficiency in human lung cancer cell lines reduced MAPK signaling and statistically significantly inhibited cell proliferation compared with those in SIAH-proficient cells (P < .001) and increased apoptosis (TUNEL-positive A549 cells 3 days after lentivirus infection: SIAH-2PD vs control, 30.1% vs 0.0%, difference = 30.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.1% to 37.0%, P < .001; SIAH-2-shRNA#6 vs control shRNA, 27.9% vs 0.0%, difference = 27.9%, 95% CI = 23.1% to 32.6%, P < .001). SIAH-2 deficiency also reduced anchorage

  2. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  3. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies five loci associated with lung function

    PubMed Central

    Repapi, Emmanouela; Sayers, Ian; Wain, Louise V; Burton, Paul R; Johnson, Toby; Obeidat, Ma’en; Zhao, Jing Hua; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Zhai, Guangju; Vitart, Veronique; Huffman, Jennifer E; Igl, Wilmar; Albrecht, Eva; Deloukas, Panos; Henderson, John; Granell, Raquel; McArdle, Wendy L; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Barroso, Inês; Loos, Ruth J F; Wareham, Nicholas J; Mustelin, Linda; Rantanen, Taina; Surakka, Ida; Imboden, Medea; Wichmann, H Erich; Grkovic, Ivica; Jankovic, Stipan; Zgaga, Lina; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Peltonen, Leena; Gyllensten, Ulf; Johansson, Åsa; Zaboli, Ghazal; Campbell, Harry; Wild, Sarah H; Wilson, James F; Gläser, Sven; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Mangino, Massimo; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D; Polašek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F; Heliövaara, Markku; Ripatti, Samuli; Pouta, Anneli; Naluai, Åsa Torinsson; Olin, Anna-Carin; Torén, Kjell; Cooper, Matthew N; James, Alan L; Palmer, Lyle J; Hingorani, Aroon D; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; McKeever, Tricia M; Pavord, Ian D; MacLeod, Andrew K; Morris, Andrew D; Porteous, David J; Cooper, Cyrus; Dennison, Elaine; Shaheen, Seif; Karrasch, Stefan; Schnabel, Eva; Schulz, Holger; Grallert, Harald; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Delplanque, Jérôme; Froguel, Philippe; Blakey, John D; Britton, John R; Morris, Richard W; Holloway, John W; Lawlor, Debbie A; Hui, Jennie; Nyberg, Fredrik; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jackson, Cathy; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Koch, Beate; Hayward, Caroline; Evans, David M; Elliott, Paul; Strachan, David P; Hall, Ian P; Tobin, Martin D

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary function measures are heritable traits that predict morbidity and mortality and define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) in the SpiroMeta consortium (n = 20,288 individuals of European ancestry). We conducted a meta-analysis of top signals with data from direct genotyping (n ≤ 32,184 additional individuals) and in silico summary association data from the CHARGE Consortium (n = 21,209) and the Health 2000 survey (n ≤ 883). We confirmed the reported locus at 4q31 and identified associations with FEV1 or FEV1/FVC and common variants at five additional loci: 2q35 in TNS1 (P = 1.11 × 10−12), 4q24 in GSTCD (2.18 × 10−23), 5q33 in HTR4 (P = 4.29 × 10−9), 6p21 in AGER (P = 3.07 × 10−15) and 15q23 in THSD4 (P = 7.24 × 10−15). mRNA analyses showed expression of TNS1, GSTCD, AGER, HTR4 and THSD4 in human lung tissue. These associations offer mechanistic insight into pulmonary function regulation and indicate potential targets for interventions to alleviate respiratory disease. PMID:20010834

  5. Clinical validation of 4DCT-ventilation with pulmonary function test data

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, Douglas; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.; Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4DCT-ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pre-treatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. PFT metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). 4DCT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density-change based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (CoV) (standard deviation/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT-ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation to PFT data ranged from 0.63–0.72 with the best agreement between FEV1 and CoV. 4DCT-ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions Validation of 4DCT-ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT ventilation provides a reliable assessment of lung function. 4DCT-ventilation enables

  6. Lung function, asthma paradox, atopy, and risk factors in Mexican spirometry-diagnosed asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Padua y Gabriel, Antonio; Sánchez-Cabral, Olivia; Ocampo-Gómez, Guadalupe Leticia; Rincón-Castañeda, Cuauthémoc

    2007-01-01

    Despite long-term studies, still not much is known about the asthma triggering factors and its sometimes controversial results. Probably one of the major problems of controversy is the lack of specific and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess lung function, atopy, and environmental factors in spirometry-diagnosed asthmatic patients. Time series of daily counts of hospital emergency admissions were constructed for known asthmatic subjects. Spirometry, chest radiograph, arterial gasometry, skin tests, environmental SO2 levels, and climatic parameters were evaluated. Family asthma history was observed in a high proportion of asthmatic patients and it correlated marginally with severity of asthma. A seasonal trend in asthma frequency was recorded and it was more common in the urban area and in those living in the margins of the city. The most frequent asthma type recorded was the severe persistent asthma. More than 50% of subjects had subresponse to bronchodilator; asthma paradox was recorded in 10.8%. Positive skin tests were observed in 36.9% and SO2 levels did not correlate with asthma attacks. Paradox asthma or tolerance may be developed by asthmatic subjects during chronic treatment with short-acting 92-agonists. To avoid side effects and to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with the usage of antiasthma medications, it is essential to identify quickly those subjects that respond abnormally to the short-acting P2-agonist. PMID:17619567

  7. Track/train dynamics test report transfer function test. Volume 1: Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A description is presented of the transfer function test performed on an open hopper freight car loaded with 80 tons of coal. Test data and a post-test update of the requirements document and test procedure are presented. Included are a statement of the test objective, a description of the test configurations, test facilities, test methods, data acquisition/reduction operations, and a chronological test summary. An index to the data for the three test configurations (X, Y, and Z-axis tests) is presented along with test sequence, run number, test reference, and input parameters.

  8. Preparation of interstitial lung cells by enzymatic digestion of tissue slices: preliminary characterization by morphology and performance in functional assays

    PubMed Central

    Holt, P. G.; Degebrodt, A.; Venaille, T.; O'Leary, C.; Krska, K.; Flexman, J.; Farrell, H.; Shellam, G.; Young, P.; Penhale, J.; Robertson, T.; Papadimitriou, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is reported here for the quantitative extraction of live cells from the lung interstitium; it involves the incubation of slices of perfused lung in a mixture containing optimal concentrations of collagenase, DNAse, and fetal calf serum, followed by the simultaneous recovery and fractionation of cells released from the tissue matrix on a six-step discontinuous percoll gradient. Yields in the order of 108 viable cells per gram of lung were routinely achieved with tissues from rat, mouse and guinea-pig. Preliminary characterization of these cells has been performed in the rat by histological techniques (Giemsa staining, transmission electron microscopy), cytochemistry (acid phosphatase, esterase, peroxidase), by the capacity to bind monoclonal antibodies directed at lymphocyte surface markers, and by a range of functional tests. The cells comprised, on average, 32% macrophages, 44% lymphocytes (T and B cells and large granular lymphocytes), with small numbers of eosinophils, mast cells and epithelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed minimal ultrastructural damage to extracted cells, with such functions as phagocytosis, FcR activity, mitogen responsiveness, antigen presentation, and NK-cell activity, being readily demonstrable. In addition, these activities segregated into defined areas of the six-step density gradient. PMID:2982730

  9. Convective gas mixing, airway dimensions and lung function parameters in patients homo- or heterozygote for hereditary alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, R; Schiller-Scotland, C F

    1998-08-01

    Informations about convective gas transport and airway morphometry as a function of volumetric lung depth (V(LD)) can be evaluated by means of two methods based on aerosol inhalation and determination of aerosol pulse parameters (APP) and effective airway dimensions (EAD). APP, EAD and conventional pulmonary function tests (PFT) were measured in patients homo- and heterozygote for alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) deficiency. Thirteen homozygote subjects (ZZ allele), 21 heterozygote subjects (MZ allele) and 20 healthy controls were included. Anthropometric data were similar in all groups. APP but not PFT and EAD showed slight significant differences between controls and heterozygotes. However, PFT, APP and EAD from ZZ-homozygotes were strongly different from those of the other groups. Differences were also observed for APP between control smokers and nonsmokers and for APP, PFT and EAD between control nonsmokers and heterozygote smokers but not between heterozygote smokers and heterozygote nonsmokers and control nonsmokers and heterozygote nonsmokers, respectively. The data suggest that lung emphysema causes variations of pulmonary convective gas mixing detectable by measurement of APP which obviously precede variations of PFT. Our data further suggest that heterozygotes are not automatically at risk for the development of lung emphysema. Therefore we also regarded the results with request to individual smoking habits and found an increased risk in heterozygote smokers when compared to control nonsmokers. PMID:9820684

  10. Rhinitis Patients With Sputum Eosinophilia Show Decreased Lung Function in the Absence of Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Suk; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Min-Hye; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kwon, Jae-Woo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Min, Kyung-Up

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sputum eosinophilia is observed frequently in patients with rhinitis. Sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic allergic rhinitis has been suggested to be related to nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). However, the clinical significance of sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic rhinitis without AHR has not been determined. We conducted a retrospective study examining the influence of sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic rhinitis without AHR on pulmonary function and expression of fibrosis-related mediators. Methods Eighty-nine patients with moderate-to-severe perennial rhinitis without AHR were included. All underwent lung function tests (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]), skin tests to inhalant allergens, methacholine bronchial challenge tests, and hypertonic saline-induced sputum to determine eosinophil counts. Sputum mRNA levels for transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were also examined. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of sputum eosinophilia (≥3%, eosinophilia-positive [EP] and <3%, eosinophilia-negative [EN] groups). Results FEV1 was significantly lower (P=0.04) and FEV1/FVC tended to be lower (P=0.1) in the EP group than in the EN group. In sputum analyses, the MMP-9 mRNA level (P=0.005) and the ratio of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 expression (P=0.01) were significantly higher in the EP group than in the EN group. There was no significant difference in TGF-β mRNA expression between the two groups. Conclusions Sputum eosinophilia in patients with moderate-to-severe perennial rhinitis without AHR influenced FEV1 and the expression pattern of fibrosis-related mediators. PMID:23814677

  11. Assessment of the lung function status of the goldsmiths working in an unorganized sector of India

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Subhashis; Roy, Biswajit; Moitra, Subhabrata

    2013-01-01

    Context: Exposure to various types of fumes and gases are very common in Jewelery industries. No Report is available regarding the effects of those fumes and gases on the respiratory functions of the goldsmiths. Due to lack of proper monitoring of the workplace environments in these unorganized sectors, workers get very much affected by the occupational exposures to those irritants. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate whether the occupational exposures to fumes and gases might alter the lung functions of the goldsmiths. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 goldsmiths and 66 unexposed control subjects were taken randomly for the study. The goldsmiths were further classified in 3 groups according to duration (year) of exposures in the work environment, ETA1 (less than 5 years), ETA2 (more than 5 years but less than 10 years), and ETA3 (more than 10 years). Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow rates of different intervals (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%, FEF25-75%) were measured using computerized Spirometer (Maestros Mediline, India). The statistical analyses were carried out using Minitab software version 3. Results: Lung functions of the goldsmiths significantly (P < 0.01) decreased from that of the control group. Inter-group comparison also showed the deteriorations of lung functions was associated with exposure time, and more exposed workers had significantly less (P < 0.01) efficiencies of lung functions. Conclusions: Workplace fumes and gases were responsible for deterioration of the lung function status of the goldsmiths. PMID:23661914

  12. Long-Term Effects of Traffic Particles on Lung Function Decline in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Litonjua, Augusto A.; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Few studies have been performed on air pollution effects on lung function in the elderly, a vulnerable population with low reserve capacity, and even fewer have looked at changes in the rate of lung function decline. Objectives: We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to black carbon on levels and rates of decline in lung function in the elderly. Methods: FVC and FEV1 were measured one to six times during the period 1995–2011 in 858 men participating in the Normative Aging Study. Exposure to black carbon, a tracer of traffic emissions, was estimated by a spatiotemporal land use regression model. We investigated the effects of moving averages of black carbon of 1–5 years before the lung function measurement using linear mixed models. Measurements and Main Results: A 0.5 μg/m3 increase in long-term exposure to black carbon was associated with an additional rate of decline in FVC and FEV1 of between 0.5% and 0.9% per year, respectively, depending on the averaging time. In addition, black carbon exposure before the baseline visit was associated with lower levels of both FVC and FEV1, with effect estimates increasing up to 6–7% with a 5-year average exposure. Conclusions: Our results support adverse effects of long-term exposure to traffic particles on lung function level and rate of decline in the elderly and suggest that functionally significant differences in health and risk of disability occur below the annual Environmental Protection Agency National Air Quality Standards. PMID:25028775

  13. An optimized disaggregation method for human lung tumors that preserves the phenotype and function of the immune cells.

    PubMed

    Quatromoni, Jon G; Singhal, Sunil; Bhojnagarwala, Pratik; Hancock, Wayne W; Albelda, Steven M; Eruslanov, Evgeniy

    2015-01-01

    Careful preparation of human tissues is the cornerstone of obtaining accurate data in immunologic studies. Despite the essential importance of tissue processing in tumor immunology and clinical medicine, current methods of tissue disaggregation have not been rigorously tested for data fidelity. Thus, we critically evaluated the current techniques available in the literature that are used to prepare human lung tumors for immunologic studies. We discovered that these approaches are successful at digesting cellular attachments and ECMs; however, these methods frequently alter the immune cell composition and/or expression of surface molecules. We thus developed a novel approach to prepare human lung tumors for immunologic studies by combining gentle mechanical manipulation with an optimized cocktail of enzymes used at low doses. This enzymatic digestion cocktail optimized cell yield and cell viability, retrieved all major tumor-associated cell populations, and maintained the expression of cell-surface markers for lineage definition and in vivo effector functions. To our knowledge, we present the first rigorously tested disaggregation method designed for human lung tumors. PMID:25359999

  14. An optimized disaggregation method for human lung tumors that preserves the phenotype and function of the immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Quatromoni, Jon G.; Singhal, Sunil; Bhojnagarwala, Pratik; Hancock, Wayne W.; Albelda, Steven M.; Eruslanov, Evgeniy

    2015-01-01

    Careful preparation of human tissues is the cornerstone of obtaining accurate data in immunologic studies. Despite the essential importance of tissue processing in tumor immunology and clinical medicine, current methods of tissue disaggregation have not been rigorously tested for data fidelity. Thus, we critically evaluated the current techniques available in the literature that are used to prepare human lung tumors for immunologic studies. We discovered that these approaches are successful at digesting cellular attachments and ECMs; however, these methods frequently alter the immune cell composition and/or expression of surface molecules. We thus developed a novel approach to prepare human lung tumors for immunologic studies by combining gentle mechanical manipulation with an optimized cocktail of enzymes used at low doses. This enzymatic digestion cocktail optimized cell yield and cell viability, retrieved all major tumor-associated cell populations, and maintained the expression of cell-surface markers for lineage definition and in vivo effector functions. To our knowledge, we present the first rigorously tested disaggregation method designed for human lung tumors. PMID:25359999

  15. Air pollution, airway inflammation and lung function in Mexico City school children

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. OBJECTIVE: In this study we assessed the association of short-term air pollutant exposure with inflammatory markers and lung function. METHODS: We studied a cohort...

  16. Diesel Exhaust Modulates Ozone-induced Lung Function Decrements in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...

  17. Effects of combinations of diesel exhaust and ozone exposure on lung function in human volunteers.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) exposure induces changes in human lung function, typically seen as a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Because people are usually exposed to other ambient air pollutants simultaneously with 03, there may be interact...

  18. Effects of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, B.H.; Henry, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.

  19. Effects of Exposure to Welding Fume on Lung Function: Results from the German WELDOX Study.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, M; Hoffmeyer, F; Gawrych, K; Lotz, A; Heinze, E; Berresheim, H; Merget, R; Harth, V; Van Gelder, R; Hahn, J-U; Hartwig, A; Weiß, T; Pesch, B; Brüning, T

    2015-01-01

    The association between exposure to welding fume and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been insufficiently clarified. In this study we assessed the influence of exposure to welding fume on lung function parameters. We investigated forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and expiratory flow rates in 219 welders. We measured current exposure to respirable particles and estimated a worker's lifetime exposure considering welding techniques, working conditions and protective measures at current and former workplaces. Multiple regression models were applied to estimate the influence of exposure to welding fume, age, and smoking on lung function. We additionally investigated the duration of working as a welder and the predominant welding technique. The findings were that age- and smoking-adjusted lung function parameters showed no decline with increasing duration, current exposure level, and lifetime exposure to welding fume. However, 15% of the welders had FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal, but we could not substantiate the presence of an association with the measures of exposure. Adverse effects of cigarette smoking were confirmed. In conclusion, the study did not support the notion of a possible detrimental effect of exposure to welding fume on lung function in welders. PMID:25315619

  20. Lung function in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: a cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Minozzo, Fábio Carderelli; Sousa, Bolivar Saldanha; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Quadros, Abrahão Augusto Juviniano; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare lung function between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and those with sequelae of paralytic poliomyelitis (without any signs or symptoms of post-poliomyelitis syndrome), as well as between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-nine male participants were assigned to one of three groups: control; poliomyelitis (comprising patients who had had paralytic poliomyelitis but had not developed post-poliomyelitis syndrome); and post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Volunteers underwent lung function measurements (spirometry and respiratory muscle strength assessment). RESULTS: The results of the spirometric assessment revealed no significant differences among the groups except for an approximately 27% lower mean maximal voluntary ventilation in the post-poliomyelitis syndrome group when compared with the control group (p = 0.0127). Nevertheless, the maximal voluntary ventilation values for the post-poliomyelitis group were compared with those for the Brazilian population and were found to be normal. No significant differences were observed in respiratory muscle strength among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: With the exception of lower maximal voluntary ventilation, there was no significant lung function impairment in outpatients diagnosed with post-poliomyelitis syndrome when compared with healthy subjects and with patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis without post-poliomyelitis syndrome. This is an important clinical finding because it shows that patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome can have preserved lung function. PMID:24068267

  1. Follow-up on genome-wide main effects: do polymorphisms modify the air pollution effect on lung function decline in adults?

    PubMed

    Thun, Gian Andri; Imboden, Medea; Künzli, Nino; Rochat, Thierry; Keidel, Dirk; Haun, Margot; Schindler, Christian; Kronenberg, Florian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2014-03-01

    Improved air quality has been found associated with attenuated age-related decline in lung function. But whether genetic polymorphisms strongly associated with lung function play a modifying role in this attenuation process has so far not been investigated. We selected ten single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from the largest genome-wide association studies on lung function and examined whether they modified the association between the change in exposure to particulate matter ≤10μm (ΔPM10) and lung function decline. 4310 participants from the SAPALDIA cohort provided valid spirometry measurements, a detailed pulmonary health questionnaire both at baseline and 11years later as well as blood samples for genetic testing. Spatially and temporally resolved air pollution exposures were assigned on an individual level based on participants' residences. Statistically significant interactions of moderate strength with ΔPM10 were detected for rs2284746. Individuals with the CC genotype had a 21ml slower annual decline of the mid expiratory flow per 10μg/m(3) PM10 reduction over an 10-year period, while the benefits of CG and GG carriers were smaller (14 and 7ml per year, respectively; Pinteraction=0.04). The attenuated annual decline in the percentage of the forced expiratory volume in one second relative to the forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was also increased with the presence of each C-allele (Pinteraction=0.009). We observed further suggestive interactions of similar magnitude in never-smokers, but none of the results would remain statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. We could not find strong evidence that lung function benefits from improved air quality are modified by polymorphisms associated with lung function level in large meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies. PMID:24388947

  2. APPROACHES TO LUNG FUNCTION ASSESSMENT IN SMALL MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The review chapter of pulmonary function assessment in small mammals first discusses basic principles and methods such as assessment of various pressures, volumes and flows. The three types of plethysmographs (pressure, flow and barometric) used by animal physiologists are evalua...

  3. MORTALITY IN COALWORKERS' PNEUMOCONIOSIS RELATED TO LUNG FUNCTION: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY*

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, P. D.; Rossiter, C. E.

    1965-01-01

    In 1949, 126 coalminers, chosen to cover the whole radiological range of coalworkers' pneumoconiosis, were subjected to a battery of physiological tests of lung function, clinical investigations, and anthropometry. During the ensuing 12 years 40 of these men died. An analysis of the original measurements was carried out in an attempt to identify the particular features of the disturbance of lung function associated with pneumoconiosis which were most related to the rate of dying. The men were grouped into seven classes—survivors, and those dying within the six two-year intervals of the 12-year follow-up period. The variation of the means of these classes, for each of the measurements made, then has six degrees of freedom, which implies that six uncorrelated measurements would suffice to describe it completely. Eighteen measurements were in fact available for each man, all of course highly intercorrelated and so in part providing redundant information. The method of analysis adopted was to find a linear combination of the 18 measurements which discriminated best between the seven classes, a second combination, uncorrelated with the first, which was the second best discriminator, and so on. Six such combinations, canonical variates, would then contain all the information provided by the variation of the seven classes, and the relative magnitude of the contribution made by each original test to each canonical variate would indicate the relevance of this aspect of the men's health to their survival time. One canonical variate absorbed 75% of the variation between the seven classes. This variate was, moreover, virtually the same as the variate which best discriminated between those who died and those who survived. Its main ingredients were the amount of progressive massive fibrosis and the size of the residual volume. A second variate, absorbing a further 12% of the variation, was of uncertain significance but could be interpreted as being related to the presence or

  4. Differing associations of BMI and body fat with asthma and lung function in children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Angela; Belgrave, Danielle C; Lowe, Lesley A; Murray, Clare S

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Current evidence suggests that in children there is a significant, albeit weak, association between asthma and obesity. Studies generally use body mass index (BMI) in evaluating body adiposity, but there are limitations to its use. Method Children from a population-based study attending follow-up (age 11 years) were weighed, measured and had percent body (PBF) and truncal (PTF) fat assessed using bioelectrical impedance. They were skin prick tested and completed spirometry. Parents completed a validated respiratory questionnaire. Children were defined as normal or overweight according to BMI and PBF cut-offs. We tested the association between these adiposity markers with wheeze, asthma, atopy, and lung-function. Results Six hundred forty-six children (339 male) completed follow-up. BMI z-score, PBF, and PTF were all positively associated with current wheeze (odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.27 [1.03, 1.57], P = 0.03; 1.05 [1.00, 1.09], P = 0.03; 1.04 [1.00, 1.08], P = 0.04, respectively). Similar trends were seen with asthma. However, when examining girls and boys separately, significant positive associations were found with PBF and PTF and asthma but only in girls (gender interaction P = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively). Associations between being overweight and wheezing and asthma were stronger when overweight was defined by PBF (P = 0.007, 0.03) than BMI (P > 0.05). Higher BMI was significantly associated with an increase in FEV1 and FVC, but only in girls. Conversely, increasing body fat (PBF and PTF) was associated with reduced FEV1 and FVC, but only in boys. No associations between adiposity and atopy were found. Conclusion All adiposity measures were associated with wheeze, asthma, and lung function. However, BMI and PBF did not have the same effects and girls and boys appear to be affected differently. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014; 49:1049–1057. PMID:24166845

  5. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  6. Variability of routine pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, J; Butler, J

    1975-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests sometimes indicate a progressive deterioration and at other times a 'stepwise' worsening which may be followed by improvement. Interpretation depends on the extent of random or diurnal variations in function. Routing pulmonary function tests (VC, FEV1, FRC, and airway resistance (Raw)) were repeatedly measured in normal subjects, patients with stable irreversible airways obstruction, and patients with stable restrictive disease. In all groups there was a significant (P less than 0.001) diurnal variation in Raw, with high values in the morning, low values at noon, and rising values in the evening. The midday Raw values were about 80% of the highest daily values. The considerable random and diurnal variability seen in all tests is reflected in the range of high and low values (% of mean individual response) in individuals. The largest variation in an individual between measurements taken at two different times was 81% in Raw (range: 40% above to 41% below the mean). There was less variation in FEV1 (29%), FRC (62%), and VC (30%). Thus the finding of a stepwise change in function could reflect its natrual variability. When repeated studies are done to assess progress or the effects of therapy on disease, there are many factors, including the time of day at which the tests are performed, which should be standardized as far as possible. PMID:1198395

  7. Genome-wide association and large scale follow-up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function

    PubMed Central

    Artigas, María Soler; Loth, Daan W; Wain, Louise V; Gharib, Sina A; Obeidat, Ma’en; Tang, Wenbo; Zhai, Guangju; Zhao, Jing Hua; Smith, Albert Vernon; Huffman, Jennifer E; Albrecht, Eva; Jackson, Catherine M; Evans, David M; Cadby, Gemma; Fornage, Myriam; Manichaikul, Ani; Lopez, Lorna M; Johnson, Toby; Aldrich, Melinda C; Aspelund, Thor; Barroso, Inês; Campbell, Harry; Cassano, Patricia A; Couper, David J; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Grkovic, Ivica; Hammond, Christopher J; Hancock, Dana B; Harris, Tamara B; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Heckbert, Susan R; Heliövaara, Markku; Homuth, Georg; Hysi, Pirro G; James, Alan L; Jankovic, Stipan; Joubert, Bonnie R; Karrasch, Stefan; Klopp, Norman; Koch, Beate; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Launer, Lenore J; Liu, Yongmei; Loehr, Laura R; Lohman, Kurt; Loos, Ruth JF; Lumley, Thomas; Al Balushi, Khalid A; Ang, Wei Q; Barr, R Graham; Beilby, John; Blakey, John D; Boban, Mladen; Boraska, Vesna; Brisman, Jonas; Britton, John R; Brusselle, Guy G; Cooper, Cyrus; Curjuric, Ivan; Dahgam, Santosh; Deary, Ian J; Ebrahim, Shah; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Francks, Clyde; Gaysina, Darya; Granell, Raquel; Gu, Xiangjun; Hankinson, John L; Hardy, Rebecca; Harris, Sarah E; Henderson, John; Henry, Amanda; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Holt, Patrick G; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, Michael L; Imboden, Medea; Jameson, Karen A; Kerr, Shona M; Kolcic, Ivana; Kronenberg, Florian; Liu, Jason Z; Marchini, Jonathan; McKeever, Tricia; Morris, Andrew D; Olin, Anna-Carin; Porteous, David J; Postma, Dirkje S; Rich, Stephen S; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rochat, Thierry; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Sayers, Ian; Sly, Peter D; Smith, George Davey; Sood, Akshay; Starr, John M; Uitterlinden, André G; Vonk, Judith M; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Wijmenga, Cisca; Williams, O Dale; Wong, Andrew; Mangino, Massimo; Marciante, Kristin D; McArdle, Wendy L; Meibohm, Bernd; Morrison, Alanna C; North, Kari E; Omenaas, Ernst; Palmer, Lyle J; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pin, Isabelle; Polašek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Psaty, Bruce M; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Rantanen, Taina; Ripatti, Samuli; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Schulz, Holger; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J; Warrington, Nicole M; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wild, Sarah H; Wilk, Jemma B; Wjst, Matthias; Wright, Alan F; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Pennell, Craig E; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Holloway, John W; Boezen, H Marike; Lawlor, Debbie A; Morris, Richard W; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F; Hayward, Caroline; Kähönen, Mika; Heinrich, Joachim; Musk, Arthur W; Jarvis, Deborah L; Gläser, Sven; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Elliott, Paul; O’Connor, George T; Strachan, David P; London, Stephanie J; Hall, Ian P; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Tobin, Martin D

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and predict mortality, and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry, with follow-up of top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P<5×10−8) with pulmonary function, in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1, and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function. PMID:21946350

  8. Investigation of Lung Structure-Function Relationships Using Hyperpolarized Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomen, Robert P.

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an application of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon to non-invasively generate 3D tomographic images. MRI is an emerging modality for the lung, but it suffers from low sensitivity due to inherent low tissue density and short T(*/2) . Hyperpolarization is a process by which the nuclear contribution to NMR signal is greatly enhanced to more than 100,000 times that of samples in thermal equilibrium. The noble gases 3He and 129Xe are most often hyperpolarized by transfer of light angular momentum through the electron of a vaporized alkali metal to the noble gas nucleus (called Spin Exchange Optical Pumping). The enhancement in NMR signal is so great that the gas itself can be imaged via MRI, and because noble gases are chemically inert, they can be safely inhaled by a subject, and the gas distribution within the interior of the lung can be imaged. The mechanics of respiration is an elegant physical process by which air is is brought into the distal airspaces of the lungs for oxygen/carbon dioxide gas exchange with blood. Therefore proper description of lung function is intricately related to its physical structure , and the basic mechanical operation of healthy lungs -- from pressure driven airflow, to alveolar airspace gas kinetics, to gas exchange by blood/gas concentration gradients, to elastic contraction of parenchymal tissue -- is a process decidedly governed by the laws of physics. This dissertation will describe experiments investigating the relationship of lung structure and function using hyperpolarized (HP) noble gas MRI. In particular HP gases will be applied to the study of several pulmonary diseases each of which demonstrates unique structure-function abnormalities: asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Successful implementation of an HP gas acquisition protocol for pulmonary studies is an involved and stratified undertaking which requires a solid theoretical foundation in NMR

  9. TU-F-17A-09: Four-Dimensional Cone Beam CT Ventilation Imaging Can Detect Interfraction Lung Function Variations for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kipritidis, J; Keall, P; Hugo, G; Weiss, E; Williamson, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI) is a novel functional lung imaging modality requiring validation. We hypothesize that 4D-CBCT VI satisfies a necessary condition for validity: that intrafraction variations (e.g. due to poor 4D-CBCT image quality) are substantially different to interfraction variations (e.g. due to changes in underlying function). We perform the first comparison of intrafraction (pre/post fraction) and interfraction (week-to-week) 4D-CBCT VIs for locally advanced non small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: A total of 215 4D-CBCT scans were acquired for 19 LA NSCLC patients over 4-6 weeks of radiation therapy, including 75 pairs of pre-/post-fraction scans on the same day. 4D-CBCT VIs were obtained by applying state-of-the-art, B-spline deformable image registration to obtain the Jacobian determinant of deformation between the end-exhale and end-inhale phases. All VIs were deformably registered to the corresponding first day scan, normalized between the 10th and 90th percentile values and cropped to the ipsilateral lung only. Intrafraction variations were assessed by computing the mean and standard deviation of voxel-wise differences between all same-day pairs of pre-/post-fraction VIs. Interfraction differences were computed between first-day VIs and treatment weeks 2, 4 and 6 for all 19 patients. We tested the hypothesis by comparing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of intrafraction and interfraction ventilation differences using two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests. Results: The (mean ± std. dev.) of intrafraction differences was (−0.007 ± 0.079). Interfraction differences for weeks 2, 4 and 6 were (−0.035 ± 0.103), (−0.006 ± 0.094) and (−0.019 ± 0.127) respectively. For week 2, the changes in CDFs for intrafraction and interfraction differences approached statistical significance (p=0.099). Conclusion: We have shown that 4D-CBCT VI

  10. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, J. Casey; Takahashi, Ayuko; Glotzbecker, Michael P.; Snyder, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age) is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old). Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old). Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8). Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55°) had decreased body weight (89%), right (59%) and left (86%) lung mass, right (74%) and left (69%) radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%), and forced vital capacity (75%). Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may also have

  11. Impact of hydrogel nanoparticle size and functionalization on in vivo behavior for lung imaging and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjian; Ibricevic, Aida; Cohen, Joel A; Cohen, Jessica L; Gunsten, Sean P; Fréchet, Jean M J; Walter, Michael J; Welch, Michael J; Brody, Steven L

    2009-01-01

    Polymer chemistry offers the possibility of synthesizing multifunctional nanoparticles which incorporate moieties that enhance diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of cargo delivery to the lung. However, since rules for predicting particle behavior following modification are not well-defined, it is essential that probes for tracking fate in vivo are also included. Accordingly, we designed polyacrylamide-based hydrogel particles of differing sizes, functionalized with a nona-arginine cell-penetrating peptide (Arg(9)), and labeled with imaging components to assess lung retention and cellular uptake after intratracheal administration. Radiolabeled microparticles (1-5 microm diameter) and nanoparticles (20-40 nm diameter) without and with Arg(9) showed diffuse airspace distribution by positron emission tomography imaging. Biodistribution studies revealed that particle clearance and extrapulmonary distribution was, in part, size dependent. Microparticles were rapidly cleared by mucociliary routes but, unexpectedly, also through the circulation. In contrast, nanoparticles had prolonged lung retention enhanced by Arg(9) and were significantly restricted to the lung. For all particle types, uptake was predominant in alveolar macrophages and, to a lesser extent, lung epithelial cells. In general, particles did not induce local inflammatory responses, with the exception of microparticles bearing Arg(9). Whereas microparticles may be advantageous for short-term applications, nanosized particles constitute an efficient high-retention and non-inflammatory vehicle for the delivery of diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutics to lung airspaces and alveolar macrophages that can be enhanced by Arg(9). Importantly, our results show that minor particle modifications may significantly impact in vivo behavior within the complex environments of the lung, underscoring the need for animal modeling. PMID:19852512

  12. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  13. Effect of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter on ventilatory lung function of preschool children of non-smoking mothers.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Mroz, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Spengler, John D

    2010-09-01

    Impaired fetal development is associated with a number of adult chronic diseases and it is believed that these associations arise as a result of the phenomenon of prenatal programming, which involves persisting changes in structure and function of various body organs caused by ambient factors during critical and vulnerable periods of early development. The main goal of the study was to assess the association between lung function in early childhood and prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), which represents a wide range of chemical compounds potentially hazardous for fetal development. Among pregnant women recruited prenatally to the study, personal measurements of PM(2.5) were performed over 48 h in the second trimester of pregnancy. After delivery, infants were followed for 5 years; the interviewers visited participants in their homes to record children's respiratory symptoms every 3 months in the child's first 2 years of life and every 6 months thereafter. In the fifth year of the follow-up, children were invited for standard lung function testing of levels of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced expiratory volume in 0.5 s (FEV(0.5)). There were 176 children of non-smoking mothers, who performed at least two acceptable spirometry measurements. Multivariable linear regression showed a significant deficit of FVC at the highest quartile of PM(2.5) exposure (beta coefficient = -91.9, P = 0.008), after adjustment for covariates (age, gender, birthweight, height and wheezing). Also FEV(1) level in children was inversely correlated with prenatal exposure to PM(2.5), and the average FEV(1) deficit amounted to 87.7 mL (P = 0.008) at the higher level of exposure. Although the effect of PM(2.5) exposure on FEV(0.5) was proportionally weaker (-72.7, P = 0.026), it was also statistically significant. The lung function level was inversely and significantly associated with the wheezing recorded over the follow

  14. Fourier-processed images of dynamic lung function from list-mode data

    SciTech Connect

    Zubal, I.G.; Rowe, R.W.; Bizais, Y.; Susskind, H.; Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Time and volume correlated amplitude and phase images are computed from nuclear medical ventilation studies and for dynamic transmission scans of the lungs. This is made possible by a hardware interface and data acquisition system, developed in-house, allowing camera events and multiple ancillary physiological signals (including lung volume) to be acquired simultaneously in list mode. The first harmonic amplitude and phase images are constructed on an event by event basis. These are computed for both equal time and equal lung volume increments. Time and volume correlated Fourier images for ventilation studies have shown details and functional structures not usually seen in conventional imaging techniques. Processed transmission scans show similar results compared to ventilation images.

  15. Functional status and quality of life in patients surviving 10 years after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Robert M; Fisher, Andrew J; Hilton, Colin; Forty, Jonathan; Hasan, Asif; Gould, Francis K; Dark, John H; Corris, Paul A

    2005-05-01

    Although many lung allograft recipients achieve long-term survival, there is a lack of published data regarding these patients' functional status and quality of life (QoL). We evaluated all 10-year survivors at our institution and, utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire, compared their QoL to population normative and chronic illness data. Twenty-eight (29%) of 96 patients survived > or =10 years following 11 single, 6 bilateral and 11 heart-lung procedures. At the most recent evaluation, median FEV(1) in single and double lung recipients was predicted to be 54% and 74%, respectively. Five (18%) patients had BOS score 0, 13 (46%) BOS 1, 5 (18%) BOS 2 and 5 (18%) BOS 3 and median time to BOS was 7 years. Four (14%) patients required renal replacement therapy. Three patients (11%) developed symptomatic osteoporosis, 2 (7%) post-transplant lymphoma and 1 (4%) an ischaemic stroke. Scores for physical function, role-physical/emotional and general health, but not mental health and bodily pain, were significantly lower compared to normative and chronic illness data. Energy and social-function scores were significantly lower than normative data alone. Long-term survival after lung transplantation is characterized by an absence or delayed development of BOS, low iatrogenic morbidity and preserved mental, but reduced physical health status. PMID:15816892

  16. Junctional Adhesion Molecule A Promotes Epithelial Tight Junction Assembly to Augment Lung Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Leslie A.; Ward, Christina; Kwon, Mike; Mitchell, Patrick O.; Quintero, David A.; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A.; Koval, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial barrier function is maintained by tight junction proteins that control paracellular fluid flux. Among these proteins is junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), an Ig fold transmembrane protein. To assess JAM-A function in the lung, we depleted JAM-A in primary alveolar epithelial cells using shRNA. In cultured cells, loss of JAM-A caused an approximately 30% decrease in transepithelial resistance, decreased expression of the tight junction scaffold protein zonula occludens 1, and disrupted junctional localization of the structural transmembrane protein claudin-18. Consistent with findings in other organs, loss of JAM-A decreased β1 integrin expression and impaired filamentous actin formation. Using a model of mild systemic endoxotemia induced by i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide, we report that JAM-A−/− mice showed increased susceptibility to pulmonary edema. On injury, the enhanced susceptibility of JAM-A−/− mice to edema correlated with increased, transient disruption of claudin-18, zonula occludens 1, and zonula occludens 2 localization to lung tight junctions in situ along with a delay in up-regulation of claudin-4. In contrast, wild-type mice showed no change in lung tight junction morphologic features in response to mild systemic endotoxemia. These findings support a key role of JAM-A in promoting tight junction homeostasis and lung barrier function by coordinating interactions among claudins, the tight junction scaffold, and the cytoskeleton. PMID:25438062

  17. Compatible solutes: ectoine and hydroxyectoine improve functional nanostructures in artificial lung surfactants.

    PubMed

    Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Sachan, Amit Kumar; Kerth, Andreas; Lentzen, Georg; Neuhaus, Thorsten; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2011-12-01

    Ectoine and hydroxyectoine belong to the family of compatible solutes and are among the most abundant osmolytes in nature. These compatible solutes protect biomolecules from extreme conditions and maintain their native function. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of ectoine and hydroxyectoine on the domain structures of artificial lung surfactant films consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) and the lung surfactant specific surfactant protein C (SP-C) in a molar ratio of 80:20:0.4. The pressure-area isotherms are found to be almost unchanged by both compatible solutes. The topology of the fluid domains shown by scanning force microscopy, which is thought to be responsible for the biophysical behavior under compression, however, is modified giving rise to the assumption that ectoine and hydroxyectoine are favorable for a proper lung surfactant function. This is further evidenced by the analysis of the insertion kinetics of lipid vesicles into the lipid-peptide monolayer, which is clearly enhanced in the presence of both compatible solutes. Thus, we could show that ectoine and hydroxyectoine enhance the function of lung surfactant in a simple model system, which might provide an additional rationale to inhalative therapy. PMID:21889490

  18. Spirometric indices after bronchodilator test in obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Jalil; Sohrabi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial responsiveness to bronchodilator medications is usually tested to establish reversibility of airflow obstruction. Among the various tests to establish bronchodilator response, FEV1, FEF(25-75%) or FEF50%, and FVC are the most widely used. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed spirometric responses after administration of bronchodilator in 187 workers with obstructive pattern in spirometry. Considering responsiveness to bronchodilator (200 cc and 12% increase in FEV1 or FVC), the study cases were divided into responsive or non-responsive groups, and the average increase in spirometric indices were measured and compared between two groups. 35.8% of cases were responsive to bronchodilator. Among responsive cases, FEV1 was the most frequent index increased significantly; And PEF and FVC were the least frequent ones. The highest mean increase from baseline after administration of bronchodilator was observed in FEF75%. Increases in all indices were significantly higher in responsive group. The increase in FEV1% predicted was inversely correlated with baseline FEV1. In conclusion, we consider that FEV1 is the most reliable spirometric index for assessing bronchodilator response. And Bronchial reversibility has an inverse relationship with baseline measures. PMID:21279934

  19. Changes in Pulmonary Function After Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, or Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Guerra, Jose L.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Zhuang Yan; Levy, Lawrence B.; Eapen, George; Liu, Hongmei; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the extent of change in pulmonary function over time after definitive radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with modern techniques and to identify predictors of changes in pulmonary function according to patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 250 patients who had received {>=}60 Gy radio(chemo)therapy for primary NSCLC in 1998-2010 and had undergone pulmonary function tests before and within 1 year after treatment. Ninety-three patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 97 with intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 60 with proton beam therapy. Postradiation pulmonary function test values were evaluated among individual patients compared with the same patient's preradiation value at the following time intervals: 0-4 (T1), 5-8 (T2), and 9-12 (T3) months. Results: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was reduced in the majority of patients along the three time periods after radiation, whereas the forced expiratory volume in 1 s per unit of vital capacity (FEV1/VC) showed an increase and decrease after radiation in a similar percentage of patients. There were baseline differences (stage, radiotherapy dose, concurrent chemotherapy) among the radiation technology groups. On multivariate analysis, the following features were associated with larger posttreatment declines in DLCO: pretreatment DLCO, gross tumor volume, lung and heart dosimetric data, and total radiation dose. Only pretreatment DLCO was associated with larger posttreatment declines in FEV1/VC. Conclusions: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide is reduced in the majority of patients after radiotherapy with modern techniques. Multiple factors, including gross tumor volume, preradiation lung function, and dosimetric parameters, are associated with the DLCO decline. Prospective studies are needed to better understand whether new radiation technology, such as proton beam therapy or

  20. A Functional Copy-Number Variation in MAPKAPK2 Predicts Risk and Prognosis of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Yang, Lei; Huang, Binfang; Cheng, Mei; Wang, Hui; Li, Yinyan; Huang, Dongsheng; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qingchu; Zhang, Xin; Ji, Weidong; Zhou, Yifeng; Lu, Jiachun

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) may promote cancer development and progression by inducing tumorigenesis and drug resistance. To assess whether the copy-number variation g.CNV-30450 located in the MAPKAPK2 promoter has any effect on lung cancer risk or prognosis, we investigated the association between g.CNV-30450 and cancer risk in three independent case-control studies of 2,332 individuals with lung cancer and 2,457 controls and the effects of g.CNV-30450 on cancer prognosis in 1,137 individuals with lung cancer with survival data in southern and eastern Chinese populations. We found that those subjects who had four copies of g.CNV-30450 had an increased cancer risk (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61–2.35) and a worse prognosis for individuals with lung cancer (with a median survival time of only 9 months) (hazard ratio = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.22–1.78) compared with those with two or three copies (with a median survival time of 14 months). Meanwhile, four copies of g.CNV-30450 significantly increased MAPKAPK2 expression, both in vitro and in vivo, compared with two or three copies. Our study establishes a robust association between the functional g.CNV-30450 in MAPKAPK2 and risk as well as prognosis of lung cancer, and it presents this functional copy-number variation as a potential biomarker for susceptibility to and prognosis for lung cancer. PMID:22883146

  1. Platelet function tests: a comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Paniccia, Rita; Priora, Raffaella; Alessandrello Liotta, Agatina; Abbate, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation – adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation – have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered. PMID:25733843

  2. Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    de Assunção, Silvana Neves Ferraz; Daltro, Carla Hilário da Cunha; Boa Sorte, Ney Christian; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Queiroz, Cleriston Farias; Lemos, Antônio Carlos Moreira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. RESULTS: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated. PMID:24831397

  3. The adenosine 2A receptor agonist GW328267C improves lung function after acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Folkesson, Hans G; Kuzenko, Stephanie R; Lipson, David A; Matthay, Michael A; Simmons, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    There is a significant unmet need for treatments of patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The primary mechanism that leads to resolution of alveolar and pulmonary edema is active vectorial Na(+) and Cl(-) transport across the alveolar epithelium. Several studies have suggested a role for adenosine receptors in regulating this fluid transport in the lung. Furthermore, these studies point to the A(2A) subtype of adenosine receptor (A(2A)R) as playing a role to enhance fluid transport, suggesting that activation of the A(2A)R may enhance alveolar fluid clearance (AFC). The current studies test the potential therapeutic value of the A(2A)R agonist GW328267C to accelerate resolution of alveolar edema and ALI/ARDS in rats. GW328267C, at concentrations of 10(-5) M to 10(-3) M, instilled into the airspaces, increased AFC in control animals. GW328267C did not increase AFC beyond that produced by maximal β-adrenergic stimulation. The effect of GW328267C was inhibited by amiloride but was not affected by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibition. The drug was tested in three models of ALI, HCl instillation 1 h, LPS instillation 16 h, and live Escherichia coli instillation 2 h before GW328267C instillation. After either type of injury, GW328267C (10(-4) M) decreased pulmonary edema formation and restored AFC, measured 1 h after GW328267C instillation. These findings show that GW328267C has beneficial effects in experimental models of ALI and may be a useful agent for treating patients with ALI or prophylactically to prevent ALI. PMID:22659881

  4. Influence of Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer on Pulmonary Function

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Akihiro Hiraki, Takao; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate altered pulmonary function retrospectively after RFA. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 ablation sessions for 39 patients (22 men and 17 women; mean age, 64.8 years). Vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at 1 and 3 months after RFA were compared with the baseline (i.e., values before RFA). To evaluate the factors that influenced impaired pulmonary function, univariate analysis was performed by using multiple variables. If two or more variables were indicated as statistically significant by univariate analysis, these variables were subjected to multivariate analysis to identify independent factors. Results: The mean VC and FEV{sub 1} before RFA and 1 and 3 months after RFA were 3.04 and 2.24 l, 2.79 and 2.11 l, and 2.85 and 2.13 l, respectively. The values at 1 and 3 months were significantly lower than the baseline. Severe pleuritis after RFA was identified as the independent factor influencing impaired VC at 1 month (P = 0.003). For impaired FEV{sub 1} at 1 month, only severe pleuritis (P = 0.01) was statistically significant by univariate analysis. At 3 months, severe pleuritis (VC, P = 0.019; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.003) and an ablated parenchymal volume {>=}20 cm{sup 3} (VC, P = 0.047; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.038) were independent factors for impaired VC and FEV{sub 1}. Conclusions: Pulmonary function decreased after RFA. RFA-induced severe pleuritis and ablation of a large volume of marginal parenchyma were associated with impaired pulmonary function.

  5. Prognostic assessment in COPD without lung function: the B-AE-D indices.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Lucas; Soriano, Joan B; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Blasi, Francesco; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Boersma, Wim; Milenkovic, Branislava; Louis, Renaud; Lacoma, Alicia; Djamin, Remco; Aerts, Joachim; Torres, Antoni; Rohde, Gernot; Welte, Tobias; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Rakic, Janko; Scherr, Andreas; Koller, Michael; van der Palen, Job; Marin, Jose M; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Almagro, Pere; Casanova, Ciro; Esteban, Cristobal; Soler-Cataluña, Juan J; de-Torres, Juan P; Miravitlles, Marc; Celli, Bartolome R; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2016-06-01

    Several composite markers have been proposed for risk assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, choice of parameters and score complexity restrict clinical applicability. Our aim was to provide and validate a simplified COPD risk index independent of lung function.The PROMISE study (n=530) was used to develop a novel prognostic index. Index performance was assessed regarding 2-year COPD-related mortality and all-cause mortality. External validity was tested in stable and exacerbated COPD patients in the ProCOLD, COCOMICS and COMIC cohorts (total n=2988).Using a mixed clinical and statistical approach, body mass index (B), severe acute exacerbations of COPD frequency (AE), modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea severity (D) and copeptin (C) were identified as the most suitable simplified marker combination. 0, 1 or 2 points were assigned to each parameter and totalled to B-AE-D or B-AE-D-C. It was observed that B-AE-D and B-AE-D-C were at least as good as BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity), ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) and DOSE (dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation) indices for predicting 2-year all-cause mortality (c-statistic: 0.74, 0.77, 0.69, 0.72 and 0.63, respectively; Hosmer-Lemeshow test all p>0.05). Both indices were COPD specific (c-statistic for predicting COPD-related 2-year mortality: 0.87 and 0.89, respectively). External validation of B-AE-D was performed in COCOMICS and COMIC (c-statistic for 1-year all-cause mortality: 0.68 and 0.74; c-statistic for 2-year all-cause mortality: 0.65 and 0.67; Hosmer-Lemeshow test all p>0.05).The B-AE-D index, plus copeptin if available, allows a simple and accurate assessment of COPD-related risk. PMID:27103389

  6. Prognostic assessment in COPD without lung function: the B-AE-D indices

    PubMed Central

    Boeck, Lucas; Blasi, Francesco; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Boersma, Wim; Milenkovic, Branislava; Louis, Renaud; Lacoma, Alicia; Djamin, Remco; Aerts, Joachim; Torres, Antoni; Rohde, Gernot; Welte, Tobias; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Rakic, Janko; Scherr, Andreas; Koller, Michael; van der Palen, Job; Marin, Jose M.; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Almagro, Pere; Casanova, Ciro; Esteban, Cristobal; Soler-Cataluña, Juan J.; de-Torres, Juan P.; Miravitlles, Marc; Celli, Bartolome R.; Tamm, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Several composite markers have been proposed for risk assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, choice of parameters and score complexity restrict clinical applicability. Our aim was to provide and validate a simplified COPD risk index independent of lung function. The PROMISE study (n=530) was used to develop a novel prognostic index. Index performance was assessed regarding 2-year COPD-related mortality and all-cause mortality. External validity was tested in stable and exacerbated COPD patients in the ProCOLD, COCOMICS and COMIC cohorts (total n=2988). Using a mixed clinical and statistical approach, body mass index (B), severe acute exacerbations of COPD frequency (AE), modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea severity (D) and copeptin (C) were identified as the most suitable simplified marker combination. 0, 1 or 2 points were assigned to each parameter and totalled to B-AE-D or B-AE-D-C. It was observed that B-AE-D and B-AE-D-C were at least as good as BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity), ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) and DOSE (dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation) indices for predicting 2-year all-cause mortality (c-statistic: 0.74, 0.77, 0.69, 0.72 and 0.63, respectively; Hosmer–Lemeshow test all p>0.05). Both indices were COPD specific (c-statistic for predicting COPD-related 2-year mortality: 0.87 and 0.89, respectively). External validation of B-AE-D was performed in COCOMICS and COMIC (c-statistic for 1-year all-cause mortality: 0.68 and 0.74; c-statistic for 2-year all-cause mortality: 0.65 and 0.67; Hosmer–Lemeshow test all p>0.05). The B-AE-D index, plus copeptin if available, allows a simple and accurate assessment of COPD-related risk. PMID:27103389

  7. Interstitial pneumonia associated to peginterferon alpha-2a: A focus on lung function.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Telles, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a during treatment of hepatitis C infections is rare; nonetheless, some cases with fatal outcomes have been reported. Evaluating patients' pulmonary function is a key to diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of several respiratory diseases, but case reports of respiratory manifestations related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a have limited their findings to only baseline measurements. This paper examines the case of a 65-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who developed interstitial pneumonitis associated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a. Initial lung function evaluation revealed a marked reduction compared to an earlier assessment; the results were consistent with a moderate restricted pattern. Fortunately, over the ensuing 8 weeks of follow-up after discontinuing the drug, the patient recovered her lung function and experienced an overall improvement in her respiratory symptoms. PMID:27051119

  8. Interstitial pneumonia associated to peginterferon alpha-2a: A focus on lung function

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Telles, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a during treatment of hepatitis C infections is rare; nonetheless, some cases with fatal outcomes have been reported. Evaluating patients’ pulmonary function is a key to diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of several respiratory diseases, but case reports of respiratory manifestations related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a have limited their findings to only baseline measurements. This paper examines the case of a 65-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who developed interstitial pneumonitis associated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a. Initial lung function evaluation revealed a marked reduction compared to an earlier assessment; the results were consistent with a moderate restricted pattern. Fortunately, over the ensuing 8 weeks of follow-up after discontinuing the drug, the patient recovered her lung function and experienced an overall improvement in her respiratory symptoms. PMID:27051119

  9. The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Tager, I.B.; Balmes, J.R.; Harrison, R.J. )

    1992-12-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of smoke on forced expiratory volumes and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters during a season of active fire fighting. Sixty-three seasonal and full-time wildland fire fighters from five U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDAFS) Hotshot crews in Northern California and Montana completed questionnaires, spirometry, and methacholine challenge testing before and after an active season of fire fighting in 1989. There were significant mean individual declines of 0.09, 0.15, and 0.44 L/s in postseason values of FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75, respectively, compared with preseason values. There were no consistent significant relationships between mean individual declines of the spirometric parameters and the covariates: sex, smoking history, history of asthma or allergies, years as a fire fighter, upper/lower respiratory symptoms, or membership in a particular Hotshot crew. There was a statistically significant increase in airway responsiveness when comparing preseason methacholine dose-response slopes (DRS) with postseason dose-response slopes (p = 0.02). The increase in airway responsiveness appeared to be greatest in fire fighters with a history of lower respiratory symptoms or asthma, but it was not related to smoking history. These data suggest that wildland fire fighting is associated with decreases in lung function and increases in airway responsiveness independent of a history of cigarette smoking. Our findings are consistent with the results of previous studies of municipal fire fighters.

  10. Lung Radiology and Pulmonary Function of Children Chronically Exposed to Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A.; Chung, Charles J.; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gómez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C.; Campo, Alberto Gomez-del; Jardón-Torres, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J.; Reed, William

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) above the annual standard. CXRs of Mexico City children demonstrated bilateral hyperinflation (151 of 230) and increased linear markings (121 of 230). Hyperinflation and interstitial markings were significantly more common in Mexico City children (p < 0.0002 and 0.00006 respectively). Mexico City boys had a higher probability of developing interstitial markings with age (p = 0.004). Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained in 25 selected Mexico City children with abnormal CXRs. Mild bronchial wall thickening was seen in 10 of 25, prominent central airways in 4 of 25, air trapping in 8 of 21, and pulmonary nodules in 2 of 21. Only 7.8% of Mexico City children had abnormal lung function tests based on predicted values. These findings are consistent with bronchiolar, peribronchiolar, and/or alveolar duct inflammation, possibly caused by ozone, PM, and lipopolysaccharide exposure. The epidemiologic implications of these findings are important for children residing in polluted environments, because bronchiolar disease could lead to chronic pulmonary disease later in life. PMID:16966101

  11. Changes in lung function after exposure to vanadium compounds in fuel oil ash

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R E M

    1980-01-01

    ABSTRACT Seventeen men were studied during the cleaning of bottom ash from the boiler of an oil-fired electricity generating station. The men were exposed to a time weighted average respirable dust (<10 μ) of 523 μg/m3, containing 15·3% vanadium. Sixteen of the men wore respirators, subsequently found to have peak leakages of up to 9%, while one volunteer had a one-hour exposure wearing only a compressed paper oronasal mask. Symptoms experienced by the men were recorded, urine samples were collected for assessment of vanadium concentration 24 hours after the first exposure, and spirometry was performed daily for four days and on the eight day. Pronounced reductions in forced vital capacity (mean 0·5 l), forced expiratory volume (mean 0·5 l), and forced mid-expiratory flow (mean 1·16 l/s) had occurred within 24 hours of first exposure to the dust, and had not returned to pre-exposure levels by the eight day. Four weeks after exposure no residual deficits were present. A urinary vanadium concentration of 280 μg/l was found in the volunteer, but none of the others had concentrations above the test-threshold of 40 μg/l. Symptoms and signs of airway irritation were noted. The timing, duration, and quality of changes in lung function, however, indicated that the response could not be attributed solely to a reflex bronchial reaction to irritation by an inert dust. PMID:7426476

  12. Lung function and left ventricular hypertrophy in morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Paulo de Tarso; Domingos, Hamilton; Patusco, Luiz Armando Pereira; Rapello, Gabriel Victor Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To look for correlations between lung function and cardiac dimension variables in morbidly obese patients, in order to test the hypothesis that the relative size of the small airways is independently correlated with left ventricular hypertrophy. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 192 medical records containing a clinical protocol employed in candidates for bariatric surgery between January of 2006 and December of 2010. Results: Of the 192 patients evaluated, 39 (10 males and 29 females) met the inclusion criteria. The mean BMI of the patients was 49.2 ± 7.6 kg/m2, and the mean age was 35.5 ± 7.7 years. The FEF25-75/FVC, % correlated significantly with left ventricular posterior wall thickness and relative left ventricular posterior wall thickness, those correlations remaining statistically significant (r = −0.355 and r = −0.349, respectively) after adjustment for weight, gender, and history of systemic arterial hypertension. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis showed that FVC and FEV1 were the major determinants of left ventricular mass (in grams or indexed to body surface area). Conclusions: A reduction in the relative size of the small airways appears to be independently correlated with obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy, regardless of factors affecting respiratory mechanics (BMI and weight), gender, or history of systemic arterial hypertension. However, FEV1 and FVC might be important predictors of left ventricular mass in morbidly obese individuals. PMID:26578134

  13. The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Tager, I B; Balmes, J R; Harrison, R J

    1992-12-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of smoke on forced expiratory volumes and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters during a season of active fire fighting. Sixty-three seasonal and full-time wildland fire fighters from five U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDAFS) Hotshot crews in Northern California and Montana completed questionnaires, spirometry, and methacholine challenge testing before and after an active season of fire fighting in 1989. There were significant mean individual declines of 0.09, 0.15, and 0.44 L/s in postseason values of FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75, respectively, compared with preseason values. There were no consistent significant relationships between mean individual declines of the spirometric parameters and the covariates: sex, smoking history, history of asthma or allergies, years as a fire fighter, upper/lower respiratory symptoms, or membership in a particular Hotshot crew. There was a statistically significant increase in airway responsiveness when comparing preseason methacholine dose-response slopes (DRS) with postseason dose-response slopes (p = 0.02). The increase in airway responsiveness appeared to be greatest in fire fighters with a history of lower respiratory symptoms or asthma, but it was not related to smoking history. These data suggest that wildland fire fighting is associated with decreases in lung function and increases in airway responsiveness independent of a history of cigarette smoking. Our findings are consistent with the results of previous studies of municipal fire fighters. PMID:1456562

  14. Lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Kislinger, Thomas; Jurisica, Igor; Wigle, Dennis A.

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput genomic data for both lung development and lung cancer continue to accumulate. Significant molecular intersection between these two processes has been hypothesized due to overlap in phenotypes and genomic variation. Examining the network biology of both cancer and development of the lung may shed functional light on the individual signaling modules involved. Stem cell biology may explain a portion of this network intersection and consequently studying lung organogenesis may have relevance for understanding lung cancer. This review summarizes our understanding of the potential overlapping mechanisms involved in lung development and lung tumorigenesis. PMID:19202349

  15. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell analysis and lung function impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed Central

    Groen, H; Aslander, M; Bootsma, H; van der Mark, T W; Kallenberg, C G; Postma, D S

    1993-01-01

    We examined the relationship between peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocyte phenotypes and lung function in 19 patients with SLE, and evaluated their association with disease activity. Lung function assessment showed a mildly restrictive pattern with frequent impairment of transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1,co) and diffusing capacity of the alveolocapillary membrane (Dm), of late-expiratory airflow rates and with a high prevalence of increased airway resistance. T1,co, Kco and Dm correlated inversely with the numbers of CD8+ cells and CD56+/CD16+/CD3- (NK) cells in BAL. Oxygen radical production, both by stimulated and unstimulated BAL cells and blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) was significantly increased in SLE. In comparison with healthy controls, patients with SLE had a lower percentage of CD19+ B cells in the BAL versus an increased percentage of these cells in peripheral blood. HLA-DR expression on CD4+ and CD8+ lung lymphocytes was markedly increased in SLE. Current SLE disease activity was not associated with changes in BAL or peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotypes. Our data suggest that an ongoing cell-mediated immune response is present in the lungs in SLE, particularly involving activated CD8+ T cells and CD56+/CD16+/CD3- NK cells. It is associated with up-regulated local production of oxygen radicals and with impaired pulmonary diffusing capacity. This inflammatory process seems to be independent of general SLE disease activity. PMID:8403494

  16. SUSD2 is frequently downregulated and functions as a tumor suppressor in RCC and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yingying; Wang, Xiaolin; Wang, Pingzhang; Li, Ting; Hu, Fengzhan; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jun; Xu, Tao; Han, Wenling

    2016-07-01

    Sushi domain containing 2 (SUSD2) is type I membrane protein containing domains inherent to adhesion molecules. There have been few reported studies on SUSD2, and they have mainly focused on breast cancer, colon cancer, and HeLa cells. However, the expression and function of SUSD2 in other cancers remain unclear. In the present study, we conducted an integrated bioinformatics analysis based on the array data from the GEO database and found a significant downregulation of SUSD2 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and lung cancer. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed that SUSD2 was frequently decreased in RCC and lung cancer tissues compared with the corresponding levels in normal adjacent tissues. The restoration of SUSD2 expression inhibited the proliferation and clonogenicity of RCC and lung cancer cells, whereas the knockdown of SUSD2 promoted A549 cell growth. Our findings suggested that SUSD2 functions as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in RCC and lung cancer. PMID:26815503

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Lung Function Phenotypes in a Founder Population

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Du, Gaixin; Han, Lide; Sun, Ying; Hu, Donglei; Yang, James J.; Mathias, Rasika; Roth, Lindsey A.; Rafaels, Nicholas; Thompson, Emma E.; Loisel, Dagan A.; Anderson, Rebecca; Eng, Celeste; Orbegozo, Maitane Arruabarrena; Young, Melody; Klocksieben, James M.; Anderson, Elizabeth; Shanovich, Kathleen; Lester, Lucille A.; Williams, L. Keoki; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Abney, Mark; Ober, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung function is a long-term predictor of mortality and morbidity. Objective We sought to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lung function. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC in 1,144 Hutterites aged 6–89 years, who are members of a founder population of European descent. We performed least absolute shrinkage and selection operation (LASSO) regression to select the minimum set of SNPs that best predict FEV1/FVC in the Hutterites and used the GRAIL algorithm to mine the Gene Ontology database for evidence of functional connections between genes near the predictive SNPs. Results Our GWAS identified significant associations between FEV1/FVC and SNPs at the THSD4-UACA-TLE3 locus on chromosome 15q23 (P = 5.7x10−8 ~ 3.4x10−9). Nine SNPs at or near four additional loci had P-values < 10−5 with FEV1/FVC. There were only two SNPs with P-values < 10−5 for FEV1 or FVC. We found nominal levels of significance with SNPs at 9 of the 27 previously reported loci associated with lung function measures. Among a predictive set of 80 SNPs, six loci were identified that had a significant degree of functional connectivity (GRAIL P < 0.05), including three clusters of β-defensin genes, two chemokine genes (CCL18 and CXCL12), and TNFRSF13B. Conclusion This study identifies genome-wide significant associations and replicates results of previous GWAS. Multimarker modeling implicated for the first time common variation in genes involved in anti-microbial immunity in airway mucosa influences lung function. PMID:23932459

  18. Lung function in silica-exposed workers. A relationship to disease severity assessed by CT scan.

    PubMed

    Bégin, R; Ostiguy, G; Cantin, A; Bergeron, D

    1988-09-01

    To investigate the relationship of lung function, airflow limitation, and lung injury in silica-exposed workers, we analyzed the clinical, functional, and radiologic data of 94 long-term workers exposed in the granite industry or in foundries. The subjects were divided into four subsets based on chest roentgenogram and CT scan of the thorax: group 1 consisted of 21 subjects with category 0 chest roentgenogram and category 0 CT scan; group 2, 28 subjects with category E 1 on both chest roentgenogram and CT scan; group 3, 18 subjects with category E 1 on chest roentgenogram but with coalescence or conglomeration or both seen only on CT scan; and group 4, 27 subjects with category E 1 and coalescence or conglomeration or both on roentgenogram and CT scan. The groups did not differ in terms of age, height, cigarette smoking, or years of exposure. Lung volumes were significantly reduced only in group 4 (p less than 0.05). Lung compliance, diffusion capacity, and the rest-exercise P(A-a)O2 gradient were reduced in groups 3 and 4 (p less than 0.05). Expiratory flow rates were significantly reduced in groups 2, 3, and 4, with the lowest values in group 4. The expiratory flow rates in group 3 were significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. These results support the concept that airflow in silica-exposed workers is significantly reduced when the disease is detectable on simple chest roentgenogram; coalescence or conglomeration or both on chest roentgenogram or CT scan is associated with significant loss of lung volumes, gas exchange function, and increased airflow obstruction. PMID:3409733

  19. Lung function and respiratory symptoms among female hairdressers in Palestine: a 5-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nemer, Maysaa; Kristensen, Petter; Nijem, Khaldoun; Bjertness, Espen; Skare, Øivind; Skogstad, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hairdressers are exposed to chemicals at the workplace which are known to cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. This study aimed to examine changes in self-reported respiratory symptoms over 5 years, as well as to examine the lung function decline and determine whether it is within the expected range, to assess the dropout rate and reasons for leaving the profession, and to examine the associations between occupational factors and lung function changes at follow-up. Design Prospective study. Setting Female hairdressing salons in Hebron city, Palestine. Participants 170 female hairdressers who participated in a baseline survey in 2008 were followed up in 2013. A total of 161 participants participated in 2013. Outcome measures Change in reported respiratory symptoms and change in lung function over follow-up. Dropout from the profession and reasons for it. Differences between current and former hairdressers in respiratory symptoms and lung function at follow-up. Ambient air ammonia levels in 13 salons. Results Current hairdressers reported more respiratory symptoms in 2013 compared with baseline. Former hairdressers reported fewer symptoms at follow-up. At follow-up, current hairdressers showed a significant decrease in forced vital capacity of 35 mL/year (95% CI 26 to 44 mL/year) and of 31 mL/year (95% CI 25 to 36 mL/year) for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). 28 (16%) of the hairdressers quit the job during the 5-year follow-up, 8 (28%) because of health problems. Hairdressers who had been working for 4 years or more at baseline showed a stronger decline in FEV1 compared with those who worked less than 4 years (difference 13, 95% CI 1 to 25). Conclusions Current hairdressers developed more respiratory symptoms and larger lung function decline than former hairdressers during follow-up. Few hairdressers left their profession because of respiratory health problems. Working for more years is associated with lung function decline among

  20. Reproducibility of incremental maximal cycle ergometer testing in patients with restrictive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Marciniuk, D. D.; Watts, R. E.; Gallagher, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Exercise testing has become an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of restrictive lung disease. The reproducibility of variables measured during exercise testing was examined in subjects with stable restrictive lung disease. METHODS--Six subjects, who had never previously undergone exercise testing, each underwent three maximal incremental exercise studies on a bicycle ergometer conducted during a 28 day period. RESULTS--Data collected at rest, before exercise, were not significantly different during the three study days. Comparison of results at the end of the exercise tests from the three studies also revealed no evidence of a significant learning effect. Reproducibility of exercise performance by subjects was assessed by the coefficient of variation. The mean within subject coefficient of variation at the end of the exercise tests was 5.6% for work rate, 7.9% for exercise duration, and 9.5% for dyspnoea. The mean within subject coefficient of variation obtained at the end of the exercise tests was 5.3% for oxygen uptake (VO2), 2.5% for oxygen saturation (SaO2), 4.0% for heart rate (HR), 5.5% for minute ventilation (VE), 5.8% for respiratory frequency (f), and 4.6% for tidal volume (VT). The mean within subject coefficient of variation at 40% and 70% of maximal work rates for VO2 was 5.7% and 5.6% respectively, for SaO2 1.3% and 1.5%, for HR 4.8% and 4.0%, for VE 6.3% and 6.6%, for f 10.1% and 7.8%, and for VT 6.0% and 4.5%. CONCLUSIONS--Variables measured during clinical exercise testing in subjects with restrictive lung disease are highly reproducible. No significant learning effect was found on repeated testing in subjects who had never previously undergone exercise testing. PMID:8236071

  1. Lung CD8+ T Cell Impairment Occurs during Human Metapneumovirus Infection despite Virus-Like Particle Induction of Functional CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Sherry C.; Schuster, Jennifer E.; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Boyd, Kelli L.; Joyce, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals worldwide. There is currently no licensed HMPV vaccine. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an attractive vaccine candidate because they are noninfectious and elicit a neutralizing antibody response. However, studies show that serum neutralizing antibodies are insufficient for complete protection against reinfection and that adaptive T cell immunity is important for viral clearance. HMPV and other respiratory viruses induce lung CD8+ T cell (TCD8) impairment, mediated by programmed death 1 (PD-1). In this study, we generated HMPV VLPs by expressing the fusion and matrix proteins in mammalian cells and tested whether VLP immunization induces functional HMPV-specific TCD8 responses in mice. C57BL/6 mice vaccinated twice with VLPs and subsequently challenged with HMPV were protected from lung viral replication for at least 20 weeks postimmunization. A single VLP dose elicited F- and M-specific lung TCD8s with higher function and lower expression of PD-1 and other inhibitory receptors than TCD8s from HMPV-infected mice. However, after HMPV challenge, lung TCD8s from VLP-vaccinated mice exhibited inhibitory receptor expression and functional impairment similar to those of mice experiencing secondary infection. HMPV challenge of VLP-immunized μMT mice also elicited a large percentage of impaired lung TCD8s, similar to mice experiencing secondary infection. Together, these results indicate that VLPs are a promising vaccine candidate but do not prevent lung TCD8 impairment upon HMPV challenge. IMPORTANCE Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory disease for which there is no licensed vaccine. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an attractive vaccine candidate and induce antibodies, but T cell responses are less defined. Moreover, HMPV and other respiratory viruses induce lung CD8+ T cell (TCD8) impairment mediated by

  2. Assessing the Relationship between Lung Density and Function with Oxygen-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Mouse Model of Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Zurek, Magdalena; Sladen, Louise; Johansson, Edvin; Olsson, Marita; Jackson, Sonya; Zhang, Hui; Mayer, Gaell; Hockings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A magnetic resonance imaging method is presented that allows for the simultaneous assessment of oxygen delivery, oxygen uptake, and parenchymal density. The technique is applied to a mouse model of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) induced lung emphysema in order to investigate how structural changes affect lung function. Method Nine-week-old female C57BL6 mice were instilled with saline or PPE at days 0 and 7. At day 19, oxygen delivery, oxygen uptake, and lung density were quantified from T1 and proton-density measurements obtained via oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OE-MRI) using an ultrashort echo-time imaging sequence. Subsequently, the lungs were sectioned for histological observation. Blood-gas analyses and pulmonary functional tests via FlexiVent were performed in separate cohorts. Principal Findings PPE-challenged mice had reduced density when assessed via MRI, consistent with the parenchyma loss observed in the histology sections, and an increased lung compliance was detected via FlexiVent. The oxygenation levels, as assessed via the blood-gas analysis, showed no difference between PPE-challenged animals and control. This finding was mirrored in the global MRI assessments of oxygen delivery and uptake, where the changes in relaxation time indices were matched between the groups. The heterogeneity of the same parameters however, were increased in PPE-challenged animals. When the oxygenation status was investigated in regions of varying density, a reduced oxygen-uptake was found in low-density regions of PPE-challenged mice. In high-density regions the uptake was higher than that of regions of corresponding density in control animals. The oxygen delivery was proportional to the oxygen uptake in both groups. Conclusions The proposed method allowed for the regional assessment of the relationship between lung density and two aspects of lung function, the oxygen delivery and uptake. When compared to global indices of lung function, an

  3. Pulmonary Hemodynamics and Six-Minute Walk Test Outcomes in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Osamu; Yamazaki, Ryo; Sano, Hiroyuki; Iwanaga, Takashi; Higashimoto, Yuji; Kume, Hiroaki; Tohda, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Background. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) has 3 measurement outcomes, which are walk distance, desaturation, and symptom. The aim of this study was to examine whether routinely measured right-heart catheter (RHC) data correlate with 6MWT outcomes in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods. Between June 2010 and December 2012, consecutive patients with ILD who underwent evaluation, including pulmonary function test, hemodynamic studies with right-heart catheter, and 6MWT as routine general practice, were recruited. Correlates of 3 outcomes of 6MWT were examined to reveal significant predictors. Results. Forty-six patients consisting of 20 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 14 with collagen vascular disease associated ILD, and 12 with other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were recruited (mean % predicted FVC: 76.7 ± 17.1%). Several physiological variables, including mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), were correlated with each 6MWT outcome. Stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that % predicted FVC and % predicted DLco were independent predictors of walk distance (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.0002). For SpO2 at the end of 6MWT, % predicted DLco and PVR were selected as independent predictors (r2 = 0.46, p < 0.0001). For dyspnea at the end of 6MWT, % predicted DLco was only one predictor (r2 = 0.18, p = 0.005). Conclusion. Mean PAP had little impact on 6MWT outcomes in ILD patients who were nonselectively recruited, although PVR was one of predictors of desaturation.

  4. Early Changes in Clinical, Functional, and Laboratory Biomarkers in Workers at Risk of Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Virji, M. Abbas; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Carey, Brenna; Healey, Terrance; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Occupational exposure to indium compounds, including indium–tin oxide, can result in potentially fatal indium lung disease. However, the early effects of exposure on the lungs are not well understood. Objectives To determine the relationship between short-term occupational exposures to indium compounds and the development of early lung abnormalities. Methods Among indium–tin oxide production and reclamation facility workers, we measured plasma indium, respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, chest computed tomography, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. Relationships between plasma indium concentration and health outcome variables were evaluated using restricted cubic spline and linear regression models. Measurements and Main Results Eighty-seven (93%) of 94 indium–tin oxide facility workers (median tenure, 2 yr; median plasma indium, 1.0 μg/l) participated in the study. Spirometric abnormalities were not increased compared with the general population, and few subjects had radiographic evidence of alveolar proteinosis (n = 0), fibrosis (n = 2), or emphysema (n = 4). However, in internal comparisons, participants with plasma indium concentrations ≥1.0 μg/l had more dyspnea, lower mean FEV1 and FVC, and higher median serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein-D levels. Spline regression demonstrated nonlinear exposure response, with significant differences occurring at plasma indium concentrations as low as 1.0 μg/l compared with the reference. Associations between health outcomes and the natural log of plasma indium concentration were evident in linear regression models. Associations were not explained by age, smoking status, facility tenure, or prior occupational exposures. Conclusions In indium–tin oxide facility workers with short-term, low-level exposure, plasma indium concentrations lower than previously reported were associated with lung symptoms, decreased spirometric parameters, and increased serum biomarkers of lung

  5. Platelet Function Tests in Bleeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    Functional disorders of platelets can involve any aspect of platelet physiology, with many different effects or outcomes. These include platelet numbers (thrombocytosis or thrombocytopenia); changes in platelet production or destruction, or capture to the liver (Ashwell receptor); altered adhesion to vascular injury sites and/or influence on hemostasis and wound healing; and altered activation or receptor functions, shape change, spreading and release reactions, procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity. Procoagulant membrane alterations, and generation of thrombin and fibrin, also affect platelet aggregation. The above parameters can all be studied, but standardization and quality control of assay methods have been limited despite several efforts. Only after a comprehensive clinical bleeding assessment, including family history, information on drug use affecting platelets, and exclusion of coagulation factor, and tissue deficits, should platelet function testing be undertaken to confirm an abnormality. Current diagnostic tools include blood cell counts, platelet characteristics according to the cell counter parameters, peripheral blood smear, exclusion of pseudothrombocytopenia, whole blood aggregometry (WBA) or light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet-rich plasma, luminescence, platelet function analysis (PFA-100) for platelet adhesion and deposition to collagen cartridges under blood flow, and finally transmission electron microscopy to exclude rare structural defects leading to functional deficits. The most validated test panels are included in WBA, LTA, and PFA. Because platelets are isolated from their natural environment, many simplifications occur, as circulating blood and interaction with vascular wall are omitted in these assays. The target to reach a highly specific platelet disorder diagnosis in routine clinical management can be exhaustive, unless needed for genetic counseling. The elective overall assessment of platelet function disorder

  6. Association of Lung Inflammatory Cells with Small Airways Function and Exhaled Breath Markers in Smokers – Is There a Specific Role for Mast Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Stolk, Jan; Ferraz da Silva, Luiz F.; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; de Jeu, Ronald C.; Prins, Frans A.; Mauad, Thais; Rabe, Klaus F.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking is associated with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate in the airways. We evaluated whether airway inflammation in smokers is related to lung function parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath. Methods Thirty-seven smokers undergoing lung resection for primary lung cancer were assessed pre-operatively by lung function testing including single-breath-nitrogen washout test (sb-N2-test), measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and pH/8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Lung tissue sections containing cancer-free large (LA) and small airways (SA) were stained for inflammatory cells. Mucosal (MCT) respectively connective tissue mast cells (MCTC) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) expression by mast cells was analysed using a double-staining protocol. Results The median number of neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells infiltrating the lamina propria and adventitia of SA was higher than in LA. Both MCTC and MCT were higher in the lamina propria of SA compared to LA (MCTC: 49 vs. 27.4 cells/mm2; MCT: 162.5 vs. 35.4 cells/mm2; P<0.005 for both instances). IL-17A expression was predominantly detected in MCTC of LA. Significant correlations were found for the slope of phase III % pred. of the sb-N2-test (rs= -0.39), for the FEV1% pred. (rs= 0.37) and for FEV1/FVC ratio (rs=0.38) with MCT in SA (P<0.05 for all instances). 8-isoprostane concentration correlated with the mast cells in the SA (rs=0.44), there was no correlation for pH or FeNO with cellular distribution in SA. Conclusions Neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells are more prominent in the SA indicating that these cells are involved in the development of small airway dysfunction in smokers. Among these cell types, the best correlation was found for mast cells with lung function parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath. Furthermore, the observed predominant expression of IL-17A in mast cells warrants further investigation to elucidate their role in smoking

  7. Use of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography-Based Ventilation Imaging to Correlate Lung Dose and Function With Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, Texas ; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao, Zhongxing; Guerrero, Thomas; Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, Texas ; Martel, Mary K.

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)-based ventilation is an emerging imaging modality that can be used in the thoracic treatment planning process. The clinical benefit of using ventilation images in radiation treatment plans remains to be tested. The purpose of the current work was to test the potential benefit of using ventilation in treatment planning by evaluating whether dose to highly ventilated regions of the lung resulted in increased incidence of clinical toxicity. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment 4DCT data were used to compute pretreatment ventilation images for 96 lung cancer patients. Ventilation images were calculated using 4DCT data, deformable image registration, and a density-change based algorithm. Dose–volume and ventilation-based dose function metrics were computed for each patient. The ability of the dose–volume and ventilation-based dose–function metrics to predict for severe (grade 3+) radiation pneumonitis was assessed using logistic regression analysis, area under the curve (AUC) metrics, and bootstrap methods. Results: A specific patient example is presented that demonstrates how incorporating ventilation-based functional information can help separate patients with and without toxicity. The logistic regression significance values were all lower for the dose–function metrics (range P=.093-.250) than for their dose–volume equivalents (range, P=.331-.580). The AUC values were all greater for the dose–function metrics (range, 0.569-0.620) than for their dose–volume equivalents (range, 0.500-0.544). Bootstrap results revealed an improvement in model fit using dose–function metrics compared to dose–volume metrics that approached significance (range, P=.118-.155). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to correlate lung dose and 4DCT ventilation-based function to thoracic toxicity after radiation therapy. Although the results were not significant at the .05 level, our data suggests

  8. [Lung cancer molecular testing, what role for Next Generation Sequencing and circulating tumor DNA].

    PubMed

    Pécuchet, Nicolas; Legras, Antoine; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Blons, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Molecular screening has become a standard of care for patients with advanced cancers and impacts on how to treat a patient. Advances in genomic technologies with the development of high throughput sequencing methods will certainly improve the possibilities to access a more accurate molecular diagnosis and to go beyond the identification of validated targets as a large number of genes can be screened for actionable changes. Moreover, accurate high throughput testing may help tumor classification in terms of prognosis and drug sensitivity. Finally, it will be possible to assess tumor heterogeneity and changes in molecular profiles during follow-up using ultra-deep sequencing technologies and circulating tumor DNA characterization. The accumulation of somatic ADN alterations is considered as the main contributing factor in carcinogenesis. The alterations can occur at different levels: mutation, copy number variations or gene translocations resulting in altered expression of the corresponding genes or impaired protein functions. Genes involved are mainly tumor suppressors, oncogenes or ADN repair genes whose modifications in tumors will impinge cell fate and proliferation from tumor initiation to metastasis. The entire genome of various tumor types, have now been sequenced. In lung cancer, the average number of mutations is very high with more than 8.9 mutations/Mb (Network TCGAR, 2014) that is to say more than 10,000 mutations/genome. These alterations need to be classified, indeed, some are true drivers that directly impact proliferation and some are passenger mutations linked to genetic instability. The development of targeted therapies relies on the identification of oncogenic drivers. The identification of genotype-phenotype associations as in the case of EGFR-TKI (Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and EGFR mutations in lung cancer led to the restriction of drugs to patients for which tumor genotype predicts efficacy. Tumor

  9. Ex Vivo Rehabilitation of Non-Heart-Beating Donor Lungs in a Preclinical Porcine Model: Delayed Perfusion Results in Superior Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, Daniel P.; Stone, Matthew L.; Crosby, Ivan K.; LaPar, Damien J.; Sharma, Ashish K.; Webb, David V.; Lau, Christine L.; Laubach, Victor E.; Kron, Irving L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a promising modality for the evaluation and treatment of marginal donor lungs. The optimal timing of EVLP initiation and potential for rehabilitation of donor lungs with extended warm-ischemic times is unknown. This study compares the efficacy of different treatment strategies for uncontrolled non-heart-beating donor lungs. Methods Mature swine underwent hypoxic arrest followed by 60 minutes of no-touch warm-ischemia. Lungs were harvested and flushed with 4°C Perfadex®. Three groups (n=5/group) were stratified according to preservation method: cold-static preservation (CSP: 4 hrs 4°C storage), immediate EVLP (I-EVLP: 4 hrs EVLP at 37°C), and delayed EVLP (D-EVLP: 4 hrs cold storage followed by 4 hrs EVLP). EVLP groups were perfused with Steen solution™ supplemented with heparin, methylprednisolone, cefazolin, and an adenosine 2A receptor agonist. Lungs then underwent allotransplantation and four hours of recipient reperfusion prior to allograft assessment for resultant ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results Donor blood oxygenation (PO2:FiO2) prior to euthanasia was not different between groups. Oxygenation after transplantation was significantly higher in the D-EVLP group compared to the I-EVLP or CSP groups. Mean airway pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α were all significantly reduced in the D-EVLP group. Importantly, post-transplant oxygenation exceeded acceptable clinical levels only in D-EVLP lungs. Conclusions Uncontrolled non-heart-beating donor lungs with extended warm-ischemia can be reconditioned for successful transplantation. The combination of CSP and EVLP present in the D-EVLP group was necessary to obtain optimal post-transplant function. This finding, if confirmed clinically, will allow expanded use of non-heart-beating donor lungs. PMID:22944084

  10. Effects of rock wool on the lungs evaluated by magnetometry and biopersistence test

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Yuichiro; Kotani, Makoto; Tomita, Masayuki; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    Background Asbestos has been reported to cause pulmonary fibrosis, and its use has been banned all over the world. The related industries are facing an urgent need to develop a safer fibrous substance. Rock wool (RW), a kind of asbestos substitute, is widely used in the construction industry. In order to evaluate the safety of RW, we performed a nose-only inhalation exposure study in rats. After one-month observation period, the potential of RW fibers to cause pulmonary toxicity was evaluated based on lung magnetometry findings, pulmonary biopersistence, and pneumopathology. Methods Using the nose-only inhalation exposure system, 6 male Fischer 344 rats (6 to 10 weeks old) were exposed to RW fibers at a target fiber concentration of 100 fibers/cm3 (length [L] > 20 μm) for 6 hours daily, for 5 consecutive days. As a magnetometric indicator, 3 mg of triiron tetraoxide suspended in 0.2 mL of physiological saline was intratracheally administered after RW exposure to these rats and 6 unexposed rats (controls). During one second magnetization in 50 mT external magnetic field, all magnetic particles were aligned, and immediately afterwards the strength of their remanent magnetic field in the rat lungs was measured in both groups. Magnetization and measurement of the decay (relaxation) of this remanent magnetic field was performed over 40 minutes on 1, 3, 14, and 28 days after RW exposure, and reflected cytoskeleton dependent intracellular transport within macrophages in the lung. Similarly, 24 and 12 male Fisher 344-rats were used for biopersistence test and pathologic evaluation, respectively. Results In the lung magnetometric evaluation, biopersistence test and pathological evaluation, the arithmetic mean value of the total fiber concentration was 650.2, 344.7 and 390.7 fibers/cm3, respectively, and 156.6, 93.1 and 95.0 fibers/cm3 for fibers with L > 20 μm, respectively. The lung magnetometric evaluation revealed that impaired relaxation indicating cytoskeletal

  11. Measuring interfraction and intrafraction lung function changes during radiation therapy using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kipritidis, John Keall, Paul J.; Hugo, Geoffrey; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Adaptive ventilation guided radiation therapy could minimize the irradiation of healthy lung based on repeat lung ventilation imaging (VI) during treatment. However the efficacy of adaptive ventilation guidance requires that interfraction (e.g., week-to-week), ventilation changes are not washed out by intrafraction (e.g., pre- and postfraction) changes, for example, due to patient breathing variability. The authors hypothesize that patients undergoing lung cancer radiation therapy exhibit larger interfraction ventilation changes compared to intrafraction function changes. To test this, the authors perform the first comparison of interfraction and intrafraction lung VI pairs using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI), a novel technique for functional lung imaging. Methods: The authors analyzed a total of 215 4D-CBCT scans acquired for 19 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients over 4–6 weeks of radiation therapy. This set of 215 scans was sorted into 56 interfraction pairs (including first day scans and each of treatment weeks 2, 4, and 6) and 78 intrafraction pairs (including pre/postfraction scans on the same-day), with some scans appearing in both sets. VIs were obtained from the Jacobian determinant of the transform between the 4D-CBCT end-exhale and end-inhale images after deformable image registration. All VIs were deformably registered to their corresponding planning CT and normalized to account for differences in breathing effort, thus facilitating image comparison in terms of (i) voxelwise Spearman correlations, (ii) mean image differences, and (iii) gamma pass rates for all interfraction and intrafraction VI pairs. For the side of the lung ipsilateral to the tumor, we applied two-sided t-tests to determine whether interfraction VI pairs were more different than intrafraction VI pairs. Results: The (mean ± standard deviation) Spearman correlation for interfraction VI pairs was r{sup -}{sub Inter

  12. Impact of backpack type on respiratory muscle strength and lung function in children.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Christina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We examine the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children. Thirty-seven children were assessed for lung function and inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength under four randomly determined conditions: unloaded erect standing and three conditions carrying 15% of the child's body weight. In these three conditions, children carried the weight on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over both shoulders, on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over one shoulder and on a backpack with a mono shoulder strap. Significantly lower forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and maximal expiratory pressure were observed when children carried a backpack with a mono shoulder strap compared to the unloaded standing position. In conclusion, the restrictive effect and the decrease in expiratory muscle strength were more pronounced for the backpack with a mono shoulder strap, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. Practitioner summary: There is little known about the effect of schoolbags on respiratory muscle function. We investigated the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength. A backpack with a mono shoulder strap created a restrictive effect and a decrease in strength, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. PMID:25584722

  13. In Vitro Drug Sensitivity Tests to Predict Molecular Target Drug Responses in Surgically Resected Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Ryohei; Anayama, Takashi; Hirohashi, Kentaro; Okada, Hironobu; Kume, Motohiko; Orihashi, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors have dramatically changed the strategy of medical treatment of lung cancer. Patients should be screened for the presence of the EGFR mutation or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion gene prior to chemotherapy to predict their clinical response. The succinate dehydrogenase inhibition (SDI) test and collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) are established in vitro drug sensitivity tests, which may predict the sensitivity of patients to cytotoxic anticancer drugs. We applied in vitro drug sensitivity tests for cyclopedic prediction of clinical responses to different molecular targeting drugs. Methods The growth inhibitory effects of erlotinib and crizotinib were confirmed for lung cancer cell lines using SDI and CD-DST. The sensitivity of 35 cases of surgically resected lung cancer to erlotinib was examined using SDI or CD-DST, and compared with EGFR mutation status. Results HCC827 (Exon19: E746-A750 del) and H3122 (EML4-ALK) cells were inhibited by lower concentrations of erlotinib and crizotinib, respectively than A549, H460, and H1975 (L858R+T790M) cells were. The viability of the surgically resected lung cancer was 60.0 ± 9.8 and 86.8 ± 13.9% in EGFR-mutants vs. wild types in the SDI (p = 0.0003). The cell viability was 33.5 ± 21.2 and 79.0 ± 18.6% in EGFR mutants vs. wild-type cases (p = 0.026) in CD-DST. Conclusions In vitro drug sensitivity evaluated by either SDI or CD-DST correlated with EGFR gene status. Therefore, SDI and CD-DST may be useful predictors of potential clinical responses to the molecular anticancer drugs, cyclopedically. PMID:27070423

  14. Improved Air Quality and Attenuated Lung Function Decline: Modification by Obesity in the SAPALDIA Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, Emmanuel; Meier, Flurina; Phuleria, Harish C.; Vierkötter, Andrea; Schindler, Christian; Kriemler, Susi; Zemp, Elisabeth; Krämer, Ursula; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Rochat, Thierry; Schwartz, Joel; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Background: Air pollution and obesity are hypothesized to contribute to accelerated decline in lung function with age through their inflammatory properties. Objective: We investigated whether the previously reported association between improved air quality and lung health in the population-based SAPALDIA cohort is modified by obesity. Methods: We used adjusted mixed-model analyses to estimate the association of average body mass index (BMI) and changes in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10; ΔPM10) with lung function decline over a 10-year follow-up period. Results: Lung function data and complete information were available for 4,664 participants. Age-related declines in lung function among participants with high average BMI were more rapid for FVC (forced vital capacity), but slower for FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/FVC) and FEF25–75 (forced expiratory flow at 25–75%) than declines among those with low or normal average BMI. Improved air quality was associated with attenuated reductions in FEV1/FVC, FEF25–75, and FEF25–75/FVC over time among low- and normal-BMI participants, but not overweight or obese participants. The attenuation was most pronounced for ΔFEF25–75/FVC (30% and 22% attenuation in association with a 10-μg/m3 decrease in PM10 among low- and normal-weight participants, respectively.) Conclusion: Our results point to the importance of considering health effects of air pollution exposure and obesity in parallel. Further research must address the mechanisms underlying the observed interaction. Citation: Schikowski T, Schaffner E, Meier F, Phuleria HC, Vierkötter A, Schindler C, Kriemler S, Zemp E, Krämer U, Bridevaux P-O, Rochat T, Schwartz J, Künzli N, Probst-Hensch N. 2013. Improved air quality and attenuated lung function decline: modification by obesity in the SAPALDIA cohort. Environ Health Perspect 121:1034–1039; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206145 PMID:23820868

  15. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years

    PubMed Central

    Dratva, Julia; Zemp, Elisabeth; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Accordini, Simone; Burdet, Luc; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; de Marco, Roberto; Norbäck, Dan; Pons, Marco; Real, Francisco Gómez; Sunyer, Jordi; Villani, Simona; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Methods Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9–11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28–73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Results Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Conclusion Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further. PMID:26811913

  16. [Biological testing of fibrogenic effect of dust from the "Gliwice" mine on the lung tissue].

    PubMed

    Zyłka-Włoszczyk, M; Szymczykiewicz, K; Szaflarska-Stojko, E; Olczyk, D

    1990-01-01

    Animal study was carried out to determine biological aggressiveness of mining dust by means of pulmonary tests. Dust samples, 50 mg settled dust, a mixture from 3 different mine layers (sample A) and 50 mg dust collected by the gravimetric method from different mine layers (sample B) were administered in two respective test groups by a single intratracheal injection. Silica content, determined according to Polezhayev, was found to range from 4.6% (sample A) to 12.7% (sample B). In months 3 and 6 of the experiment lung content of hydroxyproline was determined following Stegemann. Biochemical tests for hydroxyproline content revealed highest increase in the lungs of Group 2 animals 6 months after the onset of the experiment (10.312 mg). Very similar result was obtained in Group 1, with injected settled dust mixture: hydroxyproline level amounted to 10.214 mg. Both sample A and sample B induced elevated level of lung hydroxyproline although silica content in dust sample differed considerably. The study revealed that the biological aggressiveness of settled dust was not proportionate to the content of pure silica. It is thought that increased fibrogenic potentials of the settled dust may have resulted from defected crystalline structure of silica due to the grinding of the mineral in a hand-mill. PMID:2215202

  17. Changes in respiratory elastance after deep inspirations reflect surface film functionality in mice with acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ayuko; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Majumdar, Arnab; Suki, Béla

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant reduces surface tension in the lung and prevents alveolar collapse. Following a deep inspiration (DI), respiratory elastance first drops then gradually increases due to surface film and tissue viscoelasticity. In acute lung injury (ALI), this increase is faster and governed by alveolar collapse due to increased surface tension. We hypothesized that the rate of increase in elastance reflects the deficiency of surfactant in the lung. To test this, mice were ventilated before (baseline) and after saline lavage obtained by injecting 0.8 ml and withdrawing 0.7 ml fluid (severe ALI) or injecting 0.1 ml (mild ALI). Afte