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1

White lupin ( Lupinus albus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is an annual legume traditionally cultivated around the Mediterranean and along the Nile valley where it is used for human consumption, green manuring and as forage. The composition of the grain and especially the high protein content makes white lupin highly suitable for ruminant diets as a protein-rich product in intensive farming systems. The absence

Christian Huyghe

1997-01-01

2

Organic Weed Control in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Legumes such as white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) provide a valuable nitrogen source in organic agriculture. With organic farming becoming an increasing sector of US agriculture and white lupin interest increasing in the southeastern USA because winter hardy cultivars are available, non-chemical weed c...

3

Comportement du lupin blanc, Lupinus albus L, cv Lublanc, en sols calcaires. Seuils de tolrance  

E-print Network

Agronomie Comportement du lupin blanc, Lupinus albus L, cv Lublanc, en sols calcaires. Seuils de essai de comportement du lupin blanc, cultivar Lublanc. Ce comportement a également été observé, dans un. Les indices de pouvoir chorosant se sont révélés de moins bons estimateurs du comportement du lupin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Energy and protein value of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and its mode of utilization in pig feeding  

E-print Network

Energy and protein value of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and its mode of utilization in pig and protein value as well as the mode of utilization of white lupin (Lupinus albus I,.) in fattening pigs. A digestibility experiment was made for assessing the energy and protein value of two types of white lupin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

Utilisation du lupin (Lupinus albus L.) chez le poulet de chair pendant la priode de finition  

E-print Network

Utilisation du lupin (Lupinus albus L.) chez le poulet de chair pendant la période de finition G. UZU Developpement Ali!nentation animale A.E.C., F 03600 Commentry Résumé L'utilisation du lupin blanc lupin (40 p. 100) en remplacement du tourteau de soja, et sont équilibrés en acides aminés essentiels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Interaction entre diffrentes souches de Rhizobium lupini et les espces ou cultivars de lupin (Lupinus albus,  

E-print Network

Interaction entre différentes souches de Rhizobium lupini et les espèces ou cultivars de lupin'efficacité fixatrice de souches de Rhizobium lupini a été mesurée en serre sur Lupinus albus, luteus et mutabilis. De : Fixation d'azote, inoculum, inoculation, symbiose. SUMMARY Interaction between Rhizobium lupini strains

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.  

PubMed

In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p?lupin seeds. Phytic acid losses in bitter and sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties. PMID:24966434

Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgili, Nermin

2014-07-01

8

Characterization of lupin major allergens (Lupinus albus L.).  

PubMed

White lupin is considered to be a rich source of protein with a notable content of lysine and is being increasingly used in bakery, confectionery, snacks and pastry products due to its multifunctional properties, in addition to its potential hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic properties. However, lupin seed flour has been reported as a causative agent of allergic reactions, especially in patients with allergy to peanut since the risk of immunological cross-reactivity between lupin and peanut is higher than with other legumes. Previously, we had identified two proteins as major lupin allergens (34.5 and 20 kDa) as determined by IgE immunoblotting using sera of 23 patients with lupin-specific IgE. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize the two major lupin allergens. The results using in vitro IgE-binding studies and MS analysis have shown that the 34.5 kDa allergen (Lup-1) is a conglutin ? (vicilin-like protein) while the 20 kDa allergen (Lup-2) corresponds to the conglutin ? fraction (legumin-like protein). The high level of amino acid sequence homology of Lup-1 and Lup-2 with the major allergens of some legumes explains the IgE cross-reactivity and clinical cross-reactivity of lupin and other legumes. PMID:20461737

Guillamn, Eva; Rodrguez, Julia; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Crespo, Jess F; Sancho, Ana I; Mills, E N Clare; Cuadrado, Carmen

2010-11-01

9

White Lupin (Lupinus albus) Response to Phosphorus Stress: Evidence for Complex Regulation of LaSAP1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus) has a unique adaptation to phosphorus deficiency stress, such that a set of tightly coordinated physiological and morphological responses gives rise to the formation of cluster, or proteoid roots, structures that allow the plant to live in extremely infertile soils. The c...

10

Physiological Aspects of Cluster Root Function and Development in Phosphorus-deficient White Lupin ( Lupinus albus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster root formation in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is induced mainly by phosphorus (P) starvation, and seems to be regulated by the endogenous P status of the plant. Increased formation of cluster roots, when indole acetic acid is supplied to the growth medium of P sufficient plants, and inhibitory effects of kinetin application suggest the involvement of endogenous phytohormones

Gnter Neumann; Agns Massonneau; Nicolas Langlade; Barbara Dinkelaker; Christine Hengeler; Volker Rmheld; Enrico Martinoia

2000-01-01

11

Transcript and proteomic analysis of developing white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots  

PubMed Central

Background White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots efficiently take up and accumulate (heavy) metals, adapt to phosphate deficiency by forming cluster roots, and secrete antimicrobial prenylated isoflavones during development. Genomic and proteomic approaches were applied to identify candidate genes and proteins involved in antimicrobial defense and (heavy) metal uptake and translocation. Results A cDNA library was constructed from roots of white lupin seedlings. Eight thousand clones were randomly sequenced and assembled into 2,455 unigenes, which were annotated based on homologous matches in the NCBInr protein database. A reference map of developing white lupin root proteins was established through 2-D gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. High quality peptide mass spectra were obtained for 170 proteins. Microsomal membrane proteins were separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 74 proteins were putatively identified by the peptide mass fingerprinting and the LC-MS/MS methods. Genomic and proteomic analyses identified candidate genes and proteins encoding metal binding and/or transport proteins, transcription factors, ABC transporters and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes. Conclusion The combined EST and protein datasets will facilitate the understanding of white lupin's response to biotic and abiotic stresses and its utility for phytoremediation. The root ESTs provided 82 perfect simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with potential utility in breeding white lupin for enhanced agronomic traits. PMID:19123941

Tian, Li; Peel, Gregory J; Lei, Zhentian; Aziz, Naveed; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; Watson, Bonnie; Zhao, Patrick X; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A

2009-01-01

12

Metabolic changes associated with cluster root development in white lupin ( Lupinus albus L.): relationship between organic acid excretion, sucrose metabolism and energy status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under phosphorous deficiency, plants of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) develop root clusters, which are also called proteoid roots due to their preferential presence in the Proteaceae. In their mature stage, these roots acidify the soil and excrete high amounts of carboxylates [up to 1.5 and 7 mol (g FW)-1 h-1 of malate and citrate, respectively] enabling lupins to utilise

Agns Massonneau; Nicolas Langlade; Sbastien Lon; Jana Smutny; Esther Vogt; Gnter Neumann; Enrico Martinoia

2001-01-01

13

Hormonal interactions during cluster-root development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).  

PubMed

This study addresses hormonal interactions involved in cluster-root (CR) development of phosphate (Pi)-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus), which represents the most efficient plant strategy for root-induced mobilisation of sparingly soluble soil phosphorus (P) sources. Shoot-to-root translocation of auxin was unaffected by P-limitation, while strong stimulatory effects of external sucrose on CR formation, even in P-sufficient plants, suggest sucrose, rather than auxins, acts as a shoot-borne signal, triggering the induction of CR primordia. Ethylene may act as mediator of the sucrose signal, as indicated by moderately increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis in pre-emergent clusters and by strong inhibitory effects of the ethylene antagonist CoCl2 on CR formation induced by sucrose amendments or P-limitation. As reported in other plants, moderately increased production of brassinosteroids (BRs) and cytokinin, in pre-emergent clusters, may be required for the formation of auxin gradients necessary for induction of CR primordia via interference with auxin biosynthesis and transport. The well-documented inhibition of root elongation by high doses of ethylene may be involved in the growth inhibition of lateral rootlets during CR maturation, indicated by a massive increased expression of gene involved in ethylene production, associated with a declined expression of transcripts with stimulatory effects (BR and auxin-related genes). PMID:25668414

Wang, Zhengrui; Rahman, A B M Moshiur; Wang, Guoying; Ludewig, Uwe; Shen, Jianbo; Neumann, Gnter

2015-04-01

14

Effects of extracts of lupine seed on blood glucose levels in glucose resistant mice: antihyperglycemic effects of Lupinus albus (white lupine, Egypt) and Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine, Mesa Verde National Park).  

PubMed

Lupine is a medicinal food plant with potential value in the management of diabetes. In white mice, extracts of seeds of the white lupine [Lupinus albus (L. termis L.)] were associated with increased tolerance to an oral glucose bolus. Antihyperglycemic activity was present in extracts of the whole seed but not extracts of the seed coat, and was not detected when glucose was administered intraperitoneally rather than orally. However, in contrast to results seen with the prescription drug, acarbose, lupine extract did not appear to increase the bulk or carbohydrate content of the feces. Antihyperglycemic activity was also seen in extracts of the tailcup lupine (L. caudatus) found in the Four Corners Region of the United States. PMID:17317651

Knecht, Kathryn T; Nguyen, Hoa; Auker, Adrienne D; Kinder, David H

2006-01-01

15

Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J.; Harper, John D.I.; Ash, Gavin J.; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R.; Phan, Huyen T.T.; Raman, Harsh

2013-01-01

16

Comparison of the response to phosphorus deficiency in two lupin species, Lupinus albus and L.?angustifolius, with contrasting root morphology.  

PubMed

White lupin (Lupinus albus) produces cluster roots, an adaptation to low soil phosphorus (P). Cluster roots exude large levels of P-solubilizing compounds such as citrate and malate. In contrast, narrow leaf lupin (L.?angustifolius) is closely related to L.?albus, but does not produce cluster roots. To examine the different strategies for P acquisition, we compared the growth, biomass allocation, respiratory properties and construction cost between L.?albus and L.?angustifolius under P-deficient conditions. Both Lupinus species were grown in hydroponic culture with 1 or 100??M P. Under the P-deficient regime, L.?albus produced cluster roots with little change in biomass allocation, while L.?angustifolius significantly increased biomass allocation to roots. The rate of cyanide-resistant SHAM (salicylhydroxamic acid)-sensitive respiration was high in cluster roots and very low in roots of L.?angustifolius. These results suggest a low alternative oxidase (AOX) activity in L.?angustifolius roots, and thus, ATP would be produced efficiently in L.?angustifolius roots. The construction cost was highest in cluster roots and lowest in L.?angustifolius roots. This study shows that under P deficiency, L.?albus produces high-cost cluster roots to increase the P availability, while L.?angustifolius produces large quantities of low-cost roots to enhance P uptake. PMID:24941862

Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

2015-03-01

17

Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)  

PubMed Central

Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 mol m2 s1 or 600 mol m2 s1 light and a sufficient (50 M P) or deficient (1 M P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P.; White, Philip J.; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

2014-01-01

18

Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).  

PubMed

Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 mol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 mol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 M P) or deficient (1 M P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

2014-07-01

19

The First Genetic and Comparative Map of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.): Identification of QTLs for Anthracnose Resistance and Flowering Time, and a Locus for Alkaloid Content  

PubMed Central

Abstract We report the first genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). An F8 recombinant inbred line population developed from Kiev mutant P27174 was mapped with 220 amplified fragment length polymorphism and 105 gene-based markers. The genetic map consists of 28 main linkage groups (LGs) that varied in length from 22.7 cM to 246.5 cM and spanned a total length of 2951 cM. There were seven additional pairs and 15 unlinked markers, and 12.8% of markers showed segregation distortion at P < 0.05. Syntenic relationships between Medicago truncatula and L. albus were complex. Forty-five orthologous markers that mapped between M. truncatula and L. albus identified 17 small syntenic blocks, and each M. truncatula chromosome aligned to between one and six syntenic blocks in L. albus. Genetic mapping of three important traits: anthracnose resistance, flowering time, and alkaloid content allowed loci governing these traits to be defined. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant effects were identified for anthracnose resistance on LG4 and LG17, and two QTLs were detected for flowering time on the top of LG1 and LG3. Alkaloid content was mapped as a Mendelian trait to LG11. PMID:17526914

Phan, Huyen T. T.; Ellwood, Simon R.; Adhikari, Kedar; Nelson, Matthew N.; Oliver, Richard P.

2007-01-01

20

Quality of Lupinus albus L. (white lupin) seed: extent of genotypic and environmental effects.  

PubMed

White lupin seed can be used for traditional and functional foods or as animal feed. This study aimed to support lupin breeders and production stakeholders by assessing the extent of genotypic, environmental, and genotype environment (GE) interaction effects on seed contents of oil, tocopherols (TOC), and quinolizidine alkaloids (QA), grain yield, and seed weight of eight elite genotypes grown in two climatically contrasting Italian locations for two cropping years. On average, plants in the subcontinental climate site exhibited higher grain yield and seed size, about 8% lower oil content, and almost 85% higher QA content than those in the Mediterranean climate site. The range of genotype means was 2.97-5.14 t/ha for yield, 92-110 mg/g for oil, and 0.121-0.133 mg/g for TOC. TOC amount was largely unpredictable and featured large GE interactions that hinder its genetic improvement. Oil and alkaloid contents and seed size are more predictable and offer potential for selection. PMID:24934884

Annicchiarico, Paolo; Manunza, Patrizia; Arnoldi, Anna; Boschin, Giovanna

2014-07-16

21

Purification and characterization of three phytases from germinated lupine seeds (Lupinus albus var. amiga).  

PubMed

Three phytases were purified about 14200-fold (LP11), 16000-fold (LP12), and 13100-fold (LP2) from germinated 4-day-old lupine seedlings to apparent homogeneity with recoveries of 13% (LP11), 8% (LP12), and 9% (LP2) referred to the phytase activity in the crude extract. They behave as monomeric proteins of a molecular mass of about 57 kDa (LP11 and LP12) and 64 kDa (LP2), respectively. The purified proteins belong to the acid phytases. They exhibit a single pH optimum at 5.0. Optimal temperature for the degradation of sodium phytate is 50 degrees C. Kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of sodium phytate are K(M) = 80 microM (LP11), 300 microM (LP12), and 130 microM (LP2) and k(cat) = 523 s(-1) (LP11), 589 s(-1) (LP12), and 533 s(-1) (LP2) at pH 5.0 and 35 degrees C. The phytases from lupine seeds exhibit a broad affinity for various phosphorylated compounds and hydrolyze phytate in a stepwise manner. PMID:12405788

Greiner, Ralf

2002-11-01

22

Intra-plant variability in seed size and seed quality in Lupinus albus L  

E-print Network

) of autumn-sown white lupin under a range of cropping conditions. The environmental conditions (year or indeterminate growth habit. The autumn-sown white lupin genotype with a determinate architecture showed by the genotype but the stand density had no effect. Lupinus albus L = white lupin / growth habit / seed size

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.  

PubMed

Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 6510(6)1810(6) and 9910(6)22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages of bioavailable Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr, which were 5.70.7, 5.31.7, 1.20.1, 121.5 and 0.10.02%, respectively, before lupin growth, increased to 9.61.6, 72, 20.3, 141.5 and 0.10.02% after lupin harvest. On the whole, our results indicate that the winter cultivation of white lupin in sequence with a metal-accumulator summer crop can improve the recovery of soil quality during the phytoextraction period. It improves the safety of the area, limiting additional ecological and human health problems, and enhances soil health by avoiding the use of chemical amendments and by increasing the levels of viable microorganisms. PMID:24992047

Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferr, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

2014-12-01

24

The Response of Lupinus albus Roots to the Signal from Phosphorus-Deficient Substrate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excretion of organic acids into the rhizosphere is induced by low phosphorus content in roots of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.). The aim of this study was to investigate how did the white lupine roots respond to the signals of P-deficiency in the substrate, by using the method of separating the root system into two parts, one part being

Z. M. Tian; B. Wang; C. X. Song; W. P. Li; F. L. Qin

2004-01-01

25

Effect of water stress on abscisic acid levels in white lupin ( Lupinus albus L.) fruit, leaves and phloem exudate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abscisic acid (ABA) was identified by combined gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in sieve-tube exudate collected from the cut stylar ends of white lupin fruit. Water stress caused an increase in ABA levels in leaf, seed and pod tissues and phloem exudate. When compared with levels in extracts of these tissues, the concentration of ABA in sieve-tube sap was very high.

G. V. Hoad

1978-01-01

26

Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively. PMID:21568822

Levent, Hacer; Bilgili, Nermin

2011-11-01

27

Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Lupinus albus L. germplasm and its implication for association mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and applications as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47%) and oil (6-13%). It also has many secondary metabolites that are pote...

28

Auxin mediates patterning of cluster root development induced by phosphorus deficiency in Lupinus albus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) develops cluster roots under phosphorus (P) deficiency. This species is widely used as a model system to study the morphology and physiology of cluster roots. However, the mechanism of P deficiency-induced cluster root formation is not fully understood. To evaluate the...

29

Proteomic characterization of seeds from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.).  

PubMed

Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a legume crop containing a large amount of protein in its seeds. In this study, we constructed a seed-protein catalog to provide a foundation for further study of the seeds. A total of 736 proteins were identified in 341 2DE spots by nano-LC-MS/MS. Eight storage proteins were found as multiple spots in the 2DE gels. The 736 proteins correspond to 152 unique proteins as shown by UniRef50 clustering. Sixty-seven of the 152 proteins were associated with KEGG-defined pathways. Of the remaining proteins, 57 were classified according to a GO term. The functions of the remaining 28 proteins have yet to be determined. This is the first yellow lupin seed-protein catalog, and it contains considerably more data than previously reported for white lupin (L. albus L.). PMID:24723484

Ogura, Takahiro; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Takeishi, Hidetaka; Aizawa, Tomoko; Olivos-Trujillo, Marcos R; Maureira-Butler, Ivn J; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo E

2014-06-01

30

Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350W. PMID:25708530

Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernndez, Adrin

2015-04-01

31

The regulatory network of cluster-root function and development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus) identified by transcriptome sequencing.  

PubMed

Lupinus albus serves as model plant for root-induced mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphates via the formation of cluster-roots (CRs) that mediate secretion of protons, citrate, phenolics and acid phosphatases (APases). This study employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these complex adaptive responses at the transcriptome level. We compared different stages of CR development, including pre-emergent (PE), juvenile (JU) and the mature (MA) stages. The results confirmed that the primary metabolism underwent significant modifications during CR maturation, promoting the biosynthesis of organic acids, as had been deduced from physiological studies. Citrate catabolism was downregulated, associated with citrate accumulation in MA clusters. Upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway reflected the accumulation of phenolics. Specific transcript expression of ALMT and MATE transporter genes correlated with the exudation of citrate and flavonoids. The expression of transcripts related to nucleotide degradation and APases in MA clusters coincided with the re-mobilization and hydrolysis of organic phosphate resources. Most interestingly, hormone-related gene expression suggested a central role of ethylene during CR maturation. This was associated with the upregulation of the iron (Fe)-deficiency regulated network that mediates ethylene-induced expression of Fe-deficiency responses in other species. Finally, transcripts related to abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were upregulated in MA clusters, while auxin- and brassinosteroid-related genes and cytokinin receptors were most strongly expressed during CR initiation. Key regulations proposed by the RNA-seq data were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and some physiological analyses. A model for the gene network regulating CR development and function is presented. PMID:24635386

Wang, Zhengrui; Straub, Daniel; Yang, Huaiyu; Kania, Angelika; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Gnter

2014-07-01

32

Enhancing white lupin ( Lupinus albus L.) adaptation to calcareous soils through selection of lime-tolerant plant germplasm and Bradyrhizobium strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsThis study aimed to determine whether white lupin adaptation to moderately calcareous soils could be enhanced by lime-tolerant\\u000a plants and Bradyrhizobium strains.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsFourteen landraces from Italy, Morocco and Egypt and some cultivars were grown in moderate-lime (ML) and low-lime (LL) soil\\u000a with each of two inoculants, one commercial and one including three Bradyrhizobium strains well-nodulating under ML soil (isolated\\u000a from

Paolo Annicchiarico; Imane Thami Alami

33

Optimization of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lupin (Lupinus) Proteins for Producing ACE-Inhibitory Peptides.  

PubMed

Recently, the enzymatic hydrolysis of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius proteins with pepsin was showed to produce peptides able to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The objective of the present work was to test different hydrolytic enzymes and to investigate three lupin species (L. albus, L. angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) with the final goal of selecting the best enzyme/species combination for an efficient production of ACE-inhibitory peptide mixtures. Pepsin gave peptides with the best IC50 values (mean value on three species 186 10 ?g/mL), followed by pepsin + trypsin (198 16 ?g/mL), chymotrypsin (213 83 ?g/mL), trypsin (405 54 ?g/mL), corolase PP (497 32 ?g/mL), umamizyme (865 230 ?g/mL), and flavourzyme (922 91 ?g/mL). The three species showed similar activity scales, but after pepsin + trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments, L. luteus peptide mixtures resulted to be significantly the most active. This investigation indicates that lupin proteins may be a valuable source of ACE-inhibitory peptides, which may explain the activity observed in experimental and clinical studies and foresee the application of lupin proteins into functional foods or dietary supplements. PMID:24483134

Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

2014-02-26

34

Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis) population cycles with climate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) contains the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine that causes a crooked calf syndrome when a cow ingests lupine between the 40-100 day of gestation. An outbreak of crooked calves occurred in the Scabland region of eastern Washington in 1997 following t...

35

Mycobiota of Lupinus albus seed from a public germplasm collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seedborne mycobiota of Lupinus albus was assessed using blotter paper and agar media with Rose Bengal or semi-selective for Pythium or Fusarium. Samples of 200 seeds were taken from each of 16 inventories, comprising 14 accessions originating from Germany, France, Ukraine, Syria, Hungary or Spain, a...

36

Characterizing change in the yellow bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus, using high-resolution aerial photography  

E-print Network

Characterizing change in the yellow bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus, using high-resolution aerial photography High-Resolution Tracking of Bush Lupine Die-off Lupinus arboreus Hepialus californicus ·The yellow bush lupine is a nitrogen fixing plant found on the coast of California. ·Bush lupine die-off has been

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

37

Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and seed yield in determinate autumn-sown white lupins  

E-print Network

lupins (Lupinus albus L) B Julier* C Huyghe, J Papineau JM Pissard P Cormenier INRA, Station d) Summary Determinate autumn-sown white lupins (Lupinus albus L) are new types which are potentially interesting for the improvement of yield stability and for cultivation of lupins in northern Europe. Two

Boyer, Edmond

38

Dosage rapide des diffrents alcalodes de Lupinus albus L. et de Lupinus mutabilis Sweet pour la slection  

E-print Network

analysis of lupin alkaloids for breeding purposes. The method of alkaloid quantitative analysis described protéagineuses cultiva- bles en France, les lupins (Lupinus sp. ) ont la particularité : - de posséder des lupins, dits doux, diminuent la croissance du jeune poulet de façon proportionnelle à leurs teneurs en

Boyer, Edmond

39

Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Lupinus albus L. germplasm and its implication for association mapping.  

PubMed

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and application as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47 %) and oil (6-13 %). It also has many secondary metabolites that are potentially of nutraceutical value to animals and humans. Despite such a great potential, lupins role in modern agriculture began only in the twentieth century. Although a large collection of Lupinus germplasm accessions is available worldwide, rarely have they been genetically characterized. Additionally, scarce genomic resources in terms of recombinant populations and genome information have been generated for L. albus. With the advancement in association mapping methods, the natural populations have the potential to replace the recombinant populations in gene mapping and marker-trait associations. Therefore, we studied the genetic similarity, population structure and marker-trait association in a USDA germplasm collection for their current and future application in this crop improvement. A total of 122 PI (Plant Inventory) lines were screened with 18 AFLP primer pairs that generated 2,277 fragments. A subset of 892 polymorphic markers with MAF >0.05 (minor allele frequency) were used for association mapping. The cluster analysis failed to group accessions on the basis of their passport information, and a weak structure and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) were observed indicating the usefulness of the collection for association mapping. Moreover, we were also able to identify two markers (a p value of 1.53 10(-4) and 2.3 10(-4)) that explained 22.69 and 20.5 % of seed weight variation determined using R (LR) (2) . The implications of lack of geographic clustering, population structure, low LD and the ability of AFLP to map seed weight trait using association mapping and the usefulness of the PI collections in breeding programs are discussed. PMID:22454146

Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Mamidi, Sujan; Ahsan, Rubina; Kianian, Shahryar F; Coyne, Clarice J; Hamama, Anwar A; Narina, Satya S; Bhardwaj, Harbans L

2012-08-01

40

Lupin flour addition to wheat flour doughs and effect on rheological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full fat lupin flour (FFLF), concentrated lupin flour (CLF) and defatted concentrated lupin flour (DCLF) of Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus was added to a medium strength wheat flour. The lupin flour was used to replace 5, 10 and 15% of wheat flour. The effects of lupin flour supplementation on physical dough properties, crumb and bread structure and quality characteristics were

G Dervas; G Doxastakis; S Hadjisavva-Zinoviadi; N Triantafillakos

1999-01-01

41

Lupinus albus plants acquire mercury tolerance when inoculated with an Hg-resistant Bradyrhizobium strain.  

PubMed

One strain of Bradyrhizobium canariense (L-7AH) was selected for its metal-resistance and ability to nodulate white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants, from a collection of rhizobial strains previously created from soils of the Almadn mining district (Spain) with varying levels of Hg contamination. Plants were inoculated with either strain L-7AH (Hg-tolerant) or L-3 (Hg-sensitive, used as control), and watered with nutrient solutions supplemented with various concentrations (0-200?M) of HgCl2 in a growth chamber. L.albus inoculated with L-7AH were able to nodulate even at the highest concentration of Hg while those inoculated with L-3 had virtually no nodules at Hg concentrations above 25?M. Plants inoculated with L-7AH, but not those with the control strain, were able to accumulate large amounts of Hg in their roots and nodules. Nodulation with L-7AH allowed plants to maintain constant levels of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in their leaves and a high photosynthetic efficiency, whereas in those inoculated with L-3 both pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency decreased significantly as Hg concentration increased. Nitrogenase activity of plants nodulated with L-7AH remained fairly constant at all concentrations of Hg used. Results suggest that this symbiotic pair may be used for rhizoremediation of Hg-contaminated soils. PMID:24125840

Quiones, Miguel A; Ruiz-Dez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; Lpez-Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernndez-Pascual, Mercedes

2013-12-01

42

Characterization of an Isoflavonoid-Specific Prenyltransferase from Lupinus albus1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids possess antimicrobial activity against fungal pathogens of plants. However, only a few plant flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferase genes have been identified to date. In this study, an isoflavonoid prenyltransferase gene, designated as LaPT1, was identified from white lupin (Lupinus albus). The deduced protein sequence of LaPT1 shared high homologies with known flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases. The LaPT1 gene was mainly expressed in roots, a major site for constitutive accumulation of prenylated isoflavones in white lupin. LaPT1 is predicted to be a membrane-bound protein with nine transmembrane regions and conserved functional domains similar to other flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases; it has a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and is plastid localized. A microsomal fraction containing recombinant LaPT1 prenylated the isoflavone genistein at the B-ring 3? position to produce isowighteone. The enzyme is also active with 2?-hydroxygenistein but has no activity with other flavonoid substrates. The apparent Km of recombinant LaPT1 for the dimethylallyl diphosphate prenyl donor is in a similar range to that of other flavonoid prenyltransferases, but the apparent catalytic efficiency with genistein is considerably higher. Removal of the transit peptide increased the apparent overall activity but also increased the Km. Medicago truncatula hairy roots expressing LaPT1 accumulated isowighteone, a compound that is not naturally produced in this species, indicating a strategy for metabolic engineering of novel antimicrobial compounds in legumes. PMID:22430842

Shen, Guoan; Huhman, David; Lei, Zhentian; Snyder, John; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Dixon, Richard A.

2012-01-01

43

Plant physiology Growth of white lupin seedlings  

E-print Network

Plant physiology Growth of white lupin seedlings during the rosette stage as affected by seed size on the early growth of seedlings in numerous species. In white lupin (Lupinus albus L), it affected time had an exponential effect on the dry weight of the leaf and root parts of the lupin seedlings

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced crooked calf disease occur in northern Oregon and e...

45

EVALUATION OF WHITE LUPIN (LUPINUS ALBUS L.), TEMPERATE CORN (ZEA MAYS L.), TROPICAL CORN (ZEA MAYS L.), OR HYBRID PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM GLAUCUM [L] R. BR.) SILAGE FOR LACTATING COWS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Temperate corn (TC) silage is unexcelled as a forage but ensiling unconventional crops may be profitable in specific situations. White lupin (L), tropical corn (TrC), hybrid pearl millet (PM) and three TC silages were evaluated with 54 Holsteins in a 91-d lactation-digestion study and with six rumi...

46

Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov., isolated from nodules of Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain designated RLAHU15(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus, with its closest relatives being Paenibacillus catalpae D75(T), Paenibacillus glycanilyticus DS-1(T), Paenibacillus endophyticus PECAE04(T) and Paenibacillus xinjiangensis B538(T) with 98.8?%, 98.9?%, 97.4?% and 97.4?% similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed values lower than 45?% between the strain RLAHU15(T) and any of these species. The isolate was a Gram-stain positive, motile and sporulating rod. Catalase activity was weak and oxidase activity was positive. Casein and starch were hydrolysed but gelatin was not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C15?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0 were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 54.4 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain RLAHU15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RLAHU15(T) (?=?LMG 27296(T)?=?CECT 8235(T)). PMID:24928428

Carro, Lorena; Flores-Flix, Jos David; Ramrez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Garca-Fraile, Paula; Martnez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Igual, Jos M; Tejedor, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro; Velzquez, Encarna

2014-09-01

47

FORAGE AVAILABILITY AND BODY CONDITION ON INTAKE OF LUPINE (LUPINUS LEUCOPHYLLUS) BY GRAZING CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Lupinus is an important group of plants native to North America with a number of species that are toxic to sheep and cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of body condition and the relationship of forage availability with the consumption of lupine (Lupinus spp.) by...

48

Lupine induced "crooked calf disease" in Washington and Oregon: identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulfureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus.  

PubMed

Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced "crooked calf disease" occur in northern Oregon and eastern Washington state. Five lupine populations from this area representing three species (L. leucophyllus, L. sulfureus, and L. sericeus) were evaluated taxonomically and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the major alkaloids in each lupine species were identified. The teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine was present in both of the lupine species responsible for the high outbreaks in east-central Washington and northeastern Oregon. However, the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. leucophyllus were dissimilar, as were the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. sulfureus. Botanical classification is not sufficient to determine potential teratogenicity, and it must be followed by chemical characterization to determine risk to livestock. PMID:18038992

Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Ralphs, Michael H; Motteram, Ernie S; Pfister, James A; Gay, Clive C

2007-12-26

49

CATTLE GRAZEing VELVET LUPINE (Lupinus leucophyllus): INFLUENCE OF ASSOCIATED FORAGES, ALKALOID LEVELS AND POPULATION CYCLEs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain lupines (Lupinus spp.) contain alkaloids that cause contracture-type skeletal birth defects and cleft palate (Crooked calf syndrome) if the pregnant cow consumes them during the 40 70th day of gestation. The objective of this study was to determine when cattle graze velvet lupine (Lupi...

50

Effect of feeding growing-fattening rabbits a diet supplemented with whole white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) seeds on fatty acid composition and indexes related to human health in hind leg meat and perirenal fat.  

PubMed

A total of 20 weaned rabbits (33 days old) (10 per treatment) were fed one of two diets that included 150 g of sunflower meal (SF)/kg of diet or 120 g of whole white lupin (WL)/kg of diet for 42 days. The WL diet contained less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the SF diet. The WL diet significantly decreased SFA and PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio and saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in hind leg meat. The fatty acid composition in perirenal fat was similar to that of hind leg meat; however, significantly higher MUFA levels were observed in rabbits fed the WL diet. Thus, feeding rabbits the WL diet affected the fatty acid profile of hind leg meat and perirenal fat in a favourable manner. PMID:20864262

Volek, Zden?k; Marounek, Milan

2011-01-01

51

THE THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The thermal and rheological properties of lupin flour meal were investigated by DSC and rheometry. DSC study exhibited that non-de-fatted and de-fatted lupin meal had the identical thermal properties, and lupin had the same glass transition as the wheat protein gluten. By measuring the linear rheo...

52

THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is very little research done in the area of structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties o...

53

Article original Valeur alimentaire du lupin blanc  

E-print Network

Article original Valeur alimentaire du lupin blanc (Lupinus albus var Lutop) chez la truite arc farine de lupin «Lutop» crue (LC) ou extrudée à 120°C (LE1 ) et à 145°C (LE2). La première fut consacrée lupin ; la seconde, à l'étude de l'influence d'un aliment contenant 20% de lupin sur les performances

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Phosphorus deficiency affects the allocation of below-ground resources to combined cluster roots and nodules in Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

Lupins can rely on both cluster roots and nodules for P acquisition and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), respectively. The resource allocation (C, N and P) between cluster roots and nodules has been largely understudied during P-deficient conditions. The aim of this investigation was therefore to determine the changes in resource allocation between these organs during fluctuations in P supply. Lupinus albus was cultivated in sand culture for 3 weeks, with either sufficient (2 mM high) or limiting (0.1 mM low) P supply. Although variation on P supply had no effect on the total biomass, there were significant differences in specialised below-ground organ allocation to cluster roots and nodule formation. Cluster root formation and the associated C-costs increased during low P supply, but at sufficient P-supply the construction and growth respiration costs of cluster roots declined along with their growth. In contrast to the cluster root decline at high P supply, there was an increase in nodule growth allocation and corresponding C-costs. However, this was not associated with an increase in BNF. Since cluster roots were able to increase P acquisition under low P conditions, this below-ground investment may also have benefited the P nutrition of nodules. These findings provide evidence that when lupins acquire N via BNF in their nodules, there may be a trade-off in resource allocation between cluster roots and nodules. PMID:24129121

Thuynsma, Rochelle; Valentine, Alex; Kleinert, Aleysia

2014-02-15

55

Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)1  

PubMed Central

Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. Methods and Results: We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. Conclusions: These loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used to determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.

Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; Nunziata, Schyler O.; Lance, Stacey L.; Pruett, Christin L.

2015-01-01

56

Characterization of the final stage in seed abor-tion in indeterminate soybean, white lupin and  

E-print Network

Characterization of the final stage in seed abor- tion in indeterminate soybean, white lupin. Twenty samples were of indeterminate soybean (10 cultivars), 4 of white lupin, Lupinus albus L. (4 lupin and pea, reference lengths were between 6 and 12 mm, and 4 and 5.5 mm respectively. Additional key

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

High mortality, fluctuation in numbers, and heavy subterranean insect herbivory in bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporadic patchy die-off of bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus, has long been known. We describe in detail a series of these incidents on the central California coast, based upon observational and comparative evidence. Stands of thousands of plants die, while nearby mature plants live on. In some sites, repeated die-off followed by regeneration from the seed bank has led to the

D. R. Strong; J. L. Maron; P. G. Connors; A. Whipple; S. Harrison; R. L. Jefferies

1995-01-01

58

Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupinus leucophyllus is one of many lupine species known to contain toxic and/or teratogenic alkaloids that can cause congenital birth defects. The concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual major alkaloids were measured in three different years from different plant parts over the phenolog...

59

Lupine Colonies (not yet published; shorter version) Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens  

E-print Network

Lupine Colonies (not yet published; shorter version) Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus-fixing legume Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant herb on recently formed volcanic surfaces at Mount St. Helen to its effects on soil. LUPINE COLONIES are dense sites dominated by Lupinus lepidus, the most studied

del Moral, Roger

60

White lupin utilizes soil phosphorus that is unavailable to soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin (Lupinus albus L. var. Ultra) and soybean (Glycine max L. var. Elgin) were grown in an acidic soil low an available phosphorus (P) to investigate their different capacities to acquire soil phosphorus. Experiments done in the controlled environment of a biotron were supplemented with four separate greenhouse experiments. Lupin and soybean were grown in monoculture and intercropped on

S. M. Braum; P. A. Helmke

1995-01-01

61

Administration of Lupinus albus gamma conglutin (C?) to n5 STZ rats augmented Ins-1 gene expression and pancreatic insulin content.  

PubMed

Several studies support the health-promoting benefits of lupins, particularly lupin proteins. It has been demonstrated that Lupinus albus gamma conglutin (C?) protein lowered blood glucose levels; thus, C? showed promise as a new anti-diabetic compound for type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of C? on Ins-1 gene expression and on pancreatic insulin content in streptozotocin-mediated diabetic rats. C? was isolated from Lupinus albus seeds. Its identification was confirmed with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under native and denaturing conditions. We used streptozotocin (STZ) to induce T2D on the 5th day of life of newborn male Wistar rats (n5-STZ). After 20 weeks post-induction, these animals (glycemia?>?200 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to three groups that received the following one-week treatments: vehicle, 0.90%?w/v NaCl (n5 STZ-Ctrl); glibenclamide, 10 mg/kg (n5 STZ-Glib); or C?, 120 mg/kg (n5 STZ-C?). Glucose and insulin levels were measured before and after treatment. Ins-1 gene expression was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction and the pancreatic insulin content was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Post-treatment, the n5 STZ-C? and n5 STZ-Glib groups showed reductions in glucose, increments in serum insulin, and increases in Ins-1 gene expression and beta cell insulin content compared to the n5 STZ-Ctrl group. The results showed that C? had beneficial effects on Ins-1 gene expression and pancreatic insulin content. These biological effects of C? strengthen its promising potential as a nutraceutical and/or new agent for controlling hyperglycemia. PMID:24894193

Vargas-Guerrero, Belinda; Garca-Lpez, Pedro M; Martnez-Ayala, Alma L; Domnguez-Rosales, Jos A; Gurrola-Daz, Carmen M

2014-09-01

62

Differential expression of four genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-caroboxylate synthase in Lupinus albus during germination, and in response to indole-3-acetic acid and wounding.  

PubMed

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS; EC 4.4.1.14) is the key regulatory enzyme of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and is encoded by a multigene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, mung bean and other plants. Southern blot analysis revealed the existence of at least five ACS genes in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) genome. Four complete and one partial sequences representing different ACS genes were cloned from the lupin genomic library. The levels of expression of two of the genes, LA-ACS1 and LA-ACS3, were found to increase after hypocotyl wounding. Apparently, these two genes were up-regulated by exogenous IAA treatment of seedlings. The LA-ACS3 mRNA levels were also elevated in the apical part of hypocotyl, which is reported to contain a high endogenous auxin concentration. This gene may be involved in the auxin- and ethylene-controlled apical hook formation. The expression of the LA-ACS4 gene was found to be almost undetectable. This gene may represent a "silent" twin of LA-ACS5 as these two genes share a considerable level of homology in coding and non-coding regions. The LA-ACS5 mRNA is strongly up-regulated in the embryonic axis of germinating seeds at the time of radicle emergence, and was also found in roots and hypocotyls of lupin seedlings. PMID:11089679

Bekman, E P; Saibo, N J; Di Cataldo, A; Regalado, A P; Ricardo, C P; Rodrigues-Pousada, C

2000-10-01

63

Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases play an important role in phosphate recycling and phosphate sensing in white lupin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.), a well adapted species to phosphate (Pi) impoverished soils, develops short, densely clustered lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) to increase Pi uptake. Here, we report two white lupin glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes which share strong homo...

64

Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus  

PubMed Central

Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively. PMID:24987293

Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J.; Ash, Gavin J.; Harper, John D.I.; Vipin, Cina A.; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon

2014-01-01

65

Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively. PMID:24987293

Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J; Ash, Gavin J; Harper, John D I; Vipin, Cina A; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon

2014-05-01

66

Lack of strong induced or maternal effects in tussock moths ( Orgyia vetusta ) on bush lupine ( Lupinus arboreus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both induced and maternal effects may create delayed negative feedback on the population growth of herbivorous insects. I tested for these effects in a chronically dense population of tussock moths (Orgyia vetusta) feeding on bush lupines (Lupinus arboreus). Experimental bushes received different realistic levels of defoliation by tussock moths in the preceding year, and experimental moth larvae came from mothers

Susan Harrison

1995-01-01

67

Effect of heat treatment and pH on the thermal, surface, and rheological properties of Lupinus albus protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endosperm from hand-dissected and- dehulled Lupinus albus seeds was milled into meal, sieved through a 40-mesh screen, and suspended in phosphate buffers (pH 4, 6.8, and 8) at 20%\\u000a (wt\\/vol). The suspensions were treated at 75, 90, or 100C for 1 h. The heat-treated protein was characterized by SDS-PAGE,\\u000a free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE), and DSC; and its surface hydrophobicity,

Abdellatif Mohamed; Steven C. Peterson; Mila P. Hojilla-Evangelista; David J. Sessa; Patricia Rayas-Duarte; Girma Biresaw

2005-01-01

68

Incorporation of high levels of extruded lupin in diets for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss): nutritional value and effect on thyroid status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments and a digestibility trial were conducted in order to assess the incorporation of extruded lupin (Lupinus albus) in diets for juvenile rainbow trout. Digestibility of protein and phosphorus were higher in lupin than in fish meal, but digestibility of dry matter and energy were lower. The first trial was designed to determine the maximum level of incorporation of

Christine Burel; Thierry Boujard; Genevive Corraze; Sadasivam J Kaushik; Gilles Boeuf; Koen A Mol; Serge Van Der Geyten; Eduard R Khn

1998-01-01

69

The ubiquitous familiarity of the common garden lupin provides little hint of the great diversity encompassed by the c. 280 of species in Lupinus as a whole. There are two main centres of species  

E-print Network

Lupinus The ubiquitous familiarity of the common garden lupin provides little hint of the great and biogeographical history of lupins have been limited by confusion about species delimitation, conflicting

Zürich, Universität

70

The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from Lupines (Lupinus spp.) that cause crooked calf disease.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly crooked calf disease in pregnant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primari...

71

Cross-allergenicity of peanut and lupine: The risk of lupine allergy in patients allergic to peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy is common, but cross-allergy between legumes is rare. Proteins from Lupinus albus are increasingly eaten in the form of seeds or additives to wheat flour. The risk of cross-allergenicity is still insufficiently known. Objective: We sought to study the risk of cross-allergy to lupine in patients allergic to peanut and to study lupine allergenicity. Methods: Twenty-four patients

Denise-Anne Moneret-Vautrin; Laurence Gurin; Gisle Kanny; Jenny Flabbee; Sophie Frmont; Martine Morisset

1999-01-01

72

Real-time RT-PCR profiling of transcription factors including 34 MYBs and signaling components in white lupin reveals their P status dependent and organ-specific expression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting macronutrient because of its low availability in soils. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants are well adapted to growth under P-deficient conditions. White lupin acclimation to P-deficiency includes changes in root architecture and enhanced expression of numerous ...

73

Study of the intercellular fluid of healthy Lupinus albus organs. Presence of a chitinase and a thaumatin-like protein.  

PubMed Central

Proteins in the intercellular fluid (IF) of healthy Lupinus albus leaves were characterized. Silver staining of the proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed more than 30 polypeptides, with the major ones having a molecular mass lower than 36 kD. After amino-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, one of the major polypeptides, IF4, was shown to have no identity with any of the proteins present in the data bases. Two others, IF1 and IF3, showed identity with previously reported pathogenesis-related proteins, IF1 with an antifungal protein from Hordeum vulgare that belongs to the thaumatin family (PR-5 family), and IF3 with class III chitinase-lysozymes. IF3 was also present in the IF of stem and root and it represents the major polypeptide in the medium of L. albus cell-suspension cultures. The ubiquitous presence of this enzyme in healthy, nonstressed tissues of L. albus cannot be explained. PMID:8587984

Regalado, A P; Ricardo, C P

1996-01-01

74

Proteoid Root Development of Phosphorus Deficient Lupin is Mimicked by Auxin and Phosphonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) develops proteoid (cluster) roots in response to phosphorus deficiency. Proteoid roots are composed of tight clusters of rootlets that initiate from the pericycle opposite protoxylem poles and emerge from every protoxylem pole within the proteoid root axis. Auxins are required for lateral root development, but little is known of their role in proteoid root formation.

Glena A. Gilbert; J. Diane Knight; Carroll P. Vance; Deborah L. Allan

2000-01-01

75

Molecular Analysis of SCARECROW Genes Expressed in White Lupin Cluster Roots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Scarecrow (SCR) transcription factor plays a crucial role in root cell radial patterning and is required for maintenance of the quiescent center and differentiation of the endodermis. In response to phosphorus (P) deficiency, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) root surface area increases some 50- to...

76

Cadmium-stress in nodulated white lupin: strategies to avoid toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin plants (Lupinus albus L., cv. Multolupa) were grown hydroponically on perlite with different Cd concentrations in the nutrient solution (?M): 0, 18 and 45. Changes in growth, nodulation, nutrient concentrations, nutrient uptake and distribution, Cd bound to cell wall and some Cd stress indicators were studied in roots and shoots (leaves plus stem) of 35-d-old plants as a

Pilar Zornoza; Sal Vzquez; Elvira Esteban; Mercedes Fernndez-Pascual; Ramn Carpena

2002-01-01

77

White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a phosphate (Pi) deficiency tolerant legume which develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and...

78

TILLAGE AND ROTATION EFFECTS ON LUPIN IN DOUBLE-CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Successful introduction of a new crop into a region requires that basic crop management parameters be determined and provided to producers through an information extension system. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was cultivated in the southeastern USA from 1930-1950 on up to 1 million ha, primarily a...

79

Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

80

Development and implementation of a sequence-specific PCR marker linked to a gene conferring resistance to anthracnose disease in narrow-leafed lupin ( Lupinus angustifolius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the most serious disease of lupins (Lupinus spp). A cross was made between cultivars Tanjil (resistant) and Unicrop (susceptible) in narrow-leafed lupin (L. angustifolius). Analysis of disease reaction data on the F2 population and on the resultant F7 recombinant inbred lines suggested that Tanjil contained a single dominant gene (Lanr1) conferring resistance to anthracnose.

Huaan Yang; Jeffery G. Boersma; Mingpei You; Bevan J. Buirchell; Mark W. Sweetingham

2004-01-01

81

Scarecrow (SCR) mediates root development in Lupinus albus and Medicago truncatula  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin is considered an ideal crop in which to study plant response to phosphate (P) deficiency. Phosphorus is a major element limiting plant growth. White lupin has evolved several strategies to acquire scarce P including: modified root growth resulting in massive root proliferation and root e...

82

Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205?Mb and 530?Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64?L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accessions origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome sequencing will facilitate the further development of genomic tools and lupin germplasm. Massive sequencing of cDNA libraries will continue to produce raw materials for gene discovery, identification of polymorphisms (SNPs, EST-SSRs, INDELs, etc.) for marker development, anchoring sequences for genome comparisons and putative gene candidates for QTL detection. PMID:22920992

2012-01-01

83

NYLON FILTER ARRAYS REVEAL DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION IN PROTEOID ROOTS OF WHITE LUPIN IN RESPONSE TO P DEFICIENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) adapts to phosphorus deficiency (-P) by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots. In an effort to better understand the molecular events mediating these adaptive responses, we have isolated and sequenced 2,102 express...

84

TRANSGENIC PROTEOID ROOTS OF WHITE LUPIN: A VEHICLE FOR CHARACTERIZING AND SILENCING ROOT GENES INVOLVED IN ADAPTATION TO P STRESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has become an illuminating model for the study of plant adaptation to phosphorus (P) deficiency. It adapts to -P stress with a highly coordinated modification of root development and biochemistry resulting in short, densely clustered secondary roots called proteoid (or...

85

Molecular Control of Acid Phosphatase Secretion into the Rhizosphere of Proteoid Roots from Phosphorus-Stressed White Lupin  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin (Lupinus albus) grown under P deficiency displays a suite of highly coordinated adaptive responses. Included among these is secretion of copious amounts of acid phosphatase (APase). Although numerous reports document that plants secrete APases in response to P deficiency, little is known of the biochemical and molecular events involved in this process. Here we characterize the secreted APase

Susan Stade Miller; Junqi Liu; Deborah L. Allan; Christopher J. Menzhuber; Maria Fedorova; Carroll P. Vance

2001-01-01

86

An RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of orthophosphate-deficient white lupin reveals novel insights into phosphorus acclimation in plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi-deficiency remains largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has evolved unique adaptation systems for gro...

87

RNA-Seq atlas of white lupin: a guide to the phosphorus deficiency response pathway in plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptation systems for growth in P-deficient conditions (-P) in soils including: 1) development of densely clustered determinant lateral roots called pr...

88

Functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, and health aspects of Lupinus albus protein isolates.  

PubMed

To utilize lupin seeds for food and pharmaceutical applications, lupin seeds were pretreated to remove oil using hexane or carbon dioxide. Two types of lupin protein isolate were prepared. Both types of protein isolate showed good foaming activity, comparable to egg white. Protein isolate extracted under acid conditions showed higher foaming activity than protein isolate extracted at neutral pH. The lipoxygenase activity was much reduced in both of the protein isolates. The protein isolate extracted at neutral pH showed a stronger angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition than the protein isolate extracted under acidic pH. In contrast, the protein isolate extracted under acid conditions had a greater sodium cholate binding capacity, comparable to that of cholestyramine. Lupin samples showed less DPPH radical scavenging activity than deoiled soybean. The deoiling method did not affect the functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, sodium cholate binding, and radical scavenging activity. PMID:15675820

Yoshie-Stark, Yumiko; Bez, Jrgen; Wada, Yoshiko; Wsche, Andreas

2004-12-15

89

Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early (2-4 d) effects of slowly imposed soil water deficit on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance in different organs (leaf blade, stem stele, stem cortex, and root) were evaluated on 23-d-old plants (growth chamber assay). Our work shows that several metabolic adjustments occurred prior to alteration of the plant water status, implying that water deficit

Carla Pinheiro; Carla Antonio; Maria Fernanda Ortuno; Petre I. Dobrev; Wolfram Hartung; Jane Thomas-Oates; Candido Pinto Ricardo; Radomira Vankova; M. Manuela Chaves; Julie C. Wilson

2011-01-01

90

Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 μM phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse.

Michelle Watt; John R. Evans

1999-01-01

91

Identification of genes induced in proteoid roots of white lupin under nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with functional characterization of a formamidase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is considered a model system for understanding plant acclimation to nutrient deficiency. It acclimates to phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots; proteoid-root development ...

92

THE VALUE OF LUPINUS ALBUS L. CV. AU HOMER AS A WINTER COVER CROP FOR COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Successful cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) management in the southeastern USA with conservation tillage requires the utilization of winter cover crops to increase organic matter in the top 5 cm of the soil. The objective of our research was to test the newly-developed bitter white lupin cv. `AU Home...

93

Effects of humic substances on iron nutrition of lupin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poorly crystalline Fe oxides and organic matter are two important factors affecting Fe nutrition of plants. The main objective\\u000a of this work was to study the contribution of humic substances to Fe nutrition of a typical Fe-chlorosis sensitive plant (white\\u000a lupin, Lupinus albus L.). An experiment was performed involving two growing media (siliceous and calcareous) and different Fe sources: control

Ana de Santiago; Antonio Delgado

2007-01-01

94

Nodulation of Lupinus albus by Strains of Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

The nodulation of legumes has for more than a century been considered an exclusive capacity of a group of microorganisms commonly known as rhizobia and belonging to the ?-Proteobacteria. However, in the last 3 years four nonrhizobial species, belonging to ? and ? subclasses of the Proteobacteria, have been described as legume-nodulating bacteria. In the present study, two fast-growing strains, LUP21 and LUP23, were isolated from nodules of Lupinus honoratus. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belong to the genus Ochrobactrum. The strains were able to reinfect Lupinus plants. A plasmid profile analysis showed the presence of three plasmids. The nodD and nifH genes were located on these plasmids, and their sequences were obtained. These sequences showed a close resemblance to the nodD and nifH genes of rhizobial species, suggesting that the nodD and nifH genes carried by strain LUP21T were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. A polyphasic study including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular features of the strains isolated in this study showed that they belong to a new species of the genus Ochrobactrum for which we propose the name Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov. Strain LUP21T (LMG 20667T) is the type strain. PMID:15746334

Trujillo, Martha E.; Willems, Anne; Abril, Adriana; Planchuelo, Ana-Mara; Rivas, Ral; Ludea, Dolores; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martnez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velzquez, Encarna

2005-01-01

95

Availability of organic and inorganic forms of phosphorus to lupins ( Lupinus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inositol phosphate is at least equal to KH2PO4 as a source of P for the growth of lupins in sand but a much poorer source in soil. RNA and glycerophosphate were excellent sources of P for lupin growth in a P-fixing soil. Soil and root phosphatase activity were not altered by amendment of soils with either inorganic- or organic-P. The

M. A. Adams; J. S. Pate

1992-01-01

96

Further studies on the effects of insecticides on aphid vector numbers and spread of cucumber mosaic virus in narrow-leafed lupins ( Lupinus angustifolius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) was sown in five field experiments over three years to investigate the effects of applying imidacloprid, alpha-cypermethrin, triazamate and methamidophos insecticides on aphid vector numbers, spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), resulting yield losses and CMV transmission to seed. Of the colonising aphid species, Acyrthosiphon kondoi and Aphis craccivora were most effectively controlled by alpha-cypermethrin and

D. J. Thackray; R. A. C. Jones; A. M. Bwye; B. A. Coutts

2000-01-01

97

Enhanced Methionine Levels and Increased Nutritive Value of Seeds of Transgenic Lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) Expressing a Sunflower Seed Albumin Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of improving the nutritive value of an important grain legume crop, a chimeric gene specifying seed-specific expression of a sulfur-rich, sunflower seed albumin was stably transformed into narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Sunflower seed albumin accounted for 5% of extractable seed protein in a line containing a single tandem insertion of the transferred DNA. The transgenic seeds

Lisa Molvig; Linda M. Tabe; Bjorn O. Eggum; Andrew E. Moore; Stuart Craig; Donald Spencer; Thomas J. V. Higgins

1997-01-01

98

Lipoxygenase activity in different species of sweet lupin (Lupinus L.) seeds and flakes.  

PubMed

Lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalysed degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids is supposed to be a major cause of undesirable off-flavour development in legumes. In the present study, a photometric LOX assay including adequate sample workup was adapted to lupin seeds, kernels and flakes, respectively. Optimum reaction conditions were at pH 7.5 using a phosphate buffer concentration of 150 mmol l(-1) without the addition of sodium chloride. The LOX activities of different lupin species and varieties were compared. Significant variations among the species and varieties ranging from 50 to 1004 units mg(-1) protein were determined, being significantly lower than soybean LOX activity. Hulling and flaking of the seeds resulted in a 15% increase of LOX activity. In contrast to soy and other legumes, LOX from lupin only converted free fatty acids, whereas trilinolein and ?-carotene were not oxidised. Consequently, according to the established classification, lupin LOX activity may be assigned to the LOX type-1, which, to the best of our knowledge, was demonstrated for the first time. PMID:25529698

Stephany, Michael; Bader-Mittermaier, Stephanie; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Carle, Reinhold

2015-05-01

99

Heavy metal immobilization by chemical amendments in a polluted soil and influence on white lupin growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chemical amendments (zeolite, compost and calcium hydroxide) on the solubility of Pb, Cd and Zn in a contaminated soil were determined. The polluted soil was from the Southwest Sardinia, Italy. It showed very high total concentrations of Pb (19663mgkg?1d.m.), Cd (196mgkg?1d.m.) and Zn (14667mgkg?1d.m.). The growth and uptake of heavy metals by white lupin (Lupinus albus L.,

Paola Castaldi; Laura Santona; Pietro Melis

2005-01-01

100

Direct evidence for ribonucleolytic activity of a PR10-like protein from white lupin roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abundant 17kDa protein which was isolated and characterized from 10-day old healthy root tissue of white lupin (Lupinus albus) proved to have a high sequence similarity to pathogenesis-related proteins found in other species. Subsequently, a corresponding clone (LaPR-10) was identified in a cDNA library prepared from the same tissue that exhibited a high amino acid sequence similarity to a

Brigitte Bantignies; Jacynthe Sguin; Ingrid Muzac; Fabienne Ddaldchamp; Patrick Gulick; Ragai Ibrahim

2000-01-01

101

Physiological adaptations to phosphorus deficiency during proteoid root development in white lupin  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Release of large amounts of citric acid from specialized root clusters (proteoid roots) of phosphorus (P)-deficient white\\u000a lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is an efficient strategy for chemical mobilization of sparingly available P sources in the rhizosphere. The present study\\u000a demonstrates that increased accumulation and exudation of citric acid and a concomitant release of protons were predominantly\\u000a restricted to mature

Gnter Neumann; Agns Massonneau; Enrico Martinoia; Volker Rmheld

1999-01-01

102

Construction of a genetic linkage map using MFLP and identification of molecular markers linked to domestication genes in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).  

PubMed

A mapping population of F(8)derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was established from a cross between a domesticated breeding line 83A:476 and a wild type P27255 in narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). The parents together with the 89 RILs were subjected to DNA fingerprinting using microsatellite-anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) to rapidly generate DNA markers to construct a linkage map. Five hundred and twenty two unique markers of which 21% were co-dominant, were generated and mapped. Phenotypic data for the domestication traits: mollis (soft seeds), leucospermus (white flower and seed colour); Lentus (reduced pod-shattering), iucundis (low alkaloid), Ku (early flowering) and moustache pattern on seed coats; were included. Three to 7 molecular markers were identified within 5 cM of each of these domestication genes. The anthracnose resistance gene Lanr1 was also mapped. Linkage groups were constructed using MapManager version QTXb20, resulting in 21 linkage groups consisting of 7 or more markers. The total map length was 1543 cM, with an average distance of 3.4 cM between adjacent markers. This is the first published map for a lupin species. The map can be exploited for marker assisted selection for genetic improvement in lupin breeding programs. PMID:16010297

Boersma, Jeffrey G; Pallotta, Margaret; Li, Chengdao; Buirchell, Bevan J; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Yang, Huaan

2005-01-01

103

Effectiveness of plant extracts on suppression of damping-off and wilt diseases of lupine ( Lupinus termis Forsik)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate water and organic solvent of plant extracts for protection of lupine plants against damping-off and wilt diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini Snyder & Hansen was isolated from diseased lupine roots collected from different locations of Minia, Assiut and New Valley governorates. Water leaf extracts

M. F. Abdel-Monaim; K. A. M. Abo-Elyousr; K. M. Morsy

2011-01-01

104

Development of genomic resources for the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius): construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Lupinus angustifolius L, also known as narrow-leafed lupin (NLL), is becoming an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognised as a potential human health food. Recent interest is being directed at NLL to improve grain production, disease and pest management and health benefits of the grain. However, studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Results A NLL BAC library was constructed consisting of 111,360 clones with an average insert size of 99.7 Kbp from cv Tanjil. The library has approximately 12 genome coverage. Both ends of 9600 randomly selected BAC clones were sequenced to generate 13985 BAC end-sequences (BESs), covering approximately 1% of the NLL genome. These BESs permitted a preliminary characterisation of the NLL genome such as organisation and composition, with the BESs having approximately 39% G:C content, 16.6% repetitive DNA and 5.4% putative gene-encoding regions. From the BESs 9966 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified and some of these are shown to be potential markers. Conclusions The NLL BAC library and BAC-end sequences are powerful resources for genetic and genomic research on lupin. These resources will provide a robust platform for future high-resolution mapping, map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole-genome sequencing data for the species. PMID:22014081

2011-01-01

105

Structural analysis and profiling of phenolic secondary metabolites of Mexican lupine species using LC-MS techniques.  

PubMed

Flavonoid glycoconjugates from roots and leaves of eight North America lupine species (Lupinus elegans, Lupinus exaltatus, Lupinus hintonii, Lupinus mexicanus, Lupinus montanus, Lupinus rotundiflorus, Lupinus stipulatus, Lupinus sp.), three Mediterranean species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) and one species from South America domesticated in Europe (Lupinus mutabilis) were analyzed using two LC/MS systems: low-resolution ion trap instrument and high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight spectrometer. As a result of the LC/MS profiling using the CID/MS(n) experiments structures of 175 flavonoid glycoconjugates found in 12 lupine species were identified at three confidence levels according to the Metabolomic Standard Initiative, mainly at level 2 and 3, some of them were classified to the level 1. Among the flavonoid derivatives recognized in the plant extracts were isomeric or isobaric compounds, differing in the degree of hydroxylation of the aglycones and the presence of glycosidic, acyl or alkyl groups in the molecules. The elemental composition of the glycoconjugate molecules was established from the exact m/z values of the protonated/deprotonated molecules ([M+H](+)/[M-H](-)) measured with the accuracy better than 5 ppm. Information concerning structures of the aglycones, the type of sugar moieties (hexose, deoxyhexose or pentose) and, in some cases, their placement on the aglycones as well as the acyl substituents of the flavonoid glycoconjugates was achieved in experiments, in which collision-induced dissociation was applied. Flavonoid aglycones present in the studied O-glycoconjugates were unambiguously identified after the comparison of the pseudo-MS(3) spectra with the spectra registered for the standards. Isomers of flavonoid glycoconjugates, in which one or two sugar moieties were attached to 4'- or 7-hydroxyl groups or directly to the C-6 or C-8 of the aglycones, could be distinguished on the basis of the MS(2) spectra. However, the collision energy applied in the CID experiments had to be optimized for each group of the compounds and there were no universal settings that allowed the acquisition of structural information for all the compounds present in the sample. Information obtained from the flavonoid conjugate profiling was used for the chemotaxonomic comparison of the studied lupine species. A clear-cut discrimination of the Mediterranean and North American lupines was obtained as a result of this analysis. PMID:23642387

Wojakowska, Anna; Piasecka, Anna; Garca-Lpez, Pedro M; Zamora-Natera, Francisco; Krajewski, Pawe?; Marczak, ?ukasz; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej

2013-08-01

106

Effects of self-pollination and maternal resources on reproduction and offspring performance in the wild lupine, Lupinus perennis (Fabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of self-pollination and resource addition to maternal plants of Wild Lupine on seed production in\\u000a the field, and on offspring performance in the greenhouse. Although 24% of flowers set fruits when open-pollinated, only 11%\\u000a of flowers set fruits when self-pollinated. Self-pollination significantly reduced fruit and seed production per inflorescence\\u000a and increased aborted seeds per fruit. Resource

X. J. Shi; H. J. Michaels; R. J. Mitchell

2005-01-01

107

Plant improvement Diallel analysis in white lupin  

E-print Network

Plant improvement Diallel analysis in white lupin: consequences for breeding L Le Sech * C Huyghe; A complete diallel analysis for several characters was conducted in spring type white lupins (Lupinus al- bus in the definition of optimum lupin breeding criteria. Both vegetative and reproductive characters were studied

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Bradyrhizobium valentinum sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Lupinus mariae-josephae, a lupine endemic of basic-lime soils in Eastern Spain.  

PubMed

Bacterial strains isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules of Lupinus mariae-josephae have been characterized following genetic, phenotypic and symbiotic approaches. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes placed them in a group together with Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76(T), B. pachyrhizi PAC48(T), B. jicamae PAC68(T), 'B. retamae' Ro19(T) and B. lablabi CCBAU 23086(T) with over 99.0% identity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated housekeeping genes, recA, atpD and glnII, suggested that L. mariae-josephae strains represent a new Bradyrhizobium species, closely related to B. lablabi CCBAU 23086(T), B. jicamae PAC68(T) and 'B. retamae' Ro19(T) with 92.1, 91.9 and 90.8% identity, respectively. These results are consistent with overall genomic identities calculated as Average Nucleotide Identity (ANIm) using draft genomic sequences obtained for relevant strains. While L. mariae-josephae strains LmjM3(T)/LmjM6 exhibited a 99.2% ANIm value, they were significantly distant (<93% ANIm) from type strains of their closest species ('B. retamae' Ro19(T), B. lablabi CCBAU 23086(T) and B. jicamae PAC68(T)). Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WC-MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of proteomic patterns of the same strains was consistent with these results. The symbiosis-related genes nodC, nodA and nifH genes from strains nodulating L. mariae-josephae were phylogenetically related to those from 'B. retamae' Ro19(T), but divergent from those of strains that nodulate other lupine species. Based on genetic, genomic, proteomic and phenotypic data presented in this study, L. mariae-josephae nodulating strains LmjM3(T), LmjM6 and LmjM2 should be grouped within a new species for which the name Bradyrhizobium valentinum sp. nov. is proposed (type strain LmjM3(T)=CECT 8364(T), LMG 2761(T)). PMID:24958607

Durn, David; Rey, Luis; Navarro, Albert; Busquets, Antonio; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argeso, Toms

2014-07-01

109

Occurrence of H2-Uptake Hydrogenases in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) and Their Expression in Nodules of Lupinus spp. and Ornithopus compressus1  

PubMed Central

Fifty-four strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) from worldwide collections were screened by a colony hybridization method for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the structural genes of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase. Twelve strains exhibited strong colony hybridization signals, and subsequent Southern blot hybridization experiments showed that they fell into two different groups on the basis of the pattern of EcoRI fragments containing the homology to the hup probe. All strains in the first group (UPM860, UPM861, and 750) expressed uptake hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, and Ornithopus compressus, but both the rate of H2 uptake by bacteroids and the relative efficiency of N2 fixation (RE = 1 - [H2 evolved in air/acetylene reduced]) by nodules were markedly affected by the legume host. L. angustifolius was the less permissive host for hydrogenase expression in symbiosis with the three strains (average RE = 0.76), and O. compressus was the more permissive (average RE = 1.0). None of the strains in the second group expressed hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules, and only one exhibited low H2-uptake activity in symbiosis with O. compressus. The inability of these putative Hup+ strains to induce hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules is discussed on the basis of the legume host effect. Among the 42 strains showing no homology to the B. japonicum hup-specific probe in the colony hybridization assay, 10 were examined in symbiosis with L. angustifolius. The average RE for these strains was 0.51. However, one strain, IM43B, exhibited high RE values (higher than 0.80) and high levels of hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with L. angustifolius, L. albus, and L. luteus. In Southern blot hybridization experiments, no homology was detected between the B. japonicum hup-specific DNA probe and total DNA from vegetative cells or bacteroids from strain IM43B even under low stringency hybridization conditions. We conclude from these results that strain IM43B contains hup DNA sequences different from those in B. japonicum and in other lupine rhizobia strains. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666550

Murillo, Jess; Villa, Ana; Chamber, Manuel; Ruiz-Argeso, Toms

1989-01-01

110

Effects of Experience and Lactation on Lupine Consumption by Cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupines (Lupinus spp.) containing certain alkaloids are either acutely toxic or cause birth defects in livestock. Lupine toxicity has been especially troublesome in portions of eastern Washington state. Some reports suggest that nave, younger animals may consume more lupine than more experienced, o...

111

Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction Many species in the Lupinus genus are poorly defined resulting in improper taxonomic identification. Lupine species may contain quinolizidine and/or piperidine alkaloids that can be acutely toxic and/or teratogenic resulting in crooked calf disease. Objective To identify any char...

112

The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of some bitter and sweet selections of lupin species used as food.  

PubMed

The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of bitter and sweet Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus, Lupinus mutabilis, Lupinus polyphyllus, and Lupinus perennis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. No anagyrine was detected in any of the samples. The GC peak in some of the samples which corresponded to anagyrine in retention of time seems to be identical to 17-oxolupanine. The alkaloid content of samples ranged from 3.17 to 0.003 percent. PMID:7441088

Keeler, R F; Gross, R

1980-01-01

113

Early growth of introduced and native grasses on lupine-enriched soil Taraneh M. Emam1, Peter Alpert2, Don Strong3  

E-print Network

Early growth of introduced and native grasses on lupine-enriched soil Taraneh M. Emam1, Peter (Maron and Connors 1996; Kolb et al 2002) BiomassGermination 80 100 %) Lupine soil Non-lupine soil (Maron Lupinus arboreus (yellow bush lupine). These lupines host nitrogen- fixing bacteria in nodules

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

114

Lupin protein influences the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and triacylglycerol hydrolysis of adult rats.  

PubMed

To assess the effect of lupin protein on concentrations of lipids in plasma lipoproteins and liver and hepatic mRNA concentrations of genes involved in lipid metabolism, adult rats were fed egg albumin-based diets containing either lupin protein from Lupinus albus or casein (50 g/kg) supplemented (hypercholesterolaemic) or not (normolipaemic) with a cholesterol-cholate mixture for 20 d. Lupin protein compared with casein lowered the concentrations of TAG in liver (P < 0.01) and circulating VLDL + chylomicrons (P < 0.05) of hypercholesterolaemic rats, but not of normolipaemic rats. Hepatic mRNA concentrations of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and acyl-CoA:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase were lower and mRNA concentrations of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and apoA5 involved in TAG hydrolysis were higher in rats fed lupin protein than in rats fed casein. These effects were stronger in hypercholesterolaemic rats than in normolipaemic rats. Hypercholesterolaemic rats fed the lupin protein had higher liver cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.01) and lower levels of LDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) than rats fed casein. No effect of lupin protein was observed on cholesterol concentration in VLDL + chylomicrons and HDL and hepatic mRNA concentrations of genes involved in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. In conclusion, the present study shows that lupin protein has hypotriacylglycerolaemic action possibly via down regulation of fatty acid synthesis genes and up regulation of genes involved in TAG hydrolysis. Alterations in cholesterol metabolism could not be explained on the basis of mRNA data. PMID:18096091

Bettzieche, Anja; Brandsch, Corinna; Weisse, Kristin; Hirche, Frank; Eder, Klaus; Stangl, Gabriele I

2008-05-01

115

An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Orthophosphate-Deficient White Lupin Reveals Novel Insights into Phosphorus Acclimation in Plants1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (Pi), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in Pi-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to Pi supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ? 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to Pi deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ? 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to Pi deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the Pi status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in Pi deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. PMID:23197803

ORourke, Jamie A.; Yang, S. Samuel; Miller, Susan S.; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W.; Vance, Carroll P.

2013-01-01

116

[Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].  

PubMed

This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking. PMID:22566327

Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

2012-01-01

117

Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.  

PubMed

Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35% were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming. PMID:23279626

Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

2013-12-01

118

Whole-Plant Gas Exchange and Reductive Biosynthesis in White Lupin1  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous measurements of CO2 (CER) and O2 (OER) exchange in roots and shoots of vegetative white lupin (Lupinus albus) were used to calculate the flow of reducing power to the synthesis of biomass that was more reduced per unit of carbon than carbohydrate. On a whole-plant basis, the diverted reductant utilization rate (DRUR which is: 4 [CER + OER]) of shoot tissue was consistently higher than that of roots, and values obtained in the light were greater than those in the dark. An analysis of the biomass being synthesized over a 24-h period provided an estimate of whole-plant DRUR (3.5 mmol e? plant?1 d?1), which was similar to that measured by gas exchange (3.2 mmol e? plant?1 d?1). Given that nitrate reduction to ammonia makes up about 74% of whole-plant DRUR, root nitrate reduction in white lupin was estimated to account for less than 43% of whole-plant nitrate reduction. The approach developed here should offer a powerful tool for the noninvasive study of metabolic regulation in intact plants or plant organs. PMID:11500554

Cen, Yan-Ping; Turpin, David H.; Layzell, David B.

2001-01-01

119

Heavy metals in white lupin: uptake, root-to-shoot transfer and redistribution within the plant.  

PubMed

The translocation of manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) was compared considering root-to-shoot transport, and redistribution in the root system and in the shoot, as well as the content at different stages of cluster roots and in other roots. To investigate the redistribution of these heavy metals, lupin plants were labelled via the root for 24 h with radionuclides and subsequently grown hydroponically for several weeks. 54Mn, 63Ni and 65Zn were transported via the xylem to the shoot. 63Ni and 65Zn were redistributed afterwards via the phloem from older to younger leaves, while 54Mn remained in the oldest leaves. A strong retention in the root was observed for 57Co and 109Cd. Cluster roots contained higher concentrations of all heavy metals than noncluster roots. Concentrations were generally higher at the beginning of cluster root development (juvenile and immature stages). Mature cluster roots also contained high levels of 54Mn and 57Co, but only reduced concentrations of 63Ni, 65Zn and 109Cd. PMID:16866940

Page, Valrie; Weisskopf, Laure; Feller, Urs

2006-01-01

120

The alternative respiratory pathway mediates carboxylate synthesis in white lupin cluster roots under phosphorus deprivation.  

PubMed

Plant adaptations associated with a high efficiency of phosphorus (P) acquisition can be used to increase productivity and sustainability in a world with a growing population and decreasing rock phosphate reserves. White lupin (Lupinus albus) produces cluster roots that release carboxylates to efficiently mobilize P from P-sorbing soils. It has been hypothesized that an increase in the activity of the alternative oxidase (AOX) would allow for the mitochondrial oxidation of NAD(P)H produced during citrate synthesis in cluster roots at a developmental stage when there is a low demand for ATP. We used the oxygen-isotope fractionation technique to study the in vivo respiratory activities of the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) and the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) in different root sections of white lupins grown hydroponically with and without P. In parallel, AOX protein levels and internal carboxylate concentrations were determined in cluster and non-cluster roots. Higher in vivo?AOP activity was measured in cluster roots when malate and citrate concentrations were also high, thus confirming our hypothesis. AOX protein levels were not always correlated with in vivo?AOP activity, suggesting post-translational regulation of AOX. PMID:24118034

Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Lambers, Hans; Wang, Xing; Finnegan, Patrick M; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel

2014-04-01

121

Prick by prick induced anaphylaxis in a patient with peanuts and lupine allergy: awareness of risks and role of component resolved diagnosis.  

PubMed

A case of anaphylaxis is reported in the course of a prick by prick with Lupinus albus and roasted peanut in a 20-year-old woman. We focused on some main topics. First of all it seems important to underscore the potential risks connected to the practice of the prick-by-prick with fresh foods in allergic patients, especially when testing cross-reactive substances, such as White Lupine, peanuts, or soy. It is important that clinicians who perform prick tests be aware of the risk related with in vivo tests in allergic patients. Second, we discuss the problem of the hidden allergens, such as White Lupine flour, or soy flour which are utilized to improve wheat flour because of their lower cost. Patients with a demonstrated allergy to peanuts should be assessed for lupine allergy and informed about the "hidden allergens" issue. Finally, we believe that component resolved diagnosis, the serum specific IgE against molecular components, that is normally considered a second-level diagnostic step has an important role even as a first line approach at least in some selected cases. PMID:25477973

Ciccarelli, Anna; Calabr, Claudia; Imperatore, Clara; Scala, Guglielmo

2014-01-01

122

Prick by Prick Induced Anaphylaxis in a Patient with Peanuts and Lupine Allergy: Awareness of Risks and Role of Component Resolved Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

A case of anaphylaxis is reported in the course of a prick by prick with Lupinus albus and roasted peanut in a 20-year-old woman. We focused on some main topics. First of all it seems important to underscore the potential risks connected to the practice of the prick-by-prick with fresh foods in allergic patients, especially when testing cross-reactive substances, such as White Lupine, peanuts, or soy. It is important that clinicians who perform prick tests be aware of the risk related with in vivo tests in allergic patients. Second, we discuss the problem of the hidden allergens, such as White Lupine flour, or soy flour which are utilized to improve wheat flour because of their lower cost. Patients with a demonstrated allergy to peanuts should be assessed for lupine allergy and informed about the hidden allergens issue. Finally, we believe that component resolved diagnosis, the serum specific IgE against molecular components, that is normally considered a second-level diagnostic step has an important role even as a first line approach at least in some selected cases. PMID:25477973

Ciccarelli, Anna; Calabr, Claudia; Imperatore, Clara; Scala, Guglielmo

2014-01-01

123

First Report of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus from Diseased Lupinus luteus L. in Eastern Washington  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA, ARS, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, in Pullman, Washington is responsible for the acquisition, maintenance, storage, and distribution of lupine (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). Availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from lupine collections is ma...

124

Short-term supply of elevated phosphate alters the belowground carbon allocation costs and functions of lupin cluster roots and nodules.  

PubMed

Lupins can rely on both cluster roots and nodules for P acquisition and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) respectively. The resource allocation (C, N and P) between cluster roots and nodules has been largely understudied during P-deficient conditions. The aim of this investigation was therefore to determine the changes in resource allocation between these organs during fluctuations in P supply. Lupinus albus was cultivated in sand culture for 3 weeks, with either sufficient (2mM high) or limiting (0.1mM low) P supply. Although variation on P supply had no effect on the total biomass, there were significant differences in specialised below-ground organ allocation to cluster roots and nodule formation. Cluster root formation and the associated C-costs increased during low P supply, but at sufficient P-supply the construction and growth respiration costs of cluster roots declined along with their growth. In contrast to the cluster root decline at high P supply, there was an increase in nodule growth allocation and corresponding C-costs. However, this was not associated with an increase in BNF. Since cluster roots were able to increase P acquisition under low P conditions, this below-ground investment may also have benefited the P nutrition of nodules. These findings provide evidence that when lupins acquire N via BNF in their nodules, there may be a trade-off in resource allocation between cluster roots and nodules. PMID:24709158

Thuynsma, Rochelle; Valentine, Alex; Kleinert, Aleysia

2014-05-01

125

Cattle preference for forage kochia, crested wheatgrass, and velvet lupine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alkaloids in velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) cause a crooked calf syndrome if the dam consumes the plant between day 40 to 100 of gestation. In spring calving operations, this coincides with late summer when annual grasses are mature and senescent in the Scabland Region of east...

126

Identification of a Low Digestibility ?-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain ?conglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

Ogura, Takahiro; Hernndez, Adrin; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Ivn J.

2013-01-01

127

Activity of quinolizidine alkaloids from three Mexican Lupinus against the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera frugiperda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter lupins (Lupinus spp.) are not used as a protein source because of their toxicity. However, they may have alternative uses as potential sources\\u000a of natural insecticides. Quinolizidine alkaloids (QA) of three Mexican Lupinus species (Fabaceae): L. montanus (HBK),\\u000a L. stipulatus (Agardh) and L. aschenbornii (Schauer), were analyzed by capillary Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Sparteine was found in high amounts in

Kalina Bermdez-Torres; Jorge Martnez Herrera; Rodolfo Figueroa Brito; Michael Wink; Luc Legal

2009-01-01

128

511Agronomie 23 (2003) 511518 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2003  

E-print Network

of three lupin species: Lupinus albus L. (cultivars Minori and Nelly), Lupinus angustifolius L. (cultivars deficiency conditions. A similar root system was observed in yellow lupin but this was less dense than in white lupin. Blue lupin did not form root clusters. Regardless of P nutrition, eight organic acids

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

Rhizosphere acidification and Fe 3+ reduction in lupins and peas: Iron deficiency in lupins is not due to a poor ability to reduce Fe 3+  

Microsoft Academic Search

While lupins suffer severely from Fe deficiency when grown on calcareous soils, field peas under the same conditions grow\\u000a normally. This paper aimed to identify whether these differences were related to differences in either the pattern or capacity\\u000a for rhizosphere acidification or Fe3+ reduction between these species.\\u000a \\u000a Two lupin species (Lupinus angustifolius, L. cosentinii) and field peas (Pisum sativum) were

P. F. White; A. D. Robson

1989-01-01

130

Recovering root system traits using image analysis exemplified by two-dimensional neutron radiography images of lupine.  

PubMed

Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

2014-01-01

131

Differential inter- and intra-specific defense induction in Lupinus by Myzus persicae feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to investigate the potential induction of plant defenses by Myzus persi- cae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae) feeding on five lupin, Lupinus spp. (Leguminosae), varieties with well-characterized levels of aphid resistance. Myzus persicae feeding on L. angustifolius and L. luteus varieties induced genotype-specific changes in their host that were not consistent with the level of aphid resistance or the

Yasmin J. Cardoza; Jenny Reidy-Crofts; Owain R. Edwards

2005-01-01

132

Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.  

PubMed

The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4?g/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6?g/kg?d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins. PMID:23763660

Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

2013-11-01

133

Micronutrient Deficiency Influences Plant Growth and Activities of Superoxide Dismutases in Narrow-leafed Lupins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) or manganese (Mn) deficiency on the growth and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) forms was investigated in seedlings of narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifoliusL.). Plants grown without Zn developed Zn deficiency symptoms 24 d after sowing (DAS), and those grown without Mn showed Mn deficiency symptoms 31 DAS. However, plants grown without Cu did

Q. YU; Z. RENGEL

1999-01-01

134

Rodent-limited establishment of bush lupine: field experiments on the cumulative effect of granivory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Plants often suffer substantial loss of seeds to consumers. However, because the seed- to-seedling transition is frequently ignored, quantitative estimates of the effects of seed consumers on plant population dynamics are rare. 2 We examined how post-dispersal seed predation by rodents affected seedling emer- gence and subsequent adult plant abundance of bush lupine ( Lupinus arboreus ), a

John L. Maron; Ellen L. Simms

2001-01-01

135

Identification of the Yellow Lupin Growth Inhibitor as (+)Abscisin II ((+)Dormin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE presence of an abscission-accelerating substance in the pods of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus var. Weiko II) was deduced by Van Steveninck1. He was able to show that the whorls of fertilized pods at the base of the inflorescence induced the abscission of younger, distal pods. Plants infected with pea mosaic virus underwent a different pattern of abscission suggesting that

J. W. Cornforth; B. V. Milborrow; G. Ryback; K. ROTHWELL; R. L. WAIN

1966-01-01

136

High Levels of Phosphorus and Die-Back in Yellow Lupins  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a rotation experiment1 with conifers and green crops in a Forestry Commission nursery on very acid heathland soil near Wareham, Dorset, yellow lupins Lupinus luteus grown with fertilizer have often shown signs of die-back in the older leaves, occasionally with more extensive damage leading to the death of the whole plant.

R. G. Warren; B. Benzian

1959-01-01

137

Recovering Root System Traits Using Image Analysis Exemplified by Two-Dimensional Neutron Radiography Images of Lupine1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

2014-01-01

138

Adaptation of H+-Pumping and Plasma Membrane H+ ATPase Activity in Proteoid Roots of White Lupin under Phosphate Deficiency1  

PubMed Central

White lupin (Lupinus albus) is able to adapt to phosphorus deficiency by producing proteoid roots that release a huge amount of organic acids, resulting in mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphate in rhizosphere. The mechanisms responsible for the release of organic acids by proteoid root cells, especially the trans-membrane transport processes, have not been elucidated. Because of high cytosolic pH, the release of undissociated organic acids is not probable. In the present study, we focused on H+ export by plasma membrane H+ ATPase in active proteoid roots. In vivo, rhizosphere acidification of active proteoid roots was vanadate sensitive. Plasma membranes were isolated from proteoid roots and lateral roots from P-deficient and -sufficient plants. In vitro, in comparison with two types of lateral roots and proteoid roots of P-sufficient plants, the following increase of the various parameters was induced in active proteoid roots of P-deficient plants: (a) hydrolytic ATPase activity, (b) Vmax and Km, (c) H+ ATPase enzyme concentration of plasma membrane, (d) H+-pumping activity, (e) pH gradient across the membrane of plasmalemma vesicles, and (f) passive H+ permeability of plasma membrane. In addition, lower vanadate sensitivity and more acidic pH optimum were determined for plasma membrane ATPase of active proteoid roots. Our data support the hypothesis that in active proteoid root cells, H+ and organic anions are exported separately, and that modification of plasma membrane H+ ATPase is essential for enhanced rhizosphere acidification by active proteoid roots. PMID:12011337

Yan, Feng; Zhu, Yiyong; Mller, Caroline; Zrb, Christian; Schubert, Sven

2002-01-01

139

Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration  

SciTech Connect

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 {micro}M phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. The authors suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}].

Watt, M.; Evans, J.R.

1999-07-01

140

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2012.00935.x Population dynamics of the invasive weed Lupinus  

E-print Network

in Tasmania, and interactions with two non-native pollinators D GOULSON & E L ROTHERAY School of Biological, pollinator visitation and seed set of the tree lupin, Lupinus arboreus, in Tasmania between 1999 and 2010 and Chile, but has not yet become a serious weed in Tasmania. Our data suggest that the main pollinators

141

Isolation, phylogeny and evolution of the SymRK gene in the legume genus Lupinus L.  

PubMed

SymRK is one of the key genes involved in initial steps of legume symbiotic association with fungi (mycorrhization) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (nodulation). A large portion of the sequence encoding the extracellular domain of SYMRK was obtained for 38 lupine accessions and 2 outgroups in order to characterize this region, to evaluate its phylogenetic utility, and to examine whether its molecular evolutionary pattern is correlated with rhizobial diversity and specificity in Lupinus. The data suggested that, in Lupinus, SymRK is a single copy gene that shows good phylogenetic potential. Accordingly, SymRK provided additional support to previous molecular phylogenies, and shed additional light on relationships within the Old World group of Lupinus, especially among the African species. Similar to results of other studies, analyses of SymRK sequences were unable to resolve placement of the Florida unifoliolate lineage, whose relationship was weakly supported to either the Old or the New World lupines. Our data are consistent with strong purifying selection operating on SymRK in Lupinus, preserving rather than diversifying its function. Thus, although SymRK was demonstrated to be a vital gene in the early stages of the root-bacterial symbiotic associations, no evidence from present analyses indicate that this gene is involved in changes in rhizobial specificity in Lupinus. PMID:21550410

Mah, Frdric; Markova, Dragomira; Pasquet, Rmy; Misset, Marie-Thrse; Anouche, Abdelkader

2011-07-01

142

Nitrogen-fixers Alnus and Lupinus influence soil characteristics but not colonization by later successional species in primary succession on Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes to the primary successional environment caused by colonizing plants that present symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing\\u000a bacteria were investigated at two areas on Mount St. Helens. One area was occupied by alder (Alnusviridis) thickets and old lupine (Lupinuslepidus) patches and the other area by young lupine patches and pumice barrens. Alder thicket soils had higher levels for a few soil

Jonathan H. Titus

2009-01-01

143

Variation in morphology and pathogenicity of Pleiochaeta setosa isolates from Lupinus spp. and other legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two morphological types of Pleiochaeta setosa are described from Australia, the lupin-type (isolates collected from Lupinus spp.), and the serradella-type (isolates collected from Ornithopus spp.). The lupin-type produces smaller conidia (6470 1719 ?m) with 35 septa and 24 appendages. The terminal appendages\\u000a are predominantly unbranched (91100%). The serradella-type produces larger conidia (8085 2023 ?m) with 46 septa and

H. A. Yang; M. W. Sweetingham

2002-01-01

144

Preliminary investigation of the relationship between bovine congenital lathyrism induced by aminoacetonitrile and the lupine induced crooked calf disease.  

PubMed

Maternal feeding of the lathyrogen aminoacetonitrile, the range plant Lupinus caudatus, and an extract of this plant - expected to contain lathyrogens if present in the plant - all produced clinically similar congenital defects in calves. The defects included excessive flexure, malpositioning, malalignment and rotation of the front limbs. The results suggest a possible relationship between lathyrism and lupine-induced crooked calf disease. PMID:4238569

Keeler, R F; Binns, W; James, L F; Shupe, J L

1969-04-01

145

Equations for describing sigmoid yield responses and their application to some phosphate responses by lupins and by subterranean clover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to nutrients are sometimes sigmoid. A series of equations is proposed to describe such curves and to test whether the sigmoid component is significant. These equations are then applied to responses to freshly applied, and to incubated, phosphate by three species of lupin and by subterranean clover. The responses byLupinus angustifolius, and especially by subterranean clover, were sigmoid on

N. J. Barrow; R. E. Mendoza

1990-01-01

146

Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crooked calf syndrome, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

147

Identification and characterisation of seed storage protein transcripts from Lupinus angustifolius  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn legumes, seed storage proteins are important for the developing seedling and are an important source of protein for humans\\u000a and animals. Lupinus angustifolius (L.), also known as narrow-leaf lupin (NLL) is a grain legume crop that is gaining recognition as a potential human health\\u000a food as the grain is high in protein and dietary fibre, gluten-free and low in

Rhonda C Foley; Ling-Ling Gao; Andrew Spriggs; Lena YC Soo; Danica E Goggin; Penelope MC Smith; Craig A Atkins; Karam B Singh

2011-01-01

148

Iridoids from Symphoricarpos albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve compounds including secologanin, loganin, the aglycon of loganin, and a new iridoid called glucologanin were isolated\\u000a from fruit of common snowberry Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake. The structure of glucologanin was confirmed using PMR and mass spectroscopy and chemical transformations. 2?,3?,4?,6?,7-Penta-O-acetylloganin and 2?,3?,4?,6?-tetra-O-acetylloganin were synthesized.

I. F. Makarevich; S. N. Kovalenko; T. D. Gusarova; Yu. I. Gubin

2009-01-01

149

Genetics of Lupinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary surveys indicate that most populations of Lupinus succulentus are genetically monomorphic for three flower color loci, viz., BB PP DD. In one small geographic area, a number of populations were polymorphic for the D\\/d locus. In this case, clinal variation and seasonal variation were found. The S\\/s locus, affecting seed coat pattern, was polymorphic in a large majority of

James Harding; C. B. Mankinen

1972-01-01

150

Lupine and Butterflies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-part activity about the connection between the lupine plant and butterflies, learners first read "Miss Rumphius," a storybook about lupine by Barbara Cooney. Then learners plant their own seeds that can be transplanted into the wild. Learners discuss what plants need to grow. Next, learners review the butterfly life cycle and create a butterfly puppet that emerges from a pupa. Educators can also use this activity to introduce learners to endangered species (the Karner Blue butterfly is endangered in Wisconsin because of the decreased lupine population).

Paula Rogers Huff

2005-01-01

151

Early Primary Succession on Mount St. Helens: Impact of Insect Herbivores on Colonizing Lupines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupinus lepidusvar. lobbii, the earliest plant colonist of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, can dramatically influence successional rates and ecosystem development through N fixation and other facilitative effects. However, 15 yr after the eruption, lupine effects remained localized because high rates of population growth in newly founded patches ( l5 11.2, 1981-1985) were short lived ( l5 1.51,

John G. Bishop

2002-01-01

152

Entomopathogenic nematodes: natural enemies of root-feeding caterpillars on bush lupine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of soil-dwelling entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis hepialus killed up to 100% (mean=72%) of root-boring caterpillars of a ghost moth Hepialus californicus in coastal shrub lands. When unchecked, ghost moth caterpillars killed bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus. Here we describe this strange food chain. Although unappreciated by ecologists, entomopathogenic nematodes are widespread and probably one of the most important groups

D. R. Strong; H. K. Kaya; A. V. Whipple; A. L. Child; S. Kraig; M. Bondonno; K. Dyer; J. L. Maron

1996-01-01

153

Drought and salinity differentially influence activities of superoxide dismutases in narrow-leafed lupins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of drought and salinity on growth and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) forms were studied in narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Shoot dry weight and the elongation rate were depressed after 3 days of drought, with leaf water potential dropping to ?1.64 MPa. Activity of total SOD increased by 21%, Cu\\/ZnSOD by 33% and FeSOD by 50% after 2

Q Yu; Z Rengel

1999-01-01

154

Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.  

PubMed

Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring. PMID:2089736

Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Bunch, T D; Callan, R J

1990-01-01

155

Groundwater management through increased water use by lupin crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total evaporation ( E) was measured on lupin crops of differing leaf area per unit ground area in southwestern Australia. Leaf area was controlled by sowing at different times and rates. The objective was to explore the feasibility of increasing water use in order to reduce recharge to rising, shallow, saline water tables. Replicated plots of Lupinus angustifolius were sown at 100 and 200 kg ha -1 on 24 May and at 100 kg ha -1 on 7 June, 1988. E was measured by ventilated chambers from each of these treatments over eight 24 h periods grouped at the beginning, middle and end of a 28 day period. Mean rates of E were 2.16 mm day -1 for the later sown lupins at 100 kg ha -1, 2.49 mm day -1 for the earlier sown lupins at 100 kg ha -1 and 2.90 mm day -1 for the earlier sown lupins at 200 kg ha -1. The corresponding relative values for E were 1.00, 1.15 and 1.34. The transpiration component of E was estimated by measuring sap flow with a heat balance technique on individual plants within the chambers. Daily values of transpiration varied from 0.8 to 2 mm giving residual soil evaporation values of 1.0-1.6 mm day -1. E from soil was a significant cause of water loss particularly in the plots with low leaf area. At preflowering and early flowering E increased linearly with increasing leaf area per unit ground area up to values of 2.6. Soil evaporation decreased linearly with increasing leaf area. We conclude that increased seeding rates and earlier sowing of lupins have the potential to increase E and to reduce recharge and the rise of saline water tables.

Greenwood, E. A. N.; Turner, N. C.; Schulze, E.-D.; Watson, G. D.; Venn, N. R.

1992-06-01

156

Original article In situ evaluation of the ruminal  

E-print Network

lupin seed nitrogen P Cros C Benchaar, C Bayourthe M Vernay R Moncoulon ENSAT, Laboratoire de Zootechnie; accepted 25 July 1991) Summary ― The effect of whole lupin seeds (Lupinus albus cv Lublanc) at 120 contents (g/kg of DM) of the raw whole lupin seeds were 224 and 84 respectively; extrusion elevated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

Anaphylactic reaction to lupine flour.  

PubMed

Roasted lupine seeds have been used as snack food in Mediterranean countries for years. Since the 1990s, lupine flour has been used as a substitute for or additive to other flours in countries of the European Union; usually the amount is so low that no declaration is required. Since 1994, a number of cases of immediate-type allergy to lupine flour-containing products have been published. A 52-year-old woman developed facial and mucosal edema, followed by dizziness and shortness of breath a few minutes after ingestion of a nut croissant containing lupine flour; she required emergency care. Allergy diagnostic tests revealed a total IgE of 116 kU/l, a highly elevated concentration of IgE specific for lupine seed (42.9 kU/l) and birch pollen IgE of 2.57 kU/l. Skin prick test with native lupine flour was strongly positive. Allergy against lupine seeds may develop de novo or via cross-reactivity to legumes, particularly peanuts, the latter being detectable in up to 88% of cases, founded on a strong sequence similarity between lupine and peanut allergens. In our patient, no cross-reactivity could be detected via immunoblotting, indicating a rare monovalent sensitization to lupine flour. Treatment consists of avoidance of lupine flour-containing products. Patients with proven peanut allergy should also avoid lupine flour because of the major risk of cross-reaction. PMID:17760898

Brennecke, Sabine; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Lepp, Ute; Jappe, Uta

2007-09-01

158

Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week

Ramon S. Hall; Amynta L. Baxter; Cathy Fryirs; Stuart K. Johnson

2010-01-01

159

Successional Change in Phosphorus Stoichiometry Explains the Inverse Relationship between Herbivory and Lupin Density on Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (N?P) of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus) colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to

Jennifer L. Apple; Michael Wink; Shannon E. Wills; John G. Bishop

2009-01-01

160

Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship Between Bovine Congenital Lathyrism Induced by Aminoacetonitrile and the Lupine Induced Crooked Calf Disease  

PubMed Central

Maternal feeding of the lathyrogen aminoacetonitrile, the range plant Lupinus caudatus, and an extract of this plant expected to contain lathyrogens if present in the plant all produced clinically similar congenital defects in calves. The defects included excessive flexure, malpositioning, malalignment and rotation of the front limbs. The results suggest a possible relationship between lathyrism and lupine-induced crooked calf disease. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4238569

Keeler, R. F.; Binns, W.; James, L. F.; Shupe, J. L.

1969-01-01

161

The effect of military training activity on eastern lupine and the Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA.  

PubMed

The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training. PMID:11740627

Smith, Mark A; Turner, Monica G; Rusch, Donald H

2002-01-01

162

Cluster-root formation and carboxylate release in three Lupinus species as dependent on phosphorus supply, internal phosphorus concentration and relative growth rate  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Some Lupinus species produce cluster roots in response to low plant phosphorus (P) status. The cause of variation in cluster-root formation among cluster-root-forming Lupinus species is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if cluster-root formation is, in part, dependent on different relative growth rates (RGRs) among Lupinus species when they show similar shoot P status. Methods Three cluster-root-forming Lupinus species, L. albus, L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, were grown in washed river sand at 0, 75, 15 or 40 mg P kg?1 dry sand. Plants were harvested at 34, 42 or 62 d after sowing, and fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems, cluster roots and non-cluster roots of different ages were measured. The percentage of cluster roots, tissue P concentrations, root exudates and plant RGR were determined. Key Results Phosphorus treatments had major effects on cluster-root allocation, with a significant but incomplete suppression in L. albus and L. pilosus when P supply exceeded 15 mg P kg?1 sand. Complete suppression was found in L. atlanticus at the highest P supply; this species never invested more than 20 % of its root weight in cluster roots. For L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, cluster-root formation was decreased at high internal P concentration, irrespective of RGR. For L. albus, there was a trend in the same direction, but this was not significant. Conclusions Cluster-root formation in all three Lupinus species was suppressed at high leaf P concentration, irrespective of RGR. Variation in cluster-root formation among the three species cannot be explained by species-specific variation in RGR or leaf P concentration. PMID:24061491

Wang, Xing; Pearse, Stuart J.; Lambers, Hans

2013-01-01

163

Cytokinin stimulates and abscisic acid inhibits greening of etiolated Lupinus luteus cotyledons by affecting the expression of the light-sensitive protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastid biogenesis in etiolated lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) cotyledons is highly sensitive to cytokinins and abscisic acid. In the presence of the synthetic cytokinin N6-benzylaminopurine, greening and plastid biogenesis is substantially promoted as compared to untreated controls, whereas abscisic\\u000a acid has an inhibitory effect. Faster greening in cytokinin-treated cotyledons is accompanied by a higher level and slower\\u000a degradation of the

V. Kusnetsov; R. G. Herrmann; O. N. Kulaeva; R. Oelmller

1998-01-01

164

The first gene-based map of Lupinus angustifolius L.-location of domestication genes and conserved synteny with Medicago truncatula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first gene-based linkage map of Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) and its comparison to the partially sequenced genome of Medicago truncatula. The map comprises 382 loci in 20 major linkage groups, two triplets, three pairs and 11 unlinked loci and is 1,846cM in length. The map was generated from the segregation of 163 RFLP markers, 135 gene-based PCR

Matthew N. Nelson; Huyen T. T. Phan; Simon R. Ellwood; Paula M. Moolhuijzen; James Hane; Angela Williams; Clare E. OLone; John Fosu-Nyarko; Marie Scobie; Mehmet Cakir; Michael G. K. Jones; Matthew Bellgard; Micha? Ksi??kiewicz; Bogdan Wolko; Susan J. Barker; Richard P. Oliver; Wallace A. Cowling

2006-01-01

165

Differential response of antioxidative enzymes in embryonic axes and cotyledons of germinating lupine seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds was accompanied by an increase in concentration of free radicals with g\\u000a \\u000a 1\\u000a and g\\u000a \\u000a 2\\u000a values of 2.00560.0003 and 2.00330.0005, respectively. The highest intensity of free radical signal was observed in\\u000a embryo axes immediately after radicle protruded through the seed coat. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated in embryonic axes and\\u000a cotyledons during imbibition before

Ma?gorzata Garnczarska; ?ukasz Wojtyla

2008-01-01

166

Cloning and expression of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate hydrolase from Lupinus angustifolius L.  

PubMed Central

The first isolation, cloning and expression of cDNA encoding an asymmetric diadenosine 5',5'''P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (Ap4A hydrolase) from a higher plant is described. Ap4A hydrolase protein was purified from seeds of both Lupinus luteus and Lupinus angustifolius and partially sequenced. The Ap4A hydrolase cDNA was cloned from L. angustifolius cotyledonary polyadenylated RNA using reverse transcription and PCR with primers based on the amino acid sequence. The cDNA encoded a protein of 199 amino acids, molecular mass 22982Da. When expressed in Escherichia coli fused to a maltose-binding protein, the enzyme catalysed asymmetric cleavage of Ap4A to AMP and ATP which was inhibited at concentrations of F- as low as 3 microM. These are properties characteristic of Ap4A hydrolase (asymmetrical) (EC 3.6.1. 17). Comparison of the Ap4A hydrolase sequences derived from the four known cDNAs from pig, human, lupin and fission yeast showed that, like the mammalian hydrolase, the lupin enzyme possesses a Mut T motif but no other significant similarities. No sequence similarity to the human fragile histidine triad protein, as found in the Ap4A hydrolase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, was detected in the Ap4A hydrolase from lupin. PMID:9425114

Maksel, D; Guranowski, A; Ilgoutz, S C; Moir, A; Blackburn, M G; Gayler, K R

1998-01-01

167

Ileal digestibility of sunflower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs.  

PubMed

The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and field pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fitted with either a T-cannula or a steered ileocecal valve-cannula. Diets contained 170 to 186 g CP/kg DM. Endogenous losses of CP and AA were estimated by feeding a N-free diet. The SID was calculated using the average of Cr(2)O(3) and TiO(2) as indigestible markers and corrected for type of cannula. The SID of CP was greater (P < 0.05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunflower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P < 0.05) in sunflower meal, and the SID of Met and Val were lowest (P < 0.05) in lupine. These results imply soybean meal and pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunflower meal, rapeseed cake, and especially lupine, although all tested feedstuffs seem appropriate for inclusion in diets for organic pigs. PMID:23365330

Nrgaard, J V; Fernndez, J A; Jrgensen, H

2012-12-01

168

Limits to Sulfur Accumulation in Transgenic Lupin Seeds Expressing a Foreign Sulfur-Rich Protein  

PubMed Central

The low sulfur amino acid content of legume seeds restricts their nutritive value for animals. We have investigated the limitations to the accumulation of sulfur amino acids in the storage proteins of narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seeds. Variation in sulfur supply to lupin plants affected the sulfur amino acid accumulation in the mature seed. However, when sulfur was in abundant supply, it accumulated to a large extent in oxidized form, rather than reduced form, in the seeds. At all but severely limiting sulfur supply, addition of a transgenic (Tg) sink for organic sulfur resulted in an increase in seed sulfur amino acid content. We hypothesize that demand, or sink strength for organic sulfur, which is itself responsive to environmental sulfur supply, was the first limit to the methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) content of wild-type lupin seed protein under most growing conditions. In Tg, soil-grown seeds expressing a foreign Met- and Cys-rich protein, decreased pools of free Met, free Cys, and glutathione indicated that the rate of synthesis of sulfur amino acids in the cotyledon had become limiting. Homeostatic mechanisms similar to those mediating the responses of plants to environmental sulfur stress resulted in an adjustment of endogenous protein composition in Tg seeds, even when grown at adequate sulfur supply. Uptake of sulfur by lupin cotyledons, as indicated by total seed sulfur at maturity, responded positively to increased sulfur supply, but not to increased demand in the Tg seeds. PMID:11891268

Tabe, Linda M.; Droux, Michel

2002-01-01

169

IN VITRO RUMINAL PROTEIN DEGRADATION AND MICROBIAL PROTEIN FORMATION OF SEED LEGUMES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed legumes such as peas, lupins, and faba beans are important feeds for dairy cows in Europe and other regions. Ruminal protein degradability was quantified using the inhibitor in vitro (IIV) system for samples of 5 seed legumes: 2 peas (cv. Alembo and Helena), 1 white lupin (Lupinus albus, cv. Mu...

170

Genome sequence of the lupin-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417.  

PubMed

Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen (N2) fixing root nodule of Lupinus sp. collected in Papudo, Chile, in 1995. However, this microsymbiont is a poorly effective N2 fixer with the legume host Lupinus angustifolius L.; a lupin species of considerable economic importance in both Chile and Australia. The symbiosis formed with L. angustifolius produces less than half of the dry matter achieved by the symbioses with commercial inoculant strains such as Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471. Therefore, WSM1417 is an important candidate strain with which to investigate the genetics of effective N2 fixation in the lupin-bradyrhizobia symbioses. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,048,963 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a single scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,695 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976884

Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Peters, Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

2013-12-20

171

ALTERING LUPINE FLOUR FOR THE FOOD INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 10 years ago Firma LI Frank, which is part of the Barentz Group, introduced lupine flour into the European food market. In these 10 years lupine flour has proven its benefits in various food applications creating a specific market share in e.g. bread, biscuits, wafers and battered products. Arguments to use lupine as a food ingredient are the non-GMO

Bert Dijkink; Victor Miedendorp de Bie; Walter Blom

172

The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.  

PubMed

The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (p<0.05). The results of the research revealed a decrease in the concentrations of antinutritional factors in the sprouts of yellow and blue lupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids. PMID:22540870

Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

2013-08-01

173

Phenylpropanoid pathway metabolites promote tolerance response of lupine roots to lead stress.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the role of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids in plants in response to heavy metal stress. In this study, it was found that treatment of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) with Pb (150mg/l Pb(NO3)2) increased flavonoid contents in both cotyledons (by ca. 67%) and roots (by ca. 54%). Moreover, seedling roots preincubated with flavonoid extracts, derived from Pb-treated lupine cotyledons, exhibited enhanced tolerance to the heavy metal. Flavonoid preincubated lupine seedlings, growing for 48h in the presence of Pb(NO3)2, showed mitigated symptoms of lead stress, which was manifested by a significant increase in the root length and its biomass. Additionally, in seedlings pretreated with the natural flavonoid preparations an impressive rise of the antioxidant capacity was observed. Simultaneously, root cells exhibited reduced accumulation of both H2O2 and O2(-), which was associated with the decreased TBARS content and the number of dying cells under Pb stress. Taken together, accumulation of flavonoids could be an effective event in the plant?s spectrum of defense responses to heavy metal stress, and the protective role of flavonoids against heavy metals might be associated with their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species overproduced under lead stress. PMID:25194698

Izbia?ska, Karolina; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Deckert, Joanna

2014-12-01

174

Successional Change in Phosphorus Stoichiometry Explains the Inverse Relationship between Herbivory and Lupin Density on Mount St. Helens  

PubMed Central

Background The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (N?P) of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus) colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to lupin density and are known to alter lupin colonization dynamics. We examined larval performance in response to leaf nutritional characteristics using gelechiid and pyralid leaf-tiers, and a noctuid leaf-cutter. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted four studies. First, growth of larvae raised on wild-collected leaves responded positively to leaf %P and negatively to leaf carbon (%C), but there was no effect of %N or quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs). Noctuid survival was also positively related to %P. Second, we raised gelechiid larvae on greenhouse-grown lupins with factorial manipulation of competitors and soil N and P. In the presence of competition, larval mass was highest at intermediate leaf N?P and high %P. Third, survival of gelechiid larvae placed on lupins in high-density patches was greater when plant competitors were removed than on controls. Fourth, surveys of field-collected leaves in 2000, 2002, and 2003 indicated that both %P and %N were generally greater in plants from low-density areas. QAs in plants from low-density areas were equal to or higher than QAs in high-density areas. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that declines in lupin P content under competitive conditions are associated with decreased larval growth and survival sufficient to cause the observed negative relationship between herbivore abundance and host density. The results support the theoretical finding that declines in stoichiometric resource quality (caused here by succession) have the potential to cause a decrease in consumer abundance despite very dense quantities of the resource. PMID:19907662

Apple, Jennifer L.; Wink, Michael; Wills, Shannon E.; Bishop, John G.

2009-01-01

175

Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-?- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-?-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

2011-10-01

176

Article de recherche Digestion ruminale et absorption intestinale  

E-print Network

Article de recherche Digestion ruminale et absorption intestinale des protéines du lupin extrudé matières organique et azotée de la graine entière du lupin (Lupinus albus cv Lublanc). Le Cr-EDTA et YBCI estimées par le biais des bases puriques et de 15N. L'incorporation du lupin extrudé dans la ration des ani

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine rnax) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not...A. 1995. Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine rnax), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas...

2013-03-22

178

ON THE RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT OF LUPINUS ALBUS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Warburg microrespirometer technic (Warburg, 1926) was used in this series of experiments. The customary conical vessel was replaced with a cylindri- cal one of special design (Tang, 1931-1932, b). It is attached to the manometer from the side instead of the top which has a removable stopper bearing a glass cross on which the seed is fastened with a

PEI-SUNG TANG

1932-01-01

179

Possible chemotaxis in Ruminococcus albus: comparative genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several comparative genomic tools were used to determine the existence of chemiotaxis in ruminal bacteria. Comparative Analysis of Microbial Genomes (CMR) was used to search for a specific chemiotaxis gene. Then, short sequences of Ruminococcus albus were searched in the database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, and compared them in the database CMR (Comprehensive Microbial Resource) and Concise

Mnica Marcela Galicia-Jimnez; Rafael Rojas-Herrera; Carlos Sandoval-Castro; Hctor Magaa-Sevilla

2011-01-01

180

WHITE LUPIN NITROGEN FIXATION UNDER PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin is highly adapted to growth in a low P environment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether white lupin grown under P-stress has adaptations in nodulation and N2 fixation that facilitate continued functioning. Nodulated plants were grown in silica sand supplied with N-...

181

Bradyrhizobium-Lupinus mariae-josephae: a unique symbiosis endemic of a basic soil in Eastern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lupinus mariae-josephae is an intriguing lupine species recently discovered in the Mediterranean region and constitutes an endemism of a small area of Eastern Spain (Valencia province; Pascual, 2004; Mah et al. 2011). It opens new perspectives for ecological and agronomic interests, as it represents the sole lupine species that preferentially grows in basic soils, while almost all other lupine species occur in acid to neutral soils. The L. mariae-josephae symbionts isolated from soils of calcareous areas of Valencia are extremely slow-growing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhrizobium genus and showing symbiotic specificity that prevents nodulation of other Lupinus spp. such as L. angustifolius or L. luteus typically thriving in acid soils (Sanchez-Caizares et al, 2011). Their phylogenetic analysis based on housekeeping and symbiotic genes showed that L. mariae-josephae symbionts belong to an evolutionary lineage that also includes endosymbiotic bacteria from Retama spp. of Northern Algeria basic soils (Boulila et al. 2009). Conversely, this new lineage is phylogenetically distinct from that of endosymbiotic bacteria from other Lupinus spp. native of the Iberian Peninsula, which were nested mainly within B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages. A genomic diversity study of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population of the calcareous areas in Valencia, based on fingerprint and phylogenetic analysis, showed the existence of a large diversity of genotypes, some of which are related to bacteria from the Retama spp. symbiosis in Algeria. This singular genomic divergence of L. mariae-josephae symbiotic bacteria in such a small geographical area fosters attractive studies on the origin, ecology and evolution of both partners of the symbiosis. Furthermore, it is expected that ongoing seed inoculation experiments with selected strains will allow us to extend the extant distribution spots of L. mariae-josephae plants in Valencia area, and also to determine whether the observed edaphic restrictions represent a limitation to the expansion of L. mariae-josephae crops to wide areas of poor calcareous soils in the Mediterranean region. Work supported by FBBVA Contract BIOCON08-078 to TRA and MICINN Project CGL2011-26932 to JI. Mah et al. 2010 Genet Resour Crop Evol 58, 101-114. Pascual, H. 2004 Anal Jardn Botn Madrid 61(1): 69-72. Snchez-Caizares et al 2011 Syst Appl Microbiol 34 207-215 Boulila et al 2009 Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 32, 245-255.

Durn, D.; Snchez-Caizares, C.; Navarro, A.; Rey, L.; Imperial, J.; Ruiz-Argeso, T.

2012-04-01

182

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of genome structure in Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus cosentinii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus cosentinii was performed using flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and differential chromosome staining. Genome size was determined as 2.07pg for L. angustifolius and 1.54pg for L. cosentinii. Analysis of nuclear DNA amount in cells during plant development has shown endopolyploidisation in different organs. The highest level of endopolyploidy was in

Inga Hajdera; Dorota Siwinska; Robert Hasterok; Jolanta Maluszynska

2003-01-01

183

Causes and Consequences of Herbivory on Prairie Lupine ( Lupinus lepidus ) in Early Primary Succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary succession, the formation and change of ecological communities in locations initially lacking organisms or other biological\\u000a materials, has been an important research focus for at least a century (Cowles 1899; Griggs 1933; Eggler 1941; Crocker and\\u000a Major 1955; Eggler 1959; Miles and Walton 1993; Walker and del Moral 2003). At approximately 60 km2, primary successional surfaces at Mount St.

John G. Bishop; William F. Fagan; John D. Schade; Charles M. Crisafulli

184

Effect of seed predation on seed bank size and seedling recruitment of bush lupine ( Lupinus arboreus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether seed consumers affect plant establishment is an important unresolved question in plant population biology. Seed consumption\\u000a is ubiquitous; at issue is whether seedling recruitment is limited by safe-sites or seeds. If most seeds inhabit sites unsuitable\\u000a for germination, post-dispersal seed consumption primarily removes seeds that would otherwise never contribute to the population\\u000a and granivory has minimal impacts on plant

John L. Maron; Ellen L. Simms

1997-01-01

185

Evaluation of pesticide uptake by Lupinus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide uptake by seeds depends on the properties of the chemical, such as structure, stability, logkow and diffusion rate, type of water, pH, temperature, content of organic matter and composition, and on seed characteristics such as permeability of the seed coat. The efficiency with which Lupinus angustifolius seeds retain different herbicides (simazine, atrazine, isoproturon, linuron,) and insecticides (carbaryl, fenamiphos, permethrin)

R. M. Garcinuo; P. Fernndez-Hernando; C. Cmara

2003-01-01

186

An inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis seeds effective against aspartic proteases from Hypothenemus hampei.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), is one of the most devastating coffee pests (Coffea arabica L.) worldwide. Digestion in the midgut of H. hampei is facilitated by aspartic proteases. This is the first report of an aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis. The L. bogotensis aspartic protease inhibitor (LbAPI) exhibited a molecular mass of 12.84kDa, as determined by MALDI-TOF, and consists of a single polypeptide chain with an isoelectric point of 4.5. In thermal activity experiments, stability was retained at pH 2.5 after heating the protein at 70 degrees C for 30 min, but was unstable at 100 degrees C. The protein was also stable over a broad range of pH, from 2 to 11, at 30 degrees C. In in vitro assays, LbAPI was highly effective against aspartic proteases from H. hampei guts with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 2.9 microg. LbAPI inhibits pepsin in a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1. LbAPI inhibition of pepsin was competitive, with a K(i) of 3.1 microM, using hemoglobin as substrate. Its amino-terminal sequence had 76% homology with the seed storage proteins vicilin and beta-conglutin. The homology of LbAPI to vicilins from Lupinus albus L. suggests that they may also serve as storage proteins in the seed. LbAPI could be a promising tool to make genetically modified coffee with resistance to H. hampei. PMID:20347105

Molina, Diana; Zamora, Humberto; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro

2010-06-01

187

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE DEFICIENCY INDUCED PROMOTERS IN TRANSGENIC ALFALFA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphate transporter and acid phosphatase genes are among the major phosphate (P) deficiency induced genes in higher plants. We have previously reported the cloning and characterization of a phosphate transporter gene LaPT1 and acid phosphatase gene LaSAP1 from white lupin Lupinus albus and demonst...

188

Plant improvement Winter development of autumn sown white lupin  

E-print Network

Plant improvement Winter development of autumn sown white lupin: agronomic and breeding (Received 14 June 1990; accepted 15 September 1990) Summary Different genotypes of white lupin were resistance in lupins was studied. The thickness of the root parenchyma appeared to be a major factor of root

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Characterization of IgE Binding to Lupin, Peanut and Almond with Sera from Lupin-Allergic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The increasing number of applications of sweet lupins in food is paralleled by an increase in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions to lupin proteins. In particular, lupin allergy seems to appear in patients with an existing peanut allergy. In the present study, IgE-binding studies towards fractionated lupin seed proteins, and peanut and almond proteins were performed using sera from

Lise Holden; Gaynour B. G. Sletten; Helene Lindvik; Christiane K. Fste; Maaike M. B. W. Dooper

2008-01-01

190

Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate phosphohydrolase from yellow lupin seeds: purification to homogeneity and some properties.  

PubMed Central

Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate phosphohydrolase (EC 3.6.1.14) has been purified to homogeneity from the meal of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain of 25+/-1 kDa. It catalyses the hydrolysis of a nucleoside 5'-tetraphosphate to a nucleoside triphosphate and orthophosphate, and hydrolysis of tripolyphosphate but neither pyrophosphate nor tetraphosphate. A divalent cation, Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Mn2+, is required for these reactions. The pH optimum for hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (p4A) is 8.2, Vmax is 21+/-1.7 micromol/min per mg of protein and the Km for p4A is 3+/-0.6 microM. At saturating p4A concentrations, the rate constant for the reaction is 8.5+/-0.7 s-1 [at 30 degrees C, in 50 mM Hepes/KOH (pH8.2)/5 mM MgCl2/0.1 mM dithiothreitol]. p4A and guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate are hydrolysed at the same rate. Adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate (p5A) is degraded 1/200 as fast and is converted into ATP and two molecules of orthophosphate, which are liberated sequentially. This contrasts with the cleavage of p5A by the lupin diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.17), which gives ATP and pyrophosphate. Zn2+, F- and Ca2+ ions inhibit the hydrolysis of p4A with I50 values of 0.1, 0.12 and 0.2 mM respectively. PMID:9359862

Guranowski, A; Starzy?ska, E; Brown, P; Blackburn, G M

1997-01-01

191

Genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobial symbionts of the Lupinus mariae-josephae endemism from alkaline-limed soils within its area of distribution in Eastern Spain.  

PubMed

The genomic diversity of a collection of 103 indigenous rhizobia isolates from Lupinus mariae-josephae (Lmj), a recently described Lupinus species endemic to alkaline-limed soils from a restricted habitat in Eastern Spain, was investigated by molecular methods. Isolates were obtained from soils of four geographic locations in the Valencia province that harbored the known Lmj plant populations. Using an M13 RAPD fingerprinting technique, 19 distinct RAPD profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA and the housekeeping genes glnII, recA and atpD showed a high diversity of native Bradyrhizobium strains that were able to establish symbiosis with Lmj. All the strains grouped in a clade unrelated to strains of the B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages that establish symbioses with lupines in acid soils of the Mediterranean area. The phylogenetic tree based on concatenated glnII, recA and atpD gene sequences grouped the Lmj isolates in six different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 93% similarity level. These OTUs were not associated to any specific geographical location, and their observed divergence predicted the existence of different Bradyrhizobium genomic species. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis of symbiotic genes based on nodC and nodA gene sequences, defined only two distinct clusters among the Lmj strains. These two Lmj nod gene types were largely distinct from nod genes of bradyrhizobia nodulating other Old World lupine species. The singularity and large diversity of these strains in such a small geographical area makes this an attractive system for studying the evolution and adaptation of the rhizobial symbiont to the plant host. PMID:23290449

Durn, David; Rey, L; Snchez-Caizares, C; Navarro, A; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argueso, T

2013-03-01

192

Ultramafic soils from New Caledonia structure Pisolithus albus in ecotype.  

PubMed

Isolates of ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus were sampled from both ultramafic and volcano-sedimentary soils in New Caledonia, a tropical hotspot of biodiversity, to investigate the relationships between genetic diversity and edaphic constraint through tolerance to nickel (Ni). Carpophore description, spore morphology and phylogenetic analysis based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences confirmed that all isolates belong to P. albus and are closely related to other Australasian specimens. Using molecular tools, ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we showed the existence of two distinct genetic clusters within P. albus: ultramafic and volcano-sedimentary. Mycelia response to Ni toxicity supports such a population structure. Pisolithus albus from ultramafic soils included isolates with a high diversity of in vitro Ni tolerance, with both Ni-tolerant isolates (average Ni EC(50) at 575 microM) and Ni-sensitive isolates (average Ni EC(50) at 37 microM). In contrast, all isolates from volcano-sedimentary soils were found to be Ni sensitive (average Ni EC(50) at 32 microM). We highlight that (1) P. albus population from ultramafic soils of New Caledonia are genetically structured in ecotype, and that (2) Ni tolerance among ultramafic isolates suggests an adaptive physiological response to Ni toxicity. PMID:20199570

Jourand, Philippe; Ducousso, Marc; Loulergue-Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Santoni, Sylvain; Prin, Yves; Lebrun, Michel

2010-05-01

193

Albus 1: A very bright white dwarf candidate  

E-print Network

We have serendipitously discovered a previously-unknown, bright source (B_T = 11.75+/-0.07 mag) with a very blue V_T-K_s color, to which we have named Albus 1. A photometric and astrometric study using Virtual Observatory tools has shown that it possesses an appreciable proper motion and magnitudes and colors very similar to those of the well known white dwarf G 191-B2B. We consider Albus 1 as a DA-type white dwarf located at about 40 pc. If confirmed its nature, Albus 1 would be the sixth brightest isolated white dwarf in the sky, which would make it an excellent spectrophotometric standard.

Jose Antonio Caballero; Enrique Solano

2007-07-09

194

Conservation of Endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in Its Natural Habitat by Inoculation with Selected, Native Bradyrhizobium Strains  

PubMed Central

Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in terra rossa soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other terra rossa or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive. PMID:25019379

Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simn; Laguna, Emilio; Durn, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argeso, Toms

2014-01-01

195

Effects of experience and lactation on lupine consumption by cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two grazing studies using non-pregnant cows were conducted in the Channel Scablands of eastern Washington during 2003-2004. Six cows nave to lupine and 6 cows with several years experience grazing lupine-infested rangelands were grazed together for 25 days. Diets were determined by bite counts. ...

196

VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF LUPIN PROTEINS PRODUCED BY ULTRAFILTRATION-DIAFILTRATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The linear and non-linear rheological properties of defatted lupin proteins produced by ultrafiltration-diafiltration were investigated. Five concentrations ranging from 10% to 30% of the defatted ultrafiltered-diafiltered (DUD) lupin proteins were prepared. The viscoelastic properties strongly de...

197

Actividad Biolgica in vitro de Extractos de Lupinus spp. sobre Hongos Fitopatgenos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkaloid content in seeds of Lupinus exaltatus, Lupinus rotundiflorus, and Lupinus montanus (Fabaceae) were determined. Alkaloid extraction and quantification were made by column chromatography and by a gravimetric method, respectively. The fungicide activity in vitro of extracts rich in alkaloids was also evaluated on Sclerotium rolfsii, Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. The extracts were incorporated in potato-dextrose

Artemiza Bernal-Alcocer; Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera; Gil Virgen-Calleros; Ricardo Nuo-Romero

2005-01-01

198

Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount R. del Moral1,  

E-print Network

-1 Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens R. del Moral1, Trajectory Abstract The nitrogen-fixing legume Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant herb on new volcanic (Callaway and Walker 1997) can all alter course and rate of pri- mary succession. Lupinus lepidus Dougl. ex

del Moral, Roger

199

Expression of novel cytosolic malate dehydrogenases (cMDH) in Lupinus angustifolius nodules during phosphorus starvation.  

PubMed

During P deficiency, the increased activity of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) can lead to malate accumulation. Cytosolic- and nodule-enhanced MDH (cMDH and neMDH, respectively) are known isoforms, which contribute to MDH activity in root nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the cMDH isoforms in nodule malate supply under P deficiency. Nodulated lupins (Lupinus angustifolius var. Tanjil) were hydroponically grown at adequate P (+P) or low P (-P). Total P concentration in nodules decreased under P deficiency, which coincided with an increase in total MDH activity. A consequence of higher MDH activity was the enhanced accumulation of malate derived from dark CO2 fixation via PEPC and not from pyruvate. Although no measurable neMDH presence could be detected via PCR, gene-specific primers detected two 1kb amplicons of cMDH, designated LangMDH1 (corresponding to +P, HQ690186) and LangMDH2 (corresponding to -P, HQ690187), respectively. Sequencing analyses of these cMDH amplicons showed them to be 96% identical on an amino acid level. There was a high degree of diversification between proteins detected in this study and other known MDH proteins, particularly those from other leguminous plants. Enhanced malate synthesis in P-deficient nodules was achieved via increased anaplerotic CO2 fixation and subsequent higher MDH activities. Novel isoforms of cytosolic MDH may be involved, as shown by gene expression of specific genes under P deficiency. PMID:25151130

Le Roux, Marcellous; Phiri, Ethel; Khan, Wesaal; Sakiro?lu, Muhammet; Valentine, Alex; Khan, Sehaam

2014-11-01

200

Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7  

SciTech Connect

Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

Suen, Garret [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stevenson, David M [USDA-ARS, Madison WI; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Boyum, Julie [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Mead, David [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Weimer, Paul J [USDA-ARS, Madison WI

2011-01-01

201

Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

202

Phenolic acids from Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake (Caprifoliaceae).  

PubMed

The leaves, flowers and fruits of Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake (Caprifoliaceae) were analysed for the presence of phenolic acids. Eleven free and liberated by hydrolysis phenolic acids were identified by TLC, HPLC and spectral (UV) methods. Moreover, the HPLC method was applied for the quantitative determination of phenolic acids in the analysed fractions. PMID:12848374

Szaufer-Hajdrych, Miros?awa; Zgrka, Grazyna

2003-01-01

203

Insights into naturally minimised Streptomyces albus J1074 genome  

PubMed Central

Background The Streptomyces albus J1074 strain is one of the most widely used chassis for the heterologous production of bioactive natural products. The fast growth and an efficient genetic system make this strain an attractive model for expressing cryptic biosynthetic pathways to aid drug discovery. Results To improve its capabilities for the heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters, the complete genomic sequence of S. albus J1074 was obtained. With a size of 6,841,649bp, coding for 5,832 genes, its genome is the smallest within the genus streptomycetes. Genome analysis revealed a strong tendency to reduce the number of genetic duplicates. The whole transcriptomes were sequenced at different time points to identify the early metabolic switch from the exponential to the stationary phase in S. albus J1074. Conclusions S. albus J1074 carries the smallest genome among the completely sequenced species of the genus Streptomyces. The detailed genome and transcriptome analysis discloses its capability to serve as a premium host for the heterologous production of natural products. Moreover, the genome revealed 22 additional putative secondary metabolite gene clusters that reinforce the strains potential for natural product synthesis. PMID:24495463

2014-01-01

204

Stress-induced changes in glutamate dehydrogenase activity imply its role in adaptation to C and N metabolism in lupine embryos.  

PubMed

The modifying effect of sucrose on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity and isoenzyme pattern was investigated in isolated embryos of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.), cultured in vitro in a medium with sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S) and exposed to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) stress. Sucrose starvation of lupine embryos led to a rapid increase in the specific activity of GDH, immunoreactive beta-polypeptide and it was accompanied by appearance of new cathodal isoforms of enzyme. This suggests that isoenzymes induced in lupine embryos by sucrose starvation combine into GDH hexamers with the predominance of beta-GDH subunits synthetized under GDH1 gene control. The addition of sucrose to the medium caused an opposite effect. Along with upregulation of catabolic activity of GDH by sucrose starvation, activity of proteolytic enzymes was also induced. These data can point to regulatory mechanism implying a sucrose dependent repression of the GDH1 gene according to the mechanism of catabolic repression. Treatment of embryos with Cd(2+) or Pb(2+) resulted in ammonium accumulation in the tissues, accompanied by an increase in anabolic activity of GDH and activity of anodal isoenzymes, in both (+S) and (-S) embryos without new de novo synthesis of alpha subunit proteins. Thus, GDH isoenzyme profiles may reflect the physiological function of GDH, which appears to be an important link of metabolic adaptation in cells, aimed at using carbon sources other than sugar during carbohydrate starvation (catabolic activity of GDH) and protecting plant tissues against ammonium accumulated because of heavy metal stress (anabolic activity of GDH). PMID:19843240

Lehmann, Teresa; Skrok, Albert; Dabert, Miros?awa

2010-01-01

205

POLYSACCHARIDE STORAGE AND GROWTH EFFICIENCY IN RUMINOCOCCUS ALBUS  

PubMed Central

Hungate, R. E. (University of California, Davis). Polysaccharide storage and growth efficiency in Ruminococcus albus. J. Bacteriol. 86:848854. 1963.Ruminococcus albus strain RAM requires biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid, pyridoxamine, isovalerate, isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, and either cysteine or sulfide. Rumen fluid and casein hydrolysate improve growth but are not essential. Up to 35% iodophilic polysaccharide is stored in cells from batch cultures and 17% in a continuous culture on a 10-hr cycle. The storage product is a polymer of glucose resembling starch. The yield of cells in continuous culture, corrected for stored starch, averaged 102 mg per mmole of cellobiose fermented to waste products. It is postulated that nine high-energy phosphates are derived from each cellobiose molecule. Conversions providing this number are discussed. PMID:14066484

Hungate, R. E.

1963-01-01

206

Lupin alkaloids Part IV. The influence of some structural factors on the conformational equilibrium in bis-quinolizidine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

13C NMR and IR spectra of minor alkaloids of Lupinus albus such as multiflorine ( I), 13?-hydroxymultiflorine ( IV) and their monoperchlorates, 13?-hydroxy-5-dehydromultiflorine ( V) and 5-dehydromultiflorine ( VI) were taken. I and IV in CDCl 3, their monoperchlorates in CD 3CN and V in CD 3OD solution occur in conformational equilibrium. The share of the conformation with a boat ring C in I is about 74%, in IV 67%, in I HClO 4 20%, in IVHClO 43% and in V 3%. The change in conformational preference results mainly from a decreasing destabilization of the conformation with a chair ring C caused by an increase in the distance between the interacting hydrogen atom pairs 5?-17?, 8?-12?, 12?-17? and 14?-17?, due to protonation induced lengthening of the N (16)-C ? bonds. VI and most of the molecules of V remain in solution in conformation with a chair ring C. This conformation in V and VI is less destabilized than in I and IV because of a lower steric hindrance for the chair ring C, as a consequence of the planarity of ring A and a part of fragment B and because of the absence of the 5?-17? interaction.

Wysocka, Waleria; Brukwicki, Tadeusz

1992-01-01

207

Eustrongylides sp. epizootic in young common egrets (Casmerodius albus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May 1985, epizootic mortality was reported in common egrets (Casmerodius albus) on Avery Island, Louisiana. Subsequent investigation revealed that more than 400 birds died. Severe peritoneal nematodiasis (Eustrongylides sp.) was found on postmortem examination. A nearby breeding rookery on the same island was apparently unaffected. Reasons for this selective mortality are presented. Three other reports of epizootic mortality due to Eustrongylides sp. have been reported. This is the first report of this type of epizootic in gulf-coast birds.

Roffe, Thomas J.

1988-01-01

208

Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

Seipke, Ryan F.

2015-01-01

209

EFFECT OF SHADE ON ALKALOID CONTENT OF LUPINUS LEUCOPHYLLUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupine-induced "crooked calf" syndrom is a significant problem for ranches in the semi-arid region of the channeled scablands of eastern Washington State. Rainfall and soil moisture has been proposed to affect the alkaloid content and/or palatability of L. leucophyllus. It is also possible that shad...

210

Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting.  

PubMed

Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability. PMID:20542068

Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K

2010-10-01

211

Distribution of Carboxylates and Acid Phosphatase and Depletion of Different Phosphorus Fractions in the Rhizosphere of a Cereal and Three Grain Legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the distribution of carboxylates and acid phosphatases as well as the depletion of different phosphorus\\u000a (P) fractions in the rhizosphere of three legume crop species and a cereal, grown in a soil with two different levels of residual\\u000a P. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.), field pea (Pisum sativum L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and spring wheat

Mohammad Nuruzzaman; Hans Lambers; Michael D. A. Bolland; Erik J. Veneklaas

2006-01-01

212

Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The nitrogen-fixing legume,Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant,herb on new volcanic surfaces at Mount St. Helen. We compared vegetation structure in 30 Lupinus colonies in three age classes (old, mature, or young,based,on known,years of their establishment) to adjacent sites that were sparsely populated,by Lupinus. Our goals were to determine,if the age of colonies affected either species composition,or vegetation structure

R. Del Moral; L. r. Rozzell

213

Long-term Effects of Lupinus lepidus on Vegetation Dynamics at Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrogen-fixing legume Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant herb on new volcanic surfaces at Mount St. Helen. We compared vegetation structure in 30 Lupinus colonies in three age classes (old, mature, or young based on known years of their establishment) to adjacent sites that\\u000a were sparsely populated by Lupinus. Our goals were to determine if the age of colonies

R. del Moral; L. R. Rozzell

2005-01-01

214

CONTROL OF GREEN MOLD AND SOUR ROT OF STORED LEMONS BY BIOFUMIGATION WITH MUSCODOR ALBUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of postharvest lemon diseases by biofumigation with the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus was investigated. In vitro exposure to M. albus volatile compounds for 3 days killed Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, causes of green mold and sour rot of lemons, respectively...

215

Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T formed a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these ot...

216

Control of common bunt of wheat under field conditions with the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the biological control potential of the fungus Muscodor albus, when applied as a seed treatment or an in furrow soil treatment, for control of common bunt (CB) of wheat caused by Tilletia caries. For seed treatments, dry rye grain culture of M. albus wa...

217

The Effect of Military Training Activity on Eastern Lupine and the Karner Blue Butterfly at Fort McCoy,  

E-print Network

The Effect of Military Training Activity on Eastern Lupine and the Karner Blue Butterfly at Fort Mc of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median

Turner, Monica G.

218

Gas plant (Dictamnus albus) phytophotodermatitis simulating poison ivy.  

PubMed Central

A 48-year-old man presented with an itchy rash that resembled superficial burns or cane marks on his left forearm; similar lesions had appeared every summer for 5 years. Poison ivy dermatitis had been the initial diagnosis, but the patient knew that this plant was absent from his well tended garden. A visit to the garden revealed the gas plant Dictamnus albus, and occlusive patch testing with leaf cuttings produced a reaction after the skin was exposed to sunlight. Gas plant phytophotodermatitis was diagnosed. Images p889-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6231089

Henderson, J. A.; DesGroseilliers, J. P.

1984-01-01

219

Lupin allergy: a hidden killer at home, a menace at work; occupational disease due to lupin allergy.  

PubMed

The products of the flowering plant, lupin, are increasingly used as a human food product, particularly in baking. Occupational sensitization to lupin with occupational rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma was first described in 2001, and confirmed in a larger cross-sectional study in a food processing company in 2006. Sensitization by inhalation may result in occupational asthma, work-exacerbated asthma, occupational rhinitis and conjunctivitis. The incidence of occupational sensitization may be as high as 29%. The relationship with exposure intensity is as yet unclear, and requires further clarification. Although there is little information from long-term studies, these diseases are likely to improve after cessation of exposure. Cross-sensitization to other legumes, particularly peanuts, has been shown by skin prick testing, with potential for serious anaphylactic reactions. This review summarizes the available literature on occupational sensitization to lupin products. It is one of two reviews, one covering the problem of lupin allergy in the home, while the present article deals with lupin sensitization in the workplace. Increased awareness is needed of this occupational hazard to avoid future cases of occupational disease and their accompanying morbidity and potential mortality. PMID:20937061

Campbell, C P; Yates, D H

2010-10-01

220

Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.  

PubMed

This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, ?-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for ?-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that ?-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements. PMID:24054261

Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora

2014-01-15

221

SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF TERATOGENIC PIPERIDINE ENANTIOMERS FROM NICOTIANA AND LUPINUS SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ingestion of Lupinus and Nicotiana species by pregnant livestock at specific gestational periods can result in calves, piglets, lambs and kids with cleft palate and front limb contractures. Ammodendrine and anabasine are teratogens and are found in Lupinus and Nicotiana species, respectively. Both...

222

Diversity of Selected Lupinus angustifolius L. Genotypes at the Phenotypic and DNA Level with Respect to Microscopic Seed Coat Structure and Thickness  

PubMed Central

The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. Emir, and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars Sonet and Emir. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar Zeus (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cie?lak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawi?ski, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

2014-01-01

223

Alkaloid and predation patterns in colorado lupine populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado populations of herbaceous perennial lupines show three distinct patterns of amounts, kinds, and individual variability of inflorescence alkaloids. These patterns, interpreted as alternative chemical defense strategies, can be related to the susceptibility of populations to attack by larvae of a small flower-feeding lycaenid butterfly, Glaucopsyche lygdamus.

Peter M. Dolinger; Paul R. Ehrlich; William L. Fitch; Dennis E. Breedlove

1973-01-01

224

Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crooked calf disease is used to describe a number of skeletal malformations in newborn calves, including a twisted spine, neck, and one or both forelimbs. These malformations develop when the pregnant cow eats toxic lupines containing the alkaloids anagyrine, ammodendrine, and N-methyl ammodendri...

225

Complete nucleotide sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames ORFs with a similar genetic organization and conceptual translations of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The orde...

226

Distribution, biology and hybridization of Scaphirhynchus albus and S. platorynchus in the Missouri and Mississippi rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis\\u000a Scaphirhynchus albus and S. platorynchus were studied in Missouri during 19781979 to assess their distribution and abundance, to obtain information on their life\\u000a histories, and to identify existing or potential threats to their survival. S. platorynchus was collected in substantial numbers (4355 specimens) at all 12 sampling stations in the Missouri and Mississippi rivers,\\u000a while only 11 S. albus

Douglas M. Carlson; William L. Pflieger; Linden Trial; Pamela S. Haverland

1985-01-01

227

Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov.  

PubMed

In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811(T) forms a cluster with five other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these other species, including Streptomyces almquistii NRRL B-1685(T), Streptomyces flocculus NRRL B-2465(T), Streptomyces gibsonii NRRL B-1335(T) and Streptomyces rangoonensis NRRL B-12378(T) are quite similar. This cluster is of particular taxonomic interest because Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. The related strains were subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB and confirmation of previously reported phenotypic characteristics. The five strains formed a coherent cluster supported by a 100?% bootstrap value in phylogenetic trees generated from sequence alignments prepared by concatenating the sequences of the housekeeping genes, and identical tree topology was observed using various different tree-making algorithms. Moreover, all but one strain, S. flocculus NRRL B-2465(T), exhibited identical sequences for all of the five housekeeping gene loci sequenced, but NRRL B-2465(T) still exhibited an MLSA evolutionary distance of 0.005 from the other strains, a value that is lower than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. These data support a proposal to reclassify S. almquistii, S. flocculus, S. gibsonii and S. rangoonensis as later heterotypic synonyms of S. albus with NRRL B-1811(T) as the type strain. The MLSA sequence database also demonstrated utility for quickly and conclusively confirming that numerous strains within the ARS Culture Collection had been previously misidentified as subspecies of S. albus and that Streptomyces albus subsp. pathocidicus should be redescribed as a novel species, Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov., with the type strain NRRL B-24287(T). PMID:24277863

Labeda, D P; Doroghazi, J R; Ju, K-S; Metcalf, W W

2014-03-01

228

Discrimination des lupins basse teneur en alcalodes par les adultes de Sitona lineatus L. (Col. Curculionidae)  

E-print Network

NOTE Discrimination des lupins à basse teneur en alcaloïdes par les adultes de Sitona lineatus L'Amélioration des Plantes fourragères F86600 Lusignan R?SUM? Dans le cadre du développement des cultures de lupin. Mots clés additionnels : Dégâts, Infestation artificielle, Plantules. SUMMARY Discrimination of lupin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Article original Utilisation du lupin blanc doux pour l'alimentation  

E-print Network

Article original Utilisation du lupin blanc doux pour l'alimentation des ruminants : résultats et, France (Reçu le 16 mai 1990; accepté le 19 décembre 1990) Résumé Parmi les 4 espèces de lupin vaches laitières (3 essais) montrent ainsi que le lupin peut s'utiliser comme concentré de production en

Boyer, Edmond

230

Accumulation potentielle de matire sche et d'azote chez le lupin blanc de printemps (Lupi-  

E-print Network

Accumulation potentielle de matière sèche et d'azote chez le lupin blanc de printemps (Lupi- nus'acquérir les premières références sur le comportement potentiel de l'espèce en culture de printemps, le lupin connus pour le soja, dont le lupin blanc est un possible substitut, a montré que les potentiels de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

The Unique Biosynthetic Route from Lupinus ?-Conglutin Gene to Blad  

PubMed Central

Background During seed germination, ?-conglutin undergoes a major cycle of limited proteolysis in which many of its constituent subunits are processed into a 20 kDa polypeptide termed blad. Blad is the main component of a glycooligomer, accumulating exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Principal Findings The sequence of the gene encoding ?-conglutin precursor (1791 nucleotides) is reported. This gene, which shares 44 to 57% similarity and 20 to 37% identity with other vicilin-like protein genes, includes several features in common with these globulins, but also specific hallmarks. Most notable is the presence of an ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM), which possibly links the unique catabolic route of ?-conglutin to the ubiquitin/proteasome proteolytic pathway. Significance Blad forms through a unique route from and is a stable intermediary product of its precursor, ?-conglutin, the major Lupinus seed storage protein. It is composed of 173 amino acid residues, is encoded by an intron-containing, internal fragment of the gene that codes for ?-conglutin precursor (nucleotides 394 to 913) and exhibits an isoelectric point of 9.6 and a molecular mass of 20,404.85 Da. Consistent with its role as a storage protein, blad contains an extremely high proportion of the nitrogen-rich amino acids. PMID:20066045

Monteiro, Sara; Freitas, Regina; Rajasekhar, Baru T.; Teixeira, Artur R.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.

2010-01-01

232

Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

2015-01-01

233

Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers.  

PubMed

Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476נP27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

2015-01-01

234

Effects of endogenous signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the mechanism regulating genistein synthesis and accumulation in yellow lupine and their impact on plant cell cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes. Infection significantly enhanced the synthesis of genistein and other isoflavone aglycones in cells of embryo axes of yellow lupine with high endogenous sugar levels. The activity of ?-glucosidase, the enzyme that releases free aglycones from their glucoside bindings, was higher in the infected tissues than in the control ones. At the same time, a very strong generation of the superoxide anion radical was observed in tissues with high sugar contents already in the initial stage of infection. During later stages after inoculation, a strong generation of semiquinone radicals was observed, which level was relatively higher in tissues deficient in sugars than in those with high sugar levels. Observations of actin and tubulin cytoskeletons in cells of infected embryo axes cultured on the medium with sucrose, as well as the medium without sugar, showed significant differences in their organization. PMID:25178062

Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, S?awomir; Marczak, ?ukasz; Nowak, Witold; Naro?na, Dorota; Bednarski, Waldemar; Kasprowicz-Malu?ki, Anna; Morkunas, Iwona

2014-01-01

235

High Pressure Effect on Meat and Lupin Protein Digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pressure treatment is a mild treatment concerning the nutritional characteristics: for instance vitamins content is very few affected by high-pressure treatment. But the impact of high-pressure on protein digestibility remains poorly understood. This work presents effect of high-pressure treatment on in vitro digestibility of meat and lupin proteins. Two high-pressure conditions (200 and 500 MPa 10 min.) and a

M. de Lamballerie-Anton; S. Delpine; N. Chapleau

2002-01-01

236

Influence des conditions de nutrition azote sur l'accumulation de matire sche et d'azote par le lupin  

E-print Network

'azote par le lupin blanc de printemps C. Duthion, N. Amarger, V. Durey, J. Gonthier P. Mathey INRA, Station nutrition azotée sur le comportement du lupin blanc, des essais factoriels avec les deux variables of nitrogenous nutrition conditions on dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in the spring white lupin. Factorial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

Utilization of sweet kalina lupin seed by the weaned piglet Effect of the incorporation level and the physical form  

E-print Network

Utilization of sweet kalina lupin seed by the weaned piglet Effect of the incorporation level, containing 0, 3, 6 and 9 p. 100 lupin and offered as pellets. In a second trial concerning 400 crossbred piglets we tested the effect of incorporation of 10 p. 100 lupin in diets offered either as flour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Influence of grazing pressure on cattle consumption of the teratogenic plant velvet lupine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupine species may contain teratogenic alkaloids that cause birth defects called crooked calf syndrome. If pregnant cows ingest toxic lupine between days 40 and 100 of gestation, fetal movement is impaired and irreversible skeletal defects occur. There is a need to determine the time and condition...

239

Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

240

Occupational IgE-mediated allergy after exposure to lupine seed flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ingestion of lupine seed flour (LSF) has been reported as a cause of allergic reactions, particularly in patients sensitized to peanut, but there is little evidence of its allergenic potential after inhalation. We sought to evaluate the clinical and immunologic reactivity to lupine in employees working with this seed flour. An occupational history was obtained in 7 subjects (median

Jess F. Crespo; Julia Rodr??guez; Ramn Vives; John M. James; Mar Reao; Pilar Daroca; Carmen Burbano; Mercedes Muzquiz

2001-01-01

241

Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat flour doughs and their effect on rheological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full fat lupin, soya and triticale flour were added to a medium strength wheat flour. The added flour was used to replace 5 and 10% w\\/w of wheat flour. The effects of lupin, soya and triticale flour supplementation on physical dough properties, such as water absorption capacity, dough development time, dough stability, crumb, porosity and bread structure and quality characteristics

G. Doxastakis; I. Zafiriadis; M. Irakli; H. Marlani; C. Tananaki

2002-01-01

242

LUPINE EFFECTS ON SOIL QUALITY AND FUNCTION DURING PRIMARY SUCCESSION AT MOUNT ST. HELENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupines, early legume colonists of Mount St. Helens pyroclastic flows, are important mediators of above and belowground succession because they are sources of C and N that impact soil genesis, establishment of other plant species and soil microbial communities. Rates of N2 fixation by lupines can va...

243

Functional phylotyping approach for assessing intraspecific diversity of Ruminococcus albus within the rumen microbiome.  

PubMed

Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic bacterium, is a critical member of the rumen community. Ruminococcus albus lacks a classical cellulosome complex, but it possesses a unique family 37 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM37), which is integrated into a variety of carbohydrate-active enzymes. We developed a potential molecular tool for functional phylotyping of the R. albus population in the rumen, based on a variable region in the cel48A gene. cel48A encodes a single copy of the CBM37-associated family 48 glycoside hydrolase in all known strains of this bacterium. A segment of the cel48A gene was amplified from rumen metagenomic samples of four bovines, and its abundance and diversity were evaluated. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed the co-existence of multiple functional phylotypes of cel48A in all four animals. These included sequences identical or similar to those of R. albus isolates (reference strains), as well as several novel sequences. The dominant cel48A type varied among animals. This method can be used for detection of intraspecific diversity of R. albus in metagenomic samples. Together with scaC, a previously reported gene marker for R. flavefaciens, we present a set of two species-specific markers for phylotyping of Ruminococci in the herbivore rumen. PMID:25673657

Rozman Grinberg, Inna; Yin, Guohua; Borovok, Ilya; Berg Miller, Margret E; Yeoman, Carl J; Dassa, Bareket; Yu, Zhongtang; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Flint, Harry J; Bayer, Edward A; White, Bryan A; Lamed, Raphael

2015-01-01

244

Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lupin allergy remains a significant cause of food-induced allergic reactivity and anaphylaxis. Previous work suggests a strong association with legume allergy and peanut allergy in particular. Both doctors and the public have little awareness of lupin as an allergen. Case presentation Case 1 was a 41-year-old Caucasian woman without previous atopy who developed facial swelling, widespread urticaria with asthma and hypotension within minutes of eating a quiche. Her lupin allergy was confirmed by both blood and skin tests. Her lupin sensitivity was so severe that even the miniscule amount of lupin allergen in the skin testing reagent produced a mild reaction. Case 2 was a 42-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with three episodes of worsening urticaria and asthma symptoms over 6years occurring after the consumption of foods containing lupin flour. Blood and skin tests were positive for lupin allergy. Case 3 was a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with known oral allergy syndrome who had two reactions associated with urticaria and vomiting after consuming foods containing lupin flour. Skin testing confirmed significant responses to a lupin flour extract and to one of the foods inducing her reaction. Case 4 was a 54-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with a 7year history of three to four episodes each year of unpredictable oral tingling followed by urticaria after consuming a variety of foods. The most recent episode had been associated with vomiting. She had developed oral tingling with lentil and chickpeas over the previous year. Skin and blood tests confirmed lupin allergy with associated sensitivity to several legumes. Conclusions Lupin allergy can occur for the first time in adults without previous atopy or legume sensitivity. Although asymptomatic sensitisation is frequent, clinical reactivity can vary in severity from severe anaphylaxis to urticaria and vomiting. Lupin allergy may be confirmed by skin and specific immunoglobulin E estimation. Even skin testing can cause symptoms in some highly sensitive individuals. The diagnosis of lupin allergy in adults may be difficult because it is frequently included as an undeclared ingredient. Better food labelling and medical awareness of lupin as a cause of serious allergic reactions is suggested. PMID:24529316

2014-01-01

245

Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus Strain NBRC 13014T, the Type Species of the Genus Streptomyces  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S.albus strain NBRC 13014T. The genome contains at least seven orphan polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters. The genome sequence will also serve as a valuable reference for Streptomyces taxonomy. PMID:25657283

Ichikawa, Natsuko; Oguchi, Akio; Hamada, Moriyuki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Fujita, Nobuyuki

2015-01-01

246

Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Ruminococcus albus and an anaerobic recombinant, FE7  

SciTech Connect

Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic, gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium (Pc/sup s/ Sm/sup r/ Km/sup s/), and an anaerobic recombinant, FE7 (Pc/sup r/ Sm/sup s/ Km/sup r/), having lignin-related compound-degrading activities, was performed under strictly anaerobic conditions to introduce cellulase genes into strain FE7. One of the two fusants named FE7R2, showed 45 to 47% of the ..beta..-glucosidase and cellobiosidase activities of its parent R. albus and still maintained a level of degradation activity against dehydrodivanillin, a lignin-related compound, of up to 87% of that of the parent strain FE7. To verify that the cellulolytic activities expressed in the fusant FE7R2 originated from R. albus cellulase genes, the ..beta..-glucosidase gene of R. albus was cloned into Escherichia coli HB101 with plasmid pBR322. Cells bearing are recombinant plasmid, pRAII, produced high enzyme activities against both p-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D-glucoside and p-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D-cellobioside and could degrade cellobiose to glucose. Southern blot results showed that the cloned DNA fragment could hybridize with chromosomal DNAs of both R. albus and FE7R2, but did not with the chromosomal DNA of FE7, indicating that the ..beta..-glucosidase gene fragment was introduced into the chromosome of FE7R2 from R. albus via the protoplast fusion. The fusant FE7R2 could utilize simultaneously both cellobiose and dehydrodivanillin.

Chen, W.; Nagashima, K.; Kajino, T.; Ohmiya, K.; Shimizu, S.

1988-05-01

247

Potential of the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for control of building molds.  

PubMed

The possibility of using the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for biofumigation against building molds was investigated. Several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium as well as fungi belonging to nine other genera were inhibited or killed in vitro by volatiles produced by potato dextrose agar or rye grain cultures of M. albus. Trichoderma viride was the only fungus that was not inhibited by M. albus volatiles. To test biofumigation as a preventative treatment against fungal colonization of building material, dry pieces of gypsum drywall were fumigated with grain cultures of M. albus in closed boxes. After a simulated water damage and incubation under saturated humidity for 2 weeks, untreated drywall developed natural fungal populations of about 10(5)-10(6) cfu/cm2, while drywall fumigated with M. albus culture (20 g/11 L) had nondetectable fungal populations. To test for curative ability, moist pieces of drywall heavily colonized with Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus niger, or Stachybotrys chartarum were fumigated for 48 h with grain cultures of M. albus. Cladosporium cladosporioides was eliminated within 48 h, while A. niger and S. chartarum were usually more resistant. However, a longer curative fumigation of 96 h was effective in reducing A. niger or naturally occurring mold populations by about 5 log values. The production of volatile organic compounds from 20 g of rye grain culture in 11 L containers was monitored by solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography. Concentrations of isobutyric acid, the most abundant volatile, increased gradually in the headspace until it reached 25 microg/L (m/v) within 96 h. The second and third most abundant compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol and isobutanol, peaked at about 10 and 5 microg/L (m/v), respectively, within the first 24 h and declined gradually afterwards. PMID:17538650

Mercier, Julien; Jimnez, Jorge I

2007-03-01

248

The Marr and Albus Theories of the Cerebellum: Two Eary Models of Associative Memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum are compared and contrasted. They are shown to be similar in their analysis of the function of the mossy fibers, granule cells, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cells. They both predict motor learning in the parallel fiber synapses on the Purkinje dendrites mediated by concurrent climbing fiber input. This prediction has been confirmed by experimental evidence. In contrast, Marr predicts these synapses would be facilitated by learning, while Albus predicts they would be weakened. Experimental evidence confirms synaptic weakening.

Albus, James S.

1989-01-01

249

Induce systemic resistance in lupine against root rot diseases.  

PubMed

Root rot caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks lupine plants. Isolation trials from diseased plants in some areas of Dakahlia Province (Egypt) was carried out. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani proved to be the most dominant isolates. Meanwhile, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were less frequent. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors viz.: chitosan (CHI), Salicylic Acid (SA) and hydroquinone (HQ) in comparing to the fungicide Rhizolex T-50 as seed treatments showed significant reduction in the fungal growth in vitro. Chitosan at 8 g L(-1) and fungicide completely inhibited the growth of all isolated fungi, while SA at 1.4 g L(-1) and HQ at 1.2 g L(-1) inhibited the growth of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, respectively. The greenhouse experiments showed that S. rolfesii (No. 6) and R. solani (No. 2) followed by F. solani (No. 5) and F. oxysporum (No. 9) were the most aggressive root rot fungi. Soaking susceptible lupine seeds (Giza 1) in each one of the three selected elicitors showed a significant reduction in seedlings mortality. CHI at 8 g L(-1) was superior in increasing the percentage of healthy plants to record 72.5, 80.9, 62.7and 64.3%, when seeds were grown in soil infested with of F. solani, F. oxysporum, R. solani and S. rolfesii, respectively. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i.e., Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow Research Stations. CHI 8 g L(-1) proved to be the best elicitor after fungicide, in reducing lupine root rot disease. It showed 41 and 60% reduction in the plants mortality comparing to 56.37 and 69.13% in case of Rhizolex-T in Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow locations, respectively. The treatments were accompanied with a significant increase in lupine growth parameters, yield components and physiological aspects. Application of CHI at 8 g L(-1) or HQ at 1.2 g L(-1) was the most potent in this respect as compared to check treatment. PMID:19579949

Ali, Abeer A; Ghoneem, K M; El-Metwally, M A; Abd El-Hai, K M

2009-02-01

250

Mercury contamination in free-ranging great egret nestlings (Ardea albus) from southern Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between March and June of 1994 and 1995, mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined from 393 blood and 164 growing scapular feathers from 252 great egret nestlings (Ardea albus). Nestlings came from eight colonies located in Water Conservation Area 3 in the Everglades region in southern Florida. The ages of these birds ranged from 1 to 44 d (bill length 1.1

M. S. Sepulveda; Peter C. Frederick; Marilyn G. Spalding

1999-01-01

251

The quantitative determination of phenolic acids and antimicrobial activity of Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake.  

PubMed

The content of phenolic acids was determined in the extracts and fractions from leaves, flowers and fruits of Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake (Caprifoliaceae) by the Arnov's method. Antimicrobial activity of all extracts against Gram-positive anti Gram-negative microorganisms has been tested. PMID:15259860

Szaufer-Hajdrych, Miros?awa; Go?li?ska, Olga

2004-01-01

252

Mortality of Tilletia spp. teliospores caused by volatiles from the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatiles produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, T. indica, and T. tritici which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of wheat, and common bunt of wheat, respectively. Ten g...

253

Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.  

PubMed Central

Background In the last 30?years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA) sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible) in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM), and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA fingerprinting method for marker-assisted selection in the Australian national lupin breeding program. Conclusions We demonstrated that more than 30 molecular markers linked to a target gene of agronomic trait of interest can be identified from a small portion (1/8) of one sequencing run on HiSeq2000 by applying NGS based RAD sequencing in marker development. The markers developed by the strategy described in this study are all co-dominant SNP markers, which can readily be converted into high throughput multiplex format or low-cost, simple PCR-based markers desirable for large scale marker implementation in plant breeding programs. The high density and closely linked molecular markers associated with a target trait help to overcome a major bottleneck for implementation of molecular markers on a wide range of germplasm in breeding programs. We conclude that application of NGS based RAD sequencing as DNA fingerprinting is a very rapid and cost-effective strategy for marker development in molecular plant breeding. The strategy does not require any prior genome knowledge or molecular information for the species under investigation, and it is applicable to other plant species. PMID:22805587

2012-01-01

254

Burkholderia Species Are Major Inhabitants of White Lupin Cluster Roots?  

PubMed Central

The formation of cluster roots by plants represents a highly efficient strategy for acquisition of sparingly available phosphate. This particular root type is characterized by a densely branched structure and high exudation of organic acids and protons, which are likely to influence the resident bacterial community. Until now, the identity of the bacterial populations living in cluster roots has not been investigated. We applied cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods to characterize the dominant bacterial genera inhabiting the growing cluster roots of white lupin. We observed a high relative abundance of Burkholderia species (up to 58% of all isolated strains and 44% of all retrieved 16S rRNA sequences) and a significant enrichment with increasing cluster root age. Most of the sequences retrieved clustered together with known plant- or fungus-associated Burkholderia species, while only one of 98 sequences was affiliated with the Burkholderia cepacia complex. In vitro assays revealed that Burkholderia strains were much more tolerant to low pH than non-Burkholderia strains. Moreover, many strains produced large amounts of siderophores and were able to utilize citrate and oxalate as carbon sources. These features seem to represent important traits for the successful colonization and maintenance of Burkholderia species in white lupin cluster roots. PMID:21908626

Weisskopf, Laure; Heller, Stefanie; Eberl, Leo

2011-01-01

255

THE EFFECTS OF SELF-POLLINATION AND MATERNAL RESOURCES ON REPRODUCTION AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN THE WILD LUPINE, LUPINUS PERENNIS (FABACEAE). (R826596)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

256

Fungicide seed treatments reduce seed transmission and severity of lupin anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupin production is a vital part of the farming system on coarse-textured soils throughout Western Australia. The continued\\u000a viability of the lupin industry was threatened in 1996 by the outbreak of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The use of fungicides as seed dressings was investigated as a potential control for this disease. Twenty one fungicides\\u000a were examined in vitro for

G. J. Thomas; M. W. Sweetingham

2003-01-01

257

Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99% similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India. PMID:24426163

Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

2014-03-01

258

Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese\\u000a subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and\\u000a blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in

Naoya Kitao; Daisuke Fukui; Masaaki Hashimoto; Peter G. Osborne

2009-01-01

259

Variation in Lupinus arboreus alkaloid profiles and relationships with multiple herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in plant defensive profiles can be affected by environmental factors, genetic factors, and their interactions, and different feeding guilds may have different responses to variation in defenses. Here we present results of a factorial breeding design in Lupinus arboreus from three sites of origin to determine how parental effects, population differences, and environmental effects influence alkaloid profiles and resistance

Lynn S. Adler; Pamela M. Kittelson

2004-01-01

260

Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania  

E-print Network

Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania pollinators can facilitate rapid spread. In Tasmania, where many non-native plants are naturalised, exotic). There are currently >2000 species of non-native plants growing wild in Australia and it is estimated that in Tasmania

261

Patterns of quinolizidine alkaloids in 56 species of the genus Lupinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkaloid composition of 56 species (90 taxa if all subspecies and chemotypes are included) of the genus Lupinus was studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and GLC-mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS). The distribution of 100 alkaloids (quinolizidines, piperidines, dipiperidines and simple indoles) and their relative abundances in leaves and seeds (if available) are recorded.

Michael Wink; Carsten Meiner; Ludger Witte

1995-01-01

262

High pH in the nutrient solution impairs water uptake in Lupinus angustifolius L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root growth in Lupinus angustifolius is greatly decreased when the nutrient solution has a pH above 6.0. This study examined the water relations in this species (cv. Yandee) in response to high pH in solution culture in a glasshouse.

C. Tang; B. T. Cobley; S. Mokhtara; C. E. Wilson; H. Greenway

1993-01-01

263

First report of Colletotrichum lupini on Lupinus hartwegii and L. mutabilis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the 2013 winter cut flower production season, a severe anthracnose epidemic was observed on Lupinus mutabilis (syn L. cruckshanksii) on a commercial flower farm in Martin County, FL. Approximately 50% of the crop was lost to the disease. Symptoms included mild leaf spots, but more typically...

264

Facilitation of Urtica dioica colonisation by Lupinus arboreus on a nutrient-poor mining spoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facilitation is an important process during succession. Legumes often play a significant role as facilitators, particularly in primary succession, enriching the soil with nitrogen (N). The leguminous shrub Lupinus arboreus (Sims) can fix significant N on acidic, nutrient-poor soils. An apparent association between L. arboreus and Urtica dioica (L), which requires high concentrations of soil N and phosphorus (P), suggested

Paul Gosling

2005-01-01

265

LUPIN, a new instrument for pulsed neutron fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of studies focused in the last decades on the development of survey meters to be used in pulsed radiation fields. This is a topic attracting widespread interest for applications such as radiation protection and beam diagnostics in accelerators. This paper describes a new instrument specifically conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fields (PNF). The detector, called LUPIN, is a rem counter type instrument consisting of a 3He proportional counter placed inside a spherical moderator. It works in current mode with a front-end electronics consisting of a current-voltage logarithmic amplifier, whose output signal is acquired with an ADC and processed on a PC. This alternative signal processing allows the instrument to be used in PNF without being affected by saturation effects. Moreover, it has a measurement capability ranging over many orders of burst intensity. Despite the fact that it works in current mode, it can measure a single neutron interaction. The LUPIN was first calibrated in CERN's calibration laboratory with a PuBe source. Measurements were carried out under various experimental conditions at the Helmholtz-Zentrum in Berlin, in the stray field at various locations of the CERN Proton Synchrotron complex and around a radiotherapy linear accelerator at the S. Raffaele hospital in Milan. The detector can withstand single bursts with values of H*(10) up to 16 nSv/burst without showing any saturation effect. It efficiently works in pulsed stray fields, where a conventional rem-counter underestimates by a factor of 2. It is also able to reject the very intense and pulsed photon contribution that often accompanies the neutron field with good reliability.

Caresana, M.; Ferrarini, M.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.; Varoli, V.

2013-06-01

266

Effet de l'extrusion 195C sur la disparition des acides amins du lupin dans le rumen et l'intestin in situ chez la vache  

E-print Network

Effet de l'extrusion à 195°C sur la disparition des acides aminés du lupin dans le rumen et l composition of the lupin protein that escaped in situ ruminal digestion differed markedly both quantitatively and qualitatively from its initial composi- tion. Extruding lupin seeds increased intestinal disappearance of most

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Survival of White Ibises ( Eudocimus albus ) in response to chronic experimental methylmercury exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although methylated mercury (MeHg) is known to have neurological, immunological, reproductive, and endocrine effects on vertebrates\\u000a at low environmental exposure levels, effects on survival of exposed birds have not been demonstrated in the wild. Here, we\\u000a report on survival of the same group of White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) during exposure to 4 levels of dietary MeHg in captivity and later

Peter Frederick; Ashley Campbell; Nilmini Jayasena; Rena Borkhataria

2011-01-01

268

Morphogenetic pathway in petiole derived callus of Amorphophallus albus in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different morphogenetic pathways, adventitious bud and corm-like structure (CLS), were observed on organogenic calli derived\\u000a from the petioles of Amorphophallus albus in vitro. The organogenic calli was established via culture of petiole segments on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented\\u000a with 1.0mgl?1 ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1.0mg l?1 6-benzyladenine (BA) and subculture of the petiole-derived calli on MS medium

Jianbin Hu; Jianwu Li

2008-01-01

269

Root tip-dependent, active riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots with\\/without an exogenous gene (11 clones) were established by inoculation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. All clones cultured under iron-deficient condition secreted riboflavin from the root tips into the culture medium and the productivity depended on the number and size of root tips among the clones. A decline of pH was observed before riboflavin production and root development.

Ataru Higa; Erika Miyamoto; Laiq ur Rahman; Yoshie Kitamura

2008-01-01

270

Functional Analyses of Multiple Lichenin-Degrading Enzymes from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8?  

PubMed Central

Ruminococcus albus 8 is a fibrolytic ruminal bacterium capable of utilization of various plant cell wall polysaccharides. A bioinformatic analysis of a partial genome sequence of R. albus revealed several putative enzymes likely to hydrolyze glucans, including lichenin, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide of glucose linked together in ?-1,3 and ?-1,4 glycosidic bonds. In the present study, we demonstrate the capacity of four glycoside hydrolases (GHs), derived from R. albus, to hydrolyze lichenin. Two of the genes encoded GH family 5 enzymes (Ra0453 and Ra2830), one gene encoded a GH family 16 enzyme (Ra0505), and the last gene encoded a GH family 3 enzyme (Ra1595). Each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified to near homogeneity. Upon screening on a wide range of substrates, Ra0453, Ra2830, and Ra0505 displayed different hydrolytic properties, as they released unique product profiles. The Ra1595 protein, predicted to function as a ?-glucosidase, preferred cleavage of a nonreducing end glucose when linked by a ?-1,3 glycosidic bond to the next glucose residue. The major product of Ra0505 hydrolysis of lichenin was predicted to be a glucotriose that was degraded only by Ra0453 to glucose and cellobiose. Most importantly, the four enzymes functioned synergistically to hydrolyze lichenin to glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose. This lichenin-degrading enzyme mix should be of utility as an additive to feeds administered to monogastric animals, especially those high in fiber. PMID:21890664

Iakiviak, Michael; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

2011-01-01

271

Research on Lupine-Induced "Crooked Calf Disease" at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: Past, Present and Future  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are over 500 species of lupine in the world with over 300 in North America and over 150 in the Intermountain West. Past research at the Poisonous Plant Research Lab determined that lupine was responsible for skeletal birth defects in cattle in the western U.S. Anagyrine was determined to be...

272

Digestibility of extruded peas, extruded lupin, and rapeseed meal in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) and turbot ( Psetta maxima)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy of extruded peas, extruded lupin and rapeseed meals were determined in juvenile rainbow trout and turbot. Extruded lupin was found to be a promising substitute for fish meal in the diets of trout and turbot, with an acceptable digestibility of its dry matter (70% in trout and 81% in turbot) and a

Christine Burel; Thierry Boujard; Francesca Tulli; Sadasivam J Kaushik

2000-01-01

273

Acta Cryst. (1990). B46, 833-841 Refinement of Glucose Isomerase from Streptomyces albus at 1-65/~ with Data from  

E-print Network

833 Acta Cryst. (1990). B46, 833-841 Refinement of Glucose Isomerase from Streptomyces albus at 1) Abstract The structure of 'metal-free' glucose isomerase of Streptomyces albus strain number YT ATCC 21132, Glusker, Burger, Manfre, Tritsch & Biellmann (1989) report the refined structure of the Streptomyces rubi

274

The LUPIN detector supporting least intrusive beam monitoring technique through neutron detection  

E-print Network

The Long interval, Ultra-wide dynamic Pile-up free Neutron rem counter (LUPIN) is a novel detector initially developed for radiation protection purposes, specifically conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fields. The detector has a measurement capability varying over many orders of neutron burst intensity, from a single neutron up to thousands of interactions for each burst, without showing any saturation effect. Whilst LUPIN has been developed for applications in the radiation protection fields, its unique properties make it also well suited to support other beam instrumentation. In this contribution, the design of LUPIN is presented in detail and results from measurements carried out in different facilities summarize its main characteristics. Its potential use as beam loss monitor (BLM) and complementary detector for non-invasive beam monitoring purposes (e.g. to complement a monitor based on proton beam halo detection) in medical accelerators is then examined. In the context of its application...

Manessi, G P; Welsch, C; Caresana, M; Ferrarini, M

2013-01-01

275

The potential of aqueous fractionation of lupin seeds for high-protein foods.  

PubMed

Aqueous fractionation of protein from lupin seeds was investigated as an alternative to the conventional wet fractionation processes, which make use of organic solvents. The effect of extraction temperature was studied and the consequences for downstream processing were analysed. Omitting the extraction of oil with organic solvents resulted in a protein isolate that contained 0.02-0.07 g oil g(-1) protein isolate, depending on the exact extraction conditions. Nevertheless, the protein functionality of the aqueous fractionated lupin protein isolate was similar to the conventional lupin protein isolate. The protein isolate suspension could be concentrated to 0.25 g mL(-1) using ultrafiltration, which provides a relevant concentration for a range of high-protein products. Based on the results, we conclude that aqueous fractionation can be a method to lower the environmental impact of the extraction of proteins from legumes that contain water- and dilute salt-soluble proteins. PMID:24767027

Berghout, J A M; Boom, R M; van der Goot, A J

2014-09-15

276

Phytoremediation of soils co-contaminated by organic compounds and heavy metals: bioassays with Lupinus luteus L. and associated endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

In the central part of the Iberian Peninsula there are old sealed landfills containing soils co-contaminated by several heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Cr, Fe, Al, Mn) and organic pollutants of different families (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and other organochlorinated compounds, phenols and volatile compounds), which this work will address. We have focused on phytoremedial plants that are able to deal with this type of complex pollution, not only species that tolerate the joint effect of heavy metals in the soil, but also those that can take advantage of associated bacteria to efficiently break down organic compounds. This study was carried out with Lupinus luteus and its endophytes in two greenhouse experiments: A) growing in a substrate artificially contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and B) using real co-contaminated landfill soils. Endophytes of roots and shoots were isolated in both bioassays. Plant growth-promotion tests and organic pollutant tolerance and degradation tests were conducted on all strains isolated in bioassay A), and on those proving to be pure cultures from bioassay B). The selected landfill is described as are isolation and test procedures. Results indicate that plants did not show toxicity symptoms when exposed to BaP but did when grown in landfill soil. Some endophytes demonstrated plant growth-promotion capacity and tolerance to BaP and other organic compounds (diesel and PCB commercial mixtures). A few strains may even have the capacity to metabolize those organic pollutants. The overall decline in plant growth-promotion capacity in those strains isolated from the landfill soil experiment, compared with those from the bioassay with BaP, may indicate that lupin endophytes are not adapted to metal concentration in roots and shoots and fail to grow. As a result, most isolated root endophytes must have colonized root tissues from the soil. While preliminary degradation tests showed promising results (some strains exhibiting the potential to use organic pollutants as their sole source of carbon), these are not conclusive and further in-depth degradation assays need to be performed. PMID:24912107

Gutirrez-Gins, M J; Hernndez, A J; Prez-Leblic, M I; Pastor, J; Vangronsveld, J

2014-10-01

277

Localization of the Enzymes of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Leaf Chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus1  

PubMed Central

Studies with purified chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus LINDL. leaflets indicate that the first two enzymes of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, lysine decarboxylase and 17-oxosparteine synthase, are localized in the chloroplast stroma. Thus, both enzymes share the same subcellular compartment as the biosynthetic pathway of lysine, the precursor of quinolizidine alkaloids. The activity of diaminopimelate decarboxylase, the final enzyme in lysine biosynthesis, is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the enzymes of alkaloid formation. PMID:16662483

Wink, Michael; Hartmann, Thomas

1982-01-01

278

Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic plant invasions threaten ecological communities world-wide. Some species are limited by a lack of suitable pollinators, but the introduction of exotic pollinators can facilitate rapid spread. In Tasmania, where many non-native plants are naturalised, exotic honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) have become established. We determined how these species affect the pollination of Lupinus arboreus, an invasive, nitrogen-fixing

Jane C. Stout; Andrea R. Kells; Dave Goulson

2002-01-01

279

Variation in Flowering Phenology and Its Consequences for Lupines Colonizing Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species colonizing large-scale disturbances face heterogeneous environmental conditions that may strongly affect the relationship between phenotypic variation and repro- duction. We investigated spatiotemporal variation in individual plant flowering phenology, flower and fruit predation, plant size, and fruit production in populations of Lupinus lepidus colonizing landscapes created by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. We quantified these variables in three

John G. Bishop; Douglas W. Schemske

1998-01-01

280

Evolution of arsenate toxicity in nodulated white lupine in a long-term culture.  

PubMed

White lupine is an As-resistant legume that is of interest for phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. To achieve successful phytoremediation, monitoring of the nutritional status of the selected plant species during the entire culture cycle is required to maintain a plant cover with high biomass production. A long-term pot experiment was carried out with nodulated lupine grown on perlite with 10 and 100 microM As concentrations. The reproductive period (from 10 weeks) was the most sensitive phenologic stage of white lupine to long-term As exposure. The 10 microM As treatment increased the uptake and translocation of micronutrients, except for Cu, mainly at flowering with As levels in pods below the statutory limit (1 mg kg (-1) fresh weight). However, the 100 microM As treatment induced significant differences compared to the control. These findings confirm the relatively high resistance of white lupine to arsenate and support the use of this species in phytoremediation and/or revegetation of As-contaminated sites, with special attention on P and Cu nutrition at flowering. PMID:18795759

Vzquez, Sal; Esteban, Elvira; Carpena, Ramn O

2008-09-24

281

Effects of dietary protein and lupine alkaloids on growth and survivorship of Spodoptera eridania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic chemicals and nutrients are often positively correlated within and among plants. We studied how such correlations affect the suitability of plants as food for herbivores by assessing the growth and survivorship ofSpodoptera eridania (army worm) on artificial diets containing lupine alkaloids and casein. We found that (1) the effects of casein were determined by other dietary components: increased dietary

Nelson D. Johnson; Barbara L. Bentley

1988-01-01

282

Lupin peptone as a replacement for animal-derived peptone in rich culture media for yeast.  

PubMed

Lupin peptone was shown to be a suitable replacement for traditional bacteriological peptone in the culture of Candida glabrata, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This new medium formulation allows yeast researchers to increase safety and to eliminate the use of animal products for the culture of yeast in rich medium. PMID:25514068

Chapman, Melissa; Mariano, Krichelle; Macreadie, Ian

2015-02-01

283

Chickpea and white lupin rhizosphere carboxylates vary with soil properties and enhance phosphorus uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea and white lupin roots are able to exude large amounts of carboxylates, but the resulting concentrations in the rhizosphere vary widely. We grew chickpea in pots in eleven different Western Australian soils, all with low phosphorus concentrations. While final plant mass varied more than two-fold and phosphorus content almost five-fold, there were only minor changes in root morphological traits

Erik J. Veneklaas; Jason Stevens; Gregory R. Cawthray; Stephen Turner; Alasdair M. Grigg; Hans Lambers

2003-01-01

284

Spatial scales of genetic structure and gene flow in Calochortus albus (Liliaceae)  

PubMed Central

Calochortus (Liliaceae) displays high species richness, restriction of many individual taxa to narrow ranges, geographic coherence of individual clades, and parallel adaptive radiations in different regions. Here we test the first part of a hypothesis that all of these patterns may reflect gene flow at small geographic scales. We use amplified fragment length polymorphism variation to quantify the geographic scales of spatial genetic structure and apparent gene flow in Calochortus albus, a widespread member of the genus, at Henry Coe State Park in the Coast Ranges south of San Francisco Bay. Analyses of 254 mapped individuals spaced 0.00114.4 km apart show a highly significant decline in genetic identity with ln distance, implying a root-mean-square distance of gene flow ? of 543 m. STRUCTURE analysis implies the existence of 24 clusters over the study area, with frequent reversals among clusters over short distances (<200 m) and a relatively high frequency of admixture within individuals at most sampling sites. While the intensity of spatial genetic structure in C. albus is weak, as measured by the Sp statistic, that appears to reflect low genetic identity of adjacent plants, which might reflect repeated colonizations at small spatial scales or density-dependent mortality of individual genotypes by natural enemies. Small spatial scales of gene flow and spatial genetic structure should permit, under a variety of conditions, genetic differentiation within species at such scales, setting the stage ultimately for speciation and adaptive radiation as such scales as well. PMID:23789059

Henss, Jillian M; Moeller, Jackson R; Theim, Terra J; Givnish, Thomas J

2013-01-01

285

Activation and identification of five clusters for secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus J1074  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces albus?J1074 is a streptomycete strain widely used as a host for expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of this organism predicts the presence of 27 gene clusters for secondary metabolites. We have used three different strategies for the activation of some of these silent/cryptic gene clusters in S.?albus?J1074: two hybrid polyketide-non-ribosomal peptides (PK-NRP) (antimycin and 6-epi-alteramides), a type I PK (candicidin), a non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) (indigoidine) and glycosylated compounds (paulomycins). By insertion of a strong and constitutive promoter in front of selected genes of two clusters, production of the blue pigment indigoidine and of two novel members of the polycyclic tetramate macrolactam family (6-epi-alteramides A and B) was activated. Overexpression of positive regulatory genes from the same organism also activated the biosynthesis of 6-epi-alteramides and heterologous expression of the regulatory gene pimM of the pimaricin cluster activated the simultaneous production of candicidins and antimycins, suggesting some kind of cross-regulation between both clusters. A cluster for glycosylated compounds (paulomycins) was also identified by comparison of the high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the wild-type strain with that of a mutant in which two key enzymes of the cluster were simultaneously deleted. PMID:24593309

Olano, Carlos; Garca, Ignacio; Gonzlez, Aranzazu; Rodriguez, Miriam; Rozas, Daniel; Rubio, Julio; Snchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Braa, Alfredo F; Mndez, Carmen; Salas, Jos A

2014-01-01

286

Lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp: toxicity and teratogenicity in livestock.  

PubMed

Many species of lupines contain quinolizidine or piperidine alkaloids known to be toxic or teratogenic to livestock. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum) and Nicotiana spp. including N. tabacum and N. glauca contain toxic and teratogenic piperidine alkaloids. The toxic and teratogenic effects from these plant species have distinct similarities including maternal muscular weakness and ataxia and fetal contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate. It is believed that the mechanism of action of the piperidine and quinolizidine alkaloid-induced teratogenesis is the same; however, there are some differences in incidence, susceptible gestational periods, and severity between livestock species. Wildlife species have also been poisoned after eating poison-hemlock but no terata have been reported. The most widespread problem for livestock producers in recent times has been lupine-induced "crooked calf disease." Crooked calf disease is characterized as skeletal contracture-type malformations and occasional cleft palate in calves after maternal ingestion of lupines containing the quinolizidine alkaloid anagyrine during gestation days 40-100. Similar malformations have been induced in cattle and goats with lupines containing the piperidine alkaloids ammodendrine, N-methyl ammodendrine, and N-acetyl hystrine and in cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs with poison-hemlock containing predominantly coniine or gamma-coniceine and N. glauca containing anabasine. Toxic and teratogenic effects have been linked to structural aspects of these alkaloids, and the mechanism of action is believed to be associated with an alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement during specific gestational periods. This review presents a historical perspective, description and distribution of lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp., toxic and teratogenic effects and management information to reduce losses. PMID:10091132

Panter, K E; James, L F; Gardner, D R

1999-02-01

287

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE, INOCULATION INTERVAL, AND DOSAGE ON BIOFUMIGATION WITH MUSCODOR ALBUS TO CONTROL POSTHARVEST GRAY MOLD ON GRAPES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gray mold incidence (GMI) on berries inoculated with Botrytis cinerea 3, 24, or 48 h before continuous exposure to volatiles of Muscodor albus at 50 g rye culture/kg of berries during 7 days of storage at 20C was 0.8, 10, or 52.5%, respectively, and 65.8% among control berries. GMI on berries inocul...

288

Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in Hokkaido, Japan. Body temperature of N. p. albus decreased from 38C in autumn to 35.9-36.7C while maintaining a circadian rhythm in late February ( n = 3). A transient 18-36% decrease in resting heart rate occurred when body temperature was low ( n = 2). Despite a 33-45% decrease in body weight due to winter fasting, circulating glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels were maintained ( n = 4). Serum urea nitrogen dropped by 43-45% from autumn to spring, suggesting protein conservation during fasting. The overwintering survival strategy of N. p. albus in central Hokkaido is based upon large changes in seasonal activity patterns, winter denning and communal housing without the large decrease in body temperature that is characteristic of subarctic animals exhibiting hibernation or torpor.

Kitao, Naoya; Fukui, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Osborne, Peter G.

2009-03-01

289

Mycofumigation by the volatile organic compound-producing Fungus Muscodor albus induces bacterial cell death through DNA damage.  

PubMed

Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M. albus. Furthermore, the sensitivity of knockouts involved in the repair of specific DNA alkyl adducts suggests that the VOCs may induce alkylation. Evidence of DNA damage suggests that these adducts lead to breaks during DNA replication or transcription if not properly repaired. Additional cytotoxicity profiling indicated that during VOC exposure, E. coli became filamentous and demonstrated an increase in cellular membrane fluidity. The volatile nature of the toxic compounds produced by M. albus and their broad range of inhibition make this fungus an attractive biological agent. Understanding the antimicrobial effects and the VOC mode of action will inform the utility and safety of potential mycofumigation applications for M. albus. PMID:25452287

Alpha, Cambria J; Campos, Manuel; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Strobel, Scott A

2015-02-01

290

Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

291

Efficacy of the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in simulated storage conditions.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples (Malus spp.) because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. The need for alternatives to fumigants such as methyl bromide for quarantine security of exported fruit has encouraged the development of effective fumigants with reduced side effects. The endophytic fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel and Hess (Ascomycota: Xylariales) produces volatile compounds that are biocidal for several pest organisms, including plant pathogens and insect pests. The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of M. albus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on codling moth adults, neonate larvae, larvae in infested apples, and diapausing cocooned larvae in simulated storage conditions. Fumigation of adult codling moth with VOCs produced by M. albus for 3 d and incubating in fresh air for 24 h at 25 degrees C resulted in 81% corrected mortality. Four- and 5-d exposures resulted in higher mortality (84 and 100%, respectively), but control mortality was also high due to the short life span of the moths. Exposure of neonate larvae to VOCs for 3 d on apples and incubating for 7 d resulted in 86% corrected mortality. Treated larvae were predominantly first instars, whereas 85% of control larvae developed to second and third instars. Exposure of apples that had been infested for 5 d, fumigated with M. albus VOCs for 3 d, and incubated as described above resulted in 71% corrected larval mortality. Exposure of diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae to VOCs for 7 or 14 d resulted in 31 and 100% mortality, respectively, with negligible control mortality. Our data on treatment of several stages of codling moth with M. albus VOCs indicate that the fungus could provide an alternative to broad spectrum chemical fumigants for codling moth control in storage and contribute to the systems approach to achieve quarantine security of exported apples. PMID:19253616

Lacey, L A; Horton, D R; Jones, D C; Headrick, H L; Neven, L G

2009-02-01

292

Skin prick test reactivity to lupin in comparison to peanut, pea, and soybean in atopic and non-atopic German subjects: A preliminary cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The increasing use of lupin in food processing poses a problem of potential (cross-)allergic reactions. To evaluate the prevalence of sensitization to lupin in comparison to that of other legumes skin prick tests were performed with lupin, pea, peanut, and soybean in atopic (n = 81) and non-atopic (n = 102) German adults. Of these 183 subjects, 20 subjects had to be excluded due to invalid skin prick tests (reaction to histamine <3 mm or to sodium chloride >2 mm). Thus, skin prick tests of 163 subjects were included in final analyses. Of 163 subjects, 18 had a positive reaction to at least one legume tested. Overall skin prick test reactivity was different among non-atopic and atopic subjects (P = 0.005). Altogether, six subjects (4%) were sensitized to lupin, 12 (7%) to pea, 5 (3%) to peanut, and 8 (5%) to soybean. Two (2%) of the 92 non-atopic subjects and 4 (6%) of the 71 atopic subjects had a positive skin prick test to lupin. Of the 6 subjects sensitized to lupin, 3 (50%) were also sensitized to pea, 3 (50%) to peanut, and 5 (83%) to soybean. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of lupin sensitization were comparable to or even lower than those of pea, peanut, and soybean. To date, lupin allergy is suspected to be relatively uncommon in the overall German population since lupin sensitization occurred in only 2% of non-atopic subjects. However, there is a clear risk of a lupin allergy in predisposed subjects, since the frequency of lupin sensitization was 6% in atopic subjects. In particular, subjects with existing sensitization or allergy to other legumes are at higher risk for a sensitization or allergy to lupin due to cross-reactivity. PMID:25400931

Bhr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kaatz, Martin; Jahreis, Gerhard

2014-08-01

293

Skin prick test reactivity to lupin in comparison to peanut, pea, and soybean in atopic and non-atopic German subjects: A preliminary cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

The increasing use of lupin in food processing poses a problem of potential (cross-)allergic reactions. To evaluate the prevalence of sensitization to lupin in comparison to that of other legumes skin prick tests were performed with lupin, pea, peanut, and soybean in atopic (n = 81) and non-atopic (n = 102) German adults. Of these 183 subjects, 20 subjects had to be excluded due to invalid skin prick tests (reaction to histamine <3 mm or to sodium chloride >2 mm). Thus, skin prick tests of 163 subjects were included in final analyses. Of 163 subjects, 18 had a positive reaction to at least one legume tested. Overall skin prick test reactivity was different among non-atopic and atopic subjects (P = 0.005). Altogether, six subjects (4%) were sensitized to lupin, 12 (7%) to pea, 5 (3%) to peanut, and 8 (5%) to soybean. Two (2%) of the 92 non-atopic subjects and 4 (6%) of the 71 atopic subjects had a positive skin prick test to lupin. Of the 6 subjects sensitized to lupin, 3 (50%) were also sensitized to pea, 3 (50%) to peanut, and 5 (83%) to soybean. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of lupin sensitization were comparable to or even lower than those of pea, peanut, and soybean. To date, lupin allergy is suspected to be relatively uncommon in the overall German population since lupin sensitization occurred in only 2% of non-atopic subjects. However, there is a clear risk of a lupin allergy in predisposed subjects, since the frequency of lupin sensitization was 6% in atopic subjects. In particular, subjects with existing sensitization or allergy to other legumes are at higher risk for a sensitization or allergy to lupin due to cross-reactivity. PMID:25400931

Bhr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kaatz, Martin; Jahreis, Gerhard

2014-01-01

294

Alkaloid profile and antimicrobial activity of Lupinus angustifolius L. alkaloid extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the present study was to evaluate alkaloid profile of the aerial parts of Lupinus angustifolius growing in Turkey by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen alkaloids were identified by capillary\\u000a GC-MS. 13?-Hydroxylupanine (50.78%) and lupanine (23.55%) were determined as the main alkaloids in the aerial parts of L. angustifolius. Ammodendrine, isoangustifoline, tetrahydrorhombifoline, angustifoline, ?-isolupanine, 5,6-dehydrolupanine, 11,12-dehydrolupanine,\\u000a 13?-acetoxylupanine, 13?-isovaleroyloxylupanine,

Nurgun Erdemoglu; Semiha Ozkan; Fatma Tosun

2007-01-01

295

Article original Cintique de la dgradation dans le rumen  

E-print Network

graines de légumi- neuses : gesse chiche (Lathyrus cicera), gesse ocre (Lathyrus ochrus), lupin (Lupinus chicklingvetch (Lath- yrus cicera), ochrus vetch (Lathyrus ochrus), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), pea (Pisum.5 for bard vetch, ochrus vetch, pea and lupin, respectively, while the highest figures were 41.1, 66.8, 0

Boyer, Edmond

296

Decomposition of lupine biomass by soil microorganisms in developing mount St. Helens' pyroclastic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legumes like Lupinus lepidus and L. latifolius affect soil C and N concentrations and microbial activity in Mount St. Helens' pyroclastic deposits. Concentrations of total Kjeldahl-N (TKN), total organic-C (TOC) and water soluble-C (H2O?C) were measured in soil from under live L. lepidus (LULE), live L. latifolius (LULA) and dead L. lepidus (DEAD), and in bare soil (BARE). Soil microbial

Jonathan J. Halvorson; Jeffrey L. Smith

1995-01-01

297

Free radical formation and activity of antioxidant enzymes in lupin roots exposed to lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of root growth and modification of root morphology are the most sensitive responses of Lupinus luteus cv. Ventus L. to lead ions - Pb(NO3)2. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we found that at the lead concentration of 150mg.L1, the level of free radicals remained at control level, whereas at the higher, sublethal concentration of 350mg.L1, they markedly increased. The

Renata Ruci?ska; Stefan Waplak; Edward A Gw?d?

1999-01-01

298

Assessing the genotoxicities of sparteine and compounds isolated from Lupinus mexicanus and L. montanus seeds by using comet assay.  

PubMed

The genus Lupinus is widely distributed. Its seeds are used for animal and human food, and Lupinus possesses pharmacological potential because of its high content of quinolizidine alkaloids and flavonoids; however, there is little available information about its genotoxicity. We used the comet assay and staminal nuclei of Tradescantia (clone 4430) to evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity of 4 concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) of alkaloid extracts of Lupinus mexicanus and Lupinus montanus, flavonoids of L. mexicanus, and commercial sparteine; nitrosodiethylamine was used as a positive control and untreated nuclei were used as a negative control. All concentrations of L. mexicanus and L. montanus showed significant genotoxic activity (P ? 0.05). A similar behavior was observed for flavonoid extracts of L. montanus except the 1.0 mM concentration. Sparteine showed genotoxic activity only at 0.5 mM. The order of genotoxicity of the compounds studied was as follows: L. mexicanus > L. montanus > flavonoids of L. montanus > sparteine. There is evident genotoxic activity in the compounds that were studied, particularly at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 mM). Given the limited information about the genotoxicity of the compounds of L. mexicanus and L. montanus, further studies are necessary. PMID:25511034

Silva, M R; Alvarez, C M; Garca, P M; Ruiz, M A

2014-01-01

299

Putrescine N-Methyltransferase in Cultured Roots of Hyoscyamus albus1  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids is thought to proceed by way of the diamine putrescine, followed by its methylation by putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT; EC 2.1.1.53). High PMT activities were found in branch roots and/or cultured roots of several solanaceous plants. PMT was partially purified and characterized from cultured roots of Hyoscyamus albus that contain hyoscyamine as the main alkaloid. Initial velocity studies and product inhibition patterns of PMT are consistent with an ordered bi-bi mechanism, in which the Km values for putrescine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine are 277 and 203 ?m, respectively, and the Ki value for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine is 110 ?m. PMT efficiently N-methylated amines that have at least two amino groups separated by three or four methylene groups. Monoamines were good competitive inhibitors of PMT, among which n-butylamine, cyclohexylamine, and exo-2-aminonorbornane were most inhibitory, with respective Ki values of 11.0, 9.1, and 10.0 ?m. When n-butylamine was fed to root cultures of H. albus, the alkamine intermediates (tropinone, tropine, and pseudotropine) drastically decreased at 1 mm of the exogenous monoamine, and the hyoscyamine content decreased by 52% at 6 mm, whereas the contents of 6?-hydroxyhyoscyamine and scopolamine did not change. Free and conjugated forms of polyamines were also measured. The n-butylamine treatment caused a large increase in the putrescine content (especially in the conjugated pool), and the spermine content also increased slightly, whereas the spermidine content decreased slightly. The increase in the putrescine pool size (approximately 40 nmol/mg dry weight) was large enough to account for the decrease in the total alkaloid pool size. Similar results were also obtained in root cultures of Datura stramonium. These studies further support the role of PMT as the first committed enzyme specific to alkaloid biosynthesis. Images Figure 8 PMID:16653064

Hibi, Naruhiro; Fujita, Toshihiro; Hatano, Mika; Hashimoto, Takashi; Yamada, Yasuyuki

1992-01-01

300

Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6(T), a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas.  

PubMed

Microvirga lupini LUT6(T) is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6(T) was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6(T) forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project. PMID:25197490

Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

2014-06-15

301

Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6T, a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas  

PubMed Central

Microvirga lupini LUT6T is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6T was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6T forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project. PMID:25197490

Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

2014-01-01

302

Enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet lupin, chickpea, and lentil 11S globulins decreases their antigenic activity.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of treatments with the enzymes pepsin and trypsin on the in vitro immunological reactivity of the major globulins found in the seeds of sweet lupin, chickpea, and lentil. Polyclonal major globulin-specific antiserum was obtained by immunization of rabbits with a solution of the 11S globulin of each legume. The globulins were hydrolyzed with pepsin and trypsin for 1, 5, 15, and 30 min. The native globulins and their hydrolysates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify the polypeptide bands with antigenic activity, and the hypoantigenicity of the hydrolysates was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results show that enzymatic treatment of the major storage protein (11S globulin) of sweet lupin, chickpea, and lentil with pepsin or trypsin lead to the formation of large amounts of short peptides and free amino acids that do not allow antibody binding, resulting in a weakened immunoreactivity. PMID:19170500

Sormus de Castro Pinto, Silvia Elaine; Neves, Valdir Augusto; Machado de Medeiros, Beatriz Maria

2009-02-11

303

Effect of colloidal metals on the induced chlorophyll fluorescence at the different lupin state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies about the effects of colloidal solutions of Fe and Zn on the photosynthetic activity of plants of yellow lupine affected by carbonate chlorosis are given. It is shown that the impression of plants by carbonate chlorosis causes a decrease in the efficiency of photosystem II and in result of that the affected plants lag in a weight. Processing plants by the colloidal solutions of iron and zinc creates conditions for improvement of function of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants.

Son'ko, R. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Trach, V. V.; Lopat'ko, K. G.

2013-11-01

304

Microencapsulation by spray drying of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with lupin nodules.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) used for crop inoculation have important biotechnological potential as a sustainable fertilization tool. However, the main limitation of this technology is the low inoculum survival rate under field conditions. Microencapsulation of bacterial cells in polymer matrices provides a controlled release and greater protection against environmental conditions. In this context, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative NFB associated with lupin nodules and to evaluate their microencapsulation by spray drying. For this purpose, 21 putative NFB were isolated from lupin nodules and characterized (16S rRNA genes). Microencapsulation of bacterial cells by spray drying was studied using a mixture of sodium alginate:maltodextrin at different ratios (0:15, 1:14, 2:13) and concentrations (15 and 30% solids) as the wall material. The microcapsules were observed under scanning electron microscopy to verify their suitable morphology. Results showed the association between lupin nodules of diverse known NFB and nodule-forming bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In microencapsulation assays, the 1:14 ratio of sodium alginate:maltodextrin (15% solids) showed the highest cell survival rate (79%), with a microcapsule yield of 27% and spherical microcapsules of 5-50 m in diameter. In conclusion, diverse putative NFB genera and nodule-forming bacteria are associated with the nodules of lupine plants grown in soils in southern Chile, and their microencapsulation by spray drying using sodium alginate:maltodextrin represents a scalable process to generate a biofertilizer as an alternative to traditional nitrogen fertilization. PMID:24806812

Campos, Daniela C; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Aravena, Javiera; Amiard, Vronique; Jorquera, Milko A; Inostroza, Nitza G; Rubilar, Mnica

2014-09-01

305

Mitigation of Cu stress by legume-Rhizobium symbiosis in white lupin and soybean plants.  

PubMed

The effect of Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis on plant growth, toxicological variables and Cu bioaccumulation was studied in white lupin and soybean plants treated with 1.6, 48, 96 and 192 ?M Cu. In both species, those plants grown in the presence of root nodule-forming symbiotic Bradyrhizobium showed less root and shoot growth reduction, plus greater translocation of Cu to the shoot, than those grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. The effective added concentrations of Cu that reduced shoot and root dry weight by 50% (EC50), and the critical toxic concentration that caused a 10% reduction in plant growth (CTC10%), were higher in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, and were in general higher in the roots whether the plants were grown with or without these bacteria. The production of malondialdehyde and total thiols was stimulated by Cu excess in the shoots and roots of white lupin grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, but mainly in those without the symbionts. In contrast, in soybean, the increases in malondialdehyde and total thiols associated with rising Cu concentration were a little higher (1.2-5.0 and 1.0-1.6 times respectively) in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium than without. Finally, the organ most sensitive to Cu excess was generally the shoot, both in white lupin and soybean grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Further, Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis appears to increase the tolerance to Cu excess in both legumes, but mainly in white lupin; plant growth was less reduced and CTC10% and EC50 values increased compared to plants grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Bradyrhizobium N2 fixation in both legumes would therefore seem to increase the phytoremediation potential of these plants when growing on Cu-contaminated sites. PMID:24580814

Snchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Zornoza, Pilar

2014-04-01

306

Aquibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake, and reclassification of Virgibacillus koreensis as Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. and Virgibacillus albus as Aquibacillus albus comb. nov.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain B6B(T), was isolated from the water of an Iranian hypersaline lake, Aran-Bidgol, and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain B6B(T) were rod-shaped, motile and produced ellipsoidal endospores in terminal positions in non-swollen sporangia. Strain B6B(T) was a strictly aerobic bacterium and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-20.0% (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 10.0% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain B6B(T) was shown to belong to the phylum Firmicutes and its closest phylogenetic similarities were with the species Virgibacillus koreensis BH30097(T) (97.5%), Virgibacillus albus YIM 93624(T) (97.4%), Sediminibacillus halophilus EN8d(T) (96.8%), Sediminibacillus albus NHBX5(T) (96.6%), Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964(T) (96.3%) and Paraliobacillus quinghaiensis YIM-C158(T) (96.0%), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain B6B(T), along with V. koreensis BH30097(T) and V. albus YIM 93624(T), clustered in a separate clade in the family Bacillaceae. The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was 35.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed low levels of relatedness between strain B6B(T)and V. koreensis BH30097(T) (13%) and V. albus YIM 93624(T) (33%). The major cellular fatty acid of strain B6B(T) was anteiso-C15 : 0 (75.1%) and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown glycolipid. The isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (90%) and MK-6 (3%). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. All of these features support the placement of isolate B6B(T) within the phylum Firmicutes. It is closely related to V. koreensis and V. albus, but with features that clearly distinguish it from species of the genus Virgibacillus or of other related genera. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence derived in this study, we propose that strain B6B(T) be placed within a new genus, as Aquibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., with B6B(T) as the type strain (?=IBRC-M 10775(T)?=KCTC 13828(T)). We also propose that V. koreensis and V. albus should be transferred to this new genus and be named Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. and Aquibacillus albus comb. nov., respectively. The type strain of Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. is BH30097(T) (?=KCTC 3823(T)?=IBRC-M 10657(T)?=JCM 12387(T)) and the type strain of Aquibacillus albus comb. nov. is YIM 93624(T) (?=DSM 23711(T)?=IBRC-M 10798(T)?=JCM 17364(T)). PMID:25062698

Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Bagheri, Maryam; Didari, Maryam; Mehrshad, Maliheh; Schumann, Peter; Sprer, Cathrin; Snchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

2014-11-01

307

YEAR TO YEAR VARIATION IN ALKALOID CONCENTRATION IN LUPINUS LEUCOPHYLLUS GROWING ON THE SCABLANDS OF CENTRAL WASHINGTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There was substantial year to year variation in total alkaloid concentration of lupines at all sites. Total alkaloid concentration over the 5 year period varied from two-fold to eight-fold at the individual sites. In any one year the change-trend in total alkaloid concentration was the same at eac...

308

Senecio albus , a new species of Senecio sect. Adamantina (Senecioneae Asteraceae) with an emendment to the section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Senecio albus J. N. Nakaj. & A. M. Teles, a new species of Senecio (Senecioneae Asteraceae), is described from the National Park of Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species shares discoid\\u000a capitula with S. gertii Zardini and is assigned to sect. Adamantina. This character is not in the circumscription for the sect. Adamantina and thus

Aristnio M. Teles; Jimi Naoki Nakajima; Joo Renato Stehmann

2009-01-01

309

Cryptic diversification of the swamp eel Monopterus albus in East and Southeast Asia, with special reference to the Ryukyuan populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swamp eel Monopterus albus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical freshwaters ranging from Southeast Asia to East Asia, and is unique in\\u000a its ability to breathe air through the buccal mucosa. To examine the genetic structure of this widespread species, molecular\\u000a phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequence (514bp) were conducted for 84 specimens from 13 localities in

Seiji Matsumoto; Takeshi Kon; Motoomi Yamaguchi; Hirohiko Takeshima; Yuji Yamazaki; Takahiko Mukai; Kaoru Kuriiwa; Masanori Kohda; Mutsumi Nishida

2010-01-01

310

Effect of pressure toasting on the rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of whole and broken peas, lupins and faba beans and a mixture of these feedstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pressure toasting of whole and broken peas, lupins and faba beans on in situ degradability of protein and starch and intestinal digestibility of protein were studied. To test for associative effects on rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility after toasting, a mixture of peas, lupins and faba beans was examined and results were compared with weighted averages of

J. O. Goelema; M. A. M. Spreeuwenberg; G. Hof; S. Tamminga

1998-01-01

311

Investigation of the biosorption characteristics of lead(II) ions onto Symphoricarpus albus: Batch and dynamic flow studies.  

PubMed

This work reports the results of the study for lead(II) binding by the natural and low cost biosorbent Symphoricarpus albus. Batch biosorption experiments demonstrated the high rate of lead(II) biosorption and the kinetic data were successfully described by a pseudo-second-order model. Biosorption of lead(II) onto S. albus biomass showed a pH-dependent profile and lead(II) biosorption was higher when pH or temperature was increased. As much as 88.5% removal of lead(II) is also possible in the multi-metal mixture. The Langmuir isotherm better fits the biosorption data and the monolayer biosorption capacity was 3.00 x 10(-4) mol g(-1) at 45 C. The biomass was characterized with FTIR and SEM analysis. Desorption studies revealed that the natural biomass could be regenerated using 10mM HNO(3) solution with about 99% recovery and reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles. Therefore, S. albus which is cheap, highly selective and easily regenerable seems to be a promising substrate to entrap lead(II) ions in aqueous solutions. PMID:19004546

Akar, Sibel Tunali; Gorgulu, Asli; Anilan, Burcu; Kaynak, Zerrin; Akar, Tamer

2009-06-15

312

SPARSE-1997 DENSE-2002 Potholes are small (typically about 12 m2  

E-print Network

potholes were sampled to determine the effects of Lupinus lepidus. This was undertaken because lupines. These samples tend to be dominated by Penstemon, Lupinus, or mosses to a greater degree than do the potholes

del Moral, Roger

313

Myopathy in cattle induced by alkaloid extracts from Thermopsis montanta, Laburnum anagyroides and a Lupinus sp.  

PubMed

A purified alkaloid preparation containing N-methylcytisine, cytisine, 5,6-dehydrolupanine, thermopsine and anagyrine from Thermopsis montana induced prolonged recumbency and microscopic acute hyaline skeletal myodegeneration with myofibre regeneration in cattle similar in type and severity to that induced by Thermopsis montanta plant material. This indicates that the alkaloid(s) of Thermopsis montana are responsible for the myopathy caused by the plant. An alkaloid preparation containing mostly anagyrine from a Lupinus sp. and an alkaloid preparation containing only cytisine from Laburnum anagyroides each caused microscopic skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis similar to, but less severe than, the alkaloid extract from T. montana, but without clinical recumbency. Dosage and severity of response suggest that neither of those two alkaloids alone can account for the effects induced by Thermopsis. The data suggest that quinolizidine alkaloids with a alpha-pyridone A-ring may be responsible for the lesions and that individual alpha-pyridones may have additive effects. PMID:2246392

Keeler, R F; Baker, D C

1990-08-01

314

Where do roots take up water? Neutron radiography of water flow into the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil.  

PubMed

Where and how fast does water flow from soil into roots? The answer to this question requires direct and in situ measurement of local flow of water into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. We used neutron radiography to trace the transport of deuterated water (D?O) in lupin (Lupinus albus) roots. Lupins were grown in aluminum containers (30 25 1 cm) filled with sandy soil. D?O was injected in different soil regions and its transport in soil and roots was monitored by neutron radiography. The transport of water into roots was then quantified using a convection-diffusion model of D?O transport into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the lower ones. Along an individual root, the radial flux was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal segments. In lupins, most of the water uptake occurred in lateral roots. The function of the taproot was to collect water from laterals and transport it to the shoot. This function is ensured by a low radial conductivity and a high axial conductivity. Lupin root architecture seems well designed to take up water from deep soil layers. PMID:23692148

Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kim, Yangmin X; Carminati, Andrea

2013-09-01

315

Cloning and Characterization of the Polyether Salinomycin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Streptomyces albus XM211  

PubMed Central

Salinomycin is widely used in animal husbandry as a food additive due to its antibacterial and anticoccidial activities. However, its biosynthesis had only been studied by feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors. A strategy with degenerate primers based on the polyether-specific epoxidase sequences was successfully developed to clone the salinomycin gene cluster. Using this strategy, a putative epoxidase gene, slnC, was cloned from the salinomycin producer Streptomyces albus XM211. The targeted replacement of slnC and subsequent trans-complementation proved its involvement in salinomycin biosynthesis. A 127-kb DNA region containing slnC was sequenced, including genes for polyketide assembly and release, oxidative cyclization, modification, export, and regulation. In order to gain insight into the salinomycin biosynthesis mechanism, 13 gene replacements and deletions were conducted. Including slnC, 7 genes were identified as essential for salinomycin biosynthesis and putatively responsible for polyketide chain release, oxidative cyclization, modification, and regulation. Moreover, 6 genes were found to be relevant to salinomycin biosynthesis and possibly involved in precursor supply, removal of aberrant extender units, and regulation. Sequence analysis and a series of gene replacements suggest a proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of salinomycin. The information presented here expands the understanding of polyether biosynthesis mechanisms and paves the way for targeted engineering of salinomycin activity and productivity. PMID:22156425

Jiang, Chunyan; Wang, Hougen; Kang, Qianjin; Liu, Jing

2012-01-01

316

Spelaeicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from a natural cave.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming, coccoid actinobacterium, designated strain D3-40(T), was isolated from the soil of a natural cave and characterized by means of a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain D3-40(T) is a member of the suborder Micrococcineae and forms a distinct branch at the base of a Brevibacteriaceae cluster. Its closest relative is the type strain of Brevibacterium samyangense (95.7?% sequence similarity). The chemotaxonomic characteristics were as follows: the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid; the major menaquinone was MK-9(H2); the polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown glycolipid and an unknown phospholipid; the major fatty acids were anteiso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C17?:?0, iso-C15?:?0, C16?:?0 and cyclohexyl-C17?:?0; mycolic acids were absent. The G+C content of the DNA was 64.3 mol%. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it is suggested that the organism represents a novel species of a new genus within the family Brevibacteriaceae, for which the name Spelaeicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is D3-40(T) (?=?KCTC 29141(T)?=?DSM 26341(T)). PMID:23811133

Lee, Soon Dong

2013-11-01

317

Quinolizidine alkaloids obtained by Pedicularis semibarbata (Scrophulariaceae) from Lupinus fulcratus (Leguminosae) fail to influence the specialist herbivore Euphydryas editha (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedicularis semibarbata is apparently an obligate hemiparasite of coniferous trees. It is also a facultative parasite ofLupinus fulcratus from which we find that it obtains quinolizidine alkaloids, principally a-isolupanine. As a result, a single population ofP. semibarbata contains both alkaloidrich and alkaloid-free plants. The butterflyEuphydryas editha naturally oviposits on both plant types. This butterfly population, which is the principal herbivore

Frank R. Stermitz; Gilbert N. Belofsky; David Ng; Michael C. Singer

1989-01-01

318

Ultrastructural and enzymatic research on the role of sucrose in mobilization of storage lipids in germinating yellow lupine seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of sucrose in the control of storage lipid mobilization was studied in germinating seeds of Lupinus luteus L. Concentrations of soluble sugars in isolated embryo axes, isolated cotyledons and in seedling axes and cotyledons cultured in vitro for 96h on a medium without sucrose was maintained at a low level. One of the strategies of stabilization of the

S?awomir Borek; Wiktoria Ratajczak; Lech Ratajczak

2006-01-01

319

Properties and Expression of Na+/K+-ATPase ?-Subunit Isoforms in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Which Has Unusually High Brain Ammonia Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l?1) and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (?4.5 mol g?1). Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka) is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4+ can substitute for K+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka ?-subunits, some of which might have high K+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka ?-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities over a range of K+/NH4+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nka? (nka?1, nka?3a and nka?3b) were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nka?2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l?1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nka?1, nka?3a and nka?3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na+/K+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4+/K+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1) lack of nka?2 expression, (2) high K+ specificity of K+ binding sites of Nka?1, Nka?3a and Nka?3b, and (3) down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nka? isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus. PMID:24391932

Chen, Xiu L.; Wee, Nicklaus L. J. E.; Hiong, Kum C.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

2013-01-01

320

SHOOT SIGNALS AND MOLECULAR REGULATION OF P-DEFICIENCY INDUCED GENES IN CLUSTER ROOTS OF WHITE LUPIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin has unique developmental and biochemical adaptations to acquire phosphorus (P) under P-deficient conditions including: cluster root formation and enhanced expression of many genes involved in cluster root development and metabolism; exudation of enzymes and organic acids from roots; incr...

321

Hyperfine interactions in soybean and lupin oxy-leghemoglobins studied using Mssbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of monomeric soybean and lupin leghemoglobins in the oxy-form was carried out using Mssbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 90 K. The 57Fe hyperfine parameters of measured spectra were evaluated and compared with possible structural differences in the heme Fe(II)-O 2 bond.

Kumar, A.; Alenkina, I. V.; Zakharova, A. P.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.

2015-02-01

322

Soybean and lupin seed meals as protein sources in diets for gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata): nutritional and histological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of vegetable protein sources in diets for freshwater fish has been studied in more detail than for marine fish species. Two experiments were conducted to compare the effect of the partial substitution of fish meal by two different vegetable protein sources, soybean and lupin seed meals. Mean feed intake and growth were not significantly influenced by type or

L. Robaina; M. S. Izquierdo; F. J. Moyano; J. Socorro; J. M. Vergara; D. Montero; H. Fernndez-Palacios

1995-01-01

323

A new version of the LUPIN detector: improvements and latest experimental verification.  

PubMed

LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 ?Sv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed. PMID:24985847

Caresana, M; Cassell, C; Ferrarini, M; Hohmann, E; Manessi, G P; Mayer, S; Silari, M; Varoli, V

2014-06-01

324

A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 ?Sv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

Caresana, M.; Cassell, C.; Ferrarini, M.; Hohmann, E.; Manessi, G. P.; Mayer, S.; Silari, M.; Varoli, V.

2014-06-01

325

A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification  

SciTech Connect

LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 ?Sv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

Caresana, M.; Varoli, V. [Department of Energy, Polytechnic of Milan, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Cassell, C. [Department of Energy, Polytechnic of Milan, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Centre for Medical Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Ferrarini, M. [CNAO, Via Privata Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Hohmann, E.; Mayer, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Manessi, G. P., E-mail: giacomo.manessi@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZE Liverpool (United Kingdom); Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2014-06-15

326

Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.  

PubMed

Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T)?= CCTCC AA 2013003(T)?= NRRL B-59998(T)?= KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T)?= CCTCC AA 2013004(T)?= NRRL B-24927(T)?= KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

2014-07-01

327

Chloroplast DNA diversity is low in a wild plant, Lupinus texensis.  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast DNA diversity was measured in an annual flowering plant, Lupinus texensis. Individual plants were collected from 21 local populations throughout the range of the species in Texas. Chloroplast DNA was isolated separately from each plant and digested with seven restriction enzymes. The most common form of the 150-kilobase-pair genome was cut at 134 sites, so that about 0.5% of the base pairs in the genome were sampled. Of the 100 plants examined, 88 had identical restriction fragment patterns. Three variant forms were found in different local populations. Two, represented in single plants, differed from wild type in the presence or absence of single restriction sites. The third variant was fixed in one of the local populations; it had lost a restriction site and also had a deletion of approximately equal to 100 base pairs. The data suggest that chloroplast DNA in this plant is much less polymorphic than mitochondrial DNA from animals and is probably less polymorphic than nuclear genes in the same plant or in animals. Images PMID:2995994

Banks, J A; Birky, C W

1985-01-01

328

The neotropical shrub Lupinus elegans, fromtemperate forests, may not adapt to climate change.  

PubMed

Considering that their distribution is limited to altitudinal gradients along mountains that are likely to become warmer and drier, climate change poses an increased threat to temperate forest species from tropical regions. We studied whether the understorey shrub Lupinus elegans, endemic to temperate forests of west-central Mexico, will be able to withstand the projected temperature increase under seven climate change scenarios. Seeds were collected along an altitudinal gradient and grown in a shade-house over 7 months before determining their temperature tolerance as electrolyte leakage. The plants from colder sites tolerated lower temperatures, i.e. the temperature at which half of the maximum electrolyte leakage occurred (LT50), ranged from ?6.4 0.7 to ?2.4 0.3 C. In contrast, no pattern was found for tolerance to high temperature (LT50 average 42.8 0.3 C). The climate change scenarios considered here consistently estimated an increase in air temperature during the present century that was higher for the maximum air temperature than for the mean or minimum. In particular, the anomaly from the normal maximum air temperature at the study region ranged from 2.8 C by 2030 to 5.8 C by 2090. In this respect, the inability of L. elegans to adapt to increasingly higher temperatures found here, in addition to a possible inhibition of reproduction caused by warmer winters, may limit its future distribution. PMID:23696969

Soto-Correa, J C; Senz-Romero, C; Lindig-Cisneros, R; de la Barrera, E

2013-05-01

329

Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 ?g/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution. PMID:24575231

Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

2012-01-01

330

Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate anchored Symphoricarpus albus biomass for lead(II) removal: batch and column biosorption study.  

PubMed

The biosorption properties of APDC modified S. albus were tested in batch and column conditions. Effective experimental parameters such as pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, initial lead(II) ion concentration, flow rate and bed height were investigated. The biosorption capacity of modified biosorbent was at maximum when lead(II) solution pH and biosorbent dosage were 5.5 and 2.0 g L(-1), respectively. The biosorption equilibrium was established in 20 min. Langmuir isotherm fitted well to the equilibrium data and kinetics is found to fit pseudo-second-order model. Increase in ionic strength of lead(II) solutions caused a slight decrease in the biosorption yield of APDC-modified biosorbent. Co-ions affected the biosorption performance of modified biomass up to maximum 20.81% reduction. Column biosorption of lead(II) showed higher biosorption yields at lower flow rates. Required time of breakthrough point was found to be 200 min. The recommended mechanism was found to depend mainly on electrostatic interaction, ion-exchange and complex formation. The ion-exchange mechanism for lead(II) biosorption onto the modified biosorbent is verified from the ionic strength effect and EDX analysis. Carbonyl, phosphate and CN groups on the modified surface of S. albus were found to responsible for complexation with lead(II). PMID:22673058

Akar, Sibel Tunali; Arslan, Derya; Alp, Tugba

2012-08-15

331

Calcium bodies of Titanethes albus (Crustacea: Isopoda): molt-related structural dynamics and calcified matrix-associated bacteria.  

PubMed

Crustaceans form a variety of calcium deposits in which they store calcium necessary for the mineralization of their exoskeletons. Calcium bodies, organs containing large amounts of calcium, have been reported in some terrestrial isopod crustaceans, but have not yet been extensively studied. We analyzed the architecture of these organs during the molt cycle in the isopod Titanethes albus. Two pairs of calcium bodies are positioned ventrolaterally in posterior pereonites of T. albus. Individual organs are epithelial sacs that contain material arranged in concentric layers delimited by thin laminae. As demonstrated by electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization, abundant bacteria are present within the calcium bodies. Regardless of the molt cycle stage, crystalline concretions are present in the central areas of the calcium bodies. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the concretions demonstrated that they are composed predominantly of calcium and phosphorus and selected area electron diffraction indicated the presence of hydroxyapatite. In molting animals, a glassy layer of mineralized matrix is formed between the envelope and the outermost lamina of the calcium body. This layer consists of an amorphous calcium mineral which contains less phosphorus than the central concretions and is resorbed after molt. Since changes in the mineralized matrix are synchronized with the molt cycle, the calcium bodies likely function as a storage compartment that complements sternal deposits as a source of calcium for the mineralization of the exoskeleton. Bacteria associated with the mineralized matrix of calcium bodies are evidently involved in calcium dynamics. PMID:22651964

Vittori, Milo; Kostanjek, Rok; Znidari?, Nada; Zagar, Kristina; Ceh, Miran; Strus, Jasna

2012-10-01

332

Effects of lupin-enriched foods on body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a 12-month randomized controlled weight loss trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Regular consumption of diets with increased protein or fibre intakes may benefit body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lupin flour is a novel food ingredient high in protein and fibre.Objective:To investigate the effects of a lupin-enriched diet, during and following energy restriction, on body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight individuals.Design:Participants (n=131) were

R Belski; T A Mori; I B Puddey; S Sipsas; R J Woodman; T R Ackland; L J Beilin; E R Dove; N B Carlyon; V Jayaseena; J M Hodgson

2011-01-01

333

Secretion of acid phosphatase by the roots of crop plants under phosphorus-deficient conditions and some properties of the enzyme secreted by lupin roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine crop species were grown in P-sufficient and P-deficient nutrient solutions. The activity of acid phosphatase secreted by the roots increased under P-deficient conditions in all the species examined. That of lupin increased most remarkably. The properties of the enzyme secreted by the roots of lupin was investigated. Many isozymes existed in the roots and the leaves, but only one

T. Tadano; K. Ozawa; H. Sakai; M. Osaki; H. Matsui

1993-01-01

334

Muscodor albus E-6, an endophyte of Guazuma ulmifolia making volatile antibiotics: isolation, characterization and experimental establishment in the host plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus, represented by a number of isolates from tropical tree and vine species in several of the world's rainforests, that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antibiotic activity. A new isolate, E-6, of this organism, with unusual biochemical and biological properties, has been obtained from the branches of a mature Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) tree growing

Gary A. Strobel; Katreena Kluck; Wilford M. Hess; Joe Sears; David Ezra; Percy N. Vargas

2007-01-01

335

THE POTENTIAL OF THE FUNGUS, MUSCODOR ALBUS AS A MICROBIAL CONTROL AGENT OF POTATO TUBER MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE) IN STORED POTATOES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tuber moth (PTM) is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Pathogens that are specific to insects offer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. The fungus Muscador albus produces a mixture of volatile organic ch...

336

Flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract and evaluation of its neuroprotective effect.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (20010 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 ?g of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 ?g estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p?0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p?0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p?0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons. PMID:24723146

Uribe-Gmez, Jos de Jess; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bauelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; Garca-Lpez, Pedro Macedonio

2014-11-01

337

Metabolic Mechanism of Mannan in a Ruminal Bacterium, Ruminococcus albus, Involving Two Mannoside Phosphorylases and Cellobiose 2-Epimerase  

PubMed Central

Ruminococcus albus is a typical ruminal bacterium digesting cellulose and hemicellulose. Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE; EC 5.1.3.11), which converts cellobiose to 4-O-?-d-glucosyl-d-mannose, is a particularly unique enzyme in R. albus, but its physiological function is unclear. Recently, a new metabolic pathway of mannan involving CE was postulated for another CE-producing bacterium, Bacteroides fragilis. In this pathway, ?-1,4-mannobiose is epimerized to 4-O-?-d-mannosyl-d-glucose (Man-Glc) by CE, and Man-Glc is phosphorolyzed to ?-d-mannosyl 1-phosphate (Man1P) and d-glucose by Man-Glc phosphorylase (MP; EC 2.4.1.281). Ruminococcus albus NE1 showed intracellular MP activity, and two MP isozymes, RaMP1 and RaMP2, were obtained from the cell-free extract. These enzymes were highly specific for the mannosyl residue at the non-reducing end of the substrate and catalyzed the phosphorolysis and synthesis of Man-Glc through a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In a synthetic reaction, RaMP1 showed high activity only toward d-glucose and 6-deoxy-d-glucose in the presence of Man1P, whereas RaMP2 showed acceptor specificity significantly different from RaMP1. RaMP2 acted on d-glucose derivatives at the C2- and C3-positions, including deoxy- and deoxyfluoro-analogues and epimers, but not on those substituted at the C6-position. Furthermore, RaMP2 had high synthetic activity toward the following oligosaccharides: ?-linked glucobioses, maltose, N,N?-diacetylchitobiose, and ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides. Particularly, ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides served as significantly better acceptor substrates for RaMP2 than d-glucose. In the phosphorolytic reactions, RaMP2 had weak activity toward ?-1,4-mannobiose but efficiently degraded ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose. Consequently, RaMP2 is thought to catalyze the phosphorolysis of ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose to produce Man1P and ?-1,4-mannobiose. PMID:23093406

Kawahara, Ryosuke; Saburi, Wataru; Odaka, Rei; Taguchi, Hidenori; Ito, Shigeaki; Mori, Haruhide; Matsui, Hirokazu

2012-01-01

338

Seedling population size and microhabitat association in Lupinus oreganos A. Heller var. kincaidii C.P. Sm. (Fabaceae) a threatened plant of western Oregon grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupinus oreganus A. Heller var. kincaidii C.P. Sm. (Fabaceae) is a federally listed Threatened, endemic, perennial species of western Oregon grasslands and is the primary host plant for the Endangered Fender’s blue butterfly (Plebejus icarioides fenderi Macy [Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae]). For effective conservation and restoration, determining the habitat characteristics that are related to natural seed germination is necessary, yet unknown, for

Paul M Severns

2008-01-01

339

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of yellow lupin to generate callus tissue producing HBV surface antigen in a long-term culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of an oral vaccine administered as a portion of plant tissue requires a high level of antigen production. An improved\\u000a protocol for the induction of transgenic yellow lupin calli or tumours, reaching 44% of transformation rate, is presented\\u000a here. It has been developed by using thenptII marker gene and theuidA reporter gene as well as variousAgrobacterium strains and

Tomasz Pniewski; Jzef Kapusta; Andrzej P?ucienniczak

2006-01-01

340

Comparison of extraction methods for secologanin and the quantitative analysis of secologanin from Symphoricarpos albus using 1H-NMR.  

PubMed

In order to develop an efficient large-scale extraction of secologanin from Symphoricarpos albus, different methods have been compared. Ultrasonication with organic solvents and water, microwave-assisted extraction and hot water extraction methods were evaluated for their efficiencies. Among the methods tested, ultrasonication with methanol showed the highest yield of secologanin (3.35 +/- 0.24 mg/g fresh weight). For reliable quantification of secologanin a 1H-NMR method was developed. The experiment was performed by the analysis of the integral of the signal of H-9, which was well separated in the range delta 7.4-7.5 in the 1H-NMR spectrum. The quantity of the compound was calculated from the relative ratio of intensity of the target peak to the known amount of internal standard, 200 microg of gallic acid. This method allows rapid and simple quantification of secologanin in 5 min without any pre-purification steps. PMID:15311846

Kim, Hye Kyong; Choi, Young Hae; Luijendijk, Teus J C; Rocha, Ronald Armando Vera; Verpoorte, Robert

2004-01-01

341

Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of ?-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed ?-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether ?-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, ?-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of ?-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, ?-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that ?-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin ?-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity.

Capraro, Jessica [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Universit degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Universit degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Magni, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.magni@unimi.it [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Universit degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Universit degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, UNIMI (Italy)] [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, UNIMI (Italy); Scarafoni, Alessio [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Universit degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Universit degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa [Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health, UNIMI (Italy)] [Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health, UNIMI (Italy); Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa [Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, UNIMI (Italy)] [Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, UNIMI (Italy); Duranti, Marcello [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Universit degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Universit degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)

2013-08-09

342

Proteolytic Cleavage at Twin Arginine Residues Affects Structural and Functional Transitions of Lupin Seed 11S Storage Globulin  

PubMed Central

The 11S storage globulin of white lupin seeds binds to a metal affinity chromatography matrix. Two unusual stretches of contiguous histidine residues, reminiscent of the multiple histidines forming metal binding motifs, at the C-terminal end of 11S globulin acidic chains were hypothesized as candidate elements responsible for the binding capacity. To prove this, the protein was incubated with a lupin seed endopeptidase previously shown to cleave at twin arginine motifs, recurrent in the sequence region of interest. Upon incubation with this enzyme, the loss of metal binding capacity paralleled that of the anti-his-tag reactive polypeptides. The recovered small proteolytic fragment was analyzed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing and found to correspond to the 24-mer region cleaved off at twin arginine residues and containing the natural his-tag-like region. Similarly, when lupin seeds were germinated for a few days, the his-tag containing 11S globulin chain was converted to a form devoid of such region, suggesting that this mechanism is a part of the natural degradatory process of the protein. The hypothesis that the ordered and controlled dismantling of storage proteins may generate peptide fragments with potential functional roles in plant ontogenesis is presented and discussed. PMID:25658355

Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Croy, Ron R. D.; Duranti, Marcello

2015-01-01

343

Proteolytic Cleavage at Twin Arginine Residues Affects Structural and Functional Transitions of Lupin Seed 11S Storage Globulin.  

PubMed

The 11S storage globulin of white lupin seeds binds to a metal affinity chromatography matrix. Two unusual stretches of contiguous histidine residues, reminiscent of the multiple histidines forming metal binding motifs, at the C-terminal end of 11S globulin acidic chains were hypothesized as candidate elements responsible for the binding capacity. To prove this, the protein was incubated with a lupin seed endopeptidase previously shown to cleave at twin arginine motifs, recurrent in the sequence region of interest. Upon incubation with this enzyme, the loss of metal binding capacity paralleled that of the anti-his-tag reactive polypeptides. The recovered small proteolytic fragment was analyzed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing and found to correspond to the 24-mer region cleaved off at twin arginine residues and containing the natural his-tag-like region. Similarly, when lupin seeds were germinated for a few days, the his-tag containing 11S globulin chain was converted to a form devoid of such region, suggesting that this mechanism is a part of the natural degradatory process of the protein. The hypothesis that the ordered and controlled dismantling of storage proteins may generate peptide fragments with potential functional roles in plant ontogenesis is presented and discussed. PMID:25658355

Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Croy, Ron R D; Duranti, Marcello

2015-01-01

344

Preparation of the cellulase from the cellulolytic anaerobic rumen bacterium Ruminococcus albus and its release from the bacterial cell wall  

PubMed Central

1. Most of the cellulase (CM-cellulase) elaborated by the rumen bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain SY3, which was isolated from a sheep, was cell-wall-bound. 2. The enzyme could be released readily by washing either with phosphate buffer or with water. 3. The amount of enzyme released was affected by the pH and ionic strength of the phosphate buffer. 4. The cell-wall-bound enzyme was of very high molecular weight (1.5106) as judged by its chromatographic behaviour on Sephacryl S-300. 5. The molecular weight of the extracellular enzyme was variable and depended on the culture conditions. 6. When cellobiose was used as the energy source and the medium contained rumen fluid (30%), the extracellular enzyme was, in the main, of high molecular weight. 7. When cellulose replaced the cellobiose, the cell-free culture filtrate contained only low-molecular-weight enzyme (Mr approx. 30000) in late-stationary-phase cultures (7 days). 8. Cultures that did not contain rumen fluid contained mainly low-molecular-weight enzyme. 9. Under some conditions the high-molecular-weight enzyme could be broken down to some extent into low-molecular-weight enzyme by treatment with dissociating agents. 10. Cell-free and cell-wall-bound enzymes showed the same relationship when the change in fluidity effected by them on a solution of CM-cellulose was plotted against the corresponding increase in reducing sugars, suggesting that the enzymes were the same. 11. It is possible that R. albus cellulase exists as an aggregate of low-molecular-weight cellulase components on the bacterial cell wall and in solution under certain conditions. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:7126173

Wood, Thomas M.; Wilson, Catriona A.; Stewart, Colin S.

1982-01-01

345

Molecular Modeling and MM-PBSA Free Energy Analysis of Endo-1,4-?-Xylanase from Ruminococcus albus 8  

PubMed Central

Endo-1,4-?-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) is the enzyme from Ruminococcus albus 8 (R. albus 8) (Xyn10A), and catalyzes the degradation of arabinoxylan, which is a major cell wall non-starch polysaccharide of cereals. The crystallographic structure of Xyn10A is still unknown. For this reason, we report a computer-assisted homology study conducted to build its three-dimensional structure based on the known sequence of amino acids of this enzyme. In this study, the best similarity was found with the Clostridium thermocellum (C. thermocellum) N-terminal endo-1,4-?-d-xylanase 10 b. Following the 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a reliable model was obtained for further studies. Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) methods were used for the substrate xylotetraose having the reactive sugar, which was bound in the ?1 subsite of Xyn10A in the 4C1 (chair) and 2SO (skew boat) ground state conformations. According to the simulations and free energy analysis, Xyn10A binds the substrate with the ?1 sugar in the 2SO conformation 39.27 kcalmol?1 tighter than the substrate with the sugar in the 4C1 conformation. According to the Xyn10A-2SO Xylotetraose (X4(sb) interaction energies, the most important subsite for the substrate binding is subsite ?1. The results of this study indicate that the substrate is bound in a skew boat conformation with Xyn10A and the ?1 sugar subsite proceeds from the 4C1 conformation through 2SO to the transition state. MM-PBSA free energy analysis indicates that Asn187 and Trp344 in subsite ?1 may an important residue for substrate binding. Our findings provide fundamental knowledge that may contribute to further enhancement of enzyme performance through molecular engineering. PMID:25264743

Zhan, Dongling; Yu, Lei; Jin, Hanyong; Guan, Shanshan; Han, Weiwei

2014-01-01

346

Remplacement du tourteau de soja par de la farine de viande et des associations de protagineux dans l'alimentation  

E-print Network

protéagineux : lupin (Lupin us albus L.), féverole (Vicia faba L.), pois (Pisum Sativum L.) et un concentré finition, des associations lupin-féverole-pois ou lupin féverole-PX. n'affecte pas significativement les d'envisager la production nationale de sources de protéines de remplacement. A cet effet, le lupin

Boyer, Edmond

347

Phloem Glutamine and the Regulation of O2 Diffusion in Legume Nodules.  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the N content or the composition of the phloem sap that supplies nodulated roots may play a role in the feedback regulation of nitrogenase activity by increasing nodule resistance to O2 diffusion. Treating shoots of lupin (Lupinus albus cv Manitoba) or soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Maple Arrow) with 100 [mu]L L-1 NH3 caused a 1.3-fold (lupin) and 2.6-fold (soybean) increase in the total N content of phloem sap without altering its C content. The increase in phloem N was due primarily to a 4.8-fold (lupin) and 10.5-fold (soybean) increase in the concentration of glutamine N. In addition, there was a decline in both the apparent nitrogenase activity and total nitrogenase activity that began within 4 h and reached about 54% of its initial activity within 6 h of the start of the NH3 treatment. However, the potential nitrogenase activity values in the treated plants were not significantly different from those of the control plants. These results provide evidence that changes in the N composition of the phloem sap, particularly the glutamine content, may increase nodule resistance to O2 diffusion and, thereby, down-regulate nodule metabolism and nitrogenase activity by controlling the supply of O2 to the bacteria-infected cells. PMID:12223605

Neo, H. H.; Layzell, D. B.

1997-01-01

348

Lupin protein isolate versus casein modifies cholesterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters in a pig model  

PubMed Central

Background Lupin proteins exert hypocholesterolemic effects in man and animals, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we investigated whether lupin proteins compared to casein modulate sterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters by use of pigs as an animal model with similar lipid metabolism as humans, and cellular cholesterol-uptake by Caco-2 cells. Methods Two groups of pigs were fed cholesterol-containing diets with either 230g/kg of lupin protein isolate from L. angustifolius or 230g/kg casein, for 4 weeks. Faeces were collected quantitatively over a 5 d period for analysis of neutral sterols and bile acids by gas chromatographically methods. The mRNA abundances of intestinal lipid transporters were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol-uptake studies were performed with Caco-2 cells that were incubated with lupin conglutin ?, phytate, ezetimibe or albumin in the presence of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol. Results Pigs fed the lupin protein isolate revealed lower cholesterol concentrations in total plasma, LDL and HDL than pigs fed casein (P?lupin protein isolate compared to pigs that received casein (+57.1%; P?lupin protein isolate than in those who received casein (P?lupin protein isolate is attributable to an increased faecal output of cholesterol and a reduced intestinal uptake of cholesterol. The findings indicate phytate as a possible biofunctional ingredient of lupin protein isolate. PMID:24490902

2014-01-01

349

Effects of Mercury on Health and First-Year Survival of Free-Ranging Great Egrets ( Ardea albus ) from Southern Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The objectives of this study were to determine whether elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations have a negative impact on the\\u000a health and survival of nestling and juvenile free-ranging great egrets (Ardea albus) from southern Florida. During 1994, when health and survival was monitored in a cohort of young birds with naturally variable\\u000a concentrations of Hg, packed cell volume was positively

M. S. Seplveda; P. C. Frederick; M. G. Spalding

1999-01-01

350

Activation and silencing of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces lividans after transformation with cosmids containing the thienamycin gene cluster from Streptomyces cattleya.  

PubMed

Activation and silencing of antibiotic production was achieved in Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans TK21 after introduction of genes within the thienamycin cluster from S. cattleya. Dramatic phenotypic and metabolic changes, involving activation of multiple silent secondary metabolites and silencing of others normally produced, were found in recombinant strains harbouring the thienamycin cluster in comparison to the parental strains. In S. albus, ultra-performance liquid chromatography purification and NMR structural elucidation revealed the identity of four structurally related activated compounds: the antibiotics paulomycins A, B and the paulomenols A and B. Four volatile compounds whose biosynthesis was switched off were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and databases comparison as pyrazines; including tetramethylpyrazine, a compound with important clinical applications to our knowledge never reported to be produced by Streptomyces. In addition, this work revealed the potential of S. albus to produce many others secondary metabolites normally obtained from plants, including compounds of medical relevance as dihydro-?-agarofuran and of interest in perfume industry as ?-patchoulene, suggesting that it might be an alternative model for their industrial production. In S. lividans, actinorhodins production was strongly activated in the recombinant strains whereas undecylprodigiosins were significantly reduced. Activation of cryptic metabolites in Streptomyces species might represent an alternative approach for pharmaceutical drug discovery. PMID:24633227

Braa, Alfredo F; Rodrguez, Miriam; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jurgen; Garca, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

2014-05-01

351

Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential  

PubMed Central

A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rckert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jrn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

2014-01-01

352

Influence of diets to Wistar rats supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine products treated by lactofermentation to improve their gut health.  

PubMed

The present study proposes the contribution of lactic acid bacteria and plants rich in bioactive substances and high-quality proteins as alternative products for human diets in improving the gut environment as potential against pathogenic bacteria. The effect of diets supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine flours fermented with a Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 probiotic strain in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Wistar rats were analyzed. In vivo experiments showed a positive effect of long time lactofermentation of plant material on the body weight of rats. Diets with fermented yellow lupine resulted in enhanced activities of ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidases, as well as high levels of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enterococci in the GIT were determined. Lactofermentation of analyzed plant products had a significantly lowering effect on Escherichia coli compared with the control group. The dominant flora of large intestines like Bifidobacterium and anaerobic cocci were found in high levels after diets with fermented lupine. PMID:23480304

Bartkiene, E; Juodeikiene, G; Vidmantiene, D; Zdunczyk, Z; Zdunczyk, P; Juskiewicz, J; Cizeikiene, D; Matusevicius, P

2013-09-01

353

Diversification of Lupinus (Leguminosae) in the western New World: derived evolution of perennial life history and colonization of montane habitats.  

PubMed

Previous phylogenetic studies of Lupinus (Leguminosae) based on nuclear DNA have shown that the western New World taxa form a monophyletic group representing the majority of species in the genus, with evidence for high rates of recent diversification in South America following final uplift of the Andes 2-4 million years ago (Mya). For this study, three regions of rapidly evolving non-coding chloroplast DNA (trnL intron, trnS-trnG, and trnT-trnL) were examined to estimate the timing and rates of diversification in the western New World, and to infer ancestral states for geographic range, life history, and maximum elevation. The western New World species (5.0-9.3Mya, 0.6-1.1 spp./My) comprise a basally branching assemblage of annual plants endemic to the lower elevations of western North America, from which two species-rich clades are recently derived: (i) the western North American perennials from the Rocky Mountains, Great Basin, and Pacific Slope (0.7-2.1Mya, 2.0-5.9 spp./My) and (ii) the predominantly perennial species from the Andes Mountains of South America and highlands of Mexico (0.8-3.4Mya, 1.4-5.7spp./My). Bayesian posterior predictive tests for association between life history and maximum elevation demonstrate that perennials are positively correlated with higher elevations. These results are consistent with a series of one or more recent radiations in the western New World, and indicate that rapid diversification of Lupinus coincides with the derived evolution of perennial life history, colonization of montane habitats, and range expansion from North America to South America. PMID:18534869

Drummond, Christopher S

2008-08-01

354

A native nitrogen-fixing shrub facilitates weed invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions by exotic weedy plants frequently occur in highly disturbed or otherwise anthropogenically altered habitats. Here we present evidence that, within California coastal prairie, invasion also can be facilitated by a native nitrogen-fixing shrub, bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus). Bush lupines fix nitrogen and grow rapidly, fertilizing the sandy soil with nitrogen-rich litter. The dense lupine canopy blocks light, restricting vegetative

John L. Maron; Peter G. Connors

1996-01-01

355

The reallocation of carbon in P deficient lupins affects biological nitrogen fixation.  

PubMed

It is not known how phosphate (P) deficiency affects the allocation of carbon (C) to biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes. The alteration of the respiratory and photosynthetic C costs of BNF was investigated under P deficiency. Although BNF can impose considerable sink stimulation on host respiratory and photosynthetic C, it is not known how the change in the C and energy allocation during P deficiency may affect BNF. Nodulated Lupinus luteus plants were grown in sand culture, using a modified Long Ashton nutrient solution containing no nitrogen (N) for ca. four weeks, after which one set was exposed to a P-deficient nutrient medium, while the other set continued growing on a P-sufficient nutrient medium. Phosphorus stress was measured at 20 days after onset of P-starvation. During P stress the decline in nodular P levels was associated with lower BNF and nodule growth. There was also a shift in the balance of photosynthetic and respiratory C toward a loss of C during P stress. Below-ground respiration declined under limiting P conditions. However, during this decline there was also a shift in the proportion of respiratory energy from maintenance toward growth respiration. Under P stress, there was an increased allocation of C toward root growth, thereby decreasing the amount of C available for maintenance respiration. It is therefore possible that the decline in BNF under P deficiency may be due to this change in resource allocation away from respiration associated with direct nutrient uptake, but rather toward a long term nutrient acquisition strategy of increased root growth. PMID:25155758

Kleinert, Aleysia; Venter, Mauritz; Kossmann, Jens; Valentine, Alexander

2014-11-01

356

An assessment of heavy metal bioaccumulation in Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, during plowing stages of a paddy cycle.  

PubMed

Livers and muscles of swamp eels (Monopterus albus) were analyzed for bioaccumulation of heavy metals during the plowing stage of a paddy cycle. Results showed heavy metals were bioaccumulated more highly in liver than muscle. Zinc (Zn) was the highest bioaccumulated metal in liver (98.58.95?g/g) and in muscle (48.87.17?g/g). The lowest bioaccumulated metals were cadmium (Cd) in liver (3.442.42?g/g) and copper (Cu) in muscle (0.650.20?g/g). In sediments, Zn was present at the highest mean concentration (52.72.85?g/g), while Cd had the lowest mean concentration (1.040.24?g/g). The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, Cd and nickel (Ni) in liver tissue was greater than the corresponding BSAF for muscle tissue. For the three plowing stages, metal concentrations were significantly correlated between liver and muscle tissues in all cases, and between sediment and either liver or muscle in most cases. Mean measured metal concentrations in muscle tissue were below the maximum permissible limits established by Malaysian and U.S. governmental agencies, and were therefore regarded as safe for human consumption. PMID:23666324

Sow, Ai Yin; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

2013-07-01

357

New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. I. Expansion of frog virus 3 host range into Scaphirhynchus albus.  

PubMed

In 2009, juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, reared at the Blind Pony State Fish Hatchery (Missouri, USA) to replenish dwindling wild stocks, experienced mass mortality. Histological examination revealed extensive necrosis of the haematopoietic tissues, and a virus was isolated from affected organs in cell culture and then observed by electron microscopy. Experimental infection studies revealed that the virus is highly pathogenic to juvenile pallid sturgeon, one of several species of sturgeon currently listed as Endangered. The DNA sequence of the full length major capsid protein gene of the virus was identical to that of the species Frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species for the genus Ranavirus, originally isolated from northern leopard frog Lithobates pipiens. Although FV3 infections and epizootics in amphibians and reptiles are well documented, there is only 1 prior report of a natural infection of FV3 in fish. Our results illustrate the broad potential host range for FV3, with the known potential to cause significant mortality in poikilothermic vertebrates across 3 taxonomic classes including bony fishes, anuran and caudate amphibians, and squamate and testudine reptiles. PMID:25320034

Waltzek, Thomas B; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Drecktrah, Bruce; Briggler, Jeffrey T; MacConnell, Beth; Hudson, Crystal; Hopper, Lacey; Friary, John; Yun, Susan C; Malm, Kirsten V; Weber, E Scott; Hedrick, Ronald P

2014-10-16

358

Apple polygalacturonase inhibiting protein1 expressed in transgenic tobacco inhibits polygalacturonases from fungal pathogens of apple and the anthracnose pathogen of lupins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from apple fruit (cultivar Granny Smith) inhibited the cell-wall degrading polygalacturonase (PG) activity of Colletotrichum lupini, the causal agent of anthracnose on lupins, as well as Aspergillus niger PG. Southern blot analysis indicated that this cultivar of apple has a small gene family of polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (pgips), and therefore heterologous expression in transgenic tobacco was used to identify

Dean Oelofse; Ian A. Dubery; Riaan Meyer; Melanie S. Arendse; Inge Gazendam; Dave K. Berger

2006-01-01

359

Dietary Lupin Protein Lowers Triglyceride Concentrations in Liver and Plasma in Rats by Reducing Hepatic Gene Expression of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein1c  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recently, it has been shown that dietary lupin protein lowers plasma triglyceride concentrations in rats. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that this effect is due to a downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of lipogenic enzymes in the livers of rats. Methods: Two groups of 12 rats each were

Julia Spielmann; Anjali Shukla; Corinna Brandsch; Frank Hirche; Gabriele I. Stangl; Klaus Eder

2007-01-01

360

Copper microlocalisation and changes in leaf morphology, chloroplast ultrastructure and antioxidative response in white lupin and soybean grown in copper excess.  

PubMed

The microlocalisation of Cu was examined in the leaves of white lupin and soybean grown hydroponically in the presence of 1.6 (control) or 192?M (excess) Cu, along with its effect on leaf morphology, (ultra)structure and the antioxidative response. The 192?M dose led to a reduction in the total leaf area and leaf thickness in both species, although more strongly so in white lupin. In the latter species it was also associated with smaller spongy parenchyma cells, and smaller spaces between them, while in the soybean it more strongly reduced the size of the palisade parenchyma and epidermal cells. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed that under Cu excess the metal was mainly localised inside the spongy parenchyma cells of the white lupin leaves, and in the lower epidermis cell walls in those of the soybean. Cu excess also promoted ultrastructural chloroplast alterations, reducing the photosynthetic capacity index and the green area of the leaves, especially in the soybean. Despite this, soybean appeared to be more tolerant to Cu excess than white lupin, because soybean displayed (1) lower accumulation of Cu in the leaves, (2) enhanced microlocalisation of Cu in the cell walls and (3) greater levels of induced total -SH content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities that are expected for better antioxidative responses. PMID:23979008

Snchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Fernndez-Pascual, Mercedes; Zornoza, Pilar

2014-01-01

361

Oocyte maturation and embryo survival in nulliparous female pigs (gilts) is improved by feeding a lupin-based high-fibre diet.  

PubMed

Inclusion of high levels of the high-fibre ingredient sugar-beet pulp in pre-mating diets has been shown to increase gonadotrophin concentrations and improve oocyte quality in nulliparous pigs (gilts). This study evaluated the effects of two alternative fibre sources on reproductive performance in gilts. Gilts received one of three diets from 3 weeks before puberty stimulation until Day 19 of the first oestrous cycle: control (39 g kg? fibre), bran (500 g kg? wheat bran, 65 g kg? fibre) or lupin (350 g kg? lupin, 118 g kg? crude fibre). Diet did not affect circulating LH concentrations or ovarian follicle size. However, a higher percentage of oocytes collected from lupin-supplemented gilts reached metaphase II in vitro compared with those collected from bran-fed or control gilts (895% versus 725% and 665%, respectively; P<0.05). Furthermore, in a second experiment, gilts fed the same lupin-based diet before mating had improved embryo survival (925%) on Day 28 after mating compared with control gilts (764%; P<0.05). Therefore, feeding a high-fibre diet before mating can improve oocyte quality in gilts without changes in circulating LH, but this effect is dependent on the fibre source. PMID:23257568

Weaver, A C; Kelly, J M; Kind, K L; Gatford, K L; Kennaway, D J; Herde, P J; van Wettere, W H E J

2013-01-01

362

Biosynthesis and characterization of (15)N6-labeled phomopsin A, a lupin associated mycotoxin produced by Diaporthe toxica.  

PubMed

The hepatotoxin phomopsin A (PHO-A), a secondary metabolite mainly produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica, occurs predominantly on sweet lupins. Along with the growing interest in sweet lupins for food and feed commodities, concerns have been raised about fungal infestations, and consequently, about the determination of PHO-A. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) represents the most suitable analytical technique for sensitive and selective detection of mycotoxins including PHO-A. However, isotopic labeled substances are needed as internal standards for a reliable and convenient quantification. As no isotope standard for PHO-A is currently available, a biosynthesis of fully (15)N6-labeled PHO-A was established by cultivation of D. toxica on defined media containing Na(15)NO3 and (15)N-labeled yeast extract as the only nitrogen sources. The identity of (15)N6-PHO-A was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry. The new (15)N6-labeled standard will facilitate the method development for PHO-A including a more accurate quantification by LC-MS/MS. PMID:25660858

Schlo, Svenja; Wedell, Ines; Koch, Matthias; Rohn, Sascha; Maul, Ronald

2015-06-15

363

Production of sesquiterpene-type phytoalexins by hairy roots of Hyoscyamus albus co-treated with cupper sulfate and methyl jasmonate.  

PubMed

The production of sesquiterpene-type phytoalexins with a vetispyradiene skeleton by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was reported in a previous paper. The production pattern on co-treatment with cupper sulfate and MeJA (CuSO(4)-MeJA) showed a TLC profile differing from that on treatment with MeJA. Thus, we studied the production of phytoalexins on hairy root culture involving co-treatment with CuSO(4)-MeJA. In the experiment, many sesquiterpene-type phytoalexins with a vetispyradiene skeleton were isolated, most of which were different from the products reported in the previous paper. Here, we isolated four new phytoalexins (1-4) along with known compounds 5-10 from the culture medium of H. albus hairy roots co-treated with MeJA-CuSO(4). The structures of the new compounds (1-4) were determined as: (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-acetoxy-9-(2-methylpropionyloxy)solavetivone (1), (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-hydroxy-9-(3-methylbutanoyloxy)solavetivone (2), (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-acetoxy-9-(3-methyl-butanoyloxy)solavetivone (3), and (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-acetoxy-9-(3-methyl-2-butenoyloxy)-solavetivone (4) based on MS and NMR including 2D-NMR data. These findings indicated that the production of phytoalexins in H. albus hairy roots yielded different products based on treatment with different chemicals (CuSO(4), MeJA, and MeJA-CuSO(4)). PMID:20606340

Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Kawauchi, Morihiro; Arima, Toshihide; Shirota, Osamu; Sekita, Setsuko; Nakane, Takahisa; Takase, Yoichi; Kuroyanagi, Masanori

2010-07-01

364

Aromatase (P450arom) and 11?-hydroxylase (P45011?) genes are differentially expressed during the sex change process of the protogynous rice field eel, monopterus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroids are known to play a crucial role in gonadal sex differentiation in many non-mammalian vertebrates, but also in the\\u000a gonadal sex change of hermaphroditic teleosts. We investigated the expression of two genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes,\\u000a i.e., cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) and cytochrome P45011?-hydroxylase (P45011?), during the sex change of the protogynous\\u000a rice field eel, Monopterus albus. Using RT-PCR

Ji-Fang Liu; Yann Guiguen; Shao-Jun Liu

2009-01-01

365

Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangeredScaphirhynchus albus(pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 1226% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.23.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.891.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

Braaten, Patrick J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, David B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

2015-01-01

366

Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

2001-01-01

367

Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Bettoli, P.W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, E.J.

2009-01-01

368

Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada  

SciTech Connect

We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient created during mine dewatering. Although the absence of methanogens from this subsurface ecosystem is somewhat surprising, it may be attributable to an energy bottleneck that restricts their migration from surface permafrost deposits where they are frequently reported. These results have implications for the biological origin of CH4 on Mars.

Onstott, Tullis [Princeton University; McGown, Daniel [Princeton University; Bakermans, Corien [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ruskeeniemi, T [Geological Survey of Finland; Ahonen, L [Geological Survey of Finland; Telling, J [University of Toronto; Soffientino, B [University of Rhode Island; Pfiffner, Susan M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara [University of Toronto; Frape, S [University of Waterloo, Canada; Stotler, R [University of Waterloo, Canada; Johnson, E [Indiana University; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Rothmel, Randi [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana University

2009-01-01

369

Hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters in and below the base of thick permafrost at Lupin, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryShield fluids are commonly understood to evolve through water-rock interaction. However, fluids may also concentrate during ice formation. Very little is currently known about groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost in crystalline environments. This paper evaluates three possible Shield fluid evolution pathways at a crystalline Shield location currently under 500+ meters of permafrost, including surfical cryogenic concentration of seawater, in situ cryogenic concentration and water-rock interaction. A primary goal of this study was to further scientific understanding of permafrost and its role in influencing deep flow system evolution, fluid movement and chemical evolution of waters in crystalline rocks. Precipitation, surface, permafrost and subpermafrost water samples were collected, as well as dissolved and free gas samples, fracture fillings and matrix fluid samples to characterize the site. Investigations of groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost provides valuable information which can be applied to safety assessment of deep, underground nuclear waste repositories, effects of long-term mining in permafrost areas and understanding analogues to potential life-bearing zones on Mars. The study was conducted in the Lupin gold mine in Nunavut, Canada, located within the zone of continuous permafrost. Through-taliks beneath large lakes in the area provided potential hydraulic connections through the permafrost. Na-Cl and Na-Cl-SO 4 type permafrost waters were contaminated by mining activities, affecting the chloride and nitrate concentrations. High nitrate concentrations (423-2630 mg L -1) were attributed to remnants of blasting. High sulfate concentrations in the permafrost (578-5000 mg L -1) were attributed to naturally occurring and mining enhanced sulfide oxidation. Mine dewatering created an artificial hydraulic gradient, resulting in methane hydrate dissociation at depth. Less contaminated basal waters had medium sulfate concentrations and were Ca-Na dominated, similar to deeper subpermafrost waters. Subpermafrost waters had a wide range of salinities (2.6-40 g L -1). It was unclear from this investigation what impact talik waters would have on deep groundwaters in undisturbed environments. In situ cryogenic concentration due to ice and methane hydrate formation may have concentrated the remaining fluids, however there was no evidence that infiltration of cryogenically concentrated seawater occurred since the last glacial maximum. Matrix waters were dilute and unable to affect groundwater salinity. Fracture infillings were scarce, but calcite fluid inclusion microthermometry indicated a large range in salinities, potentially an additional source of salinity to the system.

Stotler, Randy L.; Frape, Shaun K.; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Onstott, Tullis C.; Hobbs, Monique Y.

2009-06-01

370

Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa.  

PubMed

Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, (+/-)-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of these resistant native species, Lupinus sericeus Pursh and Gaillardia grandiflora Van Houtte, were found to secrete increased amounts of oxalate in response to catechin exposure. Mechanistically, we found that oxalate works exogenously by blocking generation of reactive oxygen species in susceptible plants and reducing oxidative damage generated in response to catechin. Furthermore, field experiments show that L. sericeus indirectly facilitates native grasses in grasslands invaded by C. maculosa, and this facilitation can be correlated with the presence of oxalate in soil. Addition of exogenous oxalate to native grasses and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh grown in vitro alleviated the phytotoxic effects of catechin, supporting the field experiments and suggesting that root-secreted oxalate may also act as a chemical facilitator for plant species that do not secrete the compound. PMID:16395587

Weir, Tiffany L; Bais, Harsh Pal; Stull, Valerie J; Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Ridenour, Wendy M; Bhamidi, Suresh; Stermitz, Frank R; Vivanco, Jorge M

2006-03-01

371

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrient status, and total antioxidant activity of Melilotus albus during phytoremediation of a diesel-contaminated substrate.  

PubMed

This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg(-1)). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted to non-contaminated or contaminated sand. After 60 days, diesel significantly reduced plant growth. AMF- plants had no significant greater (64% and 89%, respectively) shoot and leaf dry weight than Non-AMF plants, but AMF plants had lower specific leaf area. AMF-plants had significantly greater content of microelements than non-AMF plants. Regardless diesel contamination, the total AOX and TPC were significantly higher in leaves when compared to roots; in contrast, NRA was higher in roots than leaves. Diesel increased total AOX of leaves, but AMF-plants had significantly lower AOX than non-AMF plants. In contrast, roots of AMF-plants had significantly higher AOX but lower NRA than non-AMF plants. AMF-colonization in roots detected via the fungal alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly reduced by the presence of diesel. AMF-inoculation alleviated diesel toxicity on M. albus by enhancing plant biomass, nutrient content, and AOX activity. In addition, AMF-plants significantly contributed in higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons when compared to non-AMF-plants. PMID:21420227

Hernndez-Ortega, Herminia Alejandra; Alarcn, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Zavaleta-Mancera, Hilda Araceli; Lpez-Delgado, Humberto Antonio; Mendoza-Lpez, Ma Remedios

2012-03-01

372

Fluoride absorption by the root and foliar tissues of the horse-bean (calicole) and lupin (calcifuge)  

SciTech Connect

In the root and foliar tissues of calcicole (horse-bean) and calcifuge (lupin) plants, absorption of fluoride, at least in weak concentrations, does not appear to be related to the metabolism of these plants. Nevertheless the comparison of these two tissues highlights clearly the differences in absorption of fluoride in the two species. Absorption appears to be slower and of longer duration in calcifuge plants whereas between the two tissues, absorption is essentially quantitative, the foliar tissues always showing higher levels of fluoride than the roots. On the other hand, fluoride is only weakly attached to the tissues since most of it can be easily exsorbed into the water. Our data disclose a great similarity in the absorption mechanism of fluoride and calcium ions in calcicole and calcifuge plants.

Garrec, J.P.; Letourneur, L.

1981-01-01

373

Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH  

PubMed Central

The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 410 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment. PMID:25493199

Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

2014-01-01

374

Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.  

PubMed

The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment. PMID:25493199

Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

2014-11-01

375

vol. 155, no. 2 the american naturalist february 2000 Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores  

E-print Network

, Seattle, Washington 98195 Submitted April 9, 1999; Accepted September 20, 1999 abstract: Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens

Fagan, William

376

Lupin peptides lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol through an up-regulation of the LDL receptor/sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) pathway at HepG2 cell line.  

PubMed

Previous experiments in suitable animal models and in mild hypercholesterolemic individuals have shown that the consumption of lupin proteins may be useful for controlling total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. With the objective of providing evidence that peptides deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin proteins may be responsible of the observed activities and for investigating the mechanism of action, HepG2 cells were treated with lupin peptides obtained by either pepsin (P) or trypsin (T) hydrolysis, and molecular and functional investigations were performed on the LDL receptor/SREBP2 pathway. For the first time, this paper provides experimental evidence that lupin peptides are able to interfere with the HMGCoAR activity, up-regulating the LDL receptor (136 and 84% vs the control for P and T peptides, respectively, at 1 mg/mL) and SREBP2 proteins (148 and 73% vs the control for P and T peptides, respectively, at 1 mg/mL) via the activation of PI3K/Akt/GSK3? pathways and increasing the LDL uptake at HepG2 cell line (40 and 50% vs the control for P and T peptides, respectively, at 1 mg/mL). These results may be useful in explaining the activities observed in vivo in animals and humans treated with lupin protein. PMID:24972343

Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Scigliuolo, Graziana M; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Arnoldi, Anna

2014-07-23

377

A small-scale proteomic approach reveals a survival strategy, including a reduction in alkaloid biosynthesis, in Hyoscyamus albus roots subjected to iron deficiency  

PubMed Central

Hyoscyamus albus is a well-known source of the tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are biosynthesized in the roots. To assess the major biochemical adaptations that occur in the roots of this plant in response to iron deficiency, we used a small-scale proteomic approach in which 100 mg of root tips were treated with and without Fe, respectively, for 5 days. Two-dimensional mini gels showed that 48 spots were differentially accumulated between the two conditions of Fe availability and a further 36 proteins were identified from these spots using MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins that showed elevated levels in the roots lacking Fe were found to be associated variously with carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation, secondary metabolism, and oxidative defense. Most of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were increased in abundance, but mitochondrial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was decreased, possibly resulting in malate secretion. Otherwise, all the proteins showing diminished levels in the roots were identified as either Fe-containing or ATP-requiring. For example, a significant decrease was observed in the levels of hyoscyamine 6?-hydroxylase (H6H), which requires Fe and is involved in the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. To investigate the effects of Fe deficiency on alkaloid biosynthesis, gene expression studies were undertaken both for H6H and for another Fe-dependent protein, Cyp80F1, which is involved in the final stage of hyoscyamine biosynthesis. In addition, tropane alkaloid contents were determined. Reduced gene expression was observed in the case of both of these proteins and was accompanied by a decrease in the content of both hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Finally, we have discussed energetic and Fe-conservation strategies that might be adopted by the roots of H. albus to maintain iron homeostasis under Fe-limiting conditions. PMID:24009619

Khandakar, Jebunnahar; Haraguchi, Izumi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kitamura, Yoshie

2013-01-01

378

The effects of increased CO[sub 2] on the competitive ability of Lupinus arboreus, a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub  

SciTech Connect

Plant responses to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] have been shown to be both species-specific and dependent on other environmental factors, potentially changing competitive interactions and altering community structure. The competitive response of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub to an introduced annual (Bromus diandrus) and a native perennial grass (Bromus carinatus) was measured under ambient and high CO[sub 2] and two nitrogen levels. These species coexist in a generally nitrogen-limited coastal grassland reserve besieged with alien species. The relative competitive ability of the lupin increased with CO[sub 2] for all treatments, with the largest difference occurring at low nitrogen in competition with the introduced annual. This study provides a global change perspective for those interested in conserving native Californian grassland species, as well as the first data on the competitive response of nitrogen-fixers to high CO[sub 2].

Wallace, A.M. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brooks (United States))

1993-06-01

379

Physiologie vgtale Biosynthse des protines de rserve et formation  

E-print Network

graine de lupin jaune (Lupinus luteus L, Légumineuses) MA Esnault, A Merceur J Citharel Université de des corps protéiques dans la graine du lupin jaune sont observés en microscopie optique à différents stade 27 JAA, suggérant que le processus de synthèse de la conglutine a est le même chez le lupin jaune

Boyer, Edmond

380

Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

Wiche, Oliver; Szkely, Balzs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

2014-05-01

381

Palladium-mediated hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons with hydrogen gas released during anaerobic cellulose degradation. [Neocallimastix frontalis; Ruminococcus albus; methanospirillum hungatei  

SciTech Connect

Among five hydrogenation catalysts, palladium on charcoal was the most reactive one when suspended in anaerobic culture medium, and Lindlar catalyst (Pd on CaCO/sub 3/) was the most reactive one when suspended in the gas phase of culture tubes. Palladium on charcoal in the culture medium (40 to 200 mg 10 ml/sup -1/) completely inhibited growth of Neocallimastix frontalis and partly inhibited Ruminococcus albus. Lindlar catalyst (40 to 200 mg per tube) suspended in a glass pouch above the culture medium did not affect the rate of cellulose degradation or the ration of fermentation products by these organisms. Acetylene added to tubes containing Lindlar catalyst in pouches, and either of the two organisms in monoculture or coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei, was reduced to ethylene and then ethane, followed by hydrogen production. Similar results were obtained with 1-pentene. Neither acetylene nor 1-pentene affected cellulose degradation but both inhibited methanogenesis. In the presence of Lindlar catalyst and propylene or 1-butene, fermenter-methanogen cocultures continued to produce methane at the same rate as controls and no olefin reduction occurred. Upon addition of bromoethanesulfonic acid, methanogenesis stopped and olefin reduction took place followed by hydrogen evolution. In a gas mixture consisting of propylene, 1-butene, and 1-pentene, the olefins were reduced at rates which decreased with increasing molecular size.

Mountfort, D.O.; Kaspar, H.F.

1986-10-01

382

An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean?=?0.660.70 m?s?1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m?s?1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day?1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Ruggles, M.P.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.; Holm, R.J.

2012-01-01

383

Divergent natural selection with gene flow along major environmental gradients in Amazonia: insights from genome scans, population genetics and phylogeography of the characin fish Triportheus albus.  

PubMed

The unparalleled diversity of tropical ecosystems like the Amazon Basin has been traditionally explained using spatial models within the context of climatic and geological history. Yet, it is adaptive genetic diversity that defines how species evolve and interact within an ecosystem. Here, we combine genome scans, population genetics and sequence-based phylogeographic analyses to examine spatial and ecological arrangements of selected and neutrally evolving regions of the genome of an Amazonian fish, Triportheus albus. Using a sampling design encompassing five major Amazonian rivers, three hydrochemical settings, 352 nuclear markers and two mitochondrial DNA genes, we assess the influence of environmental gradients as biodiversity drivers in Amazonia. We identify strong divergent natural selection with gene flow and isolation by environment across craton (black and clear colour)- and Andean (white colour)-derived water types. Furthermore, we find that heightened selection and population genetic structure present at the interface of these water types appears more powerful in generating diversity than the spatial arrangement of river systems and vicariant biogeographic history. The results from our study challenge assumptions about the origin and distribution of adaptive and neutral genetic diversity in tropical ecosystems. In addition, they have important implications for measures of biodiversity and evolutionary potential in one of the world's most diverse and iconic ecosystems. PMID:22512735

Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Beheregaray, Luciano B

2012-05-01

384

Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: A comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r2 ??? 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both ??15N and ??13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day-1) using stable ??15N and ??13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue ??15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but ??13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species. ?? 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Andvik, R.T.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.; French, W.E.; Bertrand, K.N.; Chipps, S.R.; Klumb, R.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.

2010-01-01

385

The formation of short-chain fatty acids is positively associated with the blood lipid-lowering effect of lupin kernel fiber in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.  

PubMed

Lupin kernel fiber beneficially modifies blood lipids because of its bile acid-binding capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of a lupin kernel fiber preparation on cardiovascular diseases and to clarify possible mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 60 moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (plasma total cholesterol: >5.2 mmol/L) passed 3 intervention periods in different orders with a 2-wk washout phase between each. Participants consumed either a high-fiber diet containing 25-g/d lupin kernel fiber (LF) or citrus fiber (CF), or a low-fiber control diet (CD) for 4 wk each. Anthropometric, plasma, and fecal variables were assessed at baseline and after the interventions. Contrary to the CF period, total (9%) and LDL (12%) cholesterol as well as triacylglycerols (10%) were lower after the LF period when compared with the CD period [P ? 0.02, adjusted for baseline, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)]. HDL cholesterol remained unchanged. Moreover, the LF period reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) when compared with baseline. Bile acid binding could not be shown because the excretion of total bile acids remained constant after the high-fiber diets. However, the LF period resulted in an enhanced formation of the main short-chain fatty acids in comparison with the CD period. During the CF period, only acetate increased significantly. Both high-fiber diets led to higher satiety and modified nutritional behavior, resulting in significantly lower body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with the CD period. The blood lipid-lowering effects of LF are apparently not a result of bile acid binding. Rather, we hypothesize for the first time, to our knowledge, that the blood lipid-lowering effects of LF may be mainly attributed to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, specifically propionate and acetate. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01035086. PMID:24572041

Fechner, Anita; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

2014-05-01

386

Ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus inoculation of Acacia spirorbis and Eucalyptus globulus grown in ultramafic topsoil enhances plant growth and mineral nutrition while limits metal uptake.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) isolates of Pisolithus albus (Cooke and Massee) from nickel-rich ultramafic topsoils in New Caledonia were inoculated onto Acacia spirorbis Labill. (an endemic Fabaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (used as a Myrtaceae plant host model). The aim of the study was to analyze the growth of symbiotic ECM plants growing on the ultramafic substrate that is characterized by high and toxic metal concentrations i.e. Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni, deficient concentrations of plant essential nutrients such as N, P, K, and that presents an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio (1/19). ECM inoculation was successful with a plant level of root mycorrhization up to 6.7%. ECM symbiosis enhanced plant growth as indicated by significant increases in shoot and root biomass. Presence of ECM enhanced uptake of major elements that are deficient in ultramafic substrates; in particular P, K and Ca. On the contrary, the ECM symbioses strongly reduced transfer to plants of element in excess in soils; in particular all metals. ECM-inoculated plants released metal complexing molecules as free thiols and oxalic acid mostly at lower concentrations than in controls. Data showed that ECM symbiosis helped plant growth by supplying uptake of deficient elements while acting as a protective barrier to toxic metals, in particular for plants growing on ultramafic substrate with extreme soil conditions. Isolation of indigenous and stress-adapted beneficial ECM fungi could serve as a potential tool for inoculation of ECM endemic plants for the successful restoration of ultramafic ecosystems degraded by mining activities. PMID:24331432

Jourand, Philippe; Hannibal, Laure; Majorel, Clarisse; Mengant, Stphane; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel

2014-01-15

387

Quinolizidine alkaloids obtained byPedicularis semibarbata (Scrophulariaceae) fromLupinus fulcratus (Leguminosae) fail to influence the specialist herbivoreEuphydryas editha (Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

Pedicularis semibarbata is apparently an obligate hemiparasite of coniferous trees. It is also a facultative parasite ofLupinus fulcratus from which we find that it obtains quinolizidine alkaloids, principally ?-isolupanine. As a result, a single population ofP. semibarbata contains both alkaloidrich and alkaloid-free plants. The butterflyEuphydryas editha naturally oviposits on both plant types. This butterfly population, which is the principal herbivore attackingP. semibarbata at this site, is known to contain two morphs. Individuals of a specialist morph discriminate when ovipositing among individualP. semibarbata plants and produce offspring that survive better on accepted than on rejected plants. Those of a generalist morph accept allP. semibarbata plants and produce offspring that survive equally well on plants accepted or rejected by the discriminating morph. Because of the existence of this complex variation among the butterflies, the presence of naturally laid eggs on alkaloid-containing plants still leaves the possibility that the alkaloids may defend the plants against the specialist morph. In experiments on both oviposition preference and larval performance in early instars, we failed to detect any correlation between alkaloid content of a plant and either its acceptability to or suitability for the discriminating morph of the insect. Alkaloid presence in the host-plant population, achieved through root parasitism, is currently neither subject to strong insect-mediated selection nor a major cause of selection on the insects. PMID:24271594

Stermitz, F R; Belofsky, G N; Ng, D; Singer, M C

1989-11-01

388

420?Lentil Allergy: First Report from Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Background Allergy to lentils is infrequent in Latin America: this a first case report from Venezuela. A 5 year old female preschooler attended our allergology clinic with chief complaint of generalized giant urticaria inmediately after ingestion of cooked lentils; clinical history revealed frequent (>3) emergency visits, since the age of one year, with facial angioedema and generalized urticaria even from inhalation of vapors while cooking of lentils at home; moreover, also symptoms described ocurred while eating foods containing chick peas; lentils, as other beans (black, red, chick), belong to the leguminosa family along with peanuts and coconut. Methods Prick lancetter skin tests (H-S) to a panel of 25 inhalant and food allergens (Diater Labs, Argentina) were performed along with Prick to Prick tests to raw and cooked lentils, chickpeas, black beans, navy beans and coconut. A papule >3 mm and read at 10 minutes was considered positive. Results All other allergens tested were negative, that is, epithelia, molds, cockroach, grasses, mosquito, milk, egg, wheat, fishmix, shrimp and other seafood, nuts, hazelnut, almond, coconut and blackbeans. Conclusions 1. Prick to Prick testing confirms specific IgE presence to Lentils; our patient could tolerate peanuts and cocunut. Positive prick test to peanuts likely represent a cross reaction1; 2. Lupin flour (Lupinus Albus), from the Leguminosa family, is found increasingly used in industrially prepared foods and could elicit symptoms due to cross reactions, and advice to family was given accordingly2; 3. This is the first case report from Venezuela.

Albarran, Carlos; Hulett, Arnaldo Capriles

2012-01-01

389

Visualization of root water uptake: quantification of deuterated water transport in roots using neutron radiography and numerical modeling.  

PubMed

Our understanding of soil and plant water relations is limited by the lack of experimental methods to measure water fluxes in soil and plants. Here, we describe a new method to noninvasively quantify water fluxes in roots. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D2O) into roots. The results showed that (1) the radial transport of D2O from soil to the roots depended similarly on diffusive and convective transport and (2) the axial transport of D2O along the root xylem was largely dominated by convection. To quantify the convective fluxes from the radiographs, we introduced a convection-diffusion model to simulate the D2O transport in roots. The model takes into account different pathways of water across the root tissue, the endodermis as a layer with distinct transport properties, and the axial transport of D2O in the xylem. The diffusion coefficients of the root tissues were inversely estimated by simulating the experiments at night under the assumption that the convective fluxes were negligible. Inverse modeling of the experiment at day gave the profile of water fluxes into the roots. For a 24-d-old lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in a soil with uniform water content, root water uptake was higher in the proximal parts of lateral roots and decreased toward the distal parts. The method allows the quantification of the root properties and the regions of root water uptake along the root systems. PMID:25189533

Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

2014-10-01

390

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grimes C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J. D.; Ludwig, C.

2014-01-01

391

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime's C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J D; Ludwig, C

2014-11-01

392

Effects of the aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis seeds on the growth and development of Hypothenemus hampei: an inhibitor showing high homology with storage proteins.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei is a pest that causes great economic damage to coffee grains worldwide. Because the proteins consumed are digested by aspartic proteases in the insect's midgut, the inhibition of these proteases by transferring a gene encoding an aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis Benth. to coffee plants could provide a promising strategy to control this pest. Five aspartic protease inhibitors from L. bogotensis (LbAPI) were accordingly purified and characterized. The gene encoding the L. bogotensis aspartic protease inhibitor (LbAPI), with the highest inhibitory activity against H. hampei, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant protein (rLbAPI), with a molecular mass of 15 kDa, was subsequently assessed for its ability to inhibit the aspartic protease activity present in the H. hampei midgut in vitro, as well as its effects on the growth and development of H. hampei in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that rLbAPI was highly effective against aspartic proteases from H. hampei guts, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.9 ?g. The in vivo experiments showed that the concentration of rLbAPI (w/w) in the artificial diet necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of the larvae was 0.91%. The amino acid sequence of LbAPI had high homology (52-80%) to the seed storage proteins, vicilin and ?-conglutin, suggesting that this protein was generated by evolutionary events from a ?-conglutin precursor. Based on these results, LbAPI may have a dual function as storage protein, and as defense protein against H. hampei. These results provide a promising alternative to obtain a coffee plant resistant to H. hampei. PMID:24314849

Molina, Diana; Patio, Luisa; Quintero, Mnica; Cortes, Jos; Bastos, Sara

2014-02-01

393

Cross-talk interactions of exogenous nitric oxide and sucrose modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in yellow lupine embryo axes infected with Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sucrose in the mechanisms of synthesis and accumulation of isoflavonoids in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno. It was verified whether the interaction of these molecules can modulate the defense response of axes to infection and development of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. Sucrose alone strongly stimulated a high level of genistein glucoside in axes pretreated with exogenous nitric oxide (SNP or GSNO) and non-pretreated axes. As a result of amplification of the signal coming from sucrose and GSNO, high isoflavonoids accumulation was observed (+Sn+GSNO). It needs to be stressed that infection in tissues pretreated with SNP/GSNO and cultured on the medium with sucrose (+Si+SNP/+Si+GSNO) very strongly enhances the accumulation of free isoflavone aglycones. In +Si+SNP axes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was high up to 72h. As early as at 12h in +Si+SNP axes an increase was recorded in gene expression level of the specific isoflavonoid synthesis pathway. At 24h in +Si+SNP axes a very high total antioxidant capacity dependent on the pool of fast antioxidants was noted. Post-infection generation of semiquinone radicals was lower in axes with a high level of sucrose than with a deficit. PMID:23987816

Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Marczak, ?ukasz; Naro?na, Dorota; Nowak, Witold; Bednarski, Waldemar

2013-10-01

394

Oxalotrophy, a widespread trait of plant-associated Burkholderia species, is involved in successful root colonization of lupin and maize by Burkholderia phytofirmans  

PubMed Central

Plant roots and shoots harbor complex bacterial communities. Early seed and plantlet colonization plays a key role in determining which bacterial populations will successfully invade plant tissues, yet the mechanisms enabling plants to select for beneficial rather than harmful populations are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a role of oxalate as a determinant in this selection process, using members of the genus Burkholderia as model organisms. Oxalotrophy, i.e., the ability to use oxalate as a carbon source, was found to be a property strictly associated with plant-beneficial species of the Burkholderia genus, while plant pathogenic (B. glumae, B. plantarii) or human opportunistic pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia complex strains) were unable to degrade oxalate. We further show that oxalotrophy is required for successful plant colonization by the broad host endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN: an engineered ?oxc mutant, which lost the ability to grow on oxalate, was significantly impaired in early colonization of both lupin and maize compared with the wild-type. This work suggests that in addition to the role of oxalate in heavy metal tolerance of plants and in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi, it is also involved in specifically recruiting plant-beneficial members from complex bacterial communities. PMID:24409174

Kost, Thomas; Stopnisek, Nejc; Agnoli, Kirsty; Eberl, Leo

2014-01-01

395

Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone. PMID:25046756

Gmez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramn O

2014-09-15

396

The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Larvae of the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, feed solely on wild lupine, Lupinus perennis, from the emergence to summer senescence of the plant. Wild lupine is most abundant in open areas but Karner blue females oviposit more frequently on lupines growing in moderate shade. Can differences in lupine quality between open and shaded areas help explain this disparity in resource use? Furthermore, many lupines are senescent before the second larval brood completes development. How does lupine senescence affect larval growth? We addressed these questions by measuring growth rates of larvae fed lupines of different phenological stages and lupines growing under different shade conditions. The habitat conditions under which lupines grew and plant phenological stage did not generally affect final larval or pupal weight but did significantly affect duration of the larval period. Duration was shortest for larvae fed leaves from flowering lupines and was negatively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration. Ovipositing in areas of moderate shade should increase second-brood larval exposure to flowering lupines. In addition, larval growth was significantly faster on shade-grown lupines that were in seed than on similar sun-grown lupines. These are possible advantages of the higher-than-expected oviposition rate on shade-grown lupines. Given the canopy-related trade-off between lupine abundance and quality, maintenance of canopy heterogeneity is an important conservation management goal. Larvae were also fed leaves growing in poor soil conditions and leaves with mildew infection. These and other feeding treatments that we anticipated would inhibit larval growth often did not. In particular, ant-tended larvae exhibited the highest weight gain per amount of lupine eaten and a relatively fast growth rate. This represents an advantage of ant tending to Karner blue larvae.

Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

1998-01-01

397

Xylem to phloem transfer of solutes in fruiting shoots of legumes, studied by a phloem bleeding technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons were made of the levels of various solutes in xylem (tracheal) sap and fruit tip phloem sap of Lupinus albus (L.) and Spartium junceum (L.). Sucrose was present at high concentration (up to 220 mg ml-1) in phloem but was absent from xylem whereas nitrate was detected in xylem (up to 0.14 mg ml-1) but not in phloem. Total

J. S. Pate; P. J. Sharkey; O. A. M. Lewis

1975-01-01

398

Traditional antihelmintic, antiparasitic and repellent uses of plants in Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uses of 51 plants of Marche, Abruzzo and Latium, distributed in 28 families, are listed here. Memories and news of continued use of the plants in these sectors were collected from farmers and shepherds in person (mostly old people). The plants most frequently used as antiparasitics and repellents are Juglans regia, Lupinus albus, Ruta graveolens, Fraxinus ornus, Datura stramonium,

Paolo Maria Guarrera

1999-01-01

399

Phytoremediation of PharmaceuticalsPreliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen) using Armoracia rusticana and Linum usitatissimum cell cultures and by hydroponically cultivated Lupinus albus, Hordeum vulgaris, and Phragmites australis plants in laboratory conditions is described. During in vitro experiments, the best results for acetaminophen were achieved using Armoracia rusticana hairy root cultures, where 100% of the starting amount was removed from the

Jan Kotyza; Petr Soudek; Zden?k Kafka; Tom Van?k

2010-01-01

400

Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores Slow a Plant Reinvasion at Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, were expected to strongly affect successional trajectories through facili- tative effects. However, their effects remain localized because initially high rates of reinvasive spread were short lived, despite widespread habitat availability. We experimentally tested whether insect herbi- vores, by reducing plant growth and fecundity

William F. Fagan; John G. Bishop

2000-01-01

401

Restoring resources for an endangered butterfly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Recent changes in land use have resulted in dramatic habitat loss for numerous species. More than 99% of the habitat for Fender's blue butterfly Icaricia icarioides fenderi , an endangered butterfly in Oregon, USA, has been lost. 2. Fender's blue butterflies require larval host-plants (Kincaid's lupine Lupinus sul- phureus kincaidii ) and nectar from native wildflowers. 3. An

CHERYL B. SCHULTZ

2001-01-01

402

Effect of diets containing whole white lupin seeds on rabbit doe milk yield and milk fatty acid composition as well as the growth and health of their litters.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary inclusion of white lupin seed (WLS) on the milk composition and yield of rabbit does as well as the performance of their litters was studied. Two lactation diets having identical digestible protein (DP):DE ratio and two weaning diets having identical DP:DE ratio were formulated. The first lactation diet (SL) contained soybean meal (SBM; 13.0%) and sunflower meal (5.0%) as the main CP sources, whereas the second lactation diet (LL) was based on WLS (25.0%). As a result, the LL diet had a greater ether extract (EE) content than did the SL diet. The first weaning diet (SW) included SBM (7.0%) as the main CP source, whereas the second weaning diet (LW) diet was based on WLS (12.0%). No additional fat was added to any of the diets. A total of 32 (16 per treatment) Hyplus PS 19 does (4,225 607 g BW, at the second parturition) were fed 1 of the 2 lactation diets. The litters were standardized to 9 kits (564 81 g BW) on the day of birth and were fed 1 of the 2 weaning diets from d 17 to 69 of age. At d 30 of age (weaning), 66 rabbits on each weaning diet (689 71 g BW; 3 per cage) were used to evaluate performance. Feed intake and doe BW were not affected by the dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be higher between d 1 and 30 of lactation in does fed the LL diet (P = 0.094), a finding that is related to the higher dietary EE content and intake in the LL diet. When expressed per kilogram of metabolic weight, milk output (P < 0.05) and fat output (P < 0.05) were greater in these does. Improved G:F (P < 0.05) between d 1 and 21 of lactation and greater ADG (P = 0.072) and milk efficiency (P < 0.05) of litters was observed in does fed the LL diet. The milk of does fed the LL diet contained less linoleic acid (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (C 20:4n-6; P < 0.05) and more oleic acid (P < 0.05), ?-linolenic acid (P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenic acid (P < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the total PUFA n-3:C 20:4n-6 ratio (P < 0.05). The performance of fattening rabbits was not affected by dietary treatment. The number of ill plus dead rabbits caused by digestive disease was lower (P < 0.05) in rabbits fed the LW diet. Therefore, WLS is a suitable dietary CP source for lactating does that can replace traditionally used CP sources without adverse effects on feed intake and milk yield or on the growth and viability of their litters. Due to its fatty acid (FA) composition, the use of WLS in the lactation diet has the potential to improve the milk FA composition of does. PMID:24663193

Volek, Z; Marounek, M; Volkov, L; Kudrnov, E

2014-05-01

403

Characterization of bacterial community structure in rhizosphere soil of grain legumes.  

PubMed

Molecular techniques were used to characterize bacterial community structure, diversity (16S rDNA), and activity (16S rRNA) in rhizospheres of three grain legumes: faba beans (Vicia faba L., cv. Scirocco), peas (Pisum sativum L., cv. Duel) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L., cv. Amiga). All plants were grown in the same soil under controlled conditions in a greenhouse and sampled after fruiting. Amplified 16S rDNA and rRNA products (using universal bacterial primers) were resolved by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Distinct profiles were observed for the three legumes with most of the bands derived from RNA being a subset of those derived from DNA. Comparing the total bacterial profiles with actinomycete-specific ones (using actinomycete-specific primers) highlighted the dominance of this group in the three rhizospheres. 16S PCR and RT-PCR products were cloned to construct libraries and 100 clones from each library were sequenced. Actinomycetes and proteobacteria dominated the clone libraries with differences in the groups of proteobacteria. Absence of beta-subdivision members in pea and gamma-subdivision members of proteobacteria in faba bean rhizosphere was observed. Plant-dependent rhizosphere effects were evident from significant differences in the bacterial community structure of the legume rhizospheres under study. The study gives a detailed picture of both residing and "active" bacterial community in the three rhizospheres. The high abundance of actinomycetes in the rhizospheres of mature legumes indicates their possible role in soil enrichment after the legumes are plowed into the soil as biofertilizers. PMID:16003473

Sharma, S; Aneja, M K; Mayer, J; Munch, J C; Schloter, M

2005-04-01

404

Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally larger in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy openings and shade, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.; Sulzman, C.L.

1998-01-01

405

Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally large in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy opening and shades, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

1998-01-01

406

Spatially structured herbivory and primary succession at Mount St Helens: field surveys and experimental growth studies suggest a role for nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1980 eruption ofMount St Helens (Washington, U.S.A.) created a 60-km2 region ofprimary successional habitat. Since colonising in 1981, the spatial spread ofthe legume Lupinus lepidus at Mount St Helens, Washington, U.S.A., has afforded intriguing opportunities to study the effect of trophic dynamics on primary succession. 2. Insect herbivory on this lupine has exhibited striking spatial structure for over a

WILLIAM F. F AGAN; J OHN

2004-01-01

407

Carbon and nitrogen accumulation and microbial activity in Mount St. Helens pyroclastic substrates after 25years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii) are important integrators of above and belowground development of Mount St. Helens (1980) pyroclastic substrates because\\u000a they increase soil organic matter formation and microbial activity and influence other biotic processes. However, basic information\\u000a is required to understand the unfolding pattern of soil development and to corroborate evidence for increasing rates of organic\\u000a matter accumulation suggested

Jonathan J. Halvorson; Jeffrey L. Smith

2009-01-01

408

The effect of level of application on the residual value of superphosphate on a sandy soil in south-western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field experiment on deep, yellow, sandy soil near Badgingarra, Western Australia, the residual value of superphosphate applied one and two years previously was measured relative to freshly-applied superphosphate using yields of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), barley and wheat. In addition, soil samples were collected for measurement of bicarbonate-extractable soil P. This was also used to estimate the residual

M. D. A. Bolland; N. J. Barrow

1991-01-01

409

Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores Slow a Plant Reinvasion at Mount St. Helens.  

PubMed

Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, were expected to strongly affect successional trajectories through facilitative effects. However, their effects remain localized because initially high rates of reinvasive spread were short lived, despite widespread habitat availability. We experimentally tested whether insect herbivores, by reducing plant growth and fecundity at the edge of the expanding lupine population, could curtail the rate of reinvasion and whether those herbivores had comparable impacts in the older, more successionally advanced core region. We found that removing insect herbivores increased both the areal growth of individual lupine plants and the production of new plants in the edge region, thereby accelerating the lupine's intrinsic rate of increase at the front of the lupine reinvasion. We found no such impacts of herbivory in the core region, where low plant quality or a complex of recently arrived natural enemies may hold herbivores in check. In the context of invasion theory, herbivore-mediated decreases in lupine population growth rate in the edge region translate into decreased rates of lupine spread, which we quantify here using diffusion models. In the Mount St. Helens system, decreased rate of lupine reinvasion will result in reductions in rates of soil formation, nitrogen input, and entrapment of seeds and detritus that are likely to postpone or alter trajectories of primary succession. If the type of spatial subtleties in herbivore effects we found here are common, with herbivory focused on the edge of an expanding plant population and suppressed or ineffective in the larger, denser central region (where the plants might be more readily noticed and studied), then insect herbivores may have stronger impacts on the dynamics of primary succession and plant invasions than previously recognized. PMID:10686163

Fagan; Bishop

2000-02-01

410

Growth of Bacterium coli and Staphylococcus albus in Heavy Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the mid 1930's when heavy water became available, workers experimenting on its biological effects reported delayed growth, complete inhibition, and morphological changes in many types of organisms including bacteria1,2. Some reported normal growth3. Recently Walker and Syrett4 confirmed the inhibition of autotrophic growth of Chlorella by heavy water but found less inhibition in the presence of glucose.

Elizabeth van Horn; G. C. Ware

1959-01-01

411

Effect of some environmental factors on Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains.  

PubMed

Effects of different abiotic factors (acidity, salinity, nitrate and temperature) on growth rate of root-nodule bacteria (Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium) strains were investigated in vitro. Strains isolated from Vicia faba L., Coronilla varia L. and Lupinus albus L. exhibited a large variation in tolerance of the above-mentioned factors. These bacteria should be screened under stimulated conditions for enhanced survival before selection to be used for commercial inoculant production. Linear correlation matrix data were useful to find the appropriate concentrations for the selection of the tolerant strains. PMID:7620814

Bayoumi, H E; Br, B; Balzsy, S; Kecsks, M

1995-01-01

412

Small mammals cause non-trophic effects on habitat and associated snails in a native system.  

PubMed

Legacy effects occur when particular species or their interactions with others have long-lasting impacts, and they are increasingly recognized as important determinants of ecological processes. However, when such legacy effects have been explicitly explored, they most often involve the long-term direct effects of species on systems, as opposed to the indirect effects. Here, we explore how a legacy of small mammal exclusion on the abundance of a shrub, bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus), influences the abundance of a native land snail (Helminthoglypta arrosa) in coastal prairie and dune habitats in central California. The factors that limit populations of land snails are very poorly known despite the threats to the persistence of this group of species. In grasslands, prior vole (Microtus californicus) exclusion created long-lasting gains in bush lupine abundance, mediated through the seedbank, and was associated with increased snail numbers (10) compared to control plots where mammals were never excluded. Similar plots in dune habitat showed no difference in snail numbers due to previous mammal exclusion. We tested whether increased competition for food, increased predation, and/or lower desiccation explained the decline in snail numbers in plots with reduced lupine cover. Tethering experiments supported the hypothesis that voles can have long-lasting impacts as ecosystem engineers, reducing woody lupine habitat required for successful aestivation by snails. These results add to a growing list of studies that have found that non-trophic interactions can be limiting to invertebrate consumers. PMID:21691854

Huntzinger, Mikaela; Karban, Richard; Maron, John L

2011-12-01

413

Elevated CO(2) and nitrogen effects on a dominant N(2)- fixing shrub  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The responses of N2-fixing species to global change are likely to be an important component in predicting the existence and direction of feedbacks between carbon and nitrogen cycles, as both are radically changing at an unprecedented pace. Increased carbon storage may be more likely in ecosystems not limited by available nitrogen, such as those with abundant N2-fixing species. If elevated CO2 affects growth and N2-fixation of dominant N2-fixers, then non-fixers in the system may experience indirect effects through changes in competitive interactions and nitrogen availability. The goal of this research was to investigate these effects on the growth, competitive ability, leaf and litter chemistry, and litter decomposition of Lupinus arboreus, a N2-fixing evergreen shrub, and to test the central hypothesis that an increase in growth and competitive ability would occur at low nitrogen and high CO2. In a growth chamber experiment, three CO2 levels, 350, 500, and 650 ppm were crossed with two nitrogen levels. Lupins were grown alone or in competition with an introduced annual grass, Bromus diandrus. Contrary to findings from previous studies of positive growth and competition responses by N2-fixers, Lupinus seedlings demonstrated no significant responses to CO2. Nitrogen was far more important than CO2 in affecting relative competitive ability. Nitrogen, alkaloids, and C:N ratios in fresh foliage did not change with CO2 or nitrogen. Carbon and biomass increased slightly in lupins at 500 ppm only, suggesting an early but limited growth response. Nitrogen did decrease in lupin litter at elevated CO2, but there were no effects on litter decomposition rates in the field. Simulations by the CENTURY surface litter decomposition model predicted the litter decomposition rates of field-grown litter nearly perfectly, and predicted the general direction but underestimated the rate of litter from the greenhouse grown at different CO2 levels. Very low or high nitrogen decreased growth and competitive ability of lupin seedlings in an additional greenhouse experiment. Slight increases of nitrogen in the field did not affect lupin aboveground biomass. In conclusion, it is unlikely that Lupinus abundance or rate of its nitrogen inputs will be affected by elevated CO2 and/or changes in nitrogen availability.

Wallace, Alison Marie

414

Water distribution at the root-soil interface: is there more water next to roots?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are big water movers and have a significant impact on soil water dynamics as well as on the global water cycle. Despite the relevance of root water uptake in terrestrial ecology, the movement of water from soil to roots still presents important open questions, e.g the following two. Which are the properties of the soil near the roots? And what effect do these properties have on soil plant water relations? Most models are based on brute-force spatial averaging of soil properties and assume that the bulk soil has the same properties as the rhizosphere. However, there is evidence in the literature that the rhizosphere has specific properties that may affect water and nutrient uptake (Young 1995, Gregory 2007). In order to investigate the rhizosphere hydraulic properties and their effect on soil plant water relations, we used neutron radiography and neutron tomography to image the water content distribution in soils during plant transpiration. Rectangular (quasi-2D) and cylindrical containers were filled with sandy soil and planted with lupins (Lupinus albus). Three weeks after planting, the samples were equilibrated at water potentials of -10 and 30 hPa and have been imaged for 5 days at intervals of 6 hours. At day 5 the samples were irrigated again via capillary rise and the water distribution was monitored for 4 more days. During the first day of the drying period, regions of water depletion formed around the central part of the tap root where first order laterals were present. As the soil dried up, the picture changed: instead of less water around the roots, as commonly supposed by models, we observed that more water was present around the lateral roots. Interestingly, these regions during drying were retaining high water content, but after irrigation remained markedly drier than the bulk soil. Our hypothesis is that high water content near roots during drying and lower water content during rewetting are explained by the presence of bio-polymers exuded by roots forming a hydrogel that consists of up to 99% water at very negative water potentials (Read et al. 1999). Thanks to its high water holding capacity, this hydrogel maintains a continuous hydraulic pathway across soil and roots for an extended period of time during drying. During rewetting it adversely affects water redistribution, like a storage that needs time to fill up again. These data show for the first time in situ the potential role of mucilage in controlling water dynamics in the rhizosphere and consequences for plant water extraction. Gregory P J, Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science, 57: 2-12, 2006. Read D P, Gregory P J, and Bell A E. Physical properties of axenic maize root mucilage. Plant and Soil, 211: 87-91, 1999. Young I M. Variation in moisture contents between bulk soil and the rhizosheath of wheat. New Phytologist, 130: 135-139, 1995.

Carminati, A.; Moradi, A.; Oswald, S.; Vetterlein, D.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.

2009-04-01

415

Update on white lupin cluster roots acclimation to phosphorus deficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is one of 17 essential elements required for plant growth. Although bound P is quite abundant in many soils, it is largely unavailable for uptake. As such, P is frequently the most limiting element for plant growth and development. Crop yield on 40% to 60% of the world's arable land i...

416

Purine Catabolism in Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Inosine nucleosidase (EC 3.2.2.2), the enzyme which hydrolyzes inosine to hypoxanthine and ribose, has been partially purified from Lupinus luteus L. cv. Topaz seeds by extraction of the seed meal with low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and chromatography on aminohexyl-Sepharose, Sephadex G-100, and hydroxyapatite. Molecular weight of the native enzyme is 62,000 as judged by gel filtration. The inosine nucleosidase exhibits optimum activity around pH 8. Energy of activation for inosine hydrolysis estimated from Arrhenius plot is 14.2 kilocalories per mole. The Km value computed for inosine is 65 micromolar. Among the inosine analogs tested, the following nucleosides are substrates for the lupin inosine nucleosidase: xanthosine, purine riboside (nebularine), 6-mercaptopurine riboside, 8-azainosine, adenosine, and guanosine. The ratio of the velocities measured at 500 micromolar concentration of inosine, adenosine, and guanosine was 100:11:1, respectively. Specificity (Vmax/Km) towards adenosine is 48 times lower than that towards inosine. In contrast to the adenosine nucleosidase activity which is absent from lupin seeds and appears in the cotyledons during germination (Guranowski, Pawe?kiewicz 1978 Planta 139: 245-247), the inosine nucleosidase is present in both lupin seeds and seedlings. PMID:16662492

Guranowski, Andrzej

1982-01-01

417

Direct observation of cell wall structure in living plant tissues by solid-state C NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the following intact plant tissues were recorded by the crosspolarization magic-angle spinning technique: celery (Apium graveolens L.) collenchyma; carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua L.), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), and nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) endosperm; and lupin (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) seed cotyledons. All these tissues had thickened cell walls which allowed them to withstand the centrifugal forces of magic angle spinning and which, except in the case of lupin seeds, dominated the NMR spectra. The celery collenchyma cell walls gave spectra typical of dicot primary cell walls. The carob bean and fenugreek seed spectra were dominated by resonances from galactomannans, which showed little sign of crystalline order. Resonances from beta(1,4')-d galactan were visible in the lupin seed spectrum, but there was much interference from protein. The nasturtium seed spectrum was largely derived from a xyloglucan, in which the conformation of the glucan core chain appeared to be intermediate between the solution form and solid forms of cellulose. PMID:16667266

Jarvis, M C; Apperley, D C

1990-01-01

418

Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.  

PubMed

Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. PMID:22449544

Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

2012-06-01

419

Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.  

PubMed

Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

2004-06-01

420

STUDIES OF THE EXTRACELLULAR GLYCOCALYX OF THE ANAEROBIC RUMINAL BACTERIUM RUMINOCOCCUS ALBUS 7.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, one of which is the production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the composition and structure of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, a combination of scanning e...

421

Investigation of Great Egret (Casmerodius albus) breeding success in Hara Biosphere Reserve of Iran.  

PubMed

Study of Great Egret breeding success was carried out for the first time in Hara Biosphere Reserve of Iran. Since Great Egret is considered as wading bird as well as wetland-dependent species which is located on top of the food chain in this ecosystem, its breeding study is an appropriate means for evaluating food supply fluctuations and environmental threatening factors by comparison of different years. On the other hand, Great Egret is considered a suitable indicator to examination of biological changes, impact of pollutions, and other effective human activities on Hara Biosphere Reserve. Therefore, read-ahead is required for area management planning in order to maintain the health of mangrove ecosystem and control threatening factors of the sensitive biodiversity of area. The results indicate that the average breeding success of Great Egret in different stages of hatching success, fledging success, and breeding success were equal to 0.54, 0.61, and 0.50 in 2008 and 0.61, 0.59, and 0.42 in 2009, respectively. PMID:21049287

Neinavaz, Elnaz; Karami, Mahmood; Danehkar, Afshin

2011-08-01

422

Selective splitting of 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates by specific enzymes degrading dinucleoside polyphosphates.  

PubMed

Several 3'-[(32)P]adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates (Np(n)N'p*As) were synthesized by the use of poly(A) polymerase (Sillero MAG et al., 2001, Eur J Biochem.; 268: 3605-11) and three of them, ApppA[(32)P]A or ApppAp*A, AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A, were tested as potential substrates of different dinucleoside polyphosphate degrading enzymes. Human (asymmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17) acted almost randomly on both AppppAp*A, yielding approximately equal amounts of pppA + pAp*A and pA + pppAp*A, and GppppGp*, yielding pppG + pGp*A and pG + pppGp*A. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) tetraphosphatase acted preferentially on the dinucleotide unmodified end of both AppppAp*A (yielding 90% of pppA + pAp*A and 10 % of pA + pppAp*A) and GppppGp*A (yielding 89% pppG + pGp*A and 11% of pG + pppGp*A). (Symmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.41) from Escherichia coli hydrolyzed AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A producing equal amounts of ppA + ppAp*A and ppG + ppGp*A, respectively, and, to a lesser extent, ApppAp*A producing pA + ppAp*A. Two dinucleoside triphosphatases (EC 3.6.1.29) (the human Fhit protein and the enzyme from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)) and dinucleoside tetraphosphate phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.53) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not degrade the three 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates tested. PMID:12673352

Guranowski, Andrzej; Sillero, Antonio; Gnther Sillero, Mara Antonia

2003-01-01

423

Phytoremediation of pharmaceuticals--preliminary study.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen) using Armoracia rusticana and Linum usitatissimum cell cultures and by hydroponically cultivated Lupinus albus, Hordeum vulgaris, and Phragmites australis plants in laboratory conditions is described. During in vitro experiments, the best results for acetaminophen were achieved using Armoracia rusticana hairy root cultures, where 100% of the starting amount was removed from the media during eight days. Total removal of ibuprofen and diclofenac was achieved using a Linum usitatissimum suspension culture after one and six days, respectively. In the hydroponic arrangement, the best results were achieved for Lupinus, where acetaminophen was totally removed from media during two or four days in concentrations of 0.1 or 0.2 mM, respectively. The best effectiveness of ibuprofen removal (50% of starting amount) was found in case of Phragmites. Effectiveness of all tested plants for diclofenac removal was low. The best removal was achieved using Phragmites in the case of 0.2 mM concentration-67% of the starting amount and Hordeum for 0.1 mM starting concentration, 56%. PMID:20734624

Kotyza, Jan; Soudek, Petr; Kafka, Zden?k; Van?k, Tos

2010-03-01

424

Diversity of Transcripts of Nitrite Reductase Genes (nirK and nirS) in Rhizospheres of Grain Legumes  

PubMed Central

Transcription of the nirK and nirS genes coding for dissimilatory bacterial nitrite reductases was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) of mRNA isolated from rhizosphere samples of three economically important grain legumes at maturity: Vicia faba, Lupinus albus, and Pisum sativum. The nirK gene and transcripts could be detected in all the rhizosphere samples. In contrast, nirS could not be detected. Sampling variations were analyzed by comparing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles derived from nirK RT-PCR products. High similarity was observed between the replicates, and so one representative product per legume was cloned. Clones with the correct insert size were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism by using the restriction enzyme MspI. The clones could be distributed into 12 different patterns. Patterns 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7 were common in clone libraries of the three rhizosphere types under study. Patterns 2, 9, 10, and 11 were absent from Pisum rhizospheres, while patterns 6, 8, and 12 were absent from the Vicia library. Pattern 1, which was the most dominant in the Vicia and Lupinus libraries, constituted about 25% of all clones. The Lupinus library had clones representing all 12 patterns, indicating it to be the most diverse among the three. Clones representative of each pattern were sequenced. All patterns grouped together forming a distinct cluster, which was divergent from previously described nirK sequences in the database. The study revealed a hitherto unknown diversity of denitrifiers in legume rhizospheres. A plant-dependent rhizosphere effect on the transcripts of a gene was evident. PMID:15812032

Sharma, Shilpi; Aneja, Manish Kumar; Mayer, Jochen; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

2005-01-01

425

Resource availability, matrix quality, microclimate, and spatial pattern as predictors of patch use by the Karner blue butterfly  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determination of which aspects of habitat quality and habitat spatial arrangement best account for variation in a species' distribution can guide management for organisms such as the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), a federally endangered subspecies inhabiting savannas of Midwest and Eastern United States. We examined the extent to which three sets of predictors, (1) larval host plant (Lupinus perennis, wild lupine) availability, (2) characteristics of the matrix surrounding host plant patches, and (3) factors affecting a patch's thermal environment, accounted for variation in lupine patch use by Karner blues at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana and Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA. Each predictor set accounted for 7-13% of variation in patch occupancy by Karner blues at both sites and in larval feeding activity among patches at Indiana Dunes. Patch area, an indicator of host plant availability, was an exception, accounting for 30% of variation in patch occupancy at Indiana Dunes. Spatially structured patterns of patch use across the landscape accounted for 9-16% of variation in patch use and explained more variation in larval feeding activity than did spatial autocorrelation between neighboring patches. Because of this broader spatial trend across sites, a given management action may be more effective in promoting patch use in some portions of the landscape than in others. Spatial trend, resource availability, matrix quality, and microclimate, in general, accounted for similar amounts of variation in patch use and each should be incorporated into habitat management planning for the Karner blue butterfly.

Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

2007-01-01

426

Herbivore defence compounds occur in pollen and reduce bumblebee colony fitness.  

PubMed

Herbivory defence chemicals in plants can affect higher trophic levels such as predators and parasitoids, but the impact on pollinators has been overlooked. We show that defensive plant chemicals can damage pollinator fitness when expressed in pollen. Crop lupins (Lupinus species from Europe and South America) accumulate toxic quinolizidine alkaloids in vegetative tissues, conferring resistance to herbivorous pests such as aphids. We identified the alkaloid lupanine and its derivatives in lupin pollen, and then provided this compound at ecologically-relevant concentrations to queenless microcolonies of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in their pollen to determine how foraging on these crops may impact bee colony health and fitness. Fewer males were produced by microcolonies provided with lupanine-treated pollen and they were significantly smaller than controls. This impact on males was not linked to preference as workers willingly fed lupanine-treated pollen to larvae, even though it was deleterious to colony health. Agricultural systems comprising large monocultures of crops bred for herbivore resistance can expose generalist pollinators to deleterious levels of plant compounds, and the broader environmental impacts of crop resistance must thus be considered. PMID:24952086

Arnold, Sarah E J; Peralta Idrovo, M Eduardo; Lomas Arias, Luis J; Belmain, Steven R; Stevenson, Philip C

2014-08-01

427

Effects of temperature, relative humidity, and scarification method on the germination of Lupinus texensis Hook. seeds  

E-print Network

of Trifolium subterraneum had viability similar to that of fresh permeable seeds was due to the exclusion of air, that prevented the autoxidation of fatty acids (51, 52) known io occur in these and other seeds (182). Further fatty acid analysis of the aged... of Trifolium spp. seeds was reported to be a hydroscopically-activated valve in the impermeable epidermis of the testa. When rela- tive humidity was low, the hilum opened to permit the seed to dry out, whereas, when the relative humidity was high, the hilum...

Kaspar, Michael Joseph

1987-01-01

428

THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION SIZE AND DENSITY ON THE MATING SYSTEM OF LUPINUS PERENNIS. (R826596)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

429

Effects of Water and Nitrogen Availability on Nitrogen Contribution by the Legume, Lupinus argenteus Pursh.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but background resource levels influence nodulation, fixation, and plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine the separate and interacting effects of water and N availability on biomass production, tissue N concentr...

430

[Inhibitory analysis of the respiration of bacteroids from the nodules of yellow lupine].  

PubMed

Oxygen uptake and reduction of C2H2 by bacteroids was found to be inhibited by low concentrations of cyanide and azide. However, oxygen uptake was not completely suppressed even by 10(-3) M KCN. Cyanide-resistant respiration was not inhibited by salicyl-hydroxamic acid, and seemed to be accomplished at the account of autoxidable flavo-proteins. A small light-reversible inhibition of respiration by carbon monoxide was found only in the bacteroids with a high rate of nitrogen fixation. Rotenone, antimycin A, and tenoyltrifluoroacetone inhibited oxygen uptake and methylene reduction. Nitrogen fixation, but not respiration, was inhibited by 2,4-dinitrophenol. An electron-transport chain coupled with phosphorylation is supposed to be built into the membranes of the bacteroids. The activity of peroxidase and cytochrome peroxidase was demonstrated in the bacteroids. PMID:180385

Ra?khinshte?n, M V; Melik-Sarkisian, S S; Zaigraeva, G G; Kretovich, V L

1976-01-01

431

Phytoremediation of Aged Aromatic Contaminants in Soil Using White Lupin Principle Investigators  

E-print Network

Jose A. Amador Josef Gorres #12;Background Soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated at an initial concentration 100 g per kg soil. Treatments were as follows: I. Contaminant aged 0 weeks ­ Planted II. Contaminant aged 0 weeks ­ Not planted III. Contaminant aged 4 weeks ­ Planted IV. Contaminant

Rhode Island, University of

432

Risk factors for lupine-induced crooked calf disorder in east-central Washington State  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was established in a year of high incidence and severity (28.4% of 2210 calves born on 13 ranches were severely deformed) to examine management and other risk factors for disease occurrence. Ten ranches with a crooked calf incidence varying from zero to 100% were selected for study and lupi...

433

Ecology, 91(1), 2010, pp. 8592 2010 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

perennial grassland forbs in western Montana, USA: Lupinus sericeus (Fabaceae) and Lithospermum ruderale; grassland communities; Lithospermum ruderale; Lupinus sericeus; Peromyscus maniculatus; seed predation

434

Water-quality requirements, tolerances, and preferences of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Additional research could be used to characterize and quantify the requirements, tolerance, and preferences of pallid sturgeon to these water-quality characteristics, especially during the egg and larval life stages. Enhancements to existing water-sampling programs are needed to quantify the exposure of pallid sturgeon to many of these water-quality stressors.

Blevins, Dale W.

2011-01-01

435

Efficacy of the Biofumigant Fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for Control of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Simulated Storage Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth CM, Cydia pomonella, (L.), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. Broad spectrum fumigants have been used as the principle method for the protection of exported fruit from insect infestations. Some of th...

436

Analysis of fragrance composition in three cultivars of Osmanthus fragrans Albus group flower by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With supercritical CO2 fluid extraction(SCFE), essential oil was extracted from three cultivars of Xianning osmanthus. The fresh osmanthus flower\\u000a was processed with a petroleum ether digestion method to produce the extractum. The yields of essential oil and extractum\\u000a were 0.19 % and 0.13 % (m\\/m) respectively. The essential oil and fragrance composition and content extracted were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass

Fafang Li; Qizhi Huang

2011-01-01

437

Island radiation on a continental scale: Exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes  

PubMed Central

Species radiations provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species diversification and patterns of biodiversity. To compare plant diversification over a similar time period to the recent cichlid fish radiations, which are an order of magnitude faster than documented bird, arthropod, and plant radiations, we focus on the high-altitude flora of the Andes, which is the most species-rich of any tropical mountains. Because of the recent uplift of the northern Andes, the upland environments where much of this rich endemic flora is found have been available for colonization only since the late Pliocene or Pleistocene, 24 million years (Myr) ago. Using DNA sequence data we identify a monophyletic group within the genus Lupinus representing 81 species endemic to the Andes. The age of this clade is estimated to be 1.181.76 Myr, implying a diversification rate of 2.493.72 species per Myr. This exceeds previous estimates for plants, providing the most spectacular example of explosive plant species diversification documented to date. Furthermore, it suggests that the high cichlid diversification rates are not unique. Lack of key innovations associated with the Andean Lupinus clade suggests that diversification was driven by ecological opportunities afforded by the emergence of island-like habitats after Andean uplift. Data from other genera indicate that lupines are one of a set of similarly rapid Andean plant radiations, continental in scale and island-like in stimulus, suggesting that the high-elevation Andean flora provides a system that rivals other groups, including cichlids, for understanding rapid species diversification. PMID:16801546

Hughes, Colin; Eastwood, Ruth

2006-01-01

438

77 FR 2555 - Determination That PREZISTA (darunavir) Tablets, 300 Milligrams Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drug Product List'' section of the Orange Book. Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Lupin), submitted a citizen petition dated October 14...reasons of safety or effectiveness. The petitioner Lupin has identified no data or other information...

2012-01-18

439

Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Nematode Population Levels in North Florida  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P ? 0.05), but no treatment differences were observed in year 2. Wheat was a good host to Paratrichodorus minor, whereas vetch was a poor host, but numbers of P. minor were not lower in vetch-planted plots after corn was grown. The second experiment used a split-plot design in which rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P ? 0.05) but not by the winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida. PMID:19262833

Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

2004-01-01

440

Genetic engineering for high methionine grain legumes.  

PubMed

Methionine (Met) is the primary limiting essential amino acid in grain legumes. The imbalance in amino acid composition restricts their biological value (BV) to 55 to 75% of that of animal protein. So far improvement of the BV could not be achieved by conventional breeding. Therefore, genetic engineering was employed by several laboratories to resolve the problem. Three strategies have been followed. A) Engineering for increased free Met levels; B) engineering of endogenous storage proteins with increased numbers of Met residues; C) transfer of foreign genes encoding Met-rich proteins, e.g. the Brazil nut 2S albumin (BNA) and its homologue from sunflower, into grain legumes. The latter strategy turned out to be most promising. In all cases the gene was put under the control of a developmentally regulated seed specific promoter and transferred into grain legumes using the bacterial Agrobacterium tumefaciens-system. Integration into and copy numbers in the plant genome as well as Mendelian inheritance and gene dosage effects were verified. After correct precursor processing the mature 2S albumin was intracellularly deposited in protein bodies which are part of the vacuolar compartment. The foreign protein amounted to 5 to 10% of the total seed protein in the best transgenic lines of narbon bean (Vicia narbonensis L., used in the authors' laboratories), lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L., used in CSIRO, Australia), and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., used by Pioneer Hi-Bred, Inc., USA). In the narbon bean the increase of Met was directly related to the amount of 2S albumin in the transgenic seeds, but in soybean it remained below the theoretically expected value. Nevertheless, trangenic soybean reached 100%, whereas narbon bean and lupins reached approximately 80% of the FAO-standard for nutritionally balanced food proteins. These results document that the Met problem of grain legumes can be resolved by genetic engineering. PMID:9739551

Mntz, K; Christov, V; Saalbach, G; Saalbach, I; Waddell, D; Pickardt, T; Schieder, O; Wstenhagen, T

1998-08-01

441

Water repellency: a whole-farm bio-economic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A whole-farm bio-economic model was used to assess the profitability of innovations aimed at improving agricultural production on the non-wetting sands of wheatbelt farms of Western Australia. It was found that amelioration of water repellency might be an economical option for some farms in the northern wheatbelt of Western Australia. It was shown that a minimum of 30% increase in lupin yields and a 10% increase in wheat yields would be required before expenditure on innovations aimed at improving production on non-wetting soils could be justified. However, due to costs of amelioration of repellency much higher crop yield responses may be required for economical adoption of such innovations on most farms. The decision to ameliorate water repellency depends not only on the consideration of direct benefits and costs per hectare of ameliorated sand but also on other whole-farm factors. One such factor found to be important was the scale of relevance or the soil mix of the farm. It was found that farms with proportionately large areas of non-wetting sands were more likely to benefit from adoption of innovations aimed at amelioration of repellency. Another important factor in the decision to adopt innovations for amelioration of water repellency is availability of alternative enterprises on the non-wetting soils. In particular, whether or not sandplain lupins ( lupinus cosentinii) and tagasaste ( chamaecystisus proliferus) were options that a farmer could consider determined the profitability of taking remedial measures against water repellency. This study identified, through a series of sensitivity analyses, the magnitude of production responses that may be required for profitable amelioration of water repellency. Some gaps in our knowledge of biological and economic parameters related to costs and benefits of various innovations have also been highlighted and discussed.

Abadi Ghadim, A. K.

2000-05-01

442

Mount St. Helens ash: recreating its effects on the steppe environment and ecophysiology. [Artemisia tridentata; Lupinus sulphureus  

SciTech Connect

The 18 May 1980 ash fall from Mount St. Helens was experimentally reproduced in May 1982 by applying silt-sized ash to a stand of the Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum association in south-central Washington. Compared to the adjacent control site, ash caused an immediate increase in albedo from 13% to 28%, while other parameters of the energy budget were simultaneously lowered: net radiation by approx. = 20%, soil surface temperatures by as much as 10/sup 0/C, and soil heat flux by as much as 50%. The ash's mulching action initially increased water availability and delayed leaf abscission in Artemisia tridentata (Big sagebrush) by 2 wk in summer 1982. But after summer 1982 water availability declined, while water use increased, illustrating the diverse effects of the ash. Increased reflection from the ash-covered surface increased the radiation load on plant canopies. In turn, air temperature at 0.5 m increased, latent heat flux often doubled in summer, and xylem pressure potentials decreased. Available water at the -1 m soil depth eventually decreased as much as 40%. This decrease was the result of the increase in latent heat flux and the decline in infiltration through the stratified layer created by the ash cap. In addition to allowing assessment of the effects of the 18 May 1980 ash fall on arid steppe, application of ash provided an unexpected level of precision in detecting the often subtle effects that occur when some microenvironmental parameters change while the overall macroclimate remains the same.

Black, R.A.; Mack, R.N.

1986-10-01

443

Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, ()-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of

Tiffany L. Weir; Harsh Pal Bais; Valerie J. Stull; Ragan M. Callaway; Giles C. Thelen; Wendy M. Ridenour; Suresh Bhamidi; Frank R. Stermitz; Jorge M. Vivanco

2006-01-01

444

Boron accumulation and toxicity in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra euramericana).  

PubMed

Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations <900 mg kg(-1) only <10% of the poplar leaf area showed signs of toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue. PMID:22050628

Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Gnthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer

2011-12-15

445

Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmn, R.

2013-11-01

446

Root colonization of different plants by plant-growth-promoting Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 studied with monospecific polyclonal antisera.  

PubMed Central

Monospecific polyclonal antisera raised against Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39, a bacterium which was isolated originally from red clover nodules, were used to study the colonization of roots of leguminous and nonleguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Lupinus albus, Triticm aestivum, and Zea mays) after inoculation. Eight weeks after inoculation of soil-grown plants, between 0.1 and 1% of the total bacterial population in the rhizospheres of all inoculated plants were identified as R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39. To characterize the associative colonization of the nonleguminous plants by R.leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 in more detail, a time course study was performed with inoculated roots of Z. mays. R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 was found almost exclusively in the rhizosphere soil and on the rhizoplane 4 weeks after inoculation. Colonization of inner root tissues was detected only occasionally at this time. During the process of attachment of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 to the rhizoplane, bacterial lipopolysaccharides were overexpressed, and this may be important for plant-microbe interaction. Fourteen weeks after inoculation, microcolonies of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 were detected in lysed cells of the root cortex as well as in intracellular space of central root cylinder cells. At the beginning of flowering (18 weeks after inoculation), the number of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 organisms decreased in the rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and inner root tissue. PMID:9143133

Schloter, M; Wiehe, W; Assmus, B; Steindl, H; Becke, H; Hflich, G; Hartmann, A

1997-01-01

447

Are vicilins another major class of legume lectins?  

PubMed

Legume lectins comprise a structurally related, Ca/Mn-dependent, widespread, abundant and well characterized lectin family when compared to the large number of lectins from other sources described in the literature. Strangely enough, no specific function has been assigned to them aside from a possible role in storage and/or defense. Using a recent and fine-tuned methodology capable of specific lectin identification, ?-conglutin, Vicia faba vicilin and ?-lathyrin, the vicilin storage globulins from Lupinus albus, V. faba and Lathyrus sativus, respectively, were shown to be capable of affinity binding to thoroughly washed erythrocyte membranes and of specific elution with appropriate sugars. Based on this evidence and on sparse data published in the literature, a second family of legume lectins is proposed: the 7S family of storage proteins from leguminous seeds, or family II of legume lectins. These lectins are also structurally related, widespread and well characterized. In addition, they self-aggregate in a Ca/Mg, electrostatic dependent manner and are even more abundant than the family I of legume lectins. Using the same evidence, reserve and defense roles may be attributed to family II of legume lectins. PMID:25490428

Ribeiro, Ana C; Monteiro, Sara V; Carrapio, Belmira M; Ferreira, Ricardo B

2014-01-01

448

Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).  

PubMed

In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep). PMID:15664457

Guarrera, Paolo Maria

2005-01-01

449

Properties of a ?-(1?4)-glucan hydrolase from Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

1. A ?-(1?4)-glucan hydrolase prepared from Aspergillus niger, as described by Clarke & Stone (1965a), showed a pH optimum in the range 456 and Km 025% when acting on a cellulose dextrin sulphate substrate. 2. The hydrolase rapidly decreased the specific viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose with a small increase in the production of reducing sugars. The identity of the products of hydrolysis of cellotetraose, cellopentaose and their reduced analogues indicate a preferential cleavage of non-terminal glucosidic linkages. The enzyme may be described as ?-(1?4)-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4). 3. In addition to carboxymethylcellulose, cellulose dextrins, cellopentaose and cellotetraose the enzyme fraction hydrolysed lichenin, oat and barley glucans, ivory-nut mannan and a glucomannan from Konjak flour. No hydrolysis of wheat-straw ?-(1?4)-xylan, Lupinus albus ?-(1?4)-galactan, pneumococcal type III polysaccharide, chitin, hyaluronic acid, laminarin, pachydextrins, carboxymethylpachyman or ?-(1?3)-oligoglucosides was detected. 4. The hydrolase showed no transglycosylase activity from cellodextrin or cellopentaose substrates to glucose or methanol acceptors. 5. The hydrolysis of cellodextrins was inhibited completely by 10mm-Hg2+, 07mm-phenylmercuric nitrate and 10mm-iodine. PMID:5862418

Clarke, A. E.; Stone, B. A.

1965-01-01

450

Soil CO2 flux in alley-cropping systems composed of black locust and poplar trees, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of soil carbon dynamics after establishment of alley-cropping systems is crucial for mitigation of greenhouse CO2 gas. This study investigates soil CO2 fluxes in alley-cropping systems composed of strips of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and poplar (Max 1) trees and adjacent to them crop strips (Lupinus). Soil CO2 flux was measured monthly over a period from March to November 2012, using a LI-COR LI-8100A automated device. Concurrently with CO2 flux measurements, soil and air temperature and soil moisture were recorded within 10 cm of each collar. Soil samples were collected nearby each soil collar for microbial C and hot water-extractable C analyses. At each study plot, root biomass was measured to a depth of 15 cm. In all vegetation types, soil CO2 flux increased from May to August, showing a significant positive correlation with air and soil temperature, which can be a reflection of increase in photosynthesis over the warm summer months. CO2 flux was the highest in poplar followed by black locust and lupines. The relationships between CO2 flux, microbial biomass and hot water-extractable carbon were not straightforward. Among the measured parameters, root density was found to be the main factor to explain the higher CO2 flux in tree strips.

Medinski, Tetiana; Freese, Dirk; Boehm, Christian

2013-04-01

451

Effect of succession after fire on species contribution to evapotranspiration in sagebrush steppe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrubland ecosystems play an important role in the hydrology of the often drought stricken inter-mountain basins of the United Sates. Our objective was to investigate the impact of changing environmental conditions on three major plant functional types, shrubs, grasses and forbs. We measured changes in diurnal water flux from Artemisia tridentata var vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush), Elymus smithii (western wheatgrass) and Lupinus argentus (lupine) with changing environmental drivers for a sagebrush ecosystem fire chronosequence near the Sierra Madre Mountains, Wyoming, USA. The measurements were conducted on four stands ranging in age from 2 to 38 years, during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Leaf scale measurements and shrub sapflux were compared with ecosystem scale measurements. We explained the diurnal and monthly variability of water fluxes from June through October using vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, light and temperature. In the year 2005, peak ecosystem level evapotranspiration of 5-7 mmol m-2 s-1 was higher than 2004 with 2-3 mmol m-2 s-1. The interannual difference in evapotranspiration was explained by higher precipitation causing greater biomass, especially in non shrub species, in 2005. Our results show that environmental conditions have impacts on total evapotranspiration that depend on plant functional type.

Naithani, K.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Bayless, M. K.

2005-12-01

452

Quantitation of Cytokinins in Biological Samples Using Antibodies Against Zeatin Riboside  

PubMed Central

The cross-reactivity of antibodies elicited in rabbits against zeatin riboside, to a wide range of naturally occurring cytokinins, was examined. As well as to zeatin riboside, the antisera cross-reacted to a considerable extent with zeatin, lupinic acid, z