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Sample records for lung type ii

  1. Type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Blanca Estela; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Martínez-Muñiz, Irma; Vargas, Mario H; Flores-Salgado, Rosalinda

    2013-01-01

    A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g) from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung. PMID:23762890

  2. Isolation and Culture of Alveolar Epithelial Type I and Type II Cells from Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Robert F.; Dobbs, Leland G.

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary alveolar epithelium, comprised of alveolar Type I (TI) and Type II (TII) cells, covers more than 99% of the internal surface area of the lungs. The study of isolated and cultured alveolar epithelial TI and TII cells has provided a large amount of information about the functions of both cell types. This chapter provides information about methods for isolating and culturing both of these cell types from rat lungs. PMID:23097106

  3. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment reduced the lung injury of type II decompression sickness

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ming; Zhou, Luting; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Peifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To detect the ultrastructural changes in rabbits with type II decompression sickness (DCS), and study the therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Methods: Twenty-seven male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided equally into the DCS group, HBO treatment group and control group. Experimental models of each group were prepared. Lung apex tissues were harvested to prepare paraffin- and EPON812-embedded tissues. Results: In the DCS group, macroscopic and histological examination revealed severe and rapid damage to lung tissue. Ultrastructural examination revealed exudation of red blood cells in the alveolar space. Type I alveolar epithelial cells exhibited retracted cell processes and swollen mitochondria, and type II cells showed highly swollen mitochondria and decrease in cytoplasmic lamellar bodies. Dilatation and congestion of capillary vessels were accompanied by swelling of endothelial cells and incomplete basement membrane. In the HBO treatment group, the findings were somewhat similar to those in the DCS group, but the extent of damage was lesser. Only a small amount of tiny bubbles could be seen in the blood vessels. Type I alveolar epithelia cells and endothelial cells of the capillaries illustrated slight shortening of cells, swollen cytoplasm and decreased cell processes. Type II alveolar epithelial cells showed slight swelling of the mitochondria, decreased vacuolar degeneration of lamellar bodies, and increase in the number of free ribosomes. Conclusions: Our microscopic and ultrastructural findings confirm that the lung is an important organ affected by DCS. We also confirmed that HBO can alleviate DCS-induced pulmonary damage. PMID:25973070

  4. Type II pneumocytes in mixed cell culture of human lung: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, L; Bull, T B; Fox, B; Guz, A; Richards, R J; Tetley, T D

    1990-01-01

    Alveolar Type II epithelial cells dedifferentiate rapidly in vitro. Studies with animal tissue suggest that cell-cell and extracellular matrix-cell interactions are important in the retention of Type II cell morphology in vitro. Thus, in this study with human tissue, alveolar Type II cells, alveolar macrophages, and spindle cells were prepared from the same sample of lung (obtained following lobectomy for cancer, n = 3), cocultured on glass cover slips or tissue culture plastic, and studied by light microscopy with scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy for 8 days. The primary cell isolates contained approximately 45% Type II cells; the remainder were macrophages or unidentifiable cells. Clusters, made up of a single layer of cuboidal Type II cells around a central core of connective tissue (largely collagen and some elastic tissue), formed above a monolayer of spindle cells. The Type II cells were morphologically similar to those seen in vivo. The cells were still cuboidal at 8 days but had lost their lamellar bodies, which were released into the medium via the apical surface. The clusters increased in size with time (area, microns 2: day 1, 29(5-143) x 10(2); day 8, 63(10-311) x 10(2); mean(range); p less than 0.02) without changing in number per culture, suggesting Type II cell proliferation. This may have been due to factors produced by the other cells and adherence to the extracellular matrix (ECM); (free collagen fibers, present in the original preparation, spindle cells, and/or Type II cells could be responsible for presence of ECM). We propose this as a useful model for the study of human Type II epithelial cells in vitro. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 1. c FIGURE 1. d FIGURE 1. e FIGURE 1. f FIGURE 2. a FIGURE 2. b FIGURE 2. c FIGURE 2. d FIGURE 2. e FIGURE 2. f FIGURE 2. g FIGURE 3. PMID:2384069

  5. Plasticity of Hopx+ Type I alveolar cells to regenerate Type II cells in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajan; Barkauskas, Christina E.; Takeda, Norifumi; Bowie, Emily J.; Aghajanian, Haig; Wang, Qiaohong; Padmanabhan, Arun; Manderfield, Lauren J.; Gupta, Mudit; Li, Deqiang; Li, Li; Trivedi, Chinmay M.; Hogan, Brigid L. M.; Epstein, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The plasticity of differentiated cells in adult tissues undergoing repair is an area of intense research. Pulmonary alveolar Type II cells produce surfactant and function as progenitors in the adult, demonstrating both self-renewal and differentiation into gas exchanging Type I cells. In vivo, Type I cells are thought to be terminally differentiated and their ability to give rise to alternate lineages has not been reported. Here, we show that Hopx becomes restricted to Type I cells during development. However, unexpectedly, lineage-labeled Hopx+ cells both proliferate and generate Type II cells during adult alveolar regrowth following partial pneumonectomy. In clonal 3D culture, single Hopx+ Type I cells generate organoids composed of Type I and Type II cells, a process modulated by TGFβ signaling. These findings demonstrate unanticipated plasticity of Type I cells and a bi-directional lineage relationship between distinct differentiated alveolar epithelial cell types in vivo and in single cell culture. PMID:25865356

  6. Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajan; Barkauskas, Christina E; Takeda, Norifumi; Bowie, Emily J; Aghajanian, Haig; Wang, Qiaohong; Padmanabhan, Arun; Manderfield, Lauren J; Gupta, Mudit; Li, Deqiang; Li, Li; Trivedi, Chinmay M; Hogan, Brigid L M; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The plasticity of differentiated cells in adult tissues undergoing repair is an area of intense research. Pulmonary alveolar type II cells produce surfactant and function as progenitors in the adult, demonstrating both self-renewal and differentiation into gas exchanging type I cells. In vivo, type I cells are thought to be terminally differentiated and their ability to give rise to alternate lineages has not been reported. Here we show that Hopx becomes restricted to type I cells during development. However, unexpectedly, lineage-labelled Hopx(+) cells both proliferate and generate type II cells during adult alveolar regrowth following partial pneumonectomy. In clonal 3D culture, single Hopx(+) type I cells generate organoids composed of type I and type II cells, a process modulated by TGFβ signalling. These findings demonstrate unanticipated plasticity of type I cells and a bidirectional lineage relationship between distinct differentiated alveolar epithelial cell types in vivo and in single-cell culture. PMID:25865356

  7. p120-Catenin Expressed in Alveolar Type II Cells Is Essential for the Regulation of Lung Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Chignalia, Andreia Z.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Albert B.; Mehta, Dolly; Dull, Randal O.; Minshall, Richard D.; Malik, Asrar B.; Liu, Yuru

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of the lung alveolar epithelial barrier is required for the gas exchange and is important for immune regulation. Alveolar epithelial barrier is composed of flat type I cells, which make up approximately 95% of the gas-exchange surface, and cuboidal type II cells, which secrete surfactants and modulate lung immunity. p120-catenin (p120; gene symbol CTNND1) is an important component of adherens junctions of epithelial cells; however, its function in lung alveolar epithelial barrier has not been addressed in genetic models. Here, we created an inducible type II cell–specific p120-knockout mouse (p120EKO). The mutant lungs showed chronic inflammation, and the alveolar epithelial barrier was leaky to 125I-albumin tracer compared to wild type. The mutant lungs also demonstrated marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and activation of NF-κB. Intracellular adhesion molecule 1, Toll-like receptor 4, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were all up-regulated. p120EKO lungs showed increased expression of the surfactant proteins Sp-B, Sp-C, and Sp-D, and displayed severe inflammation after pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with wild type. In p120-deficient type II cell monolayers, we observed reduced transepithelial resistance compared to control, consistent with formation of defective adherens junctions. Thus, although type II cells constitute only 5% of the alveolar surface area, p120 expressed in these cells plays a critical role in regulating the innate immunity of the entire lung. PMID:25773174

  8. p120-catenin expressed in alveolar type II cells is essential for the regulation of lung innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Chignalia, Andreia Z; Vogel, Stephen M; Reynolds, Albert B; Mehta, Dolly; Dull, Randal O; Minshall, Richard D; Malik, Asrar B; Liu, Yuru

    2015-05-01

    The integrity of the lung alveolar epithelial barrier is required for the gas exchange and is important for immune regulation. Alveolar epithelial barrier is composed of flat type I cells, which make up approximately 95% of the gas-exchange surface, and cuboidal type II cells, which secrete surfactants and modulate lung immunity. p120-catenin (p120; gene symbol CTNND1) is an important component of adherens junctions of epithelial cells; however, its function in lung alveolar epithelial barrier has not been addressed in genetic models. Here, we created an inducible type II cell-specific p120-knockout mouse (p120EKO). The mutant lungs showed chronic inflammation, and the alveolar epithelial barrier was leaky to (125)I-albumin tracer compared to wild type. The mutant lungs also demonstrated marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and activation of NF-κB. Intracellular adhesion molecule 1, Toll-like receptor 4, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were all up-regulated. p120EKO lungs showed increased expression of the surfactant proteins Sp-B, Sp-C, and Sp-D, and displayed severe inflammation after pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with wild type. In p120-deficient type II cell monolayers, we observed reduced transepithelial resistance compared to control, consistent with formation of defective adherens junctions. Thus, although type II cells constitute only 5% of the alveolar surface area, p120 expressed in these cells plays a critical role in regulating the innate immunity of the entire lung. PMID:25773174

  9. Interfacial sensing by alveolar type II cells: a new concept in lung physiology?

    PubMed Central

    Ravasio, Andrea; Hobi, Nina; Bertocchi, Cristina; Jesacher, Alexander; Dietl, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Alveolar type II (AT II) cells are in close contact with an air-liquid interface (IAL). This contact may be of considerable physiological relevance; however, no data exist to provide a satisfying description of this specific microenvironment. This is mainly due to the experimental difficulty to manipulate and analyze cell-air contacts in a specific way. Therefore, we designed assays to quantify cell viability, Ca2+ changes, and exocytosis in the course of interface contact and miniaturized IAL devices for direct, subcellular, and real-time analyses of cell-interface interactions by fluorescence microscopy or interferometry. The studies demonstrated that the sole presence of an IAL is not sensed by the cells. However, when AT II cells are forced into closer contact with it, they respond promptly with sustained Ca2+ signals and surfactant exocytosis before the occurrence of irreversible cell damage. This points to a paradoxical situation: a potential threat and potent stimulus for the cells. Furthermore, we found that the signalling mechanism underlying sensation of an IAL can be sufficiently explained by mechanical forces. These results demonstrate that the IAL itself can play a major, although so-far neglected, role in lung physiology, particularly in the regulatory mechanisms related with surfactant homeostasis. Moreover, they also support a general new concept of mechanosensation in the lung. PMID:21270294

  10. Altered lipid synthesis in type II pneumonocytes exposed to lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, N R; Tesan, M; Tyler, N E; Bleasdale, J E

    1986-01-01

    When type II pneumonocytes were exposed to purified lung surfactant that contained 1-palmitoyl-2-[3H]palmitoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine, radiolabelled surfactant was apparently taken up by the cells since it could not be removed by either repeated washing or exchange with non-radiolabelled surfactant, but was released when the cells were lysed. After 4 h of exposure to [3H]surfactant, more than half of the 3H within cells remained in disaturated phosphatidylcholine. Incorporation of [3H]choline, [14C]palmitate and [14C]acetate into glycerophospholipids was decreased in type II cells exposed to surfactant and this inhibition, like surfactant uptake, was half-maximal when the extracellular concentration of surfactant was approx. 0.1 mumol of lipid P/ml. Inhibition of incorporation of radiolabelled precursors by surfactant occurred rapidly and reversibly and was not due solely to dilution of the specific radioactivity of intracellular precursors. Activity of dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase, but not glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, was decreased in type II cells exposed to surfactant and this was reflected by a decrease in the 14C/3H ratio of total lipids synthesized when cells incubated with [U-14C]glycerol and [2-3H]glycerol were exposed to surfactant. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and cholesterol, either individually or mixed in the molar ratio found in surfactant, did not mimic purified surfactant in the inhibition of glycerophospholipid synthesis. In contrast, an apoprotein fraction isolated from surfactant inhibited greatly the incorporation of [3H]choline into lipids and this inhibitory activity was labile to heat and to trypsin. It is concluded that the apparent uptake of surfactant by type II cells in vitro is accompanied by an inhibition of glycerophospholipid synthesis via a mechanism that involves a surfactant apoprotein. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3827860

  11. A pure population of lung alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dachun; Haviland, David L; Burns, Alan R; Zsigmond, Eva; Wetsel, Rick A

    2007-03-13

    Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells are small, cuboidal cells that constitute approximately 60% of the pulmonary alveolar epithelium. These cells are crucial for repair of the injured alveolus by differentiating into alveolar epithelial type I cells. ATII cells derived from human ES (hES) cells are a promising source of cells that could be used therapeutically to treat distal lung diseases. We have developed a reliable transfection and culture procedure, which facilitates, via genetic selection, the differentiation of hES cells into an essentially pure (>99%) population of ATII cells (hES-ATII). Purity, as well as biological features and morphological characteristics of normal ATII cells, was demonstrated for the hES-ATII cells, including lamellar body formation, expression of surfactant proteins A, B, and C, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance receptor, as well as the synthesis and secretion of complement proteins C3 and C5. Collectively, these data document the successful generation of a pure population of ATII cells derived from hES cells, providing a practical source of ATII cells to explore in disease models their potential in the regeneration and repair of the injured alveolus and in the therapeutic treatment of genetic diseases affecting the lung. PMID:17360544

  12. Type II pneumocyte-restricted green fluorescent protein expression after lentiviral transduction of lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Stephanie; Gruh, Ina; Winkler, Monica E; Beier, Jennifer; Radtke, Kerstin; Schmiedl, Andreas; Groos, Stephanie; Haverich, Axel; Martin, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Type II alveolar epithelial (AT2) cell-specific reporter expression has been highly useful in the study of embryology and alveolar regeneration in transgenic mice. Technologies enabling efficient gene transfer and cell type-restricted transgene expression in AT2 cells would allow for correction of AT2 cell-based diseases such as genetic surfactant deficiencies. Moreover, such approaches are urgently required to investigate differentiation of AT2 cells from adult and embryonic stem cells of other species than mouse. Using a human surfactant protein C (SP-C) promoter fragment, we have constructed lentiviral vectors enabling AT2-restricted transgene expression and identification of stem cell-derived AT2 cells. Lung epithelial cell lines M3E3/C3, H441, RLE-6TN, A549, MLE-12, and MLE-15 were characterized at the molecular and ultrastructural levels to identify cell lines useful to assess the cell type specificity of our vector constructs. After transduction, no green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was observed in nontarget cells including bronchial H441 cells, pulmonary A549 cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. In contrast, and in correlation with endogenous SP-C expression, lentiviral transduction resulted in stable GFP expression in MLE-12 and MLE-15 AT2 cells. In conclusion, we have constructed a lentiviral vector mediating SP-C promoter-dependent GFP expression. Transgene expression strictly corresponds with an AT2 phenotype of the transduced cells. In particular, the generated vector should facilitate local alveolar gene therapy and investigation of alveolar regeneration and stem cell differentiation. PMID:18052721

  13. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on type II alveolar epithelial cells of the rat lung. Autoradiographic and morphometric studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y; Watanabe, T; Watanabe, M; Hasegawa, S; Uchiyama, Y

    1989-01-01

    Effects of atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) on Type II cells of the rat lung were examined, using autoradiographic and morphometric techniques. The injection of an excess of ANP, together with [125I]ANP, significantly inhibited the uptake of radioactive ANP in the lung tissue. Following autoradiography, silver grains of [125I]ANP labelled Type II cells, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of vessels, bronchi and bronchioles. As for morphometric changes in subcellular structures of Type II cells after the injection of ANP, the volume and surface densities of the rough endoplasmic reticulum increased at 15 minutes, while those of the Golgi complex increased from 5 minutes, peaking at 30 minutes. At 15 minutes the volume and surface densities of mitochondria significantly increased. The volume and surface densities of multivesicular bodies with an electron-dense matrix also increased from 15 minutes after the injection. Lamellar bodies showed decreased volume and surface densities at 15 minutes whereas the densities showed an increase at 30 minutes and were higher at 60 minutes than those in the control. These results suggest that Type II cells provide a binding site for ANP which facilitates the production of lamellar bodies in addition to their secretion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:2533592

  14. Deletion of Scap in alveolar type II cells influences lung lipid homeostasis and identifies a compensatory role for pulmonary lipofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Valérie; Wert, Susan E; Stahlman, Mildred T; Postle, Anthony D; Xu, Yan; Ikegami, Machiko; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2009-02-01

    Pulmonary function after birth is dependent upon surfactant lipids that reduce surface tension in the alveoli. The sterol-responsive element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors regulating expression of genes controlling lipid homeostasis in many tissues. To identify the role of SREBPs in the lung, we conditionally deleted the SREBP cleavage-activating protein gene, Scap, in respiratory epithelial cells (ScapDelta/Delta) in vivo. Prior to birth (E18.5), deletion of Scap decreased the expression of both SREBPs and a number of genes regulating fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. Nevertheless, ScapDelta/Delta mice survived postnatally, surfactant and lung tissue lipids being substantially normalized in adult ScapDelta/Delta mice. Although phospholipid synthesis was decreased in type II cells from adult ScapDelta/Delta mice, lipid storage, synthesis, and transfer by lung lipofibroblasts were increased. mRNA microarray data indicated that SCAP influenced two major gene networks, one regulating lipid metabolism and the other stress-related responses. Deletion of the SCAP/SREBP pathway in respiratory epithelial cells altered lung lipid homeostasis and induced compensatory lipid accumulation and synthesis in lung lipofibroblasts. PMID:19074148

  15. The miR-200 family and its targets regulate type II cell differentiation in human fetal lung.

    PubMed

    Benlhabib, Houda; Guo, Wei; Pierce, Brianne M; Mendelson, Carole R

    2015-09-11

    Type II cell differentiation and expression of the major surfactant protein, SP-A, in mid-gestation human fetal lung (HFL) are induced by cAMP and inhibited by TGF-β. cAMP induction of SP-A promoter activity is mediated by increased phosphorylation and DNA binding of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1/Nkx2.1), a master regulator of lung development. To further define mechanisms for developmental induction of surfactant synthesis in HFL, herein, we investigated the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs). To identify and characterize differentially regulated miRNAs in mid-gestation HFL explants during type II pneumocyte differentiation in culture, we performed miRNA microarray of RNA from epithelial cells isolated from mid-gestation HFL explants before and after culture with or without Bt2cAMP. Interestingly, the miR-200 family was significantly up-regulated during type II cell differentiation; miR-200 induction was inversely correlated with expression of known targets, transcription factors ZEB1/2 and TGF-β2. miR-200 antagonists inhibited TTF-1 and surfactant proteins and up-regulated TGF-β2 and ZEB1 expression in type II cells. Overexpression of ZEB1 in type II cells decreased DNA binding of endogenous TTF-1, blocked cAMP stimulation of surfactant proteins, and inhibited miR-200 expression, whereas cAMP markedly inhibited ZEB1/2 and TGF-β. Importantly, overexpression of ZEB1 or miR-200 antagonists in HFL type II cells also inhibited LPCAT1 and ABCA3, enzymes involved in surfactant phospholipid synthesis and trafficking, and blocked lamellar body biogenesis. Our findings suggest that the miR-200 family and ZEB1, which exist in a double-negative feedback loop regulated by TGF-β, serve important roles in the developmental regulation of type II cell differentiation and function in HFL. PMID:26203191

  16. Restoration of alveolar type II cell function contributes to simvastatin-induced attenuation of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaqin; Lv, Junjie; Feng, Dongjie; Jiang, Feng; Fan, Xiaohu; Zhang, Zhi; Yin, Rong; Xu, Lin

    2012-12-01

    Alveolar type (AT) II cells transdifferentiate into ATI cells and as such represent a promising source for regenerating lung epithelium following lung injury. ATII cells are characterized by the presence of lamellar bodies (LBs), which store and secrete the surfactant protein-C (SP-C). Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) causes a distinct impairment of the ATII cell function, subsequently hindering lung repair by loss of ATI transdifferentiation. In this study, we provide new evidence that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor simvastatin may restore the function of impaired ATII cells in vitro and in vivo. ATII cell lines, A549 (human) and MLE-12 (mouse), were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) injury. Simvastatin pretreatment at low (5-20 µM), but not high (50-100 µM) doses markedly reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation and SP-C expression. In a rat lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model, simvastatin treatment also increased ATII cell proliferation in vivo, as demonstrated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen/SP-C double staining. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the number and volume density of LBs were significantly increased in the simvastatin-treated rat lungs. The protective effects of simvastatin were reversed in vitro by PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin and L-mevalonate, indicating that the PI3K/Akt and mevalonate pathways may be involved in simvastatin-induced ATII cell function restoration. These data demonstrate that an appropriate dose of simvastatin has a protective effect on LIRI in vitro and in vivo, due at least partially to restored ATII cell function via the HMG-CoA reductase pathway-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt signaling in a mevalonate pathway-dependent manner. PMID:23076613

  17. Sirtuin 1 Activator SRT1720 Protects Against Lung Injury via Reduction of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells Apoptosis in Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Li, Yaqing; Xu, Wu-Lin; Yan, Jian-Ping; Xia, Ying-jie; Ma, Ying-Yu; Chen, Chun; Wang, Hui-Ju; Tao, Hou-quan

    2015-08-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two major pathological changes that occur are the loss of alveolar structure and airspace enlargement. Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII) play a vital role in maintaining alveolar homeostasis and lung tissue repair. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, regulates many pathophysiological processes including inflammation, apoptosis, cellular senescence and stress resistance. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether SRT1720, a pharmacological SIRT1 activator, could protect against AECII apoptosis in rats with emphysema caused by cigarette smoke exposure and intratracheal lipopolysaccharide instillation in vivo. During the induction of emphysema in rats, administration of SRT1720 improved lung function including airway resistance and pulmonary dynamic compliance. SRT1720 treatment up-regulated the levels of surfactant protein (SP)A, SPC, SIRT1 and forkhead box O 3, increased SIRT1 activity, down-regulated the level of p53 and inhibited AECII apoptosis. Lung injury caused by emphysema was alleviated after SRT1720 treatment. SRT1720 could protect against AECII apoptosis in rats with emphysema and thus could be used in COPD treatment. PMID:25415045

  18. Leptin promotes fetal lung maturity and upregulates SP-A expression in pulmonary alveoli type-II epithelial cells involving TTF-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Huang, Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Cheng, Rui; Cai, Wei-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The placental hormone leptin has important functions in fetal and neonatal growth, and prevents depressed respiration in leptin-deficient mice. The effect of leptin on respiratory distress suffered by low birth weight and premature infants has been studied. However, it is unclear how leptin enhances lung maturity in the fetus and ameliorates neonatal respiratory distress. In the present study, we found that antenatal treatment with leptin for 2 d significantly enhanced the relative alveolus area and improved the maturity of fetal lungs in a rat model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Mean birth weight and lung wet weight were higher in the leptin-treated group than in the PBS-treated group, indicating promotion of fetal growth. Leptin upregulated the intracellular expression and extracellular secretion of surfactant protein (SP) A in type-II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in vivo and in vitro. Dual positive effects of leptin were found on protein expression and transcriptional activity of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), a nuclear transcription essential for branching morphogenesis of the lung and expression of SP-A in type-II AECs. Knockdown of TTF-1 by RNA interference indicated that TTF-1 may play a vital role in leptin-induced SP-A expression. These results suggest that leptin may have great therapeutic potential for the treatment of FGR, and leptin-mediated SP-A induction and lung maturity of the fetus are TTF-1 dependent. PMID:23894445

  19. An improved method for the isolation of rat alveolar type II lung cells: Use in the Comet assay to determine DNA damage induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is a cause of serious diseases, including lung cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and heart disease. DNA damage is thought to be one of the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke (CS) initiates disease in the lung. Indeed, CS induced DNA damage can be measured in vitro and in vivo. The potential of the Comet assay to measure DNA damage in isolated rat lung alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II) was explored as a means to include a genotoxicity end-point in rodent sub-chronic inhalation studies. In this study, published AEC II isolation methods were improved to yield viable cells suitable for use in the Comet assay. The improved method reduced the level of basal DNA damage and DNA repair in isolated AEC II. CS induced DNA damage could also be quantified in isolated cells following a single or 5 days CS exposure. In conclusion, the Comet assay has the potential to determine CS or other aerosol induced DNA damage in AEC II isolated from rodents used in sub-chronic inhalation studies. PMID:25846365

  20. Linking progression of fibrotic lung remodeling and ultrastructural alterations of alveolar epithelial type II cells in the amiodarone mouse model.

    PubMed

    Birkelbach, Bastian; Lutz, Dennis; Ruppert, Clemens; Henneke, Ingrid; Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Günther, Andreas; Ochs, Matthias; Mahavadi, Poornima; Knudsen, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Chronic injury of alveolar epithelial type II cells (AE2 cells) represents a key event in the development of lung fibrosis in animal models and in humans, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Intratracheal delivery of amiodarone to mice results in a profound injury and macroautophagy-dependent apoptosis of AE2 cells. Increased autophagy manifested in AE2 cells by disturbances of the intracellular surfactant. Hence, we hypothesized that ultrastructural alterations of the intracellular surfactant pool are signs of epithelial stress correlating with the severity of fibrotic remodeling. With the use of design-based stereology, the amiodarone model of pulmonary fibrosis in mice was characterized at the light and ultrastructural level during progression. Mean volume of AE2 cells, volume of lamellar bodies per AE2 cell, and mean size of lamellar bodies were correlated to structural parameters reflecting severity of fibrosis like collagen content. Within 2 wk amiodarone leads to an increase in septal wall thickness and a decrease in alveolar numbers due to irreversible alveolar collapse associated with alveolar surfactant dysfunction. Progressive hypertrophy of AE2 cells and increase in mean individual size and total volume of lamellar bodies per AE2 cell were observed. A high positive correlation of these AE2 cell-related ultrastructural changes and the deposition of collagen fibrils within septal walls were established. Qualitatively, similar alterations could be found in IPF samples with mild to moderate fibrosis. We conclude that ultrastructural alterations of AE2 cells including the surfactant system are tightly correlated with the progression of fibrotic remodeling. PMID:25957292

  1. Deletion of Scap in Alveolar Type II Cells Influences Lung Lipid Homeostasis and Identifies a Compensatory Role for Pulmonary Lipofibroblasts*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Valérie; Wert, Susan E.; Stahlman, Mildred T.; Postle, Anthony D.; Xu, Yan; Ikegami, Machiko; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary function after birth is dependent upon surfactant lipids that reduce surface tension in the alveoli. The sterol-responsive element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors regulating expression of genes controlling lipid homeostasis in many tissues. To identify the role of SREBPs in the lung, we conditionally deleted the SREBP cleavage-activating protein gene, Scap, in respiratory epithelial cells (ScapΔ/Δ) in vivo. Prior to birth (E18.5), deletion of Scap decreased the expression of both SREBPs and a number of genes regulating fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. Nevertheless, ScapΔ/Δ mice survived postnatally, surfactant and lung tissue lipids being substantially normalized in adult ScapΔ/Δ mice. Although phospholipid synthesis was decreased in type II cells from adult ScapΔ/Δ mice, lipid storage, synthesis, and transfer by lung lipofibroblasts were increased. mRNA microarray data indicated that SCAP influenced two major gene networks, one regulating lipid metabolism and the other stress-related responses. Deletion of the SCAP/SREBP pathway in respiratory epithelial cells altered lung lipid homeostasis and induced compensatory lipid accumulation and synthesis in lung lipofibroblasts. PMID:19074148

  2. Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells Contribute to the Anti-Influenza A Virus Response in the Lung by Integrating Pathogen- and Microenvironment-Derived Signals

    PubMed Central

    Jeron, Andreas; Gereke, Marcus; Geffers, Robert; Kröger, Andrea; Gunzer, Matthias; Bruder, Dunja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) periodically causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the human population. In the lower lung, the primary targets for IAV replication are type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII), which are increasingly recognized for their immunological potential. So far, little is known about their reaction to IAV and their contribution to respiratory antiviral immunity in vivo. Therefore, we characterized the AECII response during early IAV infection by analyzing transcriptional regulation in cells sorted from the lungs of infected mice. We detected rapid and extensive regulation of gene expression in AECII following in vivo IAV infection. The comparison to transcriptional regulation in lung tissue revealed a strong contribution of AECII to the respiratory response. IAV infection triggered the expression of a plethora of antiviral factors and immune mediators in AECII with a high prevalence for interferon-stimulated genes. Functional pathway analyses revealed high activity in pathogen recognition, immune cell recruitment, and antigen presentation. Ultimately, our analyses of transcriptional regulation in AECII and lung tissue as well as interferon I/III levels and cell recruitment indicated AECII to integrate signals provided by direct pathogen recognition and surrounding cells. Ex vivo analysis of AECII proved a powerful tool to increase our understanding of their role in respiratory immune responses, and our results clearly show that AECII need to be considered a part of the surveillance and effector system of the lower respiratory tract. PMID:27143386

  3. Expression of cyclin D{sub 1} during endotoxin-induced aleveolar type II cell hyperplasia in rat lung and the detection of apoptotic cells during the remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Wood, M.B.; Johnson, N.F.

    1995-12-01

    Our studies have shown that endotoxin intratracheally instilled into the rat lung induces proliferation of alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cell hyperplasia occurred 2 d after instillation of endotoxin and persisted for a further 2 d. After hyperplasia, the lung remodeled and returned to a normal state within 24-48 h. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the remodeling process of this transient hyperplasia may be useful to identify molecular changes that are altered in neoplasia. The purpose of the present study was to corroborate induction of epithelial cell hyperplasia by endotoxin and to delineate mechanisms involved in tissue remodeling after endotoxin-induced alveolar type II cell hyperplasia. In conclusion, immonostaining with cyclin D1 and cytokeratin shows that endotoxin induced epithelial cell proliferation and resulted in hyperplasia in the lung which persisted through 4 d post-instillation.

  4. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  5. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholines in ozone-exposed alveolar type II cells isolated from adult rat lung: is glycerolphosphate acyltransferase a rate-limiting enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Haagsman, H.P.; Schuurmans, E.A.; Batenburg, J.J.; van Golde, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Type II cells were exposed to ozone by gas diffusion through the thin Teflon bottom of culture dishes. The rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by type II cells, monitored by the incorporation of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline, was impaired by ozone at concentrations that did not affect other cellular parameters. The enzymes choline kinase and cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase were not susceptible to inactivation by ozone at concentrations at which the activity of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase was decreased. The enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase increased after ozone exposure. The specific activity of choline kinase in the cytosolic fraction of type II cells was fivefold that in whole lung. The metabolism of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline was studied as a function of the choline concentration. Maximal rates of phosphatidylcholine synthesis were already attained at a concentration of 20 microM choline. Exposure of type II cells to ozone did not affect the recovery of label from (Me-/sup 14/C)choline in choline phosphate and CDP choline. However, the maximal rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis decreased after ozone exposure, which indicates that the decreased apparent activity of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase limits the supply of diacylglycerols and thereby the rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. If the flux through the diacylglycerol pathway was stimulated by the addition of palmitic acid, a higher maximal rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis was observed. The uptake of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline and the recovery of label in CDPcholine were not altered by the addition of different concentrations of palmitate. It is concluded that type II cells take up choline very efficiently, probably due to the high specific activity of choline kinase. At low choline concentrations the rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis is determined by the supply of CDPcholine.

  6. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" ( ... affect are shown in the illustration below. Normal Lungs and Lung Structures Figure A shows the location ...

  7. Role of type II pneumocytes in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis: dose response of radiation-induced lung changes in the transient high vascular permeability period.

    PubMed

    Osterreicher, Jan; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Skopek, Jirí; Mokrỳ, Jaroslav; Vilasová, Zdena; Psutka, Jan; Vávrová, Jirina; Mazurová, Yvona

    2004-12-01

    We studied the dose response of pulmonary changes at 3 weeks after 1-25 Gy irradiation and we investigated the effects of an anti-inflammatory drug. Wistar rats were given a single dose of 1-25Gy irradiation to the thorax. Group one was treated with saline only, while group two was administered subcutaneously a combination of pentoxifylline (35 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) twice per week. Lungs were examined histochemically and number of neutrophile granulocytes, alveolar septal thickness, air/tissue ratio, number of alveoli per field, number of type II pneumocytes per alveolus, and occludin 1 expression were measured. A significant dose-dependent depletion of type II pneumocytes was found after irradiation with a dose of 1 Gy and higher. Alveolar neutrophils increased after 1 Gy with a dose dependency noted after 10-25Gy and alveolar septa thickening followed 5-25 Gy. A lower occludin 1 expression was observed in animals irradiated with the doses of 5 20 Gy, indicating an effect on vascular permeability. Anti-inflammatory therapy partially inhibited the increase of neutrophils at all radiation doses and the depletion of type II pneumocytes after doses of 1, 10, and 15 Gy. Occludin 1 did not decrease in the lungs of rats treated with the anti-inflammatory drugs as it did in most rats treated only with saline. Our results suggest that pneumocytes depletion is a major factor responsible for radiation pneumonitis development and that these changes may be compensated for provided radiation doses are below the threshold. PMID:15625787

  8. Molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in rat lung surfactant and different pools of pneumocytes type II.

    PubMed Central

    Schlame, M; Casals, C; Rüstow, B; Rabe, H; Kunze, D

    1988-01-01

    It is not yet completely understood how a cell is able to export specific phospholipids, like dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (dipalmitoyl-PC), which is secreted by pneumocytes type II, into pulmonary surfactant. The acyl species composition of [3H]PC which was synthesized in type II cells in the presence of [2-3H]glycerol resembled the species composition of PC localized in intracellular pneumocyte membranes. This species pattern was different from the pattern of PC of lamellar bodies, i.e., intracellularly stored surfactant, by a higher proportion of dipalmitoyl-PC mainly at expense of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC. Lamellar body PC in turn showed the same species distribution as surfactant PC. The data suggest that subcellular compartmentation and/or intracellular transfer of PC destined to storage in lamellar bodies, but not secretion of lamellar bodies, involves an enrichment of dipalmitoyl-PC and a depletion of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC. In contrast, the acyl species pattern of phosphatidylglycerol does not seem to undergo gross changes on the path from synthesis to secretion. PMID:3421943

  9. Differences in the expression of chromosome 1 genes between lung telocytes and other cells: mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts, alveolar type II cells, airway epithelial cells and lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoru; Zheng, Minghuan; Zhang, Miaomiao; Qian, Mengjia; Zheng, Yonghua; Li, Meiyi; Cretoiu, Dragos; Chen, Chengshui; Chen, Luonan; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a unique type of interstitial cells with specific, extremely long prolongations named telopodes (Tps). Our previous study showed that TCs are distinct from fibroblasts (Fbs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as concerns gene expression and proteomics. The present study explores patterns of mouse TC-specific gene profiles on chromosome 1. We investigated the network of main genes and the potential functional correlations. We compared gene expression profiles of mouse pulmonary TCs, MSCs, Fbs, alveolar type II cells (ATII), airway basal cells (ABCs), proximal airway cells (PACs), CD8+ T cells from bronchial lymph nodes (T-BL) and CD8+ T cells from lungs (T-LL). The functional and feature networks were identified and compared by bioinformatics tools. Our data showed that on TC chromosome 1, there are about 25% up-regulated and 70% down-regulated genes (more than onefold) as compared with the other cells respectively. Capn2, Fhl2 and Qsox1 were over-expressed in TCs compared to the other cells, indicating that biological functions of TCs are mainly associated with morphogenesis and local tissue homoeostasis. TCs seem to have important roles in the prevention of tissue inflammation and fibrogenesis development in lung inflammatory diseases and as modulators of immune cell response. In conclusion, TCs are distinct from the other cell types. PMID:24826900

  10. Staining histological lung sections with Sudan Black B or Sudan III for automated identification of alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jan Philipp; Pedersen, Lars; Mühlfeld, Christian; Ochs, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells produce, store and secrete pulmonary surfactant and serve as progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium. They are thus an interesting target in wide fields of pulmonary research. Stereological methods allow their quantification based on measurements on histological sections. A proper AE2 cell quantification, however, requires a method of tissue processing that results in little tissue shrinkage during processing. It was recently shown that a primary fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde, postfixation with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate and embedding in glycol methacrylate fulfills this requirement. However, a proper quantification, furthermore, requires a secure identification of the cells under the microscope. Classical approaches using routine stainings, high magnifications and systematic uniform random sampling can result in a tedious counting procedure. In this article we show that Sudan Black B and Sudan III staining in combination with the previously described "low shrinkage method" of tissue processing result in good staining of lamellar bodies of AE2 cells (their storing organelles of surfactant) and thus provide a good signal of AE2 cells, which allows their easy and secure identification even at rather low magnifications. We further show that this signal enables automated detection of AE2 cells by image analysis, which should make this method a suitable staining method for the recently developed and more efficient proportionator sampling. PMID:26558990

  11. Inhibition of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type II Suppresses Lung Carcinogenesis by Blocking Tumor COX-2 Expression as Well as the ERK and mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shilin; Yao, Bing; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Pozzi, Ambra; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death. Early diagnosis and prevention remain the best approach to reduce the overall morbidity and mortality. Experimental and clinical evidence have shown that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to lung tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors suppress the development and progression of lung cancer. However, increased cardiovascular risks of COX-2 inhibitors limit their use in chemoprevention of lung cancers. Glucocorticoids are endogenous and potent COX-2 inhibitors, and their local actions are down-regulated by 11β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11ßHSD2)-mediated metabolism. We found that 11βHSD2 expression was increased in human lung cancers and experimental lung tumors. Inhibition of 11βHSD2 activity enhanced glucocorticoid-mediated COX-2 inhibition in human lung carcinoma cells. Furthermore, 11βHSD2 inhibition suppressed lung tumor growth and invasion in association with increased tissue active glucocorticoid levels, decreased COX-2 expression, inhibition of ERK and mTOR signaling pathways, increased tumor endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as increased lifespan. Therefore, 11βHSD2 inhibition represents a novel approach for lung cancer chemoprevention and therapy by increasing tumor glucocorticoid activity, which in turn selectively blocks local COX-2 activity and/or inhibits the ERK and mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:26011146

  12. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor ligand PD123319 attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung and heart injury at a low dose in newborn rats

    PubMed Central

    Sengers, Rozemarijn M. A.; Laghmani, El Houari; Chen, Xueyu; Lindeboom, Melissa P. H. A.; Roks, Anton J. M.; Folkerts, Gert; Walther, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Intervening in angiotensin (Ang)-II type 2 receptor (AT2) signaling may have therapeutic potential for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) by attenuating lung inflammation and preventing arterial hypertension (PAH)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). We first investigated the role of AT2 inhibition with PD123319 (0.5 and 2 mg·kg−1·day−1) on the beneficial effect of AT2 agonist LP2–3 (5 μg/kg twice a day) on RVH in newborn rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Next we determined the cardiopulmonary effects of PD123319 (0.1 mg·kg−1·day−1) in two models: early treatment during continuous exposure to hyperoxia for 10 days and late treatment starting on day 6 in rat pups exposed postnatally to hyperoxia for 9 days, followed by a 9-day recovery period in room air. Parameters investigated included lung and heart histopathology, fibrin deposition, vascular leakage, and differential mRNA expression. Ten days of coadministration of LP2–3 and PD123319 abolished the beneficial effects of LP2–3 on RVH in experimental BPD. In the early treatment model PD123319 attenuated cardiopulmonary injury by reducing alveolar septal thickness, pulmonary influx of inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, medial wall thickness of small arterioles, and extravascular collagen III deposition, and by preventing RVH. In the late treatment model PD123319 diminished PAH and RVH, demonstrating that PAH is reversible in the neonatal period. At high concentrations PD123319 blocks the beneficial effects of the AT2-agonist LP2–3 on RVH. At low concentrations PD123319 attenuates cardiopulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and preventing PAH-induced RVH but does not affect alveolar and vascular development in newborn rats with experimental BPD. PMID:24951776

  13. Biology of alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the many metabolic properties of alveolar type II cells, their production of surfactant, their role in innate immunity, and their importance in the repair process after lung injury. The review is based on the medical literature and results from our laboratory. Type II cells produce and secrete pulmonary surfactant and for that purpose they need to synthesize the lipids of surfactant. One of the regulators of lipogenesis is the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). This is a key transcription factor regulating fatty acid synthesis. Type II cells also proliferate to restore the epithelium after lung injury, clear alveolar fluid by transporting sodium from the apical to the basolateral surface, and participate in the innate immune response to inhaled materials and organisms. The type II cell is, in many ways, the defender of the alveolus. However, the type II cells work in concert with the other cells in the gas exchange regions of the lung to keep the alveoli open and reduce inflammation due to irritants in the air we breathe. PMID:16423262

  14. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishant; Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-07-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25906201

  15. [Neonatal mucolipidosis type II].

    PubMed

    Hmami, F; Oulmaati, A; Bouharrou, A

    2016-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type II (ML II, OMIM 252,500) is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by facial dysmorphia similar to Hurler syndrome and pronounced gingival hypertrophy. The disorder is caused by a defect in targeting acid hydrolases on the surface of lysosomes, which impede their entry and lead to accumulation of undigested substrates in lysosomes. The onset of the symptoms is usually in infancy, beginning in the 6th month of life. Early onset, at birth or even in utero, is a sign of severity and involves the specific dysmorphia as well as skeletal dysplasia related to hyperparathyroidism. We report on a severe neonatal form of this disorder revealed by respiratory distress with severe chest deformity. The dysmorphic syndrome, combining coarse features, pronounced gingival hypertrophy, with diffuse bone demineralization and secondary hyperparathyroidism associating significant elevation of parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase with normal levels of vitamin D and calcium were characteristics of mucolipidosis type II. Recognizing this specific association of anomalies helps eliminate the differential diagnosis and establish appropriate diagnosis and care. PMID:26552632

  16. Interdependent TTF1 - ErbB4 interactions are critical for surfactant protein-B homeostasis in primary mouse lung alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Marten, Elger; Nielsen, Heber C; Dammann, Christiane E L

    2015-09-01

    ErbB4 receptor and thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 are important modulators of fetal alveolar type II (ATII) cell development and injury. ErbB4 is an upstream regulator of TTF-1, promoting its expression in MLE-12 cells, an ATII cell line. Both proteins are known to promote surfactant protein-B gene (SftpB) and protein (SP-B) expression, but their feedback interactions on each other are not known. We hypothesized that TTF-1 expression has a feedback effect on ErbB4 expression in an in-vitro model of isolated mouse ATII cells. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effects of overexpressing HER4 and Nkx2.1, the genes of ErbB4 and TTF-1 on TTF-1 and ErbB4 protein expression, respectively, as well as SP-B protein expression in primary fetal mouse lung ATII cells. Transient ErbB4 protein overexpression upregulated TTF-1 protein expression in primary fetal ATII cells, similarly to results previously shown in MLE-12 cells. Transient TTF-1 protein overexpression down regulated ErbB4 protein expression in both cell types. TTF-1 protein was upregulated in primary transgenic ErbB4-depleted adult ATII cells, however SP-B protein expression in these adult transgenic ATII cells was not affected by the absence of ErbB4. The observation that TTF-1 is upregulated in fetal ATII cells by ErbB4 overexpression and also in ErbB4-deleted adult ATII cells suggests additional factors interact with ErbB4 to regulate TTF-1 levels. We conclude that the interdependency of TTF-1 and ErbB4 is important for surfactant protein levels. The interactive regulation of ErbB4 and TTF-1 needs further elucidation. PMID:26198867

  17. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  18. Activation of canonical wnt pathway promotes differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs into type II alveolar epithelial cells, confers resistance to oxidative stress, and promotes their migration to injured lung tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Ran; Liu, Le; Chen, Song; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Hong-Jie; Liu, Ling; Guo, Feng-Mei; Lu, Xiao-Min; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2013-06-01

    The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into type II alveolar epithelial (AT II) cells in vivo and in vitro, is critical for reepithelization and recovery in acute lung injury (ALI), but the mechanisms responsible for differentiation are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the canonical wnt pathway in the differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (mMSCs) into AT II cells. Using a modified co-culture system with murine lung epithelial-12 (MLE-12) cells and small airway growth media (SAGM) to efficiently drive mMSCs differentiation, we found that GSK 3β and β-catenin in the canonical wnt pathway were up-regulated during differentiation. The levels of surfactant protein (SP) C, SPB, and SPD, the specific markers of AT II cells, correspondingly increased in mMSCs when Wnt3a or LiCl was added to the co-culture system to activate wnt/β-catenin signaling. The expression of these factors was depressed to some extent by inhibiting the pathway with the addition of DKK 1. The differentiation rate of mMSCs also depends on their abilities to accumulate and survive in inflammatory tissue. Our results suggested that the activation of wnt/β-catenin signaling promoted mMSCs migration towards ALI mouse-derived lung tissue in a Transwell assay, and ameliorated the cell death and the reduction of Bcl-2/Bax induced by H(2) O(2), which simultaneously caused reduced GSK 3β and β-catenin in mMSCs. These data supports a potential mechanism for the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells involving canonical wnt pathway activation, which may be significant to their application in ALI. PMID:23154940

  19. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  20. Non-Muscle Myosin II Regulation of Lung Epithelial Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Plosa, Erin J.; Gooding, Kimberly A.; Zent, Roy; Prince, Lawrence S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The regulation of epithelial cell shape and orientation during lung branching morphogenesis is not clearly understood. Non-muscle myosins regulate cell size, morphology, and planar cell polarity. Here we test the hypothesis that non-muscle myosin II (NM II) regulates lung epithelial morphology in a spatially restricted manner. Results Epithelial cell orientation at airway tips in fetal mouse lungs underwent a significant transformation at E17. Treatment of E15 lung explants with the NM II inhibitor blebbistatin increased airway branching, epithelial cell size, and the degree of anisotropy in epithelial cells lining the airway stalks. In cultured MLE-12 lung epithelial cells, blebbistatin increased cell velocity, but left the migratory response to FGF-10 unchanged. Conclusions In the developing lung, NM II acts to constrain cell morphology and orientation, but may be suppressed at sites of branching and cell migration. The regulation of epithelial orientation may therefore undergo dynamic variations from E15 to E17. PMID:22972683

  1. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    PubMed

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces. PMID:26607545

  2. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Fermions—elementary particles such as electrons—are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals—materials hosting Weyl fermions—were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  3. Treatment of Lung Carcinoid by Type and Extent of Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor about lung carcinoid tumors? Treatment of lung carcinoid, by type and extent of disease The ... those that can’t be removed completely Resectable lung carcinoid tumors Resectable carcinoid tumors haven’t spread ...

  4. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-01

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed. PMID:8588578

  5. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  6. DNA damage and cytotoxicity in type II lung epithelial (A549) cell cultures after exposure to diesel exhaust and urban street particles

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to air pollution particles has been acknowledged to be associated with excess generation of oxidative damage to DNA in experimental model systems and humans. The use of standard reference material (SRM), such as SRM1650 and SRM2975, is advantageous because experiments can be reproduced independently, but exposure to such samples may not mimic the effects observed after exposure to authentic air pollution particles. This study was designed to compare the DNA oxidizing effects of authentic street particles with SRM1650 and SRM2975. The authentic street particles were collected at a traffic intensive road in Copenhagen, Denmark. Results All of the particles generated strand breaks and oxidized purines in A549 lung epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and there were no overt differences in their potency. The exposures also yielded dose-dependent increase of cytotoxicity (as lactate dehydrogenase release) and reduced colony forming ability with slightly stronger cytotoxicity of SRM1650 than of the other particles. In contrast, only the authentic street particles were able to generate 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in calf thymus DNA, which might be due to the much higher level of transition metals. Conclusion Authentic street particles and SRMs differ in their ability to oxidize DNA in a cell-free environment, whereas cell culture experiments indicate that the particle preparations elicit a similar alteration of the level of DNA damage and small differences in cytotoxicity. Although it cannot be ruled out that SRMs and authentic street particles might elicit different effects in animal experimental models, this study indicates that on the cellular level, SRM1650 and SRM2975 are suitable surrogate samples for the study of authentic street particles. PMID:18397523

  7. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  8. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-02-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  9. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  10. Rare lung diseases II: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Juvet, Stephen C; Hwang, David; Waddell, Thomas K; Downey, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    The present article is the second in a series on rare lung diseases. It focuses on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates in the alveolar space. PAP was first described in 1958, and for many years the nature of the material accumulating in the lungs was unknown. Major insights into PAP have been made in the past decade, and these have led to the notion that PAP is an autoimmume disorder in which autoantibodies interfere with signalling through the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, leading to macrophage and neutrophil dysfunction. This has spurred new therapeutic approaches to this disorder. The discussion of PAP will begin with a case report, then will highlight the classification of PAP and review recent insights into the pathogenesis of PAP. The approach to therapy and the prognosis of PAP will also be discussed. PMID:18551202

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  12. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  13. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young; Chang, Won Seok; Moon, In Seok

    2016-07-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  14. Visual Fixation in Chiari Type II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Chiari type II malformation is a congenital deformity of the hindbrain. Square wave jerks are horizontal involuntary saccades that interrupt fixation. Cerebellar disorders may be associated with frequent square wave jerks or saccadic oscillations such as ocular flutter. The effects of Chiari type II malformation on visual fixation are unknown. We recorded eye movements using an eye tracker in 21 participants with Chiari type II malformation, aged 8 to 19 years while they fixated a target for 1 minute. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy participants served as controls. Square wave jerks’ parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Saccadic oscillations were not seen. Chiari type II malformation is not associated with pathological square wave jerks or abnormal saccadic oscillations. The congenital nature of this deformity may permit compensation that preserves stable visual fixation. Alternatively, the deformity of Chiari type II malformation may spare parts of the cerebellum that usually cause fixation instability when damaged. PMID:19182152

  15. Glutathione synthesis and homeostasis in isolated type II alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B.; Prough, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    After isolation of Type II cells from neonatal rat lung, the glutathione (GSH) levels in these cells were greatly depressed. The total glutathione content could be increased 5-fold within 12-24 h by incubating the cells in media containing sulfur amino acids. Similarly, the activity of ..gamma..-glutamyltranspeptidase was low immediately after isolation, but was increased 2-fold during the first 24 h culture. Addition of either GSH or GSSG to the culture media increased the GSH content of Type II cells 2-2.5-fold. Buthionine sulfoximine and NaF prevented this replenishment of GSH during 24 h culture. When the rates of de novo synthesis of GSH and GSSG from /sup 35/S-cysteine were measured, the amounts of newly formed GSH decreased to 80% in the presence of GSH or GSSG. This suggests that exogenous GSH/GSSG can be taken up by the Type II cells to replenish the intracellular pool of GSH. Methionine was not as effective as cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. These results suggest that GSH levels in the isolated Type II cell can be maintained by de novo synthesis or uptake of exogenous GSH. Most of the GSH synthesized from cysteine, however, was excreted into the media of the cultured cells indicative of a potential role for the type II cell in export of the non-protein thiol.

  16. Overexpression of type VI collagen in neoplastic lung tissues

    PubMed Central

    VOILES, LARRY; LEWIS, DAVID E.; HAN, LING; LUPOV, IVAN P.; LIN, TSANG-LONG; ROBERTSON, MICHAEL J.; PETRACHE, IRINA; CHANG, HUA-CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Type VI collagen (COL6), an extracellular matrix protein, is important in maintaining the integrity of lung tissue. An increase in COL6 mRNA and protein deposition was found in the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, a chronic inflammatory condition with a strong association with lung cancer. In the present study, we demonstrated overexpression of COL6 in the lungs of non-small cell lung cancers. We hypothesized that excessive COL6 in the lung interstitium may exert stimulatory effects on the adjacent cells. In vitro stimulation of monocytes with COL6 resulted in the production of IL-23, which may promote tumor development in an environment of IL-23-mediated lung inflammation, where tissue modeling occurs concurrently with excessive COL6 production. In addition, COL6 was capable of stimulating signaling pathways that activate focal adhesion kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in lung epithelial cells, which may also facilitate the development of lung neoplasms. Taken together, our data suggest the potential role of COL6 in promoting lung neoplasia in diseased lungs where COL6 is overexpressed. PMID:25176343

  17. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:3309860

  18. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  19. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible. PMID:20387359

  20. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluyanov, Alexey; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, Andrei

    The Dirac equation of quantum field theory gives rise to massless Weyl fermions that respect Lorentz invariance. In condensed matter these fermions are realized as low energy excitations in Weyl semimetals. In these materials a topologically protected linear crossing of two bands, called a Weyl point, occurs at the Fermi level resulting in a point-like Fermi surface. Lorentz invariance, however, can be violated in condensed matter, and here we generalize the Dirac equation accordingly to obtain a fundamentally new kind of Weyl fermions. In particular, we report on a novel type of Weyl semimetal, with a new type of Weyl point that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets. This node, although still a protected crossing, has an open, not point-like, Fermi surface, resulting in physical properties very different from that of standard Weyl points. We show that an established material, WTe2, is an example of this novel type of topological semimetals.

  1. Pulmonary Alveolar Type II Cells Isolated from Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Leland G.; Mason, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    It is unclear what factors control the secretion of pulmonary surface active material from alveolar type II cells in vivo. Other workers have suggested that cholinergic stimuli, adrenergic stimuli, and prostaglandins may all stimulate secretion. We isolated type II cells from the lungs of rats by treatment with elastase, discontinuous density centrifugation, and adherence in primary culture. β-Adrenergic agonists, but not cholinergic agonists, caused an increase in the release of [14C]disaturated phosphatidylcholine, the major component of surface-active material, from type II cells in culture. The β-adrenergic effect was stereo-selective, (−)-isoproterenol being 50 times more potent than (+)-isoproterenol. Terbutaline, 10 μM, a noncatecholamine β-2 adrenergic agonist, caused a release of 2.0±0.5 (mean±SD) times the basal release of [14C]disaturated phosphatidylcholine in 3 h; the concentration of terbutaline causing half maximal stimulation was 800 nM. The terbutaline effect was blocked by propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist (calculated Kd = 6 nM), but not by phentolamine, an α-adrenergic antagonist. Isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and 8-Br cyclic AMP, but not 8-Br cyclic guanosine monophosphate, also stimulated release. We conclude that type II cells secrete disaturated phosphatidylcholine in response to treatment with adrenergic stimulation. PMID:34631

  2. Regulation of surfactant secretion in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Alexandra V; Kutuzov, Mikhail A; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A

    2007-08-01

    Molecular mechanisms of surfactant delivery to the air/liquid interface in the lung, which is crucial to lower the surface tension, have been studied for more than two decades. Lung surfactant is synthesized in the alveolar type II cells. Its delivery to the cell surface is preceded by surfactant component synthesis, packaging into specialized organelles termed lamellar bodies, delivery to the apical plasma membrane and fusion. Secreted surfactant undergoes reuptake, intracellular processing, and finally resecretion of recycled material. This review focuses on the mechanisms of delivery of surfactant components to and their secretion from lamellar bodies. Lamellar bodies-independent secretion is also considered. Signal transduction pathways involved in regulation of these processes are discussed as well as disorders associated with their malfunction. PMID:17496061

  3. Coronal type II bursts and interplanetary type II bursts: Distinct shock drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanarayana, G. S.

    2012-02-01

    We study solar radio type II bursts combining with Wind/WAVES type II bursts and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The aim of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of shocks to cause type II bursts in the solar corona and the interplanetary space. We consider the following findings. The distribution of the cessation heights of type II emission is confined to a rather narrow range of height than the distribution of the heights of start frequencies. This is suggestive of the presence of a gradient for the Alfvén speed from the heliocentric height of ˜1.4 solar radii. The range of the kinetic energy of CMEs associated with coronal type II emission taken together with the suggested computation method and the Alfvén speed gradient, indicates the limit to the height up to which type II emission could be expected. This height is ˜2 solar radii from the center of the Sun. Further, the large time gap between the cessation time and heights of coronal type II emission and the commencement time and heights of most of the IP type II bursts do not account for the difference between the two heights and the average shock speed. Also, there is clear difference in the magnitude of the kinetic energies and the distinct characteristics of the CMEs associated with coronal and IP type II bursts. Hence, we suggest that in most instances the coronal type II bursts and IP type II bursts occur due to distinct shocks. We also address the question of the origin of type II bursts and discuss the possible explanation of observed results.

  4. Gliomatosis cerebri type II: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    D’Urso, Pietro Ivo; Marsigliante, Santo; Storelli, Carlo; Distante, Alessandro; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cimmino, Antonia; Luzi, Giuseppe; Gianfreda, Cosimo Damiano; Montinaro, Antonio; Ciappetta, Pasqualino

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Two types of gliomatosis cerebri exist: Type I and Type II. We report the results of a histological and genetic study of two cases of gliomatosis cerebri Type II, correlating these results with therapy and prognosis. Case presentation Two patients, a 52-year-old man (Patient 1) and a 76-year-old man (Patient 2) with gliomatosis cerebri II were admitted to our institution; they underwent surgical treatment and received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At the 24-month follow-up, Patient 1 was still alive, while Patient 2 had died. The poor prognosis of Patient 2 was underlined by molecular analysis which showed that the angiogenesis related genes VCAM1 and VEGF were overexpressed, reflecting the high degree of neovascularization. Conclusion Genes involved in drug resistance and metallothioneins were highly expressed in Patient 2 and this, associated with unmethylated O6-methylguanine methyltransferase, can explain the lack of response to chemotherapy. PMID:19830138

  5. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that affects ...

  6. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: identification of abnormal type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    We have extended the study of a mild case of type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis to include biochemical analyses of cartilage, bone, and the collagens produced by dermal fibroblasts. Type I collagen extracted from bone and types I and III collagen produced by dermal fibroblasts were normal, as was the hexosamine ratio of cartilage proteoglycans. Hyaline cartilage, however, contained approximately equal amounts of types I and II collagen and decreased amounts of type XI collagen. Unlike the normal SDS-PAGE mobility. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed extensive overmodification of all type II cyanogen bromide peptides in a pattern consistent with heterozygosity for an abnormal pro alpha 1(II) chain which impaired the assembly and/or folding of type II collagen. This interpretation implies that dominant mutations of the COL2A1 gene may cause type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis. More generally, emerging data implicating defects of type II collagen in the type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis-spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita spectrum and in the Kniest-Stickler syndrome spectrum suggest that diverse mutations of this gene may be associated with widely differing phenotypic outcome. PMID:3195588

  7. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  8. Type II endoleaks: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Saggu, Greta K; Bown, Matthew J; Sayers, Robert D; Sidloff, David A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks are the most common endovascular complications of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR); however, there has been a divided opinion regarding their significance in EVAR. Some advocate a conservative approach unless there is clear evidence of sac expansion, while others maintain early intervention is best to prevent adverse late outcomes such as rupture. There is a lack of level-one evidence in this challenging group of patients, and due to a low event rate of complications, large numbers of patients would be required in well-designed trials to fully understand the natural history of type II endoleak. This review will discuss the imaging, management, and outcome of patients with isolated type II endoleaks following infra-renal EVAR. PMID:27042087

  9. Type II seesaw dominance in SO(10)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Ramirez, Alba; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-10-01

    Grand unified theories where the neutrino mass is given by type II seesaw have the potential to provide interesting connections between the neutrino and charged fermion sectors. We explore the possibility of having a dominant type II seesaw contribution in supersymmetric SO(10). We show that this can be achieved in the model where symmetry breaking is triggered by 54 and 45 dimensional representations, without the need for additional fields other than those already required to have a realistic charged fermion mass spectrum. Physical consequences, such as the implementation of the Bajc, Senjanovic, and Vissani mechanism, the possibility of the fields responsible for type II seesaw dominance being messengers of supersymmetry breaking, and the realization of baryo and leptogenesis in these theories, are discussed.

  10. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  11. Replication of parainfluenza (Sendai) virus in isolated rat pulmonary type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, W. L.; Northrop, P. J.; McAllister, P. K.

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to determine whether alveolar type II epithelial cells isolated from rat lung and maintained in tissue culture would support productive replication of parainfluenza type 1 (Sendai) virus and to determine whether isolated type II cells from neonatal (5-day-old) rats that are more susceptible to viral-induced alveolar dysplasia supported viral replication to a greater extent than those from weanling (25-day-old) rats. Isolated and cultured type II cells from neonatal and weanling rats that were inoculated with Sendai virus supported productive replication as indicated by ultrastructural identification of budding virions and viral nucleocapsids in type II cells and by demonstration of rising titers of infectious virus from inoculated type II cell cultures. Alveolar macrophages from neonatal and weanling rats also supported viral replication, although infectious viral titers in macrophage cultures were lower than those from type II cell cultures. Only minor differences were detected between viral titers from neonatal and weanling type II epithelial cell cultures. Higher densities of viral nucleocapsids were observed in neonatal type II cells than in those from weanling rats. The results indicate that isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells support productive replication of parainfluenza virus and that type II cells are probably more efficient in supporting productive viral replication than are alveolar macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2541612

  12. Participation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase in the synthesis of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in rat alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Arduini, A; Zibellini, G; Ferrari, L; Magnanimi, L; Dottori, S; Lohninger, A; Carminati, P

    2001-02-01

    We have investigated the role of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.21) in pulmonar type II pneumocyte, a lung cell responsible for the synthesis of surface active lipids. Adult type II pneumocytes were isolated from rat lung and purified by differential adherence. When these lung cells were incubated with radioactive palmitate, the percentage of radioactivity recovered into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a major surface active lipid, was almost 60% with respect to total phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species. Cellular lysates from type II pneumocytes contained detectable amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity (1 nmol/min/mg). Most of the CPT activity found in these cells could be inhibited by incubating them for 60 min with 5 microM tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA), a specific and irreversible CPT inhibitor of the malonyl-CoA sensitive CPT isoform (CPT I). TDGA treatment of adult type II pneumocytes caused a significant reduction in the incorporation of radioactive palmitate into PC, though this effect did not seem to be specific for DPPC. TDGA affected the incorporation of radioactive palmitate at the sn2 rather than the sn1 position of the glycerol backbone of PC. The incorporation of radioactive palmitate into DPPC was also observed when these lung cells were incubated with palmitate-labeled palmitoyl-L-carnitine. Our data suggest that type II pneumocyte CPT may play an important role in remodelling PC fatty acid composition and hence DPPC synthesis. PMID:11330841

  13. [A case of type II achondrogenesis].

    PubMed

    Micheli, E; Perrone, C; Quarta Colosso, L; Vetrugno, M; Zecca, G; Indirli, G C; Greco, F; Elia, G; Ciancio, S

    1996-01-01

    We describe a rare case of type II achondrogenesis (gestational age = thirty-two weeks) dead forty-five minutes after birth. This congenital skeletal dysplasia is classified among the lethal osteochondrodysplasias. Clinical features were enough for diagnosis and autopsy added nothing to our clinical knowledges. PMID:8685014

  14. Biceps Tenodesis for Type II SLAP Tears.

    PubMed

    Tayrose, Gregory A; Karas, Spero G; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Tears of the superior glenoid labrum are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, especially in overhead athletes such as pitchers, swimmers, and volleyball players. Type II SLAP lesions have been the most clinically important superior labral pathology, and the management of this lesion has been a very controversial topic. Currently, there are no high level studies in the literature to guide treatment. While the few level 3 and level 4 evidence studies that are available following arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions all report reasonable overall patient satisfaction, persistent postoperative pain is common and associated with a low return to pre-injury level of sports participation. There has been a recent school of thought that biceps tenodesis, which maintains the length-tension relationship of the long head of biceps, should be the procedure of choice for patients with isolated type II SLAP lesions. The current paper reviews the role biceps tenodesis plays in the management of type II SLAP tears. PMID:26517164

  15. Differentiated Type II Pneumocytes Can Be Reprogrammed by Ectopic Sox2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kapere Ochieng, Joshua; Schilders, Kim; Kool, Heleen; Buscop-van Kempen, Marjon; Boerema-De Munck, Anne; Grosveld, Frank; Wijnen, Rene; Tibboel, Dick; Rottier, Robbert J.

    2014-01-01

    The adult lung contains several distinct stem cells, although their properties and full potential are still being sorted out. We previously showed that ectopic Sox2 expression in the developing lung manipulated the fate of differentiating cells. Here, we addressed the question whether fully differentiated cells could be redirected towards another cell type. Therefore, we used transgenic mice to express an inducible Sox2 construct in type II pneumocytes, which are situated in the distal, respiratory areas of the lung. Within three days after the induction of the transgene, the type II cells start to proliferate and form clusters of cuboidal cells. Prolonged Sox2 expression resulted in the reversal of the type II cell towards a more embryonic, precursor-like cell, being positive for the stem cell markers Sca1 and Ssea1. Moreover, the cells started to co-express Spc and Cc10, characteristics of bronchioalveolar stem cells. We demonstrated that Sox2 directly regulates the expression of Sca1. Subsequently, these cells expressed Trp63, a marker for basal cells of the trachea. So, we show that the expression of one transcription factor in fully differentiated, distal lung cells changes their fate towards proximal cells through intermediate cell types. This may have implications for regenerative medicine, and repair of diseased and damaged lungs. PMID:25210856

  16. Nitric oxide alters metabolism in isolated alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Miles, P R; Bowman, L; Huffman, L

    1996-07-01

    Alveolar type II cells may be exposed to nitric oxide (.NO) from external sources, and these cells can also generate .NO. Therefore we studied the effects of altering .NO levels on various type II cell metabolic processes. Incubation of cells with the .NO generator, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 1 mM), leads to reductions of 60-70% in the synthesis of disaturated phosphatidylcholines (DSPC) and cell ATP levels. Cellular oxygen consumption, an indirect measure of cell ATP synthesis, is also reduced by SNAP. There is no direct effect of SNAP on lung mitochondrial ATP synthesis, suggesting that .NO does not directly inhibit this process. On the other hand, incubation of cells with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for .NO synthesis, results in increases in DSPC synthesis, cell ATP content, and cellular oxygen consumption. The L-NAME effects are reversed by addition of L-arginine, the substrate for NOS. Production of .NO by type II cells is inhibited by L-NAME, a better inhibitor of constitutive NOS (cNOS) than inducible NOS (iNOS), and is reduced in the absence of external calcium. Aminoguanidine, a specific inhibitor of iNOS, has no effect on cell ATP content or on .NO production. These results indicate that alveolar type II cell lipid and energy metabolism can be affected by .NO and suggest that there may be cNOS activity in these cells. PMID:8760128

  17. Magnetization of anisotropic Type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-04-10

    Peculiarities of magnetization of anisotropic type II superconductors are of considerable interest in view of the discovery of high-T/sub c/ superconductors characterized by strongly asymmetric layered structure. Specifics of the penetration of magnetic flux into an anisotropic type II superconductor were discussed in the literature. This analysis gave the distribution of induction in an isolated vortex, its energy, and critical magnetic field H/sub c1/. However, the magnetization curve of anisotropic superconductors was not considered. This paper deals with the magnetic moment of uniaxial London superconductor in the interval H/sub c1/ /le/ H/sub 0/ << H/sub c2/, where H/sub 0/ is the external magnetic field strength.

  18. Therapeutic failure in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Witters, L A; Herbert, P N; Shulman, R S; Krauss, R M; Levy, R I

    1976-09-01

    The extended use of diet and cholestyramine therapy in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia was examined in patients who previously participated in a short-term, double-blind trial. A striking secondary failure in therapeutic response during 4 yr of use of this therapy was noted with plasma cholesterol rising an average of 15%. A 3 mo, out-patient, follow-up study designed to reinforce patient motivation and dietary and drug adherence resulted in a prompt but partial reversal of this therapeutic deterioration in 16 patients. Additional inpatient studies confirmed that patient noncompliance with the dietary regimen was the major factor responsible for the secondary failure. Cholestyramine together with a low cholesterol diet can be an effective agent in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia, given a comprehensive program of out-patient follow-up with continued emphasis on dietary principles and drug adherence. PMID:183084

  19. Diabetic mastopathy in type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tsung, Jeffrey S H; Wang, Teh Y; Lin, Christopher K Z

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic mastopathy can mimic cancer. We report 2 cases of diabetic mastopathy in patients with long-standing type II diabetes. One was insulin-dependent, and the other had never been treated with insulin. These 2 patients had classical acoustical shadow on ultrasonograms. Breast core biopsies showed constellations of morphological features resembling diabetic mastopathy, including sclerotic changes of the fibrous stroma with keloid-like collagen fibers, few epithelioid fibroblasts, perivascular and interlobular mononuclear cell infiltrates, and focal atrophic changes of the ductal-lobular units. Both patients were free of malignancy at 3 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively. There are limited data on diabetic mastopathy in insulin-naive type II diabetes mellitus patients. Better awareness of this entity and its sonographic features may allow more patients to be spared from excisional biopsy. PMID:15660177

  20. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES II, V, AND VI. II.

    PubMed Central

    Rebers, Paul A.; Hurwitz, Esther; Heidelberger, Michael

    1961-01-01

    Rebers, Paul A. (Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J.), Esther Hurwitz, and Michael Heidelberger. Immunochemistry of pneumococcal types II, V, and VI. II. Inhibition tests in the type VI precipitating system. J. Bacteriol. 82:920–926. 1961.—As in other immune systems involving polysaccharides, rabbit antibodies but not those engendered in the horse were found sensitive to degradation of type VI pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharide (SVI), and were readily inhibited by fragments of SVI. Large amounts, 30 to 111 μmoles, of most sugars gave up to 15% inhibition, while sugar and polyol phosphates inhibited as much as 25%, with little relation to their presence or absence in SVI. The phosphate-free repeating unit of SVI was a good inhibitor, its phosphate monoester was better, and the “trimer” still better. The “trimer” precipitated most of the antibodies from horse anti-Pn VI. Although inhibition of precipitation of SVI anti-Pn horse sera could not be demonstrated with fragments of SVI, cross-reactions of antibodies in the horse sera could be inhibited. Precipitation of SII was inhibited by low concentrations of l-rhamnose, while even high concentrations of the other sugar components of SII and SVI were ineffective. Precipitation by guar gum was inhibited by galactose and α- and β-methyl-galactopyranosides, also by rhamnose, although guar gum does not contain this sugar, while SVI, the antigenic determinant, does. PMID:14490831

  1. Potential Contribution of Type I Alveolar Epithelial Cells to Chronic Neonatal Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rozycki, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    The alveolar surface is covered by large flat Type I cells (alveolar epithelial cells 1, AEC1). The normal physiological function of AEC1s involves gas exchange, based on their location in approximation to the capillary endothelium and their thinness, and in ion and water flux, as shown by the presence of solute active transport proteins, water channels, and impermeable tight junctions between cells. With the recent ability to produce relatively pure cultures of AEC1 cells, new functions have been described. These may be relevant to lung injury, repair, and the abnormal development that characterizes bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To hypothesize a potential role for AEC1 in the development of lung injury and abnormal repair/development in premature lungs, evidence is presented for their presence in the developing lung, how their source may not be the Type II cell (AEC2) as has been assumed for 40 years, and how the cell can be damaged by same type of stressors as those which lead to BPD. Recent work shows that the cells are part of the innate immune response, capable of producing pro-inflammatory mediators, which could contribute to the increase in inflammation seen in early BPD. One of the receptors found exclusively on AEC1 cells in the lung, called RAGE, may also have a role in increased inflammation and alveolar simplification. While the current evidence for AEC1 involvement in BPD is circumstantial and limited at present, the accumulating data supports several hypotheses and questions regarding potential differences in the behavior of AEC1 cells from newborn and premature lung compared with the adult lung. PMID:24904906

  2. [Epidemiologic aspects of the histologic types of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Wilde, J; Matthäi, C; Wilde, J

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed in the county of Erfurt including all lung cancer patients of the years 1963, 1968, and 1972 to 1977, together 2,585 males and 358 females. The following results were found: 1. The incidence of lung cancer increased significantly from 1963 to 1977. 2. About 60% of all lung cancer patients were younger than 70 years. 3. In male patients squamous cell carcinomas prevailed with 44.8%. Small cell cancers came up to 34.6% and adenocarcinomas to 10.1%. Large cell cancers reached 10.5%. These types in female patients had a proportion to each other like 26.9%: 30.8%: 30.4%: 11.9%. The proportion of adenocarcinomas increased significantly during 1963 to 1977. 4. We found a non significant age relation of histological types. The adenocarcinoma and the small cell cancers dropped with rising age. 5. The classification of histological types and the conditions of detection of lung cancers did not change in the study interval. Therefore the altering of patterns of histological types, especially the increase of adenocarcinomas was attached to the beginning of cigarette smoking in younger ages and the increasing proportion of filter tipped brands as well to a variation of exposition against professional cancerogens. 6. Patients with adenocarcinomas have the highest survival rate after 5 years: 8.1%. Squamous cell lung cancer patients have a 5 year survival rate of 6.8%. Patients with small cell cancers and large cell cancers ranged at 2.7% or 2.6%. 7. Peripheral tumors of each histological type will be detected earlier by fluorographic screening than central carcinomas. Therefore the 5 year survival rates of peripheral cancers always are more favourable than that of central cancers. 8. For the problems in exact typing and staging we propose an internationally adjusted definition of tumor localization as a third parameter for prognosis. PMID:2171236

  3. Ubiquitous Torsional Motions in Type II Spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Hansteen, V. H.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-01

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s-1, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s-1, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s-1. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvénic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s-1. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvénic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  4. UBIQUITOUS TORSIONAL MOTIONS IN TYPE II SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-10

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s{sup -1}, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s{sup -1}. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvenic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s{sup -1}. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvenic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  5. INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant

  6. A novel mutation in type II methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, Michelle P; Joseph, Sumy; Holden, Kenton R

    2010-01-01

    Type II methemoglobinemia is a somatic deficiency of cytochrome b5 reductase with severe global neurologic impairment. We report a novel mutation in exon 3 of the CYB5R3 gene on chromosome 22 consisting of homozygous 1-base pair (bp) deletion noted as c.215delG; p.Gly72AlafsX100. The patient had improvement of gross motor skills, chewing, and swallowing that may be due to the initiation of daily ascorbic acid therapy. We hypothesize that a possible response to ascorbic acid may be related to the effect of making additional ferrous iron available for its role as a cofactor in carnitine synthesis. PMID:19471045

  7. Genetics Home Reference: microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions MOPDII microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II ( MOPDII ) is a condition characterized by ...

  8. Enhanced proliferation of primary rat type II pneumocytes by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Chassidy; Jahid, Sohail; Voelker, Dennis R.; Fan Hung

    2011-04-10

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep. The envelope protein (Env) is the oncogene, as it can transform cell lines in culture and induce tumors in animals, although the mechanisms for transformation are not yet clear because a system to perform transformation assays in differentiated type II pneumocytes does not exist. In this study we report culture of primary rat type II pneumocytes in conditions that favor prolonged expression of markers for type II pneumocytes. Env-expressing cultures formed more colonies that were larger in size and were viable for longer periods of time compared to vector control samples. The cells that remained in culture longer were confirmed to be derived from type II pneumocytes because they expressed surfactant protein C, cytokeratin, displayed alkaline phosphatase activity and were positive for Nile red. This system will be useful to study JSRV Env in the targets of transformation.

  9. Type-II superlattices: the Fraunhofer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Wörl, Andreas; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-04-01

    In the past years, the development of the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice technology at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF) has been focused on achieving series-production readiness for third generation dualcolor superlattice detector arrays for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range. The technology is ideally suited for airborne missile threat warning systems, due to its ability of low false alarm remote imaging of hot carbon dioxide signatures on a millisecond time scale. In a multi-wafer molecular beam epitaxy based process eleven 288×384 dualcolor detector arrays are fabricated on 3" GaSb substrates. Very homogeneous detector arrays with an excellent noise equivalent temperature difference have been realized. The current article presents the type-II superlattice dual-color technology developed at IAF and delivers insights into a range of test methodologies employed at various stages during the fabrication process, which ensure that the basic requirements for achieving high detector performance are met.

  10. Laser irradiation for central-type lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai

    1993-03-01

    Based on laser irradiation experiments on isolated lung specimens of animals done in 1989, 8 patients with central type lung cancer were treated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation via fiberoptic bronchoscope from January 1990 to August 1991 in our hospital. The patients recruited were all diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and histology as having central type bronchopulmonary cancer without distal metastasis. All patients were male with a mean age of 64 (range 57 - 72). Of 8 patients, 4 had squamous cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinoma, and 1 undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, all being stage TUM 3. After laser treatment, 6 cases had a result of significant response and 2 had minor response. Among 6 cases of atelectasis, 4 were completely cured or partially improved and 4 recovered from their hemoptysis. The subjective symptoms in all cases remitted. A combined chemotherapy was carried out accompanying laser therapy for all, 6 of whom had a shrink of focus over 25%. Six cases were re-examined with fiberoptic bronchoscopy, showing a distinct reduction of the tumor. Four cases expectorated black charring tissues and residual tumorous tissues persistently as an outcome. Two typical cases are reported, the characteristics, indications, techniques, and side effects of laser therapy are analyzed and factors affecting efficacy discussed, indicating that the technique has such advantages as easy operation, accurate orientation, and safe outcome. The procedure is really an effective one for treating central type lung cancer in intermediate or late stage.

  11. Perturbative type II amplitudes for BPS interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-02-01

    We consider the perturbative contributions to the {{ R }}4, {D}4{{ R }}4 and {D}6{{ R }}4 interactions in toroidally compactified type II string theory. These BPS interactions do not receive perturbative contributions beyond genus three. We derive Poisson equations satisfied by these moduli dependent string amplitudes. These T-duality invariant equations have eigenvalues that are completely determined by the structure of the integrands of the multi-loop amplitudes. The source terms are given by boundary terms of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces corresponding to both separating and non-separating nodes. These are determined directly from the string amplitudes, as well as from U-duality constraints and logarithmic divergences of maximal supergravity. We explicitly solve these Poisson equations in nine and eight-dimensions.

  12. Type II supernovae as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamuy, Mario Andres

    I report photometry and spectroscopy for 16 Type II supernovae (SNe) observed during the Calan/Tololo, SOIRS, and CTIO SN programs, a valuable resource for astrophysical studies. I perform a detailed assessment of the performance of the "expanding photosphere method" (EPM) in the determination of extragalactic distances. EPM proves very sensitive to the many steps involved in the analysis which can make it an art instead of an objective measurement tool. To minimize biases I implement objective procedures to compute synthetic magnitudes, measure true photospheric velocities, interpolate velocities, estimate dust extinction and realistic errors. While EPM performs well during the initial phases of SN evolution, I find distance residuals as large as 50% as the photosphere approaches the H recombination temperature. Despite the effort to lend credence to EPM, it proves necessary to exercise great care to avoid biasing the results. The main sources of uncertainties are observational errors (8%), dilution factors (11%), velocity interpolations (12%), and dust extinction (14%). The EPM Hubble diagram suggests the true error in an individual EPM distance is 20%. I find values of 63 +/- 8 and 67 +/- 7 km s-1 Mpc-1 for the Hubble constant, depending on the redshift sample chosen for the analysis. This result is independent of the extragalactic distance scale which yields 65 +/- 5 from Cepheid/SNe la distances. From four objects the comparison of EPM and Tully-Fisher yields D(EPM)/D(TF) = 0.82 +/- 0.12. I derive bolometric corrections for plateau SNe (SNe II-P) that permit me to obtain reliable bolometric luminosities from BVI photometry. Despite the great diversity displayed by SNe II-P, the duration of the plateau is approximately the same and the luminosities and expansion velocities measured in the middle of the plateau prove highly correlated. From the luminosity of the exponential tail I obtain 56Co masses ranging between 0.02 and 0.28 M⊙ , and some evidence that SNe

  13. Demonstration of efficient full aperture Type I/Type II third harmonic conversion on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, P.J.; Henesian, M.A.; Marchi, F.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1987-11-19

    Type I/Type II third harmonic conversion has been implemented at the 74 cm aperture of the Nova laser system. We discuss the performance capabilities and alignment issues of this scheme for Nova relative to conventional Type II/Type II conversion. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Recent concepts of ovarian carcinogenesis: type I and type II.

    PubMed

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC) arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT). With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the "tubal peritoneal junction" (TPJ), undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells. PMID:24868556

  15. Molecular profiling of lung adenosquamous carcinoma: hybrid or genuine type?

    PubMed Central

    Vassella, Erik; Langsch, Stephanie; Dettmer, Matthias S.; Schlup, Cornelia; Neuenschwander, Maja; Frattini, Milo; Gugger, Mathias; Schäfer, Stephan C.

    2015-01-01

    Lung adenosquamous carcinoma is a particular subtype of non-small cell lung carcinoma that is defined by the coexistence of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma components. The aim of this study was to assess the mutational profile in each component of 16 adenosquamous carcinoma samples from a Caucasian population by a combination of next generation sequencing using the cancer hotspot panel as well as the colon and lung cancer panel and FISH. Identified mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing of DNA from cancer cells of each component collected by Laser Capture microdissection. Mutations typical for adenocarcinoma as well as squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Driver mutations were predominantly in the trunk suggesting a monoclonal origin of adenosquamous carcinoma. Most remarkably, EGFR mutations and mutations in the PI3K signaling pathway, which accounted for 30% and 25% of tumors respectively, were more prevalent while KRAS mutations were less prevalent than expected for a Caucasian population. Surprisingly, expression of classifier miR-205 was intermediate between that of classical adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggesting that adenosquamous carcinoma is a transitional stage between these tumor types. The high prevalence of therapy-relevant targets opens new options of therapeutic intervention for adenosquamous carcinoma patients. PMID:26068980

  16. Calibration of the Accuscan II IN Vivo System for High Energy Lung Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Ovard R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for high energy lung counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable lung set manufactured at the University of Cincinnati UCLL43AMEU & UCSL43AMEU containing Am-241 and Eu-152 with energies from 26 keV to 1408 keV. The lung set was used in conjunction with a Realistic Torso phantom. The phantom was placed on the RMC II counting table (with pins removed) between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The top of the detector housing was positioned perpendicular to the junction of the phantom clavicle with the sternum. This position places the approximate center line of the detector housing with the center of the lungs. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using a Realistic Torso phantom (Appendix I) and the University of Cincinnati lung set. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for high energy lung counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  17. Conditional deletion of Abca3 in alveolar type II cells alters surfactant homeostasis in newborn and adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Valérie; Matsuzaki, Yohei; Clark, Jean; Xu, Yan; Wert, Susan E.; Ikegami, Machiko; Stahlman, Mildred T.; Weaver, Timothy E.; Hunt, Alan N.; Postle, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lipid transport protein required for synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. Abca3 was conditionally deleted in respiratory epithelial cells (Abca3Δ/Δ) in vivo. The majority of mice in which Abca3 was deleted in alveolar type II cells died shortly after birth from respiratory distress related to surfactant deficiency. Approximately 30% of the Abca3Δ/Δ mice survived after birth. Surviving Abca3Δ/Δ mice developed emphysema in the absence of significant pulmonary inflammation. Staining of lung tissue and mRNA isolated from alveolar type II cells demonstrated that ∼50% of alveolar type II cells lacked ABCA3. Phospholipid content and composition were altered in lung tissue, lamellar bodies, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from adult Abca3Δ/Δ mice. In adult Abca3Δ/Δ mice, cells lacking ABCA3 had decreased expression of mRNAs associated with lipid synthesis and transport. FOXA2 and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-α, transcription factors known to regulate genes regulating lung lipid metabolism, were markedly decreased in cells lacking ABCA3. Deletion of Abca3 disrupted surfactant lipid synthesis in a cell-autonomous manner. Compensatory surfactant synthesis was initiated in ABCA3-sufficient type II cells, indicating that surfactant homeostasis is a highly regulated process that includes sensing and coregulation among alveolar type II cells. PMID:20190032

  18. Learning Objects, Type II Applications, and Embedded Pedagogical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadanidis, George; Schindler, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the extent to which learning objects that focus on higher level thinking might be seen as Type II applications, as defined by Maddux, Johnson, and Willis (2001). We conclude that learning objects are at best hybrid applications, with some Type I and some Type II characteristics. We also consider whether the educational…

  19. Type II Migration and Giant Planet Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Type II migration, in which a newly formed large planet opens a gap in its precursor circumstellar nebula and subsequently evolves with it, has been implicated as a delivery mechanism responsible for close stellar companions. Large scale migration is possible in a viscously spreading disk of surface density sigma (r,t) when most of it is sacrificed to the primary in order to promote a small portion of the disk to much higher angular momentum orbits. Embedded planets generally follow its evolution unless their own angular momentum is comparable to that of the disk. The fraction of the starting disk mass, M (sub d) = 2pi integral rsigma(r,0)dr, that is consumed by the star depends on the distance at which material escapes the disk's outer boundary. If the disk is allowed to expand indefinitely, virtually all of the disk will fall into the primary in order to send a vanishingly small portion to infinity. For such a case, it is difficult to explain the survival of any giant planets, including Jupiter and Saturn. Realistically, however, there are processes that could truncate a disk at a finite distance, r(sub d). Recent numerical modeling has illustrated that planets can survive in this case. We show here that much of these results can be understood by simple conservation arguments.

  20. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  1. [Achondrogenesis type I and II and hypochondrogenesis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bueno, M; Toledo, F; Toledo, J; Villegas, T; López, S; Remírez, J; García-Julián, G

    1980-10-01

    A study is made of achondrogenesis in relation to four observations of early fatal development. One case corresponds to type I (Parenti-Fraccaro); another to type II (Langer-Saldino); the final two, brothers, seem to come under the variation of hypochondrogenesis. In this study, authors stress the heterogenous nature of lethal, neonatal (short-limb) nanisms of which currently include: Type I and II achondrogenesis, hypochondrogenesis, homozygote achondroplasia, classical Torrance-type and San Diego-type thanatophoric dysplasia. PMID:7469190

  2. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  3. Type-II Superlattice Avalanche Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun

    Type-II superlattice avalanche photodiodes have shown advantages compared to conventional mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for infrared wavelength detection. However, surface or interface leakage current has been a major issue for superlattice avalanche photodiodes, especially in infrared wavelength region. First, passivation of the superlattice device with ammonium sulfide and thioacetamide was carried out, and its surface quality was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The study showed that both ammonium sulfide and thiacetamide passivation can actively remove the native oxide at the surface. Thiacetamide passivation combine more sulfur bonds with III-V elements than that of ammonium sulfide. Another X-ray photoelectron spectra of thiacetamide-treated atomic layer deposited zinc sulfide capped InAs/GaSb superlattice was performed to investigate the interface sulfur bond conditions. Sb--S and As--S bonds disappear while In-S bond gets enhanced, indicating that Indium Sulfide should be the major components at the interface after ZnS deposition. Second, the simulation of electrical characteristics for zinc sulfide, silicon nitride and silicon dioxide passivated superlattice devices was performed by SILVACO software to fit the experimental results and to discover the surface current mechanism. Different surface current mechanism strengths were found. Third, several novel dual-carrier avalanche photodiode structures were designed and simulated. The structures had alternate carrier multiplication regions, placed next to a wider electron multiplication region, creating dual-carrier multiplication feedback systems. Gain and excess noise factor of these structures were simulated and compared based on the dead space multiplication theory under uniform electric field. From the simulation, the applied bias can be greatly lowered or the thickness can be shrunk to achieve the same gain from the conventional device. The width of the thin region was the most

  4. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  5. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    PubMed Central

    Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today. PMID:11686863

  6. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  7. [Osteochondrodysplasia determined genetically by a collagen type II gene mutation].

    PubMed

    Czarny-Ratajczak, M; Rogala, P; Wolnik-Brzozowska, D; Latos-Bieleńska, A

    2001-01-01

    Chondrodysplasias are a heterogenous group of skeletal dysplasias, affecting the growing cartilage. The main part of chondrodysplasias is caused by mutations in various types of collagen genes. The current classification within this group of disorder relies on clinical, histological and radiographic features. Type II collagenopathies comprise part of chondrodysplasias, consisting of hereditary disorders caused by defects in the type II collagen. Collagen type II is coded by a large gene--COL2A1. The chromosomal location for the human COL2A1 gene is 12q13.11-q13.12. Defects in collagen type II are caused by point mutations in the COL2A1 gene. Type II collagenopathies form a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from lethal achondrogenesis type II, hypochondrogenesis, through severe forms like spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia congenita, Marshall syndrome, to the mild forms--Stickler syndrome and early osteoarthritis. The pathological changes in the patients are observed in the growth plate, nucleus pulposus and vitreous body, where the abnormal collagen type II is distributed. This article presents the genetic background of collagenopathies type II and the results of current molecular studies of the patients. Both the molecular and the clinical studies may promise a better understanding of the relationship between the genotype and the phenotype. We present the patients, who were diagnosed at the Department of Medical Genetics and in the Orthopaedic Department in Poznań. PMID:11481990

  8. Randomized Phase II Study of Docetaxel plus Personalized Peptide Vaccination versus Docetaxel plus Placebo for Patients with Previously Treated Advanced Wild Type EGFR Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Koichi; Sugawara, Shunichi; Saijo, Yasuo; Maemondo, Makoto; Sato, Atsushi; Takamori, Shinzo; Harada, Taishi; Sasada, Tetsuro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Yamada, Akira; Noguchi, Masanori; Itoh, Kyogo; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) combined with chemotherapy for patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods. Previously treated PS0-1 patients with IIIB/IV EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) wild genotype NSCLC were randomly assigned to docetaxel (60 mg/m2 on Day 1) plus PPV based on preexisting host immunity or docetaxel plus placebo. Docetaxel administration was repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression. Personalized peptides or placebo was injected subcutaneously weekly in the first 8 weeks and biweekly in subsequent 16 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results. PPV related toxicity was grade 2 or less skin reaction. The median PFS for placebo arm and PPV arm was 52 days and 59 days, respectively. There was no significant difference between two arms by log-rank test (p = 0.42). Interestingly, PFS and overall survival (OS) in humoral immunological responder were significantly longer than those in nonresponder. Conclusion. PPV did not improve the survival in combination with docetaxel for previously treated advanced NSCLC. However, PPV may be efficacious for the humoral immunological responders and a further clinical investigation is needed. PMID:27274999

  9. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mato, J M; Gallego, S V; Elcoro, L; Tasci, E; Aroyo, M I

    2016-07-20

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out. PMID:27218611

  10. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Mato, J. M.; Gallego, S. V.; Elcoro, L.; Tasci, E.; Aroyo, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out.

  11. Biomarkers of Type II Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticides in Freshwater Fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Type II synthetic pyrethroids contain an alpha-cyano group which renders them more neurotoxic than their noncyano type I counterparts. A wide array of biomarkers have been employed to delineate the toxic responses of freshwater fish to various type II synthetic pyrethroids. These include hematological, enzymatic, cytological, genetic, omic and other types of biomarkers. This review puts together the applications of different biomarkers in freshwater fish species in response to the toxicity of the major type II pyrethroid pesticides and assesses their present status, while speculating on the possible future directions. PMID:24868555

  12. The type II collagenopathies: a spectrum of chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Spranger, J; Winterpacht, A; Zabel, B

    1994-02-01

    With the application of molecular techniques the aetiopathogenesis of skeletal dysplasias is gradually elucidated. Recent advances show that some bone dysplasias result from defects in the biosynthesis of type II (cartilage) collagen. Clinical entities caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene coding for type II collagen comprise achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, Kniest dysplasia, Stickler arthroophthalmopathy and mild dominant spondyloarthropathy. The mutations are expressed in the heterozygous state, and inheritance of type II collagenopathies is autosomal dominant. The wide range of clinical manifestations is not well understood but characterization of the basic defect may provide clues to establish specific genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:8157027

  13. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... accumulation of GAGs within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes. Lysosomes are compartments in the cell that digest and ... that cause molecules to build up inside the lysosomes, including MPS II, are called lysosomal storage disorders. ...

  14. Type II lepra reaction--an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avas Chandra; Sen, Sumit; Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2012-06-01

    Type II lepra reaction usually present with skin lesions. We report a 23 years old male patient presented with fever for two weeks with no visible skin lesion suggestive of leprosy and with no history of either completion or concurrent anti leprosy drug treatment was eventually turned out to be a case of Hansen's presenting with type II lepra reaction. PMID:23409423

  15. Vortex Dynamics Studies in Type II Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang

    1993-03-01

    Vibrating reed, ac susceptibility and resistance measurements have been used to study the dynamics of vortices in type II superconductors. In Nb measurements, in spite of the low T _{c}'s and long coherence lengths compared to the high T_{c} superconductors, we find an extended region of temperature and field over which reversible flux line motion occurs when the Nb reed is oriented with its long dimension perpendicular to the applied field. We observe a strong, frequency-independent depression of the "irreversibility temperature" T _{Q}(H) below the resistively determined critical temperature T_{R}. The results of the ac susceptibility measurements also support these results. We concluded that observation of an extended region of magnetic reversibility is not restricted to high T_{c} or extremely anisotropic materials, and depends upon the geometry of samples with respect to the applied field direction. In NbSe_2 measurements, vibrating reed measurements were performed with the hexagonal c-axis approximately parallel or perpendicular to an applied magnetic field. Field-cooling data revealed an unusual peak in the frequency shift of the reed, accompanied by two peaks in reed dissipation. The upper peak occurs near the temperature where R~ 0, and the lower peak is very sample and amplitude dependent and hysteretic. The ac susceptibility results also show that corresponding features. The interplay of superconductivity and density waves were investigated by comparing data for NbSe _2 with the results for NbS_2 , which has a comparable superconducting T _{c } and crystal structure. In NbS_2 measurements, we did not see such a peak in the frequency shift nor the double peak feature in the dissipation in either vibrating reed measurements or ac susceptibility measurements. We have also studied the (Ba,K)BiO_3 system. It is cubic at its superconducting composition, but exhibits a moderately high T_{c }=30 K that is intermediate between conventional and high T_{rm c

  16. Unmyelinated type II afferent neurons report cochlear damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian cochlea, acoustic information is carried to the brain by the predominant (95%) large-diameter, myelinated type I afferents, each of which is postsynaptic to a single inner hair cell. The remaining thin, unmyelinated type II afferents extend hundreds of microns along the cochlear duct to contact many outer hair cells. Despite this extensive arbor, type II afferents are weakly activated by outer hair cell transmitter release and are insensitive to sound. Intriguingly, type II afferents remain intact in damaged regions of the cochlea. Here, we show that type II afferents are activated when outer hair cells are damaged. This response depends on both ionotropic (P2X) and metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors, binding ATP released from nearby supporting cells in response to hair cell damage. Selective activation of P2Y receptors increased type II afferent excitability by the closure of KCNQ-type potassium channels, a potential mechanism for the painful hypersensitivity (that we term “noxacusis” to distinguish from hyperacusis without pain) that can accompany hearing loss. Exposure to the KCNQ channel activator retigabine suppressed the type II fiber’s response to hair cell damage. Type II afferents may be the cochlea’s nociceptors, prompting avoidance of further damage to the irreparable inner ear. PMID:26553995

  17. EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

  18. Cryopreservation and in vitro culture of primary cell types from lung tissue of a stranded pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps).

    PubMed

    Annalaura Mancia; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; McFee, Wayne E; Newton, Danforth A; Baatz, John E

    2012-01-01

    Current models for in vitro studies of tissue function and physiology, including responses to hypoxia or environmental toxins, are limited and rely heavily on standard 2-dimensional (2-D) cultures with immortalized murine or human cell lines. To develop a new more powerful model system, we have pursued methods to establish and expand cultures of primary lung cell types and reconstituted tissues from marine mammals. What little is known about the physiology of the deep-sea diving pygmy sperm whale (PSW), Kogia breviceps, comes primarily from stranding events that occur along the coast of the southeastern United States. Thus, development of a method for preserving live tissues and retrieving live cells from deceased stranded individuals was initiated. This report documents successful cryopreservation of PSW lung tissue. We established in vitro cultures of primary lung cell types from tissue fragments that had been cryopreserved several months earlier at the stranding event. Dissociation of cryopreserved lung tissues readily provides a variety of primary cell types that, to varying degrees, can be expanded and further studied/manipulated in cell culture. In addition, PSW-specific molecular markers have been developed that permitted the monitoring of fibroblast, alveolar type II, and vascular endothelial cell types. Reconstitution of 3-D cultures of lung tissues with these cell types is now underway. This novel system may facilitate the development of rare or disease-specific lung tissue models (e.g., to test causes of PSW stranding events and lead to improved treatments for pulmonary hypertension or reperfusion injury in humans). Also, the establishment of a "living" tissue bank biorepository for rare/endangered species could serve multiple purposes as surrogates for freshly isolated samples. PMID:21501697

  19. [Salivary gland-type lung tumor: An update].

    PubMed

    Gibault, Laure; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    "Salivary gland-type" tumors arising from the bronchi and lung are rare but not exceptional entities. They are mostly represented by malignant entities such as cystic adenoid carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and epithelial/myoepithelial carcinoma. Benign tumors are rare, mainly encompassing pleomorphic adenomas, which are to differentiate from mucous gland adenomas, another entity arising specifically from the peri-bronchial glands. These tumours develop in the proximal bronchi and are not associated with smoke abuse. Their main treatment is surgery. It is important to differentiate them from other broncho-pulmonary tumours as they do not share the same prognosis and therapeutic. This article will review the WHO 2015 classification of these tumours as well as recent updates from the literature to help define diagnosis criteria for these uncommon entities. PMID:26774826

  20. Prediction of Type II Burst Radiation for Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIs are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else blast waves. Recent quantitative theories for type II radiation show that the amount of radiation depends on the speed and spatial extent of the 3D shock, as well as on the background plasma, magnetic field configuration, and the number of superthermal electrons available for acceleration by the shock. In principle, then, Type II bursts may provide 1-3 day warnings of large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. In this paper we couple the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our new ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. The modeling includes initialization with coronal and active region magnetic fields reconstructed from solar magnetograms, coronal densities determined by 1 AU data, and CMEs modelled using STEREO coronagraph data. Two events with type IIs and strong CMEs are analyzed: 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for both type II bursts. This strongly supports the type II theory, implies real understanding of the physics involved, and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  1. Potassium currents in rat type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, T E; Jacobs, E R; Silver, M R

    1988-01-01

    1. Type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from adult rats and grown in primary culture were studied using the whole-cell configuration of the gigohm-seal voltage clamp technique. 2. The average specific capacitance of type II cells was 2.5 microF/cm2, suggesting that type II cell membranes in vitro are irregular, with an actual area more than twice the apparent area. 3. Most type II cells have time- and voltage-dependent outward currents carried by potassium ions. Potassium currents activate with a sigmoid time course upon membrane depolarization, and inactivate during maintained depolarization. The average maximum whole-cell K+ conductance was 1.6 nS. 4. Two distinct types of K+-selective channels underlie outward currents in type II cells. Most cells have currents resembling delayed rectifier K+ currents in skeletal muscle, nerve and immune cells. A few cells had a different type of K+ conductance which is more sensitive to block by tetraethylammonium ions, has faster 'tail currents', and activates at more positive potentials. 5. In some experiments, individual type II cells were identified by staining with phosphine, a fluorescent dye which is concentrated in lamellar bodies. Both types of K+ channels were seen in type II cells identified with this dye. 6. Phosphine added to the bathing solution reversibly reduced K+ currents and shifted K+ channel activation to more positive potentials. Excitation of phosphine to fluoresce reduced irreversibly K+ currents in type II cells. The usefulness of phosphine as a means of identifying cells for study is discussed. PMID:2457683

  2. Type II collagen screening in the human chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Campbell, D; Machado, M A; Chou, J

    1989-12-01

    Abnormalities of type II collagen have been considered strong candidates for causing human condrodysplasias. We have employed peptide mapping to screen for several types of type II colagen abnormalities in cartilage samples from 66 patients with 20 separate disorders. Except for achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino) and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) congenita in which abnormalities have been described and diastrophic dysplasia in which the changes were probably secondary, no abnormalities were detected. Within the limitations of the screening technique, the results combined with other data from the literature suggest that abnormalities of this molecule are not common causes of chondrodysplasias outside of the achondrogenesis type II-SED congenita family of disorders. PMID:2624272

  3. Herringbone bursts associated with type II solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed observations of the herringbone (HB) fine structure on type II solar radio bursts are presented. Data from the Culgoora radiospectrograph, radiometer and radioheliograph are analyzed. The characteristic spectral profiles, frequency drift rates and exciter velocities, fluxes, source sizes, brightness temperatures, and polarizations of individual HB bursts are determined. Correlations between individual bursts within the characteristic groups of bursts and the properties of the associated type II bursts are examined. These data are compatible with HB bursts being radiation at multiples of the plasma frequency generated by electron streams accelerated by the type II shock. HB bursts are physically distinct phenomena from type II and type III bursts, differing significantly in emission processes and/or source conditions; this conclusion indicates that many of the presently available theoretical ideas for HB bursts are incorrect.

  4. SN 2014G is a Type II-L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eenmae, Tonis; Martin, John C.; Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta

    2014-02-01

    We report a revised spectroscopic classification of Type II-L for SN 2014G. The initial classification of SN 2014G was Type IIn (CBET 3787). That early spectrum showed a blue continuum with no clear absorption and several very narrow emission lines, which in retrospect may be from an H II region near the SN. More recent spectra taken several weeks after peak brightness with the Tartu Observatory 1.5 m Telescope and with the ASP-32 spectrograph on 18 Feb 2014 UT and the Multiple Mirror Telescope Hectospec MOS on 25 Feb 2014 UT reveal a spectrum of a regular Type II supernova.

  5. Modifications of carbon black nanoparticle surfaces modulate type II pneumocyte homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Nicole; Ströbele, Michael; Hochscheid, Renate; Kotte, Elke; Weber, Petra; Bockhorn, Henning; Müller, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation uptake of carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) bears the risk of morphological and functional lung impairment attributed to the highly reactive particle surface area. Chemical particle surface modifications might affect particle-cell interactions; however, thus far these alterations have not been determined. This is the first in vivo study comparing particle-induced acute lung injury using Printex(®)90 (Pr90, 7 µg), Printex®90 covered by benzo[a]pyrene or 9-nitroanthracene (BaP-Pr90, NA-Pr90, 7 µg, 15% BaP or NA by weight), and acetylene carbon black (CB) with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH-AB, 7 µg, 20% PAH by weight). All particles were suspended in distilled water with bovine serum albumin (BSA). In addition, the influence of suspension media was tested using Printex®90 suspended without BSA (Pr90(-BSA), 7 µg). Quartz (DQ12, 7 µg), 70 µl saline (NaCl), and distilled water with or without BSA (H2O(+/-BSA)) were used as reference and controls. It was postulated that CBNP surface modifications trigger pulmonary responses. After oropharyngeal particle aspiration, lung functions were measured 2 d postexposure, followed by lung preparation for histological or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) examinations and type II pneumocyte isolation on d 3. Head-out body plethysmography revealed reduced flow rates induced by PAH-AB. Examinations of BALF demonstrated reduced influx of macrophages after exposure to Pr90(-BSA) and decreased lymphocyte levels after Pr90(+BSA) or BaP-Pr90 treatment. Further, CBNP induced changes in mRNA expressions (surfactant proteins) in type II pneumocytes. These findings indicate that CBNP surface area and media modulate interactions between NP and lung cells in short-term experiments. PMID:26914170

  6. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen. PMID:3057886

  7. Type-II Fuzzy Decision Support System for Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ather; Sarwar, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Type-II fuzzy sets are used to convey the uncertainties in the membership function of type-I fuzzy sets. Linguistic information in expert rules does not give any information about the geometry of the membership functions. These membership functions are mostly constructed through numerical data or range of classes. But there exists an uncertainty about the shape of the membership, that is, whether to go for a triangle membership function or a trapezoidal membership function. In this paper we use a type-II fuzzy set to overcome this uncertainty, and develop a fuzzy decision support system of fertilizers based on a type-II fuzzy set. This type-II fuzzy system takes cropping time and soil nutrients in the form of spatial surfaces as input, fuzzifies it using a type-II fuzzy membership function, and implies fuzzy rules on it in the fuzzy inference engine. The output of the fuzzy inference engine, which is in the form of interval value type-II fuzzy sets, reduced to an interval type-I fuzzy set, defuzzifies it to a crisp value and generates a spatial surface of fertilizers. This spatial surface shows the spatial trend of the required amount of fertilizer needed to cultivate a specific crop. The complexity of our algorithm is O(mnr), where m is the height of the raster, n is the width of the raster, and r is the number of expert rules. PMID:24892071

  8. A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Cole, W G; Chow, C W; Mundlos, S; Bateman, J F

    1995-01-27

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the COL2A1 gene was identified in a fetus with achondrogenesis type II. A transition of G2853 to A in exon 41 produced a substitution of Gly769 by Ser within the triple helical domain of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen, interrupting the mandatory Gly-X-Y triplet sequence required for the normal formation of stable triple helical type II collagen molecules, resulting in the complete absence of type II collagen in the cartilage, which had a gelatinous composition. Type I and III collagens were the major species found in cartilage tissue and synthesized by cultured chondrocytes along with cartilage type XI collagen. However, cultured chondrocytes produced a trace amount of type II collagen, which was retained within the cells and not secreted. In situ hybridization of cartilage sections showed that the chondrocytes produced both type II and type I collagen mRNA. As a result, it is likely that the chondrocytes produced type II collagen molecules, which were then degraded. The close proximity of the Gly769 substitution by Ser to the mammalian collagenase cleavage site at Gly775-Leu776 may have produced an unstable domain that was highly susceptible to proteolysis. The type I and III collagens that replaced type II collagen were unable to maintain the normal structure of the hyaline cartilage but did support chondrocyte maturation, evidenced by the expression of type X collagen in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate cartilage. PMID:7829510

  9. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  10. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  11. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  12. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  13. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  14. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  15. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino)--a case report.

    PubMed

    Swar, M O; Srikrishna, B V

    1995-09-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystophy characterised by extreme micromelia. Definitive clinical and radiographic criteria have been established to differentiate Type II Achondrogenesis (Langer-Saldino) from type I Achondrogenesis (Parenti-Fraccaro). The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive for both types. We are presenting a case of Type II Achondrogenesis, a still born male to consanguinous parents. The clinical features included an enlarged head, protuberant abdomen and short stubby limbs. The mother had earlier delivered two still born males presumably with similar features. Radiographic characteristics of absence of rib fractures and well ossified iliac bones with concave medial margins and absent or deficient ossification of the sacrum, ischiae, and pubic bones differentiated Type II Achondrogenesis from Type I Achondrogenesis. PMID:8798967

  16. PKMiner: a database for exploring type II polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial aromatic polyketides are a pharmacologically important group of natural products synthesized by type II polyketide synthases (type II PKSs) in actinobacteria. Isolation of novel aromatic polyketides from microbial sources is currently impeded because of the lack of knowledge about prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis and the difficulties in finding and optimizing target microorganisms. Comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and the prediction of possible polyketide chemotypes in various actinobacterial genomes will thus enable the discovery or synthesis of novel polyketides in the most plausible microorganisms. Description We performed a comprehensive computational analysis of type II PKSs and their gene clusters in actinobacterial genomes. By identifying type II PKS subclasses from the sequence analysis of 280 known type II PKSs, we developed highly accurate domain classifiers for these subclasses and derived prediction rules for aromatic polyketide chemotypes generated by different combinations of type II PKS domains. Using 319 available actinobacterial genomes, we predicted 231 type II PKSs from 40 PKS gene clusters in 25 actinobacterial genomes, and polyketide chemotypes corresponding to 22 novel PKS gene clusters in 16 genomes. These results showed that the microorganisms capable of producing aromatic polyketides are specifically distributed within a certain suborder of Actinomycetales such as Catenulisporineae, Frankineae, Micrococcineae, Micromonosporineae, Pseudonocardineae, Streptomycineae, and Streptosporangineae. Conclusions We could identify the novel candidates of type II PKS gene clusters and their polyketide chemotypes in actinobacterial genomes by comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and prediction of aromatic polyketides. The genome analysis results indicated that the specific suborders in actinomycetes could be used as prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis. The chemotype-prediction rules with the suggested type II PKS

  17. Achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem

    2002-07-01

    We present a case of achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities that was confirmed with postmortem ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. The length of the long bones may vary and the diagnosis of achondrogenesis should not be ruled out with normally developed extremities. Intrauterine sonographic examination of the vertebrae is very important and the absence of vertebral body ossification may be the unique finding of achondrogenesis type II. Axial ultrasonographic images and postmortem plain radiographs are useful to clarify the pathology. PMID:12124695

  18. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  19. Hyperoxia stimulates the transdifferentiation of type II alveolar epithelial cells in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ana; Fu, Jianhua; Yang, Haiping; Zhu, Yuting; Pan, Yuqing; Xu, Shuyan; Xue, Xindong

    2015-05-01

    Supplemental oxygen treatment in preterm infants may cause bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which is characterized by alveolar simplification and vascular disorganization. Despite type II alveolar epithelial cell (AEC II) damage being reported previously, we found no decrease in the AEC II-specific marker, surfactant protein C (SP-C), in the BPD model in our previous study. We thus speculated that AEC II injury is not a unique mechanism of BPD-related pulmonary epithelial repair dysfunction and that abnormal transdifferentiation can exist. Newborn rats were randomly assigned to model (85% oxygen inhalation) and control groups (room air inhalation). Expressions of AEC I (aquaporin 5, T1α) and AEC II markers (SP-C, SP-B) were detected at three levels: 1) in intact lung tissue, 2) in AEC II isolated from rats in the two groups, and 3) in AEC II isolated from newborn rats, which were further cultured under either hyperoxic or normoxic conditions. In the model group, increased AEC I was observed at both the tissue and cell level, and markedly increased transdifferentiation was observed by immunofluorescent double staining. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological changes in alveolar epithelium such as damaged AECs, a fused air-blood barrier structure, and opened tight junctions in the model group. These findings indicate that transdifferentiation of AECs is not suppressed but rather is increased under hyperoxic treatment by compensation; however, such repair during injury cannot offset pulmonary epithelial air exchange and barrier dysfunction caused by structural damage to AECs. PMID:25681436

  20. Period-Luminosity Relation for Type II Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Feast, Michael W.; Menzies, John W.

    2009-09-01

    We have estimated JHKs magnitudes corrected to mean intensity for LMC type II Cepheids found in the OGLE-III survey. Period-luminosity relations (PLRs) are derived in JHKs as well as in a reddening-free VI parameter. The BL Her stars (P<4 d) and the W Vir stars (P = 4 to 20 d) are co-linear in these PLRs. The slopes of the infrared relations agree with those found previously for type II Cepheids in globular clusters within the uncertainties. Using the pulsation parallaxes of V553 Cen and SW Tau, the data lead to an LMC modulus of 18.46+/-0.10 mag, uncorrected for any metallicity effects. We have now established the PLR of type II Cepheids as a distance indicator by confirming that (almost) the same PLR satisfies the distributions in the PL diagram of type II Cepheids in (at least) two different systems, i.e. the LMC and Galactic globular clusters, and by calibrating the zero point of the PLR. RV Tau stars in the LMC, as a group, are not co-linear with the shorter-period type II Cepheids in the infrared PLRs in marked contrast to such stars in globular clusters. We note differences in period distribution and infrared colors for RV Tau stars in the LMC, globular clusters and Galactic field. We also compare the PLR of type II Cepheids with that of classical Cepheids.

  1. Isolation and Culture of Human Alveolar Type II Pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Witherden, I R; Tetley, T D

    2001-01-01

    Alveolar type II pneumocytes (alveolar type II cells; TII cells) play an important role in the homeostasis of the alveolar unit. They are the progenitor cells to the type I pneumocyte and are therefore responsible for regeneration of alveolar epithelium following alveolar epithelial cell damage. The type I cell covers over 90% of the alveolar surface, reflecting its capacity to stretch into a flattened cell with very little depth (approx. 0.1 µm), but with a large surface area, to facilitate gas exchange. Nevertheless, the type II cell outnumbers type I cells, estimated to be by 2:1 in rodents. Most of the type II cell lies buried in the interstitium of the alveolus, with only the apical tip of the cell reaching into the airspace, through which another crucial function, provision of alveolar surfactant, occurs. Surfactant synthesis and secretion is a unique feature of type II cells; surfactant consists of a high proportion of phospholipids (approx. 90%) and a small proportion of protein (approx. 10%), which contains surfactant apoprotein (SP), of which four have so far been described, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D (1,2). Surfactant is highly surface active and is essential to prevent alveolar collapse. In addition, surfactant has many other roles, including pulmonary host defense. Compromised surfactant synthesis and function are believed to be a feature of numerous disease states (1,2), including infant respiratory distress syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar proteinosis, and microbial infection. PMID:21336897

  2. Mg II 2800 A emission in late type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The largest body of data on ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars now available is the series of scans made with the long wavelength spectrometer onboard OAO-2. Some features of selected scans from this series and estimates of Mg II emission fluxes were reported earlier. Since that time, the effects of sky background, scattered light and variable instrumental sensitivity have become better understood. Additional stars are used to define more clearly the transition from Mg II 2800 A absorption to emission with advancing spectral type, and additional scans of alpha Sco provide a better estimate of Mg II emission strength for this supergiant in OAO observations.

  3. EZH2 inhibition sensitizes BRG1 and EGFR mutant lung tumors to TopoII inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Christine M.; Xu, Chunxiao; Desai, Pooja T.; Berry, Joanne M.; Rowbotham, Samuel P.; Lin, Yi-Jang; Zhang, Haikuo; Marquez, Victor E.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Kim, Carla F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide1. Chemotherapies such as the topoisomerase II inhibitor (TopoIIi) etoposide effectively reduce disease in a minority of NSCLC patients2,3; therefore, alternative drug targets, including epigenetic enzymes, are under consideration for therapeutic intervention4. A promising potential epigenetic target is the methyltransferase EZH2, which in the context of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is well known to tri-methylate Histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and elicit gene silencing5. Here, we demonstrate that EZH2 inhibition (EZH2i) had differential effects on TopoIIi response of NSCLCs in vitro and in vivo. EGFR and BRG1 mutations were genetic biomarkers that predicted enhanced sensitivity to TopoIIi in response to EZH2i. BRG1 loss-of-function mutant tumors responded to EZH2i with increased S phase, anaphase bridging, apoptosis, and TopoIIi sensitivity. Conversely, EGFR and BRG1 wild-type tumors up-regulated BRG1 in response to EZH2i and ultimately became more resistant to TopoIIi. EGFR gain-of-function mutant tumors were also sensitive to dual EZH2i and TopoIIi, due to genetic antagonism between EGFR and BRG1. These findings suggest an exciting opportunity for precision medicine in the genetically complex disease of NSCLC. PMID:25629630

  4. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  5. Proton Beam Therapy of Stage II and III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Satoh, Hiroaki; Sugahara, Shinji; Kurishima, Koichi; Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The present retrospective study assessed the role of proton beam therapy (PBT) in the treatment of patients with Stage II or III non-small-cell lung cancer who were inoperable or ineligible for chemotherapy because of co-existing disease or refusal. Patients and Methods: Between November 2001 and July 2008, PBT was given to 35 patients (5 patients with Stage II, 12 with Stage IIIA, and 18 with Stage IIIB) whose median age was 70.3 years (range, 47.4-85.4). The median proton dose given was 78.3 Gy (range, 67.1-91.3) (relative biologic effectiveness). Results: Local progression-free survival for Stage II-III patients was 93.3% at 1 year and 65.9% at 2 years during a median observation period of 16.9 months. Four patients (11.4%) developed local recurrence, 13 (37.1%) developed regional recurrence, and 7 (20.0%) developed distant metastases. The progression-free survival rate for Stage II-III patients was 59.6% at 1 year and 29.2% at 2 years. The overall survival rate of Stage II-III patients was 81.8% at 1 year and 58.9% at 2 years. Grade 3 or greater toxicity was not observed. A total of 15 patients (42.9%) developed Grade 1 and 6 (17.1%) Grade 2 toxicity. Conclusion: PBT for Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer without chemotherapy resulted in good local control and low toxicity. PBT has a definite role in the treatment of patients with Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer who are unsuitable for surgery or chemotherapy.

  6. Autophagy regulates hyperoxia-induced intracellular accumulation of surfactant protein C in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Shuang; Yuan, Li-Jie; Wu, Hong-Min; Jiang, Hong; Zhao, Shi-Meng; Luo, Gang; Xue, Xin-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) deficiency is a risk factor for hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn infants. However, the role of SP-C deficiency in the process is unclear. Here, using neonatal rat BPD model and MLE-12, mouse alveolar epithelial type II cell, we examined the changes of SP-C levels during hyperoxia. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and ELISA analysis showed SP-C accumulation in alveolar epithelial type II cells. Electron microscopy further demonstrated the accumulation of lamellar bodies and the co-localization of lamellar bodies with autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of alveolar epithelial type II cells. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-Methyladenine and knockdown of Atg7 abolished hyperoxia-induced SP-C accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK signaling with SP600125 suppressed hyperoxia-induced Atg7 expression and SP-C accumulation. These findings suggest that hyperoxia triggers autophagy via JNK signaling-mediated Atg7 expression, which promotes the accumulation of SP-C within alveolar epithelial type II cells. Our data provide a potential approach for hyperoxic lung injury therapy by targeted pharmacological inhibition of autophagic pathway. PMID:26122393

  7. Propionibacterium acnes Types I and II Represent Phylogenetically Distinct Groups

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Andrew; Valanne, Susanna; Ramage, Gordon; Tunney, Michael M.; Glenn, Josephine V.; McLorinan, Gregory C.; Bhatia, Ajay; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Lodes, Michael; Persing, David H.; Patrick, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Although two phenotypes of the opportunistic pathogen Propionibacterium acnes (types I and II) have been described, epidemiological investigations of their roles in different infections have not been widely reported. Using immunofluorescence microscopy with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) QUBPa1 and QUBPa2, specific for types I and II, respectively, we investigated the prevalences of the two types among 132 P. acnes isolates. Analysis of isolates from failed prosthetic hip implants (n = 40) revealed approximately equal numbers of type I and II organisms. Isolates from failed prosthetic hip-associated bone (n = 6) and tissue (n = 38) samples, as well as isolates from acne (n = 22), dental infections (n = 8), and skin removed during surgical incision (n = 18) were predominately of type I. A total of 11 (8%) isolates showed atypical MAb labeling and could not be conclusively identified. Phylogenetic analysis of P. acnes by nucleotide sequencing revealed the 16S rRNA gene to be highly conserved between types I and II. In contrast, sequence analysis of recA and a putative hemolysin gene (tly) revealed significantly greater type-specific polymorphisms that corresponded to phylogenetically distinct cluster groups. All 11 isolates with atypical MAb labeling were identified as type I by sequencing. Within the recA and tly phylogenetic trees, nine of these isolates formed a cluster distinct from other type I organisms, suggesting a further phylogenetic subdivision within type I. Our study therefore demonstrates that the phenotypic differences between P. acnes types I and II reflect deeper differences in their phylogeny. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing provides an accurate method for identifying the type status of P. acnes isolates. PMID:15634990

  8. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance. PMID:23738307

  9. Establishment and Evaluation of a Stable Cattle Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Su, Feng; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanghui; Yu, Yuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Jin, Yaping; Hu, Guangdong; Hua, Song; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells are recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. Recent research has confirmed that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) also play important roles against mycobacterium infections. Thus, establishing a stable cattle AEC line for future endogenous immune research on bacterial invasion is necessary. In the present study, we first purified and immortalized type II AECs (AEC II cells) by transfecting them with a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse trancriptase gene. We then tested whether or not the immortalized cells retained the basic physiological properties of primary AECs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Finally, we tested the secretion capacity of immortalized AEC II cells upon stimulation by bacterial invasion. The cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line (HTERT-AEC II) that we established retained lung epithelial cell characteristics: the cells were positive for surfactants A and B, and they secreted tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial invasion. Thus, the cell line we established is a potential tool for research on the relationship between AECs and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24086682

  10. A sample of Type II-L supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faran, T.; Poznanski, D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Leonard, D. C.; Li, W.; Modjaz, M.; Serduke, F. J. D.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    What are Type II-Linear supernovae (SNe II-L)? This class, which has been ill defined for decades, now receives significant attention - both theoretically, in order to understand what happens to stars in the ˜15-25 M⊙ range, and observationally, with two independent studies suggesting that they cannot be cleanly separated photometrically from the regular hydrogen-rich SNe II-P characterized by a marked plateau in their light curve. Here, we analyse the multiband light curves and extensive spectroscopic coverage of a sample of 35 SNe II and find that 11 of them could be SNe II-L. The spectra of these SNe are hydrogen deficient, typically have shallow Hα absorption, may show indirect signs of helium via strong O I λ7774 absorption, and have faster line velocities consistent with a thin hydrogen shell. The light curves can be mostly differentiated from those of the regular, hydrogen-rich SNe II-P by their steeper decline rates and higher luminosity, and we propose to define them based on their decline in the V band: SNe II-L decline by more than 0.5 mag from peak brightness by day 50 after explosion. Using our sample we provide template light curves for SNe II-L and II-P in four photometric bands.

  11. Multiplicity among F-type Stars. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.

    2015-08-01

    In continuation of our previous study we present an updated census of new companions and model atmosphere analyses for some 50 southern dwarfs, mostly in the mass range 0.90≤slant M≤slant 1.10 {M}⊙ . For the common-proper-motion companions μ Vir B, HR 2225 B, HD 67199 B, and HD 114853 B, we confirm their physical association from their radial velocities. We report the discovery of the F-type visual binary α For as a field blue straggler and confirm (ζ Ret, HR 5864) or identify (HD 67199, HR 4013, HR 8843) another five mass transfer systems or candidates. For the F stars {τ }1 Eri and 111 Tau, we present 10σ and 7σ cases for astrometric binaries by virtue of the very accurate van Leeuwen Hipparcos parallaxes. Following the work of Shaya & Olling, we suggest the F-type star ι Vir to be a wide (0.37 pc) hierarchical quadruple system. We confirm the visual binary NLTT 23781/2 as a common-proper-motion object to the very wide (0.54 pc) F star 40 Leo, but discard the G star HD 128987 as an ultra-wide (1.01 pc) physical companion to the α Lib quadruple system on account of a diverse metallicity. The improved statistics of our sample establishes the previously discovered positive correlation of stellar multiplicities with primary mass. For the F star multiplicity census in the mass range 1.10≤slant M≤slant 1.70 {M}⊙ , we find that at least a quarter consists of triple or higher level systems and at least two out of three F stars are non-single.

  12. Transient neonatal hyperparathyroidism: a presenting feature of mucolipidosis type II.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, Anpalakan; Garibaldi, Luigi; Murphy, Robyn; Ibrahim, Jennifer

    2006-06-01

    The phenotype of mucolipidosis type II (ML II), a disorder of lysosomal enzyme transport, includes mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Hurler syndrome)-like features and dysostosis multiplex, usually apparent after 6 months of age. We describe here the natural history of neonatal hyperparathyroidism, a recently described presentation of ML II. A female neonate presented with multiple fractures and radiological features of osteopenia and 'rickets-like' changes. Longitudinal evaluation, while the patient was treated with vitamin D 800-3,000 IU/day orally, indicated secondary hyperparathyroidism which resolved, biochemically and radiologically, by age 4 months. Neonatal hyperparathyroidism in ML II is severe, transient, and probably secondary to impaired placental calcium transport, simulating a condition observed in the offspring of chronically hypocalcemic mothers. PMID:16886594

  13. Lysosomes from rabbit type II cells catabolize surfactant lipids.

    PubMed

    Rider, E D; Ikegami, M; Pinkerton, K E; Peake, J L; Jobe, A H

    2000-01-01

    The role of a lysosome fraction from rabbit type II cells in surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) catabolism was investigated in vivo using radiolabeled DPPC and dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine (1, 2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; DEPC), a phospholipase A(1)- and A(2)-resistant analog of DPPC. Freshly isolated type II cells were gently disrupted by shearing, and lysosomes were isolated with Percoll density gradients (density range 1.0591-1.1457 g/ml). The lysosome fractions were relatively free of contaminating organelles as determined by electron microscopy and organelle marker enzymes. After intratracheal injection of rabbits with [(3)H]DPPC and [(14)C]DEPC associated with a trace amount of natural rabbit surfactant, the degradation-resistant DEPC accumulated 16-fold compared with DPPC in lysosome fractions at 15 h. Lysosomes can be isolated from freshly isolated type II cells, and lysosomes from type II cells are the primary catabolic organelle for alveolar surfactant DPPC following reuptake by type II cells in vivo. PMID:10645892

  14. The use of divalent metal ions by type II topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Deweese, Joseph E; Osheroff, Neil

    2010-07-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:20703329

  15. The Use of Divalent Metal Ions by Type II Topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    Deweese, Joseph E.; Osheroff, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:20703329

  16. Anti-carbonic anhydrase II antibodies in systemic sclerosis: association with lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Cristiano; Bombardieri, Michele; Scrivo, Rossana; Viganego, Federico; Conti, Fabrizio; de Luca, Nicoletta; Riccieri, Valeria; Valesini, Guido

    2003-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) is expressed on alveolar epithelium and participates to CO2 elimination, fluid secretion and post-capillary pH regulation. CAII is overexpressed in animal models of lung fibrosis in sites of epithelial injury. Autoantibodies directed against CAII (anti-CAII) have been described in sera from patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc), but no study focused on their clinical associations in this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of anti-CAII in sera of SSc patients and to investigate their association with lung involvement. We performed ELISA to detect anti-CAII in 34 SSc patients who underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and Doppler echocardiography. We found increased prevalence and significantly elevated serum levels of anti-CAII in SSc patients affected by restrictive lung disease (RLD) compared to SSc patients without lung involvement and healthy controls. These findings suggest both a possible pathogenic role of anti-CAII in the development of lung damage and a potential clinical utility as serological marker of pulmonary involvement in SSc patients. PMID:12820690

  17. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end. PMID:12686625

  18. Nephrocalcinosis as adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Luiken, G P M; van Riemsdijk, I C; Petrij, F; Zandbergen, A A M; Dees, A

    2014-02-01

    Bartter syndrome consists a group of rare autosomal-recessive renal tubulopathies characterised by renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism. It is classified into five types. Mutations in the KCNJ1 gene (classified as type II) usually cause the neonatal form of Bartter syndrome. We describe an adult patient with a homozygous KCNJ1 mutation resulting in a remarkably mild phenotype of neonatal type Bartter syndrome. PMID:24659592

  19. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    PubMed

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Mishra, Amarjit; Su, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Ayalew, Sahlu; Hartson, Steven D; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+) into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+) release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+) mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion. PMID:20169059

  20. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  1. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S P; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2015-06-21

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  2. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  3. A Type II Radio Burst without a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only by a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the EUV images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of ∼600 km s‑1 during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is, in particular, explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The inverted shock speed is similar to the speed of the wave-like structure. This implies that the wave-like structure is most likely a coronal shock that produces the type II radio burst. We also examine the evolution of the magnetic field in the flare-associated active region and find continuous flux emergence and cancellation taking place near the flare site. Based on these facts, we propose a new mechanism for the formation of the type II radio burst, i.e., the expansion of the strongly inclined magnetic loops after reconnecting with a nearby emerging flux acts as a piston to generate the shock wave.

  4. Predicted Unusual Magnetoresponse in Type-II Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2016-08-01

    We show several distinct signatures in the magnetoresponse of type-II Weyl semimetals. The energy tilt tends to squeeze the Landau levels (LLs), and, for a type-II Weyl node, there always exists a critical angle between the B field and the tilt, at which the LL spectrum collapses, regardless of the field strength. Before the collapse, signatures also appear in the magneto-optical spectrum, including the invariable presence of intraband peaks, the absence of absorption tails, and the special anisotropic field dependence.

  5. Predicted Unusual Magnetoresponse in Type-II Weyl Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2016-08-12

    We show several distinct signatures in the magnetoresponse of type-II Weyl semimetals. The energy tilt tends to squeeze the Landau levels (LLs), and, for a type-II Weyl node, there always exists a critical angle between the B field and the tilt, at which the LL spectrum collapses, regardless of the field strength. Before the collapse, signatures also appear in the magneto-optical spectrum, including the invariable presence of intraband peaks, the absence of absorption tails, and the special anisotropic field dependence. PMID:27563994

  6. Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen E-mail: g9522528@oz.nthu.edu.tw

    2009-01-15

    Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space.

  7. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Doh, J W; Kim, C J; Chi, J G

    2000-10-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis) detected by prenatal ultrasonography at 20-week gestation. A dwarfed fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs was terminated transvaginally. Radiologic and histopathologic examination revealed features of mild form of achondrogenesis type II. Although the case had no known risk factor and the phenotypic abnormality was mild, modern development in prenatal screening made the early detection possible. PMID:11069003

  8. Kinetic Simulations of Solar Type II Radio Burst Emission Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ganse, Urs; Burkart, Thomas; Spanier, Felix; Vainio, Rami

    2010-03-25

    Using our kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulation code, we have examined the behavior of different plasma modes in the environment close to a CME shock front, with special focus on the modes that may contribute to the formation of type II radio bursts. Apart from electron velocity spectra, numerical dispersion plots obtained from simulation data allow for analysis of wave modes in the simulated plasma, especially showing growth and damping of these modes over time. These plots reveal features at 2omega{sub p} which are not predicted by linear wave theory, that may be results of nonlinear three wave interaction processes as theoretically predicted for type II emission processes.

  9. Fundus changes in mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis type II: vitreous fluorophotometry.

    PubMed Central

    Raines, M F; Duvall-Young, J; Short, C D

    1989-01-01

    We have described a complex abnormality of retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris in mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN) type II. Patients with MCGN type II were examined by vitreous fluorophotometry which reveals that there is a breakdown of the blood retinal barrier (BRB) in those patients with the typical fundus lesions. The function of this barrier was calculated as a penetration ratio and was statistically greater in these patients when compared with a group of (a) normal persons, (b) patients with drusen, and (c) patients with other forms of glomerulonephritis. Images PMID:2605145

  10. Ricci inheritance collineations in Bianchi type II spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Tahir; Akhtar, Sumaira Saleem; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Khan, Suhail

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a complete classification of Bianchi type II spacetime according to Ricci inheritance collineations (RICs). The RICs are classified considering cases when the Ricci tensor is both degenerate as well as non-degenerate. In case of non-degenerate Ricci tensor, it is found that Bianchi type II spacetime admits 4-, 5-, 6- or 7-dimensional Lie algebra of RICs. In the case when the Ricci tensor is degenerate, majority cases give rise to infinitely many RICs, while remaining cases admit finite RICs given by 4, 5 or 6.

  11. miR-34 miRNAs Regulate Cellular Senescence in Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Disayabutr, Supparerk; Kim, Eun Kyung; Cha, Seung-Ick; Green, Gary; Naikawadi, Ram P.; Jones, Kirk D.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Schroeder, Aaron; Matthay, Michael A.; Kukreja, Jasleen; Erle, David J.; Collard, Harold R.; Wolters, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include genetic predisposition, activation of the unfolded protein response, telomere attrition, and cellular senescence. The mechanisms leading to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) senescence are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as regulators of cellular senescence. Senescence markers including p16, p21, p53, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal) activity were measured in type II AECs from IPF lungs and unused donor lungs. miRNAs were quantified in type II AECs using gene expression arrays and quantitative RT-PCR. Molecular markers of senescence (p16, p21, and p53) were elevated in IPF type II AECs. SA-βgal activity was detected in a greater percentage in type II AECs isolated from IPF patients (23.1%) compared to patients with other interstitial lung diseases (1.2%) or normal controls (0.8%). The relative levels of senescence-associated miRNAs miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c, but not miR-20a, miR-29c, or miR-let-7f were significantly higher in type II AECs from IPF patients. Overexpression of miR-34a, miR-34b, or miR-34c in lung epithelial cells was associated with higher SA-βgal activity (27.8%, 35.1%, and 38.2%, respectively) relative to control treated cells (8.8%). Targets of miR-34 miRNAs, including E2F1, c-Myc, and cyclin E2, were lower in IPF type II AECs. These results show that markers of senescence are uniquely elevated in IPF type II AECs and suggest that the miR-34 family of miRNAs regulate senescence in IPF type II AECs. PMID:27362652

  12. Uptake, p53 Pathway Activation, and Cytotoxic Responses for Co(II) and Ni(II) in Human Lung Cells: Implications for Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Michal W.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt(II) and nickel(II) ions display similar chemical properties and act as hypoxia mimics in cells. However, only soluble Co(II) but not soluble Ni(II) is carcinogenic by inhalation. To explore potential reasons for these differences, we examined responses of human lung cells to both metals. We found that Co(II) showed almost 8 times higher accumulation than Ni(II) in H460 cells but caused a less efficient activation of the transcriptional factor p53 as measured by its accumulation, Ser15 phosphorylation, and target gene expression. Unlike Ni(II), Co(II) was ineffective in downregulating the p53 inhibitor MDM4 (HDMX). Co(II)-treated cells continued DNA replication at internal doses that caused massive apoptosis by Ni(II). Apoptosis and the overall cell death by Co(II) were delayed and weaker than by Ni(II). Inhibition of caspases but not programmed necrosis pathways suppressed Co(II)-induced cell death. Knockdown of p53 produced 50%–60% decreases in activation of caspases 3/7 and expression of 2 most highly upregulated proapoptotic genes PUMA and NOXA by Co(II). Overall, p53-mediated apoptosis accounted for 55% cell death by Co(II), p53-independent apoptosis for 20%, and p53/caspase-independent mechanisms for 25%. Similar to H460, normal human lung fibroblasts and primary human bronchial epithelial cells had several times higher accumulation of Co(II) than Ni(II) and showed a delayed and weaker caspase activation by Co(II). Thus, carcinogenicity of soluble Co(II) could be related to high survival of metal-loaded cells, which permits accumulation of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. High cytotoxicity of soluble Ni(II) causes early elimination of damaged cells and is expected to be cancer suppressive. PMID:24068677

  13. Pharmacophore modeling studies of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing-Qing; Xie, Huan-Zhang; Ren, Ji-Xia; Li, Lin-Li; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2009-02-01

    In this study, chemical feature based pharmacophore models of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2 have been developed with the aid of HipHop and HypoRefine modules within Catalyst program package. The best HipHop pharmacophore model Hypo1_I for type I kinase inhibitors contains one hydrogen-bond acceptor, one hydrogen-bond donor, one general hydrophobic, one hydrophobic aromatic, and one ring aromatic feature. And the best HypoRefine model Hypo1_II for type II kinase inhibitors, which was characterized by the best correlation coefficient (0.976032) and the lowest RMSD (0.74204), consists of two hydrogen-bond donors, one hydrophobic aromatic, and two general hydrophobic features, as well as two excluded volumes. These pharmacophore models have been validated by using either or both test set and cross validation methods, which shows that both the Hypo1_I and Hypo1_II have a good predictive ability. The space arrangements of the pharmacophore features in Hypo1_II are consistent with the locations of the three portions making up a typical type II kinase inhibitor, namely, the portion occupying the ATP binding region (ATP-binding-region portion, AP), that occupying the hydrophobic region (hydrophobic-region portion, HP), and that linking AP and HP (bridge portion, BP). Our study also reveals that the ATP-binding-region portion of the type II kinase inhibitors plays an important role to the bioactivity of the type II kinase inhibitors. Structural modifications on this portion should be helpful to further improve the inhibitory potency of type II kinase inhibitors. PMID:19138543

  14. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  15. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase expression: transcriptional regulation of the type I and type II genes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, A; Gu, J J; Spychala, J; Mitchell, B S

    1996-01-01

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is an essential rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo guanine nucleotide synthetic pathway that catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP. Enzyme activity is accounted for by the expression of two distinct but closely related genes termed IMPDH I and II. Increased IMPDH activity has been linked to both cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation and generally ascribed to an increase in the expression of the type II gene. We have characterized the type I and type II genes and identified elements important in the transcriptional regulation of both genes. The type II IMPDH gene contains a 466 bp 5' flanking region spanning the translation start site that contains several transcription factor binding sites and mediates increased transcription of a CAT reporter gene in peripheral blood T lymphocytes when these cells are induced to proliferate. The single functional IMPDH type I gene contains exon-intron boundaries and exon structures that are nearly identical to those in the type II gene. In contrast to the type II gene, however, it contains two putative promoter sites, each with the potential for transcriptional regulation. We conclude that these two genes most probably arose from an early gene duplication event and that their highly conserved structures and differential regulation at the transcriptional level argue strongly for a significant role for each gene in cellular metabolism, growth, and differentiation. PMID:8869741

  16. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  17. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: treatment updates.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Kishnani, P S; Chen, Y T

    2007-04-01

    Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  18. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: Treatment updates

    PubMed Central

    Kishnani, P. S.; Chen, Y. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  19. Auroral kilometric radiation triggered by type II solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    The previously-reported triggering of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) during type III solar radio bursts was attributed to the incoming radio waves rather than other aspects of the burst's causative solar flare. This conclusion has now been confirmed by ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 observations showing AKR which seems to have been triggered also by a subsequent type II solar radio burst, up to eleven hours after the flare.

  20. Comparing the Host Galaxies of Type Ia, Type II, and Type Ibc Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Dennefeld, M.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Hammer, F.; Deng, L. C.; Flores, H.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.

    2014-08-01

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D n (4000), Hδ A , stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D n (4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D n (4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (~0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  1. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), Hδ{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  2. Soft vortex matter in a type-I/type-II superconducting bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendová, L.; Milošević, M. V.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic flux patterns are known to strongly differ in the intermediate state of type-I and type-II superconductors. Using a type-I/type-II bilayer we demonstrate hybridization of these flux phases into a plethora of unique new ones. Owing to a complicated multibody interaction between individual fluxoids, many different intriguing patterns are possible under applied magnetic field, such as few-vortex clusters, vortex chains, mazes, or labyrinthal structures resembling the phenomena readily encountered in soft-matter physics. However, in our system the patterns are tunable by sample parameters, magnetic field, current, and temperature, which reveals transitions from short-range clustering to long-range ordered phases such as parallel chains, gels, glasses, and crystalline vortex lattices, or phases where lamellar type-I flux domains in one layer serve as a bedding potential for type-II vortices in the other, configurations clearly beyond the soft-matter analogy.

  3. Free flap transfer for complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain.

  4. Knowledge Is Power: Teaching Children about Type II Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena

    2011-01-01

    World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…

  5. Acceleration of Type II Spicules in the Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths <=50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are ~150-460 km s-1, horizontally localized within ~2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are ~20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached ~100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) × 1022 ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as ~100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be ~0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of ~106 ergs cm-2 s-1 associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  6. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  7. Proinflammatory response of alveolar type II pneumocytes to in vitro hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Farivar, Alexander S; Woolley, Steven M; Fraga, Charles H; Byrne, Karen; Mulligan, Michael S

    2004-03-01

    Type II pneumocytes (T2P) are integral in preserving the integrity of the alveolar space by modulating the fluid composition surrounding the alveolar epithelium. There is also mounting evidence supporting their contribution to the development of acute inflammatory lung injury subsequent to oxidative stress. This study characterized the response of T2P to in vitro hypoxia and reoxygenation (H&R). Rat T2P from a cultured cell line (RLE-6TN) were rendered hypoxic for 2 h, and reoxygenated for up to 6 h. Activation of signaling kinases, the nuclear translocation of proinflammatory transcription factors, and quantification of secreted cytokine and chemokine protein content were assessed. Type II pneumocytes expressed activated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 maximally at 15 min of reoxygenation. C-jun n-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 activation was minimal at all time points studied. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1 were dramatic after 15 min of reoxygenation. There was a significant increase in the protein secretion of CINC (p = 0.03), IL-1beta (p = 0.02), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p < 0.001) at 6 h of reoxygenation. Type II pneumocytes respond directly to H&R. ERK 1/2 activity peaks at 15 min of reoxygenation, and correlates temporally with the nuclear translocation of NFkappaB and AP-1. These signaling cascades likely promote the elaboration of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:14961986

  8. Efficient and rapid isolation and purification of mouse alveolar type II epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Messier, Elise M; Mason, Robert J; Kosmider, Beata

    2012-09-01

    The alveolar surface is covered by an epithelium composed of 2 main cell types: type I and type II cells. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells have a distinct morphology with apical microvilli and characteristic lamellar bodies, which are the intracellular storage form of pulmonary surfactant. ATII cells play an important role in innate immunity and produce and secrete pulmonary surfactant. They proliferate to restore the epithelium after damage to the more sensitive type I cells. We developed an efficient and rapid method to isolate and purify ATII cells from mice. Alveolar epithelial cells were dissociated in the murine lung with dispase and lung tissue was gently minced with a GentleMACS Dissociator. ATII cell purification was performed using negative depletion with CD45 MicroBeads and positive selection for the epithelial-cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) by magnetic labeling with Streptavidin MicroBeads in MACS LS columns. The purity of these cells as measured by flow cytometry was up to 92.1% and 91.1% for co-staining with Ep-CAM and cytokeratin and co-staining with Ep-CAM and SP-A, respectively. The resulting ATII cell population has a high purity, viability, and yield. The phenotype of isolated and cultured ATII cells was confirmed by electron micrographs, expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, proSP-B, mature SP-B, proSP-C, SP-D), and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) by western blotting and immunocytofluorescence. This protocol is based on surface antigens and our data demonstrated that murine ATII cells can be rapidly isolated, efficiently purified, and effectively cultured. PMID:22888851

  9. The Luminosities of Type II Cepheids and RR Lyrae Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feast, Michael W.

    2010-02-01

    Recent work on the luminosities of type II Cepheids (CephIIs) and RR Lyrae variables is reviewed. In the near infrared (JHK_{s}) the CephIIs in globular clusters show a narrow, linear, period-luminosity relation over their whole period range (˜ 1 to 100 days). The CephIIs in the general field of the LMC follow this relation for periods shorter than ˜ 20 days. At longer period (the region of the RV Tau stars), the LMC field stars have a significant scatter and in the mean are more luminous than the PL relation. The OGLEIII optical data for the LMC field variables show similar trends. Infrared colours of stars in the RV Tau period range show marked mean differences between three groupings; the Galactic field, the LMC field, and globular clusters. In the case of the Galactic field, at least, this may be strongly influenced by selection effects. In the period range ˜ 4 to 20 days (the W Vir range) there are stars lying above the PL relation which may be recognized by their light curves and are all likely to be binaries. The bright Galactic variable, κ Pav probably belongs to this group. There is evidence that CephIIs in the general field (LMC and Galaxy) have a wider range of masses than those in globular clusters. At present the CephII PL zero-point depends on the pulsation parallaxes of two stars. Zero-points of RR Lyrae M_{V}-[Fe/H] and K_{s}-log P relations can be obtained from trigonometrical, statistical and pulsation parallaxes. These zero-points are compared with those for CephIIs and with the classical Cepheid scale using variables of these three types in the LMC. Within the uncertainties (˜ 0.1m) the various scales are in agreement.

  10. Diversity of epithelial stem cell types in adult lung.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; He, Jinxi; Wei, Jun; Cho, William C; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25810726

  11. Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; He, Jinxi; Wei, Jun; Cho, William C.; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25810726

  12. Decreased expression of TGF-ß type II receptor in bronchial glands of smokers with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Baraldo, S; Bazzan, E; Turato, G; Calabrese, F; Beghe, B; Papi, A; Maestrelli, P; Fabbri, L; Zuin, R; Saetta, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is still controversial, but it has been proposed that it may protect from mucus hypersecretion since it is able to downregulate mucin production. A study was undertaken to investigate the expression of TGF-ß1 and its type II receptor (TGF-ß RII) in the bronchial glands of smokers with COPD. Methods: The expression of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß RII were examined immunohistochemically in the bronchial glands of 24 smokers undergoing lung resection for solitary peripheral nodules: 12 with airflow limitation (smokers with COPD) and 12 with normal lung function. Results: The expression of TGF-ß1 in bronchial glands was similar in the two groups of subjects while that of TGF-ß RII was lower in smokers with COPD than in smokers with normal lung function (p = 0.004). TGF-ß RII expression was inversely correlated with the values of Reid's index, a measure of gland size (p = 0.02, r = –0.50). Conclusions: In the bronchial glands of smokers with COPD there is decreased expression of TGF-ß RII which is associated with bronchial gland enlargement. These findings support the view that the absence of TGF-ß signalling may induce structural changes in the bronchial glands which, in turn, may promote mucus hypersecretion. PMID:16227324

  13. SPECTRA OF TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES AND RELATED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E. G.; Rogalla, Danielle; Thacker-Lynn, Lauren E-mail: drogall1@bigred.unl.edu

    2011-02-15

    We present low-resolution spectra for variable stars in the Cepheid period range from the ROTSE-I Demonstration Project and the All Sky Automated Survey, some of which were previously identified as type II Cepheid candidates. We have derived effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities from the spectra. Based on this, three types of variables were identified: Cepheid strip stars, cool stars that lie along the red subgiant and giant branch, and cool main-sequence stars. Many fewer type II Cepheids were found than expected and most have amplitudes less than 0.4 mag. The cool variables include many likely binaries as well as intrinsic variables. Variation among the main-sequence stars is likely to be mostly due to binarity or stellar activity.

  14. Cognitive, Medical, and Neuroimaging Characteristics of Attenuated Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Yund, Brianna; Rudser, Kyle; Ahmed, Alia; Kovac, Victor; Nestrasil, Igor; Raiman, Julian; Mamak, Eva; Harmatz, Paul; Steiner, Robert; Lau, Heather; Vekaria, Pooja; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Delaney, Kathleen; Whitley, Chester; Shapiro, Elsa G.

    2014-01-01

    The phenotype of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also called Hunter syndrome, has not been previously studied in systematic manner. In contrast to the “severe” phenotype, the “attenuated” phenotype does not present with behavioral or cognitive impairment; however the presence of mild behavior and cognitive impairment that might impact long term functional outcomes is unknown. Previously, significant MRI abnormalities have been found in MPS II. Recent evidence suggests white matter abnormalities in many MPS disorders. Methods As the initial cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal study, we studied the association of brain volumes and somatic disease burden with neuropsychological outcomes, including measures of intelligence, memory and attention in 20 patients with attenuated MPS II with a mean age of 15.8. MRI volumes were compared to 55 normal controls. Results While IQ and memory were average, measures of attention were one standard deviation below the average range. Corpus callosum volumes were significantly different from age-matched controls, differing by 22%. Normal age-related volume increases in white matter were not seen in MPS II patients as they were in controls. Somatic disease burden and white matter and corpus callosum volumes were significantly associated with attention deficits. Neither age at evaluation nor age at starting treatment predicted attention outcomes. Conclusions Despite average intelligence, attention is compromised in attenuated MPS II. Results confirm an important role of corpus callosum and cortical white matter abnormality in MPS II as well as the somatic disease burden in contributing to attention difficulties. Awareness by the patient and caregivers with appropriate management and symptomatic support will benefit the attenuated MPS II patient. PMID:25541100

  15. Inhibitory effects of α-cyperone on adherence and invasion of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli O78 to chicken type II pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Yan; Lv, Shuang; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Guo, Xun; Xia, Fang; Hu, Xi-Rou; Song, Zhou; Zhang, Cui; Qin, Qian-Qian; Fu, Ben-Dong; Yi, Peng-Fei; Shen, Hai-Qing; Wei, Xu-Bin

    2014-05-15

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli, and usually cause avian septicemia through breaching the blood-gas barrier. Type II pneumocytes play an important role of maintaining the function of the blood-gas barrier. However, the mechanism of APEC injuring type II pneumocytes remains unclear. α-cyperone can inhibit lung cell injury induced by Staphylococcus aureus. In order to explore whether α-cyperone regulates the adherence and invasion of APEC-O78 to chicken type II pneumocytes, we successfully cultured chicken type II pneumocytes. The results showed that α-cyperone significantly decreased the adherence of APEC-O78 to chicken type II pneumocytes. In addition, α-cyperone inhibited actin cytoskeleton polymerization induced by APEC-O78 through down regulating the expression of Nck-2, Cdc42 and Rac1. These results provide new evidence for the prevention of colibacillosis in chicken. PMID:24629766

  16. Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and their Correlation with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.

    2015-08-01

    Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010 to 2013, we present an analysis of the 123 decametric–hectometric (DH) type II solar radio bursts during this period, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with solar energetic proton (SEP) properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We present a useful catalog of the type II burst, type III burst, Langmuir wave, and proton flux properties for these 123 events, which we employ to develop a statistical relationship between the radio properties and peak proton flux that can be used to forecast SEP events. We find that all SEP events with a peak \\gt 10 MeV flux above 15 protons cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 are associated with a type II burst and virtually all SEP events, 92%, are also associated with a type III radio burst. Based on a principal component analysis, the radio burst properties that are most highly correlated with the occurrence of gradual SEP events and account for the most variance in the radio properties are the type III burst intensity and duration. Further, a logistic regression analysis with the radio-derived principal component (dominated by the type III and type II radio burst intensity and type III duration) obtains SEP predictions approaching the human forecaster rates, with a false alarm rate of 22%, a probability of detection of 62%, and with 85% of the classifications correct. Therefore, type III radio bursts that occur along with a DH type II burst are shown to be an important diagnostic that can be used to forecast SEP events.

  17. Angiotensin II induces apoptosis of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in acute aortic dissection complicated with lung injury patients through modulating the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiyong; Dai, Feifeng; Ren, Wei; Liu, Huagang; Li, Bowen; Chang, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD) usually showed acute lung injury (ALI). However, its pathogenesis is still not well defined. Apoptosis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) is closely related to the alveolus-capillary barrier injury and the increased vascular permeability. In this study, we aim to investigate the human PMVECs (hPMVECs) apoptosis induced by angiotensin II (AngII) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and their potential interaction in the pathogenesis of AAD complicated with ALI. Fifty-eight newly diagnosed AAD, 12 matched healthy individuals were included. Pulmonary tissues of AAD complicated with lung injury were obtained from 2 cadavers to determine the levels of AngII type 1 receptor (AT1-R) and MCP-1. Serum AngII was measured using commercial ELISA kit. H&E staining and immunohistostaining were performed to determine the expression of AT1-R and MCP-1. For the in vitro experiment, hPMVECs were divided into control, AngII group, AngII+Bindarit group and Bindarit group, respectively. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the apoptosis in each group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the mRNA expression of MCP-1. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of MCP-1 and apoptosis related protein. Apoptosis of hPMVECs was observed in the lung tissues in the cadavers with AAD complicated with ALI. Besides, the expression of AT1-R and MCP-1 was remarkably elevated. Compared with normal individuals and the non-lung injury AAD patients, the expression of serum AngII was remarkably elevated in AAD patients complicated with ALI. In vitro experiments showed AngII contributed to the apoptosis and elevation of MCP1 in hPMVECs. Besides, it involved in the down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein, and up-regulation of Bax and Caspase-3. Such phenomenon was completely reversed after administration of MCP-1 inhibitor (Bindarit). The production of MCP-1 and cellular

  18. Adjuvant Therapy for Stage I and II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Evan C

    2016-07-01

    Patients with stage I and stage II non-small cell lung cancer undergoing complete resection have a 40% to 70% 5-year overall survival despite optimal local therapy. Chemotherapy administered after complete resection has been shown to improve overall survival at 5 years by approximately 5%. This improvement in survival may be confined to patients with stage IB disease 4 cm or greater, and to those with hilar or mediastinal lymph node involvement. The optimal chemotherapy regimen appears to be cisplatin-based doublet or triplet chemotherapy for 3 to 4 cycles. The addition of biologic agents has failed to improve outcomes. PMID:27261917

  19. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  20. Microanalysis of quantum dots with type II band alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarney, Wendy; Little, John; Svensson, Stefan

    2006-03-01

    We will discuss the structural characterization of a system consisting of undoped self-assembled InSb quantum dots having a type II band alignment with the surrounding In0.53Ga0.47As matrix. This differs from systems using conventional type-I quantum dots that must be doped and that rely on intersubband transitions for infrared photoresponse. Type II dots grown in a superlattice structure combine the advantages of quantum dots (3-dimensional confinement) with the tunability and photovoltaic operation of the type II superlattice. We grew a high surface density of InSb quantum dots with a narrow distribution of sizes and shapes and free of dislocations within the body of the dots. The dots are relaxed due to an array of misfit dislocations confined at the basal dot/matrix interface. This makes burying the dots with InGaAs not feasible without generating dislocations due to the large dot/matrix lattice mismatch. We are experimenting with strain-compensating or graded strain overlayers to lower the lattice mismatch.

  1. Type II restriction endonucleases—a historical perspective and more

    PubMed Central

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss ‘Type II’ REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures. PMID:24878924

  2. On the nature of rapidly fading Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Pruzhinskaya, Maria V.; Ergon, Mattias; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that Type II supernovae with rapidly fading light curves (a.k.a. Type IIL supernovae) are explosions of progenitors with low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes which are of the order of 1 M⊙. We investigate light-curve properties of supernovae from such progenitors. We confirm that such progenitors lead to rapidly fading Type II supernovae. We find that the luminosity of supernovae from such progenitors with the canonical explosion energy of 1051 erg and 56Ni mass of 0.05 M⊙ can increase temporarily shortly before all the hydrogen in the envelope recombines. As a result, a bump appears in their light curves. The bump appears because the heating from the nuclear decay of 56Ni can keep the bottom of hydrogen-rich layers in the ejecta ionized, and thus the photosphere can stay there for a while. We find that the light-curve bump becomes less significant when we make explosion energy larger (≳2 × 1051 erg), 56Ni mass smaller (≲0.01 M⊙), 56Ni mixed in the ejecta, or the progenitor radius larger. Helium mixing in hydrogen-rich layers makes the light-curve decline rates large but does not help reducing the light-curve bump. Because the light-curve bump we found in our light-curve models has not been observed in rapidly fading Type II supernovae, they may be characterized by not only low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes but also higher explosion energy, larger degrees of 56Ni mixing, and/or larger progenitor radii than slowly fading Type II supernovae, so that the light-curve bump does not become significant.

  3. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  4. Biochemical detection of type I cell damage after nitrogen dioxide-induced lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    McElroy, M C; Pittet, J F; Allen, L; Wiener-Kronish, J P; Dobbs, L G

    1997-12-01

    We have previously shown that injury to lung epithelial type I cells can be detected biochemically by measuring the airway fluid content of a type I cell-specific protein, rTI40, in a model of severe acute lung injury [M. C. McElroy, J.-F. Pittet, S. Hashimoto, L. Allen, J. P. Wiener-Kronish, and L. G. Dobbs. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 12): L181-L186, 1995]. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate the utility of rTI40 in the assessment of alveolar injury in a model of milder acute lung injury. Rats were exposed to 18 parts/ million NO2 for 12 h; control rats received filtered air for 12 h. In NO2-exposed rats, the total amount of rTI40 in bronchoalveolar fluid was elevated 2-fold compared with control values (P < 0.001); protein concentration was 8.5-fold of control values (P < 0.001). The increase in rTI40 was associated with morphological evidence of injury to type I cells limited to the proximal alveolar regions of the lung. The second objective was to correlate the severity of alveolar type I cell injury with functional measurements of lung epithelial barrier integrity. NO2 inhalation stimulated distal air space fluid clearance despite a significant increase in lung endothelial and epithelial permeability to protein. These data demonstrate that rTI40 is a useful biochemical marker for mild focal injury and that exposure to NO2 alters lung barrier function. Taken together with our earlier studies, these results suggest that the quantity of recoverable rTI40 can be used as an index of the severity of damage to the alveolar epithelium. PMID:9435578

  5. Down-regulation of Retinoic Acid Receptor α Signaling Is Required for Sacculation and Type I Cell Formation in the Developing Lung*

    PubMed Central

    Wongtrakool, Cherry; Malpel, Sarah; Gorenstein, Julie; Sedita, Jeff; Ramirez, Maria I.; Underhill, T. Michael; Cardoso, Wellington V.

    2007-01-01

    Although retinoic acid (RA) has been shown to be critical for lung development, little is known about when RA is required and the role of individual RA receptors (RAR) in this process. Previously reported data from an RA responsive element RARE-lacZ reporter mouse show that when epithelial tubules are branching and differentiating RA signaling becomes markedly down-regulated in the epithelium. It is unclear why this down-regulation occurs and what role it might play in the developing lung. Here we analyze the effects of preventing potential progenitors of the distal lung from turning off RA signaling by locally expressing constitutively activated RARα or RARβ chimeric receptors (RARVP16) in branching airways of transgenic mice. Continued RA activation resulted in lung immaturity in both cases, but the phenotypes were remarkably different. RARαVP16 lungs did not expand to form saccules or morphologically identifiable type I cells. High levels of surfactant protein C (Sp-C), thyroid transcription factor-1 (Ttf1), and Gata6, but not Sp-A or Sp-B in the epithelium at birth suggested that in these lungs differentiation was arrested at an early stage. These alterations were not observed in RARβVP16 lungs, which showed relatively less severe changes. Our data suggest a model in which activation of RAR signaling at the onset of lung development establishes an initial program that assigns distal cell fate to the prospective lung epithelium. Down-regulation of RA signaling, however, is required to allow completion of later steps of this differentiation program that ultimately form mature type I and II cells. PMID:12947094

  6. K3-fibrations and heterotic-type II string duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, A.; Lerche, W.; Mayr, P.

    1995-02-01

    We analyze the map between heterotic and type II N = 2 supersymmetric string theories for certain two and three moduli examples found by Kachru and Vafa. The appearance of elliptic j-functions can be traced back to specializations of the Picard-Fuchs equations to systems for K3 surfaces. For the three-moduli example we write the mirror maps and Yukawa couplings in the weak coupling limit in terms of j-functions; the expressions agree with those obtained in perturbative calculations in the heterotic string in an impressive way. We also discuss symmetries of the world-sheet instanton numbers in the type II theory, and interpret them in terms of S-duality of the non-perturbative heterotic string.

  7. Unification of type-II strings and T duality.

    PubMed

    Hohm, Olaf; Kwak, Seung Ki; Zwiebach, Barton

    2011-10-21

    We present a unified description of the low-energy limits of type-II string theories. This is achieved by a formulation that doubles the space-time coordinates in order to realize the T-duality group O(10,10) geometrically. The Ramond-Ramond fields are described by a spinor of O(10,10), which couples to the gravitational fields via the Spin(10,10) representative of the so-called generalized metric. This theory, which is supplemented by a T-duality covariant self-duality constraint, unifies the type-II theories in that each of them is obtained for a particular subspace of the doubled space. PMID:22107505

  8. The ketogenic diet for type II bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Phelps, James R; Siemers, Susan V; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2013-01-01

    Successful mood stabilizing treatments reduce intracellular sodium in an activity-dependent manner. This can also be achieved with acidification of the blood, as is the case with the ketogenic diet. Two women with type II bipolar disorder were able to maintain ketosis for prolonged periods of time (2 and 3 years, respectively). Both experienced mood stabilization that exceeded that achieved with medication; experienced a significant subjective improvement that was distinctly related to ketosis; and tolerated the diet well. There were no significant adverse effects in either case. These cases demonstrate that the ketogenic diet is a potentially sustainable option for mood stabilization in type II bipolar illness. They also support the hypothesis that acidic plasma may stabilize mood, perhaps by reducing intracellular sodium and calcium. PMID:23030231

  9. Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Type II Achalasia.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Jason; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-31

    It has been suggested that patients with certain motility disorders may progress overtime to develop achalasia. We describe a 66 year-old woman who presented with dysphagia for solids and liquids for a period of 18 months. Her initial workup showed normal endoscopy and non-specific esophageal motility disorder on conventional manometry. Six months later, due to persistence of symptoms, the patient underwent a high resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) demonstrating jackhammer esophagus. The patient was treated with a high dose proton pump inhibitor but without resolution of her symptoms. During the last year, the patient reported repeated episodes of food regurgitation and a significant weight loss. A repeat HREM revealed type II achalasia. Multiple case reports, and only a few prospective studies have demonstrated progression from certain esophageal motility disorders to achalasia. However, this report is the first to describe a case of jackhammer esophagus progressing to type II achalasia. PMID:26717932

  10. Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Type II Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jason; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with certain motility disorders may progress overtime to develop achalasia. We describe a 66 year-old woman who presented with dysphagia for solids and liquids for a period of 18 months. Her initial workup showed normal endoscopy and non-specific esophageal motility disorder on conventional manometry. Six months later, due to persistence of symptoms, the patient underwent a high resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) demonstrating jackhammer esophagus. The patient was treated with a high dose proton pump inhibitor but without resolution of her symptoms. During the last year, the patient reported repeated episodes of food regurgitation and a significant weight loss. A repeat HREM revealed type II achalasia. Multiple case reports, and only a few prospective studies have demonstrated progression from certain esophageal motility disorders to achalasia. However, this report is the first to describe a case of jackhammer esophagus progressing to type II achalasia. PMID:26717932

  11. THE CONNECTION OF TYPE II SPICULES TO THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.; McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Olluri, Kosovare

    2012-02-20

    We examine the hypothesis that plasma associated with 'Type II' spicules is heated to coronal temperatures, and that the upward moving hot plasma constitutes a significant mass supply to the solar corona. One-dimensional hydrodynamical models including time-dependent ionization are brought to bear on the problem. These calculations indicate that heating of field-aligned spicule flows should produce significant differential Doppler shifts between emission lines formed in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. At present, observational evidence for the computed 60-90 km s{sup -1} differential shifts is weak, but the data are limited by difficulties in comparing the proper motion of Type II spicules with spectral and kinematic properties of an associated transition region and coronal emission lines. Future observations with the upcoming infrared interferometer spectrometer instrument should clarify if Doppler shifts are consistent with the dynamics modeled here.

  12. Subclinical Onychomycosis in Patients With Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    El Tawdy, Amira; Zaki, Naglaa; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Rateb, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Fungal organisms could be present in the nail without any clinical manifestations. As onychomycosis in diabetics has more serious complications, early detection of such infection could be helpful to prevent them. We aim in this study to assess the possibility of detecting subclinical onychomycosis in type II diabetic patients and addressing possible associated neuropathy. A cross sectional, observational study included patients with type II diabetes with normal big toe nail. All were subjected to nail clipping of the big toe nail, followed by staining with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic-Acid-Schiff (PAS) stains and examined microscopically. A total of 106 patients were included, fungal infection was identified in eight specimens, all were uncontrolled diabetes, and six had neuropathy. Using the nail clipping and microscopic examination with PAS stain to detect such subclinical infection could be an applicable screening test for diabetic patients, for early detection and management of onychomycosis. PMID:26734120

  13. Variable stretch pattern enhances surfactant secretion in alveolar type II cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Arold, Stephen P; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2009-04-01

    Secretion of pulmonary surfactant that maintains low surface tension within the lung is primarily mediated by mechanical stretching of alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells. We have shown that guinea pigs ventilated with random variations in frequency and tidal volume had significantly larger pools of surfactant in the lung than animals ventilated in a monotonous manner. Here, we test the hypothesis that variable stretch patterns imparted on the AEII cells results in enhanced surfactant secretion. AEII cells isolated from rat lungs were exposed to equibiaxial strains of 12.5, 25, or 50% change in surface area (DeltaSA) at 3 cycles/min for 15, 30, or 60 min. (3)H-labeled phosphatidylcholine release and cell viability were measured 60 min following the onset of stretch. Whereas secretion increased following 15-min stretch at 50% DeltaSA and 30-min stretch at 12.5% DeltaSA, 60 min of cyclic stretch diminished surfactant secretion regardless of strain. When cells were stretched using a variable strain profile in which the amplitude of each stretch was randomly pulled from a uniform distribution, surfactant secretion was enhanced both at 25 and 50% mean DeltaSA with no additional cell injury. Furthermore, at 50% mean DeltaSA, there was an optimum level of variability that maximized secretion implying that mechanotransduction in these cells exhibits a phenomenon similar to stochastic resonance. These results suggest that application of variable stretch may enhance surfactant secretion, possibly reducing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. Variable stretch-induced mechanotransduction may also have implications for other areas of mechanobiology. PMID:19136581

  14. ACCELERATION OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths {<=}50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are {approx}150-460 km s{sup -1}, horizontally localized within {approx}2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are {approx}20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached {approx}100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as {approx}100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be {approx}0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of {approx}10{sup 6} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  15. Gaia16alo is a Type II SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Mattila, S.; Harrison, D.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Blagorodnova, N.

    2016-05-01

    Gaia16alo (aka PS16cct) was observed using the robotic Liverpool Telescope + SPRAT (R~350; 400-800 nm) on the night of 2016 May 6. The spectrum was compared to a set of templates using SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), and we find a best match to a range of Type II SNe at z=0.03.

  16. Acceleration of Type II Spicules in the Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    A 2.5 D, time dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions, and that maximum vertical flow speeds can be comparable to slow solar wind speeds ˜ 200-400 km/sec. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules, and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths ≤ 50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. The maximum vertical flow speeds are ˜ 150-460 km-sec-1, and horizontally localized within ˜ 2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules on sub-resolution, horizontal spatial scales. Vertical flow speeds with Mach numbers > ˜ 5 extend over horizontal regions with diameters ˜ 25-50 km. Horizontal speeds are ˜ 20 times smaller than maximum vertical speeds. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during the acceleration process is 2-3 × 1022 ergs, which is ˜ 5 times smaller than nanoflare energies. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as ˜ 100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation, and can be ˜ 0.1 - 3.7 times the heating flux of ˜ 106 ergs-cm-2-s-1 associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. The maximum heating rate and vertical flow speed are respectively reached ˜ 23 s and 100 s after acceleration begins, indicating that most heating occurs well before terminal velocity is reached. About 84-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  17. Shock waves and nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aufderheide, M. B.; Baron, E.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    1991-01-01

    In the study of nucleosynthesis in type II SN, shock waves are initiated artificially, since collapse calculations do not, as yet, give self-consistent shock waves strong enough to produce the SN explosion. The two initiation methods currently used by light-curve modelers are studied, with a focus on the peak temperatures and the nucleosynthetic yields in each method. The various parameters involved in artificially initiating a shock wave and the effects of varying these parameters are discussed.

  18. Systematic identification of type I and type II interferon-induced antiviral factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, David Jesse; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Lu, Sun; Cheng, Genhong

    2012-03-13

    Type I and type II interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that establish the cellular antiviral state through the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We sought to understand the basis of the antiviral activity induced by type I and II IFNs in relation to the functions of their ISGs. Based on gene expression studies, we systematically identified antiviral ISGs by performing blinded, functional screens on 288 type I and type II ISGs. We assessed and validated the antiviral activity of these ISGs against an RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and a DNA virus, murine gammaherpes virus (MHV-68). Overall, we identified 34 ISGs that elicited an antiviral effect on the replication of either one or both viruses. Fourteen ISGs have uncharacterized antiviral functions. We further defined ISGs that affect critical life-cycle processes in expression of VSV protein and MHV-68 immediate-early genes. Two previously undescribed antiviral ISGs, TAP1 and BMP2, were further validated. TAP1-deficient fibroblasts were more susceptible to VSV infection but less so to MHV-68 infection. On the other hand, exogenous BMP2 inhibits MHV-68 lytic growth but did not affect VSV growth. These results delineate common and distinct sets of type I and type II IFN-induced genes as well as identify unique ISGs that have either broad or specific antiviral effects on these viruses. PMID:22371602

  19. Coronas Mass Ejections, Shocks, and Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomena in the interplanetary medium. Type II radio bursts are the earliest indicators of particle acceleration by CME-driven shocks. There is one-to-one correspondence between large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and long wavelength type II bursts because the same CME-driven shock is supposed to accelerate electrons and ions. However, there are some significant deviations: some CMEs lacking type II bursts (radio-quiet or RQ CMEs) are associated with small SEP events while some radioloud (RL) CMEs are not associated with SEP events, suggesting subtle differences in the acceleration of electrons and protons. Not all CME-driven shocks are radio loud: more than one third of the interplanetary shocks during solar cycle 23 were radio quiet. Some RQ shocks were associated with energetic storm particle (ESP) events, which are detected when the shocks arrive at the observing spacecraft. This paper attempts to explain these contradictory results in terms of the properties of CMEs, shocks, and the ambient medium.

  20. Type-II superlattice infrared detector technology at Fraunhofer IAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Daumer, Volker; Hugger, Tsvetelina; Kohn, Norbert; Luppold, Wolfgang; Müller, Raphael; Niemasz, Jasmin; Schmidt, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Stadelmann, Tim; Wauro, Matthias; Wörl, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    For more than two decades, Antimony-based type-II superlattice photodetectors for the infrared spectral range between 3-15 μm are under development at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF). Today, Fraunhofer IAF is Germany's only national foundry for InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice detectors and we cover a wide range of aspects from basic materials research to small series production in this field. We develop single-element photodetectors for sensing systems as well as two-dimensional detector arrays for high-performance imaging and threat warning systems in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength region of the thermal infrared. We continuously enhance our production capabilities by extending our in-line process control facilities. As a recent example, we present a semiautomatic wafer probe station that has developed into an important tool for electrooptical characterization. A large amount of the basic materials research focuses on the reduction of the dark current by the development of bandgap engineered device designs on the basis of heterojunction concepts. Recently, we have successfully demonstrated Europe's first LWIR InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice imager with 640x512 pixels with 15 μm pitch. The demonstrator camera already delivers a good image quality and achieves a thermal resolution better than 30 mK.

  1. Subcellular dynamics of type II PKA in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haining; Sia, Gek-Ming; Sato, Takashi R.; Gray, Noah W.; Mao, Tianyi; Khuchua, Zaza; Huganir, Richard L.; Svoboda, Karel

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein kinase A (PKA) plays multiple roles in neurons. The localization and specificity of PKA are largely controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). However, the dynamics of PKA in neurons, and the roles of specific AKAPs, are poorly understood. We imaged the distribution of type II PKA in hippocampal and cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. PKA was concentrated in dendritic shafts compared to the soma, axons and dendritic spines. This spatial distribution was imposed by the microtubule-binding protein MAP2, indicating that MAP2 is the dominant AKAP in neurons. Following cAMP elevation, catalytic subunits dissociated from the MAP2-tethered regulatory subunits and rapidly moved to become enriched in nearby spines. The spatial gradient of type II PKA between dendritic shafts and spines was critical for the regulation of synaptic strength and long-term potentiation. The localization and activity-dependent translocation of type II PKA are therefore important determinants of PKA function. PMID:19447092

  2. Defects and noise in Type-II superlattice infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Wörl, Andreas; Daumer, Volker; Rehm, Robert; Kirste, Lutz; Rutz, Frank; Schmitz, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    To examine defects in InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices we investigated GaSb substrates and epitaxial InAs/GaSb layers by synchrotron white beam X-ray topography to characterize the distribution of threading dislocations. Those measurements are compared with wet chemical etch pit density measurements on GaSb substrates and InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices epitaxial layer structures. The technique uses a wet chemical etch process to decorate threading dislocations and an automated optical analyzing system for mapping the defect distribution. Dark current and noise measurements on processed InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice single element photo diodes reveal a generation-recombination limited dark current behavior without contributions by surface leakage currents for midwavelength infrared detectors. In the white noise part of the noise spectrum, the extracted diode noise closely matches the theoretically expected shot noise behavior. For diodes with an increased dark current in comparison to the dark current of generation-recombination limited material, the standard shot-noise model fails to describe the noise experimentally observed in the white part of the spectrum. Instead, we find that McIntyre's noise model for avalanche multiplication processes fits the data quite well. We suggest that within high electric field domains localized around crystallographic defects, electrons initiate avalanche multiplication processes leading to increased dark current and excess noise.

  3. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Rebeh, Rania Ben; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy termination; they felt that the diagnosis was late. At birth, the newborn presented immediate respiratory distress. Postnatal examination and bone radiography confirmed the diagnosis of OI type IIA. Death occurred on day 25 of life related to respiratory failure. PMID:26401205

  4. Transforming growth factor receptor type II (ec-TβR II) behaves as a halophile.

    PubMed

    Saini, Komal; Khan, M Ashhar I; Chakrapani, Sumit; Deep, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    The members of transforming growth factor β family (TGF-β) are multifunctional proteins but their main role is to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Polypeptides of TGF-β family function by binding to two related, functionally distinct transmembrane receptor kinases, first to the type II (TβR II) followed by type I receptor (TβR I). The paper describes, in details, the stability of wt-ec-TβR II under different conditions. The stability of wt-ec-TβR II was observed at different pH and salt concentration using fluorescence spectroscopy. Stability of ec-TβR II decreases with decrease in pH. Interestingly, the addition of salt increases the stability of the TβRII at pH 5.0 as observed for halophiles. Computational analysis using DELPHI suggests that this is probably due to the decrease in repulsion between negatively charged residues at surface on the addition of salt. This is further confirmed by the change in the stability of receptor on mutation of some of the residues (D32A) at surface. PMID:25316422

  5. Keratinocyte growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor are heparin-binding growth factors for alveolar type II cells in fibroblast-conditioned medium.

    PubMed Central

    Panos, R J; Rubin, J S; Csaky, K G; Aaronson, S A; Mason, R J

    1993-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediate aspects of normal lung growth and development and are important in the restoration of normal alveolar architecture after lung injury. To determine if fibroblasts are a source of soluble growth factors for alveolar type II cells, we investigated the effect of fibroblast-conditioned medium (CM) on alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. Serum-free CM from confluent adult human lung fibroblasts was concentrated fivefold by lyophilization. Type II cells were isolated from adult rats by elastase dissociation and incubated with [3H]thymidine and varying dilutions of concentrated CM and serum from day 1 to 3 of culture. Stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by fibroblast-CM was maximal after 48 h of conditioning and required the presence of serum. The activity of the CM was eliminated by boiling and by treatment with trypsin, pepsin, or dithiothreitol and was additive with saturating concentrations of acidic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin. The growth factor activity bound to heparin-Sepharose and was eluted with 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl. Neutralizing antibody studies demonstrated that the primary mitogens isolated in the 0.6 and 1.0 M NaCl fractions were keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, fibroblast growth factor 7) and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), respectively. HGF/SF was demonstrated in the crude CM and KGF was detected in the 0.6 M NaCl eluent by immunoblotting. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the lung fibroblasts expressed both KGF and HGF/SF transcripts. Human recombinant KGF and HGF/SF induced a concentration- and serum-dependent increase in rat alveolar type II cell DNA synthesis. We conclude that adult human lung fibroblasts produce at least two soluble heparin-binding growth factors, KGF and HGF/SF, which promote DNA synthesis and proliferation of rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. KGF and HGF/SF may be important stimuli for alveolar type II cell

  6. A study of low-energy type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisakov, Sergey M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2015-08-01

    All stars with an initial mass greater than 8Msun, but not massive enough to encounter the pair-production instability, eventually form a degenerate core and collapse to form a compact object, either a neutron star or a black hole.At the lower mass end, these massive stars die as red-supergiant stars and give rise to Type II supernovae (SNe). The diversity of observed properties of SNe II suggests a range of progenitor mass, radii, but also explosion energy.We have performed a large grid simulations designed to cover this range of progenitor and explosion properties. Using MESA STAR, we compute a set of massive star models (12-30Msun) from the main sequence until core collapse. We then generate explosions with V1D to produce ejecta with a range of explosion energies and yields. Finally, all ejecta are evolved with CMFGEN to generate multi-band light curves and spectra.In this poster, we focus our attention on the properties of low-energy explosions that give rise to low-luminosity Type II Plateau (II-P) SNe. In particular, we present a detailed study of SN 2008bk, but also include other notorious low-energy SNe II-P like 2005cs, emphasising their non-standard properties by comparing to models that match well events like SN 1999em. Such low-energy explosions, characterised by low ejecta expansion rates, are more suitable for reliable spectral line identifications.Based on our models, we discuss the distinct signatures of low-energy explosions in lower and higher mass models. One important goal is to identify whether there is a progenitor-mass bias leading to such events.

  7. Adiponectin ameliorates the apoptotic effects of paraquat on alveolar type II cells via improvements in mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    HE, YARONG; ZOU, LIQUN; ZHOU, YAXIONG; HU, HAI; YAO, RONG; JIANG, YAOWEN; LAU, WAYNE BOND; YUAN, TUN; HUANG, WEN; ZENG, ZHI; CAO, YU

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that excessive reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)-induced apoptosis is an important feature of the injury to the lung epithelium in paraquat (PQ) poisoning. However the precise mechanisms of PQ-induced dysfunction of the mitochondria, where ROS/RNS are predominantly produced, remain to be fully elucidated. Whether globular adiponectin (gAd), a potent molecule protective to mitochondria, regulates the mitochondrial function of alveolar type II cells to reduce PQ-induced ROS/RNS production remains to be investigated. The current study aimed to investigate the precise mechanisms of PQ poisoning in the mitochondria of alveolar type II cells, and to elucidate the role of gAd in protecting against PQ-induced lung epithelium injury. Therefore, lung epithelial injury was induced by PQ co-culture of alveolar type II A549 cells for 24 h. gAd was administrated to and removed from the injured cells in after 24 h. PQ was observed to reduce cell viability and increase apoptosis by ~1.5 fold in A549 cells. The oxidative/nitrative stress, resulting from ROS/RNS and disordered mitochondrial function were evidenced by increased O2−., NO production and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) content in PQ-poisoned A549 cells. gAd treatment significantly reversed the PQ-induced cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in A549 cells. The protective effects of gAd were partly abrogated by an adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, compound C. The results suggest that reduced ΔΨ and ATP content may result in PQ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction of the lung epithelium, which constitutes a novel mechanism for gAd exerting pulmonary protection against PQ poisoning via AMPK activation. PMID:27220901

  8. Quantitative spectroscopy of photospheric-phase type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, L.; Hillier, D. J.

    2005-07-01

    We present first results on the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the photospheric-phase of type II supernovae (SN). The analyses are based on the model atmosphere code, CMFGEN, of Hillier & Miller (1998) which solves the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations in expanding outflows under the constraint of radiative equilibrium. A key asset of CMFGEN is its thorough treatment of line-blanketing due to metal species. From its applicability to hot star environments, the main modifications to the source code were to allow a linear velocity law, a power-law density distribution, an adaptive grid to handle the steep H recombination/ionization front occurring in some SN models, and a routine to compute the gray temperature structure in the presence of large velocities. In this first paper we demonstrate the ability of CMFGEN to reproduce, with a high level of accuracy, the UV and optical observations of a sample of well observed type II SN, i.e. SN1987A and SN1999em, at representative stages of their photospheric evolution. Two principal stages of SN are modeled that where hydrogen is fully ionized, and that in which H is only partially ionized. For models with an effective temperature below ~8000 K, hydrogen recombines and gives rise to a steep ionization front. The effect of varying the location of the outer grid radius on the spectral energy distribution (SED) is investigated. We find that going to 5-6 times the optically-thick base radius is optimal, since above that, the model becomes prohibitively large, while below this, significant differences appear because of the reduced line-blanketing (which persists even far above the photosphere) and the truncation of line-formation regions. To constrain the metallicity and the reddening of SN, the UV spectral region of early-time spectra is essential. We find that the density of the photosphere and effect of line blanketing decline as the spatial scale of the SN increases. The density distribution is

  9. Increased incidence of neonatal respiratory distress in infants with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome).

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Charlotte; Burton, Barbara K

    2014-02-01

    Records were reviewed on all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) seen at a single institution from 1999 to 2013 to identify those with a history of neonatal intensive care. Eleven of 34 patients were in a neonatal intensive care unit and all had respiratory distress with 8 diagnoses of respiratory distress syndrome and 3 of transient tachypnea of the newborn. None of the infants were premature; four were delivered by cesarean section. These findings suggest that respiratory distress is more commonly observed in neonates with MPS II than in the general population. This may reflect airway disease already present in this disorder at the time of birth. PMID:24238892

  10. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 controls who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17–1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10–1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99–1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89–2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62–5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for non-small cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11–4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. PMID:24615328

  11. Cell-Type Specific Expression of Apc in Lung Development, Injury and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aimin; Xing, Yiming; Chan, Belinda; Heisterkamp, Nora; Groffen, John; Borok, Zea; Minoo, Parviz; Li, Changgong

    2010-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is critical for Wnt signaling and cell migration. The current study examined Apc expression during lung development, injury and repair. Apc was first detectable in smooth muscle layers in early lung morphogenesis, and was highly expressed in ciliated and neuroendocrine cells in the advanced stages. No Apc immunoreactivity was detected in Clara or basal cells, which function as stem/progenitor cell in adult lung. In ciliated cells, Apc is associated mainly with apical cytoplasmic domain. In response to naphthalene induced injury, Apcpositive cells underwent squamous metaplasia, accompanied by changes in Apc subcellular distribution. In conclusion, both spatial and temporal expression of Apc is dynamically regulated during lung development and injury repair. Differential expression of Apc in progenitor vs. non-progenitor cells suggests a functional role in cell type specification. Subcellular localization changes of Apc in response to naphthalene injury suggest a role in cell shape and cell migration. PMID:20658693

  12. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1–4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3–1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0–1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  13. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  14. Observations of On-Disk Type I and II Spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Na; Denker, C.; Verma, M.; Shimizu, T.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.

    2011-05-01

    A coordinated observing campaign was carried out during 2010 November 16-30 using German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) and Hinode to investigate properties of small-scale spicules on the solar disk. The high-spectral resolution Echelle spectrograph at the VTT on Tenerife acquired spectra of the chromospheric halpha (656.28 nm) and photospheric Fe I (656.92 nm) lines in a region centered on a small pore. Hinode mission provides high-cadence vector magnetograms, G-band and Ca II H images, EIS and XRT observations of the same region. We present statistical properties of spicules (type I and II), such as spectral characteristics, velocities, spatial distribution and temporal evolution, paying particular attention to type II spicules or chromospheric jets. We investigate the photospheric magnetic structure, flow field and their evolution attempting to find the origin of chromospheric jets. The vertical extent of identified chromospheric jets in the transition region and corona will be studied using EIS and XRT observations in conjunction with SDO observations.

  15. Cryopreservation and in vitro culture of primary cell types from lung tissue of a stranded pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps)☆

    PubMed Central

    Mancia, Annalaura; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; McFee, Wayne E.; Newton, Danforth A.; Baatz, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Current models for in vitro studies of tissue function and physiology, including responses to hypoxia or environmental toxins, are limited and rely heavily on standard 2-dimensional (2-D) cultures with immortalized murine or human cell lines. To develop a new more powerful model system, we have pursued methods to establish and expand cultures of primary lung cell types and reconstituted tissues from marine mammals. What little is known about the physiology of the deep-sea diving pygmy sperm whale (PSW), Kogia breviceps, comes primarily from stranding events that occur along the coast of the southeastern United States. Thus, development of a method for preserving live tissues and retrieving live cells from deceased stranded individuals was initiated. This report documents successful cryopreservation of PSW lung tissue. We established in vitro cultures of primary lung cell types from tissue fragments that had been cryopreserved several months earlier at the stranding event. Dissociation of cryopreserved lung tissues readily provides a variety of primary cell types that, to varying degrees, can be expanded and further studied/manipulated in cell culture. In addition, PSW-specific molecular markers have been developed that permitted the monitoring of fibroblast, alveolar type II, and vascular endothelial cell types. Reconstitution of 3-D cultures of lung tissues with these cell types is now underway. This novel system may facilitate the development of rare or disease-specific lung tissue models (e.g., to test causes of PSW stranding events and lead to improved treatments for pulmonary hypertension or reperfusion injury in humans). Also, the establishment of a “living” tissue bank biorepository for rare/endangered species could serve multiple purposes as surrogates for freshly isolated samples. PMID:21501697

  16. Vacuum stability and naturalness in type-II seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Okada, Nobuchika; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2016-06-01

    We study the vacuum stability and perturbativity conditions in the minimal type-II seesaw model. These conditions give characteristic constraints to the model parameters. In the model, there is a SU(2)_L triplet scalar field, which could cause a large Higgs mass correction. From the naturalness point of view, heavy Higgs masses should be lower than 350 GeV, which may be testable by the LHC Run-II results. Due to the effects of the triplet scalar field, the branching ratios of the Higgs decay (h→ γ γ , Zγ ) deviate from the standard model, and a large parameter region is excluded by the recent ATLAS and CMS combined analysis of h→ γ γ . Our result of the signal strength for h→ γ γ is R_{γ γ } lesssim 1.1, but its deviation is too small to observe at the LHC experiment.

  17. A Low-Protein Diet Enhances Angiotensin II Production in the Lung of Pregnant Rats but Not Nonpregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren Tubianosa; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary angiotensin II production is enhanced in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Here we assessed if LP diet induces elevations in angiotensin II production in nonpregnant rats and whether Ace expression and ACE activity in lungs are increased. Nonpregnant rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet for 8, 12, or 17 days and timed pregnant rats fed for 17 days from Day 3 of pregnancy. Plasma angiotensin II, expressions of Ace and Ace2, and activities of these proteins in lungs, kidneys, and plasma were measured. These parameters were compared among nonpregnant rats or between nonpregnant and pregnant rats fed different diets. Major findings are as follows: (1) plasma angiotensin II levels were slightly higher in the LP than CT group on Days 8 and 12 in nonpregnant rats; (2) expression of Ace and Ace2 and abundance and activities of ACE and ACE2 in lungs, kidneys, and plasma of nonpregnant rats were unchanged by LP diet except for minor changes; (3) the abundance and activities of ACE in lungs of pregnant rats fed LP diet were greater than nonpregnant rats, while those of ACE2 were decreased. These results indicate that LP diet-induced increase in pulmonary angiotensin II production depends on pregnancy. PMID:27195150

  18. Distinct type I and type II toxin-antitoxin modules control Salmonella lifestyle inside eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Moreno-Córdoba, Inmaculada; Figueroa, Virginia; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules contribute to the generation of non-growing cells in response to stress. These modules abound in bacterial pathogens although the bases for this profusion remain largely unknown. Using the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model, here we show that a selected group of TA modules impact bacterial fitness inside eukaryotic cells. We characterized in this pathogen twenty-seven TA modules, including type I and type II TA modules encoding antisense RNA and proteinaceous antitoxins, respectively. Proteomic and gene expression analyses revealed that the pathogen produces numerous toxins of TA modules inside eukaryotic cells. Among these, the toxins HokST, LdrAST, and TisBST, encoded by type I TA modules and T4ST and VapC2ST, encoded by type II TA modules, promote bacterial survival inside fibroblasts. In contrast, only VapC2ST shows that positive effect in bacterial fitness when the pathogen infects epithelial cells. These results illustrate how S. Typhimurium uses distinct type I and type II TA modules to regulate its intracellular lifestyle in varied host cell types. This function specialization might explain why the number of TA modules increased in intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:25792384

  19. Pedunculated-type T1 colorectal carcinoma with lung carcinoma metastasis at the deepest invasive portion.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Naoki; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Hirano, Daiki; Sumimoto, Kyoku; Ninomiya, Yuki; Tamaru, Yuzuru; Shigita, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Nana; Shimamoto, Fumio; Arihiro, Koji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-08-01

    We present a rare case of colorectal T1 carcinoma with metastasis of previous lung carcinoma found at the deepest invasive portion. A 61-year-old man presented with cervical lymphadenopathy 18 years after undergoing surgery for right lung carcinoma [poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage IIb (T3N0M0)]. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) in the neck and mediastinal regions. Combined hybrid-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission-computerized tomography showed increased radionuclide uptake in multiple cervical LNs and mediastinal LNs. LN biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, suspected to be a metastatic tumor of the lung. Subsequent colonoscopy revealed a pedunculated-type lesion with a depressed area in the ascending colon. We performed polypectomy as total excisional biopsy; this tumor was composed mainly of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, partially mixed with mucinous adenocarcinoma. The pathological findings of the invasive front of the colorectal carcinoma showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a morphological pattern similar to that of the previous lung carcinoma. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results for the histological type of the deepest invasive portion of the tissue specimen were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 but negative for Caudal-type homeobox 2. From these morphological and immunohistochemical findings, the final diagnosis was moderately differentiated lung carcinoma, pTX N3 M1b (LN, colon) Stage IV. PMID:27259703

  20. Geochemistry of the alginite and amorphous organic matter from type II-S kerogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stankiewicz, B.A.; Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Salmon, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Maceral fractions of the Type II-S kerogens from the Monterey Formation (Miocene. California. U.S.A.) and Duwi Formation (Campanian/Maastrichtian, Egypt) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The Monterey Fm. kerogen sample was comprised chiefly of light red-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM), the flash pyrolyzate of which was characterized by a predominance of alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes and alkylpyrroles. In contrast, the pyrolyzates of its alginite concentrate showed a highly aliphatic character, typical of this maceral, with the series of n-alkenes and n-alkanes (C6- C26) predominating. The pyrolyzate of the dominant light brown-fluorescing AOM of the Duwi Fm. kerogen had a relatively high concentration of alkylbenzenes and alkylthiophenes, while its elginite concentrate showed a more aliphatic character upon pyrolysis. There was a marked enrichment of thiophenic sulfur in the light-colored AOM of both samples (and also pyrrolic nitrogen in the case of the Monterey) relative to the alginite. The results support a bacterially-mediated, degradative origin for Type II-S amorphous organic matter, with algal remains as the primary source of the kerogen.

  1. Metformin and lung cancer risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, NING; ZHANG, YUANYUAN; GONG, YI; HE, JIAN; CHEN, XIAODONG

    2015-01-01

    The association between metformin and the lung cancer risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains controversial. Therefore, the present meta-analysis on epidemiological studies was performed to explore this issue. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for all the potential studies addressing metformin use and lung cancer risk by utilizing Pubmed, CBM and ISI Web of Science using the Mesh terms: ‘Metformin,’ or ‘biguanides’ and ‘lung cancer,’ or ‘neoplasms’. The reference lists were also inspected. Eight observational studies, including 17,997 lung cancer patients, were eventually selected, which contained seven case-control and one cohort study. Compared to other antidiabetic agents, metformin was significantly associated with the 16% reduction of lung cancer risk in type 2 diabetic patients [relative risk (RR)=0.84; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.73-0.97]. In the sensitivity analysis by separately excluding the study with a high weight or lower quality, the results did not materially change. Subsequently, subgroup analysis was performed on the type of study design, unadjusted or adjusted hazard ratio, quality of enrolled studies, duration of treatment, country and control drugs. The magnitude of lung cancer risk reduction was strengthened when compared to sulfonylureas (RR=0.79; 95% CI, 0.83-0.9), without significant heterogeneity (Q-value=2.98, P=0.085). In conclusion, the present analysis supported that the use of metformin significantly decreased the risk of lung cancer among patients with T2DM. However, further studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26075077

  2. Secretion of mucus proteinase inhibitor and elafin by Clara cell and type II pneumocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Silva, A; Marsden, M E; Ryle, A P

    1993-02-01

    The regulation of proteinases secreted by neutrophils is very important for the prevention of tissue injury. We recently described the isolation of elafin from bronchial secretions, a new elastase-specific inhibitor that is also found in the skin of patients with psoriasis. In this study, we investigated the secretion of elafin and mucus proteinase inhibitor (MPI), another inhibitor showing sequence similarity with elafin, in two lung carcinoma cell lines, NCI-H322 and A549, which have features of Clara cells and type II alveolar cells, respectively. The results presented show that the two inhibitors are produced when the cells are cultured either in serum-free or in serum-containing media. MPI was detected immunologically as a unique molecule of M(r) 14 kD, in accordance with previous studies. Conversely, one or two elafin-immunoreactive species were detected depending on the cell line: a 12- to 14-kD species was observed in the A549 cell line, regardless of the culture conditions, whereas in the NCI-H322 cell line we detected a 6-kD species in serum-containing (10% fetal calf serum) conditions and a 12- to 14-kD species in serum-free conditions. The 12- to 14-kD molecule probably represents an active precursor of elafin. Whether the cleavage of the 12- to 14-kD precursor giving rise to the elafin molecule is of any physiologic significance is not known. In showing for the first time that MPI and elafin (and its precursor) are secreted by the A549 cell line, this report implicates the type II alveolar cell in the defense of the peripheral lung against the neutrophil elastase secreted during inflammation. PMID:8427705

  3. Retinoic acid promotes primary fetal alveolar epithelial type II cell proliferation and differentiation to alveolar epithelial type I cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui-wei; Kong, Xiang-yong; Zhu, Xiao-xi; Zhu, Guo-qing; Ma, Jin-shuai; Liu, Xiu-xiang

    2015-05-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in lung development and maturation. Many stimuli can induce alveolar epithelial cell damage which will result in the injury of lung parenchyma. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of RA on the proliferation and differentiation of primary fetal alveolar epithelial type II cells (fAECIIs). Primary fAECIIs were isolated from fetal rats at 19 d of gestation and purified by a differential centrifugation and adhesion method. The cells were randomly divided into control (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO) and RA groups. Cell proliferation, viability, apoptosis, cycle, and expression of target protein were examined at 24, 48, and 72 h. We found that the proliferation and viability of cells in the RA-exposed group significantly increased compared with the DMSO control group. The proportion (%) of cells in the G2 and S phases in the RA group was significantly higher than that in control group cells. The proportion (%) of both early apoptotic cells and late apoptotic cells decreased significantly in cells exposed to RA compared with cells exposed to DMSO. RA significantly enhanced the expression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5). The expression level of pulmonary surfactant C (SPC) was elevated after cells were exposed to RA for 24 and 72 h but was inhibited when cells were exposed to RA for 48 h. These results suggest that RA promotes fAECII proliferation by improving cell viability, promoting S phase entry and inhibiting apoptosis and RA promotes fAECIIs differentiation to alveolar epithelial type I cells (AECIs). PMID:25515249

  4. Cellular lung dosimetry for inhaled radon decay products as a base for radiation-induced lung cancer risk assessment. II. Microdosimetric calculations.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W

    1982-01-01

    Lung dose calculations for inhaled radon decay products presented in part I have revealed that mean basal cell doses are significantly dependent on various personal and environmental factors. Whereas these macroscopic dosimetric methods have been applied with great success to radiation protection problems, the interpretation of radiobiological effects, such as lung cancer incidence, needs some refinement of these methods. Energy deposition at the microscopic level as the physical input quantity and radiation carcinogenesis as the biological endpoint are by nature stochastic processes. Therefore, a microdosimetric model was developed taking into consideration the randomness of physical and biological parameters involved, Part II of the paper presents results on specific energy distributions in lung cells, demonstrating that single event density distributions together with the number of cells receiving single hits represent more appropriate parameters than mean radiation doses. PMID:6285407

  5. Transcriptional Profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Replicating in Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhengyu; Laal, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection is initiated by the few bacilli inhaled into the alveolus. Studies in lungs of aerosol-infected mice provided evidence for extensive replication of M. tb in non-migrating, non-antigen-presenting cells in the alveoli during the first 2–3 weeks post-infection. Alveoli are lined by type II and type I alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) which outnumber alveolar macrophages by several hundred-fold. M. tb DNA and viable M. tb have been demonstrated in AEC and other non-macrophage cells of the kidney, liver, and spleen in autopsied tissues from latently-infected subjects from TB-endemic regions indicating systemic bacterial dissemination during primary infection. M. tb have also been demonstrated to replicate rapidly in A549 cells (type II AEC line) and acquire increased invasiveness for endothelial cells. Together, these results suggest that AEC could provide an important niche for bacterial expansion and development of a phenotype that promotes dissemination during primary infection. In the current studies, we have compared the transcriptional profile of M. tb replicating intracellularly in A549 cells to that of M. tb replicating in laboratory broth, by microarray analysis. Genes significantly upregulated during intracellular residence were consistent with an active, replicative, metabolic, and aerobic state, as were genes for tryptophan synthesis and for increased virulence (ESAT-6, and ESAT-6-like genes, esxH, esxJ, esxK, esxP, and esxW). In contrast, significant downregulation of the DevR (DosR) regulon and several hypoxia-induced genes was observed. Stress response genes were either not differentially expressed or were downregulated with the exception of the heat shock response and those induced by low pH. The intra-type II AEC M. tb transcriptome strongly suggests that AEC could provide a safe haven in which M. tb can expand dramatically and disseminate from the lung prior to the elicitation of adaptive immune responses

  6. Transcriptional profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicating in type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ryndak, Michelle B; Singh, Krishna K; Peng, Zhengyu; Laal, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection is initiated by the few bacilli inhaled into the alveolus. Studies in lungs of aerosol-infected mice provided evidence for extensive replication of M. tb in non-migrating, non-antigen-presenting cells in the alveoli during the first 2-3 weeks post-infection. Alveoli are lined by type II and type I alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) which outnumber alveolar macrophages by several hundred-fold. M. tb DNA and viable M. tb have been demonstrated in AEC and other non-macrophage cells of the kidney, liver, and spleen in autopsied tissues from latently-infected subjects from TB-endemic regions indicating systemic bacterial dissemination during primary infection. M. tb have also been demonstrated to replicate rapidly in A549 cells (type II AEC line) and acquire increased invasiveness for endothelial cells. Together, these results suggest that AEC could provide an important niche for bacterial expansion and development of a phenotype that promotes dissemination during primary infection. In the current studies, we have compared the transcriptional profile of M. tb replicating intracellularly in A549 cells to that of M. tb replicating in laboratory broth, by microarray analysis. Genes significantly upregulated during intracellular residence were consistent with an active, replicative, metabolic, and aerobic state, as were genes for tryptophan synthesis and for increased virulence (ESAT-6, and ESAT-6-like genes, esxH, esxJ, esxK, esxP, and esxW). In contrast, significant downregulation of the DevR (DosR) regulon and several hypoxia-induced genes was observed. Stress response genes were either not differentially expressed or were downregulated with the exception of the heat shock response and those induced by low pH. The intra-type II AEC M. tb transcriptome strongly suggests that AEC could provide a safe haven in which M. tb can expand dramatically and disseminate from the lung prior to the elicitation of adaptive immune responses

  7. Oral magnesium supplementation in type II diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Solati, Mehrdad; Ouspid, Elham; Hosseini, Saeedeh; Soltani, Nepton; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Dehghani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation. It plays an important role in insulin homeostasis and glucose metabolism through multiple enzymatic reactions. With increasing data on magnesium deficiency in diabetic patients and epidemiological studies demonstrating magnesium deficiency as a risk factor for diabetes, it is logical to search for its possible beneficial effects on diabetes control and prevention. We aimed to determine whether oral magnesium supplementation improves metabolic control, lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: Fifty four patients with type II diabetes were included in a randomized double blind placebocontrolled clinical trial.Patients received either placebo or 300 mg elemental magnesium (as magnesium sulfate -MgSo4-) daily, for 3 months. Metabolic control, lipid profile, blood pressure, magnesium status, hepatic enzymes, hemoglobin concentration, and anthropometric indices were determined in the beginning and at the end of the study. Results: Daily administration of 300 mg elemental magnesium for 3 months, significantly improved fasting blood glucose (183.9±15.43 to 125.8±6.52 vs. 196.5±28.12 to 136.5±7.94, p< 0.0001), 2-hour post prandial glucose (239.1±74.75 to 189.1±60mg/dl vs. 246.4±97.37 to 247.8±86.74mg/dl, p< 0.01), lipid profile, blood pressure and hepatic enzymes. Conclusion: Oral magnesium supplementation with proper dosage has beneficial effects on blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes. PMID:25405132

  8. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  9. Type II reaction without erythema nodosum leprosum masquerading as lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rahul; Dogra, Sunil; Kaur, Inderjeet; Yadav, Savita; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Budania, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Lepromatous leprosy is a multisystem disease that can involve many organ systems, with lymph nodes a common extra-cutaneous site to be affected. Rarely, multibacillary leprosy can be confused with other diseases like lymphomas and connective tissue diseases. Herein we report a patient of lepromatous leprosy with Type II lepra reaction involving lymph nodes who presented with generalised lymphadenopathy, acquired ichthyosis and constitutional symptoms but no cutaneous lesions to suggest erythema nodosum leprosum, and who was initially misdiagnosed as a case of Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:23614256

  10. Paradoxical hypertension and salt wasting in Type II Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie Kwai-Yu; To, Ka Fai; Tong, Joanna H M; Law, Chi Wai

    2012-06-01

    Ante/neonatal Bartter syndrome (BS) is a rare hereditary disorder. It is characterized by renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, high renin and aldosterone but normal blood pressure. We report a low birth weight newborn baby who presented with repeated apnoea shortly after birth as well as hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis. Her biochemical features mimicked pseudohypoaldosteronism but with initial hypertension, which had not been described in BS. Her subsequent genetic study confirmed two novel heterozygous mutations in the Exon 5 of KCNJ1 compatible with Type II BS. PMID:26069767

  11. Anaphase chromatid motion: involvement of type II DNA topoisomerases.

    PubMed Central

    Duplantier, B; Jannink, G; Sikorav, J L

    1995-01-01

    Sister chromatids are topologically intertwined at the onset of anaphase: their segregation during anaphase is known to require strand-passing activity by type II DNA topoisomerase. We propose that the removal of the intertwinings involves at the same time the traction of the mitotic spindle and the activity of topoisomerases. This implies that the velocity of the chromatids is compatible with the kinetic constraints imposed by the enzymatic reaction. We show that the greatest observed velocities (about 0.1 microns s-1) are close to the theoretical upper bound compatible with both the diffusion rate (calculated here within a probabilistic model) and the measured reaction rate of the enzyme. PMID:8534830

  12. Predictive data modeling of human type II diabetes related statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Kristina L.; Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Albritton, Nathaniel G.

    2009-04-01

    During the course of routine Type II treatment of one of the authors, it was decided to derive predictive analytical Data Models of the daily sampled vital statistics: namely weight, blood pressure, and blood sugar, to determine if the covariance among the observed variables could yield a descriptive equation based model, or better still, a predictive analytical model that could forecast the expected future trend of the variables and possibly eliminate the number of finger stickings required to montior blood sugar levels. The personal history and analysis with resulting models are presented.

  13. Interaction of ultrasound with vortices in type-II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B.

    1996-04-01

    The theory of ultrasound in the mixed state of type-II superconductors is suggested which takes into account the Magnus force on vortices, the anti-Magnus force on ions, and diamagnetism of the mixed state. The acoustic Faraday effect (rotation of polarization of the transverse ultrasonic wave propagating along vortices) is linear in the Magnus force in any regime of the flux flow for wavelengths now used in the ultrasound experiments. Therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, the Faraday effect should be looked for only in clean superconductors with a strong Magnus force. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Type II superstring field theory: geometric approach and operadic description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčo, Branislav; Münster, Korbinian

    2013-04-01

    We outline the construction of type II superstring field theory leading to a geometric and algebraic BV master equation, analogous to Zwiebach's construction for the bosonic string. The construction uses the small Hilbert space. Elementary vertices of the non-polynomial action are described with the help of a properly formulated minimal area problem. They give rise to an infinite tower of superstring field products defining a {N} = 1 generalization of a loop homotopy Lie algebra, the genus zero part generalizing a homotopy Lie algebra. Finally, we give an operadic interpretation of the construction.

  15. d-Brane Instantons in Type II Orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Cvetič, Mirjam; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo

    2009-11-01

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of d-brane instantons in [Formula: see text] supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract d-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function, and higher fermionic F-terms, and we briefly discuss the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy d-brane instantons for the construction of semirealistic models of particle physics or supersymmetry breaking in compact and noncompact geometries.

  16. Levitation of a magnet over a flat type II superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, F.; Gyorgy, E.M.; Johnson D.W. Jr.; O'Bryan, H.M.; Sherwood, R.C.

    1988-01-15

    Levitation of a magnet over a type II superconductor where the field at the superconductor exceeds H/sub c//sub 1/ is described and shown. The penetration and pinning of the flux lines in the superconductor cause the position of the magnet to be stable over a flat disk; a complete Meissner effect would make this position unstable. Furthermore, the observed dependence of the height of levitation on such variables as the thickness of the superconducting disk and the size of the magnet are consistent with a model described in this paper based on the energy cost of flux penetration through vortices and inconsistent with a Meissner effect model.

  17. Progress in MBE grown type-II superlattice photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the status of GaSb/InAs type-II superlattice diodes grown and fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed for infrared absorption in the 8-12(mu)m range. Recent devices have produced detectivities as high as 8x10 to the tenth power Jones with a differential resistance-area product greater than 6 Ohmcm(sup 2) at 80K with a long wavelength cutoff of approximately 12(mu)m. The measured quantum efficiency of these front-side illuminated devices is close to 30% in the 10-11(mu)m range without antireflection coatings.

  18. Interfacial stress affects rat alveolar type II cell signaling and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hobi, Nina; Ravasio, Andrea; Haller, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Previous work from our group (Ravasio A, Hobi N, Bertocchi C, Jesacher A, Dietl P, Haller T. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300: C1456-C1465, 2011.) showed that contact of alveolar epithelial type II cells with an air-liquid interface (I(AL)) leads to a paradoxical situation. It is a potential threat that can cause cell injury, but also a Ca(2+)-dependent stimulus for surfactant secretion. Both events can be explained by the impact of interfacial tensile forces on cellular structures. Here, the strength of this mechanical stimulus became also apparent in microarray studies by a rapid and significant change on the transcriptional level. Cells challenged with an I(AL) in two different ways showed activation/inactivation of cellular pathways involved in stress response and defense, and a detailed Pubmatrix search identified genes associated with several lung diseases and injuries. Altogether, they suggest a close relationship of interfacial stress sensation with current models in alveolar micromechanics. Further similarities between I(AL) and cell stretch were found with respect to the underlying signaling events. The source of Ca(2+) was extracellular, and the transmembrane Ca(2+) entry pathway suggests the involvement of a mechanosensitive channel. We conclude that alveolar type II cells, due to their location and morphology, are specific sensors of the I(AL), but largely protected from interfacial stress by surfactant release. PMID:22610352

  19. Jamming dynamics of stretch-induced surfactant release by alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Arnab; Arold, Stephen P; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Suki, Béla

    2012-03-01

    Secretion of pulmonary surfactant by alveolar epithelial type II cells is vital for the reduction of interfacial surface tension, thus preventing lung collapse. To study secretion dynamics, rat alveolar epithelial type II cells were cultured on elastic membranes and cyclically stretched. The amounts of phosphatidylcholine, the primary lipid component of surfactant, inside and outside the cells, were measured using radiolabeled choline. During and immediately after stretch, cells secreted less surfactant than unstretched cells; however, stretched cells secreted significantly more surfactant than unstretched cells after an extended lag period. We developed a model based on the hypothesis that stretching leads to jamming of surfactant traffic escaping the cell, similar to vehicular traffic jams. In the model, stretch increases surfactant transport from the interior to the exterior of the cell. This transport is mediated by a surface layer with a finite capacity due to the limited number of fusion pores through which secretion occurs. When the amount of surfactant in the surface layer approaches this capacity, interference among lamellar bodies carrying surfactant reduces the rate of secretion, effectively creating a jam. When the stretch stops, the jam takes an extended time to clear, and subsequently the amount of secreted surfactant increases. We solved the model analytically and show that its dynamics are consistent with experimental observations, implying that surfactant secretion is a fundamentally nonlinear process with memory representing collective behavior at the level of single cells. Our results thus highlight the importance of a jamming dynamics in stretch-induced cellular secretory processes. PMID:22033531

  20. Interfacial stress affects rat alveolar type II cell signaling and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Hobi, Nina; Ravasio, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Previous work from our group (Ravasio A, Hobi N, Bertocchi C, Jesacher A, Dietl P, Haller T. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300: C1456–C1465, 2011.) showed that contact of alveolar epithelial type II cells with an air-liquid interface (IAL) leads to a paradoxical situation. It is a potential threat that can cause cell injury, but also a Ca2+-dependent stimulus for surfactant secretion. Both events can be explained by the impact of interfacial tensile forces on cellular structures. Here, the strength of this mechanical stimulus became also apparent in microarray studies by a rapid and significant change on the transcriptional level. Cells challenged with an IAL in two different ways showed activation/inactivation of cellular pathways involved in stress response and defense, and a detailed Pubmatrix search identified genes associated with several lung diseases and injuries. Altogether, they suggest a close relationship of interfacial stress sensation with current models in alveolar micromechanics. Further similarities between IAL and cell stretch were found with respect to the underlying signaling events. The source of Ca2+ was extracellular, and the transmembrane Ca2+ entry pathway suggests the involvement of a mechanosensitive channel. We conclude that alveolar type II cells, due to their location and morphology, are specific sensors of the IAL, but largely protected from interfacial stress by surfactant release. PMID:22610352

  1. Effects of Perfluorocarbons on surfactant exocytosis and membrane properties in isolated alveolar type II cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are used to improve gas exchange in diseased lungs. PFC have been shown to affect various cell types. Thus, effects on alveolar type II (ATII) cells and surfactant metabolism can be expected, data, however, are controversial. Objective The study was performed to test two hypotheses: (I) the effects of PFC on surfactant exocytosis depend on their respective vapor pressures; (II) different pathways of surfactant exocytosis are affected differently by PFC. Methods Isolated ATII cells were exposed to two PFC with different vapor pressures and spontaneous surfactant exocytosis was measured. Furthermore, surfactant exocytosis was stimulated by either ATP, PMA or Ionomycin. The effects of PFC on cell morphology, cellular viability, endocytosis, membrane permeability and fluidity were determined. Results The spontaneous exocytosis was reduced by PFC, however, the ATP and PMA stimulated exocytosis was slightly increased by PFC with high vapor pressure. In contrast, Ionomycin-induced exocytosis was decreased by PFC with low vapor pressure. Cellular uptake of FM 1-43 - a marker of membrane integrity - was increased. However, membrane fluidity, endocytosis and viability were not affected by PFC incubation. Conclusions We conclude that PFC effects can be explained by modest, unspecific interactions with the plasma membrane rather than by specific interactions with intracellular targets. PMID:20459693

  2. Selective targeting of alveolar type II respiratory epithelial cells by anti-surfactant protein-C antibody-conjugated lipoplexes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Ma, Junyu; Woods, Parker S; Chesarino, Nicholas M; Liu, Chang; Lee, L James; Nana-Sinkam, Serge P; Davis, Ian C

    2015-04-10

    Alveolar type II (ATII) respiratory epithelial cells are essential to normal lung function. They may be also central to the pathogenesis of diseases such as acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hence, ATII cells are important therapeutic targets. However, effective ATII cell-specific drug delivery in vivo requires carriers of an appropriate size, which can cross the hydrophobic alveolar surfactant film and polar aqueous layer overlying ATII cells, and be taken up without inducing ATII cell dysfunction, pulmonary inflammation, lung damage, or excessive systemic spread and side-effects. We have developed lipoplexes as a versatile nanoparticle carrier system for drug/RNA delivery. To optimize their pulmonary localization and ATII cell specificity, lipoplexes were conjugated to an antibody directed against the ATII cell-specific antigen surfactant protein-C (SP-C) then administered to C57BL/6 mice via the nares. Intranasally-administered, anti-SP-C-conjugated lipoplexes targeted mouse ATII cells with >70% specificity in vivo, were retained within ATII cells for at least 48h, and did not accumulate at significant levels in other lung cell types or viscera. 48h after treatment with anti-SP-C-conjugated lipoplexes containing the test microRNA miR-486, expression of mature miR-486 was approximately 4-fold higher in ATII cells than whole lung by qRT-PCR, and was undetectable in other viscera. Lipoplexes induced no weight loss, hypoxemia, lung dysfunction, pulmonary edema, or pulmonary inflammation over a 6-day period. These findings indicate that ATII cell-targeted lipoplexes exhibit all the desired characteristics of an effective drug delivery system for the treatment of pulmonary diseases that result primarily from ATII cell dysfunction. PMID:25687308

  3. Selective targeting of alveolar type II respiratory epithelial cells by anti-surfactant protein-C antibody-conjugated lipoplexes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yun; Ma, Junyu; Woods, Parker S.; Chesarino, Nicholas M.; Liu, Chang; Lee, L. James; Nana-Sinkam, Serge P.; Davis, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar type II (ATII) respiratory epithelial cells are essential to normal lung function. They may be also central to the pathogenesis of diseases such as acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hence, ATII cells are important therapeutic targets. However, effective ATII cell-specific drug delivery in vivo requires carriers of an appropriate size, which can cross the hydrophobic alveolar surfactant film and polar aqueous layer overlying ATII cells, and be taken up without inducing ATII cell dysfunction, pulmonary inflammation, lung damage, or excessive systemic spread and side-effects. We have developed lipoplexes as a versatile nanoparticle carrier system for drug/RNA delivery. To optimize their pulmonary localization and ATII cell specificity, lipoplexes were conjugated to an antibody directed against the ATII cell-specific antigen surfactant protein-C (SP-C) then administered to C57BL/6 mice via the nares. Intranasally-administered, anti-SP-C-conjugated lipoplexes targeted mouse ATII cells with >70% specificity in vivo, were retained within ATII cells for at least 48 hours, and did not accumulate at significant levels in other lung cell types or viscera. 48 hours after treatment with anti-SP-C-conjugated lipoplexes containing the test microRNA miR-486, expression of mature miR-486 was approximately 4-fold higher in ATII cells than whole lung by qRT-PCR, and was undetectable in other viscera. Lipoplexes induced no weight loss, hypoxemia, lung dysfunction, pulmonary edema, or pulmonary inflammation over a 6-day period. These findings indicate that ATII cell-targeted lipoplexes exhibit all the desired characteristics of an effective drug delivery system for treatment of pulmonary diseases that result primarily from ATII cell dysfunction. PMID:25687308

  4. [Achondrogenesis type II-hypochondrogenesis: radiological features.Case report].

    PubMed

    Delgado Carrasco, J; Casanova Morcillo, A; Zabalza Alvillos, M; Ayala Garcés, A

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of lethal dysplasia in the neonatal period. The abnormality was suspected after ultrasonography of a pregnant woman presenting weak fetal movements revealed shortening of the extremities, voluminous cranium and polyhydramnios. Clinical and radiological findings showed platyspondylic dwarfism with short extremities, narrow thorax and hydropic appearance. The infant died on the third day of life from progressive respiratory distress. In the absence of histological, chondro-osseus and molecular studies, detailed clinical and radiological studies, as well as the lethal evolution during the neonatal period, guided the diagnosis of hypochondrogenesis. This entity, together with achondrogenesis II (and other dysplasias), forms part of the same spectrum of collagen type II abnormalities produced by a defect in the gene (COL2A1) that codifies collagen II, located in chromosome 12 I(12q13.1-13.2). When a heterozygote is produced, transmission is dominant autosomal. The phenotype shows wide variation and severity depends on the mechanism and location of the mutation. The definitive diagnosis is given by cytomolecular studies, while individualization of the different entities is based on histological data from the cartilage; clinical findings and skeletal radiology serve as a guide. PMID:11730591

  5. Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cell Dysfunction in Rat Experimental Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenli; Hu, Bingqian; Wu, Wei; Batra, Sachin; Blackburn, Michael R.; Alcorn, Joseph L.; Fallon, Michael B.; Zhang, Junlan

    2014-01-01

    The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) develops when pulmonary vasodilatation leads to abnormal gas exchange. However, in human HPS, restrictive ventilatory defects are also observed supporting that the alveolar epithelial compartment may also be affected. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT2) play a critical role in maintaining the alveolar compartment by producing four surfactant proteins (SPs, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D) which also facilitate alveolar repair following injury. However, no studies have evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment in experimental HPS. In this study, we evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment and particularly AT2 cells in experimental HPS induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We found a significant reduction in pulmonary SP production associated with increased apoptosis in AT2 cells after CBDL relative to controls. Lung morphology showed decreased mean alveolar chord length and lung volumes in CBDL animals that were not seen in control models supporting a selective reduction of alveolar airspace. Furthermore, we found that administration of TNF-α, the bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and FXR nuclear receptor activation (GW4064) induced apoptosis and impaired SP-B and SP-C production in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. These results imply that AT2 cell dysfunction occurs in experimental HPS and is associated with alterations in the alveolar epithelial compartment. Our findings support a novel contributing mechanism in experimental HPS that may be relevant to humans and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25419825

  6. Association between the Type of Workplace and Lung Function in Copper Miners

    PubMed Central

    Gruszczyński, Leszek; Wojakowska, Anna; Ścieszka, Marek; Turczyn, Barbara; Schmidt, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the analysis was to retrospectively assess changes in lung function in copper miners depending on the type of workplace. In the groups of 225 operators, 188 welders, and 475 representatives of other jobs, spirometry was performed at the start of employment and subsequently after 10, 20, and 25 years of work. Spirometry Longitudinal Data Analysis software was used to estimate changes in group means for FEV1 and FVC. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess an association between workplace and lung function. Lung function assessed on the basis of calculation of longitudinal FEV1 (FVC) decline was similar in all studied groups. However, multiple linear regression model used in cross-sectional analysis revealed an association between workplace and lung function. In the group of welders, FEF75 was lower in comparison to operators and other miners as early as after 10 years of work. Simultaneously, in smoking welders, the FEV1/FVC ratio was lower than in nonsmokers (p < 0,05). The interactions between type of workplace and smoking (p < 0,05) in their effect on FVC, FEV1, PEF, and FEF50 were shown. Among underground working copper miners, the group of smoking welders is especially threatened by impairment of lung ventilatory function. PMID:27274987

  7. The Afterglows of Swift-era Gamma-Ray Bursts. II. Type I GRB versus Type II GRB Optical Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Zhang, B.; Covino, S.; Butler, N. R.; Malesani, D.; Nakar, E.; Wilson, A. C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Chincarini, G.; Cobb, B. E.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Della Valle, M.; Ferrero, P.; Fugazza, D.; Gorosabel, J.; Israel, G. L.; Mannucci, F.; Piranomonte, S.; Schulze, S.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Wiersema, K.

    2011-06-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been separated into two classes, originally along the lines of duration and spectral properties, called "short/hard" and "long/soft." The latter have been conclusively linked to the explosive deaths of massive stars, while the former are thought to result from the merger or collapse of compact objects. In recent years, indications have been accumulating that the short/hard versus long/soft division does not map directly onto what would be expected from the two classes of progenitors, leading to a new classification scheme called Type I and Type II which is based on multiple observational criteria. We use a large sample of GRB afterglow and prompt-emission data (adding further GRB afterglow observations in this work) to compare the optical afterglows (or the lack thereof) of Type I GRBs with those of Type II GRBs. In comparison to the afterglows of Type II GRBs, we find that those of Type I GRBs have a lower average luminosity and show an intrinsic spread of luminosities at least as wide. From late and deep upper limits on the optical transients, we establish limits on the maximum optical luminosity of any associated supernova (SN), confirming older works and adding new results. We use deep upper limits on Type I GRB optical afterglows to constrain the parameter space of possible mini-SN emission associated with a compact-object merger. Using the prompt-emission data, we search for correlations between the parameters of the prompt emission and the late optical afterglow luminosities. We find tentative correlations between the bolometric isotropic energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at a fixed time after the trigger (positive), and between the host offset and the luminosity (negative), but no significant correlation between the isotropic energy release and the duration of the GRBs. We also discuss three anomalous GRBs, GRB 060505, GRB 060614, and GRB 060121, in light of their optical afterglow luminosities. Based in part

  8. Type II Hermite-Pade approximation to the exponential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijlaars, A. B. J.; Stahl, H.; van Assche, W.; Wielonsky, F.

    2007-10-01

    We obtain strong and uniform asymptotics in every domain of the complex plane for the scaled polynomials a(3nz), b(3nz), and c(3nz) where a, b, and c are the type II Hermite-Pade approximants to the exponential function of respective degrees 2n+2, 2n and 2n, defined by and as z-->0. Our analysis relies on a characterization of these polynomials in terms of a 3x3 matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem which, as a consequence of the famous Mahler relations, corresponds by a simple transformation to a similar Riemann-Hilbert problem for type I Hermite-Pade approximants. Due to this relation, the study that was performed in previous work, based on the Deift-Zhou steepest descent method for Riemann-Hilbert problems, can be reused to establish our present results.

  9. All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ≅ S 3.

  10. Imaging of the symptomatic type II accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Mosel, Leigh D; Kat, Evelyn; Voyvodic, Frank

    2004-06-01

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type II accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema. PMID:15230772

  11. Feeding problems and malnutrition in spinal muscular atrophy type II.

    PubMed

    Messina, Sonia; Pane, Marika; De Rose, Paola; Vasta, Isabella; Sorleti, Domenica; Aloysius, Annie; Sciarra, Federico; Mangiola, Fortunato; Kinali, Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a survey using a dedicated questionnaire to assess feeding difficulties and weight gain in a population of 122 Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) type II patients, aged between 1 and 47 years. All the answers were entered in a database and were analysed subdividing the cohort into age groups (1-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-19, 20-29, and 30-50 years). Six out of our 122 patients (5%), all younger than 11 years, had weights more than 2SD above the median for age matched controls, whilst 45 (37%) had weights less than 2SD below the median. Chewing difficulties were reported in 34 of the 122 patients (28%) and limitation in the ability to open the mouth in 36 (30%) and both were increasingly more frequent with age. Swallowing difficulties were reported in 30 patients (25%). The results of our survey suggest that a number of patients with SMA type II have limited jaw opening, and chewing and swallowing difficulties. Our findings raise a few issues concerning standards of care that should be implemented in the monitoring and management of feeding difficulties and weight gain. PMID:18420410

  12. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayoya, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.

  13. Progress with type-II superlattice IR detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhiger, David R.; Kvaas, Robert E.; Harris, Sean F.; Bornfreund, Richard E.; Thai, Yen N.; Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Mumolo, Jason M.

    2007-04-01

    We report progress in the development of long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) built on type-II strained layer InAs/GaSb superlattice materials. Work at Raytheon Vision Systems and Jet Propulsion Laboratory has led to successful devices with cutoff wavelengths in the 10 to 12 μm range. Pixels have been formed by wet etching and surface passivation by plasma-deposited silicon dioxide. We present test results on arrays hybridized with indium bump bonding to silicon readout integrated circuits, as well as analyses of current-voltage characteristics of individual diodes. In particular, we find that, at temperatures below about 70 K the leakage current is dominated by generation-recombination effects near zero bias and by trap-assisted tunneling in reverse bias. Although other authors have demonstrated imaging for SWIR and MWIR type-II superlattice devices, to our knowledge no one has done so prior to 2006 in the LWIR range. We have obtained both still and video imaging with 256×256 arrays with 30-μm pixels operating at 78 K, having high operability and a cutoff wavelength of 10.5 μm.

  14. Vitamin D - Dependent Rickets, Type II Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Hoxha, Rina; Grajçevci-Uka, Violeta; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work the report of one case with vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II. Methods: Diagnosis has been established based on anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory findings and radiological examination. Results: A female child (age 25 months) has been hospitalized due to bone deformity, bone pain, alopecia and walking difficulties. The laboratory findings have revealed that the calcium values was low (1.20 mmol/L), phosphates in the reference value (1.30 mmol/L) the alkaline phosphatase value was quite high (852 IU/L), high value of parathyroid hormone (9.21 pmol/L), normal value of 25- hydroxyvitamin D, whereas the values of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was high (185 μmol/L). Radiographic changes were evident and typical in the distal metaphysis of radius and ulna as well as in the bones of lower limbs (distal metaphysis of femur and proximal metaphysis of tibia and fibula). After treatment with calcium and calcitriol, the above mentioned clinical manifestations, laboratory test values and the radiographic changes in bones withdrew. Conclusions: Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II is a rare genetic recessive disease, and its treatment includes a constant use of calcium and calcitriol. PMID:24757409

  15. Adenovirus type 3 pneumonia causing lung damage in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, F. A.; Wilkinson, D.; Burchak, E.; Morgante, O.

    1977-01-01

    An outbreak of adenovirus type 3 infection occurred in a hospital in 19 North American Indian infants and young children who were being treated for unrelated problems. Pneumonia occurred in 14 and was usually severe, with persistent signs of airway obstruction. Eleven of the 14 were followed periodically and complete medical reviews were conducted 8 to 10 years later. Ten had abnormal chest radiographs, and bronchography revealed bronchiectasis and minor airways changes in seven. In three cases there was clear evidence that these changes were directly related to the adenovirus type 3 infection. Pulmonary function studies showed a combination of restrictive and obstructive changes with minimal hypoxemia in most. Despite the presence of a persistent productive cough all were able to carry on a relatively normal life. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:189889

  16. Fibre type and concentration in the lungs of workers in an asbestos cement factory.

    PubMed Central

    Gylseth, B; Mowé, G; Wannag, A

    1983-01-01

    The predominant asbestos fibre type used in the production of asbestos cement is chrysotile. The use of asbestos in relation to fibre type in a Norwegian asbestos cement plant during 1942-80 was 91.7% chrysotile, 3.1% amosite, 4.1% crocidolite, and 1.1% anthophyllite respectively. Electron microscopy and x ray microanalysis of lung tissue samples of asbestos cement workers who had died of malignant pleural mesothelioma or bronchogenic carcinoma showed a completely inverse ratio with regard to fibre type. The percentage of chrysotile asbestos in lung tissue varied between 0% and 9% whereas the corresponding numbers for the amphiboles were 76% and 99%. These differences are discussed with respect to the behaviour of different fibre types in the human body and to the occurrence of malignant mesothelioma in this asbestos cement factory. Images PMID:6313034

  17. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  18. Isolation and characterization of alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huanhuan; Quan, Yuan; Yan, Qing; Peng, Xinmiao; Mao, Zhengmei; Wetsel, Rick A; Wang, Dachun

    2014-06-01

    The use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to regenerate distal lung epithelia damaged by injuries or diseases requires development of safe and efficient methodologies that direct ESC differentiation into transplantable distal lung epithelial progenitors. Time-consuming culture procedure and low differentiation efficiency are major problems that are associated with conventional differentiation approaches via embryoid body formation. The use of a growth factor cocktail or a lung-specific cell-conditioned medium to enrich definitive endoderm for efficient differentiation of mouse ESCs (mESC) into alveolar epithelial progenitor type II cells (ATIICs) has been reported, but not yet successful for generating a homogenous population of ATIICs for tissue regeneration purpose, and it remains unclear whether or not those mESC-derived ATIICs possess normal biological functions. Here, we report a novel method using a genetically modified mESC line harboring an ATIIC-specific neomycin(R) transgene in Rosa 26 locus. We showed that ATIICs can be efficiently differentiated from mESCs as early as day 7 by culturing them directly on Matrigel-coated plates in DMEM containing 15% knockout serum replacement. With this culture condition, the genetically modified mESCs can be selectively differentiated into a homogenous population (>99%) of ATIICs. Importantly, the mESC-derived ATIICs (mESC-ATIICs) exhibited typical lamellar bodies and expressed surfactant protein A, B, and C as normal control ATIICs. When cultured with an air-liquid-interface culture system in Small Airway Epithelial Cell Growth Medium, the mESC-ATIICs can be induced to secrete surfactant proteins after being treated with dibutyryl cAMP+dexamethasone. These mESC-ATIICs can synthesize and secrete surfactant lipid in response to secretagogue, demonstrating active surfactant metabolism in mESC-ATIICs as that seen in normal control ATIICs. In addition, we demonstrated that the selected mESC-ATIICs can be maintained on Matrigel

  19. CCR2 and CXCR3 agonistic chemokines are differently expressed and regulated in human alveolar epithelial cells type II

    PubMed Central

    Pechkovsky, Dmitri V; Goldmann, Torsten; Ludwig, Corinna; Prasse, Antje; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Zissel, Gernot

    2005-01-01

    The attraction of leukocytes from circulation to inflamed lungs depends on the activation of both the leukocytes and the resident cells within the lung. In this study we determined gene expression and secretion patterns for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and T-cell specific CXCR3 agonistic chemokines (Mig/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10, and I-TAC/CXCL11) in TNF-α-, IFN-γ-, and IL-1β-stimulated human alveolar epithelial cells type II (AEC-II). AEC-II constitutively expressed high level of CCL2 mRNA in vitro and in situ , and released CCL2 protein in vitro . Treatment of AEC-II with proinflammatory cytokines up-regulated both CCL2 mRNA expression and release of immunoreactive CCL2, whereas IFN-γ had no effect on CCL2 release. In contrast, CXCR3 agonistic chemokines were not detected in freshly isolated AEC-II or in non-stimulated epithelial like cell line A549. IFN-γ, alone or in combination with IL-1β and TNF-α resulted in an increase in CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL9 mRNA expression and generation of CXCL10 protein by AEC-II or A549 cells. CXCL10 gene expression and secretion were induced in dose-dependent manner after cytokine-stimulation of AEC-II with an order of potency IFN-γ>>IL-1β ≥ TNF-α. Additionally, we localized the CCL2 and CXCL10 mRNAs in human lung tissue explants by in situ hybridization, and demonstrated the selective effects of cytokines and dexamethasone on CCL2 and CXCL10 expression. These data suggest that the regulation of the CCL2 and CXCL10 expression exhibit significant differences in their mechanisms, and also demonstrate that the alveolar epithelium contributes to the cytokine milieu of the lung, with the ability to respond to locally generated cytokines and to produce potent mediators of the local inflammatory response. PMID:16033640

  20. Relationships between type I and type II chondrules: Implications on chondrule formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Johan; Libourel, Guy; Soulié, Camille

    2015-07-01

    In unequilibrated chondrites, the ferromagnesian silicates in chondrules exhibit wide ranges of mg# = Mg/(Mg + Fe), allowing to sub-divide porphyritic chondrules into either type I (mg# > 0.9) or type II (mg# < 0.9). Although both chondrule types formed under oxidizing conditions relative to the canonical solar nebula, it is generally inferred that type II chondrules formed in more oxidizing conditions than type I. In order to check whether this redox difference was established during chondrule formation, or reflects differences in their precursors, we have undertaken a set of experiments aimed at heating type I olivine-rich (A) chondrule proxy, i.e. forsterite + Fe metal + Ca-Mg-Si-Al glass mixtures, under oxidizing conditions. We show that high temperature (isothermal) oxidation of type IA-like assemblages is a very efficient and rapid process (e.g. few tens of minutes) to form textures similar to type IIA chondrules. Due to the rapid dissolution of Fe metal blebs, a FeO increase in the melt and in combination with the dissolution of magnesian olivine allows the melt to reach ferroan olivine saturation. Crystallization of ferroan olivine occurs either as new crystal in the mesostasis or as overgrowths on the remaining unresorbed forsterite grains (relicts). Interruption of this process at any time before its completion by rapid cooling allows to reproduce the whole range of textures and chemical diversity observed in type A chondrules, i.e. from type I to type II. Several implications on chondrule formation processes can be inferred from the presented experiments. Type I chondrules or fragments of type I chondrules are very likely the main precursor material involved in the formation of most type II chondrules. Formation of porphyritic olivine type II chondrules is very likely the result of processes generating crystal growth by chemical disequilibrium at high temperature rather than processes generating crystallization only by cooling rates. This questions the

  1. Neutrinos from type II supernovae - The first 100 milliseconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myra, Eric S.; Burrows, Adam

    1990-01-01

    The collapse of a 1.17 solar mass iron core is numerically followed through infall to 100 ms past core bounce, and the emergent neutrino spectra during each phase are highlighted. It is found that, even with fairly optimistic conditions for producing a strong, sustained core-bounce shock wave, the prompt shock stalls within 9 ms of core bounce at a radius of less than 250 km. It appears that a radical change in the character of the progenitor core or in our understanding of the relevant physics of stellar collapse is needed before the direct mechanism for type II supernovae can become viable. Expanding the number of neutrino types from one to six magnifies the debilitating effect of neutrino loss on shock propagation. At shock breakout, prompt bursts of all neutrino types are observed. The luminosities of the nonelectron types show a sudden turn-on in luminosity while that of the electron neutrinos steadily increases throughout infall as a result of accelerating electron capture.

  2. Arginases I and II in lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized mice exposed to ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-08-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  3. Arginase I and II in Lungs of Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-01-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  4. Identification and properties of pathways for K+ transport in guinea-pig and rat alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, P J; Roberts, G C; Boyd, C A

    1994-01-01

    86Rb+ was used to study potassium uptake and efflux in type II pneumocytes freshly isolated from adult guinea-pig and rat lung. Both species exhibited a substantial ouabain-sensitive component of potassium influx. In rats, most of the ouabain-resistant influx was abolished by bumetanide and removal of extracellular chloride elicited no further effect. In contrast, only a proportion of the ouabain-insensitive uptake was inhibitable by bumetanide in guinea-pigs and this species showed an additional component of influx, which was chloride dependent and which was reduced by either the K(+)-H(+)-ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole, or by the stilbene derivative, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (DIDS). The chloride-dependent component was also apparent in efflux experiments in guinea-pigs, but was absent in rats. Ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity was assayed in highly purified apical membranes from guinea-pig type II pneumocytes. This activity was inhibitable by omeprazole (apparent inhibition constant, Ki, was approximately 40 microM), was potassium dependent (apparent activation constant, Ka, was approximately 200 microM) and was doubled by the addition of nigericin. While potassium transport in rat type II cells is adequately accounted for by Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransport, our data suggest the additional presence of K(+)-Cl- cotransport and K(+)-H(+)-ATPase in guinea-pig type II pneumocytes. A model of how alveolar subphase acidification may occur is proposed. PMID:8046636

  5. Metallicity from Type II supernovae from the (i)PTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddia, F.; Moquist, P.; Sollerman, J.; Rubin, A.; Leloudas, G.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Cao, Y.; Filippenko, A. V.; Graham, M. L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Pan, Y.-C.; Silverman, J. M.; Xu, D.; Yaron, O.

    2016-03-01

    Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) have recently been proposed as metallicity (Z) probes. The spectral models of Dessart et al. (2014, MNRAS, 440, 1856) showed that the pseudo-equivalent width of Fe ii λ5018 (pEW5018) during the plateau phase depends on the primordial Z, but there was a paucity of SNe IIP exhibiting pEW5018 that were compatible with Z < 0.4 Z⊙. This lack might be due to some physical property of the SN II population or to the fact that those SNe have been discovered in luminous, metal-rich targeted galaxies. Here we use SN II observations from the untargeted (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF] survey, aiming to investigate the pEW5018 distribution of this SN population and, in particular, to look for the presence of SNe II at lower Z. We perform pEW5018 measurements on the spectra of a sample of 39 (i)PTF SNe II, selected to have well-constrained explosion epochs and light-curve properties. Based on the comparison with the pEW5018 spectral models, we subgrouped our SNe into four Z bins from Z ≈ 0.1 Z⊙ up to Z ≈ 2 Z⊙. We also independently investigated the Z of the hosts by using their absolute magnitudes and colors and, in a few cases, using strong-line diagnostics from spectra. We searched for possible correlations between SN observables, such as their peak magnitudes and the Z inferred from pEW5018. We found 11 events with pEW5018 that were small enough to indicate Z ≈ 0.1 Z⊙. The trend of pEW5018 with Z matches the Z estimates obtained from the host-galaxy photometry, although the significance of the correlation is weak. We also found that SNe with brighter peak magnitudes have smaller pEW5018 and occur at lower Z. The data are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/L7

  6. Magnetoexcitons in type-II semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Barticevic, Zdenka; Pacheco, Monica; Oliveira, Luiz E.

    2004-03-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of excitons in type-II semiconductor quantum dots (QD). In these systems the confinement of electrons inside the QD and the hole outside the QD produces a ring-like structure [1-2]. Recently, Ribeiro et al [3], in a magnetophotoluminescence study of type-II InP/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots, observed Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations characteristic of the ring topology for neutral excitons. Using a simple model they have derived the groundstate hole energy as a function of the magnetic field, and obtained values for the ring parameters which are in good agreement with the measured values. However, some of the features observed experimentally, in the photoluminescence intensity, can not be well explained under that approach. In this work we present a more realistic model which considers the finite width of the ring and the electron-hole interaction included via a perturbative approach. The calculations are performed within the oneparticle formalism using the effective mass approximation. The confinement potential for electrons is modelled as the superposition of a quantum well potential along the axial direction, and a parabolic lateral confinement potential. The energies for the hole in the ring plane are calculated using the method of reference [4]. Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results of reference [3] provided that excitonic effects are properly taken into account. References 1. A.O. Govorov et al., Physica E 13 , 297 (2002). 2. K. L. Janssens et al. Phys. Rev B64, 155324 (2001), and Phys. Rev. B66, 075314 (2002). 3. E. Ribeiro, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, and W.Carvalho Jr., and A.O. Govorov, condmat/0304092 (2003). 4. Z. Barticevic, G. Fuster, and M. Pacheco,Phys. Rev. B 65, 193307 (2002).

  7. Discovery and Observations of the Unusually Luminous Type-Defying II-P/II-L Supernova ASASSN-13co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Pejcha, O.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Grupe, D.; Morrell, N.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Davis, A. B.; Pojmański, G.; Skowron, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of ASASSN-13co, an unusually luminous Type II supernova and the first core-collapse supernova discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). First detection of the supernova was on UT 2013 August 29 and the data presented span roughly 3.5 months after discovery. We use the recently developed model by Pejcha and Prieto to model the multi-band light curves of ASASSN-13co and derive the bolometric luminosity curve. We compare ASASSN-13co to other Type II supernovae to show that it was unusually luminous for a Type II supernova and that it exhibited an atypical light curve shape that does not cleanly match that of either a standard Type II-L or Type II-P supernova.

  8. Varespladib inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 in bronchoalveolar lavage of different types of neonatal lung injury.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Daniele; Minucci, Angelo; Trias, Joaquim; Tripodi, Domenico; Conti, Giorgio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2012-05-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), which links surfactant catabolism and lung inflammation, is associated with lung stiffness, surfactant dysfunction, and degree of respiratory support in acute respiratory distress syndrome and in some forms of neonatal lung injury. Varespladib potently inhibits sPLA2 in animal models. The authors investigate varespladib ex vivo efficacy in different forms of neonatal lung injury. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from 40 neonates affected by hyaline membrane disease, infections, or meconium aspiration and divided in 4 aliquots added with increasing varespladib or saline. sPLA2 activity, proteins, and albumin were measured. Dilution was corrected with the urea ratio. Varespladib was also tested in vitro against pancreatic sPLA2 mixed with different albumin concentration. Varespladib was able to inhibit sPLA2 in the types of neonatal lung injury investigated. sPLA2 activity was reduced in hyaline membrane disease (P < .0001), infections (P = .003), and meconium aspiration (P = .04) using 40 µM varespladib; 10 µM was able to lower enzyme activity (P = .001), with an IC(50) of 87 µM. An inverse relationship existed between protein level and activity reduction (r = 0.5; P = .029). The activity reduction/protein ratio tended to be higher in hyaline membrane disease. Varespladib efficacy was higher in vitro than in lavage fluids obtained from neonates (P < .001). PMID:21602519

  9. Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPARδ (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1α (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1β (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1 g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, and PPARD and the relative mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid uptake (CPT1B, SLC25A20), tricarboxylic acid cycle (SDHA), mitochondrial respiratory chain (COX5A, COX6A1), and angiogenesis (VEGFA) in LD, SM and ST muscles were greater (P < 0.05) or tended to be greater (P < 0.15) in the niacin group than in the control group. Conclusions The study shows that niacin supplementation induces muscle fiber transition from type II to type I, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are

  10. Angiotensin II is related to the acute aortic dissection complicated with lung injury through mediating the release of MMP9 from macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiyong; Ruan, Yongle; Chang, Jinxing; Li, Bowen; Ren, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute aortic dissection (AAD) patients usually show concurrent lung injury mainly featured by hyoxemia. To date, no effective treatment method has been established for the AAD complicated with acute lung injury (ALI). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP2 and MMP9, have been considered to be closely related to the onset of aortic disease including AAD. To investigate the roles of MMP in the pathogenesis of AAD complicated with ALI, we determined the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in serum and lung tissues of AAD patients. In addition, a new rat model of AAD complicated with ALI was established to investigate the pathogenesis of such complicated conditions. Methods and results: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and MMP9 were up-regulated in the AAD complicated with ALI patients compared to those of the AAD without ALI patients, normal individuals and the patients with non-ruptured aneurysm. Besides, massive macrophages with MMP9 expression was noticed in the lung tissues in the AAD complicated with ALI patients. On this basis, AAD complicated with ALI rat model was established based on BAPN feeding and infusion of Ang II. Obvious lung injury was observed in the BAPN+Ang II group compared to that of the BAPN group, together with macrophage accumulation in lung tissues, as well as over-expression of MMP9 in lung tissues. After interference of MMP antagonist, a large number of macrophages were still accumulated in the lung tissues, but the lung injury was obviously attenuated. After the interference of AT1 receptor, the number of macrophages in the lung tissues was obviously decreased and the lung injury was obviously relieved. Conclusions: Ang II is closely related to the lung injury at the early stage of AAD through mediating the release of MMP9 in the macrophages in the lung tissues. PMID:27186269

  11. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type II Deficiency and Increased Inflammatory Cytokine Production. A Gateway to Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Elaine; Crosby, Alexi; Southwood, Mark; Yang, Peiran; Tajsic, Tamara; Toshner, Mark; Appleby, Sarah; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Upton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR-II) underlie most cases of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, disease penetrance is only 20–30%, suggesting a requirement for additional triggers. Inflammation is emerging as a key disease-related factor in PAH, but to date there is no clear mechanism linking BMPR-II deficiency and inflammation. Objectives: To establish a direct link between BMPR-II deficiency, a consequentially heightened inflammatory response, and development of PAH. Methods: We used pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from Bmpr2+/− mice and patients with BMPR2 mutations and compared them with wild-type controls. For the in vivo model, we used mice heterozygous for a null allele in Bmpr2 (Bmpr2+/−) and wild-type littermates. Measurements and Main Results: Acute exposure to LPS increased lung and circulating IL-6 and KC (IL-8 analog) levels in Bmpr2+/− mice to a greater extent than in wild-type controls. Similarly, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from Bmpr2+/− mice and patients with BMPR2 mutations produced higher levels of IL-6 and KC/IL-8 after lipopolysaccharide stimulation compared with controls. BMPR-II deficiency in mouse and human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells was associated with increased phospho-STAT3 and loss of extracellular superoxide dismutase. Chronic lipopolysaccharide administration caused pulmonary hypertension in Bmpr2+/− mice but not in wild-type littermates. Coadministration of tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, ameliorated the exaggerated inflammatory response and prevented development of PAH. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that BMPR-II deficiency promotes an exaggerated inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo, which can instigate development of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26073741

  12. Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; Erdman, R A; Castellano, F; Maltese, W A

    1998-08-01

    Rab GTPases are post-translationally modified by addition of geranylgeranyl moieties to carboxyl-terminal cysteine residues. For Rab proteins ending with xxCC xCxC and CCxx motifs this modification is catalysed by geranylgeranyltransferase type II (GGTaseII), and is entirely dependent on the Rab substrate being bound to Rab escort protein (REP). Several Rab proteins contain carboxyl-terminal CaaL prenylation motifs typical of members of the Rho family, which are modified in a REP-independent manner by geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTaseI). The present studies show that one such Rab protein (Rab8), which ends with a CVLL motif, is uniquely able to serve as a substrate for either REP/GGTaseII or GGTaseI in cell-free assays. The modification of Rab8 by GGTaseI did not require REP, indicating that a REP-induced conformational change is not essential for exposure of the Rab carboxyl-terminal cysteine prenylation site. To determine whether one enzyme plays a predominant role in Rab8 prenylation in vivo, the incorporation of [3H]mevalonate into Rab8 was measured in human embryonal kidney 293 cells under conditions where the activity of GGTaseI, but not GGTaseII, was blocked by the peptidomimetic inhibitor GGTI-298. The GGTaseI inhibitor did not prevent prenylation of either overexpressed Myc-tagged Rab8 or endogenous Rab8, whereas prenylation of a known GGTaseI substrate with the same carboxyl-terminal motif, Cdc42Hs, was completely blocked. To rule out the possibility that the apparent prenylation of Rab8 by GGTaseII occurs only when GGTaseI activity is eliminated, metabolic labelling studies were carried out in the absence of the GGTaseI inhibitor, using a REP-binding-deficient Rab8 construct (Y78D) that cannot serve as a substrate for GGTaseII, but is indistinguishable from wild-type Rab8 as a substrate for GGTaseI. Prenylation of the Y78D mutant was reduced by 60-70% in intact cells, consistent with the conclusion that the majority of Rab8 is prenylated by the

  13. Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A L; Erdman, R A; Castellano, F; Maltese, W A

    1998-01-01

    Rab GTPases are post-translationally modified by addition of geranylgeranyl moieties to carboxyl-terminal cysteine residues. For Rab proteins ending with xxCC xCxC and CCxx motifs this modification is catalysed by geranylgeranyltransferase type II (GGTaseII), and is entirely dependent on the Rab substrate being bound to Rab escort protein (REP). Several Rab proteins contain carboxyl-terminal CaaL prenylation motifs typical of members of the Rho family, which are modified in a REP-independent manner by geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTaseI). The present studies show that one such Rab protein (Rab8), which ends with a CVLL motif, is uniquely able to serve as a substrate for either REP/GGTaseII or GGTaseI in cell-free assays. The modification of Rab8 by GGTaseI did not require REP, indicating that a REP-induced conformational change is not essential for exposure of the Rab carboxyl-terminal cysteine prenylation site. To determine whether one enzyme plays a predominant role in Rab8 prenylation in vivo, the incorporation of [3H]mevalonate into Rab8 was measured in human embryonal kidney 293 cells under conditions where the activity of GGTaseI, but not GGTaseII, was blocked by the peptidomimetic inhibitor GGTI-298. The GGTaseI inhibitor did not prevent prenylation of either overexpressed Myc-tagged Rab8 or endogenous Rab8, whereas prenylation of a known GGTaseI substrate with the same carboxyl-terminal motif, Cdc42Hs, was completely blocked. To rule out the possibility that the apparent prenylation of Rab8 by GGTaseII occurs only when GGTaseI activity is eliminated, metabolic labelling studies were carried out in the absence of the GGTaseI inhibitor, using a REP-binding-deficient Rab8 construct (Y78D) that cannot serve as a substrate for GGTaseII, but is indistinguishable from wild-type Rab8 as a substrate for GGTaseI. Prenylation of the Y78D mutant was reduced by 60-70% in intact cells, consistent with the conclusion that the majority of Rab8 is prenylated by the

  14. D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Cvetic, Mirjam; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

  15. Electrodynamics of type-II superconductor with periodic pinning array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, R. F.; Berco, D.; Shapiro, I. Ya.; Shapiro, B.; Rosenstein, B.

    2011-01-01

    Static and dynamic distribution of the superconducting condensate order parameters and current density is studied by numerical simulation of the 2D time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. The vortex flux lattice in layered type-II superconductors under magnetic field above the lower critical field is described by the order parameters. Moreover, the pinning effect has been considered in this work. The Abrikosov lattice which is hexagonal in the static case is deformed due to the size of pinning centers. The dynamical order parameters distribution shows that the vortex transport (flux flow) is conducted via diffusive motion of the so-called interstitial vortices. The trajectories for interstitial vortices with different sizes of pinning centers are shown.

  16. Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Hartfiel, L M; Schneider, S H

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between sweet taste function and dietary intake was studied in 21 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 16 age-, weight-, and sex-matched controls. Subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of a series of beverage samples sweetened with sucrose: 1.5-24%, fructose: 1-18%, or aspartame: 0.25-4%. They also kept 7-day food records. No group differences were found in sweet taste perception, pleasantness ratings, daily energy intakes, or macronutrient composition of the diets. However, subjects with diabetes consumed less sucrose but 3.5 times more alternative sweeteners than did controls. Peak pleasantness ratings for the beverage samples were positively correlated with dietary sweetness content in the subjects with diabetes but not the controls. These findings suggest that in diabetes, hedonic ratings for a sweetened beverage were related to dietary sweetness intake rather than changes in sweet taste perception. PMID:8804636

  17. Quantum spin Hall effect in inverted type-II semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoxing; Hughes, Taylor L; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2008-06-13

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically nontrivial state of quantum matter which preserves time-reversal symmetry; it has an energy gap in the bulk, but topologically robust gapless states at the edge. Recently, this novel effect has been predicted and observed in HgTe quantum wells and in this Letter we predict a similar effect arising in Type-II semiconductor quantum wells made from InAs/GaSb/AlSb. The quantum well exhibits an "inverted" phase similar to HgTe/CdTe quantum wells, which is a QSH state when the Fermi level lies inside the gap. Due to the asymmetric structure of this quantum well, the effects of inversion symmetry breaking are essential. Remarkably, the topological quantum phase transition between the conventional insulating state and the quantum spin Hall state can be continuously tuned by the gate voltage, enabling quantitative investigation of this novel phase transition. PMID:18643529

  18. Magnetic-Field-Induced Relativistic Properties in Type-I and Type-II Weyl Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Tchoumakov, Serguei; Civelli, Marcello; Goerbig, Mark O

    2016-08-19

    We investigate Weyl semimetals with tilted conical bands in a magnetic field. Even when the cones are overtilted (type-II Weyl semimetal), Landau-level quantization can be possible as long as the magnetic field is oriented close to the tilt direction. Most saliently, the tilt can be described within the relativistic framework of Lorentz transformations that give rise to a rich spectrum, displaying new transitions beyond the usual dipolar ones in the optical conductivity. We identify particular features in the latter that allow one to distinguish between semimetals of different types. PMID:27588870

  19. Bilateral internal auditory canal gangliogliomas mimicking neurofibromatosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Hooten, Kristopher G.; Oliveria, Seth F.; Sadrameli, Saeed S.; Gandhi, Shashank; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Lewis, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gangliogliomas are rare low grade, typically well-differentiated, tumors that are composed of mature ganglion cells and neoplastic glial cells. These tumors can appear at virtually any location along the neuroaxis but classically occur in the temporal lobe of young patients. In a small number of cases, gangliogliomas have presented as masses in the brainstem or involving cranial nerves. With the exception of vestibular schwannomas, bilateral tumors in the region of the internal auditory canal (IAC) or cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are exceedingly rare. Case Description: We report a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral nonenhancing IAC/CPA tumors. Based on this finding, a presumptive diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type II was made, which was initially managed conservatively with close observation. He returned for follow-up with worsening vertigo and tinnitus, thus prompting the decision to proceed with surgical resection of the symptomatic mass. Intriguingly, pathological study demonstrated a WHO Grade I ganglioglioma. Description: We report a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral nonenhancing IAC/CPA tumors. Based on this finding, a presumptive diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type II was made, which was initially managed conservatively with close observation. He returned for follow-up with worsening vertigo and tinnitus, thus prompting the decision to proceed with surgical resection of the symptomatic mass. Intriguingly, pathological study demonstrated a WHO Grade I ganglioglioma. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of bilateral IAC/CPA gangliogliomas. When evaluating bilateral IAC/CPA lesions with unusual imaging characteristics, ganglioglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:27127704

  20. Type II dehydroquinase: molecular replacement with many copies

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kirsty Anne; Robinson, David Alexander; Lapthorn, Adrian Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The type II dehydroquinase enzyme is a symmetrical dodecameric protein which crystallizes in either high-symmetry cubic space groups or low-symmetry crystal systems with multiple copies in the asymmetric unit. Both systems have provided challenging examples for molecular replacement; for example, a triclinic crystal form has 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell. Three difficult examples are discussed and two are used as test cases to compare the performance of four commonly used molecular-replacement packages. Type II dehydroquinase is a small (150-amino-acid) protein which in solution packs together to form a dodecamer with 23 cubic symmetry. In crystals of this protein the symmetry of the biological unit can be coincident with the crystallographic symmetry, giving rise to cubic crystal forms with a single monomer in the asymmetric unit. In crystals where this is not the case, multiple copies of the monomer are present, giving rise to significant and often confusing noncrystallographic symmetry in low-symmetry crystal systems. These different crystal forms pose a variety of challenges for solution by molecular replacement. Three examples of structure solutions, including a highly unusual triclinic crystal form with 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell, are described. Four commonly used molecular-replacement packages are assessed against two of these examples, one of high symmetry and the other of low symmetry; this study highlights how program performance can vary significantly depending on the given problem. In addition, the final refined structure of the 16-dodecamer triclinic crystal form is analysed and shown not to be a superlattice structure, but rather an F-centred cubic crystal with frustrated crystallographic symmetry.

  1. Neutrino masses and leptogenesis in type I and type II seesaw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Das, Mrinal Kumar

    2014-07-01

    The baryon to photon ratio in the present Universe is very accurately measured to be (6.065±0.090)×10-10. We study the possible origin of this baryon asymmetry in the neutrino sector through the generic mechanism of baryogenesis through leptogenesis. We consider both the type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses within the framework of left-right symmetric models (LRSM). Using the latest best-fit global neutrino oscillation data of mass squared differences, mixing angles and Dirac CP phase, we compute the predictions for baryon to photon ratio keeping the Majorana CP phases as free parameters for two different choices of lightest neutrino mass eigenvalue for both normal and inverted hierarchical patterns of neutrino masses. We do our calculation with and without lepton flavor effects being taken into account. We choose different diagonal Dirac neutrino mass matrix for different flavor effects in such a way that the lightest right-handed neutrino mass is in the appropriate range. We also study the predictions for baryon asymmetry when the neutrino masses arise from a combination of both type I and type II seesaw (with dominating type I term) and discriminate between several combinations of Dirac and Majorana CP phases by demanding successful predictions for baryon asymmetry.

  2. Association of variations in HLA class II and other loci with susceptibility to EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Kouya; Okada, Yukinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Momozawa, Yukihide; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kunitoh, Hideo; Matsumoto, Shingo; Takano, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Goto, Akiteru; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Ohe, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Yukio; Goto, Yasushi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Furuta, Koh; Yoshida, Akihiko; Goto, Koichi; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Miyagi, Yohei; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kazumi; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Maeda, Daichi; Imai, Kazuhiro; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Saito, Akira; Shimada, Yoko; Sunami, Kuniko; Saito, Motonobu; Inazawa, Johji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Yokota, Jun; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Matsuo, Keitaro; Daigo, Yataro; Kubo, Michiaki; Kohno, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma driven by somatic EGFR mutations is more prevalent in East Asians (30–50%) than in European/Americans (10–20%). Here we investigate genetic factors underlying the risk of this disease by conducting a genome-wide association study, followed by two validation studies, in 3,173 Japanese patients with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma and 15,158 controls. Four loci, 5p15.33 (TERT), 6p21.3 (BTNL2), 3q28 (TP63) and 17q24.2 (BPTF), previously shown to be strongly associated with overall lung adenocarcinoma risk in East Asians, were re-discovered as loci associated with a higher susceptibility to EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, two additional loci, HLA class II at 6p21.32 (rs2179920; P =5.1 × 10−17, per-allele OR=1.36) and 6p21.1 (FOXP4) (rs2495239; P=3.9 × 10−9, per-allele OR=1.19) were newly identified as loci associated with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. This study indicates that multiple genetic factors underlie the risk of lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations. PMID:27501781

  3. Association of variations in HLA class II and other loci with susceptibility to EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouya; Okada, Yukinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Momozawa, Yukihide; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kunitoh, Hideo; Matsumoto, Shingo; Takano, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Goto, Akiteru; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Ohe, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Yukio; Goto, Yasushi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Furuta, Koh; Yoshida, Akihiko; Goto, Koichi; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Miyagi, Yohei; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kazumi; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Maeda, Daichi; Imai, Kazuhiro; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Saito, Akira; Shimada, Yoko; Sunami, Kuniko; Saito, Motonobu; Inazawa, Johji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Yokota, Jun; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Matsuo, Keitaro; Daigo, Yataro; Kubo, Michiaki; Kohno, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma driven by somatic EGFR mutations is more prevalent in East Asians (30-50%) than in European/Americans (10-20%). Here we investigate genetic factors underlying the risk of this disease by conducting a genome-wide association study, followed by two validation studies, in 3,173 Japanese patients with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma and 15,158 controls. Four loci, 5p15.33 (TERT), 6p21.3 (BTNL2), 3q28 (TP63) and 17q24.2 (BPTF), previously shown to be strongly associated with overall lung adenocarcinoma risk in East Asians, were re-discovered as loci associated with a higher susceptibility to EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, two additional loci, HLA class II at 6p21.32 (rs2179920; P =5.1 × 10(-17), per-allele OR=1.36) and 6p21.1 (FOXP4) (rs2495239; P=3.9 × 10(-9), per-allele OR=1.19) were newly identified as loci associated with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. This study indicates that multiple genetic factors underlie the risk of lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations. PMID:27501781

  4. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Liu Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an {alpha}-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G{sup 1111} and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G{sup 1111} in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G{sup 1111}, a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G{sup 1111} had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level.

  5. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo, Ningguang; Liu, Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong, Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an alpha-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G(1111) and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G(1111) in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G(1111), a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G(1111) had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level. PMID:19022275

  6. Angiotensin II receptor expression and inhibition in the chronically hypoxic rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, L.; al-Tubuly, R.; Sebkhi, A.; Owji, A. A.; Nunez, D. J.; Wilkins, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Angiotensin II (AII) binding density and the effect of chronic AII receptor blockade were examined in the rat model of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. 2. [125I]-[Sar1,Ile2]AII binding capacity was increased in lung membranes from rats exposed to hypoxia (10% fractional inspired O2) for 7 days compared to normal rats (Bmax 108 +/- 12 vs 77 +/- 3 fmol mg-1 protein; P < 0.05), with no significant change in dissociation constant. Competition with specific AII receptor subtype antagonists demonstrated that AT1 is the predominant subtype in both normal and hypoxic lung. 3. Rats treated intravenously with the AT1 antagonist, GR138950C, 1 mg kg-1 day-1 rather than saline alone during 7 days of exposure to hypoxia developed less pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure: 21.3 +/- 1.7 vs 28.3 +/- 1.1 mmHg; P < 0.05), right ventricular hypertrophy (right/left ventricle weight ratio: 0.35 +/- 0.01 vs 0.45 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05) and pulmonary artery remodelling (abundance of thick-walled pulmonary vessels: 9.6 +/- 1.4% vs 20.1 +/- 0.9%; P < 0.05). 4. The reduction in cardiac hypertrophy and pulmonary remodelling with the AT1 antagonist was greater than that achieved by a dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) that produced a comparable attenuation of the rise in pulmonary arterial pressure during hypoxia. 5. The data suggest that AII, via the AT1 receptor, has a role in the early pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in the rat. PMID:8937726

  7. Study of lung cancer histologic types, occupation, and smoking in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Zahm, S.H.; Brownson, R.C.; Chang, J.C.; Davis, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted to evaluate the relationship between lung cancer histologic types and occupation, adjusted for smoking. A total of 4,431 white male cases and 11,326 cancer controls, diagnosed between 1980 and 1985, were identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry. For all histologic types combined, excess risk was observed among many a priori suspected high-risk occupations. Lung cancer was elevated among men employed as insulators (odds ratio (OR) = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7, 137.8), carpenters (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0, 1.7), painters, plasterers, and wallpaper hangers (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2,3.3), structural metal workers (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 0.6,6.0), mechanics and repairers (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0,1.7), motor vehicle drivers (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2,1.8), police and firefighters (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1,2.3), and food service personnel (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.0,3.5). A deficit of lung cancer was observed among farmers (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.7,1.0). Adenocarcinoma of the lung was elevated among carpenters (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0,2.5) and cabinet and furniture makers (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 0.4,8.1), which is interesting because of the previous reports of excess adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity associated with wood dust exposure. Adenocarcinomas were also elevated among plumbers (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.0,3.8) and printers (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.7,4.2). Electricians were at slightly increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.7,2.8) and ''other'' or mixed cell types of lung cancer (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.8,2.9) but at decreased risk for small cell (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.3,2.0) and squamous cell (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.4,1.6) tumors. Among welders, adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.7,3.8) and squamous cell (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.9,3.3) cancers were elevated, but small cell and ''other'' lung cancers were not.

  8. Relative potencies of Type I and Type II pyrethroids for inhibition of spontaneous firing in neuronal networks.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids insecticides commonly used in pest control disrupt the normal function of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We have previously demonstrated that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) and deltamethrin (a Type II pyrethroid) inhibit sodium channel-dependent spontaneous netw...

  9. Targeted Type 2 Alveolar Cell Depletion. A Dynamic Functional Model for Lung Injury Repair.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Orquidea; Hiatt, Michael J; Lundin, Amber; Lee, Jooeun; Reddy, Raghava; Navarro, Sonia; Kikuchi, Alex; Driscoll, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) are regarded as the progenitor population of the alveolus responsible for injury repair and homeostatic maintenance. Depletion of this population is hypothesized to underlie various lung pathologies. Current models of lung injury rely on either uncontrolled, nonspecific destruction of alveolar epithelia or on targeted, nontitratable levels of fixed AEC2 ablation. We hypothesized that discrete levels of AEC2 ablation would trigger stereotypical and informative patterns of repair. To this end, we created a transgenic mouse model in which the surfactant protein-C promoter drives expression of a mutant SR39TK herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase specifically in AEC2. Because of the sensitivity of SR39TK, low doses of ganciclovir can be administered to these animals to induce dose-dependent AEC2 depletion ranging from mild (50%) to lethal (82%) levels. We demonstrate that specific levels of AEC2 depletion cause altered expression patterns of apoptosis and repair proteins in surviving AEC2 as well as distinct changes in distal lung morphology, pulmonary function, collagen deposition, and expression of remodeling proteins in whole lung that persist for up to 60 days. We believe SPCTK mice demonstrate the utility of cell-specific expression of the SR39TK transgene for exerting fine control of target cell depletion. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that specific levels of type 2 alveolar epithelial cell depletion produce characteristic injury repair outcomes. Most importantly, use of these mice will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AEC2 in the initiation of, and response to, lung injury. PMID:26203800

  10. Surface expression of CD74 by type II alveolar epithelial cells: a potential mechanism for macrophage migration inhibitory factor-induced epithelial repair.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Leigh M; Cakarova, Lidija; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; von Wulffen, Werner; Herold, Susanne; Seeger, Werner; Lohmeyer, Juergen

    2009-03-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine involved in acute lung injury and other processes such as wound repair and tumor growth. MIF exerts pro-proliferative effects on a variety of cell types including monocytes/macrophages, B cells, and gastric epithelial cell lines through binding to the major histocompatibility complex type II-associated invariant chain, CD74. In acute lung injury, inflammatory damage of the alveolar epithelium leads to loss of type I alveolar epithelial cells (AEC-I), which are replaced by proliferation and differentiation of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC-II). In this study we have investigated the potential of MIF to contribute to alveolar repair by stimulating alveolar epithelial cell proliferation. We show that murine AEC-II, but not AEC-I, express high surface levels of CD74 in vivo. Culture of AEC-II in vitro resulted in decreased mRNA levels for CD74 and loss of surface CD74 expression, which correlated with a transition of AEC-II to an AEC-I-like phenotype. MIF stimulation of AEC-II induced rapid and prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt, increased expression of cyclins D1 and E, as well as AEC-II proliferation. Corresponding MIF signaling and enhanced thymidine incorporation was observed after MIF stimulation of MLE-12 cells transfected to overexpress CD74. In contrast, MIF did not induce MAPK activation, gene transcription, or increased proliferation in differentiated AEC-I-like cells that lack CD74. These data suggest a previously unidentified role of MIF-CD74 interaction by inducing proliferation of AEC-II, which may contribute to alveolar repair. PMID:19136583

  11. The trends in histological types of lung cancer during 1980-1988, Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Cha, Q; Chen, Y; Du, Y

    1997-07-01

    Five thousand five hundred and forty six cases of all lung cancer patients who died during 1980-1988 in Guangzhou, China were investigated retrospectively with a standardized 31-item questionnaire administered to their next of kin. The data of 1093 lung cancer patients(20%, 1093/5546) who had a histological record was analyzed to investigate the changes in histological types and the possible etiologic causes. The difference between the lung cancer deaths with and without histological record is not significant in age, location (peripheral or central) of tumour and status of occupation (P > 0.05), but the difference in sex is significant (P < 0.01). We analyzed the data of 1093 cases by sex and by 3-year period. There had been a shift in the histology pattern with an increase in the percentage of adenocarcinoma (P = 0.0011) and a decrease in percentage of squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.0027) in males, inversely, there has been an absolute and a relative decrease of percentage in adenocarcinoma in females (P = 0.0028). The percentage of smokers, age of starting to smoke and type of tobacco smoking were nearly constant in both sexes during the studied periods. The pack-years of smoking decreased in males (P = 0.0396), and seemed increase in females (P = 0.1576, no significance). The analysis of occupation and dietary habits among 5546 cases were performed. The proportion of housewives decreased with time (P < 0.001) while the percentage of chemists in females increased (P < 0.001) with time. The dietary habits are changing with an increase in roast food intake for males (P = 0.0055) and in vegetable intake for males (P < 0.0001), females (P < 0.0001), and for patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in both sexes (P < 0.001). Perhaps the changes in pack-years of smoking may be responsible for the percentage change of lung cancer histological types observed in our study. The role that changes in dietary habits and status of occupations play in the

  12. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive. PMID:17915006

  13. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive. PMID:17915006

  14. AB124. Mucolipidosis type II: clinical features and laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Vu, Dung Chi; Bui, Thao Phuong; Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Hwu, Wuh-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background I-cell disease (Mucolipidosis II) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphotransferase, an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups onto oligosaccharide units of lysosomal enzyme precursors. Due to the absence of transferase activity, the common phosphomannose recognition marker of acid hydrolases is not generated, and the enzymes are not targeted to the lysosomes I. As a consequence the enzymes are secreted into the extracellular space, and high activities can be found in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid and urine of the patients, whereas inside the cells (fibroblasts) the enzyme levels are considerably reduced. Mucolipidosis is also known as I-cell disease because of the coarse granular cytoplasmic inclusions seen in cultured skin fibroblasts which are large lysosomes containing heterogeneous material. Objective To describe clinical features and enzyme activity of patients with mucolipidosis type II. Methods Clinical features, laboratory and plasma lysosom enzyme activity by four MU-Fluorometric assay was study. Results and conclusions Sixteen cases (seven girls and nine boys) onset at 5.93±4.28 years of age the onset age of 2.3±3.1 years (median 1.25) with the feature of joint stiffness and bone deformation. 100% cases admitted with the feature of joint stiffness, chest deformation and kyphoscoliosis, 93.3% coarse facial features. No patients had hepatosplenomegaly on ultrasound, 5/15 patients had heart valves disease. Enzyme assay showed α-Hexosaminidase of 1,885.98±338.7 nmoL/mg plasma/17 h, α-Iduronate sulfatase of 4,534.78±1,062.97 nmoL/mg plasma/4 h. Mucolipidosis has seriously affected the life of the patients.

  15. Reduced topoisomerase II activity in multidrug-resistant human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Eijdems, E. W.; de Haas, M.; Timmerman, A. J.; Van der Schans, G. P.; Kamst, E.; de Nooij, J.; Astaldi Ricotti, G. C.; Borst, P.; Baas, F.

    1995-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines often have a compound phenotype, combining reduced drug accumulation with a decrease in topoisomerase II. We have analysed alterations in topoisomerase II in MDR derivatives of the human lung cancer cell line SW-1573. Selection with doxorubicin frequently resulted in reduced topo II alpha mRNA and protein levels, whereas clones selected with vincristine showed normal levels of topo II alpha. No alterations of topo II beta levels were detected. To determine the contribution of topo II alterations to drug resistance, topo II activity was analysed by the determination of DNA breaks induced by the topo II-inhibiting drug 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methane-sulphon-m-anisidide (m-AMSA) in living cells, as m-AMSA is not affected by the drug efflux mechanism in the SW-1573 cells. The number of m-AMSA-induced DNA breaks correlated well (r = 0.96) with in vitro m-AMSA sensitivity. Drug sensitivity, however, did not always correlate with reduced topo II mRNA or protein levels. In one of the five doxorubicin-selected clones m-AMSA resistance and a reduction in m-AMSA-induced DNA breaks were found in the absence of reduced topo II protein levels. Therefore, we assume that post-translational modifications of topo II also contribute to drug resistance in SW-1573 cells. These results suggest that methods that detect quantitative as well as qualitative alterations of topo II should be used to predict the responsiveness of tumours to cytotoxic agents. The assay we used, which measures DNA breaks as an end point of topo II activity, could be a good candidate. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7819046

  16. Chronic renal failure, diabetes mellitus type-II, and gestation: an overwhelming combination.

    PubMed

    Kontomanolis, E N; Panagoutsos, S; Pasadakis, P; Koukouli, Z; Liberis, A

    2016-01-01

    This case report highlights on a child-bearer with chronic renal failure and diabetes mellitus type-II. Chronic renal failure (CRF) with diabetes mellitus (DM) type I in gestation is a rare case of a high-risk pregnancy. What is of significance though in this gestation, is that conception was achieved with the patient treated by a dialysis program. Furthermore, neither hypertension nor intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were detected and the patient was normotensive throughout gestation with no clinical signs of anemia. Strict and frequent application of the dialysis programs eradicates the uremic intrauterine environment, reduces the amniotic fluid volume, eliminates the chances of uterine rupture, leads to a longer gestation, increases the newborn's birth weight, and offers an optimal fetal survival rate; this is of note mainly in patients with cesarean sections reported in their medical history. To eliminate the complications of a premature delivery, the present authors had to find the right time point to give birth to this baby taking into account lung maturity, amniotic fluid volume, and preservation of the anatomical uterine integrity. PMID:27132429

  17. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejections in case of type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Beena; Prasad, Lalan; Chandra, Harish; Garia, Suman

    2016-08-01

    We have statistically studied 220 events from 1996 to 2008 (i.e. solar cycle 23). Two set of flare-CME is examined one with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II and other without DH type II radio burst. Out of 220 events 135 (flare-halo CME) are accompanied with DH type II radio burst and 85 are without DH type II radio burst. Statistical analysis is performed to examine the distribution of solar flare-halo CME around the solar disk and to investigate the relationship between solar flare and halo CME parameters in case of with and without DH type II radio burst. In our analysis we have observed that: (i) 10-20° latitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the southern region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, whereas in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the northern region. (ii) 0-10° longitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II radio burst and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the western region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, while in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the eastern region. (iii) Mean speed of halo CMEs (1382 km/s) with DH type II radio burst is more than the mean speed of halo CMEs (775 km/s) without DH type II radio burst. (iv) Maximum number of M-class flares is found in both the cases. (v) Average speed of halo CMEs in each class accompanied with DH type II radio burst is higher than the average speed of halo CMEs in each class without DH type II radio burst. (vi) Average speed of halo CMEs, associated with X-class flares, is greater than the other class of solar flares in both the cases.

  18. Method for discriminating synchronous multiple lung cancers of the same histological type

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xudong; Tian, Long; Fan, Jun; Lai, Yutian; Li, Shuangjiang; Che, Guowei; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the development of imaging technology, an increasing number of synchronous multiple lung cancers (SMLCs) have been diagnosed in recent years. Patients with >1 tumor are diagnosed with either synchronous multiple primary lung cancers (SMPLCs) or other primary tumors and metastases. Clinical guidelines, histological characteristics, and molecular diagnostics have been used to discriminate SMPLCs from other multiple lung cancers. However, there is still ambiguity in the diagnosis of SMPLCs of the same histological type. We enrolled 24 patients with the same histological type of SMLCs and assessed their status using established clinical guidelines, comprehensive histological subtyping, and molecular analysis. The sum value of the differential microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles (ΔΔCt) with matched tumors was evaluated to discriminate SMPLCs of the same histological type from metastases. Twelve patients with lymph node metastases were included for comparison, and the sum value of the ΔΔCt of 5 miRNAs between primary tumors and lymph node metastases was <9. Patients definitively diagnosed with SMPLCs by integrated analysis were also classified as SMPLCs by miRNA analysis; 6 patients showed conflicting diagnoses by integrated and miRNA analysis and 14 were given the same classification. Analysis of miRNA expression profiles is considered to be a useful tool for discriminating SMPLCs from intrapulmonary metastases. PMID:27495091

  19. Lung cancer in women and type of dwelling in relation to radon exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, C.; Pershagen, G.; Klominek, J.

    1989-04-01

    A case-control study based on interviews with 210 incident female lung cancer patients, 209 age-matched population controls, and 191 hospital controls was carried out in Stockholm county, Sweden. Radon measurements made in a sample of 303 dwellings, in which the study subjects had lived, showed that dwellings with ground contact had an average concentration of approximately 160 Bqm-3, twice the average concentration of other dwellings. A cumulated radon exposure index was calculated for each subject based on data from the interviews and the measurements. For the total group of lung cancer a relative risk (RR), adjusted for smoking, age, and degree of urbanization, of 1.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.9) and 1.7 (0.9-3.3) associated with ''intermediate'' and ''high'' exposure to radon was found. There was also a significant trend to a positive dose-response relationship (Ptrend = 0.03). For small cell cancer the corresponding figures for RRs were 1.9 (0.6-4.5) and 4.7 (1.5-14.2), respectively (Ptrend = 0.01). There seemed to be a positive interaction between radon exposure and smoking in relation to lung cancer. The findings indicate that domestic radon may be of importance for the induction of lung cancer, particularly for some histological types.

  20. Hyperoxia-mediated LC3B activation contributes to the impaired transdifferentiation of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) to type I cells (AECIs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Shuang; Yuan, Lijie; Wu, Hongmin; Jiang, Hong; Luo, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Life-saving mechanical ventilation can also cause lung injury through the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)-like symptoms in preterm infants. It is reported that the autophagic protein microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain (LC)-3B can confer protection against hyperoxia-induced DNA damage in lung alveolar epithelium. However, its role in the transdifferentiation of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) to type I cells (AECIs) is unclear and requires further investigation. In this study, newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 90% oxygen for up to 14 days to mimic BPD in human infants, with neonatal pups exposed to room air (21% oxygen) as controls. Primary rat AECIIs were cultured under hyperoxic conditions for up to 24 hours to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. This study found that hyperoxia promoted a significant and time-dependent increase of AECII marker surfactant protein (SP)-C in the lung. The increase of AECI marker T1α was repressed by hyperoxia during lung development. These results indicated an impaired AECII transdifferentiation. Pulmonary ROS concentration and expression of autophagic protein LC-3B were increased gradually in response to hyperoxia exposure. Furthermore, AECIIs produced more ROS when cultured under hyperoxic conditions in vitro. Both the LC3B expression and the conversion from LC3BI to LC3BII were enhanced in hyperoxic AECs. Interestingly, inhibition of LC3B either by ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or adenovirus-mediated LC3B shRNA could partly restore AECII transdifferentiation under hyperoxia condition. In summary, the current study reveals a novel role of activated LC3B induced by hyperoxia in AECII transdifferentiation. PMID:27187184

  1. Effects of Thoracic Irradiation on Pulmonary Endothelial Compared to Alveolar Type II Cells in Fibrosis-Prone C57BL/6NTac Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kalash, Ronny; Berhane, Hebist; Goff, Julie; Houghton, Frank; Epperly, Michael W.; Dixon, Tracy; Zhang, Xichen; Sprachman, Melissa M.; Wipf, Peter; Franicola, Darcy; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Thoracic irradiation results in an acute inflammatory response, latent period, and late fibrosis. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in triggering late radiation fibrosis. Materials and Methods Thoracic irradiated fibrosis prone C57BL/6NTac mice were followed for detectable mRNA transcripts in isolated lung cells and micro-RNA in whole tissue, and the effect of administration of water-soluble oxetanyl sulfoxide MMS350 was studied. Marrow stromal cell motility in medium from fibrotic phase explanted pulmonary endothelial and alveolar type II cells was measured. Results RNA and micro-RNA expression in lung correlated with fibrosis. MMS350 reduced pro-fibrotic gene expression in both endothelial and alveolar type II cells in irradiated mice. Conditioned medium from irradiated cells did not alter cell motility in vitro. Conclusion These findings should allow potential new drug targets for ameliorating irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis to be identified. PMID:23606683

  2. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  3. Outcomes After Arthroscopic Repair of Type-II SLAP Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeier, Stephen F.; Voos, James E.; Williams, Riley J.; Altchek, David W.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Allen, Answorth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To our knowledge, there has been no prospective study on the results of arthroscopic repair of superior labrum-biceps anchor complex (SLAP) tears with use of modern techniques. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the minimum two-year results for patients with type-II SLAP tears that were treated with arthroscopic suture anchor fixation. Methods: Forty-seven patients with symptomatic type-II SLAP tears were evaluated preoperatively and at least two years postoperatively with use of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and L'Insalata outcomes instruments and physical examination. The study group included thirty-nine male and eight female patients with a mean age of thirty-six years; thirty-four of the forty-seven patients were athletes. Patients with rotator cuff tears requiring repair or concomitant shoulder instability were excluded. Results: At an average of 2.7 years, the median ASES and L'Insalata scores were 97 and 93, respectively, compared with baseline scores of 62 and 65 (p < 0.05). The median patient-reported satisfaction rating was 9 (of 10); forty-one patients (87%) rated the outcome as good or excellent. The median patient-reported satisfaction rating was significantly higher for patients with a discrete traumatic etiology than for those with an atraumatic etiology (9 compared with 7); however, there was no significant difference between these groups in terms of the ASES or L'Insalata outcome scores. Overall, twenty-five (74%) of the thirty-four athletes were able to return to their preinjury level of competition, whereas eleven (92%) of the twelve athletes who reported a discrete traumatic event were able to return to their previous level of competition. There were five complications, including four cases of refractory postoperative stiffness. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that favorable outcomes can be anticipated in the majority of patients after arthroscopic SLAP lesion repair. While only three

  4. Phase II study of lonidamine in non-small cell lung cancer: final report.

    PubMed

    Kokron, O; Maca, S; De Gregorio, M; Ciottoli, G B

    1990-02-01

    Lonidamine (LND) is a new anti-cancer drug which interferes with the energy-yielding processes of tumour cells without affecting DNA replication. A total of 69 previously untreated patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) entered this study. LND was given orally as a single agent at doses ranging from 450 to 900 mg day-1 until tumour progression (2 to greater than or equal to 1,402 days). Partial responses (PR) occurred in 7/69 patients (10.1%); 4/25, 1/27 and 2/9 for epidermoid, adenocarcinoma and large cell cancer respectively. PR by stage was 4/10, 1/3, 1/20 and 1/28 for stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. The median duration of response was 303 days (greater than or equal to 61 to greater than or equal to 338 days). The median survival for the whole group was 261 days. Toxicity was assessed in all patients. No myelosuppression occurred. The main side-effects were myalgia (68%), loss of appetite (23%), asthenia (20%) and testicular pain (13%). Doses above 450 mg day-1 produced more severe side-effects without any improvement in therapeutic activity. PMID:2155644

  5. Comparative effects of cocaine and cocaethylene on alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Bazuaye-Ekwuyasi, Eseosa A; Ogunbileje, John O; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Okorodudu, Anthony O

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of cocaine (COC) and alcohol have been among the leading causes of non-prescription drug-related deaths in the USA and are known to cause acute and chronic lung diseases. The co-abuse of COC and alcohol results in the production of an active metabolite, cocaethylene (CE). The effects of COC and its metabolites on the respiratory system have been scarcely studied. This study was aimed at comparing the toxic effects of eqimolar concentration (1 mM) of COC and CE on alveolar epithelial type II cells. This was performed by measuring cell growth, viability, clonogenic activity, cell cycle and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The treatment of CE and COC resulted in a significant inhibition of cell proliferation with the formation of an average of three colonies which measured about 1.74×10(-15) m each and 25 colonies each of about 5.73×10(-15) m, respectively, while untreated cells yielded 31 colonies of 8.75×10(-15) m (p<0.05). The treatments of CE and COC resulted in the reduction of the growth fraction of alveolar epithelial type II cells without significant decrease in viability. In addition, there was an approximately twofold increase in ROS generation as compared to the controls (p<0.05). Therefore, CE-induced inhibition of cellular proliferation may contribute to the pathogenesis of diffuse alveolar damage in co-abusers of COC and alcohol. PMID:26364649

  6. STAT3 Regulates ABCA3 Expression and Influences Lamellar Body Formation in Alveolar Type II Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Yohei; Besnard, Valérie; Clark, Jean C.; Xu, Yan; Wert, Susan E.; Ikegami, Machiko; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lamellar body associated lipid transport protein required for normal synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3, activated by IL-6, regulates ABCA3 expression in vivo and in vitro. ABCA3 mRNA and immunostaining were decreased in adult mouse lungs in which STAT3 was deleted from the respiratory epithelium (Stat3Δ/Δ mice). Consistent with the role of STAT3, intratracheal IL-6 induced ABCA3 expression in vivo. Decreased ABCA3 and abnormalities in the formation of lamellar bodies, the intracellular site of surfactant lipid storage, were observed in Stat3Δ/Δ mice. Expression of SREBP1a and 1c, SCAP, ABCA3, and AKT mRNAs was inhibited by deletion of Stat3 in type II cells isolated from Stat3Δ/Δ mice. The activities of PI3K and AKT were required for normal Abca3 gene expression in vitro. AKT activation induced SREBP expression and increased the activity of the Abca3 promoter in vitro, consistent with the role of STAT3 signaling, at least in part via SREBP, in the regulation of ABCA3. ABCA3 expression is regulated by IL-6 in a pathway that includes STAT3, PI3K, AKT, SCAP, and SREBP. Activation of STAT3 after exposure to IL-6 enhances ABCA3 expression, which, in turn, influences pulmonary surfactant homeostasis. PMID:18096869

  7. Implementing type I & type II error spending for two-sided group sequential designs.

    PubMed

    Rudser, Kyle D; Emerson, Scott S

    2008-05-01

    Group sequential designs have become the mainstay for addressing efficacy and ethical issues when monitoring clinical trials. Several different procedures of defining stopping rules have been developed for the formulation of a sequential design, one of these being direct specification of type I and type II error spending. There are also different methods that have been proposed to fit a two-sided design for a given error spending function. Two methods that differ on when type II error begins to be spent are the flexible implementation of the unified family by Kittelson and Emerson and the method of Chang, Hwang, and Shih. Trial designs formulated by the latter are unable to mimic the boundaries of the unified family, which includes the two-sided symmetric designs of Emerson and Fleming, the two-sided designs of Pampallona and Tsiatis, and the double triangular designs of Whitehead and Stratton. Design operating characteristics of these two methods are compared over a wide range of commonly used size, power and error spending function combinations. PMID:17933592

  8. Unified Model of Type I and Type II Turbulence in the Equitorial E-Layer Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W., Jr.; Hassan, E.; Smolyakov, A.; Litt, S.; Hatch, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    A new unified two-fluid model for the E-layer for the Type I and Type II plasma instabilities is developed and simulated for the nonlinear dynamics of the electron density, the electric fields, and ion fluid acceleration. Profiles and parameters are taken from the IRI data for the equitorial region ionosphere. Large, spectral simulations for the turbulence and the coherent structures are carried out. The fields are recorded for each sub-second time step in both physical space and wavenubmer space. The growth rate has two peaks in horizontal wavenumber and the nonlinear cascades go both to small scales [~10cm] and large scales [~10-50m]. Horizontal and vertical wavenumber spectra are shown as well as the isotropized energy spectrum of k-n. The S4 scintillation index computed from the density fluctuations and the PDFs for intermittency from the density fluctuations are computed. The PDFs and the net electron density fluxes are computed. Examples are run where the upward density gradient (Type II) is the dominant instability mechanism.

  9. EEG classification of adolescents with type I and type II of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Ali; Sheikhani, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nasrabadi, Ali Moti; Vand, Safa Rafiei; Zarafshan, Hadi; Moeini, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder and has two common types: type I and type II. Early diagnosis of the subtypes is very challenging particularly in adolescence. In this study, 38 adolescents are participated including 18 patients with BD I and 20 patients with BD II. The electroencephalogram signal is recorded by 19 electrodes in open eyes at resting state. After preprocessing, the state of the art methods from various domains are implemented to provide a good feature set for classifying the two groups. In order to improve the classification accuracy, four different feature selection methods named mutual information maximization (MIM), conditional mutual information maximization (CMIM), fast correlation based filter (FCBF), and double input symmetrical relevance (DISR) are applied to select the most informative features. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with a hidden layer containing five neurons is used for classification with and without applying the feature selection methods. The accuracy of 82.68, 86.33, 89.67, 84.61, and 91.83 % were observed using entire extracted features and selected features using MIM, CMIM, FCBF, and DISR methods by MLP, respectively. Therefore, the proposed method can be used in clinical setting for more validation. PMID:26472650

  10. Type I Interferon Protects against Pneumococcal Invasive Disease by Inhibiting Bacterial Transmigration across the Lung

    PubMed Central

    LeMessurier, Kim S.; Häcker, Hans; Chi, Liying; Tuomanen, Elaine; Redecke, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Type I interferon (IFN-I), whose contribution to antiviral and intracellular bacterial immunity is well established, is also elicited during pneumococcal infection, yet its functional significance is not well defined. Here, we show that IFN-I plays an important role in the host defense against pneumococci by counteracting the transmigration of bacteria from the lung to the blood. Mice that lack the type I interferon receptor (Ifnar1−/−) or mice that were treated with a neutralizing antibody against the type I interferon receptor, exhibited enhanced development of bacteremia following intranasal pneumococcal infection, while maintaining comparable bacterial numbers in the lung. In turn, treatment of mice with IFNβ or IFN-I-inducing synthetic double stranded RNA (poly(I:C)), dramatically reduced the development of bacteremia following intranasal infection with S. pneumoniae. IFNβ treatment led to upregulation of tight junction proteins and downregulation of the pneumococcal uptake receptor, platelet activating factor receptor (PAF receptor). In accordance with these findings, IFN-I reduced pneumococcal cell invasion and transmigration across epithelial and endothelial layers, and Ifnar1−/− mice showed overall enhanced lung permeability. As such, our data identify IFN-I as an important component of the host immune defense that regulates two possible mechanisms involved in pneumococcal invasion, i.e. PAF receptor-mediated transcytosis and tight junction-dependent pericellular migration, ultimately limiting progression from a site-restricted lung infection to invasive, lethal disease. PMID:24244159

  11. Comparison of Large Subunits of Type II DNA-dependent RNA Polymerases from Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Kidd, G H; Link, G; Bogorad, L

    1979-10-01

    Two-dimensional tryptic mapping of (125)I-labeled polypeptides has been employed to compare the large subunits of type II DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from maize, parsley (Petroselinum sativum), and wheat. Maps of the 220 kilodalton (kd) and 140 kd subunits from wheat RNA polymerase II differ from those of the corresponding subunits from parsley enzyme II. The 180 kd subunits from maize and parsley type II enzymes also yield dissimilar tryptic maps. Thus, despite similarities in molecular mass, the large subunits of wheat, parsley, and maize type II RNA polymerases are unique to each individual plant species. PMID:16661032

  12. Alveolar type II cells maintain bioenergetic homeostasis in hypoxia through metabolic and molecular adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Robyn G.; Newton, Danforth A.; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.

    2014-01-01

    Although many lung diseases are associated with hypoxia, alveolar type II epithelial (ATII) cell impairment, and pulmonary surfactant dysfunction, the effects of O2 limitation on metabolic pathways necessary to maintain cellular energy in ATII cells have not been studied extensively. This report presents results of targeted assays aimed at identifying specific metabolic processes that contribute to energy homeostasis using primary ATII cells and a model ATII cell line, mouse lung epithelial 15 (MLE-15), cultured in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. MLEs cultured in normoxia demonstrated a robust O2 consumption rate (OCR) coupled to ATP generation and limited extracellular lactate production, indicating reliance on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production. Pharmacological uncoupling of respiration increased OCR in normoxic cultures to 175% of basal levels, indicating significant spare respiratory capacity. However, when exposed to hypoxia for 20 h, basal O2 consumption fell to 60% of normoxic rates, and cells maintained only ∼50% of normoxic spare respiratory capacity, indicating suppression of mitochondrial function, although intracellular ATP levels remained at near normoxic levels. Moreover, while hypoxic exposure stimulated glycogen synthesis and storage in MLE-15, glycolytic rate (as measured by lactate generation) was not significantly increased in the cells, despite enhanced expression of several enzymes related to glycolysis. These results were largely recapitulated in murine primary ATII, demonstrating MLE-15 suitability for modeling ATII metabolism. The ability of ATII cells to maintain ATP levels in hypoxia without enhancing glycolysis suggests that these cells are exceptionally efficient at conserving ATP to maintain bioenergetic homeostasis under O2 limitation. PMID:24682450

  13. Type I and Type II Interferons Inhibit the Translation of Murine Norovirus Proteins▿

    PubMed Central

    Changotra, Harish; Jia, Yali; Moore, Tara N.; Liu, Guangliang; Kahan, Shannon M.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Karst, Stephanie M.

    2009-01-01

    Human noroviruses are responsible for more than 95% of nonbacterial epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Both onset and resolution of disease symptoms are rapid, suggesting that components of the innate immune response are critical in norovirus control. While the study of the human noroviruses has been hampered by the lack of small animal and tissue culture systems, our recent discovery of a murine norovirus (MNV) and its in vitro propagation have allowed us to begin addressing norovirus replication strategies and immune responses to norovirus infection. We have previously demonstrated that interferon responses are critical to control MNV-1 infection in vivo and to directly inhibit viral replication in vitro. We now extend these studies to define the molecular basis for interferon-mediated inhibition. Viral replication intermediates were not detected in permissive cells pretreated with type I interferon after either infection or transfection of virion-associated RNA, demonstrating a very early block to virion production that is after virus entry and uncoating. A similar absence of viral replication intermediates was observed in infected primary macrophages and dendritic cells pretreated with type I IFN. This was not due to degradation of incoming genomes in interferon-pretreated cells since similar levels of genomes were present in untreated and pretreated cells through 6 h of infection, and these genomes retained their integrity. Surprisingly, this block to the translation of viral proteins was not dependent on the well-characterized interferon-induced antiviral molecule PKR. Similar results were observed in cells pretreated with type II interferon, except that the inhibition of viral translation was dependent on PKR. Thus, both type I and type II interferon signaling inhibit norovirus translation in permissive myeloid cells, but they display distinct dependence on PKR for this inhibition. PMID:19297466

  14. Kinematics of ICMEs/Shocks: Blast Wave Reconstruction Using Type-II Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; De-la-Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    We present a physical methodology for reconstructing the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using Type-II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this blast-wave reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with Type-II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the Type-II frequency drifts and calculates shock onset speed, shock travel time, and shock speed at 1 AU. The BWR results agreed well with the Type-II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, in-situ measurements, and interplanetary scintillation observations. Perturbations in the Type-II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing Type-II emissions in real-time and to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1 AU.

  15. Type II Supernovae: Model Light Curves and Standard Candle Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude—from 0.5 to 4.0 × 1051 ergs, with a typical value of ~0.9 × 1051 ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to ~20% using only photometric data.

  16. Polyglandular endocrinopathy type II (Schmidt's syndrome) in a Dobermann pinscher.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, J A; Stone, J; Rick, M; Dunning, M D

    2016-09-01

    A three-year-old, female neutered, Dobermann pinscher was presented for investigation of lethargy, episodic collapse, ataxia and myxoedema. Primary hypothyroidism and primary cortisol-deficient hypoadrenocorticism were diagnosed based on history, physical examination and compatible hormonal analysis. Increased serum concentrations of thyroglobulin autoantibodies and 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies indicated an immune-mediated aetiology. The case was complicated by lymphadenopathy with hand-mirror lymphocytes, classically identified in lymphoma. A polymerase chain reaction test for antigen receptor rearrangement indicated polyclonality and therefore reactive lymphadenopathy. The dog's clinical signs resolved following introduction of levothyroxine and prednisolone. Prioritising the problem-based approach in this case facilitated the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in addition to hypothyroidism due to the persistence of clinical signs despite thyroxine replacement. Importantly, atypical adrenal gland dysfunction was not misinterpreted as inadequate therapeutic response to thyroxine supplementation. The observation that polyglandular endocrinopathy type II can occur in dogs suggests that in dogs with a suboptimal response to treatment for hypothyroidism or hypoadrenocorticism comorbid endocrinopathies should be investigated. PMID:27487017

  17. Health perceptions among urban American Indians with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sachin; Davila, Javier; Patel, Sonam; Norman, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1940s, American Indians (AIs) have increasingly urbanized, moving off of reservations in large part due to federal policies of tribal termination and relocation. Though previous AI research has largely focused on reservation-associated challenges, many of these same challenges persist among urban AI populations. One mutual concern is the growing prevalence and incidence of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While behavioral, genetic, and socioeconomic determinants of T2DM have been explored, much less is known about the influence of cultural and psychosocial factors. Recent studies suggest that the way AIs perceive diabetes may affect their health trajectory and explain their poor prognosis. Through the use of the Illness Perception Questionnaire, we explored this hypothesis in a pilot study of urban AI with T2DM living in Los Angeles County. We found that the majority of participants have a neutral perception about their diabetes: They view their condition to be long lasting yet treatable and indicate reasonable understanding of its symptoms and progression. We also identified "personal control," the level of perceived control one has over his or her disease, as a strong correlate of overall illness perception and, thus, a potentially useful psychological metric. PMID:25111842

  18. TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: MODEL LIGHT CURVES AND STANDARD CANDLE RELATIONSHIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude-from 0.5 to 4.0 x 10{sup 51} ergs, with a typical value of approx0.9 x 10{sup 51} ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to approx20% using only photometric data.

  19. THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD FOR TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares E, Felipe; Hamuy, Mario; Pignata, Giuliano; Maza, Jose; Bersten, Melina; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrel, Nidia I.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Matheson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the 'standardized candle method' using a sample of 37 nearby (redshift z < 0.06) Type II plateau supernovae having BVRI photometry and optical spectroscopy. An analytic procedure is implemented to fit light curves, color curves, and velocity curves. We find that the V-I color toward the end of the plateau can be used to estimate the host-galaxy reddening with a precision of {sigma}(A{sub V}) = 0.2 mag. The correlation between plateau luminosity and expansion velocity previously reported in the literature is recovered. Using this relation and assuming a standard reddening law (R{sub V} = 3.1), we obtain Hubble diagrams (HDs) in the BVI bands with dispersions of {approx}0.4 mag. Allowing R{sub V} to vary and minimizing the spread in the HDs, we obtain a dispersion range of 0.25-0.30 mag, which implies that these objects can deliver relative distances with precisions of 12%-14%. The resulting best-fit value of R{sub V} is 1.4 {+-} 0.1.

  20. Balneotherapy and platelet glutathione metabolism in type II diabetic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Yabunaka, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Ichiro; Noro, Hiroshi; Agishi, Yuko

    1996-09-01

    Effects of balneotherapy on platelet glutathione metabolism were investigated in 12 type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) on admission were well correlated with those of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; r=0.692, P<0.02). After 4 weeks of balneotherapy, the mean level of GSH showed no changes; however, in well-controlled patients (FPG <150 mg/dl), the level increased ( P<0.01) and in poorly controlled patients (FPG >150 mg/dl), the value decreased ( P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and the levels of FPG ( r=-0.430, P<0.05). After balneotherapy, the activity increased in 5 patients, decreased in 3 patients and showed no changes (alteration within ±3%) in all the other patients. From these findings in diabetic patients we concluded: (1) platelet GSH synthesis appeared to be induced in response to oxidative stress; (2) lowered GPX activities indicated that the antioxidative defense system was impaired; and (3) platelet glutathione metabolism was partially improved by 4 weeks balneotherapy, an effect thought to be dependent on the control status of plasma glucose levels. It is suggested that balneotherapy is beneficial for patients whose platelet antioxidative defense system is damaged, such as those with diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease.

  1. Separation and artificial maturation of macerals from type II kerogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kruge, M.A.; Bensley, D.F.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    Immature Type II kerogen (HI=660 mg/g) from the Lower Toarcian of the Paris Basin was separated into an alginite concentrate (HI=952 mg/g) and an amorphous organic matter (AOM) concentrate (HI=573 mg/g) by density centrifugation. The flash pyrolyzate of the alginite was characterized by high relative concentrations of several series of n-alkanones and n-alkenones, in addition to n-alkanes, n-alk-1-enes and n-alkadienes. In sharp contrast, the AOM produced predominantly alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes, n-alkanes and n-alk-1-enes upon pyrolysis. Micro-FTIR spectroscopy indicated that the alginite was enriched in aliphatic C-H (particularly CH{sub 2}) and depleted in aromatic C=C, relative to the AOM, consistent with the pyrolysis results. Aliquots of the concentrates were heated separately in gold tubes (24 h, 70 MPa) at fixed temperatures ranging between 250 and 375{degrees}C. Yields of liquid products as a function of temperature were initially greater for the AOM, reaching a maximum at 325{degrees}C. In contrast, the alginite yielded little liquid product at low temperatures, attaining its maximum at 350{degrees}C, at which temperature its yield greatly surpassed that of the AOM. This kerogen is a heterogeneous assemblage of fossil organic matter, exhibiting different degrees of preservation and petroleum potential.

  2. Altered Erythrocyte Glycolytic Enzyme Activities in Type-II Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mali, Aniket V; Bhise, Sunita S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Katyare, Surendra S

    2016-07-01

    The activity of enzymes of glycolysis has been studied in erythrocytes from type-II diabetic patients in comparison with control. RBC lysate was the source of enzymes. In the diabetics the hexokinase (HK) activity increased 50 % while activities of phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and aldolase (ALD) decreased by 37, 75 and 64 % respectively but were still several folds higher than that of HK. Hence, it is possible that in the diabetic erythrocytes the process of glycolysis could proceed in an unimpaired or in fact may be augmented due to increased levels of G6P. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was comparatively high in both the groups; the diabetic group showed 85 % increase. In control group the HK, PFK and ALD activities showed strong positive correlation with blood sugar level while PGI activity did not show any correlation. In the diabetic group only PFK activity showed positive correlation. The LDH activity only in the control group showed positive correlation with marginal increase with increasing concentrations of glucose. PMID:27382204

  3. Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Inverted Type II Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chaoxing; Hughes, Taylor L.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically non-trivial state of quantum matter which preserves time-reversal symmetry; it has an energy gap in the bulk, but topologically robust gapless states at the edge. Recently, this novel effect has been predicted and observed in HgTe quantum wells. In this work we predict a similar effect arising in Type-II semiconductor quantum wells made from InAs/GaSb/AlSb. Because of a rare band alignment the quantum well band structure exhibits an 'inverted' phase similar to CdTe/HgTe quantum wells, which is a QSH state when the Fermi level lies inside the gap. Due to the asymmetric structure of this quantum well, the effects of inversion symmetry breaking and inter-layer charge transfer are essential. By standard self-consistent calculations, we show that the QSH state persists when these corrections are included, and a quantum phase transition between the normal insulator and the QSH phase can be electrically tuned by the gate voltage.

  4. Cinnamomin: a multifunctional type II ribosome-inactivating protein.

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Jun; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2003-07-01

    Plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a group of toxic proteins that can irreversibly inactivate ribosomes by specifically removing the conserved adenine base from the "Sarcin/Ricin domain" of the 28S RNA in ribosome. Cinnamomin is a novel type II RIP isolated in our laboratory from the mature seeds of camphor tree. Besides site-specific deadenylation of the A4324 in the Sarcin/Ricin domain of rat ribosome, this protein could also release the adenine base from DNA molecules at multiple sites and from AMP, ADP, dAMP and adenosine. Furthermore, cinnamomin displays cytotoxicity to carcinoma cells and insect larvae by modifying their ribosomal RNA. These functions possessed by cinnamomin shed a new light on the possible application of cinnamomin in the field of immunotoxin design and transgenic reagents. In this review, we introduce the major recent results on cinnamomin obtained in our laboratory, including purification of this protein, characterization of its enzymatic mechanism, structure and function, gene pattern, physiological role and its biological implications in cytotoxicity. PMID:12672471

  5. General critical states in type-II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badía-Majós, A.; López, C.; Ruiz, H. S.

    2009-10-01

    The magnetic flux dynamics of type-II superconductors within the critical state regime is posed in a generalized framework by using a variational theory supported by well-established physical principles. The equivalence between the variational statement and more conventional treatments based on the solution of the differential Maxwell equations together with appropriate conductivity laws is shown. Advantages of the variational method are emphasized, focusing on its numerical performance that allows us to explore a number of physical scenarios. In particular, we present the extension of the so-called double critical state model to three-dimensional (3D) configurations in which only flux transport ( T states), cutting ( C states), or both mechanisms ( CT states) occur. The theory is applied to several problems. First, we show the features of the transition from T to CT states. Second, we give a generalized expression for the flux cutting threshold in 3D and show its relevance in the slab geometry. In addition, several models that allow us to treat flux depinning and cutting mechanisms are compared. Finally, the longitudinal transport problem (current is applied parallel to the external magnetic field) is analyzed both under T and CT conditions. The complex interaction between shielding and transport is solved.

  6. Type II Radio Bursts as an Indicator of CME Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, C. A.; St Cyr, O. C.; Henning, C.; Xie, H.; Gilbert, H. R.; Orlove, M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Odstrcil, D.

    2011-12-01

    We examined a subset of nine low-frequency radio events with type II radio bursts that drifted below 2 megahertz and were detected by the WAVES investigation on the WIND spacecraft. For each event, we identified the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) and derived the electron density using a model of solar wind plasma frequency (fp ≈ 9 * ne1/2, where fp is plasma frequency in kHz and ne is electron density in cm-3) . We also used the pb_inverter program in SolarSoft developed by Howard and Hayes to examine the electron density structure. Expanding on the Van De Hulst process of inverting polarized brightness measurements, the program inverts total brightness measurements from SOHO LASCO images to extract electron density information. From the electron density inferred from radio spectra, we derived the location of the CME using five standard electron density to height models (Leblanc, 1996; Saito, 1977; Bougeret, 1984; Alvarez, 1973; and Fainberg, 1971). Using images from the LASCO instrument on SOHO and the SECCHI instrument on STEREO, we extracted locations of the leading edge of the CME and compared the heights and velocities to those found using the frequency data. For the lowest frequency events, we also compared our results to the outputs of ENLIL, a time-dependent, three-dimensional, MHD model of the heliosphere hosted by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. Inert dark matter in type-II seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan-Hung; Nomura, Takaaki

    2014-09-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) as a dark matter (DM) candidate is further inspired by recent AMS-02 data, which confirm the excess of positron fraction observed earlier by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments. Additionally, the excess of positron+electron flux is still significant in the measurement of Fermi-LAT. For solving the problems of massive neutrinos and observed excess of cosmic-ray, we study the model with an inert Higgs doublet (IHD) in the framework of type-II seesaw model by imposing a Z 2 symmetry on the IHD, where the lightest particle of IHD is the DM candidate and the neutrino masses originate from the Yukawa couplings of Higgs triplet and leptons. We calculate the cosmic-ray production in our model by using three kinds of neutrino mass spectra, which are classified by normal ordering, inverted ordering and quasi-degeneracy. We find that when the constraints of DM relic density and comic-ray antiproton spectrum are taken into account, the observed excess of positron/electron flux could be explained well in normal ordered neutrino mass spectrum. Moreover, excess of comic-ray neutrinos is implied in our model. We find that our results on < σv> are satisfied with and close to the upper limit of IceCube analysis. More data from comic-ray neutrinos could test our model.

  8. Current developments for type-II superlattice imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz, Frank; Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Kirste, Lutz; Masur, Michael; Wörl, Andreas; Schmitz, Johannes; Wauro, Matthias; Niemasz, Jasmin; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2011-06-01

    InAs/GaSb-based type-II superlattice photodiodes have considerably gained interest as high-performance infrared detectors. Beside the excellent properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices, like the relatively high effective electron mass suppressing tunneling currents, the low Auger recombination rate, and a high quantum efficiency, the bandgap can be widely adjusted within the infrared spectral range from 3 - 30 μm depending on the layer thickness rather than on composition. Superlattice growth and process technology have shown tremendous progress during the last years. Fully integrated superlattice cameras have been demonstrated by several groups worldwide. Within very few years, the InAs/GaSb superlattice technology has proven its suitability for high-performance infrared imaging detector arrays. At Fraunhofer IAF and AIM, the efforts have been focused on developing a mature fabrication technology for bispectral InAs/GaSb superlattice focal plane arrays for a simultaneous, co-located detection at 3-4 μm and 4-5 μm in the mid-wavelength infrared atmospheric transmission window. A very low number of pixel outages and cluster defects is mandatory for dual-color detector arrays. Sources for pixel outages are manifold and might be caused by dislocations in the substrate, the epitaxial growth process or by imperfections during the focal plane array fabrication process. Process refinements, intense root cause analysis and specific test methodologies employed at various stages during the process have proven to be the key for yield enhancements.

  9. Inhibition of chlorine-induced lung injury by the type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Weiyuan; Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F.; Rando, Roy J.; Pathak, Yashwant V.; Hoyle, Gary W.

    2012-09-01

    Chlorine is a highly toxic respiratory irritant that when inhaled causes epithelial cell injury, alveolar-capillary barrier disruption, airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, and pulmonary edema. Chlorine is considered a chemical threat agent, and its release through accidental or intentional means has the potential to result in mass casualties from acute lung injury. The type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram was investigated as a rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury. Rolipram inhibits degradation of the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic AMP. Potential beneficial effects of increased cyclic AMP levels include inhibition of pulmonary edema, inflammation, and airway hyperreactivity. Mice were exposed to chlorine (whole body exposure, 228–270 ppm for 1 h) and were treated with rolipram by intraperitoneal, intranasal, or intramuscular (either aqueous or nanoemulsion formulation) delivery starting 1 h after exposure. Rolipram administered intraperitoneally or intranasally inhibited chlorine-induced pulmonary edema. Minor or no effects were observed on lavage fluid IgM (indicative of plasma protein leakage), KC (Cxcl1, neutrophil chemoattractant), and neutrophils. All routes of administration inhibited chlorine-induced airway hyperreactivity assessed 1 day after exposure. The results of the study suggest that rolipram may be an effective rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury and that both systemic and targeted administration to the respiratory tract were effective routes of delivery. -- Highlights: ► Chlorine causes lung injury when inhaled and is considered a chemical threat agent. ► Rolipram inhibited chlorine-induced pulmonary edema and airway hyperreactivity. ► Post-exposure rolipram treatments by both systemic and local delivery were effective. ► Rolipram shows promise as a rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury.

  10. Development of pulmonary bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas in transgenic mice overexpressing murine c- myc and epidermal growth factor in alveolar type II pneumocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, A; Bartels, T; Geick, A; Klocke, R; Paul, D; Halter, R

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models were established to study tumorigenesis of bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas derived from alveolar type II pneumocytes (AT-II cells). Transgenic lines expressing the murine oncogene c- myc under the control of the lung-specific surfactant protein C promoter developed multifocal bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasias, adenomas and carcinomas respectively, whereas transgenic lines expressing a secretable form of the epidermal growth factor (IgEGF), a structural and functional homologue of transforming growth factor α (TGFα), developed hyperplasias of the alveolar epithelium. Since the oncogenes c- myc and TGFα are frequently overexpressed in human lung bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas, these mouse lines are useful as models for human lung bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas. The average life expectancies of hemizygous and homozygous c- myc transgenics were 14.25 months and 9.2 months, respectively, suggesting that a dosage effect of c- myc caused an accelerated bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinoma formation. First analyses of double transgenics, hemizygous for both c- myc and IgEGF, show that these mice develop bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas at the average age of 9 months, indicating that these oncogenes cooperate during the lung cancer formation. Our results demonstrate that c- myc and EGF are directly involved and cooperate with one another during formation of bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas in the lung. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11259097

  11. Impact of backpack type on respiratory muscle strength and lung function in children.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Christina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We examine the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children. Thirty-seven children were assessed for lung function and inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength under four randomly determined conditions: unloaded erect standing and three conditions carrying 15% of the child's body weight. In these three conditions, children carried the weight on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over both shoulders, on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over one shoulder and on a backpack with a mono shoulder strap. Significantly lower forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and maximal expiratory pressure were observed when children carried a backpack with a mono shoulder strap compared to the unloaded standing position. In conclusion, the restrictive effect and the decrease in expiratory muscle strength were more pronounced for the backpack with a mono shoulder strap, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. Practitioner summary: There is little known about the effect of schoolbags on respiratory muscle function. We investigated the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength. A backpack with a mono shoulder strap created a restrictive effect and a decrease in strength, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. PMID:25584722

  12. Lung carcinoma: survey of 2286 cases with emphasis on small cell type.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, J D; Ewing, H P; Neely, W A; Stauss, H K; Vance, R B

    1981-01-01

    Lung carcinoma is the commonest major malignancy in men in the United States and its incidence is increasing rapidly in women. It is estimated that there will have been 117,000 new cases and 101,300 deaths in 1980. The 2286 patients with lung carcinoma admitted to the Hospital of the University of Mississippi from 1955 to 1980 were reviewed by decades of chronology and of life, with respect to age, cell type, sex and racial incidence. The greatest age incidence was in the sixth and seventh decades; cell types overall were epidermoid (45% of the patients), adenocarcinoma (12% of the patients), small (oat) cell (21% of the patients), and others (22% of the patients). There was a steady increase in the incidence of disease in females, adjusted for total hospital admissions, and a less certain increase among black patients. Twenty-eight per cent of 250 patients with small cell carcinoma so studied exhibited some feature of the paraneoplastic or paraendocrine syndromes. In 41 patients with small cell carcinoma treated with multiple drug chemotherapy, there was an overall response rate of 50% and an additional "stable disease" rate of 28%. Mean survival period in this group was 52 weeks, compared with 12 weeks in patients whose diseases went untreated. Clearly, definite progress is being made, not only in our knowledge of the biology of lung carcinoma, in general, but in the treatment of small cell carcinoma in particular. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6263195

  13. Toxic effects of cadmium on the developing rat lung. II. Glycogen and phospholipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Daston, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    Maternal exposure to Cd reduces lung weight and alters pulmonary surfactant accumulation in the fetus. This may lead to respiratory distress and death postnatally. In this study, the effects of maternal Cd administration on additional biochemical parameters of the fetal lung were investigated. Pregnant rats were given sc injections of 8 mg/kg CdCl/sub 2/ on d 12-15 of gestation and sacrificed throughout late gestation. Fetal lungs were examined for protein, DNA, and glycogen. Incorporation of choline into total and disaturated phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin were measured in fetal lung slices. The DNA content of the treated lungs was reduced, but the protein/DNA ratio was not altered. Thus the reduced lung weight was due to hypoplasia, not hypotrophy. Incorporation of choline into pulmonary sphingomyelin was not altered by the treatment. Choline incorporation into both total and disaturated phosphatidylcholine, the most important surfactant component, was reduced on the final days of gestation. Glycogen was reduced in both absolute quantity and cellular concentration in lungs of treated fetuses. Glucose derived from glycogen is a major metabolic substrate in the fetal lung and probably contributes greatly to phospholipid synthesis. The reduction in glucose concentration in lungs of treated fetuses may be a factor in the diminished synthesis of pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylcholine before birth. Prenatal Cd exposure causes pulmonary hypoplasia; reduces the amount of glycogen present in the fetal lung; and diminishes the rate of synthesis of pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylcholine.

  14. B-type Natriuretic Peptide Assay in Differentiating Congestive Heart Failure from Lung Disease in Patients Presenting with Dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Bari, M S; Islam, M N; Bari, M A; Siddique, S R; Islam, M Z; Begum, M S; Ahammed, S U; Rahman, M A

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in Cardiology & Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. After fulfilling the exclusion & inclusion criteria, B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were measured in a convenience sample of 100 predominantly male (94%) dyspnic patients who got admitted in Cardiology & Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital from November 2013 to October 2014. The diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) was based on generally accepted Framingham criteria with corroborative information including hospital course (response to diuretics, vasodilators, inotropes or hemodynamic monitoring) and results of further cardiac testing, including echocardiography. Patients with right heart failure from cor pulmonale were classified as having CHF. Pulmonary disease was confirmed by using the following diagnostic tools: i) A chest X-ray without signs of heart enlargement or pulmonary venous hypertension or a chest X-ray with signs of chronic obstructive lung disease, ii) Normal heart function as seen by echocardiography, iii) Abnormal pulmonary function tests or follow-up results and iv) A positive response to treatment with steroids, nebulizers or antibiotics in hospital. Patients with CHF (n=50) had mean BNP level 1146.72pg/ml (range 103 to 5000pg/ml), which is significantly higher than the group of patients with a final diagnosis of pulmonary disease (n=50) whose BNP was 34pg/ml (range 10 to 90pg/ml) (p<0.05). In conclusion, it was found that B-type natriuretic peptide is an important biomarker for differentiating congestive heart failure from lung disease in patients presenting with dyspnea. PMID:27612893

  15. Histological type of lung carcinoma in asbestos cement workers and matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, L; Albin, M; Jakobsson, K; Mikoczy, Z

    1992-01-01

    Histological types of lung carcinoma were examined in a case series of workers exposed to asbestos cement dust (n = 29) and matched controls (n = 87). The proportion of adenocarcinomas was 31% among the exposed subjects and 15% among the controls (mid-p = 0.05). Among workers with high exposure the proportion of adenocarcinoma was even higher (45%, 5/11; mid-p = 0.03). The proportion of peripheral tumours tended to be higher among exposed cases than controls (24 v 12%, mid-p = 0.12). Lobe of origin did not differ, however, between exposed cases and controls. Thus the study indicates an association between the degree of exposure to asbestos and adenocarcinoma of the lung, and a peripheral rather than central localisation of the tumours, but with virtually the same distribution of lobe of origin as in the general population. PMID:1390268

  16. Histological type of lung carcinoma in asbestos cement workers and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L; Albin, M; Jakobsson, K; Mikoczy, Z

    1992-09-01

    Histological types of lung carcinoma were examined in a case series of workers exposed to asbestos cement dust (n = 29) and matched controls (n = 87). The proportion of adenocarcinomas was 31% among the exposed subjects and 15% among the controls (mid-p = 0.05). Among workers with high exposure the proportion of adenocarcinoma was even higher (45%, 5/11; mid-p = 0.03). The proportion of peripheral tumours tended to be higher among exposed cases than controls (24 v 12%, mid-p = 0.12). Lobe of origin did not differ, however, between exposed cases and controls. Thus the study indicates an association between the degree of exposure to asbestos and adenocarcinoma of the lung, and a peripheral rather than central localisation of the tumours, but with virtually the same distribution of lobe of origin as in the general population. PMID:1390268

  17. Higgs potential in the type II seesaw model

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, A.; Benbrik, R.; Chabab, M.; Rahili, L.; Ramadan, J.; Moultaka, G.; Peyranere, M. C.

    2011-11-01

    The standard model Higgs sector, extended by one weak gauge triplet of scalar fields with a very small vacuum expectation value, is a very promising setting to account for neutrino masses through the so-called type II seesaw mechanism. In this paper we consider the general renormalizable doublet/triplet Higgs potential of this model. We perform a detailed study of its main dynamical features that depend on five dimensionless couplings and two mass parameters after spontaneous symmetry breaking, and highlight the implications for the Higgs phenomenology. In particular, we determine (i) the complete set of tree-level unitarity constraints on the couplings of the potential and (ii) the exact tree-level boundedness from below constraints on these couplings, valid for all directions. When combined, these constraints delineate precisely the theoretically allowed parameter space domain within our perturbative approximation. Among the seven physical Higgs states of this model, the mass of the lighter (heavier) CP{sub even} state h{sup 0} (H{sup 0}) will always satisfy a theoretical upper (lower) bound that is reached for a critical value {mu}{sub c} of {mu} (the mass parameter controlling triple couplings among the doublet/triplet Higgses). Saturating the unitarity bounds, we find an upper bound m{sub h}{sup 0} or approx. {mu}{sub c} and {mu} < or approx. {mu}{sub c}. In the first regime the Higgs sector is typically very heavy, and only h{sup 0} that becomes SM-like could be accessible to the LHC. In contrast, in the second regime, somewhat overlooked in the literature, most of the Higgs sector is light. In particular, the heaviest state H{sup 0} becomes SM-like, the lighter states being the CP{sub odd} Higgs, the (doubly) charged Higgses, and a decoupled h{sup 0}, possibly

  18. Higgs potential in the type II seesaw model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhrib, A.; Benbrik, R.; Chabab, M.; Moultaka, G.; Peyranère, M. C.; Rahili, L.; Ramadan, J.

    2011-11-01

    The standard model Higgs sector, extended by one weak gauge triplet of scalar fields with a very small vacuum expectation value, is a very promising setting to account for neutrino masses through the so-called type II seesaw mechanism. In this paper we consider the general renormalizable doublet/triplet Higgs potential of this model. We perform a detailed study of its main dynamical features that depend on five dimensionless couplings and two mass parameters after spontaneous symmetry breaking, and highlight the implications for the Higgs phenomenology. In particular, we determine (i) the complete set of tree-level unitarity constraints on the couplings of the potential and (ii) the exact tree-level boundedness from below constraints on these couplings, valid for all directions. When combined, these constraints delineate precisely the theoretically allowed parameter space domain within our perturbative approximation. Among the seven physical Higgs states of this model, the mass of the lighter (heavier) CPeven state h0 (H0) will always satisfy a theoretical upper (lower) bound that is reached for a critical value μc of μ (the mass parameter controlling triple couplings among the doublet/triplet Higgses). Saturating the unitarity bounds, we find an upper bound mh0

  19. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies in childhood kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, Anna; Tangeraas, Trine; Heidecke, Harald; Dragun, Duska; Dechend, Ralf; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (AT1 RAb) have emerged as non-HLA Ab present in patients with acute AMR and risk of graft loss. Furthermore, AT1 RAb have been shown to increase angiotensin II sensitivity which may play a role in the development of CVD and hypertension. Data on AT1 RAb in stable transplant recipients are lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of AT1 RAb in a cohort of stable patients after kidney transplantation (tx) in childhood. A cross-sectional study of 30 children (median age 14, range 3-19 yr, median time since tx five yr) and 28 adults who were transplanted in childhood (median age 26, range 20-40 yr, median time since tx 18 yr) transplanted between 1993-2006 and 1983-2002, respectively, was performed. Healthy controls were 51 healthy children (5-8 yr) and 199 healthy donors (median age 56.5 yr, range 42-83 yr). Plasma AT1 RAb were analyzed by immunoassay. Median total AT1 RAb IgG concentration was significantly higher in the pediatric-tx group as compared to the adult-tx group (40.0 and 10.95 U/mL, p < 0.0001). For both groups, the tx group showed higher levels: the pediatric-tx group vs. control group (40.0 vs. 13.3 U/mL, p = 0.0006) and the adult-tx group vs. adult control group (10.95 vs. 6.5 U/mL, p < 0.0001). Age was the strongest indicator of high levels of AT1 RAb IgG (p = 0.0003). AT1 RAb total IgG levels are significantly higher in a stable pediatric-tx cohort as compared to adult-tx patients and healthy controls of comparable age groups. The relevance of our findings in relation to age, time since tx, previous or future rejection, and CVD risk merits future studies. PMID:27251358

  20. Prevalence and temporal pattern of hospital readmissions for patients with type I and type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yuanjun; Li, Changping; Cui, Zhuang; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Repeated hospitalisation for patients is common and costly, yet partly preventable. However, we know little about readmissions for patients with diabetes in China. The current study aims to assess the frequency and temporal pattern of and risk factors for all-cause readmission among hospitalised patients with diabetes in Tianjin, China. Method This retrospective, cohort analysis used the Tianjin Basic Medical Insurance Register System data of 2011. The patterns of and the reasons for all-cause readmissions for patients with diabetes were described. The differences of readmission-free survival (RFS) between newly and previously diagnosed patients were compared. Time-dependent Cox models were established to identify the risk factors for readmission at different time intervals after discharge. Results Readmission rates were approximately 30%, with the most common diagnoses of cerebral infarction (for type I) or diabetes (for type II) for patients with diabetes. The majority of patients were readmitted to the hospital after more than 90 days, followed by 8–30 days (all p=0.002). Approximately 37.2% and 42.8% of readmitted patients with type I and type II diabetes were diagnosed previously, and the RFS rates for previously diagnosed patients were significantly lower than for newly diagnosed patients at any time interval after discharge. Prior history of diabetes (all p<0.05), length of stay (all p<0.01) and reimbursement ratio (90% vs >92%, all p<0.0002) were consistently associated with the RFS for patients readmitted to the hospital at <7, 8–30, 31–60 and 61–90 days. Conclusions Hospital readmissions among patients with diabetes were affected by the diagnosis status. Patient characteristics and the quality of healthcare might regulate short-interval and long-interval hospital readmission, respectively, after discharge. PMID:26525716

  1. Decreased expression of the type I isozyme of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in tumor cell lines of lung epithelial origin.

    PubMed

    Lange-Carter, C A; Fossli, T; Jahnsen, T; Malkinson, A M

    1990-05-15

    A spontaneous transformant derived from a mouse lung epithelial cell line exhibited decreased cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. DEAE column chromatography demonstrated that this was caused by specific loss of the type I PKA isozyme (PKA I). Western immunoblot analysis indicated that indeed several mouse lung tumor-derived cell lines and spontaneous transformants of immortalized, nontumorigenic lung cell lines contained less PKA I regulatory subunit (RI) protein than normal cell lines. PKA II regulatory subunit protein differed only slightly among cell lines and showed no conspicuous trend between normal and neoplastic cells. The decrease in RI was apparently concomitant with decreased catalytic (C) subunit levels in neoplastic cells since no free catalytic subunit activity was detected by DEAE chromatography. Northern blot analysis using RI alpha and C alpha cDNA probes showed that the levels of RI alpha and C alpha mRNAs paralleled their intracellular protein concentrations; neoplastic cell lines contained significantly less RI alpha and C alpha mRNAs than the normal cell line. The decreased expression of both RI and C subunits therefore results in a net decrease of PKA I in neoplastic lung cells, an isozymic difference which may account for the differential effects of cAMP analogs on cell growth and differentiation in normal and neoplastic cells. PMID:2159459

  2. Matrix composition of cartilaginous anlagen in achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino).

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Susanne; Söeder, Stephan; Bösch, Hubert; Aigner, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias represent in vivo models of genetic defects. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), caused by a genetic defect in the major cartilage matrix protein, collagen type II, is a rare and severe skeletal dysplasia. It comprises a severe derangement of the fetal growth plate cartilage with subsequent ossification defects. In this study, we analyzed the matrix composition and cell differentiation pattern in 3 relatives with achondrogenesis type II. Most strikingly we found a strongly reduced collagen type II and moderately reduced aggrecan proteoglycan content in the dysplastic cartilage matrix. Type II collagen is, at least to some extent, replaced by collagens type I III, and VI. Ultrastructural analysis of the dysplastic cartilage matrix demonstrated a distended rER (rough endoplasmic reticulum), which is typical for this condition and most likely related to improper processing and retention of genetically altered type II collagen. Immunostaining for type IIA and X collagens suggest a severe delay in chondrocyte maturation. Thus, the genetic defect in the present cases leads most likely to a severe retention of collagen type II in the rER and, therefore, a strongly reduced collagen deposition and replacement by other interstitial collagens. However, the latter are less efficient in binding aggrecan proteoglycans in the dysplastic cartilage matrix. Additionally, a delay in chondrocyte maturation appears to be important in achondrogenesis type II. PMID:15574381

  3. Radiation injury in rat lung: II. Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Solliday, N.H.; Molteni, A.; Port, C.D.

    1983-11-01

    To determine the role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced pulmonary injury, lung angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, arterial perfusion, and ultrastructure were examined from 1 to 150 days after a single exposure of 25 Gy of /sup 60/Co gamma rays to the right hemithorax of rats. Arterial perfusion to the irradiated right lung increased during the first 2 weeks, then decreased to approximately 80% of the left lung value at 30 days postirradiation. Perfusion of the irradiated lung continued to decline, and by 90 to 150 days was only 40% of that of the shielded lung. ACE activity in the irradiated right lung did not change significantly until 30 days after exposure, when it decreased to 72% of that in the left lung. ACE activity in the right lung declined steadily from 30 to 90 days postirradiation, then reached a plateau through 150 days at less than 20% of normal. Perivascular and interstitial edema was evident at 1 day after irradiation and persisted for 30 days. Endothelial cells exhibited blebbing, fragmentation, and increased basement membrane at 30 days. Mast cells were present in the septa, but interstitial collagen was not increased at that time. From 90 to 150 days postexposure, progressive obliteration of capillaries by fibrotic reactions was observed. Thus decreased ACE activity accompanies radiation-induced hypoperfusion and endothelial ultrastructural changes in rat lung. All of these reactions precede the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. Novel Type II Fatty Acid Biosynthesis (FAS II) Inhibitors as Multistage Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Florian C.; Glinca, Serghei; Sattler, Julia M.; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Afanador, Gustavo A.; Prigge, Sean T.; Lanzer, Michael; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Klebe, Gerhard; Schlitzer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a potentially fatal disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and poses a major medical risk in large parts of the world. The development of new, affordable antimalarial drugs is of vital importance as there are increasing reports of resistance to the currently available therapeutics. In addition, most of the current drugs used for chemoprophylaxis merely act on parasites already replicating in the blood. At this point, a patient might already be suffering from the symptoms associated with the disease and could additionally be infectious to an Anopheles mosquito. These insects act as a vector, subsequently spreading the disease to other humans. In order to cure not only malaria but prevent transmission as well, a drug must target both the blood- and pre-erythrocytic liver stages of the parasite. P. falciparum (Pf) enoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) is a key enzyme of plasmodial type II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS II). It has been shown to be essential for liver-stage development of Plasmodium berghei and is therefore qualified as a target for true causal chemoprophylaxis. Using virtual screening based on two crystal structures of PfENR, we identified a structurally novel class of FAS inhibitors. Subsequent chemical optimization yielded two compounds that are effective against multiple stages of the malaria parasite. These two most promising derivatives were found to inhibit blood-stage parasite growth with IC50 values of 1.7 and 3.0 µm and lead to a more prominent developmental attenuation of liver-stage parasites than the gold-standard drug, primaquine. PMID:23341167

  5. Investigation of resistive losses in type II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benapfl, Brendan W.

    For low-TC materials, the superconducting transition temperature (TC) is depressed by the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, one of the remarkable features of cuprate high-TC materials is that the superconducting transition is broadened by the application of a magnetic field. Tinkham presented a model for the field-dependent resistive transition of high-T C materials, arising from "phase slippage at a complicated network of channels." Coffey & Clem did not include this field-broadening effect in their sophisticated model for the field and temperature dependence of the surface resistance in type-II superconductors. From the model by Lee & Stroud, treating Josephson Junction-coupled superconducting segments, it is concluded that doped, layered superconductors are certain to have a field-broadened superconducting transition. This effect can be identified by measurements of the resistivity as a function of temperature, magnetic field strength, angle of field with respect to the crystal axis as well as with respect to an induced current density. The iron pnictide materials such as Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (BaK122) have chemical layers with different compositions, differentiating them from elemental type-II superconductors such as niobium, and also from cuprates, by the absence of copper. Experimental data on BaK122 indicate a field-broadened transition in conjunction with a field-depressed superconducting transition temperature. In this work, techniques associated with Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were used to measure the temperature and field-induced changes in the surface resistance of single-crystal BaK122 samples. In addition, polycrystalline foils of niobium and a NbTi (70/30) alloy were measured using the same techniques to provide comparison. Measurements were taken as a function of applied magnetic field, temperature, rf field intensity, and angle of the applied field with respect to the rf-induced current. BaK122 sample field-dependent surface

  6. Isolation and characterization of simian T-cell leukemia virus type II from New World monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y M; Jang, Y J; Kanki, P J; Yu, Q C; Wang, J J; Montali, R J; Samuel, K P; Papas, T S

    1994-01-01

    Since the description of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and its simian counterpart, simian T-cell leukemia virus type I (STLV-I), the possible existence of other related simian retroviruses has been raised. Here, we report a new retrovirus, STLV-II, which we have identified in spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps), a New World primate species. Initially, a recombinant HTLV-II envelope protein (RP-IIB) was used to identify anti-STLV-II antibodies in New World monkeys by Western blot (immunoblot) assays. Subsequently, the virus was characterized by Southern blot hybridization, which showed that STLV-II and HTLV-II have a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology but have different restriction enzyme patterns. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the pX-II region of STLV-II provirus revealed 3% variation with the corresponding region of HTLV-II. Electron micrographic studies revealed HTLV-like, type C retrovirus particles outside the cell membranes of STLV-II-infected cells. This study describes the first link between HTLV-II and a simian reservoir in the New World. Further molecular studies of STLV-II infection in different species of New World monkeys, especially from the wild, may provide valuable information about the origin and intragroup relationships of South American monkeys. Spider monkeys infected with STLV-II may serve as an important animal model for HTLV-II infection in humans. Images PMID:7507178

  7. ANALYTIC APPROXIMATION OF CARBON CONDENSATION ISSUES IN TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Donald D.

    2013-01-01

    I present analytic approximations for some issues related to condensation of graphite, TiC, and silicon carbide in oxygen-rich cores of supernovae of Type II. Increased understanding, which mathematical analysis can support, renders researchers more receptive to condensation in O-rich supernova gases. Taking SN 1987A as typical, my first analysis shows why the abundance of CO molecules reaches an early maximum in which free carbon remains more abundant than CO. This analysis clarifies why O-rich gas cannot oxidize C if {sup 56}Co radioactivity is as strong as in SN 1987A. My next analysis shows that the CO abundance could be regarded as being in chemical equilibrium if the CO molecule is given an effective binding energy rather than its laboratory dissociation energy. The effective binding energy makes the thermal dissociation rate of CO equal to its radioactive dissociation rate. This preserves possible relevance for the concept of chemical equilibrium. My next analysis shows that the observed abundances of CO and SiO molecules in SN 1987A rule out frequent suggestions that equilibrium condensation of SUNOCONs has occurred following atomic mixing of the He-burning shell with more central zones in such a way as to reproduce roughly the observed spectrum of isotopes in SUNOCONs while preserving C/O > 1. He atoms admixed along with the excess carbon would destroy CO and SiO molecules, leaving their observed abundances unexplained. The final analysis argues that a chemical quasiequilibrium among grains (but not gas) may exist approximately during condensation, so that its computational use is partially justified as a guide to which mineral phases would be stable against reactions with gas. I illustrate this point with quasiequilibrium calculations by Ebel and Grossman that have shown that graphite is stable even when O/C >1 if prominent molecules are justifiably excluded from the calculation of chemical equilibrium.

  8. Screening of three Usher syndrome type II candidate genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemker, B.K.; Swaroop, A.; Kimberling, W.J.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome type II (US2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa and congenital hearing loss. The disease affects approximately 1 in 20,000 individuals in the general population and is responsible for over 50% of all cases of deafness with blindness. The underlying US2 defect is unknown. The US2 gene has been localized to the 1q41 region of chromosome 1 by linkage studies. Three genes previously localized to 1q were analyzed to assess their candidacy as the US2 gene. These were evaluated by PCR assays using DNA from a YAC contig spanning the US2 region on chromosome 1. The first gene evaluated was the human choroideremia-like gene (hCHML), which had been mapped to chromosome 1q. The sequence on 1q is a homologue of the human choroideremia gene on chromosome X. Choroideremia is a degenerative disorder causing ocular pathology similar to that observed in US2 patients. Therefore, hCHML is a candidate for the US2 gene. Two cDNAs (A and B) from an enriched human retinal pigment epithelium library have been mapped to 1q41 by in situ hybridization. Both cDNAs are considered good candidates. The hCHML and cDNA A were ruled out as candidates for the US2 gene based on negative results from PCR assays performed on YACs spanning the US2 region. cDNA B could not be ruled out as a candidate for the US2 gene by these assays. Answers to many clinical questions regarding US2 will only be resolved after the gene is identified and characterized. Eventually, understanding the function and expression of the US2 gene will provide a basis for the development of therapy.

  9. Non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, W

    1991-01-01

    Non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia with resistance to ketosis. The onset is usually after age 40 years. Patients are variably symptomatic and frequently obese, hyperlipidemic and hypertensive. Clinical, pathological and biochemical evidence suggests that the disease is caused by a combined defect of insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Goals in the treatment of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension should be appropriate to the patient's age, the status of diabetic complications and the safety of the regimen. Nonpharmacologic management includes meal planning to achieve a suitable weight, such that carbohydrates supply 50% to 60% of the daily energy intake, with limitation of saturated fats, cholesterol and salt when indicated, and physical activity appropriate to the patient's age and cardiovascular status. Follow-up should include regular visits with the physician, access to diabetes education, self-monitoring of the blood or urine glucose level and laboratory-based measurement of the plasma levels of glucose and glycated hemoglobin. If unacceptably high plasma glucose levels (e.g., 8 mmol/L or more before meals) persist the use of orally given hypoglycemic agents (a sulfonylurea agent or metformin or both) is indicated. Temporary insulin therapy may be needed during intercurrent illness, surgery or pregnancy. Long-term insulin therapy is recommended in patients with continuing symptoms or hyperglycemia despite treatment with diet modification and orally given hypoglycemic agents. The risk of pancreatitis may be reduced by treating severe hypertriglyceridemia (fasting serum level greater than 10 mmol/L) and atherosclerotic disease through dietary and, if necessary, pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia. Antihypertensive agents are available that have fewer adverse metabolic effects than thiazides and beta-adrenergic receptor blockers. New drugs are being developed that

  10. The Three-Dimensional Structural Basis of Type II Hyperprolinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Dhiraj; Singh, Ranjan K.; Moxley, Michael A.; Henzl, Michael T.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2012-08-31

    Type II hyperprolinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in {Delta}{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH; also known as ALDH4A1), the aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glutamate semialdehyde to glutamate. Here, we report the first structure of human P5CDH (HsP5CDH) and investigate the impact of the hyperprolinemia-associated mutation of Ser352 to Leu on the structure and catalytic properties of the enzyme. The 2. 5-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of HsP5CDH was determined using experimental phasing. Structures of the mutant enzymes S352A (2.4 {angstrom}) and S352L (2.85 {angstrom}) were determined to elucidate the structural consequences of altering Ser352. Structures of the 93% identical mouse P5CDH complexed with sulfate ion (1.3 {angstrom} resolution), glutamate (1.5 {angstrom}), and NAD{sup +} (1.5 {angstrom}) were determined to obtain high-resolution views of the active site. Together, the structures show that Ser352 occupies a hydrophilic pocket and is connected via water-mediated hydrogen bonds to catalytic Cys348. Mutation of Ser352 to Leu is shown to abolish catalytic activity and eliminate NAD{sup +} binding. Analysis of the S352A mutant shows that these functional defects are caused by the introduction of the nonpolar Leu352 side chain rather than the removal of the Ser352 hydroxyl. The S352L structure shows that the mutation induces a dramatic 8-{angstrom} rearrangement of the catalytic loop. Because of this conformational change, Ser349 is not positioned to interact with the aldehyde substrate, conserved Glu447 is no longer poised to bind NAD{sup +}, and Cys348 faces the wrong direction for nucleophilic attack. These structural alterations render the enzyme inactive.

  11. OPTICAL AND INFRARED ANALYSIS OF TYPE II SN 2006bc

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Joseph S.; Sugerman, B. E. K.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E.; Clem, J. E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu; and others

    2012-07-10

    We present nebular phase optical imaging and spectroscopy and near/mid-IR imaging of the Type II SN 2006bc. Observations reveal the central wavelength of the symmetric H{alpha} line profile to be redshifted with respect to the host galaxy H{alpha} emission by day 325. Such a phenomenon has been argued to result from an asymmetric explosion in the iron-peak elements resulting in a larger mass of {sup 56}Ni and higher excitation of hydrogen on the far side of the supernova (SN) explosion. We also observe a gradual blueshifting of this H{alpha} peak which is indicative of dust formation in the ejecta. Although showing a normal peak brightness, V {approx} -17.2, for a core-collapse SN, 2006bc fades by {approx}6 mag during the first 400 days suggesting either a relatively low {sup 56}Ni yield, an increase in extinction due to new dust, or both. A short-duration flattening of the light curve is observed from day 416 to day 541 suggesting an optical light echo. Based on the narrow time window of this echo, we discuss implications on the location and geometry of the reflecting interstellar medium. With our radiative transfer models, we find an upper limit of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} of dust around SN 2006bc. In the event that all of this dust were formed during the SN explosion, this quantity of dust is still several orders of magnitude lower than that needed to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the early universe.

  12. Carcinoma of type II pneumocytes: immunodiagnosis of a subtype of "bronchioloalveolar carcinomas".

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.; Torikata, C.

    1981-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from North American (N = 12) and Japanese (N = 11) patients with lung carcinomas were stained by the immunoperoxidase method for surfactant-specific apoprotein. Cytoplasmic and focal nuclear staining was seen in three "bronchioloalveolar carcinomas" occurring in Japanese patients. We refer to these three tumors as carcinomas of Type II pneumocytes. These neoplasms formed discrete masses with minimal growth along the alveolar septa at margins of the tumors. Papillary growth with lymphocytic infiltrates in the stalks of the papillary processes was the usual growth pattern. Focal noncaseating granulomas were seen in the stroma of 2 cases, and similar granulomas in the draining lymph nodes were noted in 1. The abundant cytoplasm was foamy, and the nuclei were generally vacuolated with frequent eosinophilic inclusions in the vacuoles. By electron microscopy, osmiophilic lamellar bodies or whorled lamellas were seen in the cytoplasm of the 3 tumors staining for surfactant apoprotein. The nuclei in 2 of the 3 cases contained tubular inclusions; the tubules had a diameter of 60 nm and a 20-nm core. Images Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 and 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6258440

  13. Temperature factor for magnetic instability conditions of type - II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, V.

    2014-10-01

    The macroscopic development of interrelated electrodynamics and thermal states taking place both before and after instability onset in type-II superconductors are studied using the critical state and the flux creep concepts. The physical mechanisms of the non-isothermal formation of the critical state are discussed solving the set of unsteady thermo-electrodynamics equations taking into consideration the unknown moving penetration boundary of the magnetic flux. To make it, the numerical method, which allows to study diffusion phenomena with unknown moving phase-two boundary, is developed. The corresponding non-isothermal flux jump criteria are written. It is proved for the first time that, first, the diffusion phenomena in superconductors have the fission-chain-reaction nature, second, the stability conditions, losses in superconductor and its stable overheating before instability onset are mutually dependent. The results are compared with those following from the existing magnetic instability theory, which does not take into consideration the stable temperature increase of superconductor before the instability onset. It is shown that errors of isothermal approximation are significant for modes closed to adiabatic ones. Therefore, the well-known adiabatic flux jump criterion limits the range of possible stable superconducting states since a correct determination of their stability states must take into account the thermal prehistory of the stable magnetic flux penetration. As a result, the calculation errors in the isothermal approximation will rise when the sweep rate of an external magnetic field or the size of the superconductor’s cross-sectional area increase. The basic conclusions formulated in the framework of the critical state model are verified comparing the experimental results and the numerical analysis of the stability conditions and the temperature dynamics of the helicoid-type superconducting current-carrying element having real voltage

  14. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Shirasaki, T.; Munakata, M.; Hirata, A.; Akaike, N.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8395299

  15. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY AND THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Holtzman, Jon; Konishi, Kohki; Yasuda, Naoki; Schneider, D. P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Cinabro, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W.; Bassett, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J.; Goobar, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe-0.027 < z < 0.144-cover a range hitherto sparsely sampled in the literature; in particular, our SNe II-P sample contains nearly as many SNe in the Hubble flow (z > 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed.

  16. Differential elastic responses to barrier-altering agonists in two types of human lung endothelium.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, P; Ephstein, Y; Garcia, J G N; Cho, M; Dudek, S M

    2016-09-16

    Vascular integrity is primarily determined by endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeletal structure that is differentially regulated by various stimuli. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize structural and mechanical properties in the cytoskeleton of cultured human pulmonary artery EC (HPAEC) and human lung microvascular EC (HLMVEC) by determining elastic properties (Young's modulus) in response to endogenous barrier protective agents sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), or the barrier disruptive molecule thrombin. Initial studies in unstimulated cells indicate higher baseline peripheral elastic modulus values in HPAEC (mean 2.9 KPa) than in HLMVEC (1.8 KPa). After 30 min of stimulation, S1P induced the highest Young's modulus increase (6.1 KPa) compared to the other barrier enhancing stimuli, HGF (5.8 KPa) and the pharmaceutical agent and S1P analog FTY720 (4.1 KPa). In contrast, the barrier disruptive agent thrombin decreased values from 2.5 KPa to 0.7 KPa depending on the cell type and treatment time. AFM topographical imaging supports these quantitative biophysical data regarding differential peripheral elastic properties in EC. Overall, these AFM studies provide novel insights into the biomechanical properties of human lung EC that regulate vascular barrier function and have potential applicability to pathophysiologic vascular leak syndromes such as acute lung injury. PMID:27473658

  17. Astaxanthin inhibits apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells type II in vivo and in vitro through the ROS-dependent mitochondrial signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaodong; Wang, Bingsi; Lin, Shengcui; Jing, Lili; Mao, Cuiping; Xu, Pan; Lv, Changjun; Liu, Wen; Zuo, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important molecular mechanism underlying lung fibrosis. The mitochondrion is a major organelle for oxidative stress in cells. Therefore, blocking the mitochondrial signalling pathway may be the best therapeutic manoeuver to ameliorate lung fibrosis. Astaxanthin (AST) is an excellent antioxidant, but no study has addressed the pathway of AST against pulmonary oxidative stress and free radicals by the mitochondrion-mediated signalling pathway. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of AST against H2O2- or bleomycin (BLM)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in alveolar epithelial cells type II (AECs-II) in vivo and in vitro. Our data show that AST blocks H2O2- or BLM-induced ROS generation and dose-dependent apoptosis in AECs-II, as characterized by changes in cell and mitochondria morphology, translocation of apoptotic proteins, inhibition of cytochrome c (Cyt c) release, and the activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Nrf-2 and other cytoprotective genes. These data suggest that AST inhibits apoptosis in AECs-II cells through the ROS-dependent mitochondrial signalling pathway and may be of potential therapeutic value in lung fibrosis treatment. PMID:25215580

  18. Estimation of Failure Frequency for Type I and II High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2001-05-15

    The failure frequency of Type I and Type II High Level Waste tanks was calculated. The degradation mechanism that could lead to large break failure and the credits taken for steps taken to prevent large break failure were considered.

  19. Dissection of the interferon gamma-MHC class II signal transduction pathway reveals that type I and type II interferon systems share common signalling component(s).

    PubMed Central

    Loh, J E; Chang, C H; Fodor, W L; Flavell, R A

    1992-01-01

    We have used a herpes virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) based metabolic selection system to isolate mutants defective in the interferon gamma mediated induction of the MHC class II promoter. All the mutations act in trans and result in no detectable induction of MHC and invariant chain (Ii) gene expression. Scatchard analysis indicates that the mutants have a normal number of surface IFN gamma receptors with the same affinity constant. The mutants fall into two broad categories. One class of mutants is still able to induce MHC class I, IRF-1, 9-27, 1-8 and GBP genes by IFN gamma. A second class of mutants is defective for the IFN gamma induction of all the genes tested; surprisingly, the IFN alpha/beta induction of MHC class I, 9-27, ISG54 and ISG15 genes is also defective in these mutants, although different members of this class can be discriminated by the response of the GBP and IRF-1 genes to type I interferons. These data demonstrate that the signalling pathways of both type I and type II interferon systems share common signal transduction component(s). These mutants will be useful for the study of IFN gamma regulation of class II genes and Ii chain, and to elucidate molecular components of type I and type II interferon signal transduction. Images PMID:1314162

  20. Incidence of lung cancer by histological type among asbestos cement workers in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Korsgaard, B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--A significant twofold increased risk of lung cancer was found among 8000 men employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984. The histological pattern of 104 lung cancer cases was studied with the aim of evaluating a relation between specific morphological types, duration of employment, and time since first employment. METHODS--Age, sex, and calendar time specific incidence of morphological subtypes of lung cancer (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and unspecified malignant tumour) for all Danish men were computed from 1943 to 1984, from data routinely collected by the Danish Cancer Registry. Person-years of observation were counted from 15 years after the date of first employment until date of diagnosis of cancer, death, emigration, or the end of follow up on 31 December 1984. Expected numbers of cases were computed by applying person-years at risk to the appropriate incidence rates. Observed numbers were distributed accordingly and the relative risk calculated. RESULTS--The relative risk for adenocarcinoma was 3.31 (observed (O) 24, expected (E) 7.26), for squamous cell carcinoma 1.67 (O, 37, E, 22.12), for anaplastic carcinoma 1.58 (O, 23, E, 14.53), and for unspecified malignant tumour 1.57 (O, 18, E, 11.46). An increased risk by duration of employment and time since first employment was most pronounced for adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION--The link between adenocarcinoma and asbestos was confirmed in this, the first study of risk of lung cancer by histological category based on incident cancer cases for a whole population during a 50 year period. PMID:8431397

  1. Low luminosity Type II supernovae - II. Pointing towards moderate mass precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiro, S.; Pastorello, A.; Pumo, M. L.; Zampieri, L.; Turatto, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Valenti, S.; Agnoletto, I.; Altavilla, G.; Aoki, T.; Brocato, E.; Corsini, E. M.; Di Cianno, A.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Hamuy, M.; Enya, K.; Fiaschi, M.; Folatelli, G.; Desidera, S.; Harutyunyan, A.; Howell, D. A.; Kawka, A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Leibundgut, B.; Minezaki, T.; Navasardyan, H.; Nomoto, K.; Mattila, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Pignata, G.; Raimondo, G.; Salvo, M.; Schmidt, B. P.; Sollerman, J.; Spyromilio, J.; Taubenberger, S.; Valentini, G.; Vennes, S.; Yoshii, Y.

    2014-04-01

    We present new data for five underluminous Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe IIP), namely SN 1999gn, SN 2002gd, SN 2003Z, SN 2004eg and SN 2006ov. This new sample of low-luminosity SNe IIP (LL SNe IIP) is analysed together with similar objects studied in the past. All of them show a flat light-curve plateau lasting about 100 d, an underluminous late-time exponential tail, intrinsic colours that are unusually red, and spectra showing prominent and narrow P Cygni lines. A velocity of the ejected material below 103 km s-1 is inferred from measurements at the end of the plateau. The 56Ni masses ejected in the explosion are very small (≤10-2 M⊙). We investigate the correlations among 56Ni mass, expansion velocity of the ejecta and absolute magnitude in the middle of the plateau, confirming the main findings of Hamuy, according to which events showing brighter plateau and larger expansion velocities are expected to produce more 56Ni. We propose that these faint objects represent the LL tail of a continuous distribution in parameters space of SNe IIP. The physical properties of the progenitors at the explosion are estimated through the hydrodynamical modelling of the observables for two representative events of this class, namely SN 2005cs and SN 2008in. We find that the majority of LL SNe IIP, and quite possibly all, originate in the core collapse of intermediate-mass stars, in the mass range 10-15 M⊙.

  2. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Veith, G D; Broderius, S J

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed. PMID:2269227

  3. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, G.D.; Broderius, S.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed.

  4. 14 CFR 21.83 - Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional type certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional type certificates. 21.83 Section 21.83 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Type Certificates § 21.83 Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional...

  5. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II API DMFs Under GDUFA.'' Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA), holders of certain drug master files, namely, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs) that are referenced......

  6. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  7. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  8. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  9. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  10. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  11. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 {mu}m).

  12. 46 CFR 171.072 - Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision. 171... permeability for Type II subdivision. When doing calcualtions to show compliance with § 171.070, the following uniform average permeabilities must be assumed: (a) 85 percent in the machinery space. (b) 60 percent...

  13. An important role for peroxiredoxin II in survival of A549 lung cancer cells resistant to gefitinib

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taeho; Kyung Rho, Jin; Cheol Lee, Jae; Park, Young-Ho; Shin, Hye-Jun; Cho, Sunwha; Kang, Yong-Kook; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Yoon, Do-Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Redox adaptation is an important concept that explains the mechanisms by which cancer cells survive under persistent endogenous oxidative stress and become resistant to certain anticancer agents. To investigate this concept, we determined the expression levels of peroxiredoxins (Prxs), antioxidant enzymes in drug-resistant non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Prx II was remarkably increased only in A549/GR (gefitinib-resistant) cells compared with A549 cells, consistent with methylation/demethylation. Prx II was highly methylated in the A549 cells but was demethylated in the A549/GR cells. The elevated expression of Prx II resulted in the downregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death and upregulation of cell cycle progression in the A549/GR cells. When Prx II mRNA in the A549/GR cells was knocked down, the levels of ROS and apoptosis were significantly recovered to the levels of the controls. In addition, signaling molecules involved in apoptosis were increased in the A549/GR-shPrx II cells. There was no difference in the expression of MAPK/ERK between the A549/GR cells and A549/GR-shPrx II cells, but the phosphorylation of JNK was increased in the A549/GR cells and was markedly decreased in the A549/GR-shPrx II cells. Colony number and tumor growth were significantly decreased in the A549/GR-shPrx II cells compared with the A549/GR cells. Our findings suggest that Prx II has an important role in cancer cell survival via the modulation of signaling molecules involved in apoptosis and the phosphorylation of JNK by the downregulation of ROS levels in A549/GR cells. PMID:26021759

  14. Treatment of Type II Endoleaks After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Transcaval Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mansueto, Giancarlo Cenzi, Daniela; D'Onofrio, Mirko; Petrella, Enrico; Gumbs, Andrew A.; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of the note is to describe a new technique for type II endoleak treatment, using an alternative approach through femoral venous access. Three patients who developed type II endoleak after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm were treated with direct transcaval puncture and embolization inside the aneurysm sac. The detailed technique is described. All patients were treated without any complications and discharged 48 hours after the treatment. At 1 month follow-up the computed tomograph scan did not show a recurrence of a type II endoleak. The management of patients with type II endoleak is a controversial issue and different techniques have been proposed. We suggest an alternative technique for type II endoleak treatment. The feasibility and the advantages of this approach can offer new possibilities for the diagnosis as well as for the treatment of this complication.

  15. The discrimination of type I and type II collagen and the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Chen, Te-Hsuen; Ho, Yi-Yun; Huang, Chi-Hsiu; Chang, Shwu-Jen; Huang, Yi-You; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-12-01

    Using excitation polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, we measured SHG intensity as a function of the excitation polarization angle for type I and type II collagens. We determined the second order susceptibility (χ((2))) tensor ratios of type I and II collagens at each pixel, and displayed the results as images. We found that the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used to distinguish the two types of collagen. In particular, we obtained χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.40 ± 0.04 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.53 ± 0.10 for type I collagen from rat tail tendon, and χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.14 ± 0.09 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.29 ± 0.11 for type II collagen from rat trachea cartilage. We also applied this methodology on the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue which produces type I and II collagen simultaneously. By displaying the χ((2)) tensor ratios in the image format, the variation in the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used as a contrast mechanism for distinguishing type I and II collagens. PMID:20875682

  16. Expression of histone deacetylase 3 instructs alveolar type I cell differentiation by regulating a Wnt signaling niche in the lung.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoru; Wang, Yi; Snitow, Melinda E; Stewart, Kathleen M; Li, Shanru; Lu, MinMin; Morrisey, Edward E

    2016-06-15

    The commitment and differentiation of the alveolar type I (AT1) cell lineage is a critical step for the formation of distal lung saccules, which are the primitive alveolar units required for postnatal respiration. How AT1 cells arise from the distal lung epithelial progenitor cells prior to birth and whether this process depends on a developmental niche instructed by mesenchymal cells is poorly understood. We show that mice lacking histone deacetylase 3 specifically in the developing lung mesenchyme display lung hypoplasia including decreased mesenchymal proliferation and a severe impairment of AT1 cell differentiation. This is correlated with a decrease in Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the lung epithelium. We demonstrate that inhibition of Wnt signaling causes defective AT1 cell lineage differentiation ex vivo. Importantly, systemic activation of Wnt signaling at specific stages of lung development can partially rescue the AT1 cell differentiation defect in vivo. These studies show that histone deacetylase 3 expression generates an important developmental niche in the lung mesenchyme through regulation of Wnt signaling, which is required for proper AT1 cell differentiation and lung sacculation. PMID:27141870

  17. Notch maintains Drosophila type II neuroblasts by suppressing expression of the Fez transcription factor Earmuff.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaosu; Xie, Yonggang; Zhu, Sijun

    2016-07-15

    Notch signaling is crucial for maintaining neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and heterogeneity; however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In Drosophila, loss of Notch prematurely terminates the self-renewal of larval type II neuroblasts (NBs, the Drosophila NSCs) and transforms type II NBs into type I NBs. Here, we demonstrate that Notch maintains type II NBs by suppressing the activation of earmuff (erm) by Pointed P1 (PntP1). We show that loss of Notch or components of its canonical pathway leads to PntP1-dependent ectopic Erm expression in type II NBs. Knockdown of Erm significantly rescues the loss-of-Notch phenotypes, and misexpression of Erm phenocopies the loss of Notch. Ectopically expressed Erm promotes the transformation of type II NBs into type I NBs by inhibiting PntP1 function and expression in type II NBs. Our work not only elucidates a key mechanism of Notch-mediated maintenance of type II NB self-renewal and identity, but also reveals a novel function of Erm. PMID:27151950

  18. On the source conditions for herringbone structure in type II solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; White, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation is made of the correlation of the occurrence of the herringbone phenomenon in type II solar radio bursts with various flare properties. It is shown that herringbone is strongly correlated with the intensity of the type II burst: whereas about 21 percent of all type II bursts show herringbone, about 60 percent of the most intense bursts contain herringbone. This fact can explain most of the correlations between herringbone and other properties such as intense type III bursts, type IV emission, and high type II starting frequencies. It is also shown that when this is taken into account, there is no need to postulate two classes of type II burst in order to explain why there appears to be a difference in herringbone occurrence between the set of type II bursts associated with the leading edges of coronal mass ejections, and those not so associated. It is argued that the data are consistent with the idea that all coronal type II bursts are due to blast waves from flares.

  19. The Relation between Type II Radio Bursts and Large-scale Coronal Propagating Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Nariaki

    2014-06-01

    Both type II radio bursts and chromospheric Moreton-Ramsey waves are believed to signify shock waves that propagate in the solar corona. Large-scale coronal propagating fronts (LCPFs), which are also called EIT waves, EUV waves or coronal bright fronts in the literature, were initially thought to be coronal counterparts of Moreton-Ramsey waves, and thus they were expected to be correlated with type II bursts. At present, the prevailing view seems to be that both type II bursts and LCPFs are more closely linked with CMEs than with flares. Here we revisit the relation between type II bursts and LCPFs, by examining radio dynamic spectra (180-25 MHz) as obtained by USAF/RSTN and analyzing EUV and white-light data from SDO and STEREO. In the sample of about 140 type II bursts and LCPFs between April 2010 and January 2013, we find the correlation of 50-60 %. Type II bursts could be associated with eruptions without significant lateral expansion, and fast LCPFs could show no presence in the metric radio spectral range. Using data from STEREO COR-1 that observed the CME as a limb event, in 42 cases we directly measure the height of the CME at the onset of the type II burst. As expected, the height tends to be lower when the type II burst starts at a higher frequency. It is found that those type II bursts that start at higher altitudes and lower frequencies tend to have weaker EUV fronts. This may indicate multiple ways of how LCPFs and type II bursts are related with CMEs.

  20. Enhanced performance of quantum dot solar cells based on type II quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Luo, Shuai; Lv, Zun-Ren; Yang, Tao

    2014-10-07

    The characteristics of quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) based on type II QDs are investigated theoretically. Based on a drift-diffusion model, we obtained a much higher open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) as well as conversion efficiency in a type II QDSC, compared to type I QDSCs. The improved V{sub oc} and efficiency are mainly attributed to the much longer Auger recombination lifetime in type II QDs. Moreover, the influence of the carrier lifetime on devices' performance is discussed and clarified. In addition, an explicit criterion to determine the role of quantum dots in solar cells is put forward.

  1. Ultracold fermions in real or fictitious magnetic fields: BCS-BEC evolution and type-I-type-II transition

    SciTech Connect

    Iskin, M.; Sa de Melo, C. A. R.

    2011-04-15

    We study ultracold neutral fermion superfluids in the presence of fictitious magnetic fields, as well as charged fermion superfluids in the presence of real magnetic fields. Charged fermion superfluids undergo a phase transition from type-I to type-II superfluidity, where the magnetic properties of the superfluid change from being a perfect diamagnet without vortices to a partial diamagnet with the emergence of the Abrikosov vortex lattice. The transition from type-I to type-II superfluidity is tuned by changing the scattering parameter (interaction) for fixed density. We also find that neutral fermion superfluids such as {sup 6}Li and {sup 40}K are extreme type-II superfluids and are more robust to the penetration of a fictitious magnetic field in the BCS-BEC crossover region near unitarity, where the critical fictitious magnetic field reaches a maximum as a function of the scattering parameter (interaction).

  2. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis in a tumor-bearing mouse model is associated with enhanced Type-2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yacheng; Mei, Zijie; Zhang, Shimin; Yang, Jie; Li, Xin; Yao, Ye; Xie, Conghua

    2016-01-01

    Lung fibrosis may be associated with Type-2 polarized inflammation. Herein, we aim to investigate whether radiation can initiate a Type-2 immune response and contribute to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis in tumor-bearing animals. We developed a tumor-bearing mouse model with Lewis lung cancer to receive either radiation therapy alone or radiation combined with Th1 immunomodulator unmethylated cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN). The Type-2 immune phenotype in tumors and the histological grade of lung fibrosis were evaluated in mice sacrificed three weeks after irradiation. Mouse lung tissues were analyzed for hydroxyproline and the expression of Type-1/Type-2 key transcription factors (T-bet/GATA-3). The concentration of Type-1/Type-2 cytokines in serum was measured by cytometric bead array. Lung fibrosis was observed to be more serious in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice post-irradiation. The fibrosis score in irradiated tumor-bearing mice on Day 21 was 4.33 ± 0.82, which was higher than that of normal mice (2.00 ± 0.63; P < 0.05). Hydroxyproline and GATA-3 expression were increased in the lung tissues of tumor-bearing mice following irradiation. CpG-ODN attenuated fibrosis by markedly decreasing GATA-3 expression. Serum IL-13 and IL-5 were elevated, whereas INF-γ and IL-12 expression were decreased in irradiated tumor-bearing mice. These changes were reversed after CpG-ODN treatment. Thus, Type-2 immunity in tumors appeared to affect the outcome of radiation damage and might be of interest for future studies on developing approaches in which Type-1–related immunotherapy and radiotherapy are used in combination. PMID:26703457

  3. Type I Interferon Suppresses Type II Interferon–Triggered Human Anti-Mycobacterial Responses

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Rosane M. B.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Montoya, Dennis; Schenk, Mirjam; Lee, Delphine J.; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra; Chun, Rene; Iyer, Shankar S.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Rea, Thomas H.; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.; Popper, Stephen J.; Relman, David A.; Stenger, Steffen; Bloom, Barry R.; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β) are important for protection against many viral infections, whereas type II interferon (IFN-γ) is essential for host defense against some bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Study of IFN responses in human leprosy revealed an inverse correlation between IFN-β and IFN-γ gene expression programs. IFN-γ and its downstream vitamin D–dependent antimicrobial genes were preferentially expressed in self-healing tuberculoid lesions and mediated antimicrobial activity against the pathogen Mycobacterium leprae in vitro. In contrast, IFN-β and its downstream genes, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), were induced in monocytes by M. leprae in vitro and preferentially expressed in disseminated and progressive lepromatous lesions. The IFN-γ–induced macrophage vitamin D–dependent antimicrobial peptide response was inhibited by IFN-β and by IL-10, suggesting that the differential production of IFNs contributes to protection versus pathogenesis in some human bacterial infections. PMID:23449998

  4. Interfacial strain effect on type-I and type-II core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheshlaghi, Negar; Pisheh, Hadi Sedaghat; Karim, M. Rezaul; Malkoc, Derya; Ünlü, Hilmi

    2016-09-01

    A comparative experimental and theoretical study on the calculation of capped core diameter in ZnSe/ZnS, CdSe/Cd(Zn)S type-I and ZnSe/CdS type-II core/shell nanocrystals is presented. The lattice mismatch induced interface strain between core and shell was calculated from continuum elastic theory and applied in effective mass approximation method to obtain the corresponding capped core diameter. The calculated results were compared with diameter of bare cores (CdSe and ZnSe) from transmission electron microscopy images to obtain the amount of the stretched or squeezed core after deposition of tensile or compressive shells. The result of the study showed that the core is squeezed in ZnSe/ZnS and CdSe/Cd(Zn)S after compressive shell and stretched in ZnSe/CdS after tensile shell deposition. The stretched and squeezed amount of the capped core found to be in proportion with lattice mismatch amount in the core/shell structure.

  5. Uterine type II estrogen-binding sites are not of eosinophil origin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    A recent report suggested that nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus are of eosinophil origin and may represent (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to eosinophil peroxidase. To further evaluate this hypothesis the authors examined the response of nuclear type II sites to estrogen under conditions where eosinophils are not present. Results of the experiments show that physiological levels of estradiol-17..beta.. (10 nM for 72 h) will stimulate nuclear type II sites in highly purified cultures of rat uterine stromal and myometrial cells. The magnitude of the response of type II sites to estradiol in these stromal (4-fold) and myometrial (80-fold) cell cultures was essentially identical to that observed in the uterine cell types following in vivo estrogen treatment. Since these highly purified cultures of uterine cells were prepared from the uterus of a 21-day ovariectomized rat which is devoid of eosinophils, it was concluded that estradiol stimulation of nuclear type II sites is a direct intracellular response to estrogen which occurs independent of eosinophil accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that type II sites in the rat uterus are not peroxidase. Stimulation of cytosol and nuclear type II sites by estrogen in the rat uterus is a direct intracellular response to the hormone unrelated to eosinophil accumulation and/or peroxidase activity.

  6. Large basolateral processes on type II hair cells are novel processing units in mammalian vestibular organs.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Rémy; Pickett, Sarah B; Nguyen, Tot Bui; Stone, Jennifer S

    2014-10-01

    Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head movements and drive central motor reflexes that control gaze, body movements, and body orientation. In mammals, type I and II vestibular hair cells are defined by their shape, contacts with vestibular afferent nerves, and membrane conductance. Here we describe unique morphological features of type II vestibular hair cells in mature rodents (mice and gerbils) and bats. These features are cytoplasmic processes that extend laterally from the hair cell base and project under type I hair cells. Closer analysis of adult mouse utricles demonstrated that the basolateral processes of type II hair cells vary in shape, size, and branching, with the longest processes extending three to four hair cell widths. The hair cell basolateral processes synapse upon vestibular afferent nerves and receive inputs from vestibular efferent nerves. Furthermore, some basolateral processes make physical contacts with the processes of other type II hair cells, forming some sort of network among type II hair cells. Basolateral processes are rare in perinatal mice and do not attain their mature form until 3-6 weeks of age. These observations demonstrate that basolateral processes are significant signaling regions of type II vestibular hair cells and suggest that type II hair cells may directly communicate with each other, which has not been described in vertebrates. PMID:24825750

  7. Phase II trial of carboplatin plus oral etoposide for elderly patients with small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, K.; Masuda, N.; Fukuoka, M.; Yana, T.; Hirashima, T.; Komiya, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Kawahara, M.; Atagi, S.; Ogawara, M.; Negoro, S.; Kudoh, S.; Furuse, K.

    1998-01-01

    A phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the Egorin's carboplatin dosing formula with 14-day oral etoposide in 38 elderly patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The overall response rate was 81%. Median survival times were 15.1 months for 16 limited-disease (LD) and 8.6 months for 22 extensive-disease (ED) patients. Myelosuppression was the principal side-effect. This regimen is an active regimen in the treatment of elderly SCLC patients. PMID:9667675

  8. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  9. Achondrogenesis: a review with special consideration of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino).

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Liu, C T; Yang, S S

    1981-01-01

    We describe two dwarfed infants with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen, and short limbs. Both died neonatally. Radiographic and morphologic characteristics identified the Langer-Saldino form of achondrogenesis (type II). Review of type II achondrogenesis documented distinctive clinical and anthropometric manifestations (fewer stillbirths, longer survival time and gestation period, larger size of the baby, longer limbs, and characteristic craniofacial features) as compared with type I achondrogenesis (Parenti-Fraccaro). PMID:7036745

  10. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of two novel type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tracey, W R; Nakane, M; Basha, F; Carter, G

    1995-05-01

    Selective type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors have several potential therapeutic applications, including treatment of sepsis, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. The ability of two novel, selective inhibitors of type II NOS, S-ethylisothiourea (EIT) and 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine (AMT), to inhibit type II NOS function in vivo was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats. Type II NOS activity was assessed by measuring changes in plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations ([NOx]). Both EIT and AMT elicited a dose-dependent and > 95% inhibition of the LPS-induced increase in plasma [NOx]. The ED50 values for EIT and AMT were 0.4 and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the administration of LPS and either NOS inhibitor resulted in a dose-dependent increase in animal mortality; neither compound was lethal when administered alone. Pretreatment with L-arginine (but not D-arginine) prevented the mortality, while not affecting the type II NOS-dependent NO production, suggesting the toxicity may be due to inhibition of one of the other NOS isoforms (endothelial or neuronal). Thus, although EIT and AMT are potent inhibitors of type II NOS function in vivo, type II NOS inhibitors of even greater selectivity may need to be developed for therapeutic applications. PMID:7585335

  11. Amplification of FGFR1 gene and expression of FGFR1 protein is found in different histological types of lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vitor; Reis, Diana; Silva, Maria; Alarcão, Ana Maria; Ladeirinha, Ana Filipa; d'Aguiar, Maria João; Ferreira, Teresa; Caramujo-Balseiro, Sandra; Carvalho, Lina

    2016-08-01

    Although lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related death, accurate diagnosis followed by personalized treatment is expected to raise the 5-year survival rate. Targeted therapies are now in routine clinical use, in particular for lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) has recently emerged as a molecular target, especially in squamous cell/epidermoid carcinoma (SQC) of the lung. This paper evaluates FGFR1 expression and gene copy number in adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, pleomorphic carcinomas (PLEOMC) and adenosquamous carcinomas (ADSQC) of the lung and also explores the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway. We studied 76 lung carcinomas: 34 ADC, 24 SQC, 10 PLEOMC and 8 ADSQC. FGFR1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Higher FGFR1 protein expression was observed in all tumour types compared to non-tumour tissue. FGFR1 expression was higher in ADC and PLEOMC than in SQC. We found a tendency to higher expression in ADC than in SQC and significantly higher expression in PLEOMC than in other histological subtypes. FISH-based amplification of FGFR1 was identified in 15 (20 %) lung carcinomas: 5 (15 %) ADC, 5 (21 %) SQC, 3 (30 %) PLEOMC and 2 (25 %) ADSQC. Amplification was more frequent in SQC without significant differences. FGFR1 protein is expressed in the majority of lung carcinomas, though it is higher in ADC and PLEOMC (the latter may reflect the importance of FGFR1 control of the EMT pathway). FGFR1 amplification was identified in all types of lung carcinoma. Although FGFR1 is most frequently amplified in SQC, other histological types merit assessment of FGFR1 amplification, in order to select patients that might benefit from targeted therapy. PMID:27194548

  12. In-depth Proteomic Analysis of Six Types of Exudative Pleural Effusions for Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Biomarker Discovery*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei-Jun; Chen, Chi-De; Wang, Chih-Liang; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Lee, Chien-Wei; Huang, Lien-Hung; Yu, Jau-Song; Chang, Yu-Sun; Wu, Chih-Ching; Yu, Chia-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Pleural effusion (PE), a tumor-proximal body fluid, may be a promising source for biomarker discovery in human cancers. Because a variety of pathological conditions can lead to PE, characterization of the relative PE proteomic profiles from different types of PEs would accelerate discovery of potential PE biomarkers specifically used to diagnose pulmonary disorders. Using quantitative proteomic approaches, we identified 772 nonredundant proteins from six types of exudative PEs, including three malignant PEs (MPE, from lung, breast, and gastric cancers), one lung cancer paramalignant PE, and two benign diseases (tuberculosis and pneumonia). Spectral counting was utilized to semiquantify PE protein levels. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, and Gene Ontology of cellular process analyses revealed differential levels and functional profiling of proteins in each type of PE. We identified 30 candidate proteins with twofold higher levels (q<0.05) in lung cancer MPEs than in the two benign PEs. Three potential markers, MET, DPP4, and PTPRF, were further verified by ELISA using 345 PE samples. The protein levels of these potential biomarkers were significantly higher in lung cancer MPE than in benign diseases or lung cancer paramalignant PE. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve for three combined biomarkers in discriminating lung cancer MPE from benign diseases was 0.903. We also observed that the PE protein levels were more clearly discriminated in effusions in which the cytological examination was positive and that they would be useful in rescuing the false negative of cytological examination in diagnosis of nonsmall cell lung cancer-MPE. Western blotting analysis further demonstrated that MET overexpression in lung cancer cells would contribute to the elevation of soluble MET in MPE. Our results collectively demonstrate the utility of label-free quantitative proteomic approaches in establishing differential PE proteomes and

  13. [Changes of type I collagen in the lungs of rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Mo, X; Yan, H; Cheng, D

    2000-03-01

    The changes of type I collagen in the lung tissues of rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and its relationship to the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) were investigated. The blood dynamic indexes of pulmonary circulation were measured by using Swan-Ganz. The distribution of type I collagen in pulmonary arteries, bronchi and plumonary interstitial was observed by using streptavidin peroxidase method (SP). The morphologic changes of small pulmonary arteries and the level of type I collagen were determined by image pattern analysis technique and gray scale scanning, respectively. The results showed, compared with the controls, mPAP of the hypoxic rats elevated (from 2.12 +/- 0.25 to 3.95 +/- 0.43 kPa, P < 0.01), their small pulmonary arteries, walls thickened (MT% from 16.35 +/- 2.64 to 35.83 +/- 3.55, MA% from 26.83 +/- 3.40 to 59.68 +/- 4.90, P < 0.01) and lumen narrowed. The distribution of type I collagen was mainly in the external layer of pulmonary arterial walls; the positive degrees of gray scale scanning increased and had a positive linear relationship to the mPAP and MT%. These findings suggest that the increase of type I collagen contents in pulmonary arteries is closely related to the development of HPH. PMID:12501607

  14. Proteomic analysis reveals down-regulation of surfactant protein B in murine type II pneumocytes infected with influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Kebaabetswe, Lemme P.; Haick, Anoria K.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Matzke, Melissa M.; Smith, Richard D.; Waters, Katrina M.; Metz, Thomas O.; Miura, Tanya A.

    2015-01-01

    Infection of type II alveolar epithelial (ATII) cells by influenza A viruses (IAV) correlates with severe respiratory disease in humans and mice. To understand pathogenic mechanisms during IAV infection of ATII cells, murine ATII cells were cultured to maintain a differentiated phenotype, infected with IAV-PR8, which causes severe lung pathology in mice, and proteomics analyses were performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. PR8 infection increased levels of proteins involved in interferon signaling, antigen presentation, and cytoskeleton regulation. Proteins involved in mitochondrial membrane permeability, energy metabolism, and chromatin formation had reduced levels in PR8-infected cells. Phenotypic markers of ATII cells in vivo were identified, confirming the differentiation status of the cultures. Surfactant protein B had decreased levels in PR8-infected cells, which was confirmed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays. Analysis of ATII cell protein profiles will elucidate cellular processes in IAV pathogenesis, which may provide insight into potential therapies to modulate disease severity. PMID:25965799

  15. Cytogenetic evidence that DNA topoisomerase II is not involved in radiation induced chromsome-type aberrations.

    PubMed

    Mosesso, P; Pepe, G; Ottavianelli, A; Schinoppi, A; Cinelli, S

    2015-11-01

    ICRF-187 (Cardioxane™, Chiron) is a catalytic inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), proposed to act by blocking Topo II-mediated DNA cleavage without stabilizing DNA-Topo II-"cleavable complexes". In this study ICRF-187 was used to evaluate the potential involvement of DNA topoisomerase II in the formation of the radiation-induced chromosome-type aberrations in the G0 phase of the cell cycle in human lymphocytes from three healthy male donors. This is based on many evidences that DNA topoisomerases are involved in DNA recombination, mainly of illegitimate type (non-homologous) both in vitro and in vivo. The results obtained clearly indicated that ICRF-187 did not induce per se any chromosomal damage. When challenged with the non-catalytic Topo II poison VP-16 (etoposide), which acts by stabilizing the "cleavable complex" generating "protein concealed" DSB's and thus chromosomal aberrations, it completely abolished the significant induction of chromosome-type aberrations and formation of dicentric chromosomes. This indicates that ICRF-187 acts effectively as catalytic inhibitor of Topo II. On the other hand, when X-ray treatments were challenged with ICRF-187 using experimental conditions as for VP-16 treatments, no modification of the incidence of chromosome-type aberrations and dicentric chromosomes was observed. On this basis, we conclude that Topo II is not involved in the formation of X-ray-induced chromosome-type aberrations and dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes in the G0 phase of the cell cycle. PMID:26520368

  16. Quantum cascade light emitting diodes based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.H.; Yang, R.Q.; Zhang, D.; Murry, S.J.; Pei, S.S.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1997-01-21

    The authors have demonstrated room-temperature CW operation of type-II quantum cascade (QC) light emitting diodes at 4.2 {micro}m using InAs/InGaSb/InAlSb type-II quantum wells. The type-II QC configuration utilizes sequential multiple photon emissions in a staircase of coupled type-II quantum wells. The device was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a p-type GaSb substrate and was compared of 20 periods of active regions separated by digitally graded quantum well injection regions. The maximum average output power is about 250 {micro}W at 80 K, and 140 {micro}W at 300 K at a repetition rate of 1 kHz with a duty cycle of 50%.

  17. Shock-associated kilometric radio emission and solar metric type II bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.

    1989-01-01

    New criteria are used here to select and study the properties of shock-associated (SA) kilometric bursts. Nearly half of all intense metric type II bursts were temporally associated with 1980 kHz emission which was not attributable to metric type III bursts. A quarter of all intense type II bursts are not associated with any significant 1980 kHz emission and another quarter are accompanied by 1980 kHz emission presumed due to type II bursts. The SA bursts are generally not well correlated with microwave flux-density profiles but compare more closely with the most intense and structured parts of the profiles of metric type II bursts. These results imply that the SA emission is due primarily to energetic electrons accelerated at the associated shock.

  18. Type II solar radio bursts, interplanetary shocks, and energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Stone, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Using the ISEE-3 radio astronomy experiment data 37 interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been identified in the period September 1978 to December 1981. These events and the associated phenomena are listed. The events are preceded by intense, soft X ray events with long decay times (LDEs) and type II and/or type IV bursts at meter wavelengths. The meter wavelength type II bursts are usually intense and exhibit herringbone structure. The extension of the herringbone structure into the kilometer wavelength range results in the occurrence of a shock accelerated (SA) event. The majority of the interplanetary type II bursts are associated with energetic particle events. These results support other studies awhich indicate that energetic solar particles detected at 1 A.U. are generated by shock acceleration. From a preliminary analysis of the available data there appears to be a high correlation with white light coronal transients.

  19. Type I IFN signaling triggers immunopathology in tuberculosis-susceptible mice by modulating lung phagocyte dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Dorhoi, Anca; Yeremeev, Vladimir; Nouailles, Geraldine; Weiner, January; Jörg, Sabine; Heinemann, Ellen; Oberbeck-Müller, Dagmar; Knaul, Julia K; Vogelzang, Alexis; Reece, Stephen T; Hahnke, Karin; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Brinkmann, Volker; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2014-01-01

    General interest in the biological functions of IFN type I in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection increased after the recent identification of a distinct IFN gene expression signature in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Here, we demonstrate that TB-susceptible mice lacking the receptor for IFN I (IFNAR1) were protected from death upon aerogenic infection with Mtb. Using this experimental model to mimic primary progressive pulmonary TB, we dissected the immune processes affected by IFN I. IFNAR1 signaling did not affect T-cell responses, but markedly altered migration of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils to the lung. This process was orchestrated by IFNAR1 expressed on both immune and tissue-resident radioresistant cells. IFNAR1-driven TB susceptibility was initiated by augmented Mtb replication and in situ death events, along with CXCL5/CXCL1-driven accumulation of neutrophils in alveoli, followed by the discrete compartmentalization of Mtb in lung phagocytes. Early depletion of neutrophils rescued TB-susceptible mice to levels observed in mice lacking IFNAR1. We conclude that IFN I alters early innate events at the site of Mtb invasion leading to fatal immunopathology. These data furnish a mechanistic explanation for the detrimental role of IFN I in pulmonary TB and form a basis for understanding the complex roles of IFN I in chronic inflammation. PMID:24782112

  20. Overweight Is an Independent Risk Factor for Reduced Lung Volumes in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Seijger, Charlotte G. W.; Drost, Gea; Posma, Joram M.; van Engelen, Baziel G. M.; Heijdra, Yvonne F.

    2016-01-01

    Background In this large observational study population of 105 myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) patients, we investigate whether bodyweight is a contributor of total lung capacity (TLC) independent of the impaired inspiratory muscle strength. Methods Body composition was assessed using the combination of body mass index (BMI) and fat-free mass index. Pulmonary function tests and respiratory muscle strength measurements were performed on the same day. Patients were stratified into normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) groups. Multiple linear regression was used to find significant contributors for TLC. Results Overweight was present in 59% of patients, and body composition was abnormal in almost all patients. In overweight patients, TLC was significantly (p = 2.40×10−3) decreased, compared with normal-weight patients, while inspiratory muscle strength was similar in both groups. The decrease in TLC in overweight patients was mainly due to a decrease in expiratory reserve volume (ERV) further illustrated by a highly significant (p = 1.33×10−10) correlation between BMI and ERV. Multiple linear regression showed that TLC can be predicted using only BMI and the forced inspiratory volume in 1 second, as these were the only significant contributors. Conclusions This study shows that, in DM1 patients, overweight further reduces lung volumes, as does impaired inspiratory muscle strength. Additionally, body composition is abnormal in almost all DM1 patients. PMID:27015655

  1. Halo Coronal Mass Ejections and Their Relation to DH Type-II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Bendict Lawrance, M.

    2015-10-01

    A set of 88 halo CMEs observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/ Large Angle Solar Coronagraph (SOHO/LASCO) during the period 2005 to 2010 is considered to study the relationship of these halo CMEs with Type-II radio bursts in the deca-hectametric (DH) wavelength range observed by Wind/(Plasma and Radio Waves: WAVES). Among the 88 events, 39 halo CMEs are found to be associated with DH Type-II radio bursts and their characteristics are analyzed with the following results: i) The heights of the CME leading edge at the time of the starting frequencies of many of the selected DH Type-II events (74 %) are in the range (2 - 10 R_{⊙}) where the shocks are formed. ii) The mean speed of DH-associated halo CMEs (1610 km s-1) is nearly twice the mean speed (853 km s-1) of halo CMEs without DH Type-II radio bursts, implying that the peak of the Alfvén speed profile in the outer corona where DH Type-II radio bursts start might be around 800 km s-1. iii) The shock speed of DH Type-II radio bursts calculated using the heights of shock signatures of the corresponding CME events is found to be slightly higher than the CME speed. iv) The CME speed plays a major role in the determination of the ending frequency of DH Type-II radio bursts but not the starting frequency. v) The relationship between the characteristics of DH Type-II radio bursts and CMEs is explained in the context of the universal drift-rate spectrum.

  2. Origin of the autoreactive anti-type II collagen response. II. Specificities, antibody isotypes and usage of V gene families of anti-type II collagen B cells.

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, R; Bailey, C; Enander, I; Mayer, R; Klareskog, L; Moran, T; Bona, C

    1989-03-15

    Autoantibodies play an important role in the pathogenesis of type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice. We have earlier reported a high frequency of cells producing anti-CII autoantibodies and a low frequency of cells producing multispecific antibodies, in regional lymph nodes 9 to 11 days after primary immunization with CII. It is shown here that anti-CII antibodies produced during primary immune response are IgG-antibodies mainly of IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG2b subclasses while IgM antibodies dominate primary responses elicited by OVA and denatured CII as analyzed with a large panel of hybridomas. Anti-CII antibodies generated during the primary response recognize at least five different epitopes on the CII molecule. The specificities of these antibodies for various epitopes result from combinational association of products encoded by genes derived from various VH and VK families and/or by the occurrence of somatic mutations. It is suggested that the primary anti-CII autoantibody response involves activation of memory B cells and is in this aspect different from the origin of "natural" autoantibodies. PMID:2493500

  3. Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. II - Effects on lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.; Corbett, R. L.; Klein, G.

    1975-01-01

    An electron microscope examination was carried out on the lungs of 11 pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that breathed oxygen at 10 psi or 12 psi partial pressure over a period of 7 d, at the end of which time they were decompressed to sea-level O2 pressure, either suddenly or in 30, 60, or 90 min. Vesiculation was noted in the endothelium of the alveolar-capillary wall in most of the animals and, occasionally, blebbing. Some mitochrondria were swollen in a few of the animals. Alveolar exudate was, in general, sparse. Compared with the lungs of other rodents, the lungs of pocket mice appeared relatively resistant to the toxic effects of oxygen. This conclusion needs, however, to be tempered by the fact that 5% N2 was used in the tests reported here. Nonetheless, the results suggest that the oxygen pressures anticipated on the flight of Apollo XVII should be well tolerated by the pocket mice.

  4. An albumin-associated PLA2-like activity inactivates surfactant phosphatidylcholine secreted from fetal type II pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Damas, Jolanta E; Cake, Max H

    2011-12-01

    Type II pneumocytes are responsible for the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant, which reduces surface tension in lung alveoli, thus decreasing their tendency to collapse during expiration. For this effect to be sustained, the integrity of the surface-active components of surfactant must be maintained. This study has shown that, when cultured type II pneumocytes are exposed to lipoprotein-free serum (LFS), the level of lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) in the secreted surfactant phospholipids is markedly elevated with a concomitant decline in the level of phosphatidylcholine (PC). This effect is the result of hydrolysis of surfactant PC by a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-like activity present within serum. Anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and preparative electrophoresis of human LFS have shown that this PLA(2)-like activity coelutes with albumin and is biochemically distinct from the secretory form of PLA(2). Furthermore, specific inhibitors of PLA(2) such as p-bromophenacyl bromide, aristolochic acid, and palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone do not inhibit this activity of serum. Commercially purified human serum albumin fraction V and recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) are almost as effective as LFS in enhancing the level of lyso-PC in the media. The latter finding implies that rHSA directly generates lyso-PC from secreted PC and suggests that this PLA(2)-like activity may be an intrinsic attribute of albumin. PMID:21908590

  5. Diversity in ABC transporters: Type I, II and III importers

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Austin J.; Park, Aekyung

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters are multi-subunit membrane pumps that transport substrates across membranes. While significant in the transport process, transporter architecture exhibits a range of diversity that we are only beginning to recognize. This divergence may provide insight into the mechanisms of substrate transport and homeostasis. Until recently, ABC importers have been classified into two types, but with the emergence of energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters there are potentially three types of ABC importers. In this review, we summarize an expansive body of research on the three types of importers with an emphasis on the basics that underlie ABC importers, such as structure, subunit composition and mechanism. PMID:25155087

  6. A novel type of human alpha-amylase produced in lung carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Tomita, N; Horii, A; Doi, S; Yokouchi, H; Shiosaki, K; Higashiyama, M; Matsuura, N; Ogawa, M; Mori, T; Matsubara, K

    1989-03-15

    A novel type of alpha-amylase was detected in a lung carcinoid tissue after surveying the cDNA library constructed from this tumor mRNA. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the amylase expressed in this carcinoid tumor has 13 and 6 amino acid substitutions when compared with salivary amylase (Amy1) and pancreatic amylase (Amy2), respectively. The nucleotide sequence homologies of cDNAs between this carcinoid amylase and amy1, amy2 are 97.5% and 98.2%, respectively. The nucleotide sequence comparison strongly suggests that this new amylase is the product of the amy3 gene that has been detected in human genome [Emi et al., Gene 62 (1988) 229-235] PMID:2701942

  7. Helicobacter pylori hopQ alleles (type I and II) in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    LEYLABADLO, HAMED EBRAHIMZADEH; YEKANI, MINA; GHOTASLOU, REZA

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) outer membrane protein (HopQ) of is one of the proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to have a role in the virulence of H. pylori. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between H. pylori virulence types I and II hopQ genotypes and patients with different gastrointestinal diseases. A polymerase chain reaction-based assay was used to determine the presence of type I and type II hopQ genes in 88 H. pylori strains isolated from H. pylori-infected patients. Of the total 88 H. pylori isolates, type I and type II hopQ alleles were detected in 52 (59.1%) and 36 (40.9%), respectively. A significant association was found between type I hopQ gene and gastric cancer [odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3–4.1] and gastric ulcers (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4–4.3). A significant association was also identified between the type II hopQ gene and gastric cancer (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–3.0). The association between hopQ type I and hopQ type II genotypes and clinical status suggest that these genes may be helpful in the universal prediction of specific disease risks. PMID:27123254

  8. Organization of the human keratin type II gene cluster at 12q13

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, S.J.; LeBlanc-Straceski, J.; Krauter, K.

    1994-12-01

    Keratin proteins constitute intermediate filaments and are the major differentiation products of mammalian epithelial cells. The epithelial keratins are classified into two groups, type I and type II, and one member of each group is expressed in a given epithelial cell differentiation stage. Mutations in type I and type II keratin genes have now been implicated in three different human genetic disorders, epidermolysis bullosa simplex, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma. Members of the type I keratins are mapped to human chromosome 17, and the type II keratin genes are mapped to chromosome 12. To understand the organization of the type II keratin genes on chromosome 12, we isolated several yeast artificial chromosomes carrying these keratin genes and examined them in detail. We show that eight already known type II keratin genes are located in a cluster at 12q13, and their relative organization reflects their evolutionary relationship. We also determined that a type I keratin gene, KRT8, is located next to its partner, KRT18, in this cluster. Careful examination of the cluster also revealed that there may be a number of additional keratin genes at this locus that have not been described previously. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effective dynamics in Bianchi type II loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison

    2012-05-01

    We numerically investigate the solutions to the effective equations of the Bianchi II model within the “improved” loop quantum cosmology dynamics. The matter source is a massless scalar field. We perform a systematic study of the space of solutions, and focus on the behavior of several geometrical observables. We show that the big bang singularity is replaced by a bounce and the pointlike singularities do not saturate the energy density bound. There are up to three directional bounces in the scale factors, one global bounce in the expansion, the shear presents up to four local maxima and can be zero at the bounce. This allows for solutions with density larger than the maximal density for the isotropic and Bianchi I cases. The asymptotic behavior is shown to behave like that of a Bianchi I model, and the effective solutions connect anisotropic solutions even when the shear is zero at the bounce. All known facts of Bianchi I are reproduced. In the “vacuum limit,” solutions are such that almost all the dynamics is due to the anisotropies. Since Bianchi II plays an important role in the Bianchi IX model and the Belinskii, Khalatnikov, Lifshitz conjecture, our results can provide an intuitive understanding of the behavior in the vicinity of general spacelike singularities, when loop-geometric corrections are present.

  10. Tissue-specific expression of the human type II collagen gene in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lovell-Badge, R H; Bygrave, A; Bradley, A; Robertson, E; Tilly, R; Cheah, K S

    1987-01-01

    Type II collagen is crucial to the development of form in vertebrates as it is the major protein of cartilage. To study the factors regulating its expression we introduced a cosmid containing the human type II collagen gene, including 4.5 kilobases of 5' and 2.2 kilobases of 3' flanking DNA, into embryonic stem cells in vitro. The transformed cells contribute to all tissues in chimeric mice allowing the expression of the exogenous gene to be studied in vivo. Human type II collagen mRNA is restricted to tissues showing transcription from the endogenous gene and human type II collagen is found in extracellular matrix surrounding chondrocytes in cartilage. The results indicate that the cis-acting requirements for correct temporal and spatial regulation of the gene are contained within the introduced DNA. Images PMID:3033664

  11. Chromosomal localization and structure of the human type II IMP dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glesne, D.; Huberman, E. |; Collart, F.; Varkony, T.; Drabkin, H.

    1994-05-01

    We determined the chromosomal localization and structure of the gene encoding human type II inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, EC 1.1.1.205), an enzyme associated with cellular proliferation, malignant transformation, and differentiation. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for type II IMPDH, we screened a panel of human-Chinese hamster cell somatic hybrids and a separate deletion panel of chromosome 3 hybrids and localized the gene to 3p21.1{yields}p24.2. Two overlapping yeast artificial chromosome clones containing the full gene for type II IMPDH were isolated and a physical map of 117 kb of human genomic DNA in this region of chromosome 3 was constructed. The gene for type II IMPDH was localized and oriented on this map and found to span no more than 12.5 kb.

  12. 46 CFR 171.073 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Subdivision and Damage Stability § 171.073 Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision. (a) A...

  13. Quantitative prediction of type II solar radio emission from the Sun to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are frequently associated with shocks and type II solar radio bursts. Despite involving fundamental plasma physics and being the archetype for collective radio emission from shocks, type II bursts have resisted detailed explanation for over 60 years. Between 29 November and 1 December 2013 the two widely separated spacecraft STEREO A and B observed a long lasting, intermittent, type II radio burst from ≈4 MHz to 30 kHz (harmonic), including an intensification when the CME-driven shock reached STEREO A. We demonstrate the first accurate and quantitative simulation of a type II burst from the high corona (near 11 solar radii) to 1 AU for this event with a combination of a data-driven three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation for the CME and plasma background and an analytic quantitative kinetic model for the radio emission.

  14. Vinyl fluoride as an isoelectronic replacement for an enolate anion: inhibition of type II dehydroquinases.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Martyn; Coggins, John R; Abell, Chris

    2002-09-01

    A vinyl fluoride analogue of the intermediate in the reaction catalysed by type II dehydroquinase enzymes has been synthesized over seven steps from (-)-quinic acid and shown to be a potent enzyme inhibitor. PMID:12271658

  15. Discriminating between Terminal- and Non-Terminal Respiratory Unit-Type Lung Adenocarcinoma Based on MicroRNA Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Cho, Jeong Su; Kim, Yeongdae; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Min Ki; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinomas can be classified into terminal respiratory unit (TRU) and non-TRU types. We previously reported that non-TRU-type adenocarcinoma has unique clinical and morphological features as compared to the TRU type. Here we investigated whether micro (mi)RNA expression profiles can be used to distinguish between these two subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. The expression of 1205 human and 144 human viral miRNAs was analyzed in TRU- and non-TRU-type lung adenocarcinoma samples (n = 4 each) by microarray. Results were validated by quantitative real-time (qRT-)PCR and in situ hybridization. A comparison of miRNA profiles revealed 29 miRNAs that were differentially expressed between TRU- and non-TRU adenocarcinoma types. Specifically, hsa-miR-494 and ebv-miR-BART19 were up regulated by > 5-fold, whereas hsa-miR-551b was down regulated by > 5-fold in the non-TRU relative to the TRU type. The miRNA signature was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis using an independent set of paired adenocarcinoma (non-TRU-type, n = 21 and TRU-type, n = 12) and normal tissue samples. Non-TRU samples showed increased expression of miR-494 (p = 0.033) and ebv-miR-BART19 (p = 0.001) as compared to TRU-type samples. Both miRNAs were weakly expressed in the TRU type but strongly expressed in the non-TRU type. Neither subtype showed miR-551b expression. TRU- and non-TRU-type adenocarcinomas have distinct miRNA expression profiles, suggesting that tumorigenesis in lung adenocarcinoma occur via different pathways. PMID:27575252

  16. Discriminating between Terminal- and Non-Terminal Respiratory Unit-Type Lung Adenocarcinoma Based on MicroRNA Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Cho, Jeong Su; Kim, Yeongdae; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Min Ki; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinomas can be classified into terminal respiratory unit (TRU) and non-TRU types. We previously reported that non-TRU-type adenocarcinoma has unique clinical and morphological features as compared to the TRU type. Here we investigated whether micro (mi)RNA expression profiles can be used to distinguish between these two subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. The expression of 1205 human and 144 human viral miRNAs was analyzed in TRU- and non-TRU-type lung adenocarcinoma samples (n = 4 each) by microarray. Results were validated by quantitative real-time (qRT-)PCR and in situ hybridization. A comparison of miRNA profiles revealed 29 miRNAs that were differentially expressed between TRU- and non-TRU adenocarcinoma types. Specifically, hsa-miR-494 and ebv-miR-BART19 were up regulated by > 5-fold, whereas hsa-miR-551b was down regulated by > 5-fold in the non-TRU relative to the TRU type. The miRNA signature was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis using an independent set of paired adenocarcinoma (non-TRU-type, n = 21 and TRU-type, n = 12) and normal tissue samples. Non-TRU samples showed increased expression of miR-494 (p = 0.033) and ebv-miR-BART19 (p = 0.001) as compared to TRU-type samples. Both miRNAs were weakly expressed in the TRU type but strongly expressed in the non-TRU type. Neither subtype showed miR-551b expression. TRU- and non-TRU-type adenocarcinomas have distinct miRNA expression profiles, suggesting that tumorigenesis in lung adenocarcinoma occur via different pathways. PMID:27575252

  17. Effect of mycobacterial secretory proteins on the cellular integrity and cytokine profile of type II alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Adlakha, Nidhi; Vir, Pooja; Verma, Indu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). In lungs, alveolar macrophages and type II alveolar epithelial cells serve as a replicative niche for this pathogen. Secretory proteins released by actively replicating tubercle bacilli are known to interact with host cells at the initial stages of infection. To understand the role of these cells in TB pathogenesis, it is important to identify the mycobacterial components involved in interaction with alveolar epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: We fractionated the whole secretory proteome of M. tb H37Rv into 10 narrow molecular mass fractions (A1-A10; <20 kDa to >90 kDa) that were studied for their binding potential with A549; type II alveolar epithelial cell line. We also studied the consequences of this interaction in terms of change in epithelial cell viability by MTT assay and cytokine release by ELISA. Results: Our results show that several mycobacterial proteins bind and confer cytolysis in epithelial cells. Amongst all the fractions, proteins ranging from 35-45 kDa (A5) exhibited highest binding to A549 cells with a consequence of cytolysis of these cells. This fraction (A5) also led to release of various cytokines important in anti-mycobacterial immunity. Conclusion: Fraction A5 (35-45 kDa) of mycobacterial secretory proteome play an important role in mediating M. tb interaction with type II alveolar epithelial cells with the consequences detrimental for the TB pathogenesis. Further studies are being carried out to identify the candidate proteins from this region. PMID:23243342

  18. Opsonic effect of jacalin and human immunoglobulin A on type II group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, N R; Concepcion, N F; Anthony, B F

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effect of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the IgA-binding lectin jacalin on the phagocytosis of type II group B streptococci (GBS). Strains possessing the trypsin-sensitive and trypsin-resistant components of the c protein (II/c) and type II GBS lacking the c protein (II) were examined by radiolabeled bacterial uptake, bactericidal assays, and electron microscopy. Type II/c GBS resisted phagocytosis by monocytes (4.9% +/- 0.8% uptake, mean +/- SE, n = 25) compared with type II GBS (8.5% +/- 1.4% uptake, n = 14, P = 0.03). Phagocytic killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes was also less for the type II/c strain 78-471 than for the type II strain 79-176 (68% +/- 5% versus 86% +/- 4% reduction in CFU at 45 min, P = 0.03). IgA binding did not explain the resistance of type II/c GBS to phagocytosis. The uptake of type II/c GBS was not significantly different after opsonization in cord sera lacking endogenous IgA (5.93% +/- 1.4%) than in the same cord sera after addition of exogenous IgA (5.48% +/- 1.4%, P = 0.69, n = 9). Attempts to remove serum IgA with the IgA-binding lectin jacalin resulted in the binding of IgA-jacalin complexes to II/c GBS. This combination of nonspecific IgA and jacalin increased uptake of II/c GBS from 4.9% +/- 0.8% to 11.8% +/- 1.9% (P = 0.002). Jacalin also combined with specific, immune, monoclonal IgA bound to the surface of Haemophilus influenzae and promoted the uptake of these bacteria. Jacalin and IgA mediated phagocytosis of II/c GBS via receptors that were not dependent on divalent cations and that were not modulated by plating monocytes on antigen-antibody complexes. Images PMID:2228238

  19. Nontoxic impact of PEG-coated gold nanospheres on functional pulmonary surfactant-secreting alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, Virginia; Haller, Thomas; Hobi, Nina; Felder, Edward; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2014-12-01

    The outstanding properties of gold nanoparticles (NPs) make them very attractive for biomedical applications. In particular, the inhalation route has gained considerable interest as an innovative strategy for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. It is, therefore, important to scrutinise the potentially deleterious or side effects of NPs on lung epithelium. The present study investigates, for the first time, the impact of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated NPs on freshly purified primary cultures of rat alveolar type II (ATII) cells. These cells play a central role in the respiratory function of the lungs. They are responsible for synthesizing and secreting pulmonary surfactant (PS), which is required to stabilise the respiratory surface during breathing dynamics. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of NPs was evaluated by analysing morphology, viability and exocytotic activity of ATII cells (PS secretion). The impact of ATII cells' exposure to NPs was studied in a wide range of gold concentration with particles sizes of 15 and 100 nm. The results show that PEG-coated NPs are very modestly internalised by ATII cells and it neither leads to detectable morphological changes nor to decreased cell viability nor to alterations in basic functional parameters such as PS secretion, even on exposure to high gold concentration (~0.2 mM) during relatively long periods of time (24-48 h). PMID:23914786

  20. Flux tubes and the type-I/type-II transition in a superconductor coupled to a superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark G.; Good, Gerald

    2008-07-01

    We analyze magnetic-flux tubes at zero temperature in a superconductor that is coupled to a superfluid via both density and gradient ('entrainment') interactions. The example we have in mind is high-density nuclear matter, which is a proton superconductor and a neutron superfluid, but our treatment is general and simple, modeling the interactions as a Ginzburg-Landau effective theory with four-fermion couplings, including only s-wave pairing. We numerically solve the field equations for flux tubes with an arbitrary number of flux quanta and compare their energies. This allows us to map the type-I/type-II transition in the superconductor, which occurs at the conventional {kappa}{identical_to}{lambda}/{xi}=1/{radical}(2) if the condensates are uncoupled. We find that a density coupling between the condensates raises the critical {kappa} and, for a sufficiently high neutron density, resolves the type-I/type-II transition line into an infinite number of bands corresponding to 'type-II(n)' phases, in which n, the number of quanta in the favored flux tube, steps from 1 to infinity. For lower neutron density, the coupling creates spinodal regions around the type-I/type-II boundary, in which metastable flux configurations are possible. We find that a gradient coupling between the condensates lowers the critical {kappa} and creates spinodal regions. These exotic phenomena may not occur in nuclear matter, which is thought to be deep in the type-II region but might be observed in condensed-matter systems.

  1. The Connections Between the UV and Optical Fe ii Emission Lines in Type 1 AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević-Dojčinović, Jelena; Popović, Luka Č.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the spectral properties of the UV (λλ2650-3050 Å) and optical (λλ4000-5500 Å) Fe ii emission features in a sample of 293 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore different correlations between their emission line properties, as well as the correlations with other emission lines from the spectral range. We find several interesting correlations and outline the most interesting results as follows. (i) There is a kinematical connection between the UV and optical Fe ii lines, indicating that the UV and optical Fe ii lines originate from the outer part of the broad line region, the so-called intermediate line region. (ii) The unexplained anticorrelations of the optical Fe ii equivalent width (EW Fe iiopt) versus EW [O iii] 5007 Å and EW Fe iiopt versus FWHM Hβ have not been detected for the UV Fe ii lines. (iii) The significant averaged redshift in the UV Fe ii lines, which is not present in optical Fe ii, indicates an inflow in the UV Fe ii emitting clouds, and probably their asymmetric distribution. (iv) Also, we confirm the anticorrelation between the intensity ratio of the optical and UV Fe ii lines and the FWHM of Hβ, and we find the anticorrelations of this ratio with the widths of Mg ii 2800 Å, optical Fe ii, and UV Fe ii. This indicates a very important role for the column density and microturbulence in the emitting gas. We discuss the starburst activity in high-density regions of young AGNs as a possible explanation of the detected optical Fe ii correlations and intensity line ratios of the UV and optical Fe ii lines.

  2. CHZ868, a Type II JAK2 Inhibitor, Reverses Type I JAK Inhibitor Persistence and Demonstrates Efficacy in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sara C.; Keller, Matthew D.; Chiu, Sophia; Koppikar, Priya; Guryanova, Olga A.; Rapaport, Franck; Xu, Ke; Manova, Katia; Pankov, Dmitry; O’Reilly, Richard J.; Kleppe, Maria; McKenney, Anna Sophia; Shih, Alan H.; Shank, Kaitlyn; Ahn, Jihae; Papalexi, Eftymia; Spitzer, Barbara; Socci, Nick; Viale, Agnes; Mandon, Emeline; Ebel, Nicolas; Andraos, Rita; Rubert, Joëlle; Dammassa, Ernesta; Romanet, Vincent; Dölemeyer, Arno; Zender, Michael; Heinlein, Melanie; Rampal, Rajit; Weinberg, Rona Singer; Hoffman, Ron; Sellers, William R.; Hofmann, Francesco; Murakami, Masato; Baffert, Fabienne; Gaul, Christoph; Radimerski, Thomas; Levine, Ross L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Although clinically tested JAK inhibitors reduce splenomegaly and systemic symptoms, molecular responses are not observed in most myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. We previously demonstrated that MPN cells become persistent to type I JAK inhibitors that bind the active conformation of JAK2. We investigated if CHZ868, a type II JAK inhibitor, would demonstrate activity in JAK inhibitor persistent cells, murine MPN models, and MPN patient samples. JAK2- and MPL-mutant cell lines were sensitive to CHZ868, including type I JAK inhibitor persistent cells. CHZ868 showed significant activity in murine MPN models and induced reductions in mutant allele burden not observed with type I JAK inhibitors. These data demonstrate that type II JAK inhibition is a viable therapeutic approach for MPN patients. PMID:26175413

  3. Type II bursts observed from the corona to ~0.2 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Cane, H.; Erickson, W. C.; Dulk, G. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    We report on radio observations of type II bursts with the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft and simultaneously with the Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer (BIRS) in Tasmania, Australia. WAVES observed at frequencies below 13.8 MHz, and BIRS observed from 37 MHz down to the ionospheric cutoff frequency in Tasmania, about 7 MHz. Thus there is continuous coverage of the type II bursts from decametric to kilometric wavelengths, with an overlap. Two type II bursts have been observed, 12 May 1997 and 4 Nov 1997. On 12 May 1997 the type II descended from >~37 MHz to about 9 MHz (perhaps weakly to 0.1 MHz), and fundamental-harmonic structure was observed. The preceeding type III burst descended to 30 kHz, the plasma frequency at the Wind spacecraft. On 4 Nov 1997 the type II descended from >~37 MHz to below 0.1 MHz; thus the type-II shock wave was observed from the mid corona to about 0.2 AU. The preceeding type III burst descended to 30 kHz, the plasma frequency at Wind. Fast electrons were observed by the 3D plasma experiment on Wind, and Langmuir waves associated with the electron beam were recorded by WAVES. We derive the speeds of the type III electrons and the type II shock waves as they traversed the corona and into the solar wind, and relate the radio observations to observations of CMEs observed by SOHO and shock waves observed in-situ at Wind or at the Earth.

  4. Type II fixed on boards flare continuum in the corona and solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Dulk, G. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2000-08-01

    A solar radio type II/type IV event with exceptionally low frequency flare continuum radiation was observed on May 2, 1998 with the Wind spacecraft. This flare continuum, associated with the type II burst (FCII), descended to 7.5 MHz (2.5-3 solar radii), the lowest frequency ever observed for this type of emission. It lasted for >2 hours at 13.8 MHz. Simultaneous observations were made with ground-based radiospectrographs, and with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) telescopes. The radio event consists of a group of intense type III bursts observed from 1000 MHz down to 0.03 MHz, the plasma frequency at 1 AU. The type II burst was recorded from 45 MHz down to 0.4 MHz, and an interplanetary shock was observed at 1 AU on May 4 at 0500 UT. The type II shock commenced within a few minutes of the flash phase of the flare and of the liftoff time of a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by EIT and LASCO. The derived speeds of the type II shock, the CME in the plane of the sky, and the shock from the Sun to 1 AU are all ~1000 km s-1. After estimating the liftoff time and radial speed of the CME front, we find that the type II shock and flare continuum were in the wake of the CME. This event shows evidence of acceleration of electrons in the corona out to 3RS for >~2 hours. Theoretical implications on the generation of the flare continuum radiation and its relation to the observed brightness temperature are considered. The source model of type II-flare continuum of Robinson [1985], in which electrons are accelerated by the shock wave traversing CME expanding loops, is discussed in view of these observations.

  5. Oxygen-evolving photosystem II preparation from wild type and photosystem II mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilovsky, D.L.; Boussac, A.G.P.; van Mieghem, F.J.E.; Ducruet, J.M.R.C.; Setif, P.R.; Rutherford, A.W. ); Jiujiang Yu; Vermaas, W.F.J. )

    1992-02-25

    The authors present here a simple and rapid method which allows relatively large quantities of oxygen-evolving photosystem II- (PS-II-) enriched particles to be obtained from wild-type and mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. This method is based on that of Burnap et al. but is modified so that the whole preparation, from cells to PS-II particles, is achieved in 10 h and involves only one purification step. The purified preparation exhibits a 5-6-fold increase of O{sub 2}-evolution activity on a chlorophyll basis over the thylakoids. The ratio of PS-I to PS-II is about 0.14:1 in the preparation. The secondary quinone electron acceptor, Q{sub B}, is present in this preparation as demonstrated by thermoluminescence studies. These PS-II particles are well-suited to spectroscopic studies as demonstrated by the range of EPR signals arising from components of PS-II that are easily detectable. Among the EPR signals presented are those from a formal S{sub 3}-state, attributed to an oxidized amino acid interacting magnetically with the Mn complex in Ca{sup 2+}-deficient PS-II particles, and from S{sub 2} modified by the replacement of Ca{sup 2+} by Sr{sup 2+}. Neither of these signals has been previously reported in cyanobacteria. Their detection under these conditions indicates a similar lesion caused by Ca{sup 2+} depletion in both plants and cyanobacteria. The protocol has been applied to mutants which have site-specific changes in PS-II. Data are presented on mutants have changes on the electron donor (Y160F) and electron acceptor (G215W) side of the D{sub 2} polypeptide.

  6. The Relation Between Large-Scale Coronal Propagating Fronts and Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; Liu, Wei; Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale, wave-like disturbances in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and type II radio bursts are often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Both phenomena may signify shock waves driven by CMEs. Taking EUV full-disk images at an unprecedented cadence, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed the so-called EIT waves or large-scale coronal propagating fronts (LCPFs) from their early evolution, which coincides with the period when most metric type II bursts occur. This article discusses the relation of LCPFs as captured by AIA with metric type II bursts. We show examples of type II bursts without a clear LCPF and fast LCPFs without a type II burst. Part of the disconnect between the two phenomena may be due to the difficulty in identifying them objectively. Furthermore, it is possible that the individual LCPFs and type II bursts may reflect different physical processes and external factors. In particular, the type II bursts that start at low frequencies and high altitudes tend to accompany an extended arc-shaped feature, which probably represents the 3D structure of the CME and the shock wave around it, and not just its near-surface track, which has usually been identified with EIT waves. This feature expands and propagates toward and beyond the limb. These events may be characterized by stretching of field lines in the radial direction and may be distinct from other LCPFs, which may be explained in terms of sudden lateral expansion of the coronal volume. Neither LCPFs nor type II bursts by themselves serve as necessary conditions for coronal shock waves, but these phenomena may provide useful information on the early evolution of the shock waves in 3D when both are clearly identified in eruptive events.

  7. MACHO observations of Type II cepheids and RV Tauri Stars in the LMC

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Pollard, K.A.; Alisman, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    We report the of the existence of RV Tauri stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). This class of variable star has hitherto been unidentified in the Magellanic Clouds. In light and color curve behavior the RV Tauri stars appear to be an extension of the Type II Cepheids to longer periods. A single period-luminosity-color relationship is seen to describe both the Type II Cepheids and the RV Tauri stars in the LMC.

  8. The management of type II superior labral anterior to posterior injuries.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Frank; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Chalmers, Peter; Gupta, Anil; Verma, Nikhil; Romeo, Anthony A

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic repair of type II superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears is currently the standard of care, with most patients obtaining good to excellent surgical results. However, overhead athletes and older patients have inferior outcomes. Recent clinical studies and biomechanical data suggest that a biceps tenodesis is a suitable alternative in select patients. This article reviews the literature to identify the biomechanical and clinical indications for performing a biceps tenodesis for type II SLAP lesions. PMID:24267213

  9. Impaired Theory of Mind and psychosocial functioning among pediatric patients with Type I versus Type II bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Schenkel, Lindsay S; Chamberlain, Todd F; Towne, Terra L

    2014-03-30

    Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) have been documented among pediatric patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, fewer studies have directly examined differences between type I and type II patients and whether or not ToM deficits are related to psychosocial difficulties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare type I versus type II pediatric bipolar patients and matched Healthy Controls (HC) on ToM and interpersonal functioning tasks. All participants completed the Revised Mind in the Eyes Task (MET), the Cognitive and Emotional Perspective Taking Task (CEPTT), and the Index of Peer Relations (IPR). Type I BD patients reported greater peer difficulties on the IPR compared to HC, and also performed more poorly on the MET and the cognitive condition of the CEPTT, but did not differ significantly on the emotional condition. There were no significant group differences between type II BD patients and HC. More impaired ToM performance was associated with poorer interpersonal functioning. Type I BD patients show deficits in the ability to understand another's mental state, irrespective of emotional valence. Deficits in understanding others' mental states could be an important treatment target for type I pediatric patients with BD. PMID:24461271

  10. Nanoparticle mass transfer from lung airways to systemic regions--Part II: Multi-compartmental modeling.

    PubMed

    Kolanjiyil, Arun V; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2013-12-01

    This is the second article of a two-part paper, combining high-resolution computer simulation results of inhaled nanoparticle deposition in a human airway model (Kolanjiyil and Kleinstreuer, 2013, "Nanoparticle Mass Transfer From Lung Airways to Systemic Regions--Part I: Whole-Lung Aerosol Dynamics," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 135(12), p. 121003) with a new multicompartmental model for insoluble nanoparticle barrier mass transfer into systemic regions. Specifically, it allows for the prediction of temporal nanoparticle accumulation in the blood and lymphatic systems and in organs. The multicompartmental model parameters were determined from experimental retention and clearance data in rat lungs and then the validated model was applied to humans based on pharmacokinetic cross-species extrapolation. This hybrid simulator is a computationally efficient tool to predict the nanoparticle kinetics in the human body. The study provides critical insight into nanomaterial deposition and distribution from the lungs to systemic regions. The quantitative results are useful in diverse fields such as toxicology for exposure-risk analysis of ubiquitous nanomaterial and pharmacology for nanodrug development and targeting. PMID:24008585

  11. ON-DISK COUNTERPARTS OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE Ca II 854.2 nm AND Halpha LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppe van der Voort, L.; Leenaarts, J.; Carlsson, M.; Vissers, G.; De Pontieu, B. E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.n E-mail: jorritl@astro.uio.n

    2009-11-01

    Recently, a second type of spicules was discovered at the solar limb with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Japanese Hinode spacecraft. These previously unrecognized type II spicules are thin chromospheric jets that are shorter lived (10-60 s) and that show much higher apparent upward velocities (of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}) than the classical spicules. Since they have been implicated in providing hot plasma to coronal loops, their formation, evolution, and properties are important ingredients for a better understanding of the mass and energy balance of the low solar atmosphere. Here, we report on the discovery of the disk counterparts of type II spicules using spectral imaging data in the Ca II 854.2 nm and Halpha lines with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter at the Swedish Solar Telescope in La Palma. We find rapid blueward excursions in the line profiles of both chromospheric lines that correspond to thin, jet-like features that show apparent velocities of order 50 km s{sup -1}. These blueward excursions seem to form a separate absorbing component with Doppler shifts of order 20 and 50 km s{sup -1} for the Ca II 854.2 nm and Halpha line, respectively. We show that the appearance, lifetimes, longitudinal and transverse velocities, and occurrence rate of these rapid blue excursions on the disk are very similar to those of the type II spicules at the limb. A detailed study of the spectral line profiles in these events suggests that plasma is accelerated along the jet, and plasma is being heated throughout the short lifetime of the event.

  12. L-type calcium channel β subunit modulates angiotensin II responses in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Moreno, Cristian; Itfinca, Mircea; Altier, Christophe; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andres; Zamponi, Gerald W; Varela, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are not completely understood. Moreover, the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has not yet been explored. In this work we study the role of Ca(v)β subunits and the intracellular signaling responsible for L-type calcium current modulation by Angiotensin II. In cardiomyocytes, Angiotensin II exposure induces rapid inhibition of L-type current with a magnitude that is correlated with the rate of current inactivation. Semi-quantitative PCR of cardiomyocytes at different days of culture reveals changes in the Ca(v)β subunits expression pattern that are correlated with the rate of current inactivation and with Angiotensin II effect. Over-expression of individual b subunits in heterologous systems reveals that the magnitude of Angiotensin II inhibition is dependent on the Ca(v)β subunit isoform, with Ca(v)β(1b) containing channels being more strongly regulated. Ca(v)β(2a) containing channels were insensitive to modulation and this effect was partially due to the N-terminal palmitoylation sites of this subunit. Moreover, PLC or diacylglycerol lipase inhibition prevents the Angiotensin II effect on L-type calcium channels, while PKC inhibition with chelerythrine does not, suggesting a role of arachidonic acid in this process. Finally, we show that in intact cardiomyocytes the magnitude of calcium transients on spontaneous beating cells is modulated by Angiotensin II in a Ca(v)β subunit-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that Ca(v)β subunits alter the magnitude of inhibition of L-type current by Angiotensin II. PMID:21525790

  13. p53 activation by Ni(II) is a HIF-1α independent response causing caspases 9/3-mediated apoptosis in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Victor C.; Morse, Jessica L.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2013-06-15

    Hypoxia mimic nickel(II) is a human respiratory carcinogen with a suspected epigenetic mode of action. We examined whether Ni(II) elicits a toxicologically significant activation of the tumor suppressor p53, which is typically associated with genotoxic responses. We found that treatments of H460 human lung epithelial cells with NiCl{sub 2} caused activating phosphorylation at p53-Ser15, accumulation of p53 protein and depletion of its inhibitor MDM4 (HDMX). Confirming the activation of p53, its knockdown suppressed the ability of Ni(II) to upregulate MDM2 and p21 (CDKN1A). Unlike DNA damage, induction of GADD45A by Ni(II) was p53-independent. Ni(II) also increased p53-Ser15 phosphorylation and p21 expression in normal human lung fibroblasts. Although Ni(II)-induced stabilization of HIF-1α occurred earlier, it had no effect on p53 accumulation and Ser15 phosphorylation. Ni(II)-treated H460 cells showed no evidence of necrosis and their apoptosis and clonogenic death were suppressed by p53 knockdown. The apoptotic role of p53 involved a transcription-dependent program triggering the initiator caspase 9 and its downstream executioner caspase 3. Two most prominently upregulated proapoptotic genes by Ni(II) were PUMA and NOXA but only PUMA induction required p53. Knockdown of p53 also led to derepression of antiapoptotic MCL1 in Ni(II)-treated cells. Overall, our results indicate that p53 plays a major role in apoptotic death of human lung cells by Ni(II). Chronic exposure to Ni(II) may promote selection of resistant cells with inactivated p53, providing an explanation for the origin of p53 mutations by this epigenetic carcinogen. - Highlights: • Ni(II) is a strong activator of the transcription factor p53. • Apoptosis is a principal form of death by Ni(II) in human lung epithelial cells. • Ni(II)-activated p53 triggers caspases 9/3-mediated apoptotic program. • NOXA and PUMA are two main proapoptotic genes induced by Ni(II). • HIF-1α and p53 are independent

  14. Self-consistent calculations of optical properties of type I and type II quantum heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvayev, Vladimir A.

    In this Thesis the self-consistent computational methods are applied to the study of the optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures with one- and two-dimensional quantum confinements. At first, the self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations is applied to the cylindrical core-shell structure with type II band alignment without direct Coulomb interaction between carriers. The electron and hole states and confining potential are obtained from a numerical solution of this system. The photoluminescence kinetics is theoretically analyzed, with the nanostructure size dispersion taken into account. The results are applied to the radiative recombination in the system of ZnTe/ZnSe stacked quantum dots. A good agreement with both continuous wave and time-resolved experimental observations is found. It is shown that size distribution results in the photoluminescence decay that has essentially non-exponential behavior even at the tail of the decay where the carrier lifetime is almost the same due to slowly changing overlap of the electron and hole wavefunctions. Also, a model situation applicable to colloidal core-shell nanowires is investigated and discussed. With respect to the excitons in type I quantum wells, a new computationally efficient and flexible approach of calculating the characteristics of excitons, based on a self-consistent variational treatment of the electron-hole Coulomb interaction, is developed. In this approach, a system of self-consistent equations describing the motion of an electron-hole pair is derived. The motion in the growth direction of the quantum well is separated from the in-plane motion, but each of them occurs in modified potentials found self-consistently. This approach is applied to a shallow quantum well with the delta-potential profile, for which analytical expressions for the exciton binding energy and the ground state eigenfunctions are obtained, and to the quantum well with the square potential profile with several

  15. The causal relevance of body mass index in different histological types of lung cancer: A Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Torres, Robert; Haycock, Philip C.; Relton, Caroline L.; Martin, Richard M.; Smith, George Davey; Kraft, Peter; Gao, Chi; Tworoger, Shelley; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Park, Sungshim L.; Haiman, Christopher; Field, John K.; Davies, Michael; Marcus, Michael; Liu, Geoffrey; Caporaso, Neil E.; Christiani, David C.; Wei, Yongyue; Chen, Chu; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Severi, Gianluca; Goodman, Gary E.; Hung, Rayjean J.; Amos, Christopher I.; McKay, James; Johansson, Mattias; Brennan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with lung cancer risk in observational studies, even though it increases the risk of several other cancers, which could indicate confounding by tobacco smoking or reverse causality. We used the two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to circumvent these limitations of observational epidemiology by constructing a genetic instrument for BMI, based on results from the GIANT consortium, which was evaluated in relation to lung cancer risk using GWAS results on 16,572 lung cancer cases and 21,480 controls. Results were stratified by histological subtype, smoking status and sex. An increase of one standard deviation (SD) in BMI (4.65 Kg/m2) raised the risk for lung cancer overall (OR = 1.13; P = 0.10). This was driven by associations with squamous cell (SQ) carcinoma (OR = 1.45; P = 1.2 × 10−3) and small cell (SC) carcinoma (OR = 1.81; P = 0.01). An inverse trend was seen for adenocarcinoma (AD) (OR = 0.82; P = 0.06). In stratified analyses, a 1 SD increase in BMI was inversely associated with overall lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 0.50; P = 0.02). These results indicate that higher BMI may increase the risk of certain types of lung cancer, in particular SQ and SC carcinoma. PMID:27487993

  16. The causal relevance of body mass index in different histological types of lung cancer: A Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Carreras-Torres, Robert; Haycock, Philip C; Relton, Caroline L; Martin, Richard M; Smith, George Davey; Kraft, Peter; Gao, Chi; Tworoger, Shelley; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R; Park, Sungshim L; Haiman, Christopher; Field, John K; Davies, Michael; Marcus, Michael; Liu, Geoffrey; Caporaso, Neil E; Christiani, David C; Wei, Yongyue; Chen, Chu; Doherty, Jennifer A; Severi, Gianluca; Goodman, Gary E; Hung, Rayjean J; Amos, Christopher I; McKay, James; Johansson, Mattias; Brennan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with lung cancer risk in observational studies, even though it increases the risk of several other cancers, which could indicate confounding by tobacco smoking or reverse causality. We used the two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to circumvent these limitations of observational epidemiology by constructing a genetic instrument for BMI, based on results from the GIANT consortium, which was evaluated in relation to lung cancer risk using GWAS results on 16,572 lung cancer cases and 21,480 controls. Results were stratified by histological subtype, smoking status and sex. An increase of one standard deviation (SD) in BMI (4.65 Kg/m(2)) raised the risk for lung cancer overall (OR = 1.13; P = 0.10). This was driven by associations with squamous cell (SQ) carcinoma (OR = 1.45; P = 1.2 × 10(-3)) and small cell (SC) carcinoma (OR = 1.81; P = 0.01). An inverse trend was seen for adenocarcinoma (AD) (OR = 0.82; P = 0.06). In stratified analyses, a 1 SD increase in BMI was inversely associated with overall lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 0.50; P = 0.02). These results indicate that higher BMI may increase the risk of certain types of lung cancer, in particular SQ and SC carcinoma. PMID:27487993

  17. Differential effect of cholesterol on type I and II feline coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Satomi, Yui; Oyama, Yuu; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of domestic and wild felidae that is caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoV has been classified into types I and II. Since type I FCoV infection is dominant in the field, it is necessary to develop antiviral agents and vaccines against type I FCoV infection. However, few studies have been conducted on type I FCoV. Here, we compare the effects of cholesterol on types I and II FCoV infections. When cells were treated methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and inoculated with type I FCoV, the infection rate decreased significantly, and the addition of exogenous cholesterol to MβCD-treated cells resulted in the recovery of the infectivity of type I FCoV. Furthermore, exogenous cholesterol increased the infectivity of type I FCoV. In contrast, the addition of MβCD and exogenous cholesterol had little effect on the efficiency of type II FCoV infection. These results strongly suggest that the dependence of infection by types I and II FCoV on cholesterol differs. PMID:26514843

  18. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  19. Resonance Thirring solitons in type II second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trillo, Stefano

    1996-11-01

    It is shown that second-harmonic generation in a grating allows one to cancel the group-velocity difference between two polarization components at fundamental by means of nonlinearly induced phase shifts. This occurs when a new type of cascading soliton propagates on resonance.

  20. Synthesis of C1 inhibitor in fibroblasts from patients with type I and type II hereditary angioneurotic edema.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, J; Katz, Y; Rosen, F S; Davis, A E; Strunk, R C

    1991-01-01

    Patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) have serum levels of functionally active inhibitor of the first component of complement (C1 INH) between 5 and 30% of normal, instead of the 50% expected from the single normal allele. Increases in rates of catabolism have been documented in patients with HANE and certainly account for some of decrease in C1 INH level. A possible role for a decrease in synthesis of C1 INH in producing serum levels of C1 INH below the expected 50% of normal has not been well studied. We studied the synthesis of C1 INH in skin fibroblast lines, which produce easily detectable amounts of C1 INH. In type I HANE cells, C1 INH synthesis was 19.6 +/- 4.0% (mean +/- SD) of normal, much less than the 50% predicted. In type II HANE cells, the total amount of C1 INH synthesis (functional and dysfunctional) was 98.9 +/- 17% of normal; the functional protein comprised 43% of the total. Thus, type II HANE cells synthesized functional C1 INH at a much greater rate than for the type I cells. In both type I and II HANE cells, amounts of steady-state C1 INH mRNA levels paralleled rates of C1 INH synthesis, indicating that control of C1 INH synthesis occurred at pretranslational levels. Both type I and type II fibroblasts synthesized normal amounts of C1r and C1s. These data suggest that the lower than expected amounts of functionally active C1 INH in type I HANE may be due, in part, to a decrease in rate of synthesis of the protein, and that the expressions of the normal C1 INH allele in HANE is influenced by the type of abnormal allele present. Images PMID:1902490

  1. Evaluation of primary lung cancer with indium 111 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (type ZCE-025) monoclonal antibody scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Morris, J.F.; Antonovic, R.; Ahmed, A.; Galey, W.T.; Duncan, C.; Krishnamurthy, G.T. )

    1990-02-01

    A study was undertaken to test whether indium 111 (111In)-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (type ZCE 025) monoclonal intact antibody (MoAb) would concentrate in primary lung cancer enabling its detection and localization by scintigraphy. The scintigraphic results were correlated with chest radiograph, computed tomograph (CT), bronchoscopy, surgical resection, and tumor CEA analysis. Twenty adult male patients with clinical suspicion of primary lung cancer were studied. Each subject was infused with 4 to 5 mCi of 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb, and planar and tomographic scintiphotos were obtained on days 3 and 6 or 7 postinfusion. The scintigraphy was true-positive in 12 of 16 patients with primary lung cancer, eight of nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and four of seven with adenocarcinoma; it was true-negative in three of four patients with benign lung disease with an overall accuracy of 75%. In seven patients with confirmed primary lung cancer, but with negative bronchoscopic findings, the scintigraphy was true-positive in four. In 11 patients with definitely positive or suspicious malignancy by bronchoscopy the monoclonal scintigraphy was positive in eight. In true-positive cases, the location and size of the lesion by 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb imaging correlated well with CT findings and also tumor mass at surgery. Only one of 12 tumors stained positive for CEA had serum CEA levels greater than 10 ng/ml, indicating nonleakage of the tumor antigen into general circulation in early lung cancer. It is concluded that 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb planar and tomographic imaging shows potential to serve as a noninvasive diagnostic test in the evaluation of primary lung cancer. The lung lesion is likely to be malignant if it concentrates 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb and benign if it does not.

  2. An assessment of the World Health Organization classification of the histologic typing of lung tumors applied to biopsy and resected material.

    PubMed

    Hinson, K F; Miller, A B; Tall, R

    1975-02-01

    In a study of the World Health Organization classification of the histologic typing of lung tumors, sections from a total of 740 patients in the Medical Research Council Study of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy, 182 of whom also had positive preoperativebronchial biopsies and 231 involved lymph nodes in the resected specimens, and from 30 patients in the Medical Research Council Trial of Surgery and Radiotherapy in Small or Oat-celled Carcinoma of the Bronchus have been assessed. Of the 740 primary tumors from the Study of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy, 71% were placed in Type I, 12% in Type II, 9% in Type III, and 7% in Type IV. Only 2 primary tumors could not be typed. A blind comparison of the type of primary tumor and bronchial biopsy showed that the biopsy was a good indicator of the type of the primary tumor. A bind comparison of the primary tumor and involved lymph node also showed a close degree of agreement. However, when the type of the primary tumor was assessed in the presence of the involved node. Tumors were placed in Type IV far less frequently than when assessed blind. It is concluded that the World Health Organization classification is applicable to primary tumor, bronchial biopsy, and involved node, that the biopsy is a valuable indicator of the type of the primary tumor, and that the apparent type of the involved node should not be allowed to over-influence the pathologist in deciding on the type of the primary tumor when both are assessed together. PMID:163133

  3. Topological odd-parity superconductivity at type-II two-dimensional van Hove singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Yang, Fan

    2015-07-01

    We study unconventional superconductivity induced by weak repulsive interactions in 2D electronic systems at van Hove singularity (VHS) where density of states is logarithmically divergent. We define two types of VHS. For systems at type-I VHS, weak repulsive interactions generically induce unconventional singlet pairing. However, and more interestingly, for type-II VHS renormalization group analysis shows that weak repulsive interactions favor triplet pairing (e.g., p wave) when the Fermi surface is not sufficiently nested. For type-II VHS systems respecting tetragonal symmetry, topological superconductivity (either chiral p +i p pairing or time-reversal invariant Z2p +i p pairing) occurs generally. We shall also discuss relevance of our study to materials including recently discovered superconductors LaO1 -xFxBiS2 , which can be tuned to type-II VHS by doping.

  4. Topological Odd-Parity Superconductivity Close to Type-II 2D Van Hove Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Yang, Fan

    2014-03-01

    We study unconventional superconductivity induced by weak repulsive interactions in 2D electronic systems at Van Hove singularity (VHS) where electronic density of states is logarithmically divergent. We define two types of VH saddle points. For type-I VH systems, weak repulsive interactions generically induce unconventional singlet pairing. However and more interestingly, for type-II VH systems renormalization group treatment shows that weak repulsive interactions favor triplet pairing (e.g. p-wave) when the Fermi surface has no good nesting. When such type-II VH systems respecting tetragonal or hexagonal point group symmetry, topological superconductivity (chiral p +ip or time reversal invariant Z2 p +ip pairing) will generally occur. We shall also discuss implications of this study to recently discovered BiS2-based superconductors and other superconducting materials that host type-II VH singularities in their Fermi surfaces.

  5. Ozone-induced alterations in arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured lung cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most sensitive cells to ozone (O/sub 3/) damage is the pulmonary endothelial cell which may mediate the response of the lung to injury by productions of the autacoid prostacyclin (PGl/sub 2/), a metabolite of arachidonic acid. Exposure of endothelial cell cultures to ozone produced a concentration dependent decreases in the synthesis of PGl/sub 2/. Release of /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid from endothelial cells was increased after two hours of 0.3 and 1.0 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure while incubation of cells with 20 ..mu..M and arachidonate (4 min) after exposure resulted in a decreased PGl/sub 2/ synthesis. Cells exposed to 1.0 ppm O/sub 3/ did not have a decreased PGl/sub 2/ production when incubated with 5 ..mu..M PGH/sub 2/ immediately after exposure. These results are consistent with an O/sub 3/-induced inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity. O/sub 3/ exposure (1.0 ppm) produced a rapid decrease in endothelial PGl/sub 2/ synthesis. The data suggest that cyclooxygenase was not inactivated by increased autooxidation due to metabolism of increased free arachidonate. PGl/sub 2/ synthesis returned to control amounts within 12 hours after ozone exposure similar to the recovery time of irreversibly inhibited cyclooxygenase suggesting that recovery was due to de novo synthesis of enzyme. Lipid peroxides and/or hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) may have caused the inhibition of cyclooxygenase. Incubation of cells with catalase (5 U/ml) protected against the O/sub 3/-induced depression in PGl/sub 2/ synthesis. Exogenously added H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (greater than or equal to 75 ..mu..M) caused a stimulation of basal PGl/sub 2/ production but depressed arachidonate-stimulated synthesis. O/sub 3/ exposure (2 hr, 1.0 ppm) produced altered metabolism of arachidonate in other important lung cell types, e.g., a decreased PGl/sub 2/ synthesis in smooth muscle cultures. Exposure of lung macrophages to O/sub 3/ caused an increase in almost all arachidonate metabolites produced.

  6. Time trends in never smokers in the relative frequency of the different histological types of lung cancer, in particular adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter N; Forey, Barbara A; Coombs, Katharine J; Lipowicz, Peter J; Appleton, Scott

    2016-02-01

    The increasing proportion of lung cancers classified as adenocarcinoma has been a topic of interest and research. The main objective of the analyses reported here is to summarize how the proportion of adenocarcinoma varies in never smokers by time, sex and region based on published evidence on the distribution of lung cancer types available from epidemiological studies. Based on 219 sex- and period-specific blocks of data drawn from 157 publications, there appears to be a clear time-related increase in the proportion of lung cancers in never smokers that are adenocarcinoma, which is evident in both sexes, and not specific to any region. It is seen whether the denominator of the proportion is made up of adenocarcinoma plus squamous cell carcinoma cases, cases of the four major types combined, or all lung cancer cases. The ratio of adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma rose continuously from 1950 to 69 to be almost 4 times higher for the data from 2000 onwards. We discuss factors that may have contributed to the observed findings, including changes in lung cancer classification. Our findings argue against the hypothesis that increases in the ratio arise from changes in cigarette design and composition. PMID:26640118

  7. Metabolic abnormalities of the heart in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Nelson; Okonko, Darlington O

    2015-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus escalates the risk of heart failure partly via its ability to induce a cardiomyopathic state that is independent of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Although the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy has yet to be fully elucidated, aberrations in cardiac substrate metabolism and energetics are thought to be key drivers. These aberrations include excessive fatty acid utilisation and storage, suppressed glucose oxidation and impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. An appreciation of how these abnormalities arise and synergise to promote adverse cardiac remodelling is critical to their effective amelioration. This review focuses on disturbances in myocardial fuel (fatty acids and glucose) flux and energetics in type 2 diabetes, how these disturbances relate to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the potential therapeutic agents that could be used to correct them. PMID:25941161

  8. Angiotensin II-induced angiotensin II type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2009-02-01

    Upon activation, the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1Rs) rapidly undergoes endocytosis. After a series of intracellular processes, the internalized AT1Rs recycle back to the plasma membrane or are trafficked to proteasomes or lysosomes for degradation. We recently reported that AT1Rs degrades in proteasomes upon stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor (D5R) in human renal proximal tubule and HEK-293 cells. This is in contrast to the degradation of AT1R in lysosomes upon binding Ang II. However, the dynamic regulation of the AT1Rs in lysosomes is not well understood. Here we investigated the AT1Rs lysosomal degradation using FRET-FLIM in HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing the human AT1R tagged with EGFP as the donor fluorophore. Compared to its basal state, the lifetime of AT1Rs decreased after a 5-minute treatment with Ang II treatment and colocalized with Rab5 but not Rab7 and LAMP1. With longer Ang II treatment (30 min), the AT1Rs lifetime decreased and co-localized with Rab5, as well as Rab7 and LAMP1. The FLIM data are corroborated with morphological and biochemical co-immunoprecipitation studies. These data demonstrate that Ang II induces the internalization of AT1Rs into early sorting endosomes prior to trafficking to late endosomes and subsequent degradation in lysosomes.

  9. Intranasal Administration of Type V Collagen Reduces Lung Carcinogenesis through Increasing Endothelial and Epithelial Apoptosis in a Urethane-Induced Lung Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Parra, Edwin Roger; Alveno, Renata Antunes; Faustino, Carolina Brito; Corrêa, Paula Yume Sato Serzedello; Vargas, Camilla Mutai; de Morais, Jymenez; Rangel, Maristela Peres; Velosa, Ana Paula Pereira; Fabro, Alexandre Todorovic; Teodoro, Walcy Rosolia; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza

    2016-08-01

    Type V collagen (Col V) is a "minor" component of normal lung extracellular matrix, which is subjected to decreased and abnormal synthesis in human lung infiltrating adenocarcinoma. We previously reported that a direct link between low amounts of Col V and decreased cell apoptosis may favor cancer cell growth in the mouse lung after chemical carcinogenesis. Moreover, this collagen species was able to trigger DNA fragmentation and impair survival of neoplastic cells. In this study, we have extended our investigation with the aim to obtain further evidence that the death induced by Col V-treatment is of the caspase-9 apoptotic type. We used (1) optical and electron microscopy, (2) quantitation of TUNEL-labeled cells and (3) analysis of the expression levels of Col V and selected genes coding for apoptosis-linked factors, by conventional RT-PCR. BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1.5 g/kg body weight of urethane. After urethane injection, the animals received intranasal administration of 20 µg/20 µl of Col V every day during 2 months. We report here that Col V treatment was able to determine significant increase in Col V protein and gene expression and in the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells, to up-regulate caspase-9, resulting in low growth of tumor cells. Our data validate chemical carcinogenesis as a suitable "in vivo" model for further and more detailed studies on the molecular mechanisms of the death response induced by Col V in lung infiltrating adenocarcinoma opening new strategies for treatment. PMID:27020095

  10. TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG CANCER.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Atsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer as comorbidities has been extensively discussed in many studies. In the past, it was well known that lung cancer is a specific epidemiological successor of PTB and that lung cancer often develops in scars caused by PTB. In recent years, the relevance of the two diseases has drawn attention in terms of the close epidemiological connection and chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. In Japanese case series studies, most lung cancer patients with tuberculous sequelae received supportive care alone in the past, but more recently, the use of aggressive lung cancer treatment is increasing. Many studies on PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities have revealed that active PTB is noted in 2-5% of lung cancer cases, whereas lung cancer is noted in 1-2% of active PTB cases. In such instances of comorbidity, many active PTB cases showed Type II (non-extensively cavitary disease) and Spread 2-3 (intermediate-extensive diseases) on chest X-rays, but standard anti-tuberculosis treatment easily eradicates negative conversion of sputum culture for M. tuberculosis; lung cancer cases were often stage III- IV and squamous cell carcinoma predominant, and the administration of aggressive treatment for lung cancer is increasing. The major clinical problems associated with PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities include delay in diagnosis (doctor's delay) and therapeutic limitations. The former involves two factors of radiographic interpretation: the principles of parsimony (Occam's razor) and visual search; the latter involves three factors of lung cancer treatment: infectivity of M.tuberculosis, anatomical limitation due to lung damage by tuberculosis, and drug-drug interactions between rifampicin and anti-cancer drugs, especially molecularly targeted drugs. The comorbidity of these two diseases is an important health-related issue in Japan. In the treatment of PTB, the possibility of concurrent lung cancer should be kept

  11. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Hardik; Patel, Sejal; Patel, Ghanshyam; Paranjape, Archana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg) treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ‘analysis of variance’ test followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with significant level of P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property. PMID:24948860

  12. Type I/type II band alignment transition in strained PbSe /PbEuSeTe multiquantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simma, M.; Fromherz, T.; Bauer, G.; Springholz, G.

    2009-11-01

    Investigation of the optical transitions in tensily strained PbSe /PbEuSeTe multiquantum wells by differential transmission spectroscopy reveals a type I/type II band alignment transition due to strain-induced lowering of the band edge energies of the quantum wells. From the measured shifts of the optical transitions the optical deformation potentials of PbSe are obtained. This is crucial for realistic modeling of the electronic properties of strained PbSe heterostructures.

  13. Antibiotic management of lung infections in cystic fibrosis. II. Nontuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, James F; Aksamit, Timothy R; Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Dasenbrook, Elliott C; Elborn, J Stuart; LiPuma, John J; Ranganathan, Sarath C; Waters, Valerie J; Ratjen, Felix A

    2014-10-01

    Airway infections are a key component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Whereas the approach to common pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa is guided by a significant body of evidence, other infections often pose a considerable challenge to treating physicians. In Part I of this series on the antibiotic management of difficult lung infections, we discussed bacterial organisms including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterial infections, and treatment of multiple bacterial pathogens. Here, we summarize the approach to infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. Nontuberculous mycobacteria can significantly impact the course of lung disease in patients with CF, but differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult clinically as coinfection with other micro-organisms is common. Treatment consists of different classes of antibiotics, varies in intensity, and is best guided by a team of specialized clinicians and microbiologists. The ability of anaerobic bacteria to contribute to CF lung disease is less clear, even though clinical relevance has been reported in individual patients. Anaerobes detected in CF sputum are often resistant to multiple drugs, and treatment has not yet been shown to positively affect patient outcome. Fungi have gained significant interest as potential CF pathogens. Although the role of Candida is largely unclear, there is mounting evidence that Scedosporium species and Aspergillus fumigatus, beyond the classical presentation of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, can be relevant in patients with CF and treatment should be considered. At present, however there remains limited information on how best to select patients who could benefit from antifungal therapy. PMID:25167882

  14. Dominant mutations in the type II collagen gene, COL2A1, produce spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type.

    PubMed

    Tiller, G E; Polumbo, P A; Weis, M A; Bogaert, R; Lachman, R S; Cohn, D H; Rimoin, D L; Eyre, D R

    1995-09-01

    The chondrodysplasias are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormal growth or development of cartilage. Current classification is based on mode of inheritance as well as clinical, histologic, and/or radiographic features. A clinical spectrum of chondrodysplasia phenotypes, ranging from mild to perinatal lethal, is due to defects in the gene for type II collagen, COL2A1. This spectrum includes Stickler syndrome, Kniest dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC), achondrogenesis type II, and hypochondrogenesis. Individuals affected with these disorders exhibit abnormalities of the growth plate, nucleus pulposus, and vitreous humor, which are tissues that contain type II collagen. The Strudwick type of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) is characterized by disproportionate short stature, pectus carinatum, and scoliosis, as well as dappled metaphyses (which are not seen in SEDC). The phenotype was first described by Murdoch and Walker in 1969, and a series of 14 patients was later reported by Anderson et al. The observation of two affected sibs born to unaffected parents led to the classification of SEMD Strudwick as an autosomal recessive disorder. We now describe the biochemical characterization of defects in alpha 1(II) collagen in three unrelated individuals with SEMD Strudwick, each of which is due to heterozygosity for a unique mutation in COL2A1. Our data support the hypothesis that some cases, if not all cases, of this distinctive chondrodysplasia result from dominant mutations in COL2A1, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of phenotypes associated with this gene. PMID:7550321

  15. Simultaneous type I and type II Čerenkov-phase matched second-harmonic generation in disordered nonlinear photonic structures.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Mousa; Paßlick, Markus; Imbrock, Jörg; Denz, Cornelia

    2015-11-01

    We observe simultaneous type I and II Čerenkov-phase matched second-harmonic generation in a disordered nonlinear photonic crystal. The mean width of the disordered ferroelectric domains and the laser beam width are adjusted to be on the same length scale. We analyze the polarization properties, emission angles and intensities of each process. PMID:26561107

  16. Effects of lysine clonixinate on cyclooxygenase I and II in rat lung and stomach preparations.

    PubMed

    Franchi, A M; Di Girolamo, G; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1998-06-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a drug of antiinflammatory antipyretic and analgesic activity that produces minor digestive side-effects. This fact induced us to think that LC is possibly a weak COX-1 inhibitor. In order to investigate our hypothesis we inhibited cyclooxygenase activity with LC or indomethacin (INDO) in rat lung and stomach obtained from rats treated with lipopolysacharide (LPS) and control rats. Rat lung preparations incubated with 14C-arachidonic acid synthesise mainly PGE2. LC at 2.5 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M does not modify the basal production of PGE2 (probably COX-1) but at 6.8 x 10(-5) M significantly inhibited PGE2 production (approximately 48.5% inhibition, P<0.001). On the other hand, INDO at 10(-6) inhibited the basal production of PGE2 by around 73%. In LPS-treated rats, the production of PGE2 was significantly higher than in the lungs of control rats, probably due to the induction of COX-2. The addition of LC at 2.7 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M recovered the control values of PGE2 inhibiting, probably only from COX-2 activity. LC at higher concentrations (6.8 x 10(-5) M) and INDO 10(-6) M inhibited PGE2 formed by COX-2 and also partly by COX-1 activity. PMID:10189073

  17. Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis domesticus) Reveals Predominance of Type II Infections in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Maksimov, Pavlo; Zerweck, Johannes; Dubey, Jitender P.; Pantchev, Nikola; Frey, Caroline F.; Maksimov, Aline; Reimer, Ulf; Schutkowski, Mike; Hosseininejad, Morteza; Ziller, Mario; Conraths, Franz J.; Schares, Gereon

    2013-01-01

    Background Cats are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii and play an essential role in the epidemiology of this parasite. The study aims at clarifying whether cats are able to develop specific antibodies against different clonal types of T. gondii and to determine by serotyping the T. gondii clonal types prevailing in cats as intermediate hosts in Germany. Methodology To establish a peptide-microarray serotyping test, we identified 24 suitable peptides using serological T. gondii positive (n=21) and negative cat sera (n=52). To determine the clonal type-specific antibody response of cats in Germany, 86 field sera from T. gondii seropositive naturally infected cats were tested. In addition, we analyzed the antibody response in cats experimentally infected with non-canonical T. gondii types (n=7). Findings Positive cat reference sera reacted predominantly with peptides harbouring amino acid sequences specific for the clonal T. gondii type the cats were infected with. When the array was applied to field sera from Germany, 98.8% (85/86) of naturally-infected cats recognized similar peptide patterns as T. gondii type II reference sera and showed the strongest reaction intensities with clonal type II-specific peptides. In addition, naturally infected cats recognized type II-specific peptides significantly more frequently than peptides of other type-specificities. Cats infected with non-canonical types showed the strongest reactivity with peptides presenting amino-acid sequences specific for both, type I and type III. Conclusions Cats are able to mount a clonal type-specific antibody response against T. gondii. Serotyping revealed for most seropositive field sera patterns resembling those observed after clonal type II-T. gondii infection. This finding is in accord with our previous results on the occurrence of T. gondii clonal types in oocysts shed by cats in Germany. PMID:24244652

  18. Lesions and distribution of viral antigen following an experimental infection of young seronegative calves with virulent bovine virus diarrhea virus-type II.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M

    1998-01-01

    During the past several years, acute infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have been causally linked to hemorrhagic and acute mucosal disease-like syndromes with high mortality. The majority of BVDVs isolated in such cases have been classified as type II on the basis of genetic and antigenic characteristics. It was our objective to examine clinical disease, lesions and potential sites of viral replication, following experimental BVDV type II infection in young calves. On approximately day 35 after birth, calves that had received BVDV-antibody-negative colostrum were infected by intranasal inoculation of 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of BVDV type II isolate 24,515 in 5 mL of tissue culture fluid (2.5 mL/nostril). Calves were monitored twice daily for signs of clinical disease. Approximately 48-72 h after infection, all calves developed transient pyrexia (39.4-40.5 degrees C) and leukopenia. Beginning on approximately day 7 after infection, all calves developed watery diarrhea, pyrexia (40.5-41.6 degrees C), marked leukopenia (> or = 75% drop from preinoculation values), variable thrombocytopenia, and moderate to severe depression. Calves were euthanized on days 10, 11, or 12 after infection due to severe disease. Gross and histological lesions consisted of multifocal bronchointerstitial pneumonia (involving 10%-25% of affected lungs), bone marrow hypoplasia and necrosis, and minimal erosive lesions in the alimentary tract. Immunohistochemical staining for BVDV revealed widespread viral antigen usually within epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mononuclear phagocytes in multiple organs, including lung, Peyer's patches, gastric mucosa, thymus, adrenal gland, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin. This BVDV type II isolate caused rapidly progressive, severe multisystemic disease in seronegative calves that was associated with widespread distribution of viral antigen and few gross or histological inflammatory lesions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3

  19. Fractionated administration of irinotecan and cisplatin for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II study of Okayama Lung Cancer Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Ueoka, H; Tanimoto, M; Kiura, K; Tabata, M; Takigawa, N; Segawa, Y; Takata, I; Eguchi, K; Okimoto, N; Harita, S; Kamei, H; Shibayama, T; Watanabe, Y; Hiraki, S; Harada, M

    2001-01-01

    A phase II study of fractionated administration of irinotecan (CPT-11) and cisplatin (CDDP) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was conducted. Between January 1996 and January 1998, 44 previously untreated patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC were enrolled. CDDP at a dose of 60 mg m–2was given first and followed by CPT-11 at a dose of 50 mg m–2. Both drugs were given by 1-hour infusion on days 1 and 8, and repeated every 4 weeks up to 4 cycles. 42 patients were evaluated for response and 44 for survival and toxicity. 20 patients (48%: 95% confidence interval 32–63%) achieved an objective response. The median duration of responses was 8 months, and the median survival time and the 1-year survival rate were 12.5 months and 56.8%, respectively. Major toxicities were neutropenia and diarrhoea. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 70.5% of the patients and one patient died of sepsis. Grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea was experienced in 25.0%, but manageable by conventional therapy. In conclusion, fractionated administration of CPT-11 and CDDP was highly effective for advanced NSCLC with manageable toxicities. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11437395

  20. Repression of host RNA polymerase II transcription by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, C A; Dahmus, M E; Rice, S A

    1997-01-01

    Lytic infection of mammalian cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) results in rapid repression of host gene expression and selective activation of the viral genome. This transformation in gene expression is thought to involve repression of host transcription and diversion of the host RNA polymerase (RNAP II) transcription machinery to the viral genome. However, the extent of virus-induced host transcription repression and the mechanisms responsible for these major shifts in transcription specificities have not been examined. To determine how HSV-1 accomplishes repression of host RNAP II transcription, we assayed transcription patterns on several cellular genes in cells infected with mutant and wild-type HSV-1. Our results suggest that HSV-1 represses RNAP II transcription on most cellular genes. However, each cellular gene we examined responds differently to the transcription repressive effects of virus infection, both quantitatively and with respect to the involvement of viral gene products. Virus-induced shutoff of host RNAP II transcription requires expression of multiple immediate-early genes. In contrast, expression of delayed-early and late genes and viral DNA replication appear to contribute little to repression of host cell RNAP II transcription. Modification of RNAP II to the intermediately phosphorylated (II(I)) form appears unlinked to virus-induced repression of host cell transcription. However, full repression of host transcription is correlated with depletion of the hyperphosphorylated (IIO) form of RNAP II. PMID:9032335