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1

Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.  

PubMed

In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p?lupin seeds. Phytic acid losses in bitter and sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties. PMID:24966434

Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

2014-07-01

2

Transcript and proteomic analysis of developing white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots  

PubMed Central

Background White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots efficiently take up and accumulate (heavy) metals, adapt to phosphate deficiency by forming cluster roots, and secrete antimicrobial prenylated isoflavones during development. Genomic and proteomic approaches were applied to identify candidate genes and proteins involved in antimicrobial defense and (heavy) metal uptake and translocation. Results A cDNA library was constructed from roots of white lupin seedlings. Eight thousand clones were randomly sequenced and assembled into 2,455 unigenes, which were annotated based on homologous matches in the NCBInr protein database. A reference map of developing white lupin root proteins was established through 2-D gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. High quality peptide mass spectra were obtained for 170 proteins. Microsomal membrane proteins were separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 74 proteins were putatively identified by the peptide mass fingerprinting and the LC-MS/MS methods. Genomic and proteomic analyses identified candidate genes and proteins encoding metal binding and/or transport proteins, transcription factors, ABC transporters and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes. Conclusion The combined EST and protein datasets will facilitate the understanding of white lupin's response to biotic and abiotic stresses and its utility for phytoremediation. The root ESTs provided 82 perfect simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with potential utility in breeding white lupin for enhanced agronomic traits. PMID:19123941

Tian, Li; Peel, Gregory J; Lei, Zhentian; Aziz, Naveed; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; Watson, Bonnie; Zhao, Patrick X; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A

2009-01-01

3

Effects of extracts of lupine seed on blood glucose levels in glucose resistant mice: antihyperglycemic effects of Lupinus albus (white lupine, Egypt) and Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine, Mesa Verde National Park).  

PubMed

Lupine is a medicinal food plant with potential value in the management of diabetes. In white mice, extracts of seeds of the white lupine [Lupinus albus (L. termis L.)] were associated with increased tolerance to an oral glucose bolus. Antihyperglycemic activity was present in extracts of the whole seed but not extracts of the seed coat, and was not detected when glucose was administered intraperitoneally rather than orally. However, in contrast to results seen with the prescription drug, acarbose, lupine extract did not appear to increase the bulk or carbohydrate content of the feces. Antihyperglycemic activity was also seen in extracts of the tailcup lupine (L. caudatus) found in the Four Corners Region of the United States. PMID:17317651

Knecht, Kathryn T; Nguyen, Hoa; Auker, Adrienne D; Kinder, David H

2006-01-01

4

Comparison of the response to phosphorus deficiency in two lupin species, Lupinus albus and L.?angustifolius, with contrasting root morphology.  

PubMed

White lupin (Lupinus albus) produces cluster roots, an adaptation to low soil phosphorus (P). Cluster roots exude large levels of P-solubilizing compounds such as citrate and malate. In contrast, narrow leaf lupin (L.?angustifolius) is closely related to L.?albus, but does not produce cluster roots. To examine the different strategies for P acquisition, we compared the growth, biomass allocation, respiratory properties and construction cost between L.?albus and L.?angustifolius under P-deficient conditions. Both Lupinus species were grown in hydroponic culture with 1 or 100??M P. Under the P-deficient regime, L.?albus produced cluster roots with little change in biomass allocation, while L.?angustifolius significantly increased biomass allocation to roots. The rate of cyanide-resistant SHAM (salicylhydroxamic acid)-sensitive respiration was high in cluster roots and very low in roots of L.?angustifolius. These results suggest a low alternative oxidase (AOX) activity in L.?angustifolius roots, and thus, ATP would be produced efficiently in L.?angustifolius roots. The construction cost was highest in cluster roots and lowest in L.?angustifolius roots. This study shows that under P deficiency, L.?albus produces high-cost cluster roots to increase the P availability, while L.?angustifolius produces large quantities of low-cost roots to enhance P uptake. PMID:24941862

Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

2014-06-18

5

The first genetic and comparative map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.): identification of QTLs for anthracnose resistance and flowering time, and a locus for alkaloid content.  

PubMed

We report the first genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). An F8 recombinant inbred line population developed from Kiev mutant x P27174 was mapped with 220 amplified fragment length polymorphism and 105 gene-based markers. The genetic map consists of 28 main linkage groups (LGs) that varied in length from 22.7 cM to 246.5 cM and spanned a total length of 2951 cM. There were seven additional pairs and 15 unlinked markers, and 12.8% of markers showed segregation distortion at P < 0.05. Syntenic relationships between Medicago truncatula and L. albus were complex. Forty-five orthologous markers that mapped between M. truncatula and L. albus identified 17 small syntenic blocks, and each M. truncatula chromosome aligned to between one and six syntenic blocks in L. albus. Genetic mapping of three important traits: anthracnose resistance, flowering time, and alkaloid content allowed loci governing these traits to be defined. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant effects were identified for anthracnose resistance on LG4 and LG17, and two QTLs were detected for flowering time on the top of LG1 and LG3. Alkaloid content was mapped as a Mendelian trait to LG11. PMID:17526914

Phan, Huyen T T; Ellwood, Simon R; Adhikari, Kedar; Nelson, Matthew N; Oliver, Richard P

2007-04-01

6

The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.  

PubMed

Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages of bioavailable Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr, which were 5.7±0.7, 5.3±1.7, 1.2±0.1, 12±1.5 and 0.1±0.02%, respectively, before lupin growth, increased to 9.6±1.6, 7±2, 2±0.3, 14±1.5 and 0.1±0.02% after lupin harvest. On the whole, our results indicate that the winter cultivation of white lupin in sequence with a metal-accumulator summer crop can improve the recovery of soil quality during the phytoextraction period. It improves the safety of the area, limiting additional ecological and human health problems, and enhances soil health by avoiding the use of chemical amendments and by increasing the levels of viable microorganisms. PMID:24992047

Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

2014-12-01

7

A re-assessment of sucrose signaling involved in cluster-root formation and function in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus).  

PubMed

Apart from substrate functions, a signaling role of sucrose in root growth regulation is well established. This raised the question whether sucrose signals might also be involved in formation of cluster-roots (CRs) under phosphate (Pi) limitation, mediating exudation of phosphorus (P)- mobilizing root exudates, e.g., in Lupinus albus and members of the Proteaceae. Earlier studies demonstrated that CR formation in Lupinus albus was mimicked to some extent by external application of high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) in the presence of extremely high P supply (1-10 mM), usually suppressing CR formation. In this study, we re-addressed this question using an axenic hydroponic culture system with normal P supply (0.1 mM) and a range of sucrose applications (0.25-25 mM). The 2.5 mM sucrose concentration was comparable with internal sucrose levels in the zone of CR initiation in first-order laterals of P-deficient plants (3.4 mM) and induced the same CR morphology. Similar to earlier studies, high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) resulted in root thickening and inhibition of root elongation, associated with a ten-fold increase of the internal sucrose level. The sucrose analogue palatinose, and a combination of glucose/fructose failed to stimulate CR formation under P-sufficient conditions, demonstrating a signal function of sucrose and excluding osmotic or carbon source effects. In contrast to earlier findings, sucrose was able to induce CR formation, but had no effect on CR functioning with respect to citrate exudation, in-vitro activity and expression of genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, secretory acid phosphatase and MATE transporters, mediating P-mobilizing functions of CRs. PMID:25412792

Wang, Zhengrui; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

2014-11-21

8

Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis) population cycles with climate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) contains the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine that causes a crooked calf syndrome when a cow ingests lupine between the 40-100 day of gestation. An outbreak of crooked calves occurred in the Scabland region of eastern Washington in 1997 following t...

9

Mycobiota of Lupinus albus seed from a public germplasm collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seedborne mycobiota of Lupinus albus was assessed using blotter paper and agar media with Rose Bengal or semi-selective for Pythium or Fusarium. Samples of 200 seeds were taken from each of 16 inventories, comprising 14 accessions originating from Germany, France, Ukraine, Syria, Hungary or Spain, a...

10

78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...albus). It is also characterized as a fragment of the amino acid sequence of [beta]-conglutin and the main storage...Lupines albus contains the full range of essential amino acids and for hundreds of years has been widely...

2013-03-22

11

Interaction and accumulation of manganese and cadmium in the manganese accumulator Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

The effects of the interaction between Mn and Cd on the growth of the white lupin (Lupinus albus), uptake of these metals, their accumulation, and effects on heavy metal stress indicators were studied under glasshouse conditions. Plants were grown with and without Mn and/or Cd for 4 weeks. The absence of Mn and Cd led to lipid peroxidation-induced loss of flavonoids and anthocyanins in the roots, reduced the size of the plant canopy, and led to the appearance of proteoid roots. Sensitivity to Cd in white lupin was enhanced by a low Mn supply, despite lower Cd uptake and accumulation (leaf Mn:Cd concentration ratio <3), as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation in the leaves and strong inhibition of growth. However, when the Mn supply was adequate, the plants showed few symptoms of Cd toxicity, even though Cd uptake and accumulation increased. A Mn:Cd ratio of up to 20 was enough to minimize Cd stress in the leaf, reflecting the plants' relative tolerance to Cd under such conditions. Irrespective of the Mn supply, the increase in antioxidant compounds observed in the roots of Cd-treated plants might act as a protective mechanism by minimizing the oxidative stress caused by Cd exposure. In summary, high leaf Mn concentrations seem to render white lupins more tolerant to Cd stress. PMID:20399531

Zornoza, Pilar; Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Carpena, Ramón O

2010-09-01

12

Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced “crooked calf disease” occur in northern Oregon and e...

13

Possibilities of chemical weed control in Lupinus albus and Lupinus luteus-screening of herbicides.  

PubMed

Weed control in sweet lupins is still a problem. Especially the phytotoxicity of herbicides in sweet lupins is not enough studied. Therefore a screening with 16 selected herbicides and 4 lupin varieties has been set up. During the growing season 2005, 10 of the tested herbicides were applied in pre-emergence, 6 in post-emergence. Pre-emergence: Most of the active matters tested in pre-emergence were not phytotoxic for lupins. Pendimethalin (1000 g/ha), linuron (500 g/ha), chlorotoluron (1500 g/ha), prosulfocarb (2400 g/ha), clomazone (72 g/ha), isoxaben (100 g/ha), metamitron (1050 g/ha) and dimethenamid-P (720 g/ha) were applied without causing any significant phytotoxic symptoms. Only the lupins treated with aclonifen (1200 g/ha) showed a significant growth inhibition, 3 weeks after treatment. Significantly more chlorosis was noticed when the lupins were treated with aclonifen or with diflufenican, in preemergence. Post-emergence: In post-emergence, diflufenican (50 g/ha) did not cause any crop damage. Florasulam (5 g/ha) caused almost 100% necrosis in L. albus as well as in L. luteus. Bentazon (652 g/ha), thifensulfuron-methyl (15 g/ha) and metribuzin (175 g/ha) caused obvious necrosis and growth inhibition of the crop. The growth inhibition was significantly more severe for lupins treated with bentazon than if they were treated with thifensulfuron-methyl or metribuzin. Three weeks after treatment, clomazone (90 g/ha) and diflufenican (50 g/ha), did not cause any crop injury at all. The results indicated an interesting range of active matters which can be applied in pre-emergence, but weed control in post-emergence stays difficult. PMID:17390816

Dewitte, K; Latré, J; Haesaert, G

2006-01-01

14

Phosphorus deficiency in Lupinus albus. Altered lateral root development and enhanced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.  

PubMed Central

The development of clustered tertiary lateral roots (proteoid roots) and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) in roots were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown with either 1 mM P (+P-treated) or without P (-P-treated). The +P-treated plants initiated fewer clustered tertiary meristems and the emergence of these meristems was delayed compared with - P-treated plants. Proteoid root zones could be identified 9 d after emergence in both P treatments. Amounts of PEPC mRNA, PEPC specific activity, and enzyme protein were greater in proteoid roots than in normal roots beginning at 10, 12, and 14 d after emergence, respectively. The increases in PEPC mRNA, PEPC enzyme, and PEPC specific activity suggest that this enzyme is in part under transcriptional regulation. Recovery of organic acids from root exudates coincided with the increases in PEPC specific activity. The -P-treated plants exuded 40-, 20-, and 5-fold more citrate, malate, and succinate, respectively, than did +P-treated plants. Data presented support the hypothesis that white lupin has concerted regulation of proteoid root development, transcriptional regulation of PEPC, and biosynthesis of organic acids for exudation in response to P deficiency. PMID:8819319

Johnson, J F; Vance, C P; Allan, D L

1996-01-01

15

FORAGE AVAILABILITY AND BODY CONDITION ON INTAKE OF LUPINE (LUPINUS LEUCOPHYLLUS) BY GRAZING CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Lupinus is an important group of plants native to North America with a number of species that are toxic to sheep and cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of body condition and the relationship of forage availability with the consumption of lupine (Lupinus spp.) by...

16

CATTLE GRAZEing VELVET LUPINE (Lupinus leucophyllus): INFLUENCE OF ASSOCIATED FORAGES, ALKALOID LEVELS AND POPULATION CYCLEs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain lupines (Lupinus spp.) contain alkaloids that cause contracture-type skeletal birth defects and cleft palate (“Crooked calf syndrome”) if the pregnant cow consumes them during the 40 – 70th day of gestation. The objective of this study was to determine when cattle graze velvet lupine (Lupi...

17

THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research on the structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein is limited. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins' thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties of lupin meal was studi...

18

Article original Valeur alimentaire du lupin blanc  

E-print Network

-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Effet de la cuisson-extrusion D Bangoula, JP Parent, F Vellas* Laboratoire d). Effects of extrusion cooking. Two experiments were conducted in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss lupin. Oncorhynchus mykiss= rainbow trout / Lupinus albus = white lupin / extrusion / digestibility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Lupine Colonies (not yet published; shorter version) Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens  

E-print Network

Lupine Colonies (not yet published; shorter version) Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus-fixing legume Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant herb on recently formed volcanic surfaces at Mount St. Helen to its effects on soil. LUPINE COLONIES are dense sites dominated by Lupinus lepidus, the most studied

del Moral, Roger

20

Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupinus leucophyllus is one of many lupine species known to contain toxic and/or teratogenic alkaloids that can cause congenital birth defects. The concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual major alkaloids were measured in three different years from different plant parts over the phenolog...

21

Phosphorus deficiency affects the allocation of below-ground resources to combined cluster roots and nodules in Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

Lupins can rely on both cluster roots and nodules for P acquisition and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), respectively. The resource allocation (C, N and P) between cluster roots and nodules has been largely understudied during P-deficient conditions. The aim of this investigation was therefore to determine the changes in resource allocation between these organs during fluctuations in P supply. Lupinus albus was cultivated in sand culture for 3 weeks, with either sufficient (2 mM high) or limiting (0.1 mM low) P supply. Although variation on P supply had no effect on the total biomass, there were significant differences in specialised below-ground organ allocation to cluster roots and nodule formation. Cluster root formation and the associated C-costs increased during low P supply, but at sufficient P-supply the construction and growth respiration costs of cluster roots declined along with their growth. In contrast to the cluster root decline at high P supply, there was an increase in nodule growth allocation and corresponding C-costs. However, this was not associated with an increase in BNF. Since cluster roots were able to increase P acquisition under low P conditions, this below-ground investment may also have benefited the P nutrition of nodules. These findings provide evidence that when lupins acquire N via BNF in their nodules, there may be a trade-off in resource allocation between cluster roots and nodules. PMID:24129121

Thuynsma, Rochelle; Valentine, Alex; Kleinert, Aleysia

2014-02-15

22

Root Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Phosphorus-Deficient Lupinus albus (Contribution to Organic Acid Exudation by Proteoid Roots).  

PubMed Central

When white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is subjected to P deficiency lateral root development is altered and densely clustered, tertiary lateral roots (proteoid roots) are initiated. These proteoid roots exude large amounts of citrate, which increases P solubilization. In the current study plants were grown with either 1 mM P (+P-treated) or without P (-P-treated). Shoots or roots of intact plants from both P treatments were labeled independently with 14CO2 to compare the relative contribution of C fixed in each with the C exuded from roots as citrate and other organic acids. About 25-fold more acid-stable 14C, primarily in citrate and malate, was recovered in exudates from the roots of -P-treated plants compared with +P-treated plants. The rate of in vivo C fixation in roots was about 4-fold higher in -P-treated plants than in +P-treated plants. Evidence from labeling intact shoots or roots indicates that synthesis of citrate exuded by -P-treated roots is directly related to nonphotosynthetic C fixation in roots. C fixed in roots of -P-treated plants contributed about 25 and 34% of the C exuded as citrate and malate, respectively. Nonphotosynthetic C fixation in white lupin roots is an integral component in the exudation of large amounts of citrate and malate, thus increasing the P available to the plant. PMID:12226371

Johnson, J. F.; Allan, D. L.; Vance, C. P.; Weiblen, G.

1996-01-01

23

Responses of Noccaea caerulescens and Lupinus albus in trace elements-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Plants exposed to trace elements can suffer from oxidative stress, which is characterised by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alteration in the cellular antioxidant defence system and ultimately lipid peroxidation. We assessed the most-appropriate stress indexes to describe the response of two plant species, with different strategies for coping with trace elements (TEs), to particular contaminants. Noccaea caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator, and Lupinus albus, an excluder, were grown in three soils of differing pH: an acidic soil, a neutral soil (both contaminated mainly by Cu, Zn and As) and a control soil. Then, plant stress indicators were measured. As expected, N. caerulescens accumulated higher levels of Zn and Cd in shoots than L. albus, this effect being stronger in the acid soil, reflecting greater TE solubility in this soil. However, the shoot concentrations of Mn were higher in L. albus than in N. caerulescens, while the As concentration was similar in the two species. In L. albus, the phenolic content and lipid peroxidation were related with the Cu concentration, whereas the Zn and Cd concentrations in N. caerulescens were more closely related to glutathione content and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, phytochelatins were only found in L. albus grown in polluted soils. Hence, the two species differed with respect to the TEs which provoked stress and the biochemical indicators of the stress, there being a close relationship between the accumulation of TEs and their associated stress indicators in the different plant organs. PMID:23466747

Martínez-Alcalá, Isabel; Hernández, Luis E; Esteban, Elvira; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

2013-05-01

24

Potential of landrace germplasm for genetic enhancement of white lupin in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landraces of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) collected in Egypt were evaluated along with locally developed cultivars and selected foreign germplasm for yield and major morphological characteristics in five different locations. These locations represent different soil types and climatic conditions in Egypt. The results showed an outstanding performance of the local cultivar checks across traditional locations for lupin cultivation, which

J. L. Christiansen; S. Raza; B. Jørnsgård; S. A. Mahmoud; R. Ortiz

2000-01-01

25

Effect of germination and fermentation on the antioxidant vitamin content and antioxidant capacity of Lupinus albus L. var. Multolupa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work studies the antioxidant capacity as well as the vitamin C and E contents of raw, fermented and germinated seeds of Lupinus albus L. var. Multolupa. Vitamin C was quantified by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis and vitamin E isomers by high performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant capacity was determined by spectrophotometry and expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity

Juana Frias; Martha L. Miranda; Rosa Doblado; Concepción Vidal-Valverde

2005-01-01

26

The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from Lupines (Lupinus spp.) that cause crooked calf disease.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly “crooked calf disease” in pregnant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primari...

27

Cross-allergenicity of peanut and lupine: The risk of lupine allergy in patients allergic to peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy is common, but cross-allergy between legumes is rare. Proteins from Lupinus albus are increasingly eaten in the form of seeds or additives to wheat flour. The risk of cross-allergenicity is still insufficiently known. Objective: We sought to study the risk of cross-allergy to lupine in patients allergic to peanut and to study lupine allergenicity. Methods: Twenty-four patients

Denise-Anne Moneret-Vautrin; Laurence Guérin; Gisèle Kanny; Jenny Flabbee; Sophie Frémont; Martine Morisset

1999-01-01

28

Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively. PMID:24987293

Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J; Ash, Gavin J; Harper, John D I; Vipin, Cina A; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon

2014-05-01

29

Sugars as a metabolic regulator of storage protein mobilization in germinating seeds of yellow lupine ( Lupinus luteus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensity of protein reserve activation in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) organs cultured in vitro in the presence of saccharose and without sugar in the medium was studied. Isolated embryo axes, excised cotyledons and seeds\\u000a deprived of their testae were grown on Heller medium: a) with 60 mM saccharose (+S), b) without sugar (?S) and c) for 72 hours

S?awomir Borek; Wiktoria Ratajczak

2002-01-01

30

Real-time RT-PCR profiling of transcription factors including 34 MYBs and signaling components in white lupin reveals their P status dependent and organ-specific expression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting macronutrient because of its low availability in soils. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants are well adapted to growth under P-deficient conditions. White lupin acclimation to P-deficiency includes changes in root architecture and enhanced expression of numerous ...

31

Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

32

Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205?Mb and 530?Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64?L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome sequencing will facilitate the further development of genomic tools and lupin germplasm. Massive sequencing of cDNA libraries will continue to produce raw materials for gene discovery, identification of polymorphisms (SNPs, EST-SSRs, INDELs, etc.) for marker development, anchoring sequences for genome comparisons and putative gene candidates for QTL detection. PMID:22920992

2012-01-01

33

Detectability of lupine seeds by ELISA and PCR may be strongly influenced by potential differences between cultivars.  

PubMed

Accurate methods for allergen detection are needed for the verification of allergen labeling and the avoidance of hidden allergens. But systematic data on the influence of different cultivars of allergenic crop species on their detectability in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are lacking. As one example, seeds of 14 different cultivars of lupine (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) were investigated for total protein according to a Kjeldahl method, and for their relative quantitative detectability in three commercial lupine-specific ELISA tests and four lupine-specific PCR methods. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen allowed an accurate quantification of total protein. Relative differences in quantitative response between cultivars of 390-5050% and 480-13,600% were observed between ELISA kits and PCR methods, respectively. Hence, quantitative results of selected ELISA and PCR methods may be strongly influenced by the examined lupine cultivar. PMID:23758099

Röder, Martin; Kleiner, Kornelia; Sachs, Andrea; Keil, Nicole; Holzhauser, Thomas

2013-06-26

34

Identification of genes induced in proteoid roots of white lupin under nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with functional characterization of a formamidase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is considered a model system for understanding plant acclimation to nutrient deficiency. It acclimates to phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots; proteoid-root development ...

35

Biosynthesis of Insoluble Glucans From Uridine-Diphosphate-d-Glucose With Enzyme Preparations From Phaseolus aureus and Lupinus albus 1  

PubMed Central

Particulate, and digitonin-solubilized, enzyme systems from Phaseolus aureus and Lupinus albus catalyze the biosynthesis of aqueous-insoluble glucans from UDP-d-glucose. The digitonin treatment greatly increases the enzymic activity of (per unit protein) both the 34,000g pellet and the supernatant liquid as compared with that of the original particles. Most of the polymer produced (90-95%) is soluble in hot, dilute alkali; the interglucosidic linkages of the alkali-soluble and alkali-insoluble polymers are identical. The optimum concentration for the incorporation of radioactivity from UDP-d-glucose-14C into soluble glucan is high; at 10?3 m at least 50% of the added radioactive glucosyl donor is incorporated. Careful examination of the products of degradation of the polymers produced by various enzymic preparations showed that ?-(1?3)-glucans are produced. No evidence was obtained for any measurable amount of ?-(1?4)-d-glucose linkages. PMID:16656958

Flowers, H. M.; Batra, K. K.; Kemp, Jennifer; Hassid, W. Z.

1968-01-01

36

Functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, and health aspects of Lupinus albus protein isolates.  

PubMed

To utilize lupin seeds for food and pharmaceutical applications, lupin seeds were pretreated to remove oil using hexane or carbon dioxide. Two types of lupin protein isolate were prepared. Both types of protein isolate showed good foaming activity, comparable to egg white. Protein isolate extracted under acid conditions showed higher foaming activity than protein isolate extracted at neutral pH. The lipoxygenase activity was much reduced in both of the protein isolates. The protein isolate extracted at neutral pH showed a stronger angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition than the protein isolate extracted under acidic pH. In contrast, the protein isolate extracted under acid conditions had a greater sodium cholate binding capacity, comparable to that of cholestyramine. Lupin samples showed less DPPH radical scavenging activity than deoiled soybean. The deoiling method did not affect the functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, sodium cholate binding, and radical scavenging activity. PMID:15675820

Yoshie-Stark, Yumiko; Bez, Jürgen; Wada, Yoshiko; Wäsche, Andreas

2004-12-15

37

Consequences of transforming narrow leafed lupin ( Lupinus angustifolius [L.]) with an ipt gene under control of a flower-specific promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypes of five transgenic lines of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius [L] cv Merrit) stably transformed with the isopentenyl pyrophosphate transferase (ipt) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens coupled to a flower-specific promoter (TP12) from Nicotiana tabacum [L.] are described. Expression of the transgene was detected in floral tissues and in shoot apical meristems on all orders\\u000a of inflorescence. In each transgenic line

Craig A. AtkinsR; R. J. Neil Emery; Penelope M. C. Smith

38

Lipoxygenase activity in different species of sweet lupin (Lupinus L.) seeds and flakes.  

PubMed

Lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalysed degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids is supposed to be a major cause of undesirable off-flavour development in legumes. In the present study, a photometric LOX assay including adequate sample workup was adapted to lupin seeds, kernels and flakes, respectively. Optimum reaction conditions were at pH 7.5 using a phosphate buffer concentration of 150mmoll(-1) without the addition of sodium chloride. The LOX activities of different lupin species and varieties were compared. Significant variations among the species and varieties ranging from 50 to 1004unitsmg(-1) protein were determined, being significantly lower than soybean LOX activity. Hulling and flaking of the seeds resulted in a 15% increase of LOX activity. In contrast to soy and other legumes, LOX from lupin only converted free fatty acids, whereas trilinolein and ?-carotene were not oxidised. Consequently, according to the established classification, lupin LOX activity may be assigned to the LOX type-1, which, to the best of our knowledge, was demonstrated for the first time. PMID:25529698

Stephany, Michael; Bader-Mittermaier, Stephanie; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Carle, Reinhold

2015-05-01

39

Diverse accumulation of several dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress  

PubMed Central

Background Dehydrins represent hydrophilic proteins acting mainly during cell dehydration and stress response. Dehydrins are generally thermostable; however, the so-called dehydrin-like (dehydrin-related) proteins show variable thermolability. Both groups immunoreact with antibodies directed against the K-segment of dehydrins. Plant mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to extend previous reports on plant dehydrins by comparing the level of immunoprecipitated dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. Results All the analyzed plant species showed constitutive accumulation of thermostable mitochondrial putative dehydrins ranging from 50 to 70 kDa. The mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins observed in cauliflower and Arabidopsis ranged from 10 to 100 kDa and in lupin imbibed seeds and hypocotyls - from 20 to 90 kDa. Cold treatment increased mainly the accumulation of 10-100 kDa cauliflower and Arabidopsis dehydrin-like proteins, in the patterns different in cauliflower leaf and inflorescence mitochondria. However, in lupin mitochondria, cold affected mainly 25-50 kDa proteins and seemed to induce the appearance of some novel dehydrin-like proteins. The influence of frost stress on cauliflower leaf mitochondrial dehydrin- like proteins was less significant. The impact of heat stress was less significant in lupin and Arabidopsis than in cauliflower inflorescence mitochondria. Cauliflower mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are localized mostly in the mitochondrial matrix; it seems that some of them may interact with mitochondrial membranes. Conclusions All the results reveal an unexpectedly broad spectrum of dehydrin-like proteins accumulated during some abiotic stress in the mitochondria of the plant species analyzed. They display only limited similarity in size to those reported previously in maize, wheat and rye mitochondria. Some small thermolabile dehydrin-like proteins were induced under stress conditions applied and therefore they are likely to be involved in stress response. PMID:20718974

2010-01-01

40

Identification of genes induced in proteoid roots of white lupin under nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with functional characterization of a formamidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is considered a model system for understanding plant acclimation to nutrient deficiency. It acclimates to phosphorus\\u000a (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots;\\u000a proteoid-root development is further influenced by nitrogen (N) supply. In an effort to better understand proteoid root function\\u000a under various

Mousumi Rath; Jay Salas; Bandita Parhy; Robert Norton; Himabindu Menakuru; Monika Sommerhalter; Greg Hatlstad; Jaimyoung Kwon; Deborah L. Allan; Carroll P. Vance; Claudia Uhde-Stone

2010-01-01

41

Development of genomic resources for the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius): construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Lupinus angustifolius L, also known as narrow-leafed lupin (NLL), is becoming an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognised as a potential human health food. Recent interest is being directed at NLL to improve grain production, disease and pest management and health benefits of the grain. However, studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Results A NLL BAC library was constructed consisting of 111,360 clones with an average insert size of 99.7 Kbp from cv Tanjil. The library has approximately 12 × genome coverage. Both ends of 9600 randomly selected BAC clones were sequenced to generate 13985 BAC end-sequences (BESs), covering approximately 1% of the NLL genome. These BESs permitted a preliminary characterisation of the NLL genome such as organisation and composition, with the BESs having approximately 39% G:C content, 16.6% repetitive DNA and 5.4% putative gene-encoding regions. From the BESs 9966 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified and some of these are shown to be potential markers. Conclusions The NLL BAC library and BAC-end sequences are powerful resources for genetic and genomic research on lupin. These resources will provide a robust platform for future high-resolution mapping, map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole-genome sequencing data for the species. PMID:22014081

2011-01-01

42

Energy and protein value of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and its mode of utilization in pig feeding  

E-print Network

: the first one belonging to the variety « I!UBLANC » (12 p. ioo bitter seed) containing alkaloids, the second to the variety « KALINA », soft, without alkaloids. The experiment involved 5 castrated male pigs per type characteristics, only the soft one without alkaloids was well ingested by pigs. Another experiment involving 5

Boyer, Edmond

43

Enhanced methionine levels and increased nutritive value of seeds of transgenic lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) expressing a sunflower seed albumin?gene  

PubMed Central

With the aim of improving the nutritive value of an important grain legume crop, a chimeric gene specifying seed-specific expression of a sulfur-rich, sunflower seed albumin was stably transformed into narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Sunflower seed albumin accounted for 5% of extractable seed protein in a line containing a single tandem insertion of the transferred DNA. The transgenic seeds contained less sulfate and more total amino acid sulfur than the nontransgenic parent line. This was associated with a 94% increase in methionine content and a 12% reduction in cysteine content. There was no statistically significant change in other amino acids or in total nitrogen or total sulfur contents of the seeds. In feeding trials with rats, the transgenic seeds gave statistically significant increases in live weight gain, true protein digestibility, biological value, and net protein utilization, compared with wild-type seeds. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using genetic engineering to improve the nutritive value of grain crops. PMID:9237987

Molvig, Lisa; Tabe, Linda M.; Eggum, Bjorn O.; Moore, Andrew E.; Craig, Stuart; Spencer, Donald; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

1997-01-01

44

Effects of Experience and Lactation on Lupine Consumption by Cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupines (Lupinus spp.) containing certain alkaloids are either acutely toxic or cause birth defects in livestock. Lupine toxicity has been especially troublesome in portions of eastern Washington state. Some reports suggest that naïve, younger animals may consume more lupine than more experienced, o...

45

Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction – Many species in the Lupinus genus are poorly defined resulting in improper taxonomic identification. Lupine species may contain quinolizidine and/or piperidine alkaloids that can be acutely toxic and/or teratogenic resulting in crooked calf disease. Objective – To identify any char...

46

An RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of orthophosphate-deficient white lupin reveals novel insights into phosphorus acclimation in plants.  

PubMed

Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (P(i)), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to P(i) deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in P(i)-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to P(i) supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ? 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to P(i) deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ? 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to P(i) deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the P(i) status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in P(i) deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to P(i) deficiency. PMID:23197803

O'Rourke, Jamie A; Yang, S Samuel; Miller, Susan S; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W; Vance, Carroll P

2013-02-01

47

Endosymbiotic bacteria nodulating a new endemic lupine Lupinus mariae-josephi from alkaline soils in Eastern Spain represent a new lineage within the Bradyrhizobium genus.  

PubMed

Lupinus mariae-josephi is a recently described endemic Lupinus species from a small area in Eastern Spain where it thrives in soils with active lime and high pH. The L. mariae-josephi root symbionts were shown to be very slow-growing bacteria with different phenotypic and symbiotic characteristics from those of Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating other Lupinus. Their phylogenetic status was examined by multilocus sequence analyses of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, glnII, recA, and atpD) and showed the existence of a distinct evolutionary lineage for L. mariae-josephi that also included Bradyrhizobium jicamae. Within this lineage, the tested isolates clustered in three different sub-groups that might correspond to novel sister Bradyrhizobium species. These core gene analyses consistently showed that all the endosymbiotic bacteria isolated from other Lupinus species of the Iberian Peninsula were related to strains of the B. canariense or B. japonicum lineages and were separate from the L. mariae-josephi isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on nodC symbiotic gene sequences showed that L. mariae-josephi bacteria also constituted a new symbiotic lineage distant from those previously defined in the genus Bradyrhizobium. In contrast, the nodC genes of isolates from other Lupinus spp. from the Iberian Peninsula were again clearly related to the B. canariense and B. japonicum bv. genistearum lineages. Speciation of L. mariae-josephi bradyrhizobia may result from the colonization of a singular habitat by their unique legume host. PMID:21420266

Sánchez-Cañizares, Carmen; Rey, Luis; Durán, David; Temprano, Francisco; Sánchez-Jiménez, Paloma; Navarro, Albert; Polajnar, Mira; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

2011-05-01

48

EFFECTS OF FEEDING CONCENTRATE DIETS CONTAINING NARROW LEAFED LUPIN , YELLOW LUPIN OR SOYA WHEN COMPARED WITH A CONTROL DIET ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF FINISHING LAMBS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment investigated the hypothesis that incorporating lupins ( Lupinus spp.) into lamb finishing diets would not alter lamb productivity and carcass characteristics when compared with a soya bean ( Glycine max ) meal concentrate or a commercial concentrate diet. The 4 dietary treatments were: narrow-leaf lupin (cv. Prima), yellow lupin (cv. Wodjil), soya bean meal and a commercial (control)

Rhun Fychan; Christina Marley; Gareth Lewis; Rob Davies; Vince Theobald; Raymond Jones; Michael Abberton

49

An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Orthophosphate-Deficient White Lupin Reveals Novel Insights into Phosphorus Acclimation in Plants1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (Pi), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in Pi-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to Pi supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ? 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to Pi deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ? 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to Pi deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the Pi status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in Pi deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. PMID:23197803

O’Rourke, Jamie A.; Yang, S. Samuel; Miller, Susan S.; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W.; Vance, Carroll P.

2013-01-01

50

Simulating lupin development, growth, and yield in a Mediterranean environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) production would be a useful tool for assessing agronomic and management options for the crop. This paper reports on the development and testing of a model of lupin development and growth, designed for use in the cropping systems simulator, APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator). Parameters describing leaf area expansion, phenology, radiation interception, biomass

Michael J. RobertsonC; Senthold Asseng; Robert J. French; Miles Dracup

2004-01-01

51

Bradyrhizobium canariense and Bradyrhizobium japonicum are the two dominant rhizobium species in root nodules of lupin and serradella plants growing in Europe.  

PubMed

Forty three Bradyrhizobium strains isolated in Poland from root nodules of lupin species (Lupinus albus, L. angustifolius and L. luteus), and pink serradella (Ornithopus sativus) were examined based on phylogenetic analyses of three housekeeping (atpD, glnII and recA) and nodulation (nodA) gene sequences. Additionally, seven strains originating from root-nodules of yellow serradella (O. compressus) from Asinara Island (Italy) were included in this study. Phylogenetic trees revealed that 15 serradella strains, including all yellow serradella isolates, and six lupin strains grouped in Bradyrhizobium canariense (BC) clade, whereas eight strains from pink serradella and 15 lupin strains were assigned to Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BJ1). Apparently, these species are the two dominant groups in soils of central Europe, in the nodules of lupin and serradella plants. Only three strains belonged to other chromosomal lineages: one formed a cluster that was sister to B. canariense, one strain grouped outside the branch formed by B. japonicum super-group, and one strain occupied a distant position in the genus Bradyrhizobium, clustering with strains of the Rhodopseudomonas genus. All strains in nodulation nodA gene tree grouped in a cluster referred to as Clade II, which is in line with earlier data on this clade dominance among Bradyrhizobium strains in Europe. The nodA tree revealed four well-supported subgroups within Clade II (II.1-II.4). Interestingly, all B. canariense strains clustered in subgroup II.1 whereas B. japonicum strains dominated subgroups II.2-II.4. PMID:21514760

St?pkowski, Tomasz; Zak, Magdalena; Moulin, Lionel; Króliczak, Joanna; Goli?ska, Barbara; Naro?na, Dorota; Safronova, Vera I; M?drzak, Cezary J

2011-07-01

52

[Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].  

PubMed

This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking. PMID:22566327

Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

2012-01-01

53

White Lupin Cluster Root Acclimation to Phosphorus Deficiency and Root Hair Development Involve Unique Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterases1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

White lupin (Lupinus albus) is a legume that is very efficient in accessing unavailable phosphorus (Pi). It develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report, we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2) from white lupin and propose a role for these two GPX-PDEs in root hair growth and development and in a Pi stress-induced phospholipid degradation pathway in cluster roots. Both GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are highly expressed in Pi-deficient cluster roots, particularly in root hairs, epidermal cells, and vascular bundles. Expression of both genes is a function of both Pi availability and photosynthate. GPX-PDE1 Pi deficiency-induced expression is attenuated as photosynthate is deprived, while that of GPX-PDE2 is strikingly enhanced. Yeast complementation assays and in vitro enzyme assays revealed that GPX-PDE1 shows catalytic activity with glycerophosphocholine while GPX-PDE2 shows highest activity with glycerophosphoinositol. Cell-free protein extracts from Pi-deficient cluster roots display GPX-PDE enzyme activity for both glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoinositol. Knockdown of expression of GPX-PDE through RNA interference resulted in impaired root hair development and density. We propose that white lupin GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are involved in the acclimation to Pi limitation by enhancing glycerophosphodiester degradation and mediating root hair development. PMID:21464471

Cheng, Lingyun; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Zinn, Kelly; Miller, Susan; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Allan, Deborah; Shen, Jianbo; Vance, Carroll P.

2011-01-01

54

Prick by prick induced anaphylaxis in a patient with peanuts and lupine allergy: awareness of risks and role of component resolved diagnosis.  

PubMed

A case of anaphylaxis is reported in the course of a prick by prick with Lupinus albus and roasted peanut in a 20-year-old woman. We focused on some main topics. First of all it seems important to underscore the potential risks connected to the practice of the prick-by-prick with fresh foods in allergic patients, especially when testing cross-reactive substances, such as White Lupine, peanuts, or soy. It is important that clinicians who perform prick tests be aware of the risk related with in vivo tests in allergic patients. Second, we discuss the problem of the hidden allergens, such as White Lupine flour, or soy flour which are utilized to improve wheat flour because of their lower cost. Patients with a demonstrated allergy to peanuts should be assessed for lupine allergy and informed about the "hidden allergens" issue. Finally, we believe that component resolved diagnosis, the serum specific IgE against molecular components, that is normally considered a second-level diagnostic step has an important role even as a first line approach at least in some selected cases. PMID:25477973

Ciccarelli, Anna; Calabrò, Claudia; Imperatore, Clara; Scala, Guglielmo

2014-01-01

55

Enkele Veldwaarnemingen Over Virusziekten Van Lupine En Een Onderzoek Over Haar Mozaiekziekte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merkel (15) vergeleek de mozaiekziekten van Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., Lathyrus odoratus L., Vicia ]aba L., Tri[olium-, Medicago- en Melilotus-soorten, Anthyllis vulneraria L. en Lupinus luteus L. Alleen bij Phaseolus vulgaris L. en Lupinus luteus L. gingen de kleurverschillen op bet blad gepaard met btadvervorming. Onder meet slaagde hij er in bet mozaiekvirus van de gele lupine met

Ir. C. Mastenbroek; W. K. J. ROEPKE

1942-01-01

56

Abscisic acid concentration, root pH and anatomy do not explain growth differences of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) and lupin ( Lupinus angustifolius L.) on acid and alkaline soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ABA concentrations of leaves, roots, soils and transport fluids of chickpea and lupin plants growing in acid (pH=4.8) and alkaline (pH=8.0) soils and an acid soil with an alkaline subsoil and an alkaline soil with an acid subsoil were measured with the aim of explaining the poor growth of narrow-leafed lupins in alkaline soil. The ABA concentration in the

Wolfram Hartung; Laurent Leport; R. George Ratcliffe; Angela Sauter; Regina Duda; Neil C. Turner

2002-01-01

57

The ubiquitous familiarity of the common garden lupin provides little hint of the great diversity encompassed by the c. 280 of species in Lupinus as a whole. There are two main centres of species  

E-print Network

and Mexican species is particularly chaotic. Work on a new taxonomic account for the Andean species is in progress. Lupinus species from the Andes New phylogenies Insights into the diversity and evolutionary within the last 5-10 million years. The New World species (excluding the unifoliolate species from

Zürich, Universität

58

Identification of a low digestibility ?-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain ?conglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

2013-01-01

59

Short-term supply of elevated phosphate alters the belowground carbon allocation costs and functions of lupin cluster roots and nodules.  

PubMed

Lupins can rely on both cluster roots and nodules for P acquisition and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) respectively. The resource allocation (C, N and P) between cluster roots and nodules has been largely understudied during P-deficient conditions. The aim of this investigation was therefore to determine the changes in resource allocation between these organs during fluctuations in P supply. Lupinus albus was cultivated in sand culture for 3 weeks, with either sufficient (2mM high) or limiting (0.1mM low) P supply. Although variation on P supply had no effect on the total biomass, there were significant differences in specialised below-ground organ allocation to cluster roots and nodule formation. Cluster root formation and the associated C-costs increased during low P supply, but at sufficient P-supply the construction and growth respiration costs of cluster roots declined along with their growth. In contrast to the cluster root decline at high P supply, there was an increase in nodule growth allocation and corresponding C-costs. However, this was not associated with an increase in BNF. Since cluster roots were able to increase P acquisition under low P conditions, this below-ground investment may also have benefited the P nutrition of nodules. These findings provide evidence that when lupins acquire N via BNF in their nodules, there may be a trade-off in resource allocation between cluster roots and nodules. PMID:24709158

Thuynsma, Rochelle; Valentine, Alex; Kleinert, Aleysia

2014-05-01

60

The Forms and Sources of Cytokinins in Developing White Lupine Seeds and Fruits1  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive range of cytokinins (CK) was identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tissues of and in xylem and phloem serving developing white lupine (Lupinus albus) fruits. Analyses were initiated at anthesis and included stages of podset, embryogenesis, and seed filling up to physiological maturation 77 d post anthesis (DPA). In the first 10 DPA, fertilized ovaries destined to set pods accumulated CK. The proportion of cis-CK:trans-CK isomers was initially 10:1 but declined to less than 1:1. In ovaries destined to abort, the ratio of cis-isomers to trans-isomers remained high. During early podset, accumulation of CK (30–40 pmol ovary?1) was accounted for by xylem and phloem translocation, both containing more than 90% cis-isomers. During embryogenesis and early seed filling (40–46 DPA), translocation accounted for 1% to 14% of the increases of CK in endosperm (20 nmol fruit?1) and seed coat (15 nmol fruit?1), indicating synthesis in situ. High CK concentrations in seeds (0.6 ?mol g?1 fresh weight) were transient, declining rapidly to less than 1% of maximum levels by physiological maturity. These data pose new questions about the localization and timing of CK synthesis, the significance of translocation, and the role(s) of CK forms in reproductive development. PMID:10938375

Emery, R.J. Neil; Ma, Qifu; Atkins, Craig A.

2000-01-01

61

RNA-seq analysis identifies an intricate regulatory network controlling cluster root development in white lupin  

PubMed Central

Background Highly adapted plant species are able to alter their root architecture to improve nutrient uptake and thrive in environments with limited nutrient supply. Cluster roots (CRs) are specialised structures of dense lateral roots formed by several plant species for the effective mining of nutrient rich soil patches through a combination of increased surface area and exudation of carboxylates. White lupin is becoming a model-species allowing for the discovery of gene networks involved in CR development. A greater understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms driving these developmental processes is important for the generation of smarter plants for a world with diminishing resources to improve food security. Results RNA-seq analyses for three developmental stages of the CR formed under phosphorus-limited conditions and two of non-cluster roots have been performed for white lupin. In total 133,045,174 high-quality paired-end reads were used for a de novo assembly of the root transcriptome and merged with LAGI01 (Lupinus albus gene index) to generate an improved LAGI02 with 65,097 functionally annotated contigs. This was followed by comparative gene expression analysis. We show marked differences in the transcriptional response across the various cluster root stages to adjust to phosphate limitation by increasing uptake capacity and adjusting metabolic pathways. Several transcription factors such as PLT, SCR, PHB, PHV or AUX/IAA with a known role in the control of meristem activity and developmental processes show an increased expression in the tip of the CR. Genes involved in hormonal responses (PIN, LAX, YUC) and cell cycle control (CYCA/B, CDK) are also differentially expressed. In addition, we identify primary transcripts of miRNAs with established function in the root meristem. Conclusions Our gene expression analysis shows an intricate network of transcription factors and plant hormones controlling CR initiation and formation. In addition, functional differences between the different CR developmental stages in the acclimation to phosphorus starvation have been identified. PMID:24666749

2014-01-01

62

Activity of quinolizidine alkaloids from three Mexican Lupinus against the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera frugiperda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter lupins (Lupinus spp.) are not used as a protein source because of their toxicity. However, they may have alternative uses as potential sources\\u000a of natural insecticides. Quinolizidine alkaloids (QA) of three Mexican Lupinus species (Fabaceae): L. montanus (HBK),\\u000a L. stipulatus (Agardh) and L. aschenbornii (Schauer), were analyzed by capillary Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Sparteine was found in high amounts in

Kalina Bermúdez-Torres; Jorge Martínez Herrera; Rodolfo Figueroa Brito; Michael Wink; Luc Legal

2009-01-01

63

The nutritional role of Lupinus arboreus in coastal sand dune forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the artificial plant succession used to stabilise coastal sand dunes in New Zealand,Lupinus arboreus is sown into plantedAmmophila arenaria stands primarily to provide shelter for youngPinus radiata trees. Recent observations have suggested that the lupin may play a nutritional, as well as a physical part in the stabilisation\\u000a technique. Work elsewhere with otherLupinus spp. and forest crops supports this

Ruth L. Gadgil

1971-01-01

64

Enzymes hydrolyzing ApppA and/or AppppA in higher plants. Purification and some properties of diadenosine triphosphatase, diadenosine tetraphosphatase, and phosphodiesterase from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds.  

PubMed

Three distinct enzymes hydrolyzing either ApppA or AppppA, or both, were separated and purified from yellow lupin seed extracts. Two of the enzymes were purified to homogeneity. These enzymes differ greatly in their catalytic and physical properties. One hydrolase, with a native molecular weight of 41,000, exhibits broad pH (from 5-8) optimum for activity, requires Mg2+ for activity, is inhibited by zinc ions (I0.5 = 25 microM) and hydrolyses ApppA (V = 1), ApppC (V = 0.38), ApppG (V = 0.2), and ribose(5')pppA (V = 0.2). The enzyme exhibits much lower activity with AppppA (V = 0.1), and ApppppA, AppppppA, ppppA, and ATP are hydrolyzed 25- to 100-fold slower then ApppA. ADP was always one of the products of the reactions catalyzed by the enzyme. AppA, NAD, NADP, FAD, cAMP, and p-nitrophenyl-thymidine 5'-phosphate were not hydrolyzed by the enzyme. The enzyme is diadenosine 5',5"'-P1, P3-triphosphatase. The second hydrolase, composed of one polypeptide chain of a molecular weight 18,000-18,500, exhibits optimal activity in the pH range from 7.5-9, requires Mg2+ for activity, is inhibited by calcium ions (I0.5 for calcium depends on the concentration of Mg2+ and is 35-180 microM in the presence of 0.5-10 mM Mg2+, respectively), and hydrolyzes AppppA (V = 1, Km = 1 microM), ApppppA (V = 0.42, Km = 1.8 microM), AppppppA (V = 0.34), AppppU (V = 0.73), AppppC (V = 0.67), AppppG (V = 0.27), and ppppA. ATP was always one of the products of the reactions catalyzed by the enzyme. Dinucleoside di- and triphosphates, ATP, cAMP, and p-nitrophenylthymidine 5'-phosphate were not hydrolyzed by the enzyme. This enzyme is diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17). The third hydrolase, composed of one polypeptide chain of a molecular weight of 56,000, exhibits maximal activity at pH 9-10.5, does not require Mg2+ ions for activity, is inhibited neither by divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Mn2+, or Ni2+) nor by EDTA, and uses as substrates all compounds which are substrates for the diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P3-triphosphatase and diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphatase. In addition, the enzyme hydrolyzes p-nitrophenyl-thymidine 5'-phosphate, p-nitrophenylthymidine 3'-phosphate, bis-p-nitrophenylphosphate, ADP, AppA, NAD, NADP, and FAD, but not cAMP. With the exception of p-nitrophenylphosphate derivatives all other substrates of the enzyme yield AMP as one of the products of hydrolysis. This enzyme has a specificity similar to that of phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.1) from other sources. With the lupin phosphodiesterase, ApppA (V = 1, Km = 2.2 microM) and AppppA (V = 1, Km = 2.0 microM) are better substrates than NAD (V = 0.8, Km = 9.6 microM), AppA (V = 0.4), ApppppA (V = 0.6), and AppppppA (V = 0.34). PMID:6309793

Jakubowski, H; Guranowski, A

1983-08-25

65

Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration  

SciTech Connect

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 {micro}M phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. The authors suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}].

Watt, M.; Evans, J.R.

1999-07-01

66

Recovering Root System Traits Using Image Analysis Exemplified by Two-Dimensional Neutron Radiography Images of Lupine1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

2014-01-01

67

Distribution of melatonin in different zones of lupin and barley plants at different ages in the presence and absence of light.  

PubMed

In animals, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has several physiological roles, mostly related with circadian and seasonal rhythms. In 1995, it was detected in a variety of edible plants, and it is known that melatonin from plant foods is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and incorporated in the blood stream. This indoleamine also crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, being incorporated at the subcellular level. The possibility of modulating blood melatonin levels in mammals and avians through the ingestion of plant foodstuffs seems to be an interesting prospect. However, data concerning the melatonin content of edible plants are scarce and have not been contrasted. Obtained with very different analytical techniques, in some cases inappropriate, the quantitative data show a high degree of variation. Possibly for the first time in plants, we have used liquid chromatography with time-of-flight/mass spectrometry to identify melatonin. This sophisticated technique, combined with the more commonly used liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for melatonin quantification, has permitted us to describe the distribution of this compound in different organs and zones in plants. Also, changes in melatonin levels with age and the possible influence of a light/dark photoperiod or constant darkness on its levels are studied. The proposal, applied here to lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), may also serve as a model for application to other plant foodstuffs. PMID:18975965

Hernández-Ruiz, J; Arnao, M B

2008-11-26

68

Adaptation of H+-Pumping and Plasma Membrane H+ ATPase Activity in Proteoid Roots of White Lupin under Phosphate Deficiency1  

PubMed Central

White lupin (Lupinus albus) is able to adapt to phosphorus deficiency by producing proteoid roots that release a huge amount of organic acids, resulting in mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphate in rhizosphere. The mechanisms responsible for the release of organic acids by proteoid root cells, especially the trans-membrane transport processes, have not been elucidated. Because of high cytosolic pH, the release of undissociated organic acids is not probable. In the present study, we focused on H+ export by plasma membrane H+ ATPase in active proteoid roots. In vivo, rhizosphere acidification of active proteoid roots was vanadate sensitive. Plasma membranes were isolated from proteoid roots and lateral roots from P-deficient and -sufficient plants. In vitro, in comparison with two types of lateral roots and proteoid roots of P-sufficient plants, the following increase of the various parameters was induced in active proteoid roots of P-deficient plants: (a) hydrolytic ATPase activity, (b) Vmax and Km, (c) H+ ATPase enzyme concentration of plasma membrane, (d) H+-pumping activity, (e) pH gradient across the membrane of plasmalemma vesicles, and (f) passive H+ permeability of plasma membrane. In addition, lower vanadate sensitivity and more acidic pH optimum were determined for plasma membrane ATPase of active proteoid roots. Our data support the hypothesis that in active proteoid root cells, H+ and organic anions are exported separately, and that modification of plasma membrane H+ ATPase is essential for enhanced rhizosphere acidification by active proteoid roots. PMID:12011337

Yan, Feng; Zhu, Yiyong; Müller, Caroline; Zörb, Christian; Schubert, Sven

2002-01-01

69

Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

70

Preliminary investigation of the relationship between bovine congenital lathyrism induced by aminoacetonitrile and the lupine induced crooked calf disease.  

PubMed

Maternal feeding of the lathyrogen aminoacetonitrile, the range plant Lupinus caudatus, and an extract of this plant - expected to contain lathyrogens if present in the plant - all produced clinically similar congenital defects in calves. The defects included excessive flexure, malpositioning, malalignment and rotation of the front limbs. The results suggest a possible relationship between lathyrism and lupine-induced crooked calf disease. PMID:4238569

Keeler, R F; Binns, W; James, L F; Shupe, J L

1969-04-01

71

Nitrogen-fixers Alnus and Lupinus influence soil characteristics but not colonization by later successional species in primary succession on Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes to the primary successional environment caused by colonizing plants that present symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing\\u000a bacteria were investigated at two areas on Mount St. Helens. One area was occupied by alder (Alnus viridis) thickets and old lupine (Lupinus lepidus) patches and the other area by young lupine patches and pumice barrens. Alder thicket soils had higher levels for a few soil

Jonathan H. Titus

2009-01-01

72

Spatial distribution and expression of intracellular and extracellular acid phosphatases of cluster roots at different developmental stages in white lupin.  

PubMed

Acid phosphatases (APases) play a key role in phosphorus (P) acquisition and recycling in plants. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) forms cluster roots (CRs) and produces large amounts of APases under P deficiency. However, the relationships between the activity of intracellular and extracellular APases (EC 3.1.3.2) and CR development are not fully understood. Here, comparative studies were conducted to examine the spatial variation pattern of APase activity during CR development using the enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) and the p-nitrophenyl phosphate methods. The activity of intracellular and extracellular APases was significantly enhanced under P deficiency in the non-CRs and CRs at different developmental stages. These two APases exhibited different spatial distribution patterns during CR development, and these distribution patterns were highly modified by P deficiency. The activity of extracellular APase increased steadily with CR development from meristematic, juvenile, mature to senescent stages under P deficiency. In comparison, P deficiency-induced increase in the activity of intracellular APase remained relatively constant during CR development. Increased activity of intracellular and extracellular APases was associated with enhanced expression of LaSAP1 encoding intracellular APase and LaSAP2 encoding extracellular APase. The expression levels of these two genes were significantly higher at transcriptional level in both mature and senescent CRs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that both activity and gene expression of intracellular or extracellular APases exhibit a differential response pattern during CR development, depending on root types, CR developmental stages and P supply. Simultaneous in situ determination of intracellular and extracellular APase activity has proved to be an effective approach for studying spatial variation of APases during CR development. PMID:23746995

Tang, Hongliang; Li, Xiaoqing; Zu, Chao; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

2013-09-15

73

Lupine and Butterflies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-part activity about the connection between the lupine plant and butterflies, learners first read "Miss Rumphius," a storybook about lupine by Barbara Cooney. Then learners plant their own seeds that can be transplanted into the wild. Learners discuss what plants need to grow. Next, learners review the butterfly life cycle and create a butterfly puppet that emerges from a pupa. Educators can also use this activity to introduce learners to endangered species (the Karner Blue butterfly is endangered in Wisconsin because of the decreased lupine population).

Huff, Paula R.

2005-01-01

74

Entomopathogenic nematodes: natural enemies of root-feeding caterpillars on bush lupine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of soil-dwelling entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis hepialus killed up to 100% (mean=72%) of root-boring caterpillars of a ghost moth Hepialus californicus in coastal shrub lands. When unchecked, ghost moth caterpillars killed bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus. Here we describe this strange food chain. Although unappreciated by ecologists, entomopathogenic nematodes are widespread and probably one of the most important groups

D. R. Strong; H. K. Kaya; A. V. Whipple; A. L. Child; S. Kraig; M. Bondonno; K. Dyer; J. L. Maron

1996-01-01

75

The influence of crop management on the water balance of lupin and wheat crops on a layered soil in a Mediterranean climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of time of sowing and sowing density on evapotranspiration and drainage loss beneath wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Spear) and lupin (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Gungurru) crops grown on a layered soil was investigated for three seasons in a Mediterranean climate in Western Australia.\\u000a The aim of the study was to investigate whether managing crops to maximise their canopy growth

J. Eastham; P. J. Gregory

2000-01-01

76

Groundwater management through increased water use by lupin crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total evaporation ( E) was measured on lupin crops of differing leaf area per unit ground area in southwestern Australia. Leaf area was controlled by sowing at different times and rates. The objective was to explore the feasibility of increasing water use in order to reduce recharge to rising, shallow, saline water tables. Replicated plots of Lupinus angustifolius were sown at 100 and 200 kg ha -1 on 24 May and at 100 kg ha -1 on 7 June, 1988. E was measured by ventilated chambers from each of these treatments over eight 24 h periods grouped at the beginning, middle and end of a 28 day period. Mean rates of E were 2.16 mm day -1 for the later sown lupins at 100 kg ha -1, 2.49 mm day -1 for the earlier sown lupins at 100 kg ha -1 and 2.90 mm day -1 for the earlier sown lupins at 200 kg ha -1. The corresponding relative values for E were 1.00, 1.15 and 1.34. The transpiration component of E was estimated by measuring sap flow with a heat balance technique on individual plants within the chambers. Daily values of transpiration varied from 0.8 to 2 mm giving residual soil evaporation values of 1.0-1.6 mm day -1. E from soil was a significant cause of water loss particularly in the plots with low leaf area. At preflowering and early flowering E increased linearly with increasing leaf area per unit ground area up to values of 2.6. Soil evaporation decreased linearly with increasing leaf area. We conclude that increased seeding rates and earlier sowing of lupins have the potential to increase E and to reduce recharge and the rise of saline water tables.

Greenwood, E. A. N.; Turner, N. C.; Schulze, E.-D.; Watson, G. D.; Venn, N. R.

1992-06-01

77

Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.  

PubMed

Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring. PMID:2089736

Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Bunch, T D; Callan, R J

1990-01-01

78

Precursors of storage proteins in Lupinus angustifolius.  

PubMed Central

The proteins that are synthesized during differentiation and development in the cotyledons of Lupinus angustifolius L. were characterized both in situ and after purification. The proteins present in situ were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and subjected to 'Western'-blot analysis to identify immunologically related polypeptides. The major storage proteins of the lupin, conglutins alpha and beta, were both present in juvenile tissue only as higher Mr precursors. For conglutin beta, a family of at least three polypeptides of Mr 66 000-72 000 accumulated during the earliest phases of protein synthesis in the developing cotyledon (20-28 days after flowering). Later in development each of these polypeptides disappeared and there was the concurrent appearance in the cotyledon of the lower-Mr fragments characteristic of mature conglutin beta. For conglutin alpha, an equivalent family of precursor polypeptides of Mr 60 000-83 000 was detected. Multiple internal sites for proteolytic cleavage of all these precursors appeared to be present. However, processing of the precursors was sufficiently slow to allow them to accumulate to over 50% of total soluble protein in juvenile tissue. The precursors were purified by column chromatography under non-dissociating conditions and shown by ultracentrifugation to be multimeric proteins with Mr values in the range 150 000-200 000. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6548131

Gayler, K R; Boadle, B G; Snook, M; Johnson, E D

1984-01-01

79

Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship Between Bovine Congenital Lathyrism Induced by Aminoacetonitrile and the Lupine Induced Crooked Calf Disease  

PubMed Central

Maternal feeding of the lathyrogen aminoacetonitrile, the range plant Lupinus caudatus, and an extract of this plant — expected to contain lathyrogens if present in the plant — all produced clinically similar congenital defects in calves. The defects included excessive flexure, malpositioning, malalignment and rotation of the front limbs. The results suggest a possible relationship between lathyrism and lupine-induced crooked calf disease. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4238569

Keeler, R. F.; Binns, W.; James, L. F.; Shupe, J. L.

1969-01-01

80

Successional Change in Phosphorus Stoichiometry Explains the Inverse Relationship between Herbivory and Lupin Density on Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (N?P) of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus) colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to

Jennifer L. Apple; Michael Wink; Shannon E. Wills; John G. Bishop

2009-01-01

81

Effects of an early-season folivorous moth on the success of a later-season species, mediated by a change in the quality of the shared host, Lupinus arboreus Sims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of Platyprepia virginalis (Lep.: Arctiidae) and Orgyia vetusta (Lep.: Lymantriidae) feed on the foliage of bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus Sims) at Bodega Bay, California, USA, in February–April and May–July, respectively. Female O. vetusta attained lower pupal weights and produced fewer eggs on branches of L. arboreus which had experimentally received P. virginalis damage earlier in the same year, compared

Susan Harrison; Richard Karban

1986-01-01

82

Diversification of lupine Bradyrhizobium strains: evidence from nodulation gene trees.  

PubMed

Bradyrhizobium strains isolated in Europe from Genisteae and serradella legumes form a distinct lineage, designated clade II, on nodulation gene trees. Clade II bradyrhizobia appear to prevail also in the soils of Western Australia and South Africa following probably accidental introduction with seeds of their lupine and serradella hosts. Given this potential for dispersal, we investigated Bradyrhizobium isolates originating from a range of native New World lupines, based on phylogenetic analyses of nodulation (nodA, nodZ, noeI) and housekeeping (atpD, dnaK, glnII, recA) genes. The housekeeping gene trees revealed considerable diversity among lupine bradyrhizobia, with most isolates placed in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum lineage, while some European strains were closely related to Bradyrhizobium canariense. The nodA gene tree resolved seven strongly supported groups (clades I to VII) that correlated with strain geographical origins and to some extent with major Lupinus clades. All European strains were placed in clade II, whereas only a minority of New World strains was placed in this clade. This work, as well as our previous studies, suggests that clade II diversified predominately in the Old World, possibly in the Mediterranean. Most New World isolates formed subclade III.2, nested in a large "pantropical" clade III, which appears to be New World in origin, although it also includes strains originating from nonlupine legumes. Trees generated using nodZ and noeI gene sequences accorded well with the nodA tree, but evidence is presented that the noeI gene may not be required for nodulation of lupine and that loss of this gene is occurring. PMID:17400786

Stepkowski, Tomasz; Hughes, Colin E; Law, Ian J; Markiewicz, ?ukasz; Gurda, Dorota; Chlebicka, Agnieszka; Moulin, Lionel

2007-05-01

83

Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Lupin Root Nodules  

PubMed Central

Labeling studies using detached lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) nodules showed that over times of less than 3 minutes, label from [3,4-14C]glucose was incorporated into amino acids, predominantly aspartic acid, to a much greater extent than into organic acids. Only a slight preferential incorporation was observed with [1-14C]- and [6-14C]glucose, while with [U-14C]-glucose more label was incorporated into organic acids than into amino acids at all labeling times. These results are consistent with a scheme whereby the “carbon skeletons” for amino acid synthesis are provided by the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase reaction. A comparison of 14CO2 release from nodules supplied with [1-14C]- and [6-14C]glucose indicated that the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway accounted for less than 6% of glucose metabolism. Several enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways were assayed in vitro using the 12,000g supernatant fraction from nodule homogenates. In all cases, the specific activities were adequate to account for the calculated in vivo fluxes. Three out of four diverse treatments that inhibited nodule nitrogen fixation also inhibited nodule CO2 fixation, and in the case of the fourth treatment, replacement of N2 with He, it was shown that the normal entry of label from exogenous 14CO2 into the nodule amino acid pool was strongly inhibited. PMID:16660746

Laing, William A.; Christeller, John T.; Sutton, William D.

1979-01-01

84

Effect of a short-term hypoxic treatment followed by re-aeration on free radicals level and antioxidative enzymes in lupine roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether re-aeration after a short-term hypoxic pre-treatment (for 2, 12 or 24 h) induces oxidative stress, the temporal sequence of physiological reactions, including the level of free radicals, hydrogen peroxide production, and changes in antioxidative enzymes, was characterized in roots of hydroponically grown lupine (Lupinus luteus L., cv. Juno) seedlings. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we found that the

Ma?gorzata Garnczarska; Waldemar Bednarski

2004-01-01

85

Genome sequence of the lupin-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417  

PubMed Central

Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen (N2) fixing root nodule of Lupinus sp. collected in Papudo, Chile, in 1995. However, this microsymbiont is a poorly effective N2 fixer with the legume host Lupinus angustifolius L.; a lupin species of considerable economic importance in both Chile and Australia. The symbiosis formed with L. angustifolius produces less than half of the dry matter achieved by the symbioses with commercial inoculant strains such as Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471. Therefore, WSM1417 is an important candidate strain with which to investigate the genetics of effective N2 fixation in the lupin-bradyrhizobia symbioses. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,048,963 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a single scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,695 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976884

Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Peters, Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

2013-01-01

86

The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.  

PubMed

The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (p<0.05). The results of the research revealed a decrease in the concentrations of antinutritional factors in the sprouts of yellow and blue lupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids. PMID:22540870

Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

2013-08-01

87

Soil water effects on the use of heat units to predict crop residue carbon and nitrogen mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil heat units (degree days) have previously been shown to predict net N mineralization from crop residues and papermil sludge. The present study was designed to identity the effects of soil water potential on predictions of mineralization with heat units and to compare field and laboratory results of white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. ‘Ultra’) N mineralization. Lupin-amended soil and

D. S. Doel; C. W. Honeycutt; W. A. Halteman

1990-01-01

88

IN VITRO RUMINAL PROTEIN DEGRADATION AND MICROBIAL PROTEIN FORMATION OF SEED LEGUMES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed legumes such as peas, lupins, and faba beans are important feeds for dairy cows in Europe and other regions. Ruminal protein degradability was quantified using the inhibitor in vitro (IIV) system for samples of 5 seed legumes: 2 peas (cv. Alembo and Helena), 1 white lupin (Lupinus albus, cv. Mu...

89

A rapid screening test for lupin alkaloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new rapid screening procedure to test sweet lupin seeds for alkaloid content was developed using CHCl3 as solvent and acid-base titration with p-toluenesulphonic acid with tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester as indicator. Seed samples of 29 cultiyars from 3 lupin species were tested. The test has proved reliable in screening new sweet lupin varieties which may still contain substantial amounts of

L. P. Ruiz Jr

1977-01-01

90

Draft Genome Sequence, and a Sequence-Defined Genetic Linkage Map of the Legume Crop Species Lupinus angustifolius L  

PubMed Central

Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the most recently domesticated crop in major agricultural cultivation. Its seeds are high in protein and dietary fibre, but low in oil and starch. Medical and dietetic studies have shown that consuming lupin-enriched food has significant health benefits. We report the draft assembly from a whole genome shotgun sequencing dataset for this legume species with 26.9x coverage of the genome, which is predicted to contain 57,807 genes. Analysis of the annotated genes with metabolic pathways provided a partial understanding of some key features of lupin, such as the amino acid profile of storage proteins in seeds. Furthermore, we applied the NGS-based RAD-sequencing technology to obtain 8,244 sequence-defined markers for anchoring the genomic sequences. A total of 4,214 scaffolds from the genome sequence assembly were aligned into the genetic map. The combination of the draft assembly and a sequence-defined genetic map made it possible to locate and study functional genes of agronomic interest. The identification of co-segregating SNP markers, scaffold sequences and gene annotation facilitated the identification of a candidate R gene associated with resistance to the major lupin disease anthracnose. We demonstrated that the combination of medium-depth genome sequencing and a high-density genetic linkage map by application of NGS technology is a cost-effective approach to generating genome sequence data and a large number of molecular markers to study the genomics, genetics and functional genes of lupin, and to apply them to molecular plant breeding. This strategy does not require prior genome knowledge, which potentiates its application to a wide range of non-model species. PMID:23734219

Zheng, Zequn; Zhang, Qisen; Zhou, Gaofeng; Sweetingham, Mark W.; Howieson, John G.; Li, Chengdao

2013-01-01

91

Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-?- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-?-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

2011-10-01

92

Genetic diversity of bradyrhizobial populations from diverse geographic origins that nodulate Lupinus spp. and Ornithopus spp.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of 45 bradyrhizobial isolates that nodulate several Lupinus and Ornithopus species in different geographic locations was investigated by 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis, 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) PCR-RFLP analysis, and ERIC-PCR genomic fingerprinting. Reference strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, B. liaoningense and B. elkanii and some Canarian isolates from endemic woody legumes in the tribe Genisteae were also included. The 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis resolved 9 genotypes of lupin isolates, a group of fourteen isolates presented restriction-genotypes identical or very similar to B. japonicum, while another two main groups of isolates (69%) presented genotypes that clearly separated them from the reference species of soybean. 16S rDNA sequencing of representative strains largely agreed with restriction analysis, except for a group of six isolates, and showed that all the lupin isolates are relatives of B. japonicum, but different lineages were observed. The 16S-23S IGS-RFLP analysis showed a high resolution level, resolving 19 distinct genotypes among 30 strains analysed, and so demonstrating the heterogeneity of the 16S-RFLP groups. ERIC-PCR fingerprint analysis showed an enormous genetic diversity producing a different pattern for each but two of the isolates. Phylogeny of nodC gene was independent from the 16S rRNA phylogeny, and showed a tight relationship in the symbiotic region of the lupin isolates with isolates from Canarian genistoid woody legumes, and in concordance, cross-nodulation was found. We conclude that Lupinus is a promiscuous host legume that is nodulated by rhizobia with very different chromosomal genotypes, which could even belong to several species of Bradyrhizobium. No correlation among genomic background, original host plant and geographic location was found, so, different chromosomal genotypes could be detected at a single site and in a same plant species, on the contrary, an identical genotype was detected in very different geographical locations and plants. PMID:14666990

Jarabo-Lorenzo, Adriana; Pérez-Galdona, Ricardo; Donate-Correa, Javier; Rivas, Raúl; Velázquez, Encarna; Hernández, Mariano; Temprano, Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; León-Barrios, Milagros

2003-11-01

93

Bradyrhizobium-Lupinus mariae-josephae: a unique symbiosis endemic of a basic soil in Eastern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lupinus mariae-josephae is an intriguing lupine species recently discovered in the Mediterranean region and constitutes an endemism of a small area of Eastern Spain (Valencia province; Pascual, 2004; Mahé et al. 2011). It opens new perspectives for ecological and agronomic interests, as it represents the sole lupine species that preferentially grows in basic soils, while almost all other lupine species occur in acid to neutral soils. The L. mariae-josephae symbionts isolated from soils of calcareous areas of Valencia are extremely slow-growing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhrizobium genus and showing symbiotic specificity that prevents nodulation of other Lupinus spp. such as L. angustifolius or L. luteus typically thriving in acid soils (Sanchez-Cañizares et al, 2011). Their phylogenetic analysis based on housekeeping and symbiotic genes showed that L. mariae-josephae symbionts belong to an evolutionary lineage that also includes endosymbiotic bacteria from Retama spp. of Northern Algeria basic soils (Boulila et al. 2009). Conversely, this new lineage is phylogenetically distinct from that of endosymbiotic bacteria from other Lupinus spp. native of the Iberian Peninsula, which were nested mainly within B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages. A genomic diversity study of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population of the calcareous areas in Valencia, based on fingerprint and phylogenetic analysis, showed the existence of a large diversity of genotypes, some of which are related to bacteria from the Retama spp. symbiosis in Algeria. This singular genomic divergence of L. mariae-josephae symbiotic bacteria in such a small geographical area fosters attractive studies on the origin, ecology and evolution of both partners of the symbiosis. Furthermore, it is expected that ongoing seed inoculation experiments with selected strains will allow us to extend the extant distribution spots of L. mariae-josephae plants in Valencia area, and also to determine whether the observed edaphic restrictions represent a limitation to the expansion of L. mariae-josephae crops to wide areas of poor calcareous soils in the Mediterranean region. Work supported by FBBVA Contract BIOCON08-078 to TRA and MICINN Project CGL2011-26932 to JI. Mahé et al. 2010 Genet Resour Crop Evol 58, 101-114. Pascual, H. 2004 Anal Jardín Botán Madrid 61(1): 69-72. Sánchez-Cañizares et al 2011 Syst Appl Microbiol 34 207-215 Boulila et al 2009 Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 32, 245-255.

Durán, D.; Sánchez-Cañizares, C.; Navarro, A.; Rey, L.; Imperial, J.; Ruiz-Argüeso, T.

2012-04-01

94

Effect of seed predation on seed bank size and seedling recruitment of bush lupine ( Lupinus arboreus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether seed consumers affect plant establishment is an important unresolved question in plant population biology. Seed consumption\\u000a is ubiquitous; at issue is whether seedling recruitment is limited by safe-sites or seeds. If most seeds inhabit sites unsuitable\\u000a for germination, post-dispersal seed consumption primarily removes seeds that would otherwise never contribute to the population\\u000a and granivory has minimal impacts on plant

John L. Maron; Ellen L. Simms

1997-01-01

95

Causes and Consequences of Herbivory on Prairie Lupine ( Lupinus lepidus ) in Early Primary Succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary succession, the formation and change of ecological communities in locations initially lacking organisms or other biological\\u000a materials, has been an important research focus for at least a century (Cowles 1899; Griggs 1933; Eggler 1941; Crocker and\\u000a Major 1955; Eggler 1959; Miles and Walton 1993; Walker and del Moral 2003). At approximately 60 km2, primary successional surfaces at Mount St.

John G. Bishop; William F. Fagan; John D. Schade; Charles M. Crisafulli

96

Functional Morphology of Prey Capture in the Sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus  

E-print Network

Functional Morphology of Prey Capture in the Sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus Andrew M. Carroll Scaphirhynchus albus, the pallid sturgeon. Feeding pallid sturgeon were filmed in lateral and ventral views. albus resemble those of other aquatic vertebrates: maximum hyoid depression follows maxi- mum gape

Wainwright, Peter C.

97

Predation Vulnerability and Trophic Interactions of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus  

E-print Network

Predation Vulnerability and Trophic Interactions of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus By William! Abstract Trophic Interactions of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus William E. French May 8, 2010 Recruitment of the federally endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the Missouri River has been

98

Teratogenic and fetotoxic effects of two piperidine alkaloid-containing lupines (L. formosus and L. arbustus) in cows.  

PubMed

Cleft palate and minor front limb contractures were induced in calves by maternal ingestion of the piperidine alkaloid-containing lupines, Lupinus formosus and L. arbustus. Crooked calf disease, which includes an occasional cleft palate, is a congenital condition of widespread occurrence in cattle in the western U.S. and Canada. It is known to occur after maternal ingestion of certain species of Lupinus during specific gestational periods. Although many lupine species contain quinolizidine alkaloids including the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine, L. formosus and L. arbustus produce piperidine alkaloids including the reported teratogen ammodendrine. In addition to ammodendrine, L. formosus contains both N-acetyl hystrine and N-methyl ammodendrine, whereas L. arbustus contains ammodendrine, trace amounts of N-methyl ammodendrine, and no N-acetyl hystrine. L. formosus and L. arbustus were fed to pregnant cows at equivalent ammodendrine doses during a 10-day period from days 40-50 of gestation. One calf from a cow fed L. formosus had a full cleft palate. Embryonic death and resorption of one fetus and minor front limb contractures (arthrogryposis) in another calf occurred with two cows fed L. arbustus. Alkaloid analysis of blood samples taken during the feeding period, and up to and including 48 hours after the last dose, demonstrated comparative plasma elimination times with N-methyl ammodendrine > ammodendrine > N-acetyl hystrine. The objectives of this experiment were to: 1) determine if N-acetyl hystrine is a potential teratogen; and 2) define the narrow cleft palate induction period in cows. PMID:9678187

Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Molyneux, R J

1998-06-01

99

Comparative genomics of Lupinus angustifolius gene-rich regions: BAC library exploration, genetic mapping and cytogenetics  

PubMed Central

Background The narrow-leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., is a grain legume species with a relatively compact genome. The species has 2n?=?40 chromosomes and its genome size is 960 Mbp/1C. During the last decade, L. angustifolius genomic studies have achieved several milestones, such as molecular-marker development, linkage maps, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Here, these resources were integratively used to identify and sequence two gene-rich regions (GRRs) of the genome. Results The genome was screened with a probe representing the sequence of a microsatellite fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) marker linked to Phomopsis stem blight resistance. BAC clones selected by hybridization were subjected to restriction fingerprinting and contig assembly, and 232 BAC-ends were sequenced and annotated. BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) identified eight single-locus clones. Based on physical mapping, cytogenetic localization, and BAC-end annotation, five clones were chosen for sequencing. Within the sequences of clones that hybridized in FISH to a single-locus, two large GRRs were identified. The GRRs showed strong and conserved synteny to Glycine max duplicated genome regions, illustrated by both identical gene order and parallel orientation. In contrast, in the clones with dispersed FISH signals, more than one-third of sequences were transposable elements. Sequenced, single-locus clones were used to develop 12 genetic markers, increasing the number of L. angustifolius chromosomes linked to appropriate linkage groups by five pairs. Conclusions In general, probes originating from MFLP sequences can assist genome screening and gene discovery. However, such probes are not useful for positional cloning, because they tend to hybridize to numerous loci. GRRs identified in L. angustifolius contained a low number of interspersed repeats and had a high level of synteny to the genome of the model legume G. max. Our results showed that not only was the gene nucleotide sequence conserved between soybean and lupin GRRs, but the order and orientation of particular genes in syntenic blocks was homologous, as well. These findings will be valuable to the forthcoming sequencing of the lupin genome. PMID:23379841

2013-01-01

100

Status of the Pallid Sturgeon: Scaphirhynchus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information presented concerning the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, was compiled from published and unpublished papers, from personal communications with numerous biologists, and from the results of a survey of 45 agencies and individuals. Pallid sturgeon occur in the Missouri River and the lower half of the Mississippi River and certain of their tributaries. Of the 250 pallids that were reported,

Larry Kallemeyn

1983-01-01

101

DISCRIMINATING PALLID STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS ALBUS) AND SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (S. PLATORHYNCHUS) AND INTRASPECIFIC  

E-print Network

DISCRIMINATING PALLID STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS ALBUS) AND SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (S. PLATORHYNCHUS STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS ALBUS) AND SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (S. PLATORHYNCHUS) AND INTRASPECIFIC GEOGRAPHIC University Carbondale. TITLE: DISCRIMINATING PALLID STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS ALBUS) AND SHOVELNOSE STURGEON

102

Genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobial symbionts of the Lupinus mariae-josephae endemism from alkaline-limed soils within its area of distribution in Eastern Spain.  

PubMed

The genomic diversity of a collection of 103 indigenous rhizobia isolates from Lupinus mariae-josephae (Lmj), a recently described Lupinus species endemic to alkaline-limed soils from a restricted habitat in Eastern Spain, was investigated by molecular methods. Isolates were obtained from soils of four geographic locations in the Valencia province that harbored the known Lmj plant populations. Using an M13 RAPD fingerprinting technique, 19 distinct RAPD profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA and the housekeeping genes glnII, recA and atpD showed a high diversity of native Bradyrhizobium strains that were able to establish symbiosis with Lmj. All the strains grouped in a clade unrelated to strains of the B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages that establish symbioses with lupines in acid soils of the Mediterranean area. The phylogenetic tree based on concatenated glnII, recA and atpD gene sequences grouped the Lmj isolates in six different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 93% similarity level. These OTUs were not associated to any specific geographical location, and their observed divergence predicted the existence of different Bradyrhizobium genomic species. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis of symbiotic genes based on nodC and nodA gene sequences, defined only two distinct clusters among the Lmj strains. These two Lmj nod gene types were largely distinct from nod genes of bradyrhizobia nodulating other Old World lupine species. The singularity and large diversity of these strains in such a small geographical area makes this an attractive system for studying the evolution and adaptation of the rhizobial symbiont to the plant host. PMID:23290449

Durán, David; Rey, L; Sánchez-Cañizares, C; Navarro, A; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argueso, T

2013-03-01

103

Effects of experience and lactation on lupine consumption by cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two grazing studies using non-pregnant cows were conducted in the Channel Scablands of eastern Washington during 2003-2004. Six cows naïve to lupine and 6 cows with several years experience grazing lupine-infested rangelands were grazed together for 25 days. Diets were determined by bite counts. ...

104

Ecology of invasive melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific. Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorum and Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

Conn, J.; Werdin-Pfisterer, N.; Beattie, K.; Densmore, R.

2011-01-01

105

Conservation of Endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in Its Natural Habitat by Inoculation with Selected, Native Bradyrhizobium Strains  

PubMed Central

Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in “terra rossa” soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other “terra rossa” or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive. PMID:25019379

Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simón; Laguna, Emilio; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

2014-01-01

106

[Heterogeneity of leghemoglobin from yellow lupine nodules].  

PubMed

A possibility is demonstrated to separate summary lupine leghemoglobins (which are salted out within 55--90% of ammonium sulphate saturation) into Lb I and Lb II components by means of ionic exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Lb I is eluted at lower ionic strength buffer than LbII, and differs from the latter in the form and the size of crystals. Both components have the same electrophoretic mobility and contain N-terminal glycine. LbII and LbI precipitate under gradual salting out within 55--75% and 78--90% of saturation respectively. PMID:647081

Kudriavtseva, N N; Borodenko, L I; Krasnobaeva, N N; Zhizhevskaia, G Ia

1978-02-01

107

Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount R. del Moral1,  

E-print Network

-1 Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens R. del Moral1, Trajectory Abstract The nitrogen-fixing legume Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant herb on new volcanic (Callaway and Walker 1997) can all alter course and rate of pri- mary succession. Lupinus lepidus Dougl. ex

del Moral, Roger

108

Silky lupine. Photo by Paul Alabak, University of Montana.  

E-print Network

Hummingbirds are attracted to silky lupine and the plant is recognized by pollination ecologists as attracting large numbers of native bees. It is an important pollen source for bumble bees and a nectar source for honey bees (Lady

Lupinus Sericeus Pursh; Symbol Luse; Plant Guide; Bird Johnson

109

Response of embryo axes of germinating seeds of yellow lupine to Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Defence responses of embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Polo were studied 48-96 h after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. lupini. The infection restricted the growth of embryo axes, the lengths of infected embryo axes 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 11 and 12 mm less in the controls, respectively, while their masses c. 0.03 g less than in the controls. The concentration of H2O2 in embryo axes of inoculated germinating seeds was higher than in the control. This was probably a consequence of oxidative burst as well as H2O2 generation by the invading necrotrophic fungal pathogen. EPR-based analyses detected the presence of free radicals with g1 and g2 values of 2.0052 +/- 0.0004 and 2.0031 +/- 0.0005, respectively. Concentrations of the radicals 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 50% higher than in the control. The values of the spectroscopic splitting coefficients suggest that they are quinone radicals. However, inoculated embryo axes possess a number of adaptive mechanisms protecting them from oxidative damage. A twofold increase in catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity was evidenced in embryo axes infected with F. oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. lupini, as compared to the control 48-96 h after inoculation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity 96 h after inoculation was 80% higher than in the control. Furthermore, EPR-based analyses revealed a higher concentration of Mn2+ ions after 72 h for inoculated embryo axes, as compared to the control. On the other hand, no increase was detected in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (products of lipid peroxidation) in infected embryo axes. The protective mechanisms induced in lupine embryo axes in response to F. oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. lupini were compared with responses to infections with pathogenic fungi elicited in other plant families. PMID:15246062

Morkunas, Iwona; Bednarski, Waldemar; Koz?owska, Monika

2004-06-01

110

Variation in the growth of lupin species and genotypes on alkaline soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial lupins grow poorly on alkaline and neutral fine-textured soils. Genotypic variation exists among lupins. The present study compared the growth of 13 lupin genotypes, including introduced cultivars and wild types, in an alkaline loamy soil and an acid loamy soil.

C. Tang; B. J. Buirchell; N. E. Longnecker; A. D. Robson

1993-01-01

111

MODELING SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS FOR JUVENILE PALLID STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS ALBUS) IN THE  

E-print Network

STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS ALBUS) IN THE MISSOURI RIVER Bryan D. Spindler April 2008 Monitoring and assessment of the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus population is essential to the recoveryMODELING SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS FOR JUVENILE PALLID STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS

112

Abstract The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), which is protected under the US endangered species  

E-print Network

Abstract The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), which is protected under the US endangered The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus, hereafter abbreviated PS) and shovelnose sturgeon (S. plator Scaphirhynchus Á Microsatellite Á Assignment testing Á Endangered species Á Species identification Introduction

Heist, Edward J.

113

Novel Alphaproteobacterial Root Nodule Symbiont Associated with Lupinus texensis?  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA gene, recA, nodA, nifD, and nifH sequences suggested that nitrogen-fixing symbionts from two populations of Lupinus texensis acquired the capacity for nodule symbiosis separately from other rhizobia in the alphaproteobacteria. Their closest 16S rRNA relatives were the nonsymbiotic taxa Chelatococcus, Bosea, and Balneomonas. PMID:17616612

Andam, Cheryl P.; Parker, Matthew A.

2007-01-01

114

Novel alphaproteobacterial root nodule symbiont associated with Lupinus texensis.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA gene, recA, nodA, nifD, and nifH sequences suggested that nitrogen-fixing symbionts from two populations of Lupinus texensis acquired the capacity for nodule symbiosis separately from other rhizobia in the alphaproteobacteria. Their closest 16S rRNA relatives were the nonsymbiotic taxa Chelatococcus, Bosea, and Balneomonas. PMID:17616612

Andam, Cheryl P; Parker, Matthew A

2007-09-01

115

EFFECT OF SHADE ON ALKALOID CONTENT OF LUPINUS LEUCOPHYLLUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupine-induced "crooked calf" syndrom is a significant problem for ranches in the semi-arid region of the channeled scablands of eastern Washington State. Rainfall and soil moisture has been proposed to affect the alkaloid content and/or palatability of L. leucophyllus. It is also possible that shad...

116

Spatial analysis of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus distribution in the Missouri River, South Dakota  

E-print Network

Spatial analysis of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus distribution in the Missouri River, South and distribution of the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus has generally been documented using radio requirements of pallid sturgeon. Introduction The pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is a federally

117

Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation By W. E. French1  

E-print Network

Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation By W. E. French1 , B employed conservation strategy for endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. The pallid sturgeon Scaphirhyncus albus is a federally endangered species native to the Missouri River

118

Ultramafic soils from New Caledonia structure Pisolithus albus in ecotype.  

PubMed

Isolates of ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus were sampled from both ultramafic and volcano-sedimentary soils in New Caledonia, a tropical hotspot of biodiversity, to investigate the relationships between genetic diversity and edaphic constraint through tolerance to nickel (Ni). Carpophore description, spore morphology and phylogenetic analysis based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences confirmed that all isolates belong to P. albus and are closely related to other Australasian specimens. Using molecular tools, ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we showed the existence of two distinct genetic clusters within P. albus: ultramafic and volcano-sedimentary. Mycelia response to Ni toxicity supports such a population structure. Pisolithus albus from ultramafic soils included isolates with a high diversity of in vitro Ni tolerance, with both Ni-tolerant isolates (average Ni EC(50) at 575 microM) and Ni-sensitive isolates (average Ni EC(50) at 37 microM). In contrast, all isolates from volcano-sedimentary soils were found to be Ni sensitive (average Ni EC(50) at 32 microM). We highlight that (1) P. albus population from ultramafic soils of New Caledonia are genetically structured in ecotype, and that (2) Ni tolerance among ultramafic isolates suggests an adaptive physiological response to Ni toxicity. PMID:20199570

Jourand, Philippe; Ducousso, Marc; Loulergue-Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Santoni, Sylvain; Prin, Yves; Lebrun, Michel

2010-05-01

119

Long-term Effects of Lupinus lepidus on Vegetation Dynamics at Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrogen-fixing legume Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant herb on new volcanic surfaces at Mount St. Helen. We compared vegetation structure in 30 Lupinus colonies in three age classes (old, mature, or young based on known years of their establishment) to adjacent sites that\\u000a were sparsely populated by Lupinus. Our goals were to determine if the age of colonies

R. del Moral; L. R. Rozzell

2005-01-01

120

Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The nitrogen-fixing legume,Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant,herb on new volcanic surfaces at Mount St. Helen. We compared vegetation structure in 30 Lupinus colonies in three age classes (old, mature, or young,based,on known,years of their establishment) to adjacent sites that were sparsely populated,by Lupinus. Our goals were to determine,if the age of colonies affected either species composition,or vegetation structure

R. Del Moral; L. r. Rozzell

121

Characterization of Bacterial Community Structure in Rhizosphere Soil of Grain Legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular techniques were used to characterize bacterial community structure, diversity (16S rDNA), and activity (16S rRNA) in rhizospheres of three grain legumes: faba beans (Vicia faba L., cv. Scirocco), peas (Pisum sativum L., cv. Duel) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L., cv. Amiga). All plants were grown in the same soil under controlled conditions in a greenhouse and sampled after

S. Sharma; M. K. Aneja; J. Mayer; J. C. Munch; M. Schloter

2005-01-01

122

Alkaloid and predation patterns in colorado lupine populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado populations of herbaceous perennial lupines show three distinct patterns of amounts, kinds, and individual variability of inflorescence alkaloids. These patterns, interpreted as alternative chemical defense strategies, can be related to the susceptibility of populations to attack by larvae of a small flower-feeding lycaenid butterfly, Glaucopsyche lygdamus.

Peter M. Dolinger; Paul R. Ehrlich; William L. Fitch; Dennis E. Breedlove

1973-01-01

123

Isolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)  

E-print Network

by gravity from Blind Pony Lake Dam 1 2 3 4 5 10 7 11 6 12 8 9 #12;Pallid Sturgeon Restoration EffortIsolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) Suggests an Interclass Host #12;· Pallid Sturgeon Conservation within the Missouri River Basin ­ History of the decline

Gray, Matthew

124

Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7  

SciTech Connect

Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

Suen, Garret [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stevenson, David M [USDA-ARS, Madison WI; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Boyum, Julie [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Mead, David [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Weimer, Paul J [USDA-ARS, Madison WI

2011-01-01

125

Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

126

Insights into naturally minimised Streptomyces albus J1074 genome  

PubMed Central

Background The Streptomyces albus J1074 strain is one of the most widely used chassis for the heterologous production of bioactive natural products. The fast growth and an efficient genetic system make this strain an attractive model for expressing cryptic biosynthetic pathways to aid drug discovery. Results To improve its capabilities for the heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters, the complete genomic sequence of S. albus J1074 was obtained. With a size of 6,841,649 bp, coding for 5,832 genes, its genome is the smallest within the genus streptomycetes. Genome analysis revealed a strong tendency to reduce the number of genetic duplicates. The whole transcriptomes were sequenced at different time points to identify the early metabolic switch from the exponential to the stationary phase in S. albus J1074. Conclusions S. albus J1074 carries the smallest genome among the completely sequenced species of the genus Streptomyces. The detailed genome and transcriptome analysis discloses its capability to serve as a premium host for the heterologous production of natural products. Moreover, the genome revealed 22 additional putative secondary metabolite gene clusters that reinforce the strain’s potential for natural product synthesis. PMID:24495463

2014-01-01

127

SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF TERATOGENIC PIPERIDINE ENANTIOMERS FROM NICOTIANA AND LUPINUS SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ingestion of Lupinus and Nicotiana species by pregnant livestock at specific gestational periods can result in calves, piglets, lambs and kids with cleft palate and front limb contractures. Ammodendrine and anabasine are teratogens and are found in Lupinus and Nicotiana species, respectively. Both...

128

Effects of Culture Filtrates of Rhizobacteria Isolated from Wild Lupine on Germination, Growth, and Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Lupine Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to select potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), a selection of strains from the predominant genera in the rhizosphere of four lupine species, based on genetic divergence criteria, carried out in a previous study, yielded 11 Aureobacterium (Aur), four Cellulomonas (Cell), two Arthrobacter (Arth), two Pseudomonas (Ps), and six Bacillus (Bc) strains. Cell?free culture filtrates of each bacterium

Francisco J. Gutiérrez Mañero; Agustin Probanza; Beatriz Ramos; Juan J. Colón Flores; Jose A. Lucas García

2003-01-01

129

Diversity of Selected Lupinus angustifolius L. Genotypes at the Phenotypic and DNA Level with Respect to Microscopic Seed Coat Structure and Thickness  

PubMed Central

The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. ‘Emir’, and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars ‘Sonet’ and ‘Emir’. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar ‘Zeus’ (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cie?lak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawi?ski, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

2014-01-01

130

Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these oth...

131

Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers.  

PubMed

Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

2015-01-01

132

Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

2015-01-01

133

Enhanced Phytochrome Sensitivity and Its Reversal in Amaranthus albus Seeds  

PubMed Central

Seed of Amaranthus alus L. develop an enhanced sensitivity to the farred absorbing form of phytochrome after prolonged imbibition at temperatures >32°C. The enhanced sensitivity developed at 40°C could be reversed by subsequent treatment at 20°C and similarly reestablished by repeating a 40°C treatment. It is concluded that relative sensitivity to the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome may be readily manipulated in seeds of A. albus. PMID:16664221

Chadoeuf-Hannel, Regine; Taylorson, Ray B.

1985-01-01

134

Enhanced Phytochrome Sensitivity and Its Reversal in Amaranthus albus Seeds.  

PubMed

Seed of Amaranthus alus L. develop an enhanced sensitivity to the farred absorbing form of phytochrome after prolonged imbibition at temperatures >32 degrees C. The enhanced sensitivity developed at 40 degrees C could be reversed by subsequent treatment at 20 degrees C and similarly reestablished by repeating a 40 degrees C treatment. It is concluded that relative sensitivity to the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome may be readily manipulated in seeds of A. albus. PMID:16664221

Chadoeuf-Hannel, R; Taylorson, R B

1985-06-01

135

Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

Seipke, Ryan F.

2015-01-01

136

Functional morphology of prey capture in the sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus.  

PubMed

Acipenseriformes (sturgeon and paddlefish) are basal actinopterygians with a highly derived cranial morphology that is characterized by an anatomical independence of the jaws from the neurocranium. We examined the morphological and kinematic basis of prey capture in the Acipenseriform fish Scaphirhynchus albus, the pallid sturgeon. Feeding pallid sturgeon were filmed in lateral and ventral views and movement of cranial elements was measured from video sequences. Sturgeon feed by creating an anterior to posterior wave of cranial expansion resulting in prey movement through the mouth. The kinematics of S. albus resemble those of other aquatic vertebrates: maximum hyoid depression follows maximum gape by an average of 15 ms and maximum opercular abduction follows maximum hyoid depression by an average of 57 ms. Neurocranial rotation was not a part of prey capture kinematics in S. albus, but was observed in another sturgeon species, Acipenser medirostris. Acipenseriformes have a novel jaw protrusion mechanism, which converts rostral rotation of the hyomandibula into ventral protrusion of the jaw joint. The relationship between jaw protrusion and jaw opening in sturgeon typically resembles that of elasmobranchs, with peak upper jaw protrusion occurring after peak gape. PMID:12655610

Carroll, Andrew M; Wainwright, Peter C

2003-06-01

137

Influence of grazing pressure on cattle consumption of the teratogenic plant velvet lupine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lupine species may contain teratogenic alkaloids that cause birth defects called crooked calf syndrome. If pregnant cows ingest toxic lupine between days 40 and 100 of gestation, fetal movement is impaired and irreversible skeletal defects occur. There is a need to determine the time and condition...

138

The Unique Biosynthetic Route from Lupinus ?-Conglutin Gene to Blad  

PubMed Central

Background During seed germination, ?-conglutin undergoes a major cycle of limited proteolysis in which many of its constituent subunits are processed into a 20 kDa polypeptide termed blad. Blad is the main component of a glycooligomer, accumulating exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Principal Findings The sequence of the gene encoding ?-conglutin precursor (1791 nucleotides) is reported. This gene, which shares 44 to 57% similarity and 20 to 37% identity with other vicilin-like protein genes, includes several features in common with these globulins, but also specific hallmarks. Most notable is the presence of an ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM), which possibly links the unique catabolic route of ?-conglutin to the ubiquitin/proteasome proteolytic pathway. Significance Blad forms through a unique route from and is a stable intermediary product of its precursor, ?-conglutin, the major Lupinus seed storage protein. It is composed of 173 amino acid residues, is encoded by an intron-containing, internal fragment of the gene that codes for ?-conglutin precursor (nucleotides 394 to 913) and exhibits an isoelectric point of 9.6 and a molecular mass of 20,404.85 Da. Consistent with its role as a storage protein, blad contains an extremely high proportion of the nitrogen-rich amino acids. PMID:20066045

Monteiro, Sara; Freitas, Regina; Rajasekhar, Baru T.; Teixeira, Artur R.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.

2010-01-01

139

Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lupin allergy remains a significant cause of food-induced allergic reactivity and anaphylaxis. Previous work suggests a strong association with legume allergy and peanut allergy in particular. Both doctors and the public have little awareness of lupin as an allergen. Case presentation Case 1 was a 41-year-old Caucasian woman without previous atopy who developed facial swelling, widespread urticaria with asthma and hypotension within minutes of eating a quiche. Her lupin allergy was confirmed by both blood and skin tests. Her lupin sensitivity was so severe that even the miniscule amount of lupin allergen in the skin testing reagent produced a mild reaction. Case 2 was a 42-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with three episodes of worsening urticaria and asthma symptoms over 6 years occurring after the consumption of foods containing lupin flour. Blood and skin tests were positive for lupin allergy. Case 3 was a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with known oral allergy syndrome who had two reactions associated with urticaria and vomiting after consuming foods containing lupin flour. Skin testing confirmed significant responses to a lupin flour extract and to one of the foods inducing her reaction. Case 4 was a 54-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with a 7 year history of three to four episodes each year of unpredictable oral tingling followed by urticaria after consuming a variety of foods. The most recent episode had been associated with vomiting. She had developed oral tingling with lentil and chickpeas over the previous year. Skin and blood tests confirmed lupin allergy with associated sensitivity to several legumes. Conclusions Lupin allergy can occur for the first time in adults without previous atopy or legume sensitivity. Although asymptomatic sensitisation is frequent, clinical reactivity can vary in severity from severe anaphylaxis to urticaria and vomiting. Lupin allergy may be confirmed by skin and specific immunoglobulin E estimation. Even skin testing can cause symptoms in some highly sensitive individuals. The diagnosis of lupin allergy in adults may be difficult because it is frequently included as an undeclared ingredient. Better food labelling and medical awareness of lupin as a cause of serious allergic reactions is suggested. PMID:24529316

2014-01-01

140

CONTROL OF GREEN MOLD AND SOUR ROT OF STORED LEMONS BY BIOFUMIGATION WITH MUSCODOR ALBUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of postharvest lemon diseases by biofumigation with the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus was investigated. In vitro exposure to M. albus volatile compounds for 3 days killed Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, causes of green mold and sour rot of lemons, respectively...

141

Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T formed a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these ot...

142

THE EXTRACELLULAR CELLULASES OF RUMINOCOCCUS ALBUS I. YU R.E. HUNGATE  

E-print Network

THE EXTRACELLULAR CELLULASES OF RUMINOCOCCUS ALBUS I. YU R.E. HUNGATE Department of Bacterio%gy, University of California, Davis, U. S.A. Ruminococcus albus produces extracellular cellulases which cellulases were separated and identified in the experiments described here. Several « mutant» strains

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

Juvenile pallid ( Scaphirhynchus albus) and hybrid pallid×shovelnose ( S. albus×platorynchus) sturgeons exhibit low physiological responses to acute handling and severe confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a 7.5-h transport haul, juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) showed a small but significant increase in plasma cortisol to 4.7 ng ml?1 but similar increases did not occur after fish were handled in a net held in the air for 30 s. Subsequent experiments on yearling pallid sturgeon and hybrid pallid×shovelnose (S. albus×platorynchus) sturgeon using the same 30-s handling

Bruce A. Barton; Herbert Bollig; Breana L. Hauskins; Chris R. Jansen

2000-01-01

144

Rangeland Ecol Manage 58:135147 | March 2005 Diet Composition, Forage Selection, and Potential for  

E-print Network

, and sheep diets in summer. Spurred lupine (Lupinus caudatus Kellogg) was the lupine typically selected%­72%); and cattle and sheep ate mostly graminoids. Lupines (Lupinus spp. L.) constituted ! 11% of elk, deer ovinos comieron principalmente grami´neas. Los lupinos (Lupinus spp. L.) constituyeron ! 11% de la dieta

Beck, Jeffrey L.

145

Digestibility of extruded peas, extruded lupin, and rapeseed meal in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) and turbot ( Psetta maxima)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy of extruded peas, extruded lupin and rapeseed meals were determined in juvenile rainbow trout and turbot. Extruded lupin was found to be a promising substitute for fish meal in the diets of trout and turbot, with an acceptable digestibility of its dry matter (70% in trout and 81% in turbot) and a

Christine Burel; Thierry Boujard; Francesca Tulli; Sadasivam J Kaushik

2000-01-01

146

Cross-allergic reactions to legumes in lupin and fenugreek-sensitized mice.  

PubMed

Several legumes may induce allergy, and there is extensive serological cross-reactivity among legumes. This cross-reactivity has traditionally been regarded to have limited clinical relevance. However, the introduction of novel legumes to Western countries may have changed this pattern, and in some studies cross-allergy to lupin has been reported in more than 60% of peanut-allergic patients. We wanted to explore cross-reactions among legumes using two newly established mouse models of food allergy. Mice were immunized perorally with fenugreek or lupin with cholera toxin as adjuvant. The mice were challenged with high doses of fenugreek, lupin, peanut or soy, and signs of anaphylactic reactions were observed. Cross-allergic mechanisms were investigated using serum mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1), antibody responses, immunoblotting and ex vivo production of cytokines by spleen cells. Signs of cross-allergy were observed for all the tested legumes in both models. The cross-allergic symptoms were milder and affected fewer mice than the primary allergic responses. The cross-allergy was reflected to a certain extent in the antibody and T-cell responses, but not in serum MMCP-1 levels. Cross-allergy to peanut, soy, fenugreek and lupin was observed in lupin-sensitized and fenugreek-sensitized mice. Differences in serological responses between primary allergy and cross-allergy might be due to mediation through different immune mechanisms or reflect different epitope affinity to IgE. These differences need to be further investigated. PMID:22803695

Vinje, N E; Namork, E; Løvik, M

2012-10-01

147

Patterns of quinolizidine alkaloids in 56 species of the genus Lupinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkaloid composition of 56 species (90 taxa if all subspecies and chemotypes are included) of the genus Lupinus was studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and GLC-mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS). The distribution of 100 alkaloids (quinolizidines, piperidines, dipiperidines and simple indoles) and their relative abundances in leaves and seeds (if available) are recorded.

Michael Wink; Carsten Meißner; Ludger Witte

1995-01-01

148

Facilitation of Urtica dioica colonisation by Lupinus arboreus on a nutrient-poor mining spoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facilitation is an important process during succession. Legumes often play a significant role as facilitators, particularly in primary succession, enriching the soil with nitrogen (N). The leguminous shrub Lupinus arboreus (Sims) can fix significant N on acidic, nutrient-poor soils. An apparent association between L. arboreus and Urtica dioica (L), which requires high concentrations of soil N and phosphorus (P), suggested

Paul Gosling

2005-01-01

149

Functional phylotyping approach for assessing intraspecific diversity of Ruminococcus albus within the rumen microbiome.  

PubMed

Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic bacterium, is a critical member of the rumen community. Ruminococcus albus lacks a classical cellulosome complex, but it possesses a unique family 37 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM37), which is integrated into a variety of carbohydrate-active enzymes. We developed a potential molecular tool for functional phylotyping of the R. albus population in the rumen, based on a variable region in the cel48A gene. cel48A encodes a single copy of the CBM37-associated family 48 glycoside hydrolase in all known strains of this bacterium. A segment of the cel48A gene was amplified from rumen metagenomic samples of four bovines, and its abundance and diversity were evaluated. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed the co-existence of multiple functional phylotypes of cel48A in all four animals. These included sequences identical or similar to those of R. albus isolates (reference strains), as well as several novel sequences. The dominant cel48A type varied among animals. This method can be used for detection of intraspecific diversity of R. albus in metagenomic samples. Together with scaC, a previously reported gene marker for R. flavefaciens, we present a set of two species-specific markers for phylotyping of Ruminococci in the herbivore rumen. PMID:25673657

Grinberg, Inna Rozman; Yin, Guohua; Borovok, Ilya; Miller, Margret E Berg; Yeoman, Carl J; Dassa, Bareket; Yu, Zhongtang; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Flint, Harry J; Bayer, Edward A; White, Bryan A; Lamed, Raphael

2015-02-01

150

Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus Strain NBRC 13014T, the Type Species of the Genus Streptomyces.  

PubMed

Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. albus strain NBRC 13014(T). The genome contains at least seven orphan polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters. The genome sequence will also serve as a valuable reference for Streptomyces taxonomy. PMID:25657283

Komaki, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Oguchi, Akio; Hamada, Moriyuki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Fujita, Nobuyuki

2015-01-01

151

The Biology of Canadian Weeds. 126. Amaranthus albus L., A. blitoides S. Watson and A. blitum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of biological information is provided for three species of the genus Amaranthus: A. albus L., A. blitoides S. Watson and A. blitum L. The last species has been revised taxonomically and a new subspecies for Canada is presented—A. blitum subsp. emarginatus (Moq. ex Uline & Bray) Carretero, Munoz Garmendia & Pedrol. Amaranthus albus and A. blitoides are native

Mihai Costea; François J. Tardif

2003-01-01

152

Potential of the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for control of building molds.  

PubMed

The possibility of using the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for biofumigation against building molds was investigated. Several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium as well as fungi belonging to nine other genera were inhibited or killed in vitro by volatiles produced by potato dextrose agar or rye grain cultures of M. albus. Trichoderma viride was the only fungus that was not inhibited by M. albus volatiles. To test biofumigation as a preventative treatment against fungal colonization of building material, dry pieces of gypsum drywall were fumigated with grain cultures of M. albus in closed boxes. After a simulated water damage and incubation under saturated humidity for 2 weeks, untreated drywall developed natural fungal populations of about 10(5)-10(6) cfu/cm2, while drywall fumigated with M. albus culture (20 g/11 L) had nondetectable fungal populations. To test for curative ability, moist pieces of drywall heavily colonized with Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus niger, or Stachybotrys chartarum were fumigated for 48 h with grain cultures of M. albus. Cladosporium cladosporioides was eliminated within 48 h, while A. niger and S. chartarum were usually more resistant. However, a longer curative fumigation of 96 h was effective in reducing A. niger or naturally occurring mold populations by about 5 log values. The production of volatile organic compounds from 20 g of rye grain culture in 11 L containers was monitored by solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography. Concentrations of isobutyric acid, the most abundant volatile, increased gradually in the headspace until it reached 25 microg/L (m/v) within 96 h. The second and third most abundant compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol and isobutanol, peaked at about 10 and 5 microg/L (m/v), respectively, within the first 24 h and declined gradually afterwards. PMID:17538650

Mercier, Julien; Jiménez, Jorge I

2007-03-01

153

Variation in Flowering Phenology and Its Consequences for Lupines Colonizing Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species colonizing large-scale disturbances face heterogeneous environmental conditions that may strongly affect the relationship between phenotypic variation and repro- duction. We investigated spatiotemporal variation in individual plant flowering phenology, flower and fruit predation, plant size, and fruit production in populations of Lupinus lepidus colonizing landscapes created by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. We quantified these variables in three

John G. Bishop; Douglas W. Schemske

1998-01-01

154

Phytoremediation of soils co-contaminated by organic compounds and heavy metals: bioassays with Lupinus luteus L. and associated endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

In the central part of the Iberian Peninsula there are old sealed landfills containing soils co-contaminated by several heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Cr, Fe, Al, Mn) and organic pollutants of different families (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and other organochlorinated compounds, phenols and volatile compounds), which this work will address. We have focused on phytoremedial plants that are able to deal with this type of complex pollution, not only species that tolerate the joint effect of heavy metals in the soil, but also those that can take advantage of associated bacteria to efficiently break down organic compounds. This study was carried out with Lupinus luteus and its endophytes in two greenhouse experiments: A) growing in a substrate artificially contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and B) using real co-contaminated landfill soils. Endophytes of roots and shoots were isolated in both bioassays. Plant growth-promotion tests and organic pollutant tolerance and degradation tests were conducted on all strains isolated in bioassay A), and on those proving to be pure cultures from bioassay B). The selected landfill is described as are isolation and test procedures. Results indicate that plants did not show toxicity symptoms when exposed to BaP but did when grown in landfill soil. Some endophytes demonstrated plant growth-promotion capacity and tolerance to BaP and other organic compounds (diesel and PCB commercial mixtures). A few strains may even have the capacity to metabolize those organic pollutants. The overall decline in plant growth-promotion capacity in those strains isolated from the landfill soil experiment, compared with those from the bioassay with BaP, may indicate that lupin endophytes are not adapted to metal concentration in roots and shoots and fail to grow. As a result, most isolated root endophytes must have colonized root tissues from the soil. While preliminary degradation tests showed promising results (some strains exhibiting the potential to use organic pollutants as their sole source of carbon), these are not conclusive and further in-depth degradation assays need to be performed. PMID:24912107

Gutiérrez-Ginés, M J; Hernández, A J; Pérez-Leblic, M I; Pastor, J; Vangronsveld, J

2014-10-01

155

Formation of Hydrogen and Formate by Ruminococcus albus  

PubMed Central

Radioisotopic growth studies with specifically labeled 14C-glucose confirmed that Ruminococcus albus, strain 7, ferments glucose mainly by the Embden-Myerhof-Parnas pathway to acetate, ethanol, formate, CO2, H2, and an unidentified product. Cell suspensions and extracts converted pyruvate to acetate, H2, CO2, and a small amount of ethanol. Formate was not produced from pyruvate and was not degraded to H2 and CO2, indicating that formate was not an intermediate in the production of H2 and CO2 from pyruvate. Cell extract and 14C-glucose growth studies showed that the H2-producing pyruvate lyase reaction is the major route of H2 and CO2 production. An active pyruvate-14CO2 exchange reaction was demonstrable with cell extracts. The 14C-glucose growth studies indicated that formate, as well as CO2, arises from the 3 and 4 carbon positions of glucose. A formate-producing pyruvate lyase system was not demonstrable either by pyruvate-14C-formate exchange or by net formate formation from pyruvate. Growth studies with unlabeled glucose and labeled 14CO2 or 14C-formate suggest that formate arises from the 3 and 4 carbon positions of glucose by an irreversible reduction of CO2. The results of the studies on the time course of formate production showed that formate production is a late function of growth, and the rate of production, as well as the total amount produced, increases as the glucose concentration available to the organism increases. PMID:4745433

Miller, Terry L.; Wolin, M. J.

1973-01-01

156

Properties of D-Xylose Isomerase from Streptomyces albus  

PubMed Central

A partially purified D-xylose isomerase has been isolated from cells of Streptomyces albus NRRL 5778 and some of its properties have been determined. D-Glucose, D-xylose, D-ribose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose served as substrates for the enzyme with respective Km values of 86, 93, 350, 153, and 312 mM and Vmax values measuring 1.23, 2.9, 2.63, 0.153, and 0.048 ?mol/min per mg of protein. The hexose D-allose was also isomerized. The enzyme was strongly activated by 1.0 mM Mg2+ but only partially activated by 1.0 mM Co2+. The respective Km values for Mg2+ and Co2+ were 0.3 and 0.003 mM. Mg2+ and Co2+ appear to have separate binding sites on the isomerase. These cations also protect the enzyme from thermal denaturation and from D-sorbitol inhibition. The optimum temperature for ketose formation was 70 to 80 C at pH values ranging from 7 to 9. D-Sorbitol acts as a competitive inhibitor with a Ki of 5.5 mM against D-glucose, D-xylose, and D-ribose. Induction experiments, Mg2+ activation, and D-sorbitol D-sorbitol inhibition indicated that a single enzyme (D-xylose isomerase) was responsible for the isomerization of the pentoses, methyl pentose, and glucose. PMID:239628

Sanchez, Sergio; Smiley, Karl L.

1975-01-01

157

Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (P<0·05), whereas no cholesterol changes were observed in the subjects consuming the bars containing casein+cellulose, casein+oat fibre or pea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin. PMID:22032303

Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

2012-04-01

158

Growth and siderophore production in vitro of Bradyrhizobium (Lupin) strains under iron limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six Bradyrhizobium (lupin) strains were evaluated for their ability to produce in vitro siderophores using four chemical assays. Bradyrhizobium strains WPBS 3201 D and 3211 D gave positive reactions with the chrome azurol S assay (CAS) and produced hydroxamate-type siderophores. The other four strains (USDA 3040, 3041, 3042 and CB 2272) gave negative results for siderophore production with the four

Mohamed Hemida Abd-Alla

1998-01-01

159

Lupin peptone as a replacement for animal-derived peptone in rich culture media for yeast.  

PubMed

Lupin peptone was shown to be a suitable replacement for traditional bacteriological peptone in the culture of Candida glabrata, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This new medium formulation allows yeast researchers to increase safety and to eliminate the use of animal products for the culture of yeast in rich medium. PMID:25514068

Chapman, Melissa; Mariano, Krichelle; Macreadie, Ian

2015-02-01

160

Effects of genetic structure of Lupinus arboreus and previous herbivory on Platyprepia virginalis caterpillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two leaf-feeding caterpillars, western tussock moth (Orgyia vetusta) and ranchman's tiger moth (Platyprepia virginalis) are abundant on Lupinus arboreus along the California coast. Previous experiments and observations suggested that feeding caused by either of these two folivores\\u000a could reduce the performance and possibly the abundance and distribution of the other species. Previous common garden experiments\\u000a also indicated that genetically determined

Richard Karban; Pamela M. Kittelson

1999-01-01

161

Susceptibility of lupin gamma-conglutin, the plasma glucose-lowering protein of lupin seeds, to proteolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Lupin seed gamma-conglutin, orally administered to animal models, has been shown to display glucose-controlling properties. Therefore, we have addressed the study of gamma-conglutin susceptibility to proteolytic enzymes in vitro as the basis to unveil its metabolic fate in the body. Pepsin treatment at pH 2.0 and 3.0 caused extensive proteolytic breakdown, while at pH 4.0, where pepsin is minimally active, gamma-conglutin was unaffected. Aliquots of the pepsin-treated protein were further incubated with pancreatin at neutral pH. If the protein backbone was already cleaved by pepsin action, then the breakdown by pancreatin was almost complete; alternatively, pancreatin did not affect at all gamma-conglutin polypeptide chain. This was not due to an inhibitory activity of gamma-conglutin, because co-incubation with casein showed complete breakdown of the milk protein. Furthermore, gamma-conglutin was incubated with bromelain, a proteinase effective between pH 4.0 and 7.0. A sharp transition from the uncleavable to the fully cleavable form of gamma-conglutin was observed below pH 4.25. Therefore, it was concluded that (i) gamma-conglutin is resistant to proteolysis at pH greater than 4.0, likely because of a compact native conformation, (ii) an acidic pH renders the protein susceptible to proteases, suggesting the occurrence of a trans conformation, which has also been observed by circular dichroism spectral analysis, and (iii) the protein undergoes an "all or none" degradation pathway, regardless of the enzyme used. PMID:19705831

Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Duranti, Marcello

2009-09-23

162

Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry as a technique to measure volatile emissions of Muscodor albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that both inhibit and kill other microorganisms. This fungus is now being used to treat human wastes and disinfest soils of plant disease causing organisms. The development of a method to accurately determine the quantity and quality of volatiles being emitted by this organism is critical for optimizing

David Ezra; Justin Jasper; Todd Rogers; Berk Knighton; Eric Grimsrud; Gary Strobel

2004-01-01

163

Cellulose-binding domains confer an enhanced activity against insoluble cellulose to Ruminococcus albus endoglucanase IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) from Clostridium stercorarium xylanase A was joined to the egIV gene encoding endoglucanase IV (EGIV) from Ruminococcus albus. The hybrid protein (EGIV + CBD) expressed from this fusion gene in Escherichia coli acquired the ability to adsorb onto insoluble celluloses such as ball-milled cellulose (BMC). EGIV + CBD was more active toward BMC at

Shuichi Karita; Kazuo Sakka; Kunio Ohmiya

1996-01-01

164

Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Stocking is a commonly employed conservation strategy for endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. However, decisions about when, where and at what size pallid sturgeon should be stocked are hindered because vulnerability of pallid sturgeon to fish predation is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to

W. E. French; B. D. S. Graeb; S. R. Chipps; K. N. Bertrand; T. M. Selch; R. A. Klumb

2010-01-01

165

Application of a Length-Categorization System for Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Length-frequency data can be quantified using proportional stock density and relative stock density indices. However, standardized length categories must be available for each fish species. Thus, we developed standard length categories for calculation of stock density indices for pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus.) Based on the longest fish (1,638 mm fork length) that we could find in sampling records or from

Dane A. Shuman; David W. Willis; Steven C. Krentz

2006-01-01

166

Spatial analysis of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus distribution in the Missouri River, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Movement and distribution of the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus has generally been documented using radio telemetry. However, because of the time and cost involved in tracking individual fish (i.e. small sample size), it is often difficult to evaluate spatial distribution of groups of fish over long time periods (> 3 years). Standardized sampling for pallid sturgeon, which relies

B. D. Spindler; S. R. Chipps; R. A. Klumb; M. C. Wimberly

2009-01-01

167

Skin prick test reactivity to lupin in comparison to peanut, pea, and soybean in atopic and non-atopic German subjects: A preliminary cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

The increasing use of lupin in food processing poses a problem of potential (cross-)allergic reactions. To evaluate the prevalence of sensitization to lupin in comparison to that of other legumes skin prick tests were performed with lupin, pea, peanut, and soybean in atopic (n = 81) and non-atopic (n = 102) German adults. Of these 183 subjects, 20 subjects had to be excluded due to invalid skin prick tests (reaction to histamine <3 mm or to sodium chloride >2 mm). Thus, skin prick tests of 163 subjects were included in final analyses. Of 163 subjects, 18 had a positive reaction to at least one legume tested. Overall skin prick test reactivity was different among non-atopic and atopic subjects (P = 0.005). Altogether, six subjects (4%) were sensitized to lupin, 12 (7%) to pea, 5 (3%) to peanut, and 8 (5%) to soybean. Two (2%) of the 92 non-atopic subjects and 4 (6%) of the 71 atopic subjects had a positive skin prick test to lupin. Of the 6 subjects sensitized to lupin, 3 (50%) were also sensitized to pea, 3 (50%) to peanut, and 5 (83%) to soybean. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of lupin sensitization were comparable to or even lower than those of pea, peanut, and soybean. To date, lupin allergy is suspected to be relatively uncommon in the overall German population since lupin sensitization occurred in only 2% of non-atopic subjects. However, there is a clear risk of a lupin allergy in predisposed subjects, since the frequency of lupin sensitization was 6% in atopic subjects. In particular, subjects with existing sensitization or allergy to other legumes are at higher risk for a sensitization or allergy to lupin due to cross-reactivity. PMID:25400931

Bähr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kaatz, Martin; Jahreis, Gerhard

2014-01-01

168

THE LYSIS OF CELL WALLS OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI BY STREPTOMYCES ALBUS ENZYME TREATED WITH DIISOPROPYL FLUOROPHOSPHATE  

PubMed Central

Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) effectively inhibited proteolytic activity in preparations of partially purified Streptomyces albus enzyme used to lyse cell walls of Group A streptococci. Lysis of non-trypsinized Group A cell walls with DFP-treated S. albus enzyme released a soluble protein fraction containing antigenic type-specific M protein, a carbohydrate fraction consisting of Group A and a small amount of A-variant polysaccharides, and a dialyzable fraction. The similarities of the products of DFP-treated S. albus enzyme lysis of streptococcal cell walls to those released by phage muralytic enzyme furnish additional evidence of the close relationship of these wall lysins. In view of small differences in electrophoretic mobility, immunodiffusion, and chemical composition, it is suggested that Group A streptococcal cell wall polysaccharide dissolved by DFP-S. albus enzyme consists of a spectrum of molecules having the same immunological determinants but differing in content of conjugated mucopeptide. PMID:14278231

Schmidt, Willard C.

1965-01-01

169

Decomposition of lupine biomass by soil microorganisms in developing mount St. Helens' pyroclastic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legumes like Lupinus lepidus and L. latifolius affect soil C and N concentrations and microbial activity in Mount St. Helens' pyroclastic deposits. Concentrations of total Kjeldahl-N (TKN), total organic-C (TOC) and water soluble-C (H2O?C) were measured in soil from under live L. lepidus (LULE), live L. latifolius (LULA) and dead L. lepidus (DEAD), and in bare soil (BARE). Soil microbial

Jonathan J. Halvorson; Jeffrey L. Smith

1995-01-01

170

Effect of colloidal metals on the induced chlorophyll fluorescence at the different lupin state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies about the effects of colloidal solutions of Fe and Zn on the photosynthetic activity of plants of yellow lupine affected by carbonate chlorosis are given. It is shown that the impression of plants by carbonate chlorosis causes a decrease in the efficiency of photosystem II and in result of that the affected plants lag in a weight. Processing plants by the colloidal solutions of iron and zinc creates conditions for improvement of function of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants.

Son'ko, R. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Trach, V. V.; Lopat'ko, K. G.

2013-11-01

171

Growth and siderophore production in Bradyrhizobium (lupin) strains under iron limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SixBradyrhizobium (lupin) strains were evaluated for their ability to produce siderophores using four chemical assays. Two strains gave positive\\u000a reactions with chrome azurol S assay (CAS) and produced hydroxamate-type siderophores. The other four strains gave negative\\u000a results for siderophore production using the four assays. Generation time, growth yield and hydroxamate production of one\\u000a strain (WPBS 3201 D) were affected by

M. H. Abd-Alla

1999-01-01

172

Mitigation of Cu stress by legume-Rhizobium symbiosis in white lupin and soybean plants.  

PubMed

The effect of Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis on plant growth, toxicological variables and Cu bioaccumulation was studied in white lupin and soybean plants treated with 1.6, 48, 96 and 192 ?M Cu. In both species, those plants grown in the presence of root nodule-forming symbiotic Bradyrhizobium showed less root and shoot growth reduction, plus greater translocation of Cu to the shoot, than those grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. The effective added concentrations of Cu that reduced shoot and root dry weight by 50% (EC50), and the critical toxic concentration that caused a 10% reduction in plant growth (CTC10%), were higher in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, and were in general higher in the roots whether the plants were grown with or without these bacteria. The production of malondialdehyde and total thiols was stimulated by Cu excess in the shoots and roots of white lupin grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, but mainly in those without the symbionts. In contrast, in soybean, the increases in malondialdehyde and total thiols associated with rising Cu concentration were a little higher (1.2-5.0 and 1.0-1.6 times respectively) in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium than without. Finally, the organ most sensitive to Cu excess was generally the shoot, both in white lupin and soybean grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Further, Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis appears to increase the tolerance to Cu excess in both legumes, but mainly in white lupin; plant growth was less reduced and CTC10% and EC50 values increased compared to plants grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Bradyrhizobium N2 fixation in both legumes would therefore seem to increase the phytoremediation potential of these plants when growing on Cu-contaminated sites. PMID:24580814

Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Zornoza, Pilar

2014-04-01

173

The exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-endopeptidase of Streptomyces albus G. Interaction with beta-lactam antibiotics.  

PubMed

Kinetically, the three-step model proposed for the interaction between beta-lactam antibiotics and the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidases-transpeptidases of Streptomyces R61 and Actinomadura R39 [Frère, Ghuysen & Iwatsubo (1975) Eur. J. Biochem. 57, 343--357; Fuad, Frère, Ghuysen, Duez & Iwatsubo (1976) Biochem. J. 155, 623--629] applies to the interaction between the much less penicillin-sensitive exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-endopeptidase of Streptomyces albus G and at least phenoxymethylpenicillin, cephalothin and cephalosporin C. The penicillin resistance of the albus G enzyme is mainly due to the low efficiency with which the first reversible complex formed with the antibiotic (complex EI) undergoes transformation into a second more stable complex EI*. Analysis of the ternary interaction between enzyme, NalphaNepsilon-diacetyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine (Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala) and cephalosporin C indicates a non-competitive mechanism. PMID:105727

Frère, J M; Geurts, F; Ghuysen, J M

1978-12-01

174

Preliminary evaluation of annually cultivated forage legumes for organic farming in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Finland, the most common legume in organic farming is Trifolium pratense, which cultivation needs to be broken regularly to maintain high productivity. Use of annuals also decreases peaks of field work and increases open field area for manure. In 1998-2001, 19 forage legume species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, Medicago littoralis, Medicago scutellata, Melilotus albus, Melilotus officinalis, Pisum

P. Nykänen-Kurki; P. Leinonen; A. Nykänen

175

Tracking nickel-adaptive biomarkers in Pisolithus albus from New Caledonia using a transcriptomic approach.  

PubMed

The fungus Pisolithus albus forms ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations with plants growing on extreme ultramafic soils, which are naturally rich in heavy metals such as nickel. Both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive isolates of P. albus are found in ultramafic soils in New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot in the Southwest Pacific. The aim of this work was to monitor the expression of genes involved in the specific molecular response to nickel in a nickel-tolerant P. albus isolate. We used pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approaches to investigate and compare the transcriptomes of the nickel-tolerant isolate MD06-337 in the presence and absence of nickel. A total of 1,071,375 sequencing reads were assembled to infer expression patterns of 19,518 putative genes. Comparison of expression levels revealed that 30% of the identified genes were modulated by nickel treatment. The genes, for which expression was induced most markedly by nickel, encoded products that were putatively involved in a variety of biological functions, such as the modification of cellular components (53%), regulation of biological processes (27%) and molecular functions (20%). The 10 genes that pyrosequencing analysis indicated were induced the most by nickel were characterized further by qPCR analysis of both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive P. albus isolates. Five of these genes were expressed exclusively in nickel-tolerant isolates as well as in ECM samples in situ, which identified them as potential biomarkers for nickel tolerance in this species. These results clearly suggest a positive transcriptomic response of the fungus to nickel-rich environments. The presence of both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive fungal phenotypes in ultramafic soils might reflect environment-dependent phenotypic responses to variations in the effective concentrations of nickel in heterogeneous ultramafic habitats. PMID:22429322

Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Soupe, Marie-Estelle; Carriconde, Fabian; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel; Jourand, Philippe

2012-05-01

176

Complete mitogenome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus: genetic structure and comparative genomics within Echinozoa.  

PubMed

The edible Chilean red sea urchin, Loxechinus albus, is the only species of its genus and endemic to the Southeastern Pacific. In this study, we reconstructed the mitochondrial genome of L. albus by combining Sanger and pyrosequencing technologies. The mtDNA genome had a length of 15,737 bp and encoded the same 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes as other animal mtDNAs. The size of this mitogenome was similar to those of other Echinodermata species. Structural comparisons showed a highly conserved structure, composition, and gene order within Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in Asteroidea and Crinoidea, with the majority of differences explained by the inversions of some tRNA genes. Phylogenetic reconstruction supported the monophyly of Echinozoa and recovered the monophyletic relationship of Holothuroidea and Echinoidea. Within Holothuroidea, Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses recovered a sister-group relationship between Dendrochirotacea and Aspidochirotida. Similarly within Echinoidea, these analyses revealed that L. albus was closely related to Paracentrotus lividus, both being part of a sister group to Strongylocentrotidae and Echinometridae. In addition, two major clades were found within Strongylocentrotidae. One of these clades comprised all of the representative species Strongylocentrotus and Hemicentrotus, whereas the other included species of Mesocentrotus and Pseudocentrotus. PMID:25433433

Cea, Graciela; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Cárdenas, Leyla

2014-11-30

177

Biochemical and Mutational Analysis of Glutamine Synthetase Type III from the Rumen Anaerobe Ruminococcus albus 8  

PubMed Central

Two different genes encoding glutamine synthetase type I (GSI) and GSIII were identified in the genome sequence of R. albus 8. The identity of the GSIII protein was confirmed by the presence of its associated conserved motifs. The glnN gene, encoding the GSIII, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells. The recombinant protein was purified and subjected to biochemical and physical analyses. Subunit organization suggested a protein present in solution as both monomers and oligomers. Kinetic studies using the forward and the ?-glutamyl transferase (?-GT) assays were carried out. Mutations that changed conserved glutamic acid residues to alanine in the four GSIII motifs resulted in drastic decreases in GS activity using both assays, except for an E380A mutation, which rather resulted in an increase in activity in the forward assay compared to the wild-type protein. Reduced GSIII activity was also exhibited by mutating, individually, two lysines (K308 and K318) located in the putative nucleotide-binding site to alanine. Most importantly, the presence of mRNA transcripts of the glnN gene in R. albus 8 cells grown under ammonia limiting conditions, whereas little or no transcript was detected in cells grown under ammonia sufficient conditions, suggested an important role for the GSIII in the nitrogen metabolism of R. albus 8. Furthermore, the mutational studies on the conserved GSIII motifs demonstrated, for the first time, their importance in the structure and/or function of a GSIII protein. PMID:16237031

Amaya, Kensey R.; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana A.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

2005-01-01

178

Comparison of sweet white lupin seeds with soybean meal as a protein supplement for lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Data were from 45 Holstein cows (23 multiparous, 22 primiparous) assigned by calving date and parity within groups to one of two isonitrogenous (16% crude protein) diets. The diets were 50% forages (corn silage, alfalfa silage) and 50% concentrate, dry basis. In diet A, soybean meal supplied 34.2% of total crude protein; in diet B, ground sweet white lupin seeds provided 37.9% of total crude protein. Cows were fed once daily during the experimental period (d 4 to 116 postpartum). Cows fed lupins consumed significantly less dry matter, produced 1.8 kg/d less milk (but not significantly different), and had lower milk protein percent. Milk fat and total solids percents were similar. Reasons for reduced intake of cows fed lupins were not evident. Traces of alkaloids (.005% dry basis) were present in diet B. Combined results of in vitro continuous culture fermentation and in situ degradation measurements indicated that crude protein from lupins was more degradable than that of soybean meal. Poor performances of cows fed lupins could be partly due to a reduced true protein supply to the small intestine. PMID:3693636

Guillaume, B; Otterby, D E; Linn, J G; Stern, M D; Johnson, D G

1987-11-01

179

Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6T, a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas  

PubMed Central

Microvirga lupini LUT6T is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6T was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6T forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project. PMID:25197490

Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

2014-01-01

180

THE POTENTIAL OF THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS, MUSCODOR ALBUS, AS A BIO-CONTROL AGENT AGAINST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN WASHINGTON STATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus Muscodor albus produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals with activity against post-harvest disease causing organisms, insect pests of harvested fruit and tubers, and soil-borne disease causing agents and plant parasitic nematodes. M. albus was tested for its potenti...

181

Macroinvertebrate composition and patterns of prey use by juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska.  

E-print Network

Macroinvertebrate composition and patterns of prey use by juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albusMacroinvertebrate composition and patterns of prey use by juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska. By Kristen Lee Grohs A thesis submitted

182

YEAR TO YEAR VARIATION IN ALKALOID CONCENTRATION IN LUPINUS LEUCOPHYLLUS GROWING ON THE SCABLANDS OF CENTRAL WASHINGTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There was substantial year to year variation in total alkaloid concentration of lupines at all sites. Total alkaloid concentration over the 5 year period varied from two-fold to eight-fold at the individual sites. In any one year the change-trend in total alkaloid concentration was the same at eac...

183

SPARSE-1997 DENSE-2002 Potholes are small (typically about 12 m2  

E-print Network

potholes were sampled to determine the effects of Lupinus lepidus. This was undertaken because lupines. These samples tend to be dominated by Penstemon, Lupinus, or mosses to a greater degree than do the potholes

del Moral, Roger

184

Reference gene selection for real-time RT-PCR normalization in rice field eel (Monopterus albus) during gonad development.  

PubMed

Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) requires data normalization using an appropriate reference gene in order to obtain more reliable results with biological significance. We cloned a partial sequence of elongation factor-1-? (EF1?) and ribosomal protein L17 (RPL17) from Monopterus albus. We investigated the suitability of five commonly used reference genes [18S ribosomal RNA (18S), cytoskeletal protein (?-actin), glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), EF1? and RPL17] as potential quantitative reference genes for normalizing real-time RT-PCR data generated in gonads of different developmental stages and in other tissues of M. albus. Analysis of the data indicated that 18S, ?-actin and GAPDH are not suitable as reference genes because of their levels of variations of expression. EF1? and RPL17 might be suitable as reference genes in the gonads of different developmental stages as well as in other tissues of M. albus. PMID:25079246

Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

2014-12-01

185

Original article Increase in the concentrations of amino acids  

E-print Network

in the vascular tissue, act as trigger molecules. Trifolium repens / Lupinus albus / xylem / phloem / nitrogen dans le tissu vasculaire, agissent comme des molécules de déclenchement. Trifolium repens / Lupinus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

[Sinorhizobium meliloti strains screening for efficient bactarization of Melilotus albus Medik].  

PubMed

The data presents about analytical selection of root nodule bacteria of Melilotus to obtain bacterial fertilizer under sweet clover, presowing inoculation of it seeds and form a legume-rhizobial effective symbiosis. From natural melilot population a number of new strains had been allocated, inoculation of them was contributed to an increase of height. biomass Melilotus albus Medik., and nitrogenase activity in comparison to the influence of the existing production strains. The identification of most effective strains Sinorhizobium meliloti had been determined. PMID:25007439

Patyka, V P; Ovsiienko, O L; Kalinichenko, A V

2014-01-01

187

Über das Vorkommen und den Nachweis eines Saponins in Melilotus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  1. Es wurde ein Saponin in der Wurzel vonMellitus albus gefunden und der qualitative, histochemische und quantitative Nachweis durchgeführt.\\u000a \\u000a 2. Das Saponin der Meliotuswurzel gehört dem sogenannten „Typus II“, weil seine Hämolysewirkung beim Ph. 5,6, also im sauren\\u000a Gebiet liegt. Zu dieser Gruppe gehören auch unter anderm die Saponine vonSpinat und Futterrübe.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. Über die chemische Zusammensetzung (Formel etc.) des

Erich Funck

1938-01-01

188

Myopathy in cattle induced by alkaloid extracts from Thermopsis montanta, Laburnum anagyroides and a Lupinus sp.  

PubMed

A purified alkaloid preparation containing N-methylcytisine, cytisine, 5,6-dehydrolupanine, thermopsine and anagyrine from Thermopsis montana induced prolonged recumbency and microscopic acute hyaline skeletal myodegeneration with myofibre regeneration in cattle similar in type and severity to that induced by Thermopsis montanta plant material. This indicates that the alkaloid(s) of Thermopsis montana are responsible for the myopathy caused by the plant. An alkaloid preparation containing mostly anagyrine from a Lupinus sp. and an alkaloid preparation containing only cytisine from Laburnum anagyroides each caused microscopic skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis similar to, but less severe than, the alkaloid extract from T. montana, but without clinical recumbency. Dosage and severity of response suggest that neither of those two alkaloids alone can account for the effects induced by Thermopsis. The data suggest that quinolizidine alkaloids with a alpha-pyridone A-ring may be responsible for the lesions and that individual alpha-pyridones may have additive effects. PMID:2246392

Keeler, R F; Baker, D C

1990-08-01

189

Genome sequence of the Ornithopus/Lupinus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471  

PubMed Central

Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing root nodule formed on the annual legume Ornithopus pinnatus (Miller) Druce growing at Oyster Harbour, Albany district, Western Australia in 1982. This strain is in commercial production as an inoculant for Lupinus and Ornithopus. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,784,016 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 1 scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,372 protein-coding genes and 58 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976882

Reeve, Wayne; De Meyer, Sofie; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

2013-01-01

190

Chemical and biochemical generation of carbohydrates from lignocellulose-feedstock (Lupinus nootkatensis)--quantification of glucose.  

PubMed

Different chemical and enzymatic methods were applied for the hydrolysis of main stems from Lupinus nootkatensis (harvest November 2002). The whole process (all steps) is based on the lignocellulose-feedstock biorefinery regime. The acid hydrolysis of L. was performed with concentrated hydrochloric acid; advantages in this process are exothermic hydrolysis and the possibility of acid recovery. Enzymatic hydrolysis achieved high yields of fermentable carbohydrates (regarding to input cellulose) with high selectivity. However, this way requires the generation of cellulose from L. by chemical pulping. Monosaccharide derivatives thus obtained were identified by their GC retention times and the corresponding MS fragmentation. Hexamethyldisilazane was used as derivatization reagent to prepare the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the carbohydrates and of the degradations products of cellulose from the different fractions. The glucose content was quantified by GC peak integration with respect to an internal standard. PMID:15893787

Kamm, B; Kamm, M; Schmidt, M; Starke, I; Kleinpeter, E

2006-01-01

191

SOME BROADLEAF HERBICIDES USED IN MIXTURES WITH GLYPHOSATE MAY HINDER THE GROWTH OF NARROW-LEAFED LUPIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In southern Chile, glyphosate is often complemented with broadleaf herbicides to improve the control of weeds like Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg., Hypochaeris radicata L., Plantago lanceolata L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Veronica persica Poiret , and Trifolium repens L. prior to sowing lupin or canola. The broadleaf herbicides may persist in the soil for unpredictable periods, depending on

Nelson Espinoza; Mario Mer

192

SHOOT SIGNALS AND MOLECULAR REGULATION OF P-DEFICIENCY INDUCED GENES IN CLUSTER ROOTS OF WHITE LUPIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin has unique developmental and biochemical adaptations to acquire phosphorus (P) under P-deficient conditions including: cluster root formation and enhanced expression of many genes involved in cluster root development and metabolism; exudation of enzymes and organic acids from roots; incr...

193

Spatial scales of genetic structure and gene flow in Calochortus albus (Liliaceae)  

PubMed Central

Calochortus (Liliaceae) displays high species richness, restriction of many individual taxa to narrow ranges, geographic coherence of individual clades, and parallel adaptive radiations in different regions. Here we test the first part of a hypothesis that all of these patterns may reflect gene flow at small geographic scales. We use amplified fragment length polymorphism variation to quantify the geographic scales of spatial genetic structure and apparent gene flow in Calochortus albus, a widespread member of the genus, at Henry Coe State Park in the Coast Ranges south of San Francisco Bay. Analyses of 254 mapped individuals spaced 0.001–14.4 km apart show a highly significant decline in genetic identity with ln distance, implying a root-mean-square distance of gene flow ? of 5–43 m. STRUCTURE analysis implies the existence of 2–4 clusters over the study area, with frequent reversals among clusters over short distances (<200 m) and a relatively high frequency of admixture within individuals at most sampling sites. While the intensity of spatial genetic structure in C. albus is weak, as measured by the Sp statistic, that appears to reflect low genetic identity of adjacent plants, which might reflect repeated colonizations at small spatial scales or density-dependent mortality of individual genotypes by natural enemies. Small spatial scales of gene flow and spatial genetic structure should permit, under a variety of conditions, genetic differentiation within species at such scales, setting the stage ultimately for speciation and adaptive radiation as such scales as well. PMID:23789059

Henss, Jillian M; Moeller, Jackson R; Theim, Terra J; Givnish, Thomas J

2013-01-01

194

Effect of 3-Phenylpropanoic Acid on Capsule and Cellulases of Ruminococcus albus 8  

PubMed Central

The morphology and cellulases of Ruminococcus albus 8 were markedly affected by the inclusion of 3-phenylpropanoic acid (PPA) in a defined growth medium. PPA-grown bacteria produced substantial quantities of cell-bound cellulase, as well as a very high-molecular-weight extracellular enzyme and lesser amounts of two low-molecular-weight enzymes. PPA-deprived bacteria produced greater total amounts of cellulase, but all of it exists in soluble, low-molecular-weight forms. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the availability of PPA did not affect the kinds of proteins produced, but the distribution of two major proteins between cells and supernatant was PPA dependent. These two proteins (85 and 102 kilodaltons) were primarily associated with the cells of PPA-grown bacteria but were found chiefly in the supernatants of PPA-deprived cultures. Examination of thin sections of PPA-grown R. albus 8 by transmission electron microscopy showed a lobed ruthenium red-staining capsule surrounding the cell wall, as well as small vesicular structures (diameter, 0.05 to 0.06 ?m) which appeared to aggregate into larger spherical units (diameter, 0.2 to 0.3 ?m). In contrast, thin sections of PPA-deprived cells were devoid of vesicles and showed little or no capsule surrounding the cells. Images PMID:16346590

Stack, Robert J.; Hungate, Robert E.

1984-01-01

195

Activation and identification of five clusters for secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus J1074  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces albus?J1074 is a streptomycete strain widely used as a host for expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of this organism predicts the presence of 27 gene clusters for secondary metabolites. We have used three different strategies for the activation of some of these silent/cryptic gene clusters in S.?albus?J1074: two hybrid polyketide-non-ribosomal peptides (PK-NRP) (antimycin and 6-epi-alteramides), a type I PK (candicidin), a non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) (indigoidine) and glycosylated compounds (paulomycins). By insertion of a strong and constitutive promoter in front of selected genes of two clusters, production of the blue pigment indigoidine and of two novel members of the polycyclic tetramate macrolactam family (6-epi-alteramides A and B) was activated. Overexpression of positive regulatory genes from the same organism also activated the biosynthesis of 6-epi-alteramides and heterologous expression of the regulatory gene pimM of the pimaricin cluster activated the simultaneous production of candicidins and antimycins, suggesting some kind of cross-regulation between both clusters. A cluster for glycosylated compounds (paulomycins) was also identified by comparison of the high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the wild-type strain with that of a mutant in which two key enzymes of the cluster were simultaneously deleted. PMID:24593309

Olano, Carlos; García, Ignacio; González, Aranzazu; Rodriguez, Miriam; Rozas, Daniel; Rubio, Julio; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Braña, Alfredo F; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A

2014-01-01

196

Unique aspects of fiber degradation by the ruminal ethanologen Ruminococcus albus 7 revealed by physiological and transcriptomic analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus are important and ubiquitous members of mammalian guts. In particular, ruminococci are key contributors to the rumen ecosystem because they are capable of digesting a wide range of plant cell wall polysaccharides. In bovines, Ruminococcus albus 7 is a primary cellu...

197

Gene cloning and induced expression pattern of IRF4 and IRF10 in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus).  

PubMed

The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish in East Asia, but data on the immune genes of M. albus are scarce compared to other commercially important fish. A better understanding of the eel's immune responses may help in developing strategies for disease management, potentially improving yields and mitigating losses. In mammals, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play a vital role in both the innate and adaptive immune system; though among teleosts IRF4 and IRF10 have seldom been studied. In this study, we characterized IRF4 and IRF10 from M. albus (maIRF4 and maIRF10) and found that maIRF4 cDNA consists of 1 716 nucleotides encoding a 451 amino acid (aa) protein, while maIRF10 consists of 1 744 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 236 nt encoding 411 aa. The maIRF10 gene was constitutively expressed at high levels in a variety of tissues, while maIRF4 showed a very limited expression pattern. Expression of maIRF4 and maIRF10 in head kidney, and spleen tissues was significantly up-regulated from 12 h to 48 h post-stimulation with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a common pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. These results suggest that IRF4 and IRF10 play roles in immune responses to both viral and bacterial infections in M. albus. PMID:25297077

Xu, Qiao-Qing; Yang, Dai-Qin; Tuo, Rui; Wan, Jing; Chang, Ming-Xian; Nie, Pin

2014-09-18

198

Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in Hokkaido, Japan. Body temperature of N. p. albus decreased from 38°C in autumn to 35.9-36.7°C while maintaining a circadian rhythm in late February ( n = 3). A transient 18-36% decrease in resting heart rate occurred when body temperature was low ( n = 2). Despite a 33-45% decrease in body weight due to winter fasting, circulating glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels were maintained ( n = 4). Serum urea nitrogen dropped by 43-45% from autumn to spring, suggesting protein conservation during fasting. The overwintering survival strategy of N. p. albus in central Hokkaido is based upon large changes in seasonal activity patterns, winter denning and communal housing without the large decrease in body temperature that is characteristic of subarctic animals exhibiting hibernation or torpor.

Kitao, Naoya; Fukui, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Osborne, Peter G.

2009-03-01

199

SUBGROUP 16SRIII-F PHYTOPLASMA STRAINS IN AN INVASIVE PLANT, HERACLEUM SOSNOWSKYI, AND AN ORNAMENTAL, DICTAMNUS ALBUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytoplasma strains were detected in an aggressive and widespread, invasive plant species, Heracleum sosnowskyi (hogweed), and in an ornamental, Dictamnus albus (gas plant), exhibiting yellows disease symptoms in northern Lithuania. Analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNAs revealed that the strains, des...

200

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE, INOCULATION INTERVAL, AND DOSAGE ON BIOFUMIGATION WITH MUSCODOR ALBUS TO CONTROL POSTHARVEST GRAY MOLD ON GRAPES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gray mold incidence (GMI) on berries inoculated with Botrytis cinerea 3, 24, or 48 h before continuous exposure to volatiles of Muscodor albus at 50 g rye culture/kg of berries during 7 days of storage at 20C was 0.8, 10, or 52.5%, respectively, and 65.8% among control berries. GMI on berries inocul...

201

Mycofumigation by the Volatile Organic Compound-Producing Fungus Muscodor albus Induces Bacterial Cell Death through DNA Damage.  

PubMed

Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M. albus. Furthermore, the sensitivity of knockouts involved in the repair of specific DNA alkyl adducts suggests that the VOCs may induce alkylation. Evidence of DNA damage suggests that these adducts lead to breaks during DNA replication or transcription if not properly repaired. Additional cytotoxicity profiling indicated that during VOC exposure, E. coli became filamentous and demonstrated an increase in cellular membrane fluidity. The volatile nature of the toxic compounds produced by M. albus and their broad range of inhibition make this fungus an attractive biological agent. Understanding the antimicrobial effects and the VOC mode of action will inform the utility and safety of potential mycofumigation applications for M. albus. PMID:25452287

Alpha, Cambria J; Campos, Manuel; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Strobel, Scott A

2015-02-01

202

Gastroenteropancreatic Hormones (Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin, and Multiple Forms of PYY) from the Pallid Sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (Acipenseriformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin-14, and three structurally related molecular forms of peptide tyrosine–tyrosine (PYY) were isolated from an extract of the combined pancreas and gastrointestinal tract of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. Pallid sturgeon insulin was identical to insulin from the Russian sturgeon, Acipenser guldenstaedti, and to insulin-2 from the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, and was approximately twofold less potent than human

Joseph B. Kim; Vibeke Gadsbøll; Jonathan Whittaker; Bruce A. Barton; J. Michael Conlon

2000-01-01

203

Effects of lupin-enriched foods on body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a 12-month randomized controlled weight loss trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Regular consumption of diets with increased protein or fibre intakes may benefit body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lupin flour is a novel food ingredient high in protein and fibre.Objective:To investigate the effects of a lupin-enriched diet, during and following energy restriction, on body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight individuals.Design:Participants (n=131) were

R Belski; T A Mori; I B Puddey; S Sipsas; R J Woodman; T R Ackland; L J Beilin; E R Dove; N B Carlyon; V Jayaseena; J M Hodgson

2011-01-01

204

Complete genome sequence of Thermocrinis albus type strain (HI 11/12T)  

PubMed Central

Thermocrinis albus Eder and Huber 2002 is one of three species in the genus Thermocrinis in the family Aquificaceae. Members of this family have become of significant interest because of their involvement in global biogeochemical cycles in high-temperature ecosystems. This interest had already spurred several genome sequencing projects for members of the family. We here report the first completed genome sequence a member of the genus Thermocrinis and the first type strain genome from a member of the family Aquificaceae. The 1,500,577 bp long genome with its 1,603 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:21304702

Wirth, Reinhard; Sikorski, Johannes; Brambilla, Evelyne; Misra, Monica; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Tapia, Roxane; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Pati, Amrita; Anderson, Iain; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Bilek, Yvonne; Hader, Thomas; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Tindall, Brian J.; Rohde, Manfred; Göker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

2010-01-01

205

Litoribrevibacter albus gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from coastal seawater, Fujian Province, China.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain negative, short rod-shaped aerobic bacterium with flagella, designated strain Y32(T), was isolated from coastal seawater in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain Y32(T) is a member of the family Oceanospirillaceae, forming a distinct lineage with species of the genus Litoribacillus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain Y32(T) and other strains were all less than 94.0 %. Strain Y32(T) was found to grow optimally at 28 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 4-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids were identified as Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c, 49.4 %), C16:0 (17.7 %), C14:0 (6.9 %) and C18:1 ?9c (5.4 %). The major respiratory quinone was identified as ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain Y32(T) was determined to be 55.6 mol%. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition, polar lipids composition and 16S rRNA gene sequence data, strain Y32(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Oceanospirillaceae, for which the name Litoribrevibacter albus gen. nov. sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Litoribrevibacter albus is Y32(T) (=MCCC 1F01211(T)=NBRC 110071(T)). PMID:25193025

Li, Yi; Zhu, Hong; Lai, Qiliang; Lei, Xueqian; Zhang, Huajun; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

2014-11-01

206

Aquibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake, and reclassification of Virgibacillus koreensis as Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. and Virgibacillus albus as Aquibacillus albus comb. nov.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain B6B(T), was isolated from the water of an Iranian hypersaline lake, Aran-Bidgol, and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain B6B(T) were rod-shaped, motile and produced ellipsoidal endospores in terminal positions in non-swollen sporangia. Strain B6B(T) was a strictly aerobic bacterium and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-20.0% (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 10.0% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain B6B(T) was shown to belong to the phylum Firmicutes and its closest phylogenetic similarities were with the species Virgibacillus koreensis BH30097(T) (97.5%), Virgibacillus albus YIM 93624(T) (97.4%), Sediminibacillus halophilus EN8d(T) (96.8%), Sediminibacillus albus NHBX5(T) (96.6%), Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964(T) (96.3%) and Paraliobacillus quinghaiensis YIM-C158(T) (96.0%), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain B6B(T), along with V. koreensis BH30097(T) and V. albus YIM 93624(T), clustered in a separate clade in the family Bacillaceae. The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was 35.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed low levels of relatedness between strain B6B(T)and V. koreensis BH30097(T) (13%) and V. albus YIM 93624(T) (33%). The major cellular fatty acid of strain B6B(T) was anteiso-C15 : 0 (75.1%) and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown glycolipid. The isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (90%) and MK-6 (3%). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. All of these features support the placement of isolate B6B(T) within the phylum Firmicutes. It is closely related to V. koreensis and V. albus, but with features that clearly distinguish it from species of the genus Virgibacillus or of other related genera. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence derived in this study, we propose that strain B6B(T) be placed within a new genus, as Aquibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., with B6B(T) as the type strain (?=IBRC-M 10775(T)?=KCTC 13828(T)). We also propose that V. koreensis and V. albus should be transferred to this new genus and be named Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. and Aquibacillus albus comb. nov., respectively. The type strain of Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. is BH30097(T) (?=KCTC 3823(T)?=IBRC-M 10657(T)?=JCM 12387(T)) and the type strain of Aquibacillus albus comb. nov. is YIM 93624(T) (?=DSM 23711(T)?=IBRC-M 10798(T)?=JCM 17364(T)). PMID:25062698

Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Bagheri, Maryam; Didari, Maryam; Mehrshad, Maliheh; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

2014-11-01

207

Proteolytic Cleavage at Twin Arginine Residues Affects Structural and Functional Transitions of Lupin Seed 11S Storage Globulin.  

PubMed

The 11S storage globulin of white lupin seeds binds to a metal affinity chromatography matrix. Two unusual stretches of contiguous histidine residues, reminiscent of the multiple histidines forming metal binding motifs, at the C-terminal end of 11S globulin acidic chains were hypothesized as candidate elements responsible for the binding capacity. To prove this, the protein was incubated with a lupin seed endopeptidase previously shown to cleave at twin arginine motifs, recurrent in the sequence region of interest. Upon incubation with this enzyme, the loss of metal binding capacity paralleled that of the anti-his-tag reactive polypeptides. The recovered small proteolytic fragment was analyzed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing and found to correspond to the 24-mer region cleaved off at twin arginine residues and containing the natural his-tag-like region. Similarly, when lupin seeds were germinated for a few days, the his-tag containing 11S globulin chain was converted to a form devoid of such region, suggesting that this mechanism is a part of the natural degradatory process of the protein. The hypothesis that the ordered and controlled dismantling of storage proteins may generate peptide fragments with potential functional roles in plant ontogenesis is presented and discussed. PMID:25658355

Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Croy, Ron R D; Duranti, Marcello

2015-01-01

208

Proteolytic Cleavage at Twin Arginine Residues Affects Structural and Functional Transitions of Lupin Seed 11S Storage Globulin  

PubMed Central

The 11S storage globulin of white lupin seeds binds to a metal affinity chromatography matrix. Two unusual stretches of contiguous histidine residues, reminiscent of the multiple histidines forming metal binding motifs, at the C-terminal end of 11S globulin acidic chains were hypothesized as candidate elements responsible for the binding capacity. To prove this, the protein was incubated with a lupin seed endopeptidase previously shown to cleave at twin arginine motifs, recurrent in the sequence region of interest. Upon incubation with this enzyme, the loss of metal binding capacity paralleled that of the anti-his-tag reactive polypeptides. The recovered small proteolytic fragment was analyzed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing and found to correspond to the 24-mer region cleaved off at twin arginine residues and containing the natural his-tag-like region. Similarly, when lupin seeds were germinated for a few days, the his-tag containing 11S globulin chain was converted to a form devoid of such region, suggesting that this mechanism is a part of the natural degradatory process of the protein. The hypothesis that the ordered and controlled dismantling of storage proteins may generate peptide fragments with potential functional roles in plant ontogenesis is presented and discussed. PMID:25658355

Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Croy, Ron R. D.; Duranti, Marcello

2015-01-01

209

Does the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus increase pollinator visitation to a native herb through effects on pollinator population sizes?  

PubMed

Invasive plants may compete with native species for abiotic factors as light, space and nutrients, and have also been shown to affect native pollination interactions. Studies have mainly focused on how invasive plants affect pollinator behaviour, i.e. attraction of pollinators to or away from native flowers. However, when an invasive plant provides resources utilized by native pollinators this could increase pollinator population sizes and thereby pollination success in natives. Effects mediated through changes in pollinator population sizes have been largely ignored in previous studies, and the dominance of negative interactions suggested by meta-analyses may therefore be biased. We investigated the impact of the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus on pollination in the native Lotus corniculatus using a study design comparing invaded and uninvaded sites before and after the flowering period of the invasive. We monitored wild bee abundance in transects, and visit rate and seed production of potted Lotus plants. Bumblebee abundance increased 3.9 times in invaded sites during the study period, whereas it was unaltered in uninvaded sites. Total visit rate per Lotus plant increased 2.1 times in invaded sites and decreased 4.4 times in uninvaded sites. No corresponding change in seed production of Lotus was found. The increase in visit rate to Lotus was driven by an increase in solitary bee visitation, whereas mainly bumblebees were observed to visit the invasive Lupinus. The mechanism by which the invasive increases pollinator visit rates to Lotus could be increased availability of other flower resources for solitary bees when bumblebees forage on Lupinus. PMID:24061551

Jakobsson, Anna; Padrón, Benigno

2014-01-01

210

A study of the products of the hydrolysis of the xylan of Melilotus albus by endo-1 4-?-xylanase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic hydrolysis of a 4-0-methylglucuronoxylan of white sweetclover (Melilotus albus) by a highly purified homogeneous endo-1, 4-?-xylanase fromAspergillus niger 14 has shown that the enzyme hydrolyzes 97% of the polysaccharide in 72 h. Acidic and neutral oligosaccharides were found\\u000a in the hydrolysate after the action of the enzyme. An investigation of the hexauronic acid isolated has shown that the

M. S. Dudkin; N. A. Rodionova; I. S. Kazanskaya; I. V. Gorbacheva; E. I. Kozarez; N. A. Denisyuk

1980-01-01

211

Triterpene and steroid glycosides of the genus Melilotus and their genins II. Melilotoside D from the roots of Melilotus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new triterpene glycoside of the oleanane series — melilotoside D — has been isolated from the roots of plantMelilotus albus Medik. (Leguminosae). Melilotoside D is a tetraoside of soyasapogenol B. Its structure has been shown on the basis of chemical\\u000a transformations and spectral characteristics as soyasapogenol B 3-O-{[O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-[O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-arabinopyranoside}.

A. S. Shashkov; G. V. Khodakov; Yu. A. Akimov; P. K. Kintya; V. I. Grishkovets

1994-01-01

212

Potential value of a dwarf mutant in breeding coumarin deficient forms of white sweet clover ( Melilotus albus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Crosses were carried out between aMelilotus albus variety with a normal growth habit and a natural dwarf mutant form.2.The dwarf mutant is of no value for breeding since it has a completely changed developmental physiology and growth habit. It is of value in that coumarin is present in trace amounts only.3.The segregation ratios found in the F2 and in further

J. Jaranowski

1964-01-01

213

Nucleotide sequence of the Ruminococcus albus SY3 endoglucanase genes ce1A and ce1B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequences of Ruminococcus albus genes celA and celB coding for endoglucanase A (EGA) and endoglucanase B (EGB), respectively, have been determined. The celA structural gene consists of an open reading frame of 1095 bp. Confirmation of the nucleotide sequence was obtained by comparing the predicted amino acid sequence with that derived by N-terminal analysis of purified EGA.

Debbie M. Poole; Geoffrey P. Hazlewood; Judith I. Laurie; Patrick J. Barker; Harry J. Gilbert

1990-01-01

214

Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8%

Songhun Jang; Fang Zhou; Laixin Xia; Wei Zhao; Hanhua Cheng; Rongjia Zhou

2006-01-01

215

Characterization of two molecular forms of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (Acipenseriformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was isolated in two molecular forms from an extract of the gastroenteropancreatic\\u000a system of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (Acipenseriformes). VIP-1 was identical to the peptide previously isolated from the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the bowfin, Amia calva, consistent with the proposed sister group relationship of the Acipenseriformes and the Neopterygii. Sturgeon VIP-2 contained\\u000a the

J. B. Kim; B. A. Barton; J. M. Conlon

2001-01-01

216

Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus. PMID:25363394

Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

2014-01-01

217

Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus  

PubMed Central

We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus. PMID:25363394

Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

2014-01-01

218

Lupin protein isolate versus casein modifies cholesterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters in a pig model  

PubMed Central

Background Lupin proteins exert hypocholesterolemic effects in man and animals, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we investigated whether lupin proteins compared to casein modulate sterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters by use of pigs as an animal model with similar lipid metabolism as humans, and cellular cholesterol-uptake by Caco-2 cells. Methods Two groups of pigs were fed cholesterol-containing diets with either 230 g/kg of lupin protein isolate from L. angustifolius or 230 g/kg casein, for 4 weeks. Faeces were collected quantitatively over a 5 d period for analysis of neutral sterols and bile acids by gas chromatographically methods. The mRNA abundances of intestinal lipid transporters were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol-uptake studies were performed with Caco-2 cells that were incubated with lupin conglutin ?, phytate, ezetimibe or albumin in the presence of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol. Results Pigs fed the lupin protein isolate revealed lower cholesterol concentrations in total plasma, LDL and HDL than pigs fed casein (P?lupin protein isolate compared to pigs that received casein (+57.1%; P?lupin protein isolate than in those who received casein (P?lupin protein isolate is attributable to an increased faecal output of cholesterol and a reduced intestinal uptake of cholesterol. The findings indicate phytate as a possible biofunctional ingredient of lupin protein isolate. PMID:24490902

2014-01-01

219

Flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract and evaluation of its neuroprotective effect.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (200±10 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 ?g of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 ?g estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p?0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p?0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p?0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons. PMID:24723146

Uribe-Gómez, José de Jesús; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; García-López, Pedro Macedonio

2014-11-01

220

The three-dimensional structure of the Nudix enzyme diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase from Lupinus angustifolius L.  

PubMed

The solution structure of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate hydrolase from Lupinus angustifolius L., an enzyme of the Nudix family, has been determined by heteronuclear NMR, using a torsion angle dynamics/simulated annealing protocol based on approximately 12 interresidue NOEs per residue. The structure represents the first Ap4A hydrolase to be determined, and sequence homology suggests that other members will have the same fold. The family of structures shows a well-defined fold comprised of a central four-stranded mixed beta-sheet, a two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and three helices (alphaI, alphaIII, alphaIV). The root-mean-squared deviation for the backbone (C',O,N,Calpha) of the rigid parts (residues 9 to 75, 97 to 115, 125 to 160) of the protein is 0.32 A. Several regions, however, show lower definition, particularly an isolated helix (alphaII) that connects two strands of the central sheet. This poor definition is mainly due to a lack of long-range NOEs between alphaII and other parts of the protein. Mapping conserved residues outside of the Nudix signature and those sensitive to an Ap4A analogue suggests that the adenosine-ribose moiety of the substrate binds into a large cleft above the four-stranded beta-sheet. Four conserved glutamate residues (Glu55, Glu58, Glu59 and Glu125) form a cluster that most likely ligates an essential magnesium ion, however, Gly41 also an expected magnesium ligand, is distant from this cluster. PMID:11183782

Swarbrick, J D; Bashtannyk, T; Maksel, D; Zhang, X R; Blackburn, G M; Gayler, K R; Gooley, P R

2000-10-01

221

Apparent competition with an invasive plant hastens the extinction of an endangered lupine.  

PubMed

Invasive plants may compete with native plants by increasing the pressure of native consumers, a mechanism known as "apparent competition." Apparent competition can be as strong as or stronger than direct competition, but the role of apparent competition has rarely been examined in biological invasions. We used four years of demographic data and seed-removal experiments to determine if introduced grasses caused elevated levels of seed consumption on native plant species in a coastal dune system in California, USA. We show that the endangered, coastal dune plant Lupinus tidestromii experiences high levels of pre-dispersal seed consumption by the native rodent Peromyscus maniculatus due to its proximity to the invasive grass, Ammophila arenaria. We use stage-structured, stochastic population models to project that two of three study populations will decline toward extinction under ambient levels of consumption. For one of these declining populations, a relatively small decrease in consumption pressure should allow for persistence. We show that apparent competition with an invasive species significantly decreases the population growth rate and persistence of a native species. We expect that apparent competition is an important mechanism in other ecosystems because invasive plants often change habitat structure and plant-consumer interactions. Possible implications of the apparent-competition mechanism include selective extinction of species preferred by seed consumers in the presence of an invasive species and biological homogenization of communities toward non-preferred native plant species. PMID:20836448

Dangremond, Emily M; Pardini, Eleanor A; Knight, Tiffany M

2010-08-01

222

Regio-selective bromination of multiflorine and structures of 3-bromomultiflorine and its molecular complex with succinimide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regio-specific bromination of multiflorine, an alkaloid isolated from Lupinus albus is described. The bromomultiflorine and its molecular complex with succinimide have been characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy, as well as by X-ray diffraction. The conformation in solution and in the solid state has been determined. The molecular complex formation between 3-bromomultiflorine and succinimide molecules is the first case in the class of lupine alkaloids. Both molecules of this complex are held together by an intermolecular hydrogen bond N?H⋯N which leads to a conversion of alkaloid nitrogen atom configuration. As a consequence, ring C adopts a chair conformation, whereas it is in a boat form in 3-bromomultiflorine.

Borowiak, Teresa; Kubicki, Maciej; Wysocka, Waleria; Przyby?, Anna

1998-02-01

223

The Pied Crow (Corvus albus) is insensitive to diclofenac at concentrations present in carrion.  

PubMed

Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), kills vultures (Gyps spp.) that consume tainted carcasses. As a result, vulture populations in India, Nepal, and Pakistan have been devastated. Studies on meloxicam and ketoprofen demonstrated that the toxicity of the NSAIDs is unpredictable, thereby necessitating individual testing of all available NSAIDs. Because it is no longer practical to use vultures for toxicity testing, we evaluated the Pied Crow (Corvus albus) as a model. Pied Crows (n=6) were exposed to a dose of 0.8 and 10 mg/kg of diclofenac, with no signs of toxicity, and a rapid half-life of elimination. Using primary renal cell and hepatocyte cultures, a high tolerance was demonstrated at the cellular level. Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic data for the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus) and the African White-backed (Gyps africanus), Cape Griffon (Gyps coprotheres), and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) showed a trend toward toxicity when the half-life of elimination increased. We conclude that the crow is not susceptible to diclofenac and, more important, that toxicity in the Gyps species is probably related to zero-order metabolism. PMID:22102664

Naidoo, Vinny; Mompati, Kefiloe Feliciity; Duncan, Neil; Taggart, Mark Anthony

2011-10-01

224

[Obtaining flour and protein concentrate from seeds of Melilotus albus. Study of the protein quality].  

PubMed

The present research was carried out to determine the nutritive quality of the flour and protein concentrate from Melilotus albus (white clover) seeds. The flour was studied first. The protein analysis showed methionine to be the first limiting amino acid with a chemical score of 25, with threonine as the second. The biological value obtained was 27. Supplementation studies were performed with different levels of methionine and it was found that the 0.3% level resulted in the best net performance. The biological value obtained under these conditions was 60. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) was also determined, with a value of 1.40 after being corrected with respect to casein. The protein was isolated after studying the pH optimum solubility and precipitation conditions until the flour coumarin compounds were eliminated. Further biological experiments were carried out with the supplemented isolated protein. Under these conditions, a PER value of 2.4 and a biological value of 69 were obtained. No toxicity was observed in rats of both sexes by administration of the protein concentrate during 60 days, at least in the parameters studied during this period. PMID:6442553

de Mucciarelli, S I; de Arellano, M L; de Pedernera, M M; Cid, J A; Guardia, C E

1984-03-01

225

Cloning and Characterization of the Polyether Salinomycin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Streptomyces albus XM211  

PubMed Central

Salinomycin is widely used in animal husbandry as a food additive due to its antibacterial and anticoccidial activities. However, its biosynthesis had only been studied by feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors. A strategy with degenerate primers based on the polyether-specific epoxidase sequences was successfully developed to clone the salinomycin gene cluster. Using this strategy, a putative epoxidase gene, slnC, was cloned from the salinomycin producer Streptomyces albus XM211. The targeted replacement of slnC and subsequent trans-complementation proved its involvement in salinomycin biosynthesis. A 127-kb DNA region containing slnC was sequenced, including genes for polyketide assembly and release, oxidative cyclization, modification, export, and regulation. In order to gain insight into the salinomycin biosynthesis mechanism, 13 gene replacements and deletions were conducted. Including slnC, 7 genes were identified as essential for salinomycin biosynthesis and putatively responsible for polyketide chain release, oxidative cyclization, modification, and regulation. Moreover, 6 genes were found to be relevant to salinomycin biosynthesis and possibly involved in precursor supply, removal of aberrant extender units, and regulation. Sequence analysis and a series of gene replacements suggest a proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of salinomycin. The information presented here expands the understanding of polyether biosynthesis mechanisms and paves the way for targeted engineering of salinomycin activity and productivity. PMID:22156425

Jiang, Chunyan; Wang, Hougen; Kang, Qianjin; Liu, Jing

2012-01-01

226

Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat. PMID:22538454

Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

2012-10-01

227

Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stocking is a commonly employed conservation strategy for endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. However, decisions about when, where and at what size pallid sturgeon should be stocked are hindered because vulnerability of pallid sturgeon to fish predation is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by two Missouri River predators under different flow regimes, and in combination with alternative prey. To document vulnerability, age-0 pallid sturgeon (<100 mm) were offered to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in laboratory experiments. Selection of pallid sturgeon by both predators was measured by offering pallid sturgeon and an alternative prey, fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, in varying prey densities. Smallmouth bass consumed more age-0 pallid sturgeon (0.95 h-1) than did channel catfish (0.13 h-1), and predation rates did not differ between water velocities supporting sustained (0 m s-1) or prolonged swimming speeds (0.15 m s-1). Neither predator positively selected pallid sturgeon when alternative prey was available. Both predator species consumed more fathead minnows than pallid sturgeon across all prey density combinations. Results indicate that the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by channel catfish and smallmouth bass is low, especially in the presence of an alternative fish prey. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

French, W.E.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, S.R.; Bertrand, K.N.; Selch, T.M.; Klumb, R.A.

2010-01-01

228

Properties and expression of Na+/K+-ATPase ?-subunit isoforms in the brain of the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, which has unusually high brain ammonia tolerance.  

PubMed

The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l(-1)) and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (4.5 µmol g(-1)). Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Nka) is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4(+) can substitute for K(+) to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka ?-subunits, some of which might have high K(+) specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka ?-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4(+) to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/NH4(+)-ATPase activities over a range of K(+)/NH4(+) concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nka? (nka?1, nka?3a and nka?3b) were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nka?2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l(-1) NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nka?1, nka?3a and nka?3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na(+)/NH4(+)-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4(+)/K(+) concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4(+) to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1) lack of nka?2 expression, (2) high K(+) specificity of K(+) binding sites of Nka?1, Nka?3a and Nka?3b, and (3) down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nka? isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus. PMID:24391932

Chen, Xiu L; Wee, Nicklaus L J E; Hiong, Kum C; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Chng, You R; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

2013-01-01

229

The reallocation of carbon in P deficient lupins affects biological nitrogen fixation.  

PubMed

It is not known how phosphate (P) deficiency affects the allocation of carbon (C) to biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes. The alteration of the respiratory and photosynthetic C costs of BNF was investigated under P deficiency. Although BNF can impose considerable sink stimulation on host respiratory and photosynthetic C, it is not known how the change in the C and energy allocation during P deficiency may affect BNF. Nodulated Lupinus luteus plants were grown in sand culture, using a modified Long Ashton nutrient solution containing no nitrogen (N) for ca. four weeks, after which one set was exposed to a P-deficient nutrient medium, while the other set continued growing on a P-sufficient nutrient medium. Phosphorus stress was measured at 20 days after onset of P-starvation. During P stress the decline in nodular P levels was associated with lower BNF and nodule growth. There was also a shift in the balance of photosynthetic and respiratory C toward a loss of C during P stress. Below-ground respiration declined under limiting P conditions. However, during this decline there was also a shift in the proportion of respiratory energy from maintenance toward growth respiration. Under P stress, there was an increased allocation of C toward root growth, thereby decreasing the amount of C available for maintenance respiration. It is therefore possible that the decline in BNF under P deficiency may be due to this change in resource allocation away from respiration associated with direct nutrient uptake, but rather toward a long term nutrient acquisition strategy of increased root growth. PMID:25155758

Kleinert, Aleysia; Venter, Mauritz; Kossmann, Jens; Valentine, Alexander

2014-11-01

230

Construction and analysis of gonad suppression subtractive hybridization libraries for the rice field eel, Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate gene transcription profiles of the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus) in an attempt to uncover genes involved in sex reversal and gonad development. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using mRNA from the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis. In total 100 positive clones from the libraries were selected at random and sequenced, and then expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to search against sequences in the GenBank database using the BLASTn and BLASTx search algorithms. High quality SSH cDNA libraries and 90 ESTs were obtained. Of these ESTs, 43 showed high homology with genes of known function and these are associated with energy metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation and so on. The remaining 47 ESTs shared no homology with any genes in GenBank and are thus considered to be hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the four genes F11, F63, R11, and R47 from the forward and reverse libraries were analyzed in gonad, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney and muscle tissues. The results showed that the transcription of the F11 and F63 genes was significantly increased while the expression of the R11 and R47 genes was significantly decreased from IV or V ovary. In addition, the results also indicated that the four genes' expression was not gonad-tissue specific. This results strongly suggested that they may be involved in the rice field eel gonad development and/or sex reversal. PMID:24583172

Qu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Jiaoyun; Shang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Cui; Feng, Long; Liu, Qigen

2014-04-25

231

Oocyte maturation and embryo survival in nulliparous female pigs (gilts) is improved by feeding a lupin-based high-fibre diet.  

PubMed

Inclusion of high levels of the high-fibre ingredient sugar-beet pulp in pre-mating diets has been shown to increase gonadotrophin concentrations and improve oocyte quality in nulliparous pigs (gilts). This study evaluated the effects of two alternative fibre sources on reproductive performance in gilts. Gilts received one of three diets from 3 weeks before puberty stimulation until Day 19 of the first oestrous cycle: control (39 g kg?¹ fibre), bran (500 g kg?¹ wheat bran, 65 g kg?¹ fibre) or lupin (350 g kg?¹ lupin, 118 g kg?¹ crude fibre). Diet did not affect circulating LH concentrations or ovarian follicle size. However, a higher percentage of oocytes collected from lupin-supplemented gilts reached metaphase II in vitro compared with those collected from bran-fed or control gilts (89±5% versus 72±5% and 66±5%, respectively; P<0.05). Furthermore, in a second experiment, gilts fed the same lupin-based diet before mating had improved embryo survival (92±5%) on Day 28 after mating compared with control gilts (76±4%; P<0.05). Therefore, feeding a high-fibre diet before mating can improve oocyte quality in gilts without changes in circulating LH, but this effect is dependent on the fibre source. PMID:23257568

Weaver, A C; Kelly, J M; Kind, K L; Gatford, K L; Kennaway, D J; Herde, P J; van Wettere, W H E J

2013-01-01

232

Biosynthesis and characterization of (15)N6-labeled phomopsin A, a lupin associated mycotoxin produced by Diaporthe toxica.  

PubMed

The hepatotoxin phomopsin A (PHO-A), a secondary metabolite mainly produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica, occurs predominantly on sweet lupins. Along with the growing interest in sweet lupins for food and feed commodities, concerns have been raised about fungal infestations, and consequently, about the determination of PHO-A. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) represents the most suitable analytical technique for sensitive and selective detection of mycotoxins including PHO-A. However, isotopic labeled substances are needed as internal standards for a reliable and convenient quantification. As no isotope standard for PHO-A is currently available, a biosynthesis of fully (15)N6-labeled PHO-A was established by cultivation of D. toxica on defined media containing Na(15)NO3 and (15)N-labeled yeast extract as the only nitrogen sources. The identity of (15)N6-PHO-A was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry. The new (15)N6-labeled standard will facilitate the method development for PHO-A including a more accurate quantification by LC-MS/MS. PMID:25660858

Schloß, Svenja; Wedell, Ines; Koch, Matthias; Rohn, Sascha; Maul, Ronald

2015-06-15

233

Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate anchored Symphoricarpus albus biomass for lead(II) removal: batch and column biosorption study.  

PubMed

The biosorption properties of APDC modified S. albus were tested in batch and column conditions. Effective experimental parameters such as pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, initial lead(II) ion concentration, flow rate and bed height were investigated. The biosorption capacity of modified biosorbent was at maximum when lead(II) solution pH and biosorbent dosage were 5.5 and 2.0 g L(-1), respectively. The biosorption equilibrium was established in 20 min. Langmuir isotherm fitted well to the equilibrium data and kinetics is found to fit pseudo-second-order model. Increase in ionic strength of lead(II) solutions caused a slight decrease in the biosorption yield of APDC-modified biosorbent. Co-ions affected the biosorption performance of modified biomass up to maximum 20.81% reduction. Column biosorption of lead(II) showed higher biosorption yields at lower flow rates. Required time of breakthrough point was found to be 200 min. The recommended mechanism was found to depend mainly on electrostatic interaction, ion-exchange and complex formation. The ion-exchange mechanism for lead(II) biosorption onto the modified biosorbent is verified from the ionic strength effect and EDX analysis. Carbonyl, phosphate and CN groups on the modified surface of S. albus were found to responsible for complexation with lead(II). PMID:22673058

Akar, Sibel Tunali; Arslan, Derya; Alp, Tugba

2012-08-15

234

Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 ?g/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution. PMID:24575231

Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

2012-01-01

235

Life cycles and distribution of the aquatic gastropod molluscs Bithynia tentaculata (L.), Gyraulus albus (Muller), Planorbis planorbis (L.) and Lymnaea peregra (Muller) in relation to water chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of the aquatic gastropods Bithynia tentaculata, Gyraulus albus, Planorbis planorbis and Lymnaea peregra in North West England was investigated over 13 months at sites chosen for their wide range of water chemistry. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the significance to the mollusc distributions of a variety of physico-chemical factors. Biotic factors were not considered. The species

G. B. J. Dussart

1979-01-01

236

Hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters in and below the base of thick permafrost at Lupin, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryShield fluids are commonly understood to evolve through water-rock interaction. However, fluids may also concentrate during ice formation. Very little is currently known about groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost in crystalline environments. This paper evaluates three possible Shield fluid evolution pathways at a crystalline Shield location currently under 500+ meters of permafrost, including surfical cryogenic concentration of seawater, in situ cryogenic concentration and water-rock interaction. A primary goal of this study was to further scientific understanding of permafrost and its role in influencing deep flow system evolution, fluid movement and chemical evolution of waters in crystalline rocks. Precipitation, surface, permafrost and subpermafrost water samples were collected, as well as dissolved and free gas samples, fracture fillings and matrix fluid samples to characterize the site. Investigations of groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost provides valuable information which can be applied to safety assessment of deep, underground nuclear waste repositories, effects of long-term mining in permafrost areas and understanding analogues to potential life-bearing zones on Mars. The study was conducted in the Lupin gold mine in Nunavut, Canada, located within the zone of continuous permafrost. Through-taliks beneath large lakes in the area provided potential hydraulic connections through the permafrost. Na-Cl and Na-Cl-SO 4 type permafrost waters were contaminated by mining activities, affecting the chloride and nitrate concentrations. High nitrate concentrations (423-2630 mg L -1) were attributed to remnants of blasting. High sulfate concentrations in the permafrost (578-5000 mg L -1) were attributed to naturally occurring and mining enhanced sulfide oxidation. Mine dewatering created an artificial hydraulic gradient, resulting in methane hydrate dissociation at depth. Less contaminated basal waters had medium sulfate concentrations and were Ca-Na dominated, similar to deeper subpermafrost waters. Subpermafrost waters had a wide range of salinities (2.6-40 g L -1). It was unclear from this investigation what impact talik waters would have on deep groundwaters in undisturbed environments. In situ cryogenic concentration due to ice and methane hydrate formation may have concentrated the remaining fluids, however there was no evidence that infiltration of cryogenically concentrated seawater occurred since the last glacial maximum. Matrix waters were dilute and unable to affect groundwater salinity. Fracture infillings were scarce, but calcite fluid inclusion microthermometry indicated a large range in salinities, potentially an additional source of salinity to the system.

Stotler, Randy L.; Frape, Shaun K.; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Onstott, Tullis C.; Hobbs, Monique Y.

2009-06-01

237

Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada  

SciTech Connect

We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient created during mine dewatering. Although the absence of methanogens from this subsurface ecosystem is somewhat surprising, it may be attributable to an energy bottleneck that restricts their migration from surface permafrost deposits where they are frequently reported. These results have implications for the biological origin of CH4 on Mars.

Onstott, Tullis [Princeton University; McGown, Daniel [Princeton University; Bakermans, Corien [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ruskeeniemi, T [Geological Survey of Finland; Ahonen, L [Geological Survey of Finland; Telling, J [University of Toronto; Soffientino, B [University of Rhode Island; Pfiffner, Susan M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara [University of Toronto; Frape, S [University of Waterloo, Canada; Stotler, R [University of Waterloo, Canada; Johnson, E [Indiana University; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Rothmel, Randi [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana University

2009-01-01

238

Microbial communities in subpermafrost saline fracture water at the Lupin Au mine, Nunavut, Canada.  

PubMed

We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na-Ca-Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, approximately25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were approximately10(3) cells mL(-1). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient created during mine dewatering. Although the absence of methanogens from this subsurface ecosystem is somewhat surprising, it may be attributable to an energy bottleneck that restricts their migration from surface permafrost deposits where they are frequently reported. These results have implications for the biological origin of CH4 on Mars. PMID:19568805

Onstott, T C; McGown, Daniel J; Bakermans, Corien; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Telling, Jon; Soffientino, Bruno; Pfiffner, Susan M; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Frape, Shaun; Stotler, Randy; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Rothmel, Randi; Pratt, Lisa M

2009-11-01

239

A Comparative Study of Phase States of the Peribacteroid Membrane from Yellow Lupin and Broad Bean Nodules  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of the lipid bilayer phase status and structure of the outer membrane of free-living Bradyrhizobium strain 359a (Nod+Fix+) and 400 (Nod+FixL) or Rhizobium leguminosarum 97 (Nod+Fix+, effective) and 87 (Nod+FixL, ineffective) has been carried out. Also, the effect of the symbiotic pair combination on the lipid bilayer structure of the bacteroid outer membrane and peribacteroid membrane, isolated from the nodules of Lupinus luteus L. or Vicia faba L., has been studied. As a result, it is shown that the lipid bilayer status of the bacteroid outer membrane is mainly determined by microsymbiont, but not the host plant. In the contrast, the lipid bilayer status of the peribacteroid membrane and, as a consequence, its properties depend on interaction of both symbiotic partners. PMID:24804101

Kudryavtseva, Natalia N.; Sof'in, Alexis V.; Bobylev, Georgiy S.; Sorokin, Evgeny M.

2014-01-01

240

Metabolic Mechanism of Mannan in a Ruminal Bacterium, Ruminococcus albus, Involving Two Mannoside Phosphorylases and Cellobiose 2-Epimerase  

PubMed Central

Ruminococcus albus is a typical ruminal bacterium digesting cellulose and hemicellulose. Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE; EC 5.1.3.11), which converts cellobiose to 4-O-?-d-glucosyl-d-mannose, is a particularly unique enzyme in R. albus, but its physiological function is unclear. Recently, a new metabolic pathway of mannan involving CE was postulated for another CE-producing bacterium, Bacteroides fragilis. In this pathway, ?-1,4-mannobiose is epimerized to 4-O-?-d-mannosyl-d-glucose (Man-Glc) by CE, and Man-Glc is phosphorolyzed to ?-d-mannosyl 1-phosphate (Man1P) and d-glucose by Man-Glc phosphorylase (MP; EC 2.4.1.281). Ruminococcus albus NE1 showed intracellular MP activity, and two MP isozymes, RaMP1 and RaMP2, were obtained from the cell-free extract. These enzymes were highly specific for the mannosyl residue at the non-reducing end of the substrate and catalyzed the phosphorolysis and synthesis of Man-Glc through a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In a synthetic reaction, RaMP1 showed high activity only toward d-glucose and 6-deoxy-d-glucose in the presence of Man1P, whereas RaMP2 showed acceptor specificity significantly different from RaMP1. RaMP2 acted on d-glucose derivatives at the C2- and C3-positions, including deoxy- and deoxyfluoro-analogues and epimers, but not on those substituted at the C6-position. Furthermore, RaMP2 had high synthetic activity toward the following oligosaccharides: ?-linked glucobioses, maltose, N,N?-diacetylchitobiose, and ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides. Particularly, ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides served as significantly better acceptor substrates for RaMP2 than d-glucose. In the phosphorolytic reactions, RaMP2 had weak activity toward ?-1,4-mannobiose but efficiently degraded ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose. Consequently, RaMP2 is thought to catalyze the phosphorolysis of ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose to produce Man1P and ?-1,4-mannobiose. PMID:23093406

Kawahara, Ryosuke; Saburi, Wataru; Odaka, Rei; Taguchi, Hidenori; Ito, Shigeaki; Mori, Haruhide; Matsui, Hirokazu

2012-01-01

241

Effects of feeding finisher pigs with chicory or lupine feed for one week or two weeks before slaughter with respect to levels of Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar plates. DNA extracted from the luminal content of distal ileum and caecum was used for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the composition of intestinal microbiota and for measuring the amount of bifidobacterial and total bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control- and chicory-fed pigs (mean log(10) 2.9 v. 4.1 CFU/g; P < 0.05). The qPCR analysis showed that feeding with lupines resulted in higher levels of bifidobacteria in caecum as compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). T-RFLP analysis showed that four of the most abundant bacteria with terminal restriction fragment values >5% relative to the intensity of total abundance differed between the feed treatments (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study showed that even a short-term alternative feeding strategy with prebiotics in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs elicited changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, where lupine increased the level of bifidobacteria in caecum and reduced the Campylobacter spp. excretion level after 1 week. PMID:23031645

Jensen, A N; Hansen, L L; Baggesen, D L; Mølbak, L

2013-01-01

242

Development of markers for simple sequence repeat-rich regions that discriminate between Pisolithus albus and P. microcarpus.  

PubMed

Inter-simple sequence repeat PCR (ISSR-PCR) was used to develop markers for simple sequence repeat-rich (SSR) regions for investigation of genetic relatedness of Pisolithus isolates collected from eastern mainland Australia. Primers were designed to amplify ten SSR-rich regions and these were used to screen 14 Pisolithus isolates. Two amplified loci showed size polymorphisms among the isolates (regarded as polymorphic), two were monomorphic for all isolates, while the remainder amplified alleles for only some isolates. UPGMA analysis of the alleles for each isolate at each locus together with ITS-RFLP analysis, separated the isolates into groups. These two groups appear to correspond to isolates that ITS sequence data have previously separated as P. albus and P. microcarpus. PMID:12951796

Hitchcock, Catherine J; Chambers, Susan M; Anderson, Ian C; Cairney, John W G

2003-06-01

243

Preparation of the cellulase from the cellulolytic anaerobic rumen bacterium Ruminococcus albus and its release from the bacterial cell wall  

PubMed Central

1. Most of the cellulase (CM-cellulase) elaborated by the rumen bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain SY3, which was isolated from a sheep, was cell-wall-bound. 2. The enzyme could be released readily by washing either with phosphate buffer or with water. 3. The amount of enzyme released was affected by the pH and ionic strength of the phosphate buffer. 4. The cell-wall-bound enzyme was of very high molecular weight (»1.5×106) as judged by its chromatographic behaviour on Sephacryl S-300. 5. The molecular weight of the extracellular enzyme was variable and depended on the culture conditions. 6. When cellobiose was used as the energy source and the medium contained rumen fluid (30%), the extracellular enzyme was, in the main, of high molecular weight. 7. When cellulose replaced the cellobiose, the cell-free culture filtrate contained only low-molecular-weight enzyme (Mr approx. 30000) in late-stationary-phase cultures (7 days). 8. Cultures that did not contain rumen fluid contained mainly low-molecular-weight enzyme. 9. Under some conditions the high-molecular-weight enzyme could be broken down to some extent into low-molecular-weight enzyme by treatment with dissociating agents. 10. Cell-free and cell-wall-bound enzymes showed the same relationship when the change in fluidity effected by them on a solution of CM-cellulose was plotted against the corresponding increase in reducing sugars, suggesting that the enzymes were the same. 11. It is possible that R. albus cellulase exists as an aggregate of low-molecular-weight cellulase components on the bacterial cell wall and in solution under certain conditions. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:7126173

Wood, Thomas M.; Wilson, Catriona A.; Stewart, Colin S.

1982-01-01

244

Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa.  

PubMed

Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, (+/-)-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of these resistant native species, Lupinus sericeus Pursh and Gaillardia grandiflora Van Houtte, were found to secrete increased amounts of oxalate in response to catechin exposure. Mechanistically, we found that oxalate works exogenously by blocking generation of reactive oxygen species in susceptible plants and reducing oxidative damage generated in response to catechin. Furthermore, field experiments show that L. sericeus indirectly facilitates native grasses in grasslands invaded by C. maculosa, and this facilitation can be correlated with the presence of oxalate in soil. Addition of exogenous oxalate to native grasses and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh grown in vitro alleviated the phytotoxic effects of catechin, supporting the field experiments and suggesting that root-secreted oxalate may also act as a chemical facilitator for plant species that do not secrete the compound. PMID:16395587

Weir, Tiffany L; Bais, Harsh Pal; Stull, Valerie J; Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Ridenour, Wendy M; Bhamidi, Suresh; Stermitz, Frank R; Vivanco, Jorge M

2006-03-01

245

Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.  

PubMed

The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment. PMID:25493199

Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

2014-11-01

246

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrient status, and total antioxidant activity of Melilotus albus during phytoremediation of a diesel-contaminated substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg?1). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted

Herminia Alejandra Hernández-Ortega; Alejandro Alarcón; Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato; Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera; Humberto Antonio López-Delgado; Ma. Remedios Mendoza-López

247

Triterpene and steroid glycosides of the Melilotus genus and their genins I. Melilotosides A, B, and C from the roots of Melilotus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new triterpene glycosides of the oleanane series — melilotosides A, B, and C — and the nonglycosylated soyasapogenol\\u000a B have been isolated from the roots of the plant Melilotus albus Medik. (Leguminosae). The structures of the glycosides have\\u000a been shown on the basis of chemical transformations and spectral results. Melilotoside A has the structure of soyasapogenol\\u000a B 3-O-?-L-arabinopyranoside, melilotoside

G. V. Khodakov; Yu. A. Akimov; A. S. Shashkov; P. K. Kintya; V. I. Grishkovets

1994-01-01

248

Use of genetic tags to identify captive-bred pallid sturgeon ( Scaphirhynchus albus ) in the wild: improving abundance estimates for an endangered species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to distinguish captive-bred and natural-origin individuals in the wild is critical for evaluating the impact of\\u000a captive breeding programs on natural populations. Continued persistence of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River is largely dependent on captive breeding efforts that spawn natural-origin adults in fish hatcheries\\u000a and release their progeny into the wild. Prior to release,

P. W. DeHaan; G. R. Jordan; W. R. Ardren

2008-01-01

249

Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential  

PubMed Central

A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

2014-01-01

250

Activation and silencing of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces lividans after transformation with cosmids containing the thienamycin gene cluster from Streptomyces cattleya.  

PubMed

Activation and silencing of antibiotic production was achieved in Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans TK21 after introduction of genes within the thienamycin cluster from S. cattleya. Dramatic phenotypic and metabolic changes, involving activation of multiple silent secondary metabolites and silencing of others normally produced, were found in recombinant strains harbouring the thienamycin cluster in comparison to the parental strains. In S. albus, ultra-performance liquid chromatography purification and NMR structural elucidation revealed the identity of four structurally related activated compounds: the antibiotics paulomycins A, B and the paulomenols A and B. Four volatile compounds whose biosynthesis was switched off were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and databases comparison as pyrazines; including tetramethylpyrazine, a compound with important clinical applications to our knowledge never reported to be produced by Streptomyces. In addition, this work revealed the potential of S. albus to produce many others secondary metabolites normally obtained from plants, including compounds of medical relevance as dihydro-?-agarofuran and of interest in perfume industry as ?-patchoulene, suggesting that it might be an alternative model for their industrial production. In S. lividans, actinorhodins production was strongly activated in the recombinant strains whereas undecylprodigiosins were significantly reduced. Activation of cryptic metabolites in Streptomyces species might represent an alternative approach for pharmaceutical drug discovery. PMID:24633227

Braña, Alfredo F; Rodríguez, Miriam; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jurgen; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

2014-05-01

251

Use of perlite in cadmium plant studies: an approach to polluted soil conditions.  

PubMed

Two different types of hydroponic cultures, "water culture" and "perlite system", were compared using white lupin plants (Lupinus albus L., cv. Marta) under different Cd treatments: 0, 0.2, 0.6, 2, 4, 6, 13, 20, 40 and 60 microM (water culture) and 0.2, 2, 20, 60 and 150 microM (moistened perlite). Fresh weight, shoot and root length, and total Cd concentration in the plants were measured. Moreover, a batch experiment was carried out to study the ability of perlite to adsorb and desorb Cd from nutrient solution. Lupin plants under Cd treatments in "water culture" showed a higher growth inhibition than those grown on perlite. A high positive correlation between Cd concentration in the plant and Cd supply was obtained regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, a high positive correlation between Cd doses with the "perlite system" and their equivalent Cd doses estimated for the "water culture" system was observed. Thus, the "water culture-equivalent" Cd doses were 14 times lower than the Cd doses in the perlite system. On the other hand, desorbed Cd concentrations were calculated giving values 12 times lower than the tested Cd doses. PMID:16307096

Vázquez, Saúl; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón

2005-12-01

252

[Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].  

PubMed

The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile. PMID:21519742

Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

2011-01-01

253

The influence of vegetation on frost dynamics, infiltration rate and surface stability in Icelandic Andisolic rangelands  

E-print Network

' and 25', respectively) cxcludcd from livestock grazing since thc late 1920's (Aradottir, 1991). The birch woodland (Betulu pubescens Fhrh. ) developed from stands seeded in 1939 and 1945 (Magndsson and Magnusson, 1989). The lirst lupines (Lupinus...

Orradottir, Berglind

2002-01-01

254

vol. 155, no. 2 the american naturalist february 2000 Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores  

E-print Network

, Seattle, Washington 98195 Submitted April 9, 1999; Accepted September 20, 1999 abstract: Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens

Fagan, William

255

Nickel-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus ultramafic ecotype isolated from nickel mines in New Caledonia strongly enhance growth of the host plant Eucalyptus globulus at toxic nickel concentrations.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Pisolithus albus (Cooke & Massee), belonging to the ultramafic ecotype isolated in nickel-rich serpentine soils from New Caledonia (a tropical hotspot of biodiversity) and showing in vitro adaptive nickel tolerance, were inoculated to Eucalyptus globulus Labill used as a Myrtaceae plant-host model to study ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Plants were then exposed to a nickel (Ni) dose-response experiment with increased Ni treatments up to 60 mg kg(?-?)(1) soil as extractable Ni content in serpentine soils. Results showed that plants inoculated with ultramafic ECM P. albus were able to tolerate high and toxic concentrations of Ni (up to 60 ?g g(?-?)(1)) while uninoculated controls were not. At the highest Ni concentration tested, root growth was more than 20-fold higher and shoot growth more than 30-fold higher in ECM plants compared with control plants. The improved growth in ECM plants was associated with a 2.4-fold reduction in root Ni concentration but a massive 60-fold reduction in transfer of Ni from root to shoots. In vitro, P. albus strains could withstand high Ni concentrations but accumulated very little Ni in its tissue. The lower Ni uptake by mycorrhizal plants could not be explained by increased release of metal-complexing chelates since these were 5- to 12-fold lower in mycorrhizal plants at high Ni concentrations. It is proposed that the fungal sheath covering the plant roots acts as an effective barrier to limit transfer of Ni from soil into the root tissue. The degree of tolerance conferred by the ultramafic P. albus isolates to growth of the host tree species is considerably greater than previously reported for other ECM. The primary mechanisms underlying this improved growth were identified as reduced Ni uptake into the roots and markedly reduced transfer from root to shoot in mycorrhizal plants. The fact that these positive responses were observed at Ni concentrations commonly observed in serpentinic soils suggests that ultramafic ecotypes of P. albus could play an important role in the adaptation of tree species to soils containing high concentrations of heavy metals and aid in strategies for ecological restoration. PMID:20688880

Jourand, Philippe; Ducousso, Marc; Reid, Robert; Majorel, Clarisse; Richert, Clément; Riss, Jennifer; Lebrun, Michel

2010-10-01

256

Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus  

SciTech Connect

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600 Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8% of the genome of the rice field eel. This is first BAC library constructed from this species. To estimate the possibility of isolating a specific clone, high-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using Dmrt1 cDNA of the rice field eel as a probe. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed three positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig covering the Dmrt1 gene of 195 kb. By sequence comparisons with the Dmrt1 cDNA and sequencing of first four intron-exon junctions, Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel was predicted to contain four introns and five exons. The sizes of first and second intron are 1.5 and 2.6 kb, respectively, and the sizes of last two introns were predicted to be about 20 kb. The Dmrt1 gene structure was conserved in evolution. These results also indicate that the BAC library is a useful resource for BAC contig construction and molecular isolation of functional genes.

Jang Songhun [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhou Fang [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xia Laixin [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhao Wei [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Cheng Hanhua [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: hhcheng@whu.edu.cn; Zhou Rongjia [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: rjzhou@whu.edu.cn

2006-09-22

257

An assessment of heavy metal bioaccumulation in Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, during plowing stages of a paddy cycle.  

PubMed

Livers and muscles of swamp eels (Monopterus albus) were analyzed for bioaccumulation of heavy metals during the plowing stage of a paddy cycle. Results showed heavy metals were bioaccumulated more highly in liver than muscle. Zinc (Zn) was the highest bioaccumulated metal in liver (98.5 ± 8.95 ?g/g) and in muscle (48.8 ± 7.17 ?g/g). The lowest bioaccumulated metals were cadmium (Cd) in liver (3.44 ± 2.42 ?g/g) and copper (Cu) in muscle (0.65 ± 0.20 ?g/g). In sediments, Zn was present at the highest mean concentration (52.7 ± 2.85 ?g/g), while Cd had the lowest mean concentration (1.04 ± 0.24 ?g/g). The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, Cd and nickel (Ni) in liver tissue was greater than the corresponding BSAF for muscle tissue. For the three plowing stages, metal concentrations were significantly correlated between liver and muscle tissues in all cases, and between sediment and either liver or muscle in most cases. Mean measured metal concentrations in muscle tissue were below the maximum permissible limits established by Malaysian and U.S. governmental agencies, and were therefore regarded as safe for human consumption. PMID:23666324

Sow, Ai Yin; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

2013-07-01

258

New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. I. Expansion of frog virus 3 host range into Scaphirhynchus albus.  

PubMed

In 2009, juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, reared at the Blind Pony State Fish Hatchery (Missouri, USA) to replenish dwindling wild stocks, experienced mass mortality. Histological examination revealed extensive necrosis of the haematopoietic tissues, and a virus was isolated from affected organs in cell culture and then observed by electron microscopy. Experimental infection studies revealed that the virus is highly pathogenic to juvenile pallid sturgeon, one of several species of sturgeon currently listed as Endangered. The DNA sequence of the full length major capsid protein gene of the virus was identical to that of the species Frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species for the genus Ranavirus, originally isolated from northern leopard frog Lithobates pipiens. Although FV3 infections and epizootics in amphibians and reptiles are well documented, there is only 1 prior report of a natural infection of FV3 in fish. Our results illustrate the broad potential host range for FV3, with the known potential to cause significant mortality in poikilothermic vertebrates across 3 taxonomic classes including bony fishes, anuran and caudate amphibians, and squamate and testudine reptiles. PMID:25320034

Waltzek, Thomas B; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Drecktrah, Bruce; Briggler, Jeffrey T; MacConnell, Beth; Hudson, Crystal; Hopper, Lacey; Friary, John; Yun, Susan C; Malm, Kirsten V; Weber, E Scott; Hedrick, Ronald P

2014-10-16

259

Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Bettoli, P.W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, E.J.

2009-01-01

260

Sensory Prediction or Motor Control? Application of Marr–Albus Type Models of Cerebellar Function to Classical Conditioning  

PubMed Central

Marr–Albus adaptive filter models of the cerebellum have been applied successfully to a range of sensory and motor control problems. Here we analyze their properties when applied to classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in rabbits. We consider a system-level model of eyeblink conditioning based on the anatomy of the eyeblink circuitry, comprising an adaptive filter model of the cerebellum, a comparator model of the inferior olive and a linear dynamic model of the nictitating membrane plant. To our knowledge, this is the first model that explicitly includes all these principal components, in particular the motor plant that is vital for shaping and timing the behavioral response. Model assumptions and parameters were systematically investigated to disambiguate basic computational capacities of the model from features requiring tuning of properties and parameter values. Without such tuning, the model robustly reproduced a range of behaviors related to sensory prediction, by displaying appropriate trial-level associative learning effects for both single and multiple stimuli, including blocking and conditioned inhibition. In contrast, successful reproduction of the real-time motor behavior depended on appropriate specification of the plant, cerebellum and comparator models. Although some of these properties appear consistent with the system biology, fundamental questions remain about how the biological parameters are chosen if the cerebellar microcircuit applies a common computation to many distinct behavioral tasks. It is possible that the response profiles in classical conditioning of the eyeblink depend upon operant contingencies that have previously prevailed, for example in naturally occurring avoidance movements. PMID:21031161

Lepora, Nathan F.; Porrill, John; Yeo, Christopher H.; Dean, Paul

2010-01-01

261

Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

2001-01-01

262

The effects of increased CO[sub 2] on the competitive ability of Lupinus arboreus, a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub  

SciTech Connect

Plant responses to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] have been shown to be both species-specific and dependent on other environmental factors, potentially changing competitive interactions and altering community structure. The competitive response of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub to an introduced annual (Bromus diandrus) and a native perennial grass (Bromus carinatus) was measured under ambient and high CO[sub 2] and two nitrogen levels. These species coexist in a generally nitrogen-limited coastal grassland reserve besieged with alien species. The relative competitive ability of the lupin increased with CO[sub 2] for all treatments, with the largest difference occurring at low nitrogen in competition with the introduced annual. This study provides a global change perspective for those interested in conserving native Californian grassland species, as well as the first data on the competitive response of nitrogen-fixers to high CO[sub 2].

Wallace, A.M. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brooks (United States))

1993-06-01

263

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrient status, and total antioxidant activity of Melilotus albus during phytoremediation of a diesel-contaminated substrate.  

PubMed

This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg(-1)). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted to non-contaminated or contaminated sand. After 60 days, diesel significantly reduced plant growth. AMF- plants had no significant greater (64% and 89%, respectively) shoot and leaf dry weight than Non-AMF plants, but AMF plants had lower specific leaf area. AMF-plants had significantly greater content of microelements than non-AMF plants. Regardless diesel contamination, the total AOX and TPC were significantly higher in leaves when compared to roots; in contrast, NRA was higher in roots than leaves. Diesel increased total AOX of leaves, but AMF-plants had significantly lower AOX than non-AMF plants. In contrast, roots of AMF-plants had significantly higher AOX but lower NRA than non-AMF plants. AMF-colonization in roots detected via the fungal alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly reduced by the presence of diesel. AMF-inoculation alleviated diesel toxicity on M. albus by enhancing plant biomass, nutrient content, and AOX activity. In addition, AMF-plants significantly contributed in higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons when compared to non-AMF-plants. PMID:21420227

Hernández-Ortega, Herminia Alejandra; Alarcón, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Zavaleta-Mancera, Hilda Araceli; López-Delgado, Humberto Antonio; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios

2012-03-01

264

Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

2014-05-01

265

High Brain Ammonia Tolerance and Down-Regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl- Cotransporter 1b mRNA and Protein Expression in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Exposed to Environmental Ammonia or Terrestrial Conditions  

PubMed Central

Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g-1 and 2.7 µmol g-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance. PMID:24069137

Ip, Yuen K.; Hou, Zhisheng; Chen, Xiu L.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C.; Chew, Shit F.

2013-01-01

266

Differentiation and morphogenesis of the ovary and expression of gonadal development-related genes in the protogynous hermaphroditic ricefield eel Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

The ovarian differentiation, morphogenesis and expression of some putative gonadal development-related genes were analysed in the ricefield eel Monopterus albus, a protogynous hermaphroditic teleost with a single elongate ovary. At c. 1 day post-hatching (dph), the gonadal ridge was colonized with primordial germ cells (PGCs) at the periphery and transformed into the gonadal primordium, which appeared to contain two germinal epithelia. At c. 7 dph, four ovarian cavities appeared in the gonadal tissue with two in each germinal epithelial compartment, and the indifferent gonad might have begun to differentiate into the ovary. The oocytes at the leptotene stage in meiosis I appeared at c. 14 dph, and oocytes at the diplotene stage at c. 30 dph. As development proceeded, the connective tissue separating the two germinal epithelia disappeared, and two of the four ovarian cavities collapsed into one. At 60 dph, the gonad had already taken the shape as observed in the adults. One outer and two inner ovarian cavities could be easily recognized, with slightly basophilic primary growth oocytes usually residing close to the outer ovarian cavity. The expression of cyp19a1a and erb in the early gonad was detected at 6 dph. The abundant expression of foxl2 coincided with the up-regulation of cyp19a1a at 8 dph onwards. The expression of dmrt1 isoforms was not detectable until 8 dph for dmrt1a and dmrt1b and until 33 dph for dmrt1d. The earlier appearance of cyp19a1a compared to dmrt1 transcripts in the indifferent gonad may contribute to the initial differentiation of the gonad towards the ovary in M. albus. PMID:25123578

He, Z; Li, Y; Wu, Y; Shi, S; Sun, C; Deng, Q; Xie, J; Wang, T; Zhang, W; Zhang, L

2014-11-01

267

Ruminococcus albus 8 Mutants Defective in Cellulose Degradation Are Deficient in Two Processive Endocellulases, Cel48A and Cel9B, Both of Which Possess a Novel Modular Architecture  

PubMed Central

The cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 adheres tightly to cellulose, but the molecular biology underpinning this process is not well characterized. Subtractive enrichment procedures were used to isolate mutants of R. albus 8 that are defective in adhesion to cellulose. Adhesion of the mutant strains was reduced 50% compared to that observed with the wild-type strain, and cellulose solubilization was also shown to be slower in these mutant strains, suggesting that bacterial adhesion and cellulose solubilization are inextricably linked. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that all three mutants studied were impaired in the production of two high-molecular-mass, cell-bound polypeptides when they were cultured with either cellobiose or cellulose. The identities of these proteins were determined by a combination of mass spectrometry methods and genome sequence data for R. albus 8. One of the polypeptides is a family 9 glycoside hydrolase (Cel9B), and the other is a family 48 glycoside hydrolase (Cel48A). Both Cel9B and Cel48A possess a modular architecture, Cel9B possesses features characteristic of the B2 (or theme D) group of family 9 glycoside hydrolases, and Cel48A is structurally similar to the processive endocellulases CelF and CelS from Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum, respectively. Both Cel9B and Cel48A could be recovered by cellulose affinity procedures, but neither Cel9B nor Cel48A contains a dockerin, suggesting that these polypeptides are retained on the bacterial cell surface, and recovery by cellulose affinity procedures did not involve a clostridium-like cellulosome complex. Instead, both proteins possess a single copy of a novel X module with an unknown function at the C terminus. Such X modules are also present in several other R. albus glycoside hydrolases and are phylogentically distinct from the fibronectin III-like and X modules identified so far in other cellulolytic bacteria. PMID:14679233

Devillard, Estelle; Goodheart, Dara B.; Karnati, Sanjay K. R.; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael; Miron, Joshua; Nelson, Karen E.; Morrison, Mark

2004-01-01

268

A Novel Image-Analysis Toolbox Enabling Quantitative Analysis of Root System Architecture1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We present in this paper a novel, semiautomated image-analysis software to streamline the quantitative analysis of root growth and architecture of complex root systems. The software combines a vectorial representation of root objects with a powerful tracing algorithm that accommodates a wide range of image sources and quality. The root system is treated as a collection of roots (possibly connected) that are individually represented as parsimonious sets of connected segments. Pixel coordinates and gray level are therefore turned into intuitive biological attributes such as segment diameter and orientation as well as distance to any other segment or topological position. As a consequence, user interaction and data analysis directly operate on biological entities (roots) and are not hampered by the spatially discrete, pixel-based nature of the original image. The software supports a sampling-based analysis of root system images, in which detailed information is collected on a limited number of roots selected by the user according to specific research requirements. The use of the software is illustrated with a time-lapse analysis of cluster root formation in lupin (Lupinus albus) and an architectural analysis of the maize (Zea mays) root system. The software, SmartRoot, is an operating system-independent freeware based on ImageJ and relies on cross-platform standards for communication with data-analysis software. PMID:21771915

Lobet, Guillaume; Pagès, Loïc; Draye, Xavier

2011-01-01

269

Nutritive evaluation of legume seeds for ruminant feeding.  

PubMed

Chemical composition, rumen degradability and the effect of particle losses, and intestinal digestibility of protein by using in situ-in vitro and in vitro techniques were stated for beans (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus albus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and four diets including those legume seeds. In addition, the apparent digestibility of experimental diets was determined in goats. The legume seeds showed high protein content (206-319 g/kg dry matter). Effective degradability of protein for legumes and diets varied from 0.80 to 0.87 and 0.76 to 0.82, respectively, decreasing to 0.53-0.76 and 0.61-0.67, respectively, when particle loss was taken into account. Different intestinal digestibility values were obtained with both methodologies without significant relationship between them (y = 1.058-0.463x; R(2)=0.068; RSD = 0.140; p = 0.53). There were no differences in the apparent nutrients and energy digestibility among diets (p > 0.05). These legumes can supply rapidly degradable protein for microbial protein synthesis and contribute to the pool of amino acids available for the synthesis of milk protein and for retention in the body. PMID:19138343

Ramos-Morales, E; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Molina-Alcaide, E

2010-02-01

270

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime's C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J D; Ludwig, C

2014-11-01

271

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime’s C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J. D.; Ludwig, C.

2014-01-01

272

Oxalotrophy, a widespread trait of plant-associated Burkholderia species, is involved in successful root colonization of lupin and maize by Burkholderia phytofirmans  

PubMed Central

Plant roots and shoots harbor complex bacterial communities. Early seed and plantlet colonization plays a key role in determining which bacterial populations will successfully invade plant tissues, yet the mechanisms enabling plants to select for beneficial rather than harmful populations are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a role of oxalate as a determinant in this selection process, using members of the genus Burkholderia as model organisms. Oxalotrophy, i.e., the ability to use oxalate as a carbon source, was found to be a property strictly associated with plant-beneficial species of the Burkholderia genus, while plant pathogenic (B. glumae, B. plantarii) or human opportunistic pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia complex strains) were unable to degrade oxalate. We further show that oxalotrophy is required for successful plant colonization by the broad host endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN: an engineered ?oxc mutant, which lost the ability to grow on oxalate, was significantly impaired in early colonization of both lupin and maize compared with the wild-type. This work suggests that in addition to the role of oxalate in heavy metal tolerance of plants and in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi, it is also involved in specifically recruiting plant-beneficial members from complex bacterial communities. PMID:24409174

Kost, Thomas; Stopnisek, Nejc; Agnoli, Kirsty; Eberl, Leo

2014-01-01

273

Oxalotrophy, a widespread trait of plant-associated Burkholderia species, is involved in successful root colonization of lupin and maize by Burkholderia phytofirmans.  

PubMed

Plant roots and shoots harbor complex bacterial communities. Early seed and plantlet colonization plays a key role in determining which bacterial populations will successfully invade plant tissues, yet the mechanisms enabling plants to select for beneficial rather than harmful populations are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a role of oxalate as a determinant in this selection process, using members of the genus Burkholderia as model organisms. Oxalotrophy, i.e., the ability to use oxalate as a carbon source, was found to be a property strictly associated with plant-beneficial species of the Burkholderia genus, while plant pathogenic (B. glumae, B. plantarii) or human opportunistic pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia complex strains) were unable to degrade oxalate. We further show that oxalotrophy is required for successful plant colonization by the broad host endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN: an engineered ?oxc mutant, which lost the ability to grow on oxalate, was significantly impaired in early colonization of both lupin and maize compared with the wild-type. This work suggests that in addition to the role of oxalate in heavy metal tolerance of plants and in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi, it is also involved in specifically recruiting plant-beneficial members from complex bacterial communities. PMID:24409174

Kost, Thomas; Stopnisek, Nejc; Agnoli, Kirsty; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

2014-01-01

274

Apple polygalacturonase inhibiting protein1 expressed in transgenic tobacco inhibits polygalacturonases from fungal pathogens of apple and the anthracnose pathogen of lupins.  

PubMed

Extracts from apple fruit (cultivar "Granny Smith") inhibited the cell-wall degrading polygalacturonase (PG) activity of Colletotrichum lupini, the causal agent of anthracnose on lupins, as well as Aspergillus niger PG. Southern blot analysis indicated that this cultivar of apple has a small gene family of polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (pgips), and therefore heterologous expression in transgenic tobacco was used to identify the specific gene product responsible for the inhibitory activity. A previously isolated pgip gene, termed Mdpgip1, was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The mature MdPGIP1 protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from tobacco leaves by high salt extraction, clarification by DEAE-Sepharose and cation exchange HPLC. Purified MdPGIP1 inhibited PGs from C. lupini and PGs from two economically important pathogens of apple trees, Botryosphaeria obtusa and Diaporthe ambigua. It did not inhibit the A. niger PG, which was in contrast to the apple fruit extract used in this study. We conclude that there are at least two active PGIPs expressed in apple, which differ in their charge properties and ability to inhibit A. niger PG. PMID:16364381

Oelofse, Dean; Dubery, Ian A; Meyer, Riaan; Arendse, Melanie S; Gazendam, Inge; Berger, Dave K

2006-02-01

275

Comparison of Streptomyces albus muramidase-extracted streptococcal antigen with acid-extracted M antigen and with pepsin-extracted T antigen.  

PubMed Central

Purified Streptomyces albus lytic enzyme was used in an attempt to extract type-specific antigen from a type 1, group A streptococcus. The presumably type-specific antigen was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by chromatography on O-(carboxymethyl)-cellulose columns. Comparison of the enzyme-extracted substance with acid-extracted material showed it to be serologically different from M protein. In addition, the extract obtained by enzyme treatment was resistant to trypsin as well as to the lytic enzyme. It was inactivated partially by pepsin and totally by papain. Comparison of the enzyme extract with pepsin-extracted T antigen showed these two preparations to be serologically identical. Subtle differences in their susceptibility to heat and acid treatment were noted. Immunodiffusion analyses of acid-extracted M protein and pepsin-extracted T protein, as well as with the enzyme extract, clearly established that the M-protein preparation contained a component serologically identical with one of the precipitinogens common to the other two extracts. Images PMID:406203

Bray, J P; Bass, J A

1977-01-01

276

Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), eel (Monopterus albus) and cockle (Anadara granosa).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish. PMID:24191621

Rahman, M M; Zamri, M; Fadilla, N

2012-06-15

277

Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

2012-01-01

278

Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: A comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r2 ??? 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both ??15N and ??13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day-1) using stable ??15N and ??13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue ??15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but ??13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species. ?? 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Andvik, R.T.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.; French, W.E.; Bertrand, K.N.; Chipps, S.R.; Klumb, R.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.

2010-01-01

279

An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean?=?0.66–0.70 m?s?1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m?s?1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day?1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Ruggles, M.P.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.; Holm, R.J.

2012-01-01

280

The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Larvae of the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, feed solely on wild lupine, Lupinus perennis, from the emergence to summer senescence of the plant. Wild lupine is most abundant in open areas but Karner blue females oviposit more frequently on lupines growing in moderate shade. Can differences in lupine quality between open and shaded areas help explain this disparity in resource use? Furthermore, many lupines are senescent before the second larval brood completes development. How does lupine senescence affect larval growth? We addressed these questions by measuring growth rates of larvae fed lupines of different phenological stages and lupines growing under different shade conditions. The habitat conditions under which lupines grew and plant phenological stage did not generally affect final larval or pupal weight but did significantly affect duration of the larval period. Duration was shortest for larvae fed leaves from flowering lupines and was negatively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration. Ovipositing in areas of moderate shade should increase second-brood larval exposure to flowering lupines. In addition, larval growth was significantly faster on shade-grown lupines that were in seed than on similar sun-grown lupines. These are possible advantages of the higher-than-expected oviposition rate on shade-grown lupines. Given the canopy-related trade-off between lupine abundance and quality, maintenance of canopy heterogeneity is an important conservation management goal. Larvae were also fed leaves growing in poor soil conditions and leaves with mildew infection. These and other feeding treatments that we anticipated would inhibit larval growth often did not. In particular, ant-tended larvae exhibited the highest weight gain per amount of lupine eaten and a relatively fast growth rate. This represents an advantage of ant tending to Karner blue larvae.

Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

1998-01-01

281

Ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus inoculation of Acacia spirorbis and Eucalyptus globulus grown in ultramafic topsoil enhances plant growth and mineral nutrition while limits metal uptake.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) isolates of Pisolithus albus (Cooke and Massee) from nickel-rich ultramafic topsoils in New Caledonia were inoculated onto Acacia spirorbis Labill. (an endemic Fabaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (used as a Myrtaceae plant host model). The aim of the study was to analyze the growth of symbiotic ECM plants growing on the ultramafic substrate that is characterized by high and toxic metal concentrations i.e. Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni, deficient concentrations of plant essential nutrients such as N, P, K, and that presents an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio (1/19). ECM inoculation was successful with a plant level of root mycorrhization up to 6.7%. ECM symbiosis enhanced plant growth as indicated by significant increases in shoot and root biomass. Presence of ECM enhanced uptake of major elements that are deficient in ultramafic substrates; in particular P, K and Ca. On the contrary, the ECM symbioses strongly reduced transfer to plants of element in excess in soils; in particular all metals. ECM-inoculated plants released metal complexing molecules as free thiols and oxalic acid mostly at lower concentrations than in controls. Data showed that ECM symbiosis helped plant growth by supplying uptake of deficient elements while acting as a protective barrier to toxic metals, in particular for plants growing on ultramafic substrate with extreme soil conditions. Isolation of indigenous and stress-adapted beneficial ECM fungi could serve as a potential tool for inoculation of ECM endemic plants for the successful restoration of ultramafic ecosystems degraded by mining activities. PMID:24331432

Jourand, Philippe; Hannibal, Laure; Majorel, Clarisse; Mengant, Stéphane; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel

2014-01-15

282

Effect of diets containing whole white lupin seeds on rabbit doe milk yield and milk fatty acid composition as well as the growth and health of their litters.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary inclusion of white lupin seed (WLS) on the milk composition and yield of rabbit does as well as the performance of their litters was studied. Two lactation diets having identical digestible protein (DP):DE ratio and two weaning diets having identical DP:DE ratio were formulated. The first lactation diet (SL) contained soybean meal (SBM; 13.0%) and sunflower meal (5.0%) as the main CP sources, whereas the second lactation diet (LL) was based on WLS (25.0%). As a result, the LL diet had a greater ether extract (EE) content than did the SL diet. The first weaning diet (SW) included SBM (7.0%) as the main CP source, whereas the second weaning diet (LW) diet was based on WLS (12.0%). No additional fat was added to any of the diets. A total of 32 (16 per treatment) Hyplus PS 19 does (4,225 ± 607 g BW, at the second parturition) were fed 1 of the 2 lactation diets. The litters were standardized to 9 kits (564 ± 81 g BW) on the day of birth and were fed 1 of the 2 weaning diets from d 17 to 69 of age. At d 30 of age (weaning), 66 rabbits on each weaning diet (689 ± 71 g BW; 3 per cage) were used to evaluate performance. Feed intake and doe BW were not affected by the dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be higher between d 1 and 30 of lactation in does fed the LL diet (P = 0.094), a finding that is related to the higher dietary EE content and intake in the LL diet. When expressed per kilogram of metabolic weight, milk output (P < 0.05) and fat output (P < 0.05) were greater in these does. Improved G:F (P < 0.05) between d 1 and 21 of lactation and greater ADG (P = 0.072) and milk efficiency (P < 0.05) of litters was observed in does fed the LL diet. The milk of does fed the LL diet contained less linoleic acid (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (C 20:4n-6; P < 0.05) and more oleic acid (P < 0.05), ?-linolenic acid (P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenic acid (P < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the total PUFA n-3:C 20:4n-6 ratio (P < 0.05). The performance of fattening rabbits was not affected by dietary treatment. The number of ill plus dead rabbits caused by digestive disease was lower (P < 0.05) in rabbits fed the LW diet. Therefore, WLS is a suitable dietary CP source for lactating does that can replace traditionally used CP sources without adverse effects on feed intake and milk yield or on the growth and viability of their litters. Due to its fatty acid (FA) composition, the use of WLS in the lactation diet has the potential to improve the milk FA composition of does. PMID:24663193

Volek, Z; Marounek, M; Volková, L; Kudrnová, E

2014-05-01

283

Physiologie vgtale Biosynthse des protines de rserve et formation  

E-print Network

/ microscopie photonique Summary — Biosynthesis of storage proteins and protein body formation in the seeds of the yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L, Leguminosae). Protein deposit and protein body formation fraction) appeared. Two types of protein bodies were detected depending on whether the matrices were

Boyer, Edmond

284

Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores Slow a Plant Reinvasion at Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, were expected to strongly affect successional trajectories through facili- tative effects. However, their effects remain localized because initially high rates of reinvasive spread were short lived, despite widespread habitat availability. We experimentally tested whether insect herbi- vores, by reducing plant growth and fecundity

William F. Fagan; John G. Bishop

2000-01-01

285

Roles of Morphology, Anatomy, and Aquaporins in Determining Contrasting Hydraulic Behavior of Roots1[OA  

PubMed Central

The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (Lax) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater Lax than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. Lax and root hydraulic conductance (Lr) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. Lax and Lr were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lpc) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lpc was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lpc by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced Lr. This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics. PMID:19321713

Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C.; Turner, David W.; Tyerman, Stephen D.

2009-01-01

286

Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally large in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy opening and shades, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

1998-01-01

287

Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally larger in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy openings and shade, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.; Sulzman, C.L.

1998-01-01

288

Carbon and nitrogen accumulation and microbial activity in Mount St. Helens pyroclastic substrates after 25 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii) are important integrators of above and belowground development of Mount St. Helens (1980) pyroclastic substrates because\\u000a they increase soil organic matter formation and microbial activity and influence other biotic processes. However, basic information\\u000a is required to understand the unfolding pattern of soil development and to corroborate evidence for increasing rates of organic\\u000a matter accumulation suggested

Jonathan J. Halvorson; Jeffrey L. Smith

2009-01-01

289

Spatially structured herbivory and primary succession at Mount St Helens: field surveys and experimental growth studies suggest a role for nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1980 eruption ofMount St Helens (Washington, U.S.A.) created a 60-km2 region ofprimary successional habitat. Since colonising in 1981, the spatial spread ofthe legume Lupinus lepidus at Mount St Helens, Washington, U.S.A., has afforded intriguing opportunities to study the effect of trophic dynamics on primary succession. 2. Insect herbivory on this lupine has exhibited striking spatial structure for over a

WILLIAM F. F AGAN; J OHN

2004-01-01

290

Paper Electrophoretic Separation of the Proteins of Some Leguminous Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE plant materials examined during this work were acetone powders prepared from lentils (Lens esculenta, Moench), `horse' beans (Vicia faba, L.), lupin seeds (Lupinus termis, Forsk) and fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum, L.). Each acetone powder was extracted separately with 0.1 N borax-phthalate buffer at pH 8.0, the proportion being 10 gm. of acetone powder to 60 ml. of buffer. Extracts

Esam M. Moustafa

1959-01-01

291

Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores Slow a Plant Reinvasion at Mount St. Helens.  

PubMed

Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, were expected to strongly affect successional trajectories through facilitative effects. However, their effects remain localized because initially high rates of reinvasive spread were short lived, despite widespread habitat availability. We experimentally tested whether insect herbivores, by reducing plant growth and fecundity at the edge of the expanding lupine population, could curtail the rate of reinvasion and whether those herbivores had comparable impacts in the older, more successionally advanced core region. We found that removing insect herbivores increased both the areal growth of individual lupine plants and the production of new plants in the edge region, thereby accelerating the lupine's intrinsic rate of increase at the front of the lupine reinvasion. We found no such impacts of herbivory in the core region, where low plant quality or a complex of recently arrived natural enemies may hold herbivores in check. In the context of invasion theory, herbivore-mediated decreases in lupine population growth rate in the edge region translate into decreased rates of lupine spread, which we quantify here using diffusion models. In the Mount St. Helens system, decreased rate of lupine reinvasion will result in reductions in rates of soil formation, nitrogen input, and entrapment of seeds and detritus that are likely to postpone or alter trajectories of primary succession. If the type of spatial subtleties in herbivore effects we found here are common, with herbivory focused on the edge of an expanding plant population and suppressed or ineffective in the larger, denser central region (where the plants might be more readily noticed and studied), then insect herbivores may have stronger impacts on the dynamics of primary succession and plant invasions than previously recognized. PMID:10686163

Fagan; Bishop

2000-02-01

292

Elevated CO(2) and nitrogen effects on a dominant N(2)- fixing shrub  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The responses of N2-fixing species to global change are likely to be an important component in predicting the existence and direction of feedbacks between carbon and nitrogen cycles, as both are radically changing at an unprecedented pace. Increased carbon storage may be more likely in ecosystems not limited by available nitrogen, such as those with abundant N2-fixing species. If elevated CO2 affects growth and N2-fixation of dominant N2-fixers, then non-fixers in the system may experience indirect effects through changes in competitive interactions and nitrogen availability. The goal of this research was to investigate these effects on the growth, competitive ability, leaf and litter chemistry, and litter decomposition of Lupinus arboreus, a N2-fixing evergreen shrub, and to test the central hypothesis that an increase in growth and competitive ability would occur at low nitrogen and high CO2. In a growth chamber experiment, three CO2 levels, 350, 500, and 650 ppm were crossed with two nitrogen levels. Lupins were grown alone or in competition with an introduced annual grass, Bromus diandrus. Contrary to findings from previous studies of positive growth and competition responses by N2-fixers, Lupinus seedlings demonstrated no significant responses to CO2. Nitrogen was far more important than CO2 in affecting relative competitive ability. Nitrogen, alkaloids, and C:N ratios in fresh foliage did not change with CO2 or nitrogen. Carbon and biomass increased slightly in lupins at 500 ppm only, suggesting an early but limited growth response. Nitrogen did decrease in lupin litter at elevated CO2, but there were no effects on litter decomposition rates in the field. Simulations by the CENTURY surface litter decomposition model predicted the litter decomposition rates of field-grown litter nearly perfectly, and predicted the general direction but underestimated the rate of litter from the greenhouse grown at different CO2 levels. Very low or high nitrogen decreased growth and competitive ability of lupin seedlings in an additional greenhouse experiment. Slight increases of nitrogen in the field did not affect lupin aboveground biomass. In conclusion, it is unlikely that Lupinus abundance or rate of its nitrogen inputs will be affected by elevated CO2 and/or changes in nitrogen availability.

Wallace, Alison Marie

293

Software cost estimation using an Albus perceptron (CMAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning techniques such as neural networks, rule induction, genetic algorithms and case-based reasoning are finding applications in a wide variety of fields such as computer vision, econometrics and medicine, where human abilities have proven to be superior to those of computers. Such techniques hold the promise of being able to make sense of a variety of inputs of different

Bill Samson; David Ellison; Pat Dugard

1997-01-01

294

Sporocarps of Pisolithus albus as an ecological niche for fluorescent pseudomonads involved in Acacia mangium Wild - Pisolithus albus ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

Fresh sporocarps and root and soil samples were collected under a monospecific forest plantation of Acacia mangium in Dagana in Northern Senegal and checked for the presence of fluorescent pseudomonads. No bacteria were detected except from sporocarps collected with adhering soil and hyphal strands. Pisolithus sporocarps were dried at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks, ground, passed through a 2-mm sieve and mixed together. This dry sporocarp powder (DSP) was used to inoculate and form mycorrhizas on A. mangium seedlings in a glasshouse experiment. After 3 months culture, plant growth was increased in the DSP treatment but no ectomycorrhizas were present on the A. mangium root systems; however fluorescent pseudomonads were recorded in the cultural soil. The stimulatory effects on the plant growth were maintained for 6 months. However, fluorescent pseudomonads were no longer detected and 35% of the short roots were ectomycorrhizal. Some of the fluorescent pseudomonad isolates detected after 3 months stimulated the radial fungal growth in axenic conditions. These observations suggest that these bacteria are closely associated with the Pisolithus fructifications and could interact with the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment. PMID:15644922

Duponnois, Robin; Lesueur, Didier

2004-09-01

295

Water distribution at the root-soil interface: is there more water next to roots?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are big water movers and have a significant impact on soil water dynamics as well as on the global water cycle. Despite the relevance of root water uptake in terrestrial ecology, the movement of water from soil to roots still presents important open questions, e.g the following two. Which are the properties of the soil near the roots? And what effect do these properties have on soil plant water relations? Most models are based on brute-force spatial averaging of soil properties and assume that the bulk soil has the same properties as the rhizosphere. However, there is evidence in the literature that the rhizosphere has specific properties that may affect water and nutrient uptake (Young 1995, Gregory 2007). In order to investigate the rhizosphere hydraulic properties and their effect on soil plant water relations, we used neutron radiography and neutron tomography to image the water content distribution in soils during plant transpiration. Rectangular (quasi-2D) and cylindrical containers were filled with sandy soil and planted with lupins (Lupinus albus). Three weeks after planting, the samples were equilibrated at water potentials of -10 and 30 hPa and have been imaged for 5 days at intervals of 6 hours. At day 5 the samples were irrigated again via capillary rise and the water distribution was monitored for 4 more days. During the first day of the drying period, regions of water depletion formed around the central part of the tap root where first order laterals were present. As the soil dried up, the picture changed: instead of less water around the roots, as commonly supposed by models, we observed that more water was present around the lateral roots. Interestingly, these regions during drying were retaining high water content, but after irrigation remained markedly drier than the bulk soil. Our hypothesis is that high water content near roots during drying and lower water content during rewetting are explained by the presence of bio-polymers exuded by roots forming a hydrogel that consists of up to 99% water at very negative water potentials (Read et al. 1999). Thanks to its high water holding capacity, this hydrogel maintains a continuous hydraulic pathway across soil and roots for an extended period of time during drying. During rewetting it adversely affects water redistribution, like a storage that needs time to fill up again. These data show for the first time in situ the potential role of mucilage in controlling water dynamics in the rhizosphere and consequences for plant water extraction. Gregory P J, Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science, 57: 2-12, 2006. Read D P, Gregory P J, and Bell A E. Physical properties of axenic maize root mucilage. Plant and Soil, 211: 87-91, 1999. Young I M. Variation in moisture contents between bulk soil and the rhizosheath of wheat. New Phytologist, 130: 135-139, 1995.

Carminati, A.; Moradi, A.; Oswald, S.; Vetterlein, D.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.

2009-04-01

296

Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.  

PubMed

Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

2004-06-01

297

Selective splitting of 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates by specific enzymes degrading dinucleoside polyphosphates.  

PubMed

Several 3'-[(32)P]adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates (Np(n)N'p*As) were synthesized by the use of poly(A) polymerase (Sillero MAG et al., 2001, Eur J Biochem.; 268: 3605-11) and three of them, ApppA[(32)P]A or ApppAp*A, AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A, were tested as potential substrates of different dinucleoside polyphosphate degrading enzymes. Human (asymmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17) acted almost randomly on both AppppAp*A, yielding approximately equal amounts of pppA + pAp*A and pA + pppAp*A, and GppppGp*, yielding pppG + pGp*A and pG + pppGp*A. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) tetraphosphatase acted preferentially on the dinucleotide unmodified end of both AppppAp*A (yielding 90% of pppA + pAp*A and 10 % of pA + pppAp*A) and GppppGp*A (yielding 89% pppG + pGp*A and 11% of pG + pppGp*A). (Symmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.41) from Escherichia coli hydrolyzed AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A producing equal amounts of ppA + ppAp*A and ppG + ppGp*A, respectively, and, to a lesser extent, ApppAp*A producing pA + ppAp*A. Two dinucleoside triphosphatases (EC 3.6.1.29) (the human Fhit protein and the enzyme from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)) and dinucleoside tetraphosphate phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.53) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not degrade the three 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates tested. PMID:12673352

Guranowski, Andrzej; Sillero, Antonio; Günther Sillero, María Antonia

2003-01-01

298

Herbivore defence compounds occur in pollen and reduce bumblebee colony fitness.  

PubMed

Herbivory defence chemicals in plants can affect higher trophic levels such as predators and parasitoids, but the impact on pollinators has been overlooked. We show that defensive plant chemicals can damage pollinator fitness when expressed in pollen. Crop lupins (Lupinus species from Europe and South America) accumulate toxic quinolizidine alkaloids in vegetative tissues, conferring resistance to herbivorous pests such as aphids. We identified the alkaloid lupanine and its derivatives in lupin pollen, and then provided this compound at ecologically-relevant concentrations to queenless microcolonies of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in their pollen to determine how foraging on these crops may impact bee colony health and fitness. Fewer males were produced by microcolonies provided with lupanine-treated pollen and they were significantly smaller than controls. This impact on males was not linked to preference as workers willingly fed lupanine-treated pollen to larvae, even though it was deleterious to colony health. Agricultural systems comprising large monocultures of crops bred for herbivore resistance can expose generalist pollinators to deleterious levels of plant compounds, and the broader environmental impacts of crop resistance must thus be considered. PMID:24952086

Arnold, Sarah E J; Peralta Idrovo, M Eduardo; Lomas Arias, Luis J; Belmain, Steven R; Stevenson, Philip C

2014-08-01

299

Resource availability, matrix quality, microclimate, and spatial pattern as predictors of patch use by the Karner blue butterfly  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determination of which aspects of habitat quality and habitat spatial arrangement best account for variation in a species' distribution can guide management for organisms such as the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), a federally endangered subspecies inhabiting savannas of Midwest and Eastern United States. We examined the extent to which three sets of predictors, (1) larval host plant (Lupinus perennis, wild lupine) availability, (2) characteristics of the matrix surrounding host plant patches, and (3) factors affecting a patch's thermal environment, accounted for variation in lupine patch use by Karner blues at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana and Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA. Each predictor set accounted for 7-13% of variation in patch occupancy by Karner blues at both sites and in larval feeding activity among patches at Indiana Dunes. Patch area, an indicator of host plant availability, was an exception, accounting for 30% of variation in patch occupancy at Indiana Dunes. Spatially structured patterns of patch use across the landscape accounted for 9-16% of variation in patch use and explained more variation in larval feeding activity than did spatial autocorrelation between neighboring patches. Because of this broader spatial trend across sites, a given management action may be more effective in promoting patch use in some portions of the landscape than in others. Spatial trend, resource availability, matrix quality, and microclimate, in general, accounted for similar amounts of variation in patch use and each should be incorporated into habitat management planning for the Karner blue butterfly.

Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

2007-01-01

300

Bioactivities of some essential oils against the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal myiasis of camels is caused by the larvae of Cephalopina titillator. We determined the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) of pumpkin, Cucurbita maxima; lupinus, Lupinus luteus; garlic oil, Allium sativum; and peppermint, Mentha piperita, against the third larval stage of C. titillator using larval immersion tests. The positive control group was treated with ivermectin and the negative control one was treated with distilled water and few drops of Tween 80. Larvae were reared until adult emergence. The data indicated that complete larval mortalities were reached 24 h post treatment (PT) with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupinus, and 0.15 % ivermectin. The lethal values, LC50s, were 0.20, 0.44, 0.42, 0.47, and 0.03 %, respectively. Pumpkin and ivermectin were 2 and 17 times, respectively, more effective than the other EOs. Ivermectin was seven times more intoxicating than pumpkin oil. Formation of pupae had been stopped after treatment of larvae with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupines, and 0.04 % ivermectin. Adult emergence had been completely ceased following treatment of larvae with 0.5 % EOs and 0.04 % ivermectin. Morphological abnormalities were pronounced after treatments, and peppermint oil was the foremost cause of deformation in larvae (44 % PT with 7.5 %) and pupae (40 % PT with 2 %). Pumpkin oil (6 %) was selected to be the drug of choice for controlling C. titillator. Besides their insecticidal effects, EOs are much safer than ivermectin regarding health and environmental issues. Consequently, EOs described herein merit further study as potential nasal drench for C. titillator control. PMID:24276644

Khater, Hanem F

2014-02-01

301

The fatty oils of sweet clover seed—I: Melilotus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

seedlings appear early in the spring and by fall they may have reached a height of four to five feet. By fall the seedling has produced a large bulky tap root which may often extend to a depth of six to eight feet, as well as an extensive secondary root system. During the second year the plant shows a much

B. A. Dunbar; C. F. Wells

1926-01-01

302

SENSITIVITY OF NESTING GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) AND WHITE IBISES (EUDOCIMUS ALBUS)  

E-print Network

de A. alba se mantuvo constante. La selección de modelos identificó a la lluvia, la profundidad del agua, la fecha juliana, el año y la biomasa de presas como los parámetros que más influenciaron las región, la fecha juliana, la profundidad del agua y la forma cuadrática de la tasa de recesión del agua

Gawlik, Dale E.

303

Influence of diet and environmental variation on physiological responses of juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)  

E-print Network

Influence of diet and environmental variation on physiological responses of juvenile pallid when it comes to planning office shenanigans. I also thank Dr. Rob Klumb for providing tons of help and travel plans during my time at SDSU. I am grateful for all of the friends and colleagues I have made

304

White Sweetclover (Melilotus albus) and Narrowleaf Hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum) Seed Germination after Passing Through Moose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are non-indigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of non-indigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing viable seed from these plants after ingestio...

305

Phytoremediation of Aged Aromatic Contaminants in Soil Using White Lupin Principle Investigators  

E-print Network

., 1989), and the chelation of iron in iron oxides in soil by citrate may modify the nanopore structure II. Contaminant aged 0 weeks ­ Not planted III. Contaminant aged 4 weeks ­ Planted IV. Contaminant, and the concentrated extract analyzed by HPLC with UV detection. Results The highest mean concentrations of naphthalene

Rhode Island, University of

306

Invasive Plants, Fire Succession, and Restoration of Creosote Bush Scrub in Southern California  

E-print Network

linearis (A, cis) Pectocarya recurvata (A, trans) *Phacelialinearis Pectocarya penicillata Pectocarya recurvata Descurainia pinnata* Guillenia lasiophylla Lepidium lasiocarpum Lotus strigosus Lupinus bicolor Lupinus sparsiflorus Emmenanthe penduliflora Phacelia

Steers, Robert Jeremy

2008-01-01

307

Island radiation on a continental scale: Exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes  

PubMed Central

Species radiations provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species diversification and patterns of biodiversity. To compare plant diversification over a similar time period to the recent cichlid fish radiations, which are an order of magnitude faster than documented bird, arthropod, and plant radiations, we focus on the high-altitude flora of the Andes, which is the most species-rich of any tropical mountains. Because of the recent uplift of the northern Andes, the upland environments where much of this rich endemic flora is found have been available for colonization only since the late Pliocene or Pleistocene, 2–4 million years (Myr) ago. Using DNA sequence data we identify a monophyletic group within the genus Lupinus representing 81 species endemic to the Andes. The age of this clade is estimated to be 1.18–1.76 Myr, implying a diversification rate of 2.49–3.72 species per Myr. This exceeds previous estimates for plants, providing the most spectacular example of explosive plant species diversification documented to date. Furthermore, it suggests that the high cichlid diversification rates are not unique. Lack of key innovations associated with the Andean Lupinus clade suggests that diversification was driven by ecological opportunities afforded by the emergence of island-like habitats after Andean uplift. Data from other genera indicate that lupines are one of a set of similarly rapid Andean plant radiations, continental in scale and island-like in stimulus, suggesting that the high-elevation Andean flora provides a system that rivals other groups, including cichlids, for understanding rapid species diversification. PMID:16801546

Hughes, Colin; Eastwood, Ruth

2006-01-01

308

Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P

Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

2004-12-01

309

Genetic engineering for high methionine grain legumes.  

PubMed

Methionine (Met) is the primary limiting essential amino acid in grain legumes. The imbalance in amino acid composition restricts their biological value (BV) to 55 to 75% of that of animal protein. So far improvement of the BV could not be achieved by conventional breeding. Therefore, genetic engineering was employed by several laboratories to resolve the problem. Three strategies have been followed. A) Engineering for increased free Met levels; B) engineering of endogenous storage proteins with increased numbers of Met residues; C) transfer of foreign genes encoding Met-rich proteins, e.g. the Brazil nut 2S albumin (BNA) and its homologue from sunflower, into grain legumes. The latter strategy turned out to be most promising. In all cases the gene was put under the control of a developmentally regulated seed specific promoter and transferred into grain legumes using the bacterial Agrobacterium tumefaciens-system. Integration into and copy numbers in the plant genome as well as Mendelian inheritance and gene dosage effects were verified. After correct precursor processing the mature 2S albumin was intracellularly deposited in protein bodies which are part of the vacuolar compartment. The foreign protein amounted to 5 to 10% of the total seed protein in the best transgenic lines of narbon bean (Vicia narbonensis L., used in the authors' laboratories), lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L., used in CSIRO, Australia), and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., used by Pioneer Hi-Bred, Inc., USA). In the narbon bean the increase of Met was directly related to the amount of 2S albumin in the transgenic seeds, but in soybean it remained below the theoretically expected value. Nevertheless, trangenic soybean reached 100%, whereas narbon bean and lupins reached approximately 80% of the FAO-standard for nutritionally balanced food proteins. These results document that the Met problem of grain legumes can be resolved by genetic engineering. PMID:9739551

Müntz, K; Christov, V; Saalbach, G; Saalbach, I; Waddell, D; Pickardt, T; Schieder, O; Wüstenhagen, T

1998-08-01

310

Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Nematode Population Levels in North Florida  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P ? 0.05), but no treatment differences were observed in year 2. Wheat was a good host to Paratrichodorus minor, whereas vetch was a poor host, but numbers of P. minor were not lower in vetch-planted plots after corn was grown. The second experiment used a split-plot design in which rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P ? 0.05) but not by the winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida. PMID:19262833

Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

2004-01-01

311

Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, (±)-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of

Tiffany L. Weir; Harsh Pal Bais; Valerie J. Stull; Ragan M. Callaway; Giles C. Thelen; Wendy M. Ridenour; Suresh Bhamidi; Frank R. Stermitz; Jorge M. Vivanco

2006-01-01

312

Mount St. Helens ash: recreating its effects on the steppe environment and ecophysiology. [Artemisia tridentata; Lupinus sulphureus  

SciTech Connect

The 18 May 1980 ash fall from Mount St. Helens was experimentally reproduced in May 1982 by applying silt-sized ash to a stand of the Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum association in south-central Washington. Compared to the adjacent control site, ash caused an immediate increase in albedo from 13% to 28%, while other parameters of the energy budget were simultaneously lowered: net radiation by approx. = 20%, soil surface temperatures by as much as 10/sup 0/C, and soil heat flux by as much as 50%. The ash's mulching action initially increased water availability and delayed leaf abscission in Artemisia tridentata (Big sagebrush) by 2 wk in summer 1982. But after summer 1982 water availability declined, while water use increased, illustrating the diverse effects of the ash. Increased reflection from the ash-covered surface increased the radiation load on plant canopies. In turn, air temperature at 0.5 m increased, latent heat flux often doubled in summer, and xylem pressure potentials decreased. Available water at the -1 m soil depth eventually decreased as much as 40%. This decrease was the result of the increase in latent heat flux and the decline in infiltration through the stratified layer created by the ash cap. In addition to allowing assessment of the effects of the 18 May 1980 ash fall on arid steppe, application of ash provided an unexpected level of precision in detecting the often subtle effects that occur when some microenvironmental parameters change while the overall macroclimate remains the same.

Black, R.A.; Mack, R.N.

1986-10-01

313

Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island Song Sparrow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island (SMI) Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia micronyx) are described; nests are compared with those of 16 other races of Song Sparrows. Bush lupins (Lupinus albifrons), coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) and golden bush (Haplopappus venetus) were the shrubs used most commonly as nest sites by Song Sparrows on SMI. As a result of its location, the nest was effectively concealed from gray foxes (Urocyon littoralis), the major predator of this sparrow. Nest and nest site also moderated the combined chilling effects of cool air temperatures and strong northwesterly winds on the eggs and nestlings. Even in the absence of these moderating effects of the nest site, the energetic cost of incubation, estimated at 41-53% of the sparrow's resting metabolic rate, was modest. Twenty-nine percent of the canopy above the nest was open and as much as 73% of the nest cup was in the sun at midday, a time when surface temperatures of foliage, nest and nestlings sometimes exceeded 40 C. Whereas this exposure did not apparently reduce fledging success, it may explain why the incidence of addled eggs was so high in this population of Song Sparrows compared to others. Significant differences existed among races of Song Sparrows in the size, porosity and insulation of the nest. In most cases, these differences were not related to the latitude of the races' nesting areas.

Kern, Michael D.; Sogge, Mark K.; Kern, Robert B.; Van Riper, Charles

1993-01-01

314

Phytochemicals: the good, the bad and the ugly?  

PubMed

Phytochemicals are constitutive metabolites that enable plants to overcome temporary or continuous threats integral to their environment, while also controlling essential functions of growth and reproduction. All of these roles are generally advantageous to the producing organisms but the inherent biological activity of such constituents often causes dramatic adverse consequences in other organisms that may be exposed to them. Nevertheless, such effects may be the essential indicator of desirable properties, such as therapeutic potential, especially when the mechanism of bioactivity can be delineated. Careful observation of cause and effect, followed by a coordinated approach to identify the responsible entities, has proved extremely fruitful in discovering roles for phytochemical constituents. The process is illustrated by selected examples of plants poisonous to animals and include the steroidal alkaloid toxin of Veratrum californicum (Western false hellebore), piperidine alkaloids of Lupinus species (lupines), and polyhydroxy indolizidine, pyrrolizidine and nortropane alkaloids of Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds), Castanospermum australe (Moreton Bay chestnut) and Ipomoea species (morning glories). PMID:17950388

Molyneux, Russell J; Lee, Stephen T; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; James, Lynn F

2007-01-01

315

Effect of succession after fire on species contribution to evapotranspiration in sagebrush steppe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrubland ecosystems play an important role in the hydrology of the often drought stricken inter-mountain basins of the United Sates. Our objective was to investigate the impact of changing environmental conditions on three major plant functional types, shrubs, grasses and forbs. We measured changes in diurnal water flux from Artemisia tridentata var vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush), Elymus smithii (western wheatgrass) and Lupinus argentus (lupine) with changing environmental drivers for a sagebrush ecosystem fire chronosequence near the Sierra Madre Mountains, Wyoming, USA. The measurements were conducted on four stands ranging in age from 2 to 38 years, during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Leaf scale measurements and shrub sapflux were compared with ecosystem scale measurements. We explained the diurnal and monthly variability of water fluxes from June through October using vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, light and temperature. In the year 2005, peak ecosystem level evapotranspiration of 5-7 mmol m-2 s-1 was higher than 2004 with 2-3 mmol m-2 s-1. The interannual difference in evapotranspiration was explained by higher precipitation causing greater biomass, especially in non shrub species, in 2005. Our results show that environmental conditions have impacts on total evapotranspiration that depend on plant functional type.

Naithani, K.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Bayless, M. K.

2005-12-01

316

The importance of host plant limitation for caterpillars of an arctiid moth (Platyprepia virginalis) varies spatially.  

PubMed

Spatial dynamic theories such as source-sink models frequently describe habitat-specific demographies, yet there are surprisingly few field studies that have examined how and why interacting species vary in their dynamics across multiple habitat types. We studied the spatial pattern of interaction between a chewing herbivore and its primary larval host plant in two habitat types. We found that the interaction between an arctiid caterpillar (Platyprepia virginalis) and its host (Lupinus arboreus) differed in wet vs. upland dry habitats, as did yearly population dynamics for the caterpillar. In upland sites, there was a strong positive relationship between lupine cover and the abundance of caterpillars although this relationship was not apparent in wet sites. Additionally, in wet sites, caterpillar populations were larger and less variable across years. Caterpillars appeared to exhibit source-sink dynamics, with the time-averaged finite growth rate lamda > 1 in wet sites (sources), lamda < 1 in upland dry sites (sinks), and predominant source-to-sink movement of late-instar caterpillars. Populations in upland dry sites also went locally extinct in years of low regional abundance. Emigration from wet sites could potentially explain the lack of coupling of herbivore and host plant dynamics in these sites. These results indicate that movement and other factors affecting demography are habitat-specific and have important implications for trophic control. Acknowledging such complexity makes simple models of trophic control seem overly general but may allow us to formulate more broadly applicable ecological models. PMID:23185883

Karban, Richard; Grof-Tisza, Patrick; Maron, John L; Holyoak, Marcel

2012-10-01

317

Soil CO2 flux in alley-cropping systems composed of black locust and poplar trees, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of soil carbon dynamics after establishment of alley-cropping systems is crucial for mitigation of greenhouse CO2 gas. This study investigates soil CO2 fluxes in alley-cropping systems composed of strips of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and poplar (Max 1) trees and adjacent to them crop strips (Lupinus). Soil CO2 flux was measured monthly over a period from March to November 2012, using a LI-COR LI-8100A automated device. Concurrently with CO2 flux measurements, soil and air temperature and soil moisture were recorded within 10 cm of each collar. Soil samples were collected nearby each soil collar for microbial C and hot water-extractable C analyses. At each study plot, root biomass was measured to a depth of 15 cm. In all vegetation types, soil CO2 flux increased from May to August, showing a significant positive correlation with air and soil temperature, which can be a reflection of increase in photosynthesis over the warm summer months. CO2 flux was the highest in poplar followed by black locust and lupines. The relationships between CO2 flux, microbial biomass and hot water-extractable carbon were not straightforward. Among the measured parameters, root density was found to be the main factor to explain the higher CO2 flux in tree strips.

Medinski, Tetiana; Freese, Dirk; Boehm, Christian

2013-04-01

318

In planta selfing and oospore production of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the presence of Acacia pulchella.  

PubMed

This paper provides the first evidence of A2 type 1 and type 2 isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi producing selfed oospores in planta in an Australian soil and in a potting mix. Oospores were observed in infected lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) roots incubated for 7d either in the substrate under potted Acacia pulchella plants, or in soils collected from under and near varieties of A. pulchella in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest. The A2 type isolates varied in their ability to produce selfed oospores and none were produced by A1 isolates. The gametangial association was amphigynous and spores were predominantly spherical with diameters from 13-40 microm. The oospores were viable but dormant. Two A2 type isolates produced small numbers of selfed oospores with amphigynous antheridia axenically in Ribeiro's liquid medium within 30 d, and one A2 type 2 isolate produced oospores after mating with an A1 strain. Evidence is presented that the presence of roots of Acacia pulchella, and particularly A. pulchella var. glaberrima and var. goadbyi, enhances the production of oospores. PMID:17350243

Jayasekera, Arunodini U; McComb, Jen A; Shearer, Bryan L; Hardy, Giles E St J

2007-03-01

319

Quantitation of cytokinins in biological samples using antibodies against zeatin riboside.  

PubMed

The cross-reactivity of antibodies elicited in rabbits against zeatin riboside, to a wide range of naturally occurring cytokinins, was examined. As well as to zeatin riboside, the antisera cross-reacted to a considerable extent with zeatin, lupinic acid, zeatin-9-glucoside, zeatin riboside 5'-monophosphate and to a much lesser, but measurable extent, with dihydrozeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin. Chromatographic methods were devised which allowed separation of all these cross-reactive compounds. Four biological samples, extracts of immature Zea mays kernels, immature seeds of Lupinus luteus, and Datura innoxia crown gall tumor tissue, and a sample of Agrobacterium tumefaciens culture supernatant, were purified by these chromatographic methods, using [(3)H]zeatin riboside as a recovery marker, and at each stage of the purification process, were subjected to radioimmunoassay over a range of dilutions. At each stage of sample purification, sample dilution curves were found to be parallel to the standard curve. Sample cytokinin levels estimated by radioimmunoassay were in close agreement to those available in the literature for similar samples assayed by alternative methods. However, in some samples, unknown cross-reacting compounds were detected. PMID:16663745

Badenoch-Jones, J; Letham, D S; Parker, C W; Rolfe, B G

1984-08-01

320

Efficacy of the Biofumigant Fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for Control of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Simulated Storage Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth CM, Cydia pomonella, (L.), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. Broad spectrum fumigants have been used as the principle method for the protection of exported fruit from insect infestations. Some of th...

321

Identification of Dmrt genes and their up-regulation during gonad transformation in the swamp eel (Monopterus albus).  

PubMed

The swamp eel is a teleost fish with a characteristic of natural sex reversal and an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the identification of five DM (doublesex and mab-3) domain genes in the swamp eel that include Dmrt2, Dmrt2b, Dmrt3, Dmrt4 and Dmrt5, which encode putative proteins of 527, 373, 471, 420 and 448 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic tree showed that these genes are clustered into corresponding branches of the DM genes in vertebrates. Southern blot analysis indicated that the Dmrt1-Dmrt3-Dmrt2 genes are tightly linked in a conserved gene cluster. Notably, these Dmrt genes are up-regulated during gonad transformation. Furthermore, mRNA in situ hybridisation showed that Dmrt2, Dmrt3, Dmrt4 and Dmrt5 are expressed in developing germ cells. These results are evidence that the DM genes are involved in sexual differentiation in the swamp eel. PMID:24390316

Sheng, Yue; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Liao; Luo, Majing; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

2014-03-01

322

Water-quality requirements, tolerances, and preferences of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Additional research could be used to characterize and quantify the requirements, tolerance, and preferences of pallid sturgeon to these water-quality characteristics, especially during the egg and larval life stages. Enhancements to existing water-sampling programs are needed to quantify the exposure of pallid sturgeon to many of these water-quality stressors.

Blevins, Dale W.

2011-01-01

323

The Effect of Military Training Activity on Eastern Lupine and the Karner Blue Butterfly at Fort McCoy,  

E-print Network

to implementation of the Endangered Species Act in 1973, the Army uti- lized its lands with relatively few Environmental Policy Act and the Endangered Species Act required all landhold- ers, including the military among the last refuges for many species (Walker 1995, Boice 1996a, Goodman 1996, Martin and others 1996

Turner, Monica G.

324

Construction de la plante de lupin blanc : rela-tions entre la quantit de matire sche forme  

E-print Network

entre l'émis- sion des axes apicaux et la mise en place du nombre de grains sur l'inflorescence emergence of lateral branches and seed setting on the main inflorescence. Partitioning was related AI). Ces axes portent, comme l'axe principal, une inflorescence terminale. Ils peu- vent donner eux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Root colonization of different plants by plant-growth-promoting Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 studied with monospecific polyclonal antisera.  

PubMed Central

Monospecific polyclonal antisera raised against Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39, a bacterium which was isolated originally from red clover nodules, were used to study the colonization of roots of leguminous and nonleguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Lupinus albus, Triticúm aestivum, and Zea mays) after inoculation. Eight weeks after inoculation of soil-grown plants, between 0.1 and 1% of the total bacterial population in the rhizospheres of all inoculated plants were identified as R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39. To characterize the associative colonization of the nonleguminous plants by R.leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 in more detail, a time course study was performed with inoculated roots of Z. mays. R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 was found almost exclusively in the rhizosphere soil and on the rhizoplane 4 weeks after inoculation. Colonization of inner root tissues was detected only occasionally at this time. During the process of attachment of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 to the rhizoplane, bacterial lipopolysaccharides were overexpressed, and this may be important for plant-microbe interaction. Fourteen weeks after inoculation, microcolonies of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 were detected in lysed cells of the root cortex as well as in intracellular space of central root cylinder cells. At the beginning of flowering (18 weeks after inoculation), the number of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 organisms decreased in the rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and inner root tissue. PMID:9143133

Schloter, M; Wiehe, W; Assmus, B; Steindl, H; Becke, H; Höflich, G; Hartmann, A

1997-01-01

326

Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

2013-11-01

327

[Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].  

PubMed

The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality. PMID:21519743

Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

2011-01-01

328

Biogeosciences, 11, 20992111, 2014 www.biogeosciences.net/11/2099/2014/  

E-print Network

- veloped. The succession rates of open meadows declined as follows: Lupinus-dominated pumice > protected ridge with Lupinus > other pumice and blasted sites > isolated lahar meadows > barren plain. Despite

del Moral, Roger

329

Wood and del Moral, Seed rain on Mount St. Helens--1 FROM: MADROO (2000), 47: 1-9.  

E-print Network

in the seed rain. Two taxa common in the vegetation, Lupinus lepidus and Salix spp., were rare in the seed. Lupinus lepidus is not wind dispersed and seeds are not likely to enter traps. We conclude that the seed

del Moral, Roger

330

American Journal of Botany 92(12): 19481956. 2005. VEGETATION PATTERNS 25 YEARS AFTER THE  

E-print Network

increased proportionately leading to more pronounced dominance hierarchies in most habitats. In Lupinus for restoration planning. Key words: canonical correspondence analysis; detrended correspondence analysis; Lupinus lepidus; Mount St. Helens; primary succession; vegetation dynamics; vegetation structure. Understanding

del Moral, Roger

331

BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.  

E-print Network

species, Lupinus lepidus, germination was highest following heat shock treatments to the dormant seed in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research. Germination of Three Native Lupinus Species-0005 Germination of Three Native Lupinus Species in Response to Temperature Abstract Understanding germination

LeRoy, Carri J.

332

Determining 'threshold' levels for seed-borne virus infection in seed stocks.  

PubMed

There have been many advances in testing procedures to detect seed-borne virus infection in seed samples. However, scant attention has been given to the implications of improved test results in terms of the economic losses resulting from sowing seed stocks with different amounts of infection. For agricultural and horticultural industries to use the results of tests on representative samples, defined 'threshold' values for percentage seed infection are required that identify acceptable levels of risk of economic losses resulting from sowing the virus-infected seed stocks. Such information is provided by field experiments in which infected seed is sown and the consequences are followed in terms of virus spread, yield losses and infection of newly produced seed. These field experiments need to continue over several years at diverse sites so that they represent a wide range of infection scenarios. Extensive surveys to determine seed-borne virus occurrence in different regions are also required to define areas of greater or lesser risk of economic losses. In this paper, an example is described of how field experiments and surveys were used to define 'threshold' values of seed-borne Cucumber mosaic virus infection in an annual crop (lupin: Lupinus angustifolius) and two such examples are given for pasture species: Cucumber mosaic virus in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum), and Alfalfa mosaic virus in annual burr medic (Medicago polymorpha). The aim of this paper is to encourage others to address the urgent need for similar 'threshold' information with other economically important combinations of seed-borne viruses and host plant. PMID:11137171

Jones, R A

2000-11-01

333

Status: State Endangered, USFWS Species of Concern  

E-print Network

General Description: Tap-rooted perennial with several spreading stems up to 18 inches long; leaflets 11-15; foliage is olive green. Flowers ascending (not nodding), white to pale cream, some racemes having more than 10 flowers; wing petals shorter than the banner, which is greater than 5/8 inch; pods pubescent and sickle-shaped, not coiled; calyx 3/8 to 1/2 inch, the teeth greater than or equal to 1/4 the length of the tube. Identification Tips: A. sinuatus occurs with at least three other Astragalus species. A. spaldingii and A. purshii are much smaller in size, both reaching 2 to 4 inches in height, and having a more prostrate growth habit. A. leibergii can be distinguished by its whitish cream flowers, erect growth habit including the flowering stem, and a distinct preference for more mesic habitats. Phenology: Leaf emergence is initiated in late March or early April and foliage is fully “leafed-out ” by mid-April. Floral buds are usually broken by mid-April and peak anthesis occurs in late April and early May. Fruits are beginning to develop by mid-May and are present through late July. Range: Local endemic; known only from an area of less than 10 square miles within southern Chelan County, WA in the Eastern Cascades physiographic province. Habitat: Rocky hillsides associated with the big sagebrush / bluebunch wheatgrass association of Daubenmire (1970). Soils consist of wind deposited silts mixed with small amounts of volcanic ash over basalt bedrock. Elevation: 800 to 2000 feet. Associated species include sulfur lupine (Lupinus sulphureus), desert yellowdaisy (Erigeron linearis), longleaf phlox (Phlox longifolia), woodsia (Woodsia oregana), balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata), fernleaf desertparsley (Lomatium dissectum), bulbiferous fringecup (Lithophragma bulbifera), and woolly-pod milkvetch (Astragalus purshii).

Rank Gs

334

Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.  

PubMed

Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P

McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

1994-12-01

335

How does glutamine synthetase activity determine plant tolerance to ammonium?  

PubMed

The wide range of plant responses to ammonium nutrition can be used to study the way ammonium interferes with plant metabolism and to assess some characteristics related with ammonium tolerance by plants. In this work we investigated the hypothesis of plant tolerance to ammonium being related with the plants' capacity to maintain high levels of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in the roots. Plants of several species (Spinacia oleracea L., Lycopersicon esculentum L., Lactuca sativa L., Pisum sativum L. and Lupinus albus L.) were grown in the presence of distinct concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6 mM) of nitrate and ammonium. The relative contributions of the activity of the key enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS; under light and dark conditions) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were determined. The main plant organs of nitrogen assimilation (root or shoot) to plant tolerance to ammonium were assessed. The results show that only plants that are able to maintain high levels of GS activity in the dark (either in leaves or in roots) and high root GDH activities accumulate equal amounts of biomass independently of the nitrogen source available to the root medium and thus are ammonium tolerant. Plant species with high GS activities in the dark coincide with those displaying a high capacity for nitrogen metabolism in the roots. Therefore, the main location of nitrogen metabolism (shoots or roots) and the levels of GS activity in the dark are an important strategy for plant ammonium tolerance. The relative contribution of each of these parameters to species tolerance to ammonium is assessed. The efficient sequestration of ammonium in roots, presumably in the vacuoles, is considered as an additional mechanism contributing to plant tolerance to ammonium nutrition. PMID:16292661

Cruz, C; Bio, A F M; Domínguez-Valdivia, M D; Aparicio-Tejo, P M; Lamsfus, C; Martins-Loução, M A

2006-04-01

336

Identification of a gonad-expression differential gene insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) in the swamp eel (Monopterus albus).  

PubMed

In vertebrate species, the biopotential embryonic gonad differentiation is affected by many key genes and key steroidogenic enzymes. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) has been considered as an important sex-differentiation gene in mammals and could mediate the biological action of Igf1, an important regulator of key steroidogenic enzymes. However, Igf1r gene is still unknown in the swamp eel, an economically important fish. In our study, we identified Igf1r gene in the swamp eel, which was a 2,148-bp open-reading frame encoding a protein of 716 amino acids. The alignment and the phylogenetic tree showed that Igf1r of the swamp eel had a conservative sequence with other vertebrates, especial fishes. Western blotting of Igf1r showed that Igf1r expressed much more in ovotestis and testis than in ovary, indicating an important role of Igf1r during gonad differentiation. We analyzed ubiquitination of Igf1r by co-immunoprecipitation and found the amount of ubiquitinated Igf1r was increased from ovary, ovotestis to testis, which was reversely to the trend of Hsp10 expression during gonadal transformation. It was possible that Hsp10 could suppress Igf1r ubiquitination during gonadal development of the swamp eel. PMID:24488410

Mei, Jie; Yan, Wei; Fang, Jie; Yuan, Gailing; Chen, Nan; He, Yan

2014-08-01

337

Mineral composition of lucerne ( Medicago sativa) and white melilot ( Melilotus albus) is affected by NaCl salinity of the irrigation water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most glycophytic forage legumes exhibit large reductions in biomass in response to saline growing conditions, although differences among species in salt tolerance exist. As several plant metabolic processes are affected by salinity, the nutritive value of these species to animals may be altered. Mineral concentration is an important component of plant nutritive value, and was evaluated in lucerne and white

Juan de Dios Guerrero-Rodríguez; Dean K. Revell; William D. Bellotti

2011-01-01

338

Photoreceptors and visual pigments in the retina of the fully anadromous green sturgeon ( Acipenser medirostrus ) and the potamodromous pallid sturgeon ( Scaphirhynchus albus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green sturgeon and pallid sturgeon photoreceptors were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microspectrophotometry\\u000a and, in the case of the green sturgeon, retinal whole-mounts. The retinas of both species contain both rods and cones: cones\\u000a comprise between 23% (whole-mount) and 36% (SEM) of the photoreceptors. The cone population of both species is dominated by\\u000a large single cones, but a rare

Arnold J. Sillman; Allicia K. Beach; David A. Dahlin; Ellis R. Loew

2005-01-01

339

Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

2002-01-01

340

Integration of continuous biofumigation with Muscodor albus with pre-cooling fumigation with ozone or sulfur dioxide to control postharvest gray mold of table grapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation controls postharvest decay of commercially stored table grapes. To develop an alternative to SO2, fumigation with up to 10,000 micro-l/l ozone (O3) for up to 2 h was applied to control postharvest gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. O3 was effective when grapes were...

341

Photoreceptors and visual pigments in the retina of the fully anadromous green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostrus) and the potamodromous pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus).  

PubMed

Green sturgeon and pallid sturgeon photoreceptors were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microspectrophotometry and, in the case of the green sturgeon, retinal whole-mounts. The retinas of both species contain both rods and cones: cones comprise between 23% (whole-mount) and 36% (SEM) of the photoreceptors. The cone population of both species is dominated by large single cones, but a rare small single cone is also present. In both species, most rods have long outer segments of large diameter. A rod with a relatively thin outer segment is present in the pallid sturgeon retina. Mean cone packing density for the entire green sturgeon retina is 4,690+/-891 cones/mm2, with the dorsal retina 14% more dense than the ventral. There is evidence for a horizontal visual streak just above and including the optic disc. Mean rod packing density is 16,006+/-1,668 rods/mm2 for the entire retina, and fairly uniform throughout. Both species have rods with peak absorbance near 540 nm, as well as short-wavelength-sensitive cones (green: 464.5+/-0.7 nm; pallid: 439.7+/-3.5 nm); middle-wavelength-sensitive cones (green: 538.0+/-1.4 nm; pallid: 537.0+/-1.7 nm); and long-wavelength-sensitive cones (green: 613.9+/-3.0 nm; pallid: 617.8+/-7.6 nm). PMID:15983809

Sillman, Arnold J; Beach, Allicia K; Dahlin, David A; Loew, Ellis R

2005-09-01

342

Aromatase (Cyp19a1b) in the pituitary is dynamically involved in the upregulation of lhb but not fshb in the vitellogenic female ricefield eel Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

Aromatase, encoded by Cyp19a1, is expressed in the pituitary of vertebrates; however, its physiological relevance remains poorly defined. In teleosts, the duplicated cyp19a1b is preferentially expressed in the pituitary where LH and FSH are synthesized in distinct gonadotropes. Our present study demonstrated that Cyp19a1b is colocalized with Lhb, but not Fshb, during vitellogenesis in female ricefield eels. The immunoreactive levels of Cyp19a1b and Lhb, as well as their colocalization frequency, increased during vitellogenesis toward maturation. The expression of lhb but not fshb in the pituitary fragments of female ricefield eels was induced by both estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T). In agreement, the promoter of lhb but not fshb was activated by both E2 and T. T is more potent than E2 in inducing lhb expression, whereas E2 is much more effective in activating the lhb promoter. T-induced lhb expression in the pituitary fragments was abolished by the estrogen receptor (Esr) antagonist fulvestrant and suppressed by the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, suggesting that the effect of T on lhb expression at the pituitary is largely mediated by E2. Furthermore, Lhb was shown to colocalize with Esr1 but not Esr2a. Taken together, results of the present study suggest that Cyp19a1b in LH cells may greatly upregulate lhb expression during vitellogenesis, possibly via E2 and Esr1 in an intracrine manner. The absence of Cyp19a1b in FSH cells and the insensitivity of fshb to sex steroids may contribute to the differential expression of lhb and fshb in ricefield eels and possibly other vertebrates as well. PMID:25105781

Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Wanping; Wu, Yangsheng; Ge, Wei; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

2014-11-01

343

Active-site-directed inactivators of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces albus G.  

PubMed Central

Several types of active-site-directed inactivators (inhibitors) of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase were tested. (i) Among the heavy-atom-containing compounds examined, K2Pt(C2O4)2 inactivates the enzyme with a second-order rate constant of about 6 X 10(-2)M-1 X S-1 and has only one binding site located close to the Zn2+ cofactor within the enzyme active site. (ii) Several compounds possessing both a C-terminal carboxylate function and, at the other end of the molecule, a thiol, hydroxamate or carboxylate function were also examined. 3-Mercaptopropionate (racemic) and 3-mercaptoisobutyrate (L-isomer) inhibit the enzyme competitively with a Ki value of 5 X 10 X 10(-9)M. (iii) Classical beta-lactam compounds have a very weak inhibitory potency. Depending on the structure of the compounds, enzyme inhibition may be competitive (and binding occurs to the active site) or non-competitive (and binding causes disruption of the protein crystal lattice). (iv) 6-beta-Iodopenicillanate inactivates the enzyme in a complex way. At high beta-lactam concentrations, the pseudo-first-order rate constant of enzyme inactivation has a limit value of 7 X 10(-4)S-1 X 6-beta-Iodopenicillanate binds to the active site just in front of the Zn2+ cofactor and superimposes histidine-190, suggesting that permanent enzyme inactivation is by reaction with this latter residue. PMID:6743245

Charlier, P; Dideberg, O; Jamoulle, J C; Frère, J M; Ghuysen, J M; Dive, G; Lamotte-Brasseur, J

1984-01-01

344

A monoclonal antibody to (S)-abscisic acid: its characterisation and use in a radioimmunoassay for measuring abscisic acid in crude extracts of cereal and lupin leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody produced to abscisic acid (ABA) has been characterised and the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for ABA using the antibody is described. The antibody had a high selectivity for the free acid of (S)-cis, trans-ABA. Using the antibody, ABA could be assayed reliably in the RIA over a range from 100 to 4000 pg (0.4 to 15

S. A. Quarrie; P. N. Whitford; N. E. J. Appleford; T. L. Wang; S. K. Cook; I. E. Henson; B. R. Loveys

1988-01-01

345

Eremophila glabra reduces methane production and methanogen populations when fermented in a Rusitec.  

PubMed

Eremophila glabra Juss. (Scrophulariaceae), a native Australian shrub, has been demonstrated to have low methanogenic potential in a batch in vitro fermentation system. The present study aimed to test longer-term effects of E. glabra on rumen fermentation characteristics, particularly methane production and the methanogen population, when included as a component of a fermentation substrate in an in vitro continuous culture system (Rusitec). E. glabra was included at 150, 250, 400 g/kg DM (EG15, EG25, and EG40) with an oaten chaff and lupin-based substrate (control). Overall, the experiment lasted 33 days, with 12 days of acclimatization, followed by two periods during which fermentation characteristics (total gas, methane and VFA productions, dry matter disappearance, pH) were measured. The number of copies of genes specifically associated with total bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria (16S rRNA gene) and total ruminal methanogenic archaeal organisms (the methyl coenzyme M reductase A gene (mcrA)) was also measured during this time using quantitative real-time PCR. Total gas production, methane and volatile fatty acid concentrations were significantly reduced with addition of E. glabra. At the end of the experiment, the overall methane reduction was 32% and 45% for EG15 and EG25 respectively, compared to the control, and the reduction was in a dose-dependent manner. Total bacterial numbers did not change, but the total methanogen population decreased by up to 42.1% (EG40) when compared to the control substrate. The Fibrobacter succinogenes population was reduced at all levels of E. glabra, while Ruminococcus albus was reduced only by EG40. Our results indicate that replacing a portion of a fibrous substrate with E. glabra maintained a significant reduction in methane production and methanogen populations over three weeks in vitro, with some minor inhibition on overall fermentation at the lower inclusion levels. PMID:24225531

Li, XiXi; Durmic, Zoey; Liu, ShiMin; McSweeney, Chris S; Vercoe, Philip E

2014-10-01

346

BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.  

E-print Network

-habitat selection by breeding and radiotagged White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) and Great Egrets (Ardea alba generalist Great Egret. Received July , accepted July . Key words: Ardea alba, Eudocimus albus, Florida

Gawlik, Dale E.

347

78 FR 16526 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Pallid Sturgeon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...revised recovery plan for the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). This species is federally listed as endangered...approved recovery plan. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), found in the Missouri and Mississippi...

2013-03-15

348

Technical contribution Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile  

E-print Network

of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: a comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objec- tives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non

349

Controlled ectomycorrhization of an exotic legume tree species Acacia holosericea affects the structure of root nodule bacteria community and their symbiotic  

E-print Network

: Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis Bradyrhizobia Acacia holosericea, Pisolithus albus Soil microbial communities Exotic or not with an ectomycorrhizal fungus isolate, Pisolithus albus IR100. After 7 year's plantation, the diversity and the symbiotic

Thioulouse, Jean

350

Effects of grizzly bear digging on alpine plant community structure  

E-print Network

Festuca altaica Gentiana glauca Gentiana propinqua Geranium erianthum Heracleum lanatum Hieracium triste Lupinus arcticus Mertensiana paniculata Polygonum viviparum Ranunculus Eschscholtzii Ranunculus occidentalis

Doak, D F; Loso, Michael G

2003-01-01

351

Ecology, 91(1), 2010, pp. 8592 2010 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), on seedling recruitment and subsequent plant establishment of two; grassland communities; Lithospermum ruderale; Lupinus sericeus; Peromyscus maniculatus; seed predation

352

Suppression of the auxin response pathway enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi while phosphite-mediated resistance stimulates the auxin signalling pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Phytophthora cinnamomi is a devastating pathogen worldwide and phosphite (Phi), an analogue of phosphate (Pi) is highly effective in the control of this pathogen. Phi also interferes with Pi starvation responses (PSR), of which auxin signalling is an integral component. In the current study, the involvement of Pi and the auxin signalling pathways in host and Phi-mediated resistance to P. cinnamomi was investigated by screening the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 and several mutants defective in PSR and the auxin response pathway for their susceptibility to this pathogen. The response to Phi treatment was also studied by monitoring its effect on Pi- and the auxin response pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that phr1-1 (phosphate starvation response 1), a mutant defective in response to Pi starvation was highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi compared to the parental background Col-0. Furthermore, the analysis of the Arabidopsis tir1-1 (transport inhibitor response 1) mutant, deficient in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skp1???Cullin???F-Box) ubiquitination pathway was also highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi and the susceptibility of the mutants rpn10 and pbe1 further supported a role for the 26S proteasome in resistance to P. cinnamomi. The role of auxin was also supported by a significant (P?lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) to P. cinnamomi following treatment with the inhibitor of auxin transport, TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Given the apparent involvement of auxin and PSR signalling in the resistance to P. cinnamomi, the possible involvement of these pathways in Phi mediated resistance was also investigated. Phi (especially at high concentrations) attenuates the response of some Pi starvation inducible genes such as AT4, AtACP5 and AtPT2 in Pi starved plants. However, Phi enhanced the transcript levels of PHR1 and the auxin responsive genes (AUX1, AXR1and AXR2), suppressed the primary root elongation, and increased root hair formation in plants with sufficient Pi. Conclusions The auxin response pathway, particularly auxin sensitivity and transport, plays an important role in resistance to P. cinnamomi in Arabidopsis, and phosphite-mediated resistance may in some part be through its effect on the stimulation of the PSR and auxin response pathways. PMID:24649892

2014-01-01

353

Soil zymography - A novel technique for mapping enzyme activity in the rhizosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect plant roots on microbial activity in soil at the millimeter scale is poorly understood. One reason for this is that spatially explicit methods for the study of microbial activity in soil are limited. Here we present a quantitative in situ technique for mapping the distribution of exoenzymes in soil along with some results about the effects of roots on exoenzyme activity in soil. In the first study we showed that both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were up to 5.4-times larger in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus than in the bulk soil. While acid phosphatase activity (produced by roots and microorganisms) was closely associated with roots, alkaline phosphatase activity (produced only by microorganisms) was more widely distributed, leading to a 2.5-times larger area of activity of alkaline than of acid phosphatase. These results indicate a spatial differentiation of different ecophysiological groups of organic phosphorus mineralizing organisms in the rhizosphere which might alleviate a potential competition for phosphorus between them. In a second study cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activities were analyzed in the presence of living Lupinus polyphyllus roots and dead/dying roots (in the same soils 10, 20 and 30 days after cutting the L. polyphyllus shoots). The activity of all three enzymes was 9.0 to 13.9-times higher at the living roots compared to the bulk soil. Microhotspots of cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activity in the soil were found up to 60 mm away from the living roots. 10 days after shoot cutting, the areas of high activities of cellulase and phosphatase activity were extend up to 55 mm away from the next root, while the extension of the area of chitinase activity did not change significantly. At the root, cellulase and chitinase activity increased first at the root tips after shoot cutting and showed maximal activity 20 days after shoot cutting. The number and activity of microhotspots of chitinase activity was maximal 10 days after shoot cutting and decreased thereafter. In conclusion, the study showed that fresh root detritus stimulates enzyme activities much stronger than living roots, probably because of the high pulse input of C and N from dying roots compared to slow continuous release of rhizodeposits. Taken together, soil zymography is a very promising novel technique to gain insights the effects of roots on the spatial and temporal dynamic of exoenzyme activity in soil. References Spohn, M., Carminati, A., Kuzyakov, Y. (2013). Zymography - A novel in situ method for mapping distribution of enzyme activity in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 58, 275-280. Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y. (2013): Distribution of microbial- and root- derived phosphatase activities in the rhizosphere depending on P availability and C allocation - Coupling soil zymography with 14C imaging. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 67, 106-113. Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y. (accepted): Spatial and temporal dynamics of hotspots of enzyme activity as affected by living and dead roots - A soil zymography analysis. Plant and Soil

Spohn, Marie

2014-05-01

354

Article original Effets des traitements (chauffage et fermentation  

E-print Network

Article original Effets des traitements (chauffage et fermentation par Rhizopus oligosporus sp-T3 nutritionnelle et les propriétés fonctionnelles du lupin blanc doux (LBD), un procédé de fermentation à l'aide de fermentation a été faite à partir de 3 produits : les graines de lupin non traitées (LBDnt), le lupin chauffé à

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Versuche zur vegetativen Annäherung von Steinkleeraten ( Melilotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Mit dem Ziel der vegetativen Annäherung vonMelilotus albus einerseits sowieM. sulcatus undM. messanensis andererseits wurden 2553 reziproke Pfropfungen durchgeführt. Die Reiser der zweijährigen ArtM. albus bildeten nach dem Anwachsen auf den beiden anderen einjährigen Arten an der Pfropfstelle starke Wucherungen aus. Deshalb starben bei diesen Pfropfungen bedeutend mehr Reiser ab als bei den Kombinationen mitM. albus als Unterlage. Als vermutliche

Erich Tellhelm

1965-01-01

356

Increasing deterministic control of primary succession on Mount St. Helens, Washington  

E-print Network

and elevation (spatial factors), soil factors and Lupinus lepidus cover from prior years (a fertility surro. Keywords: Biological filters; Community assembly; Con- vergence; Lupinus lepidus; Redundancy analysis to changes in L. lepidus cover. Rich- ness peaked in 2005, after which pioneer species began to decline

del Moral, Roger

357

-Limits to convergence of vegetation during early primary succession -479 Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 479-488, 2007  

E-print Network

increased with time at rates that decreased with increasing elevation. The establish- ment of Lupinus lepidus accelerated the rate of succession and may control its trajectory. Diversity (H') at first,apparentlybecause Lupinus was not an early colonist.Any vegetation convergence has been limited to plots that are in close

del Moral, Roger

358

Consequences of elevated temperatures on legume biomass and nitrogen cycling in a field warming and biodiversity experiment  

E-print Network

: Amorpha canescens, Dalea purpurea, grassland, Lespedeza capitata, Lupinus perennis, Petalostemum purpureum on aboveground biomass, shoot N concentration ([N]), and reliance on N2 fixation of four prairie legumes (Amorpha canescens Pursh., Dalea purpurea Vent., Lespedeza capitata Michx. and Lupinus perennis L.) planted in plots

Weiblen, George D

359

COREGONID FISHES OF THE GREAT LAKES By WALTER KOELZ, Ph. D.  

E-print Network

_ Coregonus clupeaformis _ Lake Michigan _ Lake Huron _ Lake Superior _ Lake Nipigon _ Lake Erie _ Lake Superior _ Lake Nipigon _ artedi and artedi albus of Lake Ontario _ Leucichthys nipigon _ Genus Coregonus

360

Phoenix Flora Project D. Damrel, D. Pinkava, L. Landrum  

E-print Network

180 AIZOACEAE - Trianthema portulacastrum 181 AMARANTHACEAE - Amaranthus albus 185 AMARANTHACEAE - Amaranthus fimbriatus 186 AMARANTHACEAE - Amaranthus obcordatus 187 AMARANTHACEAE - Amaranthus palmeri 189

Hall, Sharon J.

361

Population Characteristics, Development of a Predictive Population Viability Model, and Catch Dynamics for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River.  

E-print Network

??Population characteristics and long-term population trends of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the lower Missouri River are relatively unknown. As recovery efforts continue, understanding and… (more)

Steffensen, Kirk D.

2012-01-01

362

Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

Rybi?ski, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogus?aw; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Micha?

2014-10-01

363

A Preliminary Study of the Role of Cover Crops in Improving Soil Fertility and Yield for Potato Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the potential of cover crops (fodder rape, oats, and white lupin) to improve phosphorus (P) availability in a high P-fixing Red Ferrosol soil at Robertson, New South Wales. Of particular interest was a fourth cover crop that consisted of white lupin which has P releasing characteristics, grown in combination with fodder rape, which scavenges P with its

S. A. Little; P. J. Hocking; R. S. B. Greene

2004-01-01

364

Ultrasensitive aptamer based detection of ?-conglutin food allergen.  

PubMed

Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, there has been a response to the increasing number of severe cases of lupine allergies reported during the last decade, and as a result lupine was recently added to the list of substances requiring mandatory advisory labelling on foodstuffs sold in the European Union. In this paper we report the robust and ultrasensitive detection of the anaphylactic ?-conglutin allergen using Apta-PCR achieving a detection limit of 85 pM (25 ng mL(-1)). No cross-reactivity with other conglutins or plant species potentially used in lupine containing foodstuffs was observed. This robust method provides an effective analytical tool for the detection and quantification of the toxic ?-conglutin subunit present in lupine flour. PMID:25038695

Svobodova, Marketa; Mairal, Teresa; Nadal, Pedro; Bermudo, M Carmen; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

2014-12-15

365

Sex Determination for the Great Egret and White Ibis GARTH HERRING, DALE E. GAWLIK AND JAMES M. BEERENS  

E-print Network

morphometric measurements and discriminant function analysis to determine the sex of Great Egrets (Ardea alba. Key words.--Ardea alba, discriminant function analysis, Eudocimus albus, Everglades, Florida, Great, the Great Egret (Ardea alba) and White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), have been the focus of considerable research

Gawlik, Dale E.

366

Distribution of Wading Birds Relative to Vegetation and Water Depths in the Northern Everglades of Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of Great Blue Herons ( Ardea herodias ), Great Egrets ( Casmerodius albus ), Wood Storks ( Mycteria americana ), and White Ibises ( Eudocimus albus ) to water level (index of depth) and vegetation in the north- ern Everglades of Florida was studied in two years, each with dissimilar water levels. A regression model was con- structed

G. T HOMAS; D ALE E. G AWLIK; K EN R UTCHEY

367

Genetic variation at microsatellite loci in sturgeon: primer sequence homology in  

E-print Network

; gulf sturgeon, A. o. desotoi) and the two species of Scaphirhynchus (pallid sturgeon, S. albus. o. desotoi) et les deux espèces de Scaphirhynchus (esturgeon pâle, S. albus; esturgeon scaphirhynque and Scaphirhynchus Bernie May, Charles C. Krueger, and Harold L. Kincaid Abstract: Eleven tri- and tetra-meric motif

May, Bernie

368

Stock structure of pallid sturgeon analyzed with microsatellite loci By A. W. Schrey and E. J. Heist  

E-print Network

(Scaphirhynchus albus) occurs in the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers, and the Mississippi River south of its Carbondale, Carbondale, IL, USA Summary Recovery efforts for the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) include supplementation of wild stocks with hatchery reared progeny. Identifying the extent

Heist, Edward J.

369

Spiders Associated with Lemon Horsemint (Monarda citriodora Cervants) in East Central Texas.  

E-print Network

and ant predators on the cotton fleahopper [Hemiptera: Miridae]. Entomophaga 35: 393-401. Dean, D.A.,andJ. E. Eger,Jr.1986. Spiders associated with Lupinus texensis (Leguminosae) and Castilleja indivisa (Scrophulariaceae) in south central Texas...

Nyfferler, M.; Dean, D.A.; Sterling, W.L.

1992-01-01

370

An empirical test of partner choice mechanisms in a wild legumerhizobium interaction  

E-print Network

; cooperation; symbiosis; mutualism; nitrogen fixation; sanctions 1. INTRODUCTION Mutualisms can be modelled in symbiotic benefit. Our greenhouse experiment with a wild legume, Lupinus arboreus, showed that although (Denison 2000; Simms & Taylor 2002). Rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen in exchange for photosynthates

Sachs, Joel

371

Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and clef...

372

Nutrient limitation of native and invasive N2-fixing plants in northwest prairies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope ?15N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar ?15N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar ?15N averaged ?0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar ?15N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications.

Thorpe, Andrea S.; Perakis, Steven; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N.

2013-01-01

373

Bulletin of Mathematical Biology (2000) 01, 135 How predation can slow, stop or reverse a prey  

E-print Network

in a large area known as the Pumice Plains, presenting an excellent opportunity for the study of primary, a species of lupin began to recolonize the Pumice Plains region of Mount St. Helens. In the mid 1980s

374

3 CFR 8947 - Proclamation 8947 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the San Juan Islands National Monument  

...shellfish. In addition to collecting edible plants, and hunting various birds and mammals...grasslands, which are also susceptible to invasive species, are home to chick lupine...equally varied collection of wildlife. Marine mammals, including orcas,...

2014-01-01

375

Save the bees: plant flowers and trees! Bumble Bee (Bombus ternarius)1  

E-print Network

species)6 Pussy willow (Salix discolor)6 Basswood, linden (Tilia americana)8 Carolina lupine (Thermopsis faassenii)7 Purple prairie clover (Petalostemum candida)6 Swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)7 Billard

Minnesota, University of

376

Techno-functional and sensory properties of salad dressing-type emulsion prepared with pulse flours and pulse fractions.  

E-print Network

??Pulses, the low-fat dried seeds of legumes, including peas, chickpeas, lentils, beans and lupins, have received increased attention due to their numerous health-promoting benefits. Significant… (more)

Ma, Zhen

2013-01-01

377

40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bromegrass, hay; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, hay; lespedeza, hay; lupin; oat, grain; orchardgrass, hay; peanut, hay; timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or commodities described as...

2013-07-01

378

GENERAL INDEX. biramosum, Scalpellum japonicum... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68  

E-print Network

... . . . . ·. ·· . . . . ·. . ·. ·. 68 bisselli, Leucichthys artedi. . . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. ·.. .. .. . 20 Bissell's herring Ontario .. Lake Superior .. Lake Tippecanoe .. cismontanus, Coregonus . clupeaiorrnis, Coregonus.............................. .... 70 COregonus.............................................. 35 albus... 37 cismontanus

379

Research Article Differential Physiological Responses to Prey  

E-print Network

with contrasting foraging strategies (great egret [Ardea alba], an exploiter, and white ibis [Eudocimus albus to manage and restore wetland ecosystems Ã? 2012 The Wildlife Society. KEY WORDS Ardea alba, corticosterone

Gawlik, Dale E.

380

Amaranthaceae (Amaranth family) Bushy-branched  

E-print Network

tall, break off at the soil surface when mature and tumble with the wind. Tumble pigweed Amaranthus albus L. Tumble pigweed seedling. Tumble pigweed foliage and flowers. Back to identifying Christmas tree

381

76 FR 8374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department, Bismarck, North Dakota, TE-34128A. The applicant requests a permit to take pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in conjunction with recovery activities throughout the species' range for the purpose of enhancing its...

2011-02-14

382

78 FR 59051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...21112 Limestone Avenue, Bend, OR. The applicant requests a permit to take (harass by survey) pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), bonytail chub...

2013-09-25

383

River kilometer Pallidsturgeoncapturefrequency  

E-print Network

Shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus; SNSG) is the most widely distributed sturgeon species recreational fish for Nebraska anglers Pallid sturgeon (S. albus; PDSG) overlap in much of the same range

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

384

A validated, minimally deleterious method for aging sturgeon  

E-print Network

), Gulf (A. oxyrinchus desotoi), white (A. trans- montanus), pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus), shovelnose (S. platorynchus), 1 NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Ser- vice). 2013. Endangered and threat- ened marine and ana

385

Promotion ofSeedGermination byNitrate, Nitrite, Hydroxylamine, andAmmoniumSalts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actionanduptakeofazides, nitrates, nitrites, hydroxyla- mines,andammoniumsalts weremeasured ongermination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, Phleumpratense, Barbarea vulgaris, B.verna, andSetaria glauca seeds. Nitrate andnitrite reductase activities weremeasured invivoforeachofthese kindsofseeds. Activities weremeasured invitroforcatalase, peroxidase, glycolate oxidase, andpyridine nucleotide quinone reductase onextracts ofA.albus andL.sativa seeds before and aftergermination. Theenzymicactivities measuredandthe responsiveness ofthehaemproteins toinhibition bytheseveral compoundsindicate thatnitrites, azides, andhydroxylamines promoteseedgermination byinhibition ofH202decomposition bycatalase. Ammnonium salts showedpronounced

S. B. HENDRICKS; R. B. TAYLORSON

386

[Effectiveness of symbiotic n2-fixation in leguminous plants, as affected by inoculation with rhizobia, by substrate, n-fertilizing, and 14c-sucrose application (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Cultivation experiments (Mitscherlich-vessels, quartz sand, 15N-labelled soil, 15N-fertilizer) showed, that various strains of Rhizobium lupini (white and yellow lupines) and of Rhizobium leguminosarum (field beans and peas) induced a different N2-fixation of the inoculated plants, the most effective Rhizobium strains being 367a, Cz, T3, 271 (Rh. lupini), and Azotogen (Rh, leguminosarum). Yellow lupines and field bean plants were supplied with N2 from the air considerably better than white lupines and peas after inoculation with the most effective Rhizobium strains. Application of mineral N to the white lupines and peas not only substituted the inhibited N2-fixation, but increased N amounts in the plants. White lupines fixed more N2 under soil conditions than in quartz sand. An experiment with steam-sterilized and 15-labelled soil as a comparative substrate showed, that this finding was mainly caused by an additional Rhizobium infection from the soil. Contrary to field beans and yellow lupines which fix N2 up to ripeness, white lupines and peas finished N2-fixation in the time of flowering. Mineral-N applied at that time was an additional source of N for last-named plants and they utilized it for production of higher protein yields. Continual spraying of white lupine plants with 14C-labelled sucrose solution after the time of flowering caused continuance of N2-fixation up to the stage of ripeness. It is assumed that the cause of this effect was the competition of growing seeds and nodules for the photosynthates. The supply of nodules was inadequate without external sucrose application. Mineral N inhibited the sucrose-induced N2-fixation of white lupine nodules and their consumption of photosynthates. Consequently, the applied 14C was transported into seeds to a larger extent. The investigations allow the following conclusion: Effective N2-fixation requires nodules being a powerful sink for assimilates on the basis of a highly efficient photosynthetic system of the host plant. PMID:6252716

Merbach, W; Schilling, G

1980-01-01

387

Bacteriolytic activity in staphylococci.  

PubMed Central

The bacteriolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus albus strains was tested with various media. Whereas S. aureus strains were found to be active under all conditions, the percentage of active S. albus strains was significantly influenced by the composition of the medium. Ionic strength and concentration of the organic nitrogen source were found to be the main factors affecting the expression of bacteriolytic activity of straphylococci. Virtually all of 318 S. aureus and 603 S. albus strains were active on a medium containing 3% peptone, 0.3% glucose, 0.2% yeast extract, 0.1% disodium phosphate, 2.2% sodium chloride and 0.9% agar. The optimal conditions for the bacteriolytic activity of S. aureus strains were different from those of most S. albus strains. Within S. albus, optimal conditions differed also from strain to strain. It is suggested that further studies on this subject may prove useful for the identification and taxonomy of staphylococci. A possible relationship between the production of extracellular bacteriolytic enzymes and pathogenic properties of staphylococci is also considered. PMID:873615

Satta, G; Varaldo, P E; Grazi, G; Fontana, R

1977-01-01

388

Solar tracking response to drought in a desert annual  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses to drought of the solar tracking winter annualLupinus arizonicus (Wats.) were examined under field and laboratory growth regimes. Under drought conditions tracking movements were maintained until the plant reached the wilting point. The leaves and leaflets were observed to cup in response to decreases in the xylem water potential. This resulted in a negative, but linear relationship between

I. Forseth; J. R. Ehleringer

1980-01-01

389

Oecologia (Berl.) 44, 159-163 (1980) Oecologia9 by Springer-Verlag 1980 Solar Tracking Response to Drought in a Desert Annual  

E-print Network

Oecologia (Berl.) 44, 159-163 (1980) Oecologia9 by Springer-Verlag 1980 Solar Tracking Response Lake City, UT, 84112, USA Summary. The responses to drought of the solar tracking winter annual Lupinus. Introduction Diaphotonastic (solar tracking) movements of leaves have been reported for several different

Ehleringer, Jim

390

Ecophysiology of two solar tracking desert winter annuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal course of water relations in field populations of two leaf solar tracking desert winter annuals was examined. Measurements were made of leaf movements in relation to leaf conductance and water potential. Malvastrum rotundifolium maintained solar tracking movements up to the wilting point of the plant (-4 MPa). Lupinus arizonicus altered its morphology through paraheliotropic leaf movements as leaf

I. N. Forseth; J. R. Ehleringer

1982-01-01

391

Ecophysiology of two solar tracking desert winter annuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents an empirical study on the effect of different leaf orientations on the daily carbon gain and transpirational water loss of desert winter annuals. Laboratory physiological data on Malvastrum rotundifolium (Gray) and Lupinus arizonicus (Wats) were combined with energy budget concepts and field measurements of water relations and leaf movements to predict carbon gain patterns for horizontally oriented,

I. N. Forseth; J. R. Ehleringer

1983-01-01

392

Perennial grasses as a source of bioenergy in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to investigate the feasibility of cultivating perennial grasses as energy crops and their effect on soil agroecological potential. Field experiments with different grasses were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture from 2000--2004. Perennial grasses Phalaroides arundinacea L. and Bromopsis inermis Leysser were grown pure and in mixtures with legumes. Melilotus officinalis, Lupinus polyphyllus and Galega

A. Kry; A. Jasinskas; A. Gulbinas

393

The impact of plant residues on the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of plant residues and plant root exudates, from a range of traditional and nontraditional crop species, to protect soybean (Glycine max (L.)) plants against Heterodera glycines (Ichinohe) was examined in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. Plant residues from nonhosts Lespedeza capitata Michx, Lespedeza intermedia (S. Wats.) Britt, Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem, Lolium multiflorum (Lam.), Lolium perenne (L.), Lupinus

E. Riga; E. Topp; J. Potter; T. Welacky; T. Anderson; A. Tenuta

2001-01-01

394

Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants often synthesize secondary metabolites that are enantiomers. Enantiomers can cause very different physiological responses. Ammodendrine (1) and anabasine (2) are teratogens that can cause congenital malformations in livestock and enantiomeric forms of each have been found in Lupinus spp. an...

395

The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Piperidine alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum, Nicotiana spp., and Lupinus spp. A pharmacodynamic comparison was made of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, and coniine in; SH-SY5Y cells which express autonomic-type nicotinic acetylcholine recept...

396

Primary succession on Mount St. Helens, with reference to Surtsey  

E-print Network

in transects of permanent plots: 12 on Pumice (from 1989), 10 on a lower Ridge (from 1984) and 10 from upper was slow. Pumice richness sta- bilized by 1998, and after 2003 it declined due to an explosion of Lupinus where cover was lower. After a lag, cover on Pumice began to accrue (Fig. 3). Cover in lower plots

del Moral, Roger

397

ECOSYSTEM E COLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the two decades following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State, the N2-fixing colonizer Lupinus lepidus is associated with striking heterogeneity in plant community and soil development. We report on differences in nutrient availability and plant tissue chemistry between older, dense patches (core) of L. lepidus and more recently established low density patches (edge). In addition,

Richard A. Gill; Jennifer A. Boie; John G. Bishop; Lindsay Larsen; Jennifer L. Apple; R. David Evans

398

Linking community and ecosystem development on Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the two decades following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State, the N2-fixing colonizer Lupinus lepidus is associated with striking heterogeneity in plant community and soil development. We report on differences in nutrient availability and plant tissue chemistry between older, dense patches (core) of L. lepidus and more recently established low density patches (edge). In addition,

Richard A. Gill; Jennifer A. Boie; John G. Bishop; Lindsay Larsen; Jennifer L. Apple; R. David Evans

2006-01-01

399

Complex Consequences of Herbivory and Interplant Cues in Three Annual Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information exchange (or signaling) between plants following herbivore damage has recently been shown to affect plant responses to herbivory in relatively simple natural systems. In a large, manipulative field study using three annual plant species (Achyrachaena mollis, Lupinus nanus, and Sinapis arvensis), we tested whether experimental damage to a neighboring conspecific affected a plant's lifetime fitness and interactions with herbivores.

Ian S. Pearse; Lauren M. Porensky; Louie H. Yang; Maureen L. Stanton; Richard Karban; Lisa Bhattacharyya; Rosa Cox; Karin Dove; August Higgins; Corrina Kamoroff; Travis Kirk; Christopher Knight; Rebecca Koch; Corwin Parker; Hilary Rollins; Kelsey Tanner

2012-01-01

400

Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 29 (2001) 551561 Transfer of quinolizidine alkaloids from hosts  

E-print Network

Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 29 (2001) 551­561 Transfer of quinolizidine alkaloids from have reduced herbivory when obtaining alkaloids from the hosts Lupinus argenteus and L. texensis alkaloid-containing hosts. To determine if alkaloids are present in all tissues of plants parasitizing

Adler, Lynn

401

Daugiame?i? žolini? augal? populiacij? vertinimo herbochronologijos metodais galimyb?s.  

E-print Network

??DAUGIAME?I? ŽOLINI? AUGAL? POPULIACIJ? VERTINIMO HERBOCHRONOLOGIJOS METODAIS GALIMYB?S SANTRAUKA Magistriniame darbe pateikiami gausialapio lubino (Lupinus polyphyllus), aukštosios dedešvos (Malva alcea), valgomosios r?gštyn?s (Rumex acetosa), tankiažied?s… (more)

Dobravolskait?, Rasa

2009-01-01

402

Oecologia (2003) 137:2231 DOI 10.1007/s00442-003-1309-1  

E-print Network

, with the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N), may help alleviate the N limitations thought to constrain plant accumulation and plant N concen- trations of nine-species plots of differing plant composi- tion; (2) leaf with Lupinus had 32% higher whole plot plant N concentrations and 26% higher total plant N pools than those

Minnesota, University of

403

COLLECTING LEGUMES IN THE LARGEST REMOTE REGION REMAINING IN THE LOWER 48 STATES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Outside of Alaska, the Owyhee Uplands is considered by some to be the largest remaining wild region in the United States. Endemic legume species include Astragalus camptopus, A. sterilis, A. mulfordiae, Lupinus biddlei, Peteria thompsoniae, Trifolium leibergii, and T. owyheense. More common legumes ...

404

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities and ecosystems  

E-print Network

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities the landscape? Location: Coastal hind-dune system, Bodega Head, northern California. Methods: In each of 4 years ­ Ericameria ericoides and the nitrogen-fixing Lupinus chamissonis ­ with those in adjacent open dunes. Results

Cushman, J. Hall

405

Genomic and genetic control of phosphate stress in legumes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is critical for plant growth and development, particularly for N2-fixing legumes due to the high demand for P in root nodules. Genomic and molecular studies of P-stress in legumes have used a variety of research strategies and have focused primarily on white lupin, common bean, soybea...

406

455Agronomie 25 (2005) 455463 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2005  

E-print Network

Universitario, E-27002 Lugo, Spain (Accepted 12 May 2005) Abstract ­ The efficiency of a rye cover crop measurements general linear model) as evaluated using multivariate comparisons, the rye treatment proved more of straw into the soil. contamination / nitrate / cover crops / green manure / straw / rye / lupin 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Insecticide bioassays for western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidental is) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassays were tested for their suitability to determine the resistance of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) to insecticides. Adult female greenhouse and lupin strains of western flower thrips were exposed to bean leaf discs treated with insecticide solutions for 24 h at 25°C. The susceptibility of greenhouse strain western flower thrips was further assessed following

N. A. Martin; P. J. Workman; R. C. Butler

2005-01-01

408

Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Teratology, as a scientific discipline, is relatively new and recognition of poisonous plants that cause birth defects in livestock only came to the forefront in the 1950’s and 1960’s. The Veratrum-induced “monkey faced” lamb syndrome and lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”, both studied extensive...

409

Is it possible to counterbalance deficiencies or imbalances in cobalt, copper and\\/or molybdenum in forage based diets by including more and other plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether species other than perennial grasses may contribute to a more balanced trace element supply for livestock, three studies have been conducted in coastal areas of Norway. From two series of field trial samples of green fodder crops were collected. Fodder vetch, broad beans and lupin may improve the supply of Co but do not solve severe deficiencies.

A. Johansen; A. K. Bakken; O. M. Synnes

2009-01-01

410

What We Muggles Can Learn about Teaching from Hogwarts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Harry Potter series furnishes many instances of both good and bad teaching. From them, we can learn more about three principles outlined in "How People Learn" (National Research Council 2000a). (1) Teachers should question students about their prior knowledge, as Professor Lupin does before his lessons; (2) we should encourage students to…

Bixler, Andrea

2011-01-01

411

The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats.  

PubMed

Sustained inhibition of fetal movement in livestock species, induced by several poisonous plants, can result in numerous skeletal-contracture malformations. Lupines are responsible for a condition in cattle referred to as "crooked calf syndrome" that occurs when pregnant cattle graze teratogenic lupines. Similar malformations are also seen in animals poisoned by Conium maculatum (coniine) and Nicotiana glauca (anabasine). A proposed management strategy to limit these types of birth defects includes utilizing an intermittent grazing schedule to allow short durations of grazing lupine-infested areas interrupted by movement to a lupine-free pasture. The objective of this study was to use a goat model to determine if an intermittent schedule of five continuous days on treatment followed by two days off treatment would be sufficient to decrease, or prevent, the incidence of anabasine-induced malformations. The data from this study suggest that, for N. glauca in goats, the intermittent grazing program of five days exposure with two days of non-exposure is insufficient to prevent significant skeletal malformations from occurring. However, this study did demonstrate an inverse relationship between the amount of serum anabasine in the dam and the extent of fetal movement. PMID:25451537

Welch, K D; Panter, K E; Lee, S T; Gardner, D R

2015-01-01

412

[Optimization of a spaghetti formula enriched with dietary fiber and micronutrients for elderly people].  

PubMed

Several studies have demonstrated low dietary fiber intake in elderly people, which increases the risk of diseases such as constipation, colon cancer and diverticulosis. A spaghetti formula enriched with lupin fibre was developed to increase the dietary fibre intake in elderly people, as spaghetti are frequently consumed in this age group. Sweet lupin bran (Vitafiber) was used as fibre source and gluten was used as improving additive. Response surface methodology with a two variable composite rotatable design was applied to optimize the formulations. The independent variables were lupin bran (7.14-14.29%) and gluten Vital (0.1-2.0%). The dependent variables were the responses of a trained 10-member sensory panel who evaluated the sensory quality parameters color, shape, aroma, flavor and texture by the Karlsruhe 9-point test. The optimized formula was prepared with 66.7% semoline, 7.14% lupin bran, 1.05% gluten and 24.7% water, enriched with 0.019% of a vitamin premix (A. E, D, B2, B12 and folic acid) and with 0.41% of a mineral premix (Ca, Fe, Zn), in order to meet 30% of the RDA for the elderly per 100 g dry spaghetti. The dietary fibre content of the optimized product was 11.05 g/100 g. The study showed that fibre-enriched spaghetti formula is a good way to increase dietary fibre intake in elderly people, as it is a common food, simple to prepare and easy to eat. PMID:12214554

Wittig de Penna, Emma; Serrano, Lisis; Bunger, Andrea; Soto, Delia; López, Luis; Hernández, Nieves; Ruales, Jenny

2002-03-01

413

4. DETAIL OF NAME AND RIBBON BOARDS ON PORT SIDE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL OF NAME AND RIBBON BOARDS ON PORT SIDE. NAME BOARD WAS REMOVED AT TIME OF DECOMMISSIONING. PHOTOGRAPHER TEMPORARILY REATTACHED THE NAME BOARD. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

414

The Fetal Cleft Palate: IV. Midfacial Growth and Bony Palatal Development following In Utero and Neonatal Repair of the Congenital Caprine Model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Spanish goat model was developed to ascertain the mechanism of action of lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”. This goat model is now being used to study new treatments and improved intervention in the treatment of cleft palate in children. We previously demonstrated that in utero palatoplasty...

415

36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING AT TWO DIESEL ENGINES, STAIRS LEAD UP TO CREW'S BERTHING. THIS IMAGE IS CLOSER TO THE STERN AND MORE ANGLED TOWARDS THE PORT THAN IMAGE 34. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

416

49. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by Tony Cammarata, Boston Photographers. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. AERIAL VIEW OF PORT SIDE WHILE UNDERWAY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

417

47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

418

43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. LOADING OF LIGHTED BUOYS WITH MOORINGS OF HEAVY CHAIN. CONCRETE, AND CAST-IRON SINKERS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

419

42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

420

44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

421

46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

422

45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PILOT HOUSE SHOWING STARBOARD SIDE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

423

48. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by Tony Cammarata, Boston Photographers. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE OF DECK FROM BRIDGE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

424

PREDATION OF A SPAWNING ATHERINID FISH, 'MENIDIA MENIDIA', BY AVIAN AND AQUATIC PREDATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Predation of Atlantic silversides was observed during spawning runs in the intertidal zone of the North Edisto River estuary, South Carolina. Snowy egrets, Egretta thula, and Great egrets, Casmerodius albus, were the dominant avian predators. Snowy egrets often caught M. menidia ...

425

GENERAL INDEX accrosum, Closterium____ ___ _ __ __ ___ _ __ ___ ___ ___ __ 152  

E-print Network

salmon-tagging experiments, 1926 71-104 ulbus, Coregonus 476,515 Aleyonidium gelutinosum 109-252 mytil_ _ __ ___ __ _ __ ___ ___ __ __ 340 aquilu_ _____ _ ___ _ __ _ _____ 340 artedi.. _ __ _ __ ___ ___ ___ __ ___ ___ ______ 476 eiseo'gyrosonlus. ~. _. . . . . ._.. 476 ('orcgou1l8 340,476 Leueiehthys 476,505 artccli albus, Lcucichthys 478,479,507 artedi, Leucichthys

426

4-D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III*  

E-print Network

4-D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III* James S. Albus Intelligent Systems Division * This paper is a condensation of 4-D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III, NISTIR 5994, March 1997 ABSTRACT 4-D/RCS is a reference model architecture that integrates the NIST (National Institute

427

4D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III *  

E-print Network

4­D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III * James S. Albus Intelligent Systems Division * This paper is a condensation of 4­D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III, NISTIR 5994, March 1997 ABSTRACT 4­D/RCS is a reference model architecture that integrates the NIST (National Institute

428

The NIST Realtime Control System (RCS) An Applications Survey  

E-print Network

The NIST Real­time Control System (RCS) An Applications Survey by James S. Albus Chief, Intelligent Systems Division National Institute of Standards and Technology Abstract The Real­time Control System (RCS for a nested intelligent control system. The RCS architecture consists of a hierarchically layered set

429

The NIST Real-time Control System (RCS) An Applications Survey  

E-print Network

The NIST Real-time Control System (RCS) An Applications Survey by James S. Albus Chief, Intelligent Systems Division National Institute of Standards and Technology Abstract The Real-time Control System (RCS for a nested intelligent control system. The RCS architecture consists of a hierarchically layered set

430

Immunological Memory is Associative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that immunological memory is in the same class of associative memories as Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory , Albus's Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer , and Marr's Theory of the Cerebellar Cortex . This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature from a sparse sampling of a huge input space by recognition units (B and T cells

Derek J. Smith; Stephanie Forrest; Alan S. Perelson

1998-01-01

431

Ultrastructure of the pericardium in chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora), in relation to filtration and contraction mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pericardium in Lepidopleurus asellus (Spengler), Tonicella marmorea (Fabricius), T. rubra L., Ischnochiton albus L., and Calleochiton laevis (Montagu), species taxonomically far apart, is described. It consists of a flat, simple epithelium facing the pericardial cavity, a basement membrane, a muscle layer with two types of muscle fibres, nerve processes, glio-interstitial cells, and fibrocytes, embedded in a loose collagen matrix.

Steinar Økland

1981-01-01

432

Might Flowers of Invasive Plants Increase Native Bees Carrying Capacity? Intimations from Capitol Reef National Park, Utah  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We compared the native bees visiting the flowers of three species of invasive plants (Tamarix spp., Melilotus albus, M. officinalis) with those visiting seven native plant species in mid-summer at three sites in Capitol Reef National Park, UT, USA. Overall, as many species of bees visited the flowe...

433

The carbohydrate-binding sequences in lectins of the clovers Trifolium repens, T. pratense , and T. trichocephalum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbohydrate-binding sequences (CBS) in the lectin genes of Trifolium repens, T. pratense, and T. trichocephalum were sequenced. The gene regions encoding lectin CBS of T. pratense and T. repens displayed a considerable similarity; however, the CBS of these species differed essentially. Moreover, T. repens formed a compact cluster with Melilotus albus and M. officinalis in the phylogenetic trees constructed

I. I. Gubaidullin; Al. Kh. Baimiev; An. Kh. Baimiev; A. V. Chemeris

2007-01-01

434

Draft genome sequences of six type strains of the genus streptacidiphilus.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Streptacidiphilus are acidophilic actinomycetes with streptomycete-like features. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the type strains of Streptacidiphilus albus, Streptacidiphilus anmyonensis, Streptacidiphilus carbonis, Streptacidiphilus jiangxiensis, Streptacidiphilus melanogenes, and Streptacidiphilus neutrinimicus. These genome sequences will serve as valuable references for understanding their taxonomic relationships, genetic characteristics, and potentials for industry. PMID:25573937

Komaki, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Oguchi, Akio; Hamada, Moriyuki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Fujita, Nobuyuki

2015-01-01

435

Fish and chips? Implanted transmitters help map the endangered pallid sturgeon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

With a flattened snout, long slender tail and rows of bony plates lining its body, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has a unique, almost pre-historic, appearance. This endangered fish is native to the muddy, free-flowing waters of the Missouri River.

Chojnacki, Kimberly; DeLonay, Aaron

2011-01-01

436

Feather mercury concentrations and physiological condition of great egret and white ibis nestlings in the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury contamination in the Florida Everglades has reportedly played a role in the recent decline of wading birds, although no studies have identified a mechanism leading to population-level effects. We assessed feather mercury levels in great egret (Ardea alba; n=91) and white ibis (Eudocimus albus; n=46) nestlings at breeding colonies in the Florida Everglades during a year (2006) with excellent

Garth Herring; Dale E. Gawlik; Darren G. Rumbold

2009-01-01

437

A NEURAL MODEL OF SACCADIC EYE MOVEMENT CONTROL EXPLAINS TASKSPECIFIC ADAPTATION  

E-print Network

target during a saccade. The resulting adaptation typically shows incomplete and asymmetric transfer represent the movement required to fixate the target (Mays & Sparks, 1980). These several coordinate systems to take place in the cerebellum (Grossberg, 1969; Marr, 1969; Albus, 1971; Fujita, 1982; Ito, 1984

Grossberg, Stephen

438

Muscodor fengyangensis sp. nov. from southeast China: morphology, physiology and production of volatile compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal genus Muscodor was erected on the basis of Muscodor albus, an endophytic fungus originally isolated from Cinnamomum zeylanicum. It produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antimicrobial activity that can be used as mycofumigants. The genus currently comprises five species. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a new species of Muscodor on the basis

Chu-Long Zhang; Guo-Ping Wang; Li-Juan Mao; Monika Komon-Zelazowska; Zhi-Lin Yuan; Fu-Cheng Lin; Irina S. Druzhinina; Christian P. Kubicek

2010-01-01

439

Draft Genome Sequences of Six Type Strains of the Genus Streptacidiphilus  

PubMed Central

Members of the genus Streptacidiphilus are acidophilic actinomycetes with streptomycete-like features. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the type strains of Streptacidiphilus albus, Streptacidiphilus anmyonensis, Streptacidiphilus carbonis, Streptacidiphilus jiangxiensis, Streptacidiphilus melanogenes, and Streptacidiphilus neutrinimicus. These genome sequences will serve as valuable references for understanding their taxonomic relationships, genetic characteristics, and potentials for industry. PMID:25573937

Ichikawa, Natsuko; Oguchi, Akio; Hamada, Moriyuki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Fujita, Nobuyuki

2015-01-01

440

Das Drehbuchhandwerk Gastvortrag im Rahmen der Vorlesung "Digitales Video", Prof. Dr.-Ing. Diepold  

E-print Network

sein Harry Potter Ron Weasley, Hermine Granger Voldemort DIE ARCHETYPEN (I/III) Archetyp Beschreibung Entsprechung in Harry Potter, Teil 1 Quelle: Christopher Vogler ,,Die Reise des Helden" #12;Albus Dumbledore, ermutigt zur Reise Onkel und Tante, Fluffy der Hund Hagrid Archetyp Beschreibung Entsprechung in Harry

441

Five Lessons of a Dumbledore Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and the world of Harry Potter may help educators re-imagine their daily work and provide good reminders that intentional formal and informal mentoring, informed by educational theory, play an essential role in student learning and development. Mentoring principles at Hogwarts flow from Albus Dumbledore,…

Music, Rusmir; Agans, Lyndsay J.

2007-01-01

442

FERMENTATION RESIDUES FROM RUMINOCOCCUS CELLULOSE FERMENTATIONS AS COMPONENTS OF WOOD ADHESIVE FORMULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Residues from the fermentation of cellulose by the anaerobic bacteria Ruminococcus albus (strain 7) or Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1 or B34b) containing residual cellulose, bacterial cells and their associated adhesins, were examined for their ability to serve as components of adhesives f...

443

Utilising a Cerebellar Model for Mobile Robot Control in a Delayed Sensory Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast and accurate movement control for a system exhibiting significant feedback delay is traditionally a difficult problem to solve. In biological systems, it is thought that a part of the brain called the cerebellum overcomes such difficulties. This paper outlines the use of a cerebellar model in the control of a simulated mobile robot. The model is based around Albus's

David Collins; Gordon Wyeth

2000-01-01

444

Detection of the antimicrobial peptide gene in different Amaranthus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using primers to amplify the gene AMP2 in Amaranthus caudatus, we found the gene to be present in seven other species of the Amaranthus genus (A. albus, A. cruentus, A. blitum, A. hybridus, A. hypochondriacus, A. retroflexus and A. tricolor), in which it had not been described previously. The PCR products were sequenced and it was established that all the

Radka Pribylova; Petr Kralik; Bohumila Pisarikova; Ivo Pavlik

2008-01-01

445

Biological Control 38 (2006) 356362 www.elsevier.com/locate/ybcon  

E-print Network

amaranthicola; Amaranthus rudis; A. palmeri; A. powellii; A. retroXexus; A. spinosus; A. hybridus; A. albus of seven Amaranthus species: Implications for biological control Loretta Ortiz-Ribbing, Martin M. Williams Amaranthus species. In an eVort to understand the initial infection processes with these pathogens, a study

Sims, Gerald K.

446

Crop Protection 25 (2006) 3946 Potential of Phomopsis amaranthicola and Microsphaeropsis  

E-print Network

. albus L., (tumble pigweed); and A. blitoides S.Wats., (prostrate pigweed) (Heap, 2000). Some Amaranthus, as bioherbicides for several weedy Amaranthus species Loretta Ortiz-RibbingÃ?, Martin M. Williams, II USDA in the genus Amaranthus are weeds in cropping systems throughout the world, and some biotypes have developed

Sims, Gerald K.

447

Breaking of Seed Dormancy by Catalase Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination of some dormant seeds is promoted by solutions of thiourea, sodium nitrite, and hydroxylamine salts. The promotions are accompanied by irreversible inhibition of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) in extracts from the seeds. The seeds are also promoted in germination by catechol and pyrogallol solutions. These effects are recorded for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) and pigweed (Amaranthus albus

S. B. Hendricks; R. B. Taylorson

1975-01-01

448

Supplementary weed control using soil-applied herbicides in glyphosate-resistant maize in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were conducted during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to evaluate the effects of glyphosate with and without soil-applied herbicides on weed control and yield in Zea mays. In 2000, under above normal rainfall conditions, glyphosate used alone provided poor control of Amaranthus albus when applied early post-emergence but gave improved control when applied later in the growing

W. James Grichar; Brad W. Minton

2006-01-01

449

Evaluation of an Electric Fence System for excluding Wading Birds at Catfish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated a two-strand electric fence barrier to determine its utility in excluding great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and great egrets (Casmerodius albus) from ponds containing channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fencing at five ponds resulted in at least a 91% reduction in pond use by herons and egrets. Labor to install the fences ranged from 2 to 6 person-hours per

Donald E. Mott; Richard D. Flynt

1995-01-01

450

Siblicidal Aggression and Resource Monopolization in Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Texas, great egret Casmerodius albus chicks attack younger nestmates, often fatally (siblicide). By contrast, the young of neighboring great blue herons Ardea herodias seldom strike or kill siblings. These interspecific differences seem related to prey size: only fish provided by egret parents are small enough for chicks to monopolize (a process facilitated by aggression). Experimentally cross-fostered heron chicks raised

Douglas W. Mock

1984-01-01

451

Nesting Populations of Double-Crested Cormorants, Great Blue Herons, and Great Egrets in the United States and Canada: Implications for Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of piscivorous birds in North America are receiving increasing attention in the southeast United States because of depredations at aquaculture facilities. We obtained recent (most since 1994) estimates for the number of nesting double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), great blue herons (Ardea herodias), and great egrets (Casmerodius albus) in the United States (US) and Canada from published references and by

Jerrold L. Belant; Laura A. Tyson

1997-01-01

452

Mercury in herons, egrets, and their foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury concentration levels were measured in herons and egrets and their foods collected in the southwestern Lake Erie region. Primary wing feathers, breast muscle, liver, and brain tissues were analyzed from 432 great blue herons (Ardea herodias), 44 black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and 43 great egrets (Casmerodius albus). Concentrations were higher in island nesting birds than birds collected at

R. D. Hoffman; R. D. Curnow

1979-01-01

453

Fish-Eating Birds as Potential Vectors of Edwardsiella ictaluri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal and rectal smears from 137 birds (4 snowy egrets Egretta thula, 22 great egrets Casmerodius albus, 30 great blue herons Ardea herodias, and 81 double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus) were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody test for the presence of Edwardsiella ictaluri. Edwardsiella ictaluri was detected in 53% of the birds sampled. Rectal samples from eight birds were placed in

Peter W. Taylor

1992-01-01

454

Estimating Shrub Forage Yield and Utilization Using a Photographic Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed a photographic technique to estimate shrub yield and utilization of common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake), snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Douglas ex Hook.), and firmleaf willow ( Salix rigida Muhl.) found in mixed-conifer rangelands. We determined the correlation between green leaf area size (LA) and forage yield (Y) and compared plant utilization estimated by photographic technique (ULA) to actual

Daalkhaijav Damiran; Timothy DelCurto; Douglas E. Johnson; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

2006-01-01

455

Habitat Use by Middle Mississippi River Pallid Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the habitat preferences and needs of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, which was federally listed as endangered in 1990. To learn more about habitat use and selection by pallid sturgeon, sonic transmitters were surgically implanted in 27 individuals from the middle Mississippi River. Study fish were located 184 times (1–23 times\\/individual) from November 1995 to December 1999.

Keith L. Hurley; Robert J. Sheehan; Roy C. Heidinger; Paul S. Wills; Bob Clevenstine

2004-01-01

456

Recovery Program Review for Endangered Pallid Sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) is one of the most critically endangered species in the United States. Recovery implementation occurs primarily through activities of three workgroups that function in the upper, middle, and lower portions of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The Upper Basin Workgroup (UBW) consists of federal and state agency biologists, state representatives, and university scientists from Montana,

Molly A. H. Webb; Jack E. Williams; Larry R. Hildebrand

2005-01-01

457

Multi-scale Hydroacoustic Remote Sensing of Sturgeon and Their Habitats in A Large, Turbid River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration and management of the Lower Missouri River (LMOR) to support recovery of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) requires quantifying habitats used during all life stages in order to isolate specific habitats (if any) that present bottlenecks to reproduction and survival. All life stages of the pallid sturgeon take place in deep, turbid rivers where direct observation of habitat

R. B. Jacobson; A. Delonay; C. Vishy; C. M. Elliott; J. M. Reuter; K. A. Chojnacki

2009-01-01

458

Effects of Acclimation on Poststocking Dispersal and Physiological Condition of Age1 Pallid Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A propagation program for pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the upper Missouri River was implemented by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1997. Preliminary research indicated that many hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon were experiencing significant downstream poststocking dispersal, negatively affecting their recruitment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific

Eric W. Oldenburg; Christopher S. Guy; Eli S. Cureton; Molly H. Webb; William M. Gardner

2011-01-01

459

Design of a naturalized flow regime-an example from the Lower Missouri River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of river managers, stakeholders, and scientists met during summer 2005 to design a more naturalized flow regime for the Lower Missouri River (LMOR). The objective was to comply with requirements under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to support reproduction and survival of threatened and endangered species, with emphasis on the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), while minimizing negative

Robert B. Jacobson; David L. Galat

2008-01-01

460

Poststocking Movements and Habitat Use of Hatchery-Reared Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River below Fort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telemetry was used to evaluate seasonal and diel movement patterns, general habitat use, survival, and spatial distributions of hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus stocked in the Missouri River below Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska. Sampling occurred at about 2-week intervals during spring through fall. Of 22 ultrasonically tagged fish, 13 were intensively followed to assess hourly diel

Randall Dam; GEORGE R. JORDAN; ROBERT A. KLUMB; G REG A. WANNER; WAYNE J. STANCILL

461

Length Conversions and Length-Weight Relations for Pallid Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed conversion formulas for standard length to fork length, fork length to total length, and standard length to total length for 30 pallid sturgeons Scaphirhynchus albus from the upper Missouri River. Formulas for converting length to weight were also developed for each of the length measurements. We add our length and weight data on 30 specimens of this rare

K. D. Keenlyne; S. J. Maxwell

1993-01-01

462

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-RQ-02  

E-print Network

North American sturgeon (i.e., not genus- or species-specific), two are specific to Scaphirhynchus sturgeon, and two are specific to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The Scaphirhynchus marker could identify sites where endangered species like the pallid (S. albus) or Alabama (S. suttkusi) sturgeon might

463

HABITAT USE AND MOVEMENTS OF ADULT PALLID STURGEON IN THE MISSOURI RIVER DOWNSTREAM OF FORT RANDALL DAM, SOUTH DAKOTA AND NEBRASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic telemetry was used from 2000 to 2002 to identify habitat use and track seasonal and diel movements of six adult pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) released in the Missouri River downstream of Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska. Extensive sampling occurred at about two week intervals from spring through fall. Two individual fish were intensively tracked for 4 to

Greg A. Wanner; Robert A. Klumb; Wayne J. Stancill

464

Poststocking Movements and Habitat Use of Hatchery-Reared Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River below Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telemetry was used to evaluate seasonal and diel movement patterns, general habitat use, survival, and spatial distributions of hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus stocked in the Missouri River below Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska. Sampling occurred at about 2-week intervals during spring through fall. Of 22 ultrasonically tagged fish, 13 were intensively followed to assess hourly diel

George R. Jordan; Robert A. Klumb; Greg A. Wanner; Wayne J. Stancill

2006-01-01

465

2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the rivers structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeons inability to adapt to these

Eric W. Oldenburg; Timothy P. Hanrahan; Ryan A. Harnish; Brian J. Bellgraph; Joanne P. Duncan; Craig H. Allwardt

2008-01-01

466

Fecundity of the Pallid Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecundity was estimated for a 17,110-g, 41-year-old, female pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus taken from the upper Missouri River. The mass of mature eggs weighed 1,952 g, which represented 11.4% of total body weight. Using a mean of 87 eggs\\/g, we estimated total fecundity at 170,000 eggs for this fish.

K. D. Keenlyne; E. M. Grossman; L. G. Jenkins

1992-01-01