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Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.  


In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p?lupin seeds. Phytic acid losses in bitter and sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties. PMID:24966434

Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin



Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet  

PubMed Central

A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7–14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96?h on Heller medium with 60?mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (–S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35?mM asparagine or 35?mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed.

Borek, Slawomir; Pukacka, Stanislawa; Michalski, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Lech



White Lupin (Lupinus albus) response to phosphorus stress: evidence for complex regulation of LaSAP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteoid roots are a unique adaptation that allow white lupin (Lupinus albus L. var Ultra) to survive under extreme phosphorus (P) deficient conditions. The cascade of events that signals P-deficiency\\u000a induced gene expression in proteoid roots remains unknown. Through promoter::GUS analysis we showed that expression of acid\\u000a phosphatase (LaSAP1) in P-deficient proteoid roots depends on DNA located from ?465 bp to

Kelly E. Zinn; Junqi Liu; Deborah L. Allan; Carroll P. Vance



Interactive effects of phosphorus deficiency and exogenous auxin on root morphological and physiological traits in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).  


White lupin (Lupinus albus) exhibits strong root morphological and physiological responses to phosphorus (P) deficiency and auxin treatments, but the interactive effects of P and auxin in regulating root morphological and physiological traits are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess white lupin root traits as influenced by P (0 or 250 ?mol L(-1)) and auxin (10(-8) mol L(-1) NAA) in nutrient solution. Both P deficiency and auxin treatments significantly altered root morphological traits, as evidenced by reduced taproot length, increased number and density of first-order lateral roots, and enhanced cluster-root formation. Changes in root physiological traits were also observed, i.e., increased proton, citrate, and acid phosphatase exudation. Exogenous auxin enhanced root responses and sensitivity to P deficiency. A significant interplay exists between P and auxin in the regulation of root morphological and physiological traits. Principal component analysis showed that P availability explained 64.8% and auxin addition 21.3% of the total variation in root trait parameters, indicating that P availability is much more important than auxin in modifying root responses of white lupin. This suggests that white lupin can coordinate root morphological and physiological responses to enhance acquisition of P resources, with an optimal trade-off between root morphological and physiological traits regulated by external stimuli such as P availability and auxin. PMID:23504274

Tang, Hongliang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed



Influence of substituting dietary soybean meal for dehulled-micronized lupin ( Lupinus albus cv. Multitalia) on early phase laying hens production and egg quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from substitution of soybean meal with dehulled-micronized lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Multitalia) in diet of early phase laying hens. Isa Brown layers, 18weeks of age were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10weeks. Two different durum wheat middlings-based diets were prepared; one

V. Laudadio; V. Tufarelli



Phosphorus acquisition characteristics of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.), wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and white lupin ( Lupinus albus L.) under P deficient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rhizobox experiment was conducted to examine the P acquisition characteristics of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) under P-deficient conditions. We aimed to identify whether cotton is physiologically efficient at acquiring P through\\u000a release of protons, phosphatases or carboxylates. Plants were pre-grown in the upper compartment of rhizoboxes filled with\\u000a a

X. Wang; C. Tang; C. N. Guppy; P. W. G. Sale



Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).  


We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J; Harper, John D I; Ash, Gavin J; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Raman, Harsh



Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).  


Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo



Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)  

PubMed Central

Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m–2 s–1 or 600 µmol m–2 s–1 light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation.

Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P.; White, Philip J.; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo



Root-derived auxin contributes to the phosphorus-deficiency-induced cluster-root formation in white lupin (Lupinus albus).  


Formation of cluster roots is a typical morphological response to phosphorus (P) deficiency in white lupin (Lupinus albus), but its physiological and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. We investigated the role of auxin in the initiation of cluster roots by distinguishing the sources of auxin, measuring the longitudinal distribution patterns of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) along the root and the related gene expressions responsible for polar auxin transport (PAT) in different developmental stages of cluster roots. We found that removal of shoot apex or primary root apex and application of auxin-influx or -efflux transport inhibitors, 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, to the stem did not affect the number of cluster roots and the free-IAA concentration in the roots of P-deficient plants, but when these inhibitors were applied directly to the growth media, the cluster-root formation was greatly suppressed, suggesting the fundamental role of root-derived IAA in cluster-root formation. The concentration of free IAA in the roots was higher in P-deficient plants than in P-adequate ones, and the highest in the lateral-root apex and the lowest in the mature cluster roots. Meanwhile the expression patterns of LaAUX1, LaPIN1 and LaPIN3 transcripts related to PAT was consistent with concentrations of free IAA along the lateral root, indicating the contribution of IAA redistribution in the cluster-root development. We proposed that root-derived IAA plays a direct and important role in the P-deficiency-induced formation of cluster roots. PMID:23067249

Meng, Zhi Bin; You, Xue Di; Suo, Dong; Chen, Yun Long; Tang, Caixian; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian



Nutritional quality of lupine (Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa) as affected by lactic acid fermentation.  


The effects of selected NRRL strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. buchneri, L. cellobiosus and L. fermentum upon oligosaccharide, phytate and alkaloid contents, as well as on the nutritive value of lupine, were investigated. Lupine was processed to a 12% total solids suspension, inoculated with 1% (v/v) cultures and fermented until a final desired pH of 4.5. L. acidophilus B-2092 and L. buchneri B-1837 growth was related to a significant sucrose breakdown and decreases of phytates, whereas L. acidophilus B-1910 and L. fermentum B-585 reduced the content of flatulence oligosaccharides. The activity of L. acidophilus B-1910 was particularly associated with lowering of alkaloids and increase of riboflavin. Lactic acid fermentation produced slight changes in lysine and methionine contents. No significant differences in net protein ratio values and protein digestibility were found between fermented and unfermented lupine (P less than 0.05). A 1:1 ratio mixture of B-1910 and B-2092 strains of L. acidophilus lead to a final fermented lupine with nutritional advantages to those given by the individual cultures. PMID:1790104

Camacho, L; Sierra, C; Marcus, D; Guzmán, E; Campos, R; von Bäer, D; Trugo, L



Quality of Lupinus albus L. (White Lupin) Seed: Extent of Genotypic and Environmental Effects.  


White lupin seed can be used for traditional and functional foods or as animal feed. This study aimed to support lupin breeders and production stakeholders by assessing the extent of genotypic, environmental, and genotype × environment (GE) interaction effects on seed contents of oil, tocopherols (TOC), and quinolizidine alkaloids (QA), grain yield, and seed weight of eight elite genotypes grown in two climatically contrasting Italian locations for two cropping years. On average, plants in the subcontinental climate site exhibited higher grain yield and seed size, about 8% lower oil content, and almost 85% higher QA content than those in the Mediterranean climate site. The range of genotype means was 2.97-5.14 t/ha for yield, 92-110 mg/g for oil, and 0.121-0.133 mg/g for TOC. TOC amount was largely unpredictable and featured large GE interactions that hinder its genetic improvement. Oil and alkaloid contents and seed size are more predictable and offer potential for selection. PMID:24934884

Annicchiarico, Paolo; Manunza, Patrizia; Arnoldi, Anna; Boschin, Giovanna



[Genetic control of protein synthesis of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) seeds].  


Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the glycine-acetic acid system (pH 3.2), variants of proteins of white-lupine seeds were revealed. The study of conglutin polymorphism in the culture of the autogamous population F(--> infinity) (var. Dega) revealed two loci, Con A and Con B, which control protein synthesis. The loci were situated in the same linkage group within a distance of 11.48 +/- 3.4% of recombination. Natural selection in favor ofgenotypes that contain Con A1 Con B2 alleles is proposed. It is established that conglutins A and B (CON A and CON B) contain cysteine residues, which form intermolecular disulfide bonds between peptides. PMID:24450201

Netsvetaev, V P; Knyazeva, I P; Ogulya, A P; Sorokopudova, O A



The Response of Lupinus albus Roots to the Signal from Phosphorus-Deficient Substrate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excretion of organic acids into the rhizosphere is induced by low phosphorus content in roots of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.). The aim of this study was to investigate how did the white lupine roots respond to the signals of P-deficiency in the substrate, by using the method of separating the root system into two parts, one part being

Z. M. Tian; B. Wang; C. X. Song; W. P. Li; F. L. Qin



Effect of wet extraction methods on the emulsifying and foaming properties of lupin seed protein isolates ( Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emulsifying andfoaming properties of lupin seed protein isolates ( LSPI) prepared by wet extraction methods, such as isoelectric precipitation, dialysis and polyacrylamide gel, were investigated. The various LSPI differ from each other in many ways. The isolate prepared by isoelectric precipitation mainly contains the globulin but not the albumin fraction, while the other two isolates prepared by dialysis and

S. Alamanou; G. Doxastakis



Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.  


In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively. PMID:21568822

Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin



Proteomic characterization of seeds from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.).  


Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a legume crop containing a large amount of protein in its seeds. In this study, we constructed a seed-protein catalog to provide a foundation for further study of the seeds. A total of 736 proteins were identified in 341 2DE spots by nano-LC-MS/MS. Eight storage proteins were found as multiple spots in the 2DE gels. The 736 proteins correspond to 152 unique proteins as shown by UniRef50 clustering. Sixty-seven of the 152 proteins were associated with KEGG-defined pathways. Of the remaining proteins, 57 were classified according to a GO term. The functions of the remaining 28 proteins have yet to be determined. This is the first yellow lupin seed-protein catalog, and it contains considerably more data than previously reported for white lupin (L. albus L.). PMID:24723484

Ogura, Takahiro; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Takeishi, Hidetaka; Aizawa, Tomoko; Olivos-Trujillo, Marcos R; Maureira-Butler, Iván J; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo E



The regulatory network of cluster-root function and development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus) identified by transcriptome sequencing.  


Lupinus albus serves as model plant for root-induced mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphates via the formation of cluster-roots (CRs) that mediate secretion of protons, citrate, phenolics and acid phosphatases (APases). This study employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these complex adaptive responses at the transcriptome level. We compared different stages of CR development, including pre-emergent (PE), juvenile (JU) and the mature (MA) stages. The results confirmed that the primary metabolism underwent significant modifications during CR maturation, promoting the biosynthesis of organic acids, as had been deduced from physiological studies. Citrate catabolism was downregulated, associated with citrate accumulation in MA clusters. Upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway reflected the accumulation of phenolics. Specific transcript expression of ALMT and MATE transporter genes correlated with the exudation of citrate and flavonoids. The expression of transcripts related to nucleotide degradation and APases in MA clusters coincided with the re-mobilization and hydrolysis of organic phosphate resources. Most interestingly, hormone-related gene expression suggested a central role of ethylene during CR maturation. This was associated with the upregulation of the iron (Fe)-deficiency regulated network that mediates ethylene-induced expression of Fe-deficiency responses in other species. Finally, transcripts related to abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were upregulated in MA clusters, while auxin- and brassinosteroid-related genes and cytokinin receptors were most strongly expressed during CR initiation. Key regulations proposed by the RNA-seq data were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and some physiological analyses. A model for the gene network regulating CR development and function is presented. PMID:24635386

Wang, Zhengrui; Straub, Daniel; Yang, Huaiyu; Kania, Angelika; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter



Growth conditions determine different melatonin levels in Lupinus albus L.  


Melatonin, an indoleamine, which has recently been assigned several roles in plant physiology as a growth promoter, as rooting agent, and as antioxidant in senescence delay and cytoprotection, seems to have a relevant function in plant stress situations. The presence of melatonin increases the resistance of lupin plant tissues (Lupinus albus L.) against natural or artificially induced adverse situations. In this work, we studied the response of lupin plants in controlled stress situations (drought-, anaerobic-, pH-, and cold stress and using ZnSO4 , NaCl, and H2 O2 as chemical stressors) and measured the changes in endogenous melatonin levels in lupin plants. Also, the effect of abscisic acid, ethylene, and natural environmental conditions were evaluated. In general, nearly all stressful factors caused an increase in melatonin in the investigated organs. The chemical stress provoked by ZnSO4 or NaCl caused the most pronounced changes in the endogenous level of melatonin, followed by cold and drought stressors. In some cases, the level of melatonin increased 12-fold with respect to the levels in control plants, indicating that melatonin biosynthesis is upregulated in common stress situations, in which it may serve as a signal molecule and/or as a direct antistress agent due to its well-known antioxidative properties. PMID:23600673

Arnao, Marino B; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa



Use of sweet lupin ( Lupinus albus L. var. Multitalia) in feeding for Podolian young bulls and influence on productive performances and meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sweet lupin (Lupinusalbus L. var. Multitalia) as a substitute for soybean (Glicinemax [L] Merr.) in feed on the productive performance and meat quality of Podolian young bulls. The steers were divided into 2 homogeneous groups and were fed durum wheat (Triticumdurum L.), straw and a complete pellet feed containing

A. Vicenti; F. Toteda; L. Di Turi; C. Cocca; M. Perrucci; L. Melodia; M. Ragni



Root-induced acidification and excess cation uptake by N2-fixing Lupinus albus grown in phosphorus-deficient soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin plants (Lupinus albus L. cv. Kiev) were grown in soil columns under controlled conditions at 20\\/12?°C (12\\/12 h) for 76 d to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) deficiency on root-induced acidification and excess cation uptake by N2-fixing plants. Phosphorus was added in each column as FePO4 at a level of 10 (limited P) or 200 µg P

J. Shen; C. Tang; Z. Rengel; F. Zhang



Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Lupinus albus L. germplasm and its implication for association mapping.  


White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and application as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47 %) and oil (6-13 %). It also has many secondary metabolites that are potentially of nutraceutical value to animals and humans. Despite such a great potential, lupins role in modern agriculture began only in the twentieth century. Although a large collection of Lupinus germplasm accessions is available worldwide, rarely have they been genetically characterized. Additionally, scarce genomic resources in terms of recombinant populations and genome information have been generated for L. albus. With the advancement in association mapping methods, the natural populations have the potential to replace the recombinant populations in gene mapping and marker-trait associations. Therefore, we studied the genetic similarity, population structure and marker-trait association in a USDA germplasm collection for their current and future application in this crop improvement. A total of 122 PI (Plant Inventory) lines were screened with 18 AFLP primer pairs that generated 2,277 fragments. A subset of 892 polymorphic markers with MAF >0.05 (minor allele frequency) were used for association mapping. The cluster analysis failed to group accessions on the basis of their passport information, and a weak structure and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) were observed indicating the usefulness of the collection for association mapping. Moreover, we were also able to identify two markers (a p value of 1.53 × 10(-4) and 2.3 × 10(-4)) that explained 22.69 and 20.5 % of seed weight variation determined using R (LR) (2) . The implications of lack of geographic clustering, population structure, low LD and the ability of AFLP to map seed weight trait using association mapping and the usefulness of the PI collections in breeding programs are discussed. PMID:22454146

Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Mamidi, Sujan; Ahsan, Rubina; Kianian, Shahryar F; Coyne, Clarice J; Hamama, Anwar A; Narina, Satya S; Bhardwaj, Harbans L



Quinolizidine alkaloid profiles of Lupinus varius orientalis, L. albus albus, L. hartwegii, and L. densiflorus.  


Alkaloid profiles of two Lupinus species growing naturally in Egypt (L. albus albus [synonym L. termis], L. varius orientalis) in addition to two New World species (L. hartwegii, L. densiflorus) which were cultivated in Egypt were studied by capillary GLC and GLC-mass spectrometry with respect to quinolizidine alkaloids. Altogether 44 quinolizidine, bipiperidyl and proto-indole alkaloids were identified; 29 in L. albus, 13 in L. varius orientalis, 15 in L. hartwegii, 6 in L. densiflorus. Some of these alkaloids were identified for the first time in these plants. The alkaloidal patterns of various plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, roots, pods and seeds) are documented. Screening for antimicrobial activity of these plant extracts demonstrated substantial activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus subtilis. PMID:11302208

El-Shazly, A; Ateya, A M; Wink, M



Phosphorus deficiency in Lupinus albus. Altered lateral root development and enhanced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.  

PubMed Central

The development of clustered tertiary lateral roots (proteoid roots) and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC in roots were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown with either 1 mM P (+P-treated) or without P (-P-treated). The +P-treated plants initiated fewer clustered tertiary meristems and the emergence of these meristems was delayed compared with - P-treated plants. Proteoid root zones could be identified 9 d after emergence in both P treatments. Amounts of PEPC mRNA, PEPC specific activity, and enzyme protein were greater in proteoid roots than in normal roots beginning at 10, 12, and 14 d after emergence, respectively. The increases in PEPC mRNA, PEPC enzyme, and PEPC specific activity suggest that this enzyme is in part under transcriptional regulation. Recovery of organic acids from root exudates coincided with the increases in PEPC specific activity. The -P-treated plants exuded 40-, 20-, and 5-fold more citrate, malate, and succinate, respectively, than did +P-treated plants. Data presented support the hypothesis that white lupin has concerted regulation of proteoid root development, transcriptional regulation of PEPC, and biosynthesis of organic acids for exudation in response to P deficiency.

Johnson, J F; Vance, C P; Allan, D L



Possibilities of chemical weed control in Lupinus albus and Lupinus luteus-screening of herbicides.  


Weed control in sweet lupins is still a problem. Especially the phytotoxicity of herbicides in sweet lupins is not enough studied. Therefore a screening with 16 selected herbicides and 4 lupin varieties has been set up. During the growing season 2005, 10 of the tested herbicides were applied in pre-emergence, 6 in post-emergence. Pre-emergence: Most of the active matters tested in pre-emergence were not phytotoxic for lupins. Pendimethalin (1000 g/ha), linuron (500 g/ha), chlorotoluron (1500 g/ha), prosulfocarb (2400 g/ha), clomazone (72 g/ha), isoxaben (100 g/ha), metamitron (1050 g/ha) and dimethenamid-P (720 g/ha) were applied without causing any significant phytotoxic symptoms. Only the lupins treated with aclonifen (1200 g/ha) showed a significant growth inhibition, 3 weeks after treatment. Significantly more chlorosis was noticed when the lupins were treated with aclonifen or with diflufenican, in preemergence. Post-emergence: In post-emergence, diflufenican (50 g/ha) did not cause any crop damage. Florasulam (5 g/ha) caused almost 100% necrosis in L. albus as well as in L. luteus. Bentazon (652 g/ha), thifensulfuron-methyl (15 g/ha) and metribuzin (175 g/ha) caused obvious necrosis and growth inhibition of the crop. The growth inhibition was significantly more severe for lupins treated with bentazon than if they were treated with thifensulfuron-methyl or metribuzin. Three weeks after treatment, clomazone (90 g/ha) and diflufenican (50 g/ha), did not cause any crop injury at all. The results indicated an interesting range of active matters which can be applied in pre-emergence, but weed control in post-emergence stays difficult. PMID:17390816

Dewitte, K; Latré, J; Haesaert, G



?-N-Acetylhexosaminidase involvement in ?-conglutin mobilization in Lupinus albus.  


Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification involved in the modulation of a wide variety of cellular processes. Because glycosydases are central, the aim of this study was to investigate the glycosyl activity present in the cotyledons of the seeds of an important crop legume, Lupinus albus, as well as potential natural substrates of the detected enzymes. The glycosyl activity detected in the cotyledons beginning at seed imbibition and continuing until 9 days after, was due to a ?-N-acetylhexosaminidase (?-NAHase), which was molecularly and biochemically characterized after purification. Two isoenzymes with molecular masses of 64 and 61 kDa were detected, each having five isoenzymes with pIs 5.3-5.6. The 64 and 61 kDa isoenzymes had the same protein core showing different degrees of glycosylation. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme protein core was determined [VDSEDLI(EN)AFKIYVEDDNEHLQGSVD] and to our knowledge, is the first reported protein sequence from a plant ?-NAHase. L. albus ?-NAHase had Km values of 2.59 mM and 2.94 mM and V values of 18.40 ?M min(-1) and 2.73 ?M min(-1), for pNP-GlcNAc and pNP-GalNAc, an optimum pH of 5.0 and 4.0 and temperature of 50 °C and 60 °C were detected toward pNP-GlcNAc and pNP-GalNAc. In the presence of AgNO3, CoCl2, CuSO4, FeCl3, CdCl2 and ZnCl2 the enzymatic activity decreased more than 50%, and when in the presence of sugars, an activity reduction of no more than 25% was observed. A physiological role for ?-NAHase in L. albus storage protein mobilization was investigated. ?-NAHase has already been implicated in several biological processes, namely in glycoprotein processing during seed germination and seedling growth. However, the natural substrates used by this enzyme are not yet completely clarified. By gathering in vivo and in vitro data for ?-NAHase activity together with globulin degradation, we suggest that L. albus ?-NAHase is involved in the mobilization of storage protein degradation, with ?-conglutin being a potential natural substrate for this enzyme. PMID:23602380

Santos, Cláudia N; Alves, Marta; Oliveira, António; Ferreira, Ricardo B



Phosphorus Stress-Induced Proteoid Roots Show Altered Metabolism in Lupinus albus.  

PubMed Central

Proteoid roots develop in Lupinus albus L. in response to nutrient stress, especially P. Proteoid roots excrete citrate and thus increase the availability of P, Fe, and Mn in the rhizosphere. In an effort to understand citrate synthesis and organic acid metabolism in proteoid roots of lupin, we have evaluated in vitro enzyme activities of citrate synthase (CS), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in proteoid and normal roots of plants grown with or without P. Organic acid concentrations, respiration rates, and dark 14CO2-labeling patterns were also determined. The in vitro specific activities of CS, MDH, and PEPC and in vivo dark 14CO2 fixation were higher in proteoid roots compared to normal roots, particularly under P stress. Western blot analysis showed that PEPC enzyme protein was more highly expressed in -P proteoid roots compared to other tissues. The majority of the fixed 14C was found in organic acids, predominantly malate and citrate. A larger fraction of citrate was labeled in P- stressed proteoid roots compared to other root tissue. Respiration rates of proteoid roots were 31% less than those of normal roots. The data provide evidence for increased synthesis of citrate in proteoid roots compared to normal roots, particularly under P stress. A portion of the carbon for citrate synthesis is derived from nonautotrophic CO2 fixation via PEPC in proteoid roots.

Johnson, J. F.; Allan, D. L.; Vance, C. P.



Availability of sparingly soluble phosphorus sources to cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.), wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and white lupin ( Lupinus albus L.) with different forms of nitrogen as evaluated by a 32 P isotopic dilution technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims  Previous studies revealed that cotton plants grown on soils with low available-P were accessing significant non-fertilizer\\u000a P sources. This suggests that cotton can access stable-P pools from soil. This study examined cotton’s ability to utilize\\u000a sparingly soluble P sources in comparison with wheat and white lupin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Plants were grown for 45 days in a Vertosol supplied with AlPO4 and

XiaoJuan Wang; Chris N. Guppy; Laura Watson; Peter W. G. Sale; Caixian Tang


Antioxidant activity and phenolic content in three lupin species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total phenolic compounds, phenolic acids and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities were measured in extracts from seeds of Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus and Lupinus angustifolius cultivars. The total phenolic compound contents varied from 491.51 to 731.14mg\\/100g d.m. for cvs. Butan (L. albus) and Parys (L. luteus), respectively. Protocatechuic acid was the most abundant in seeds of yellow lupin (up to

Aleksander Siger; Jaroslaw Czubinski; Piotr Kachlicki; Krzysztof Dwiecki; Eleonora Lampart-Szczapa; Malgorzata Nogala-Kalucka


Root Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Phosphorus-Deficient Lupinus albus (Contribution to Organic Acid Exudation by Proteoid Roots).  

PubMed Central

When white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is subjected to P deficiency lateral root development is altered and densely clustered, tertiary lateral roots (proteoid roots) are initiated. These proteoid roots exude large amounts of citrate, which increases P solubilization. In the current study plants were grown with either 1 mM P (+P-treated) or without P (-P-treated). Shoots or roots of intact plants from both P treatments were labeled independently with 14CO2 to compare the relative contribution of C fixed in each with the C exuded from roots as citrate and other organic acids. About 25-fold more acid-stable 14C, primarily in citrate and malate, was recovered in exudates from the roots of -P-treated plants compared with +P-treated plants. The rate of in vivo C fixation in roots was about 4-fold higher in -P-treated plants than in +P-treated plants. Evidence from labeling intact shoots or roots indicates that synthesis of citrate exuded by -P-treated roots is directly related to nonphotosynthetic C fixation in roots. C fixed in roots of -P-treated plants contributed about 25 and 34% of the C exuded as citrate and malate, respectively. Nonphotosynthetic C fixation in white lupin roots is an integral component in the exudation of large amounts of citrate and malate, thus increasing the P available to the plant.

Johnson, J. F.; Allan, D. L.; Vance, C. P.; Weiblen, G.



Phosphorus deficiency affects the allocation of below-ground resources to combined cluster roots and nodules in Lupinus albus.  


Lupins can rely on both cluster roots and nodules for P acquisition and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), respectively. The resource allocation (C, N and P) between cluster roots and nodules has been largely understudied during P-deficient conditions. The aim of this investigation was therefore to determine the changes in resource allocation between these organs during fluctuations in P supply. Lupinus albus was cultivated in sand culture for 3 weeks, with either sufficient (2 mM high) or limiting (0.1 mM low) P supply. Although variation on P supply had no effect on the total biomass, there were significant differences in specialised below-ground organ allocation to cluster roots and nodule formation. Cluster root formation and the associated C-costs increased during low P supply, but at sufficient P-supply the construction and growth respiration costs of cluster roots declined along with their growth. In contrast to the cluster root decline at high P supply, there was an increase in nodule growth allocation and corresponding C-costs. However, this was not associated with an increase in BNF. Since cluster roots were able to increase P acquisition under low P conditions, this below-ground investment may also have benefited the P nutrition of nodules. These findings provide evidence that when lupins acquire N via BNF in their nodules, there may be a trade-off in resource allocation between cluster roots and nodules. PMID:24129121

Thuynsma, Rochelle; Valentine, Alex; Kleinert, Aleysia



Biosynthesis of a (1. -->. 4)-. beta. -D-glucan. [Lupinus albus  

SciTech Connect

An enzymatic activity isolated from Lupinus albus that produced an insoluble (1..-->..4)-..beta..-D-glucan from UDP-D-glucose has been solubilized and partially purified. Some of the properties of the enzyme system have been characterized. A proposed sequence of reactions between UDP-D-glucose and the final dextran may involve a (1..-->..4)-..beta..-linked polysaccharide bonded to UDP.

Brummond, D.O.



Presence of nitric oxide synthase activity in roots and nodules of Lupinus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

NO is a widespread messenger molecule in physiology. We were interested in investigating whether an NO-generating system could be present in plants. NO and l-[14C]citrulline were synthesized by roots and nodules of Lupinus albus in an l-arginine-dependent manner. l-[14C]Citrulline production was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-l-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase antagonist, in a competitive way. NADPH-diaphorase activity was localized in the vascular

Mercedes Cueto; Octavio Hernández-Perera; Raquel Martín; Maria Luisa Bentura; José Rodrigo; Santiago Lamas; Maria Pilar Golvano



Flow Cytometric Fluorescence Anisotropy of Lipophilic Probes in Epidermal and Mesophyll Protoplasts from Water-Stressed Lupinus albus L  

PubMed Central

The blue emission anisotropy, r, of two lipophilic probes, diphenylhexatriene (DPH) and its trimethyl-ammonium derivative (TMA-DPH), has been measured in foliar Lupinus albus L. protoplasts for the first time by flow cytometry. Distinctive values have been obtained for protoplasts of epidermal and mesophyll origin, identified by their intensities of chlorophyll fluorescence. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed that TMA-DPH remained in the plasma membrane while DPH penetrated into intracellular lipid domains. Typical emission anisotropy values at 22°C for mesophyll and epidermal protoplasts, respectively, were 0.225 and 0.312 with TMA-DPH, and 0.083 and 0.104 with DPH. This indicates that epidermal cells—and notably their plasma membranes (TMA-DPH)—have higher lipid microviscosity and/or more ordered lipid structure. Two lupin genotypes characterized as resistant or susceptible to drought were analyzed with or without 9 days of water stress shown to increase ion leakage from foliar discs. Water stress greatly increased the apparent fluidity, and more so in the susceptible genotype; the effect was more pronounced in the chlorophyll-containing mesophyll cells than in the epidermal cells. Images Figure 2

Gantet, Pascal; Hubac, Camille; Brown, Spencer C.



Responses of Noccaea caerulescens and Lupinus albus in trace elements-contaminated soils.  


Plants exposed to trace elements can suffer from oxidative stress, which is characterised by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alteration in the cellular antioxidant defence system and ultimately lipid peroxidation. We assessed the most-appropriate stress indexes to describe the response of two plant species, with different strategies for coping with trace elements (TEs), to particular contaminants. Noccaea caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator, and Lupinus albus, an excluder, were grown in three soils of differing pH: an acidic soil, a neutral soil (both contaminated mainly by Cu, Zn and As) and a control soil. Then, plant stress indicators were measured. As expected, N. caerulescens accumulated higher levels of Zn and Cd in shoots than L. albus, this effect being stronger in the acid soil, reflecting greater TE solubility in this soil. However, the shoot concentrations of Mn were higher in L. albus than in N. caerulescens, while the As concentration was similar in the two species. In L. albus, the phenolic content and lipid peroxidation were related with the Cu concentration, whereas the Zn and Cd concentrations in N. caerulescens were more closely related to glutathione content and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, phytochelatins were only found in L. albus grown in polluted soils. Hence, the two species differed with respect to the TEs which provoked stress and the biochemical indicators of the stress, there being a close relationship between the accumulation of TEs and their associated stress indicators in the different plant organs. PMID:23466747

Martínez-Alcalá, Isabel; Hernández, Luis E; Esteban, Elvira; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar



The Potential for Capturing the Forage Yield of White Lupin by Intercropping with Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of sweet white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a grain legume in Atlantic Canada is limited by excessive vegetative growth and late and uneven seed maturity. Lupins were intercropped for silage with oat (Avena sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or maize (Zea mays L.) at Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada, to evaluate dry matter (DM) and crude protein

R. W. Jannasch; R. C. Martin



Citrate-Permeable Channels in the Plasma Membrane of Cluster Roots from White Lupin  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin (Lupinus albus) is well adapted to phosphorus deficiency by developing cluster roots that release large amounts of citrate into the rhizosphere to mobilize the sparingly soluble phosphorus. To determine the mechanism underlying citrate release from cluster roots, we isolated protoplasts from different types of roots of white lupin plants grown in phosphorus- replete (1P) and phosphorus-deficient (2P) conditions

Wen-Hao Zhang; Peter R. Ryan; Stephen D. Tyerman



Spatial and temporal variation in organic acid anion exudation and nutrient anion uptake in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated in situ the temporal patterns and spatial extent of organic acid anion exudation into the rhizosphere solution of Lupinus albus, and its relation with the nutrient anions phosphate, nitrate and sulfate by means of a rhizobox micro suction cup method\\u000a under P sufficient conditions. We compared the soil solution in the rhizosphere of cluster roots with that in

J. Dessureault-Rompré; B. Nowack; R. Schulin; J. Luster



Aphids do not avoid resistance in Australian lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, L. luteus) varieties.  


Laboratory bioassays and field trials were used to characterize resistance to three aphid species (Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji, Aphis craccivora (Koch) in two aphid-resistant varieties (Kalya, Tanjil) and one susceptible variety (Tallerack) of Lupinus angustifolius L., and in one resistant variety (Teo) and one susceptible variety (Wodjil) of L. luteus L. Host selection tests in the glasshouse showed that alates of all three species preferred L. luteus to L. angustifolius, but provided no evidence that alates selected susceptible varieties over resistant. These results were supported by a field trial, which showed no difference in the number of colonizing A. kondoi alates collected from the resistant and susceptible lines of each lupin species, but there were significantly more late-instar nymphs and apterous adults on the susceptible lines. In laboratory host suitability experiments, there was much greater suppression of aphid growth and survival on Teo than on Kalya and Tanjil. In field trials, the numbers of aphids were generally lower on resistant compared to susceptible lines of both lupin species with one notable exception: M. persicae numbers were not lower on the resistant variety Tanjil compared to the susceptible variety Tallerack (L. angustifolius). These results suggest that the resistance mechanisms in both lupin species do not affect the selection of hosts by colonizing aphids, but rather are affecting the growth, survival and possibly reproduction of aphids after settling. PMID:14641979

Edwards, O R; Ridsdill-Smith, T J; Berlandier, F A



Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus.  


Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively. PMID:24987293

Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J; Ash, Gavin J; Harper, John D I; Vipin, Cina A; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon



Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus  

PubMed Central

Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively.

Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J.; Ash, Gavin J.; Harper, John D.I.; Vipin, Cina A.; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon



How a phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on carboxylate exudation powers the success and agronomic potential of lupines (Lupinus, Fabaceae).  


Lupines (Lupinus species; Fabaceae) are an ancient crop with great potential to be developed further for high-protein feed and food, cover crops, and phytoremediation. Being legumes, they are capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric nitrogen. However, Lupinus species appear to be nonmycorrhizal or weakly mycorrhizal at most; instead some produce cluster roots, which release vast amounts of phosphate-mobilizing carboxylates (inorganic anions). Other lupines produce cluster-like roots, which function in a similar manner, and some release large amounts of carboxylates without specialized roots. These traits associated with nutrient acquisition make lupines ideally suited for either impoverished soils or soils with large amounts of phosphorus that is poorly available for most plants, e.g., acidic or alkaline soils. Here we explore how common the nonmycorrhizal phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on exudation of carboxylates is in the genus Lupinus, concluding it is very likely more widespread than generally acknowledged. This trait may partly account for the role of lupines as pioneers or invasive species, but also makes them suitable crop plants while we reach "peak phosphorus". PMID:23347972

Lambers, Hans; Clements, Jon C; Nelson, Matthew N



Effect of heat treatment and pH on the thermal, surface, and rheological properties of Lupinus albus protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endosperm from hand-dissected and- dehulled Lupinus albus seeds was milled into meal, sieved through a 40-mesh screen, and suspended in phosphate buffers (pH 4, 6.8, and 8) at 20%\\u000a (wt\\/vol). The suspensions were treated at 75, 90, or 100C for 1 h. The heat-treated protein was characterized by SDS-PAGE,\\u000a free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE), and DSC; and its surface hydrophobicity,

Abdellatif Mohamed; Steven C. Peterson; Mila P. Hojilla-Evangelista; David J. Sessa; Patricia Rayas-Duarte; Girma Biresaw



Cross-allergenicity of peanut and lupine: The risk of lupine allergy in patients allergic to peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy is common, but cross-allergy between legumes is rare. Proteins from Lupinus albus are increasingly eaten in the form of seeds or additives to wheat flour. The risk of cross-allergenicity is still insufficiently known. Objective: We sought to study the risk of cross-allergy to lupine in patients allergic to peanut and to study lupine allergenicity. Methods: Twenty-four patients

Denise-Anne Moneret-Vautrin; Laurence Guérin; Gisèle Kanny; Jenny Flabbee; Sophie Frémont; Martine Morisset



Identification of chromosome regions controlling seed storage proteins of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).  


Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a valuable legume crop for animal feed and human health food because of its high proteins content. However, the genetics of seed storage proteins is unclear, limiting further improvement of protein quantity and quality. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry was used for the first time to analyze lupin seed storage proteins and the spectra generated was treated as markers to investigate the chromosome locations controlling seed storage proteins in the narrow-leafed lupin. In a recombinant inbred line population of 89 individuals, 48 polymorphic protein peaks were identified and seven of which were successfully mapped onto four existing linkage groups: two on NLL-04, three on NLL-05, one on NLL-07 and one on NLL-14, with LOD values ranging from 2.6 to 7.7 confirming a significant linkage. Most protein-based markers showed distorted segregation and were failed to be integrated into the reference map. Among them, 31 were grouped into six clusters and the other ten were totally unlinked. This study provides a significant clue to study the comparative genomics/proteomics among legumes as well as for protein marker-assisted breeding. The distribution pattern of genes controlling seed storage protein revealed in this study probably exists universally among legumes or even all plants and animals. Whether genes controlling seed storage protein share the same gene expression pattern controlling other enzymes and what is the mechanism behind it are the questions which remain to be answered in the future. PMID:23090157

Li, Xin; Islam, Shahidul; Yang, Huaan; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun



Calcium-stimulated guanosine--inosine nucleosidase from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus).  


Guanosine-inosine-preferring nucleoside N-ribohydrolase has been purified to homogeneity from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The enzyme functions as a monomeric, 80kDa polypeptide, most effectively between pH 4.7 and 5.5. Of various mono- and divalent cations tested, Ca(2+) appeared to stimulate enzyme activity. The nucleosidase was activated 6-fold by 2mM exogenous CaCl(2) or Ca(NO(3))(2), with K(a)=0.5mM (estimated for CaCl(2)). The K(m) values estimated for guanosine and inosine were 2.7+/-0.3 microM. Guanosine was hydrolyzed 12% faster than inosine while adenosine and xanthosine were poor substrates. 2'-Deoxyguanosine, 2'-deoxyinosine, 2'-methylguanosine, pyrimidine nucleosides and 5'-GMP were not hydrolyzed. However, the enzyme efficiently liberated the corresponding bases from synthetic nucleosides, such as 1-methylguanosine, 7-methylguanosine, 1-N(2)-ethenoguanosine and 1-N(2)-isopropenoguanosine, but hydrolyzed poorly the ribosides of 6-methylaminopurine and 2,6-diaminopurine. MnCl(2) or ZnCl(2) inhibited the hydrolysis of guanosine with I(50) approximately 60 microM. Whereas 2'-deoxyguanosine, 2'-methylguanosine, adenosine, as well as guanine were competitive inhibitors of this reaction (K(i) values were 1.5, 3.6, 21 and 9.7 microM, respectively), hypoxanthine was a weaker inhibitor (K(i)=64 microM). Adenine, ribose, 2-deoxyribose, 5'-GMP and pyrimidine nucleosides did not inhibit the enzyme. The guanosine-inosine hydrolase activity occurred in all parts of lupin seedlings and in cotyledons it increased up to 5-fold during seed germination, reaching maximum in the third/fourth day. The lupin nucleosidase has been compared with other nucleosidases. PMID:16820181

Szuwart, Maciej; Starzy?ska, Elzbieta; Pietrowska-Borek, Ma?gorzata; Guranowski, Andrzej



gamma-Conglutin, the Lupinus albus XEGIP-like protein, whose expression is elicited by chitosan, lacks of the typical inhibitory activity against GH12 endo-glucanases.  


gamma-Conglutin, a glycoprotein from Lupinus albus seed, has been characterized at molecular level but its physiological function is still unknown. gamma-Conglutin shares a high structural similarity with xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanase inhibitor proteins (XEGIPs) and Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI-I), which act specifically against fungal glycosyl hydrolase belonging to families 12 and 11, respectively. To assess the possible involvement of gamma-conglutin in plant defense, germinating lupin seeds were incubated with chitosan. The relative quantification of gamma-conglutin mRNA extracted from cotyledons was then carried out by RT-qPCR and indicated that chitosan strongly elicited the expression of gamma-conglutin. Moreover, biochemical trials aimed to test the inhibitory capacity of the protein have been also carried out. gamma-Conglutin failed to inhibit representative fungal endo-glucanases and other cell wall-degrading enzymes. To explain the lack of inhibitory capacity we investigated the possible structural differences between gamma-conglutin and XEGIPs and TAXI-I, including the construction of a predictive 3D model of the protein. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that the lack of inhibitory activity of gamma-conglutin can be attributed to sequence differences in the inhibitor interaction domains, and in particular to a sequence deletion in one of the functional loops. PMID:19962718

Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Duranti, Marcello



Effect of solubility of applied phosphate on the growth of narrow-leafed Lupin ( Lupinus angustifolius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L. cv. Illyarrie) to phosphorus (P) fertilizer applied as single superphosphate (super), as an elemental-sulphur-enriched, partially acidulated rock phosphate (esparp) and as biosuper, was investigated in a glasshouse pot trial. Measurements of plant yield and P uptake were recorded 41 and 76 days after sowing. Both dry matter production and P uptake from

P. Tremain; P. W. G. Sale; R. S. Jessop



Cohnella lupini sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus.  


A bacterial strain designated RLAHU4B(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in León (Spain). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain showed similarities lower than 97?% with respect to species of the genus Cohnella. The strain was a Gram-variable, sporulating rod, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, and facultatively anaerobic. It was positive for oxidase, catalase and ?-galactosidase production but negative for urease, amylase and gelatinase. Strain RLAHU4B(T) grew in the presence of 5?% NaCl. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid was present in the peptidoglycan. anteiso-C15?:?0, iso-C16?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 and C16?:?0 were the major fatty acids. Major polar lipids of strain RLAHU4B(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown phospholipids, two unknown aminophospholipids and one unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Strain RLAHU4B(T) presented phenotypic differences from all recognized species of the genus Cohnella. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data indicated that strain RLAHU4B(T) belongs to a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella lupini sp. nov. is proposed, with strain RLAHU4B(T) (?=?LMG 27416(T)?=?CECT 8236(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24021729

Flores-Félix, José David; Carro, Lorena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, José M; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna



Lupinus albus L. pathogenesis-related proteins that show similarity to PR-10 proteins.  

PubMed Central

We describe a group of three acidic proteins, pathogenesis-related (PR)-p16.5a, PR-p16.5b, and PR-p16.5c, that accumulate in the leaves of Lupinus albus L. cv Rio Maior plants when infected with the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. These proteins co-migrate in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels as a single band of 16.5 kD, behaving as charge isomers, and are related to several members of the defense-related PR-10 protein family. Localization of the proteins was investigated by techniques of tissue printing and immunogold electron microscopy; they are predominantly associated with the vascular system and are localized extracellularly. The accumulation of PR-p16.5a, PR-p16.5b, and PR-p16.5c also seems to be induced by cucumber mosaic virus and by two forms of abiotic stress, salicylic acid and ultraviolet, suggesting a general defense role for these proteins.

Pinto, M P; Ricardo, C P



Development of microsatellite markers in Lupinus luteus (Fabaceae) and cross-species amplification in other lupine species.  


• Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in Lupinus luteus L., an emerging temperate protein crop, to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and to facilitate the generation of better yellow lupine varieties. • Methods and Results: Thirteen polymorphic primer sets were evaluated in a European and Eastern European accession collection of L. luteus. The primers amplified di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats with 2-4 alleles per locus. These revealed a moderate to low level of genetic variation, as indicated by an average observed heterozygosity of 0.0126. Select loci also amplified successfully in the closely related species L. hispanicus Boiss. & Reut. and in the New World species L. mutabilis Sweet. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of primers for the study of genetic diversity across L. luteus populations and related lupine species. The use of these microsatellite markers will facilitate the implementation of several molecular breeding strategies in yellow lupine. PMID:21616875

Gonzalez, Lorena B Parra; Straub, Shannon C K; Doyle, Jeff J; Ortega, Paula E Mora; Garrido, Haroldo E Salvo; Butler, Iván J Maureira



Investigations into the exploitation of heterogeneous soils by Lupinus albus L. and L. pilosus Murr. and the effect upon plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In calcareous soils, genotypes of Lupinus albus L. generally grow poorly, resulting in stunted plants that often develop lime-induced chlorosis. In contrast, some genotypes\\u000a of L. pilosus Murr. occur naturally in calcareous soils without developing any visible symptoms of stress. Some genotypic variation for\\u000a tolerance to calcareous soil does exist in L. albus and the tolerance mechanisms need to be

S. J. Kerley; J. E. Leach; J. L. Swain; C. Huyghe




PubMed Central

1. The effects of cocaine and its decomposition products were studied on the growth of the young roots of Lupinus albus. 2. The results obtained were compared with similar experiments on animal tissues. 3. It was found that, while cocaine is the most toxic of these compounds studied for animal tissues, it was of comparatively low toxicity in respect to its effect on the growth of roots. On the other hand, sodium benzoate, being practically non-toxic for animals, was the most toxic of the compounds studied for the plant roots.

Macht, David I.; Livingston, Marguerite B.



Cadmium-stress in nodulated white lupin: strategies to avoid toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin plants (Lupinus albus L., cv. Multolupa) were grown hydroponically on perlite with different Cd concentrations in the nutrient solution (?M): 0, 18 and 45. Changes in growth, nodulation, nutrient concentrations, nutrient uptake and distribution, Cd bound to cell wall and some Cd stress indicators were studied in roots and shoots (leaves plus stem) of 35-d-old plants as a

Pilar Zornoza; Saúl Vázquez; Elvira Esteban; Mercedes Fernández-Pascual; Ramón Carpena



Sugar signalling mediates cluster root formation and phosphorus starvation-induced gene expression in white lupin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster root (CR) formation contributes much to the adaptation to phosphorus (P) deficiency. CR formation by white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is affected by the P-limiting level in shoots, but not in roots. Thus, shoot- derived signals have been expected to transmit the message of P-deficiency to stimulate CR formation. In this study, it is shown that sugars are required

Keqin Zhou; Masumi Yamagishi; Mitsuru Osaki; Kiyoshi Masuda



Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205?Mb and 530?Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64?L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome sequencing will facilitate the further development of genomic tools and lupin germplasm. Massive sequencing of cDNA libraries will continue to produce raw materials for gene discovery, identification of polymorphisms (SNPs, EST-SSRs, INDELs, etc.) for marker development, anchoring sequences for genome comparisons and putative gene candidates for QTL detection.



Study of the intercellular fluid of healthy Lupinus albus organs. Presence of a chitinase and a thaumatin-like protein.  

PubMed Central

Proteins in the intercellular fluid (IF) of healthy Lupinus albus leaves were characterized. Silver staining of the proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed more than 30 polypeptides, with the major ones having a molecular mass lower than 36 kD. After amino-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, one of the major polypeptides, IF4, was shown to have no identity with any of the proteins present in the data bases. Two others, IF1 and IF3, showed identity with previously reported pathogenesis-related proteins, IF1 with an antifungal protein from Hordeum vulgare that belongs to the thaumatin family (PR-5 family), and IF3 with class III chitinase-lysozymes. IF3 was also present in the IF of stem and root and it represents the major polypeptide in the medium of L. albus cell-suspension cultures. The ubiquitous presence of this enzyme in healthy, nonstressed tissues of L. albus cannot be explained.

Regalado, A P; Ricardo, C P



Localization of acid phosphatase activities in the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid phosphatase (APase) produced by the cluster roots of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plays an important role in inorganic phosphate (Pi) acquisition. Although the importance of cluster roots in Pi acquisition is well known, information on the distribution of APase within tissues of normal and cluster roots is lacking. Isoelectric focusing of APase isoforms as well as histochemical localization

Jun Wasaki; Soichi Kojima; Hayato Maruyama; Susan Haase; Mitsuru Osaki; Ellen Kandeler



Phosphorus uptake and rhizosphere properties of intercropped and monocropped maize, faba bean, and white lupin in acidic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available on phosphorus (P) uptake and rhizosphere processes in maize (Zea mays L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) when intercropped or grown alone in acidic soil. We studied P uptake and soil pH, carboxylate concentration, and microbial\\u000a community structure in the rhizosphere of maize, faba bean, and white lupin in an

Haigang Li; Jianbo Shen; Fusuo Zhang; Petra Marschner; Greg Cawthray; Zed Rengel



Detectability of lupine seeds by ELISA and PCR may be strongly influenced by potential differences between cultivars.  


Accurate methods for allergen detection are needed for the verification of allergen labeling and the avoidance of hidden allergens. But systematic data on the influence of different cultivars of allergenic crop species on their detectability in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are lacking. As one example, seeds of 14 different cultivars of lupine (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) were investigated for total protein according to a Kjeldahl method, and for their relative quantitative detectability in three commercial lupine-specific ELISA tests and four lupine-specific PCR methods. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen allowed an accurate quantification of total protein. Relative differences in quantitative response between cultivars of 390-5050% and 480-13,600% were observed between ELISA kits and PCR methods, respectively. Hence, quantitative results of selected ELISA and PCR methods may be strongly influenced by the examined lupine cultivar. PMID:23758099

Röder, Martin; Kleiner, Kornelia; Sachs, Andrea; Keil, Nicole; Holzhauser, Thomas



78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Syria, Central and Western Europe, the United States and South America, Tropical and Southern Africa, Russia and the Ukraine. (Ref. 1). BLAD is directly extracted from the flowering plant, sweet lupines....



Functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, and health aspects of Lupinus albus protein isolates.  


To utilize lupin seeds for food and pharmaceutical applications, lupin seeds were pretreated to remove oil using hexane or carbon dioxide. Two types of lupin protein isolate were prepared. Both types of protein isolate showed good foaming activity, comparable to egg white. Protein isolate extracted under acid conditions showed higher foaming activity than protein isolate extracted at neutral pH. The lipoxygenase activity was much reduced in both of the protein isolates. The protein isolate extracted at neutral pH showed a stronger angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition than the protein isolate extracted under acidic pH. In contrast, the protein isolate extracted under acid conditions had a greater sodium cholate binding capacity, comparable to that of cholestyramine. Lupin samples showed less DPPH radical scavenging activity than deoiled soybean. The deoiling method did not affect the functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, sodium cholate binding, and radical scavenging activity. PMID:15675820

Yoshie-Stark, Yumiko; Bez, Jürgen; Wada, Yoshiko; Wäsche, Andreas



Management Plan for Kincaids's Lupine (Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii) in Douglas County, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kincaid's lupine is a long-lived herbaceous perennial species in the Pea Family. Kincaid's lupine was federally listed as threatened on January 25, 2000. It is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and ranges from Lewis County, Washington, to the north to Doug...



Real-time RT-PCR profiling of transcription factors including 34 MYBs and signaling components in white lupin reveals their P status dependent and organ-specific expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting macronutrient because of its low availability in soils. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants are well adapted to growth under low-P conditions. White lupin acclimation to low-P conditions includes changes\\u000a in root architecture and enhanced expression of numerous genes encoding for secreted acid phosphatases and phosphate transporters.\\u000a However, information about transcription factors and signaling

Masumi Yamagishi; Keqin Zhou; Mitsuru Osaki; Susan S. Miller; Carroll P. Vance



Identification and characterization of a Bowman-Birk inhibitor active towards trypsin but not chymotrypsin in Lupinus albus seeds.  


The paper describes the purification, structural characterization and inhibitory properties of a trypsin inhibitor from Lupinus albus L., a leguminous plant believed to be devoid of any protease inhibitor. The protein has been isolated by a newly set-up procedure and characterized by direct amino acid sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy and circular dichroism. Inhibitory properties toward bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin, as well as its thermal and pH stabilities, have been also assessed. The inhibitor is 63 amino acid long (Mr 6858; pI 8.22) and it is capable to inhibit two trypsin molecules simultaneously, with a Kd of 4.2+/-0.4 nM, but not chymotrypsin. BLAST search against UniProtKB/TrEMBL database indicates that the inhibitor belongs to the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) family. The interest in these serine-protease inhibitors arises from the ability to prevent or suppress carcinogen-induced transformation, as shown in various in vitro and in vivo model systems. PMID:18474386

Scarafoni, Alessio; Consonni, Alessandro; Galbusera, Valerio; Negri, Armando; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Rasmussen, Patrizia; Magni, Chiara; Duranti, Marcello



Sequence determination and analysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase from yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus).  


The coding sequences of two S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolases (SAHases) were identified in yellow lupine by screenig of a cDNA library. One of them, corresponding to the complete protein, was sequenced and compared with 52 other SAHase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins identified three groups of the enzymes. Group A comprises only bacterial sequences. Group B is subdivided into two subgroups, one of which (B1) is formed by animal sequences. Subgroup B2 consist of two distinct clusters, B2a and B2b. Cluster B2b comprises all known plant sequences, including the yellow lupine enzyme, which are distinguished by a 50-residue insert. Group C is heterogeneous and contains SAHases from Archaea as well as a new class of animal enzymes, distinctly different from those in group B1. PMID:11732617

Brzezi?ski, K; Janowski, R; Podkowi?ski, J; Jaskólski, M



Physiological adaptations to phosphorus deficiency during proteoid root development in white lupin  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Release of large amounts of citric acid from specialized root clusters (proteoid roots) of phosphorus (P)-deficient white\\u000a lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is an efficient strategy for chemical mobilization of sparingly available P sources in the rhizosphere. The present study\\u000a demonstrates that increased accumulation and exudation of citric acid and a concomitant release of protons were predominantly\\u000a restricted to mature

Günter Neumann; Agnès Massonneau; Enrico Martinoia; Volker Römheld



Uptake and decarboxylation of indole-3-acetic acid during auxin-induced growth in lupin hypocotyl segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elongation growth of etiolated hypocotyl segments of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was stimulated by acid pH (4.6 versus 6.5) and by IAA for periods of up to 4 h. After this time, the segments were unable to grow further. In the presence of an optimal IAA concentration (10 µM), acid pH increased the growth rate but had no effect

J. M. Botía; A. Ortuno; F. Sabater; M. Acosta; J. Sánchez-Bravo



White lupin leads to increased maize yield through a soil fertility-independent mechanism: a new candidate for fighting Striga hermonthica infestation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N)-deficiency and lack of phosphorus (P) availability are major constraints to maize yields in Western Kenya. In\\u000a a two-season field study in the lake Victoria basin, we tested the capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus (L.), cv. Ultra), as a nitrogen-fixing crop with a highly efficient P-acquisition capacity, to increase maize yields when used as\\u000a a companion or cover

Laure Weisskopf; Pollycarp Akello; Roxane Milleret; Zeyaur R. Khan; Fritz Schulthess; Jean-Michel Gobat; Renée-Claire Le Bayon



Identification of genes induced in proteoid roots of white lupin under nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with functional characterization of a formamidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is considered a model system for understanding plant acclimation to nutrient deficiency. It acclimates to phosphorus\\u000a (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots;\\u000a proteoid-root development is further influenced by nitrogen (N) supply. In an effort to better understand proteoid root function\\u000a under various

Mousumi Rath; Jay Salas; Bandita Parhy; Robert Norton; Himabindu Menakuru; Monika Sommerhalter; Greg Hatlstad; Jaimyoung Kwon; Deborah L. Allan; Carroll P. Vance; Claudia Uhde-Stone



Performance of chickpea, lentil and lupin nodulated with indigenous or inoculated rhizobia micropartners under nitrogen, boron, cobalt and molybdenum fertilization schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), lentil (Lens esculenta) and lupin (Lupinus albus) responded to inoculation with their respective symbiotants:Rhizobium loti, Rhizobium leguminosarum biovarviceae andBradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) alone or with (NH4)2SO4 at 30 ppm N. Soil application of Na2MoO4.2H2O at 3 ppm Mo, CoCl2.6H2O at 2 ppm Co2+ or Na2B4O7.10H2O at 1 ppm B with 0 and 30 ppm N increased nodule weight

Y. G. Yanni



Development of genomic resources for the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius): construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Lupinus angustifolius L, also known as narrow-leafed lupin (NLL), is becoming an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognised as a potential human health food. Recent interest is being directed at NLL to improve grain production, disease and pest management and health benefits of the grain. However, studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Results A NLL BAC library was constructed consisting of 111,360 clones with an average insert size of 99.7 Kbp from cv Tanjil. The library has approximately 12 × genome coverage. Both ends of 9600 randomly selected BAC clones were sequenced to generate 13985 BAC end-sequences (BESs), covering approximately 1% of the NLL genome. These BESs permitted a preliminary characterisation of the NLL genome such as organisation and composition, with the BESs having approximately 39% G:C content, 16.6% repetitive DNA and 5.4% putative gene-encoding regions. From the BESs 9966 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified and some of these are shown to be potential markers. Conclusions The NLL BAC library and BAC-end sequences are powerful resources for genetic and genomic research on lupin. These resources will provide a robust platform for future high-resolution mapping, map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole-genome sequencing data for the species.



Structural analysis and profiling of phenolic secondary metabolites of Mexican lupine species using LC-MS techniques.  


Flavonoid glycoconjugates from roots and leaves of eight North America lupine species (Lupinus elegans, Lupinus exaltatus, Lupinus hintonii, Lupinus mexicanus, Lupinus montanus, Lupinus rotundiflorus, Lupinus stipulatus, Lupinus sp.), three Mediterranean species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) and one species from South America domesticated in Europe (Lupinus mutabilis) were analyzed using two LC/MS systems: low-resolution ion trap instrument and high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight spectrometer. As a result of the LC/MS profiling using the CID/MS(n) experiments structures of 175 flavonoid glycoconjugates found in 12 lupine species were identified at three confidence levels according to the Metabolomic Standard Initiative, mainly at level 2 and 3, some of them were classified to the level 1. Among the flavonoid derivatives recognized in the plant extracts were isomeric or isobaric compounds, differing in the degree of hydroxylation of the aglycones and the presence of glycosidic, acyl or alkyl groups in the molecules. The elemental composition of the glycoconjugate molecules was established from the exact m/z values of the protonated/deprotonated molecules ([M+H](+)/[M-H](-)) measured with the accuracy better than 5 ppm. Information concerning structures of the aglycones, the type of sugar moieties (hexose, deoxyhexose or pentose) and, in some cases, their placement on the aglycones as well as the acyl substituents of the flavonoid glycoconjugates was achieved in experiments, in which collision-induced dissociation was applied. Flavonoid aglycones present in the studied O-glycoconjugates were unambiguously identified after the comparison of the pseudo-MS(3) spectra with the spectra registered for the standards. Isomers of flavonoid glycoconjugates, in which one or two sugar moieties were attached to 4'- or 7-hydroxyl groups or directly to the C-6 or C-8 of the aglycones, could be distinguished on the basis of the MS(2) spectra. However, the collision energy applied in the CID experiments had to be optimized for each group of the compounds and there were no universal settings that allowed the acquisition of structural information for all the compounds present in the sample. Information obtained from the flavonoid conjugate profiling was used for the chemotaxonomic comparison of the studied lupine species. A clear-cut discrimination of the Mediterranean and North American lupines was obtained as a result of this analysis. PMID:23642387

Wojakowska, Anna; Piasecka, Anna; García-López, Pedro M; Zamora-Natera, Francisco; Krajewski, Pawe?; Marczak, ?ukasz; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej



Do rhizospheric processes linked to P nutrition participate in U absorption by Lupinus albus grown in hydroponics?  


Phosphate (P) is an essential element for plant development but is generally present in limiting amount in the soil solution. Plant species have developed different mechanisms promoting the solubilization of this element in soils to ensure a sufficient supply for their growth. One of these mechanisms is based on the ability of certain species such as L. albus to exude large amounts of citrate through specific tertiary roots called cluster-roots. Uranium (U) is an ubiquitous contaminant known firstly for its chemical toxicity and secondly for its high affinity for P with which it forms low-soluble complexes in soils. We highlight the effects of P-U interaction on the physiology of L. albus and particularly on citrate exudation, and the impact of this root process on the phytoavailability of U and its accumulation in plants in a hydroponic study. Different levels of P (1 and 100 ?M) and U (0 and 20 ?M) have been tested. Our results show no toxicity of U on the development of L. albus with an adequate P supply, whereas the effects of P starvation are amplified by the presence of U in the growth medium, except for the production of cluster-roots. Citrate exudation is totally inhibited by U in a low-P environment whereas it increases in the presence of U when its toxicity is lowered by the addition of P. The differences observed in terms of toxicity and accumulation are partly explained by the microphotographs obtained by electron microscopy (TEM-EDX): in the absence of P, U penetrates deep into the roots and causes lethal damages, whereas in presence of P, we observe the formation of U-P complexes which limit the internalization of the pollutant and so its toxicity. PMID:23831550

Tailliez, Antoine; Pierrisnard, Sylvie; Camilleri, Virginie; Keller, Catherine; Henner, Pascale



Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Isolation and some properties of enzyme-bound valyl adenylate and seryl adenylate.  


As a continuation of our studies on plant (yellow lupin, Lupinus luteus) aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases we describe here formation and some properties of valyl-tRNA synthetase-bound valyl adenylate (EVal(Val-AMP)) and seryl-tRNA synthetase-bound seryl adenylate (ESer(Ser-AMP)). Valyl-tRNA synthetase-bound valyl adenylate was detected and isolated by several approaches in the pH range 6--10. In that range inorganic pyrophosphatase increases the amount of valyl adenylate by factor 1.8 regardless of pH. 50% of valine from the EVal(Val-AMP) complex isolated by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration was transferred to tRNA with a rate constant greater than 4 min-1 (pH 6.2, 10 degrees C). The ratio of valine to AMP in the enzyme-bound valyl adenylate is 1 : 1 and it is not changed by the presence of periodate-oxidized tRNA. In contrast to enzyme-bound valyl adenylate, formation of ESer(Ser-AMP) is very sensitive to pH. Inorganic pyrophosphatase increases the amount of seryl adenylate by a factor 6 at pH 8.0 and 30 at pH 6.9 60% of serine from the ESer(Ser-AMP) complex was transferred to tRNA with a rate constant greater than 4 min-1 (pH 8.0, 0 degrees C). The ratio of serine to AMP in the enzyme-bound seryl adenylate is 1 : 1. The rate of synthesis of the enzyme-bound aminoacyl adenylates was measured by ATP-PPi exchange. Michaelis constants for the substrates of valyl-tRNA and seryl-tRNA synthetases in ATP-PPi exchange were determined. Effects of pH, MgCl2 and KCl on the initial velocity of aminoacyl adenylate formation are described. For comparison, catalytic indices in the aminoacylation reactions catalyzed by both lupin enzymes are given and effects of pH, MgCl2 and KCl on tRNA aminoacylation are presented as well. Under some conditions, e.g. at low pH or high salt concentration, lupin valyl-tRNA and seryl-tRNA synthetase are active exclusively in ATP-PPi exchange reaction. PMID:32907

Jakubowski, H



A transfer of carbon atoms from fatty acids to sugars and amino acids in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seedlings.  


The metabolism of 14C-acetate was investigated during the in vitro germination of yellow lupine seeds. Carbon atoms (14C) from the C-2 position of acetate were incorporated mainly into amino acids: aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine and into sugars: glucose, sucrose, and fructose. In contrast to this, 14C from the C-1 position of acetate was released mainly as 14CO2. Incorporation of 1-14C and 2-14C from acetate into amino acids and sugars in seedling axes was more intense when sucrose was added to the medium. However, in cotyledons where lipids are converted to carbohydrates, this process was inhibited by exogenous sucrose. Since acetate is the product of fatty acid beta-oxidation, our results indicate that, at least in lupine, seed storage lipids can be converted not only to sucrose, but mainly to amino acids. Inhibitory effects of sucrose on the incorporation of 14C from acetate into amino acids and sugars in cotyledons of lupine seedlings may be explained as the effect of regulation of the glyoxylate cycle by sugars. PMID:12806783

Borek, S?awomir; Ratajczak, Wiktoria; Ratajczak, Lech



Activation of phenylpropanoid pathway in legume plants exposed to heavy metals. Part II. Profiling of isoflavonoids and their glycoconjugates induced in roots of lupine (Lupinus luteus) seedlings treated with cadmium and lead.  


We examined changes in profiles of isoflavonoids in roots of lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) seedlings in response to treatment with two heavy metals: cadmium (at 10 mg/l) and lead (at 150 mg/l). Overall, 21 flavonoid conjugates were identified in root extracts, some of them with up to six positional isomers. The total amount of all isoflavonoids increased by about 15 % in cadmium-treated plants and by 46 % in lead-treated ones. Heavy metals markedly increased the content of two compounds: 2'-hydroxygenistein glucoside and 2'-hydroxygenistein 7-O-glucoside malonylated. Possible functions of the identified isoflavonoids in yellow lupine exposed to heavy metal stress are discussed. PMID:21503277

Pawlak-Sprada, Sylwia; Stobiecki, Maciej; Deckert, Joanna



Sucrose controls storage lipid breakdown on gene expression level in germinating yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.  


This study revealed that cytosolic aconitase (ACO, EC and isocitrate lyase (ICL, EC, marker of the glyoxylate cycle) are active in germinating protein seeds of yellow lupine. The glyoxylate cycle seems to function not only in the storage tissues of food-storage organs, but also in embryonic tissue of growing embryo axes. Sucrose (60mM) added to the medium of in vitro culture of embryo axes and cotyledons decreased activity of lipase (LIP, EC and activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH, EC The opposite effect was caused by sucrose on activity of cytosolic ACO, ICL as well as NADP(+)-dependent (EC and NAD(+)-dependent (EC isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH and NAD-IDH, respectively); activity of these enzymes was clearly stimulated by sucrose. Changes in the activity of LIP, ACO, NADP-IDH, and NAD-IDH caused by sucrose were based on modifications in gene expression because corresponding changes in the enzyme activities and in the mRNA levels were observed. The significance of cytosolic ACO and NADP-IDH in carbon flow from storage lipid to amino acids, as well as the peculiar features of storage lipid breakdown during germination of lupine seeds are discussed. PMID:21752490

Borek, S?awomir; Nuc, Katarzyna



Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses.  


The early (2-4 d) effects of slowly imposed soil water deficit on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance in different organs (leaf blade, stem stele, stem cortex, and root) were evaluated on 23-d-old plants (growth chamber assay). Our work shows that several metabolic adjustments occurred prior to alteration of the plant water status, implying that water deficit is perceived before the change in plant water status. The slow, progressive decline in soil water content started to be visible 3 d after withholding water (3 DAW). The earliest plant changes were associated with organ-specific metabolic responses (particularly in the leaves) and with leaf conductance and only later with plant water status and photosynthetic rate (4 DAW) or photosynthetic capacity (according to the Farquhar model; 6 DAW). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the physiological parameters, the carbohydrate and the hormone levels and their relative values, as well as leaf water-soluble metabolites full scan data (LC-MS/MS), showed separation of the different sampling dates. At 6 DAW classically described stress responses are observed, with plant water status, ABA level, and root hormonal balance contributing to the separation of these samples. Discrimination of earlier stress stages (3 and 4 DAW) is only achieved when the relative levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (Cks), and carbon metabolism (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch levels) are taken into account. Our working hypothesis is that, in addition to single responses (e.g. ABA increase), the combined alterations in hormone and carbohydrate levels play an important role in the stress response mechanism. Response to more advanced stress appears to be associated with a combination of cumulative changes, occurring in several plant organs. The carbohydrate and hormonal balance in the leaf (IAA to bioactive-Cks; soluble sugars to IAA and starch to IAA; relative abundances of the different soluble sugars) flag the initial responses to the slight decrease in soil water availability (10-15% decrease). Further alterations in sucrose to ABA and in raffinose to ABA relative values (in all organs) indicate that soil water availability continues to decrease. Such alterations when associated with changes in the root hormone balance indicate that the stress response is initiated. It is concluded that metabolic balance (e.g. IAA/bioactive Cks, carbohydrates/IAA, sucrose/ABA, raffinose/ABA, ABA/IAA) is relevant in triggering adjustment mechanisms. PMID:21772019

Pinheiro, Carla; António, Carla; Ortuño, Maria Fernanda; Dobrev, Petre I; Hartung, Wolfram; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Vanková, Radomira; Chaves, M Manuela; Wilson, Julie C



Bradyrhizobium valentinum sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Lupinus mariae-josephae, a lupine endemic of basic-lime soils in Eastern Spain.  


Bacterial strains isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules of Lupinus mariae-josephae have been characterized following genetic, phenotypic and symbiotic approaches. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes placed them in a group together with Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76(T), B. pachyrhizi PAC48(T), B. jicamae PAC68(T), 'B. retamae' Ro19(T) and B. lablabi CCBAU 23086(T) with over 99.0% identity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated housekeeping genes, recA, atpD and glnII, suggested that L. mariae-josephae strains represent a new Bradyrhizobium species, closely related to B. lablabi CCBAU 23086(T), B. jicamae PAC68(T) and 'B. retamae' Ro19(T) with 92.1, 91.9 and 90.8% identity, respectively. These results are consistent with overall genomic identities calculated as Average Nucleotide Identity (ANIm) using draft genomic sequences obtained for relevant strains. While L. mariae-josephae strains LmjM3(T)/LmjM6 exhibited a 99.2% ANIm value, they were significantly distant (<93% ANIm) from type strains of their closest species ('B. retamae' Ro19(T), B. lablabi CCBAU 23086(T) and B. jicamae PAC68(T)). Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WC-MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of proteomic patterns of the same strains was consistent with these results. The symbiosis-related genes nodC, nodA and nifH genes from strains nodulating L. mariae-josephae were phylogenetically related to those from 'B. retamae' Ro19(T), but divergent from those of strains that nodulate other lupine species. Based on genetic, genomic, proteomic and phenotypic data presented in this study, L. mariae-josephae nodulating strains LmjM3(T), LmjM6 and LmjM2 should be grouped within a new species for which the name Bradyrhizobium valentinum sp. nov. is proposed (type strain LmjM3(T)=CECT 8364(T), LMG 2761(T)). PMID:24958607

Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Navarro, Albert; Busquets, Antonio; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás



Viabilidade de Inclusao de um Tratamento Enzimatico no 'Adocamento' de Farinhas de 'Lupinus Sp.' (Evaluation of Enzymatic Preparations in the Debittering of Lupine Seed Flours).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The soundness of including an enzymatic pre-treatment in the debittering of Lupine seeds was investigated. For this purpose an initial series of trials was performed in order to select the best range of sizes for the lupine seed particles. This was perfor...

F. M. C. Santana



High-resolution melt analysis to identify and map sequence-tagged site anchor points onto linkage maps: a white lupin ( Lupinus albus ) map as an exemplar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • The provision of sequence-tagged site (STS) anchor points allows meaningful comparisons between mapping studies but can be a time-consuming process for nonmodel species or orphan crops.  Here, the first use of high-resolution melt analysis (HRM) to generate STS markers for use in linkage mapping is described. This strategy is rapid and low-cost, and circumvents the need for

Adam E. Croxford; Tom Rogers; Peter D. S. Caligari; Michael J. Wilkinson



Cadmium in white lupin nodules: impact on nitrogen and carbon metabolism.  


The aims of this work were to investigate the microlocalisation of cadmium (Cd) in Lupinus albus L. cv. Multolupa nodules, and to determine its effects on carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Nodulated white lupin plants were grown in a growth chamber with or without Cd (150 ?M). Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the walls of the outer nodule cortex cells to be the main area of Cd retention, helping to reduce the harmful effect Cd might have on the amount of N(2) fixed by the bacteroids. Sucrose synthase activity declined by 33% in the nodules of the Cd-treated plants, and smaller reductions were recorded in glutamine synthetase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline invertase and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activities. The Cd treatment also sharply reduced nodule concentrations of malate, succinate and citrate, while that of starch doubled, but that of sucrose experienced no significant change. In summary, the present results show that white lupins accumulate significant amounts of Cd in their root nodules. However, the activity of some enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation did decline, promoting a reduction in the plant N content. The downregulation of sucrose synthase limits the availability of carbon to the bacteroids, which might interfere with their respiration. Carbon metabolism therefore plays a primary role in the impaired function of the white lupin root nodule caused by Cd, while N metabolism appears to have a more secondary involvement. PMID:23246027

Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Carpena, Ramón O; Zornoza, Pilar



White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases.  


White lupin (Lupinus albus) is a legume that is very efficient in accessing unavailable phosphorus (Pi). It develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report, we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2) from white lupin and propose a role for these two GPX-PDEs in root hair growth and development and in a Pi stress-induced phospholipid degradation pathway in cluster roots. Both GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are highly expressed in Pi-deficient cluster roots, particularly in root hairs, epidermal cells, and vascular bundles. Expression of both genes is a function of both Pi availability and photosynthate. GPX-PDE1 Pi deficiency-induced expression is attenuated as photosynthate is deprived, while that of GPX-PDE2 is strikingly enhanced. Yeast complementation assays and in vitro enzyme assays revealed that GPX-PDE1 shows catalytic activity with glycerophosphocholine while GPX-PDE2 shows highest activity with glycerophosphoinositol. Cell-free protein extracts from Pi-deficient cluster roots display GPX-PDE enzyme activity for both glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoinositol. Knockdown of expression of GPX-PDE through RNA interference resulted in impaired root hair development and density. We propose that white lupin GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are involved in the acclimation to Pi limitation by enhancing glycerophosphodiester degradation and mediating root hair development. PMID:21464471

Cheng, Lingyun; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Zinn, Kelly; Miller, Susan; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Allan, Deborah; Shen, Jianbo; Vance, Carroll P



Rapid development of molecular markers by next-generation sequencing linked to a gene conferring phomopsis stem blight disease resistance for marker-assisted selection in lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) breeding.  


Selection for phomopsis stem blight disease (PSB) resistance is one of the key objectives in lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) breeding programs. A cross was made between cultivar Tanjil (resistant to PSB) and Unicrop (susceptible). The progeny was advanced into F(8) recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RIL population was phenotyped for PSB disease resistance. Twenty plants from the RIL population representing disease resistance and susceptibility was subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based restriction site-associated DNA sequencing on the NGS platform Solexa HiSeq2000, which generated 7,241 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thirty-three SNP markers showed the correlation between the marker genotypes and the PSB disease phenotype on the 20 representative plants, which were considered as candidate markers linked to a putative R gene for PSB resistance. Seven candidate markers were converted into sequence-specific PCR markers, which were designated as PhtjM1, PhtjM2, PhtjM3, PhtjM4, PhtjM5, PhtjM6 and PhtjM7. Linkage analysis of the disease phenotyping data and marker genotyping data on a F(8) population containing 187 RILs confirmed that all the seven converted markers were associated with the putative R gene within the genetic distance of 2.1 CentiMorgan (cM). One of the PCR markers, PhtjM3, co-segregated with the R gene. The seven established PCR markers were tested in the 26 historical and current commercial cultivars released in Australia. The numbers of "false positives" (showing the resistance marker allele band but lack of the putative R gene) for each of the seven PCR markers ranged from nil to eight. Markers PhtjM4 and PhtjM7 are recommended in marker-assisted selection for PSB resistance in the Australian national lupin breeding program due to its wide applicability on breeding germplasm and close linkage to the putative R gene. The results demonstrated that application of NGS technology is a rapid and cost-effective approach in development of markers for molecular plant breeding. PMID:23086512

Yang, Huaan; Tao, Ye; Zheng, Zequn; Shao, Di; Li, Zhenzhong; Sweetingham, Mark W; Buirchell, Bevan J; Li, Chengdao



[Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].  


This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking. PMID:22566327

Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R



The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence.  


The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens. PMID:23332028

Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello



Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.  


Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming. PMID:23279626

Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A



Molecular analysis of SCARECROW genes expressed in white lupin cluster roots  

PubMed Central

The Scarecrow (SCR) transcription factor plays a crucial role in root cell radial patterning and is required for maintenance of the quiescent centre and differentiation of the endodermis. In response to phosphorus (P) deficiency, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) root surface area increases some 50-fold to 70-fold due to the development of cluster (proteoid) roots. Previously it was reported that SCR-like expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were expressed during early cluster root development. Here the cloning of two white lupin SCR genes, LaSCR1 and LaSCR2, is reported. The predicted amino acid sequences of both LaSCR gene products are highly similar to AtSCR and contain C-terminal conserved GRAS family domains. LaSCR1 and LaSCR2 transcript accumulation localized to the endodermis of both normal and cluster roots as shown by in situ hybridization and gene promoter::reporter staining. Transcript analysis as evaluated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and RNA gel hybridization indicated that the two LaSCR genes are expressed predominantly in roots. Expression of LaSCR genes was not directly responsive to the P status of the plant but was a function of cluster root development. Suppression of LaSCR1 in transformed roots of lupin and Medicago via RNAi (RNA interference) delivered through Agrobacterium rhizogenes resulted in decreased root numbers, reflecting the potential role of LaSCR1 in maintaining root growth in these species. The results suggest that the functional orthologues of AtSCR have been characterized.

Sbabou, Laila; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Miller, Susan; Liu, Junqi; Berhada, Fatiha; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Allan, Deborah; Vance, Carroll



Citrate-permeable channels in the plasma membrane of cluster roots from white lupin.  


White lupin (Lupinus albus) is well adapted to phosphorus deficiency by developing cluster roots that release large amounts of citrate into the rhizosphere to mobilize the sparingly soluble phosphorus. To determine the mechanism underlying citrate release from cluster roots, we isolated protoplasts from different types of roots of white lupin plants grown in phosphorus-replete (+P) and phosphorus-deficient (-P) conditions and used the patch-clamp technique to measure the whole-cell currents flowing across plasma membrane of these protoplasts. Two main types of anion conductance were observed in protoplasts prepared from cluster root tissue: (1) an inwardly rectifying anion conductance (IRAC) activated by membrane hyperpolarization, and (2) an outwardly rectifying anion conductance (ORAC) that became more activated with membrane depolarization. Although ORAC was an outward rectifier, it did allow substantial inward current (anion efflux) to occur. Both conductances showed citrate permeability, with IRAC being more selective for citrate3- than Cl- (PCit/PCl = 26.3), while ORAC was selective for Cl- over citrate (PCl/PCit = 3.7). Both IRAC and ORAC were sensitive to the anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. These currents were also detected in protoplasts derived from noncluster roots of -P plants, as well as from normal (noncluster) roots of plants grown with 25 microm phosphorus (+P). No differences were observed in the magnitude or frequency of IRAC and ORAC currents between the cluster roots and noncluster roots of -P plants. However, the IRAC current from +P plants occurred less frequently than in the -P plants. IRAC was unaffected by external phosphate, but ORAC had reduced inward current (anion efflux) when phosphate was present in the external medium. Our data suggest that IRAC is the main pathway for citrate efflux from white lupin roots, but ORAC may also contribute to citrate efflux. PMID:15516510

Zhang, Wen-Hao; Ryan, Peter R; Tyerman, Stephen D



Short-term supply of elevated phosphate alters the belowground carbon allocation costs and functions of lupin cluster roots and nodules.  


Lupins can rely on both cluster roots and nodules for P acquisition and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) respectively. The resource allocation (C, N and P) between cluster roots and nodules has been largely understudied during P-deficient conditions. The aim of this investigation was therefore to determine the changes in resource allocation between these organs during fluctuations in P supply. Lupinus albus was cultivated in sand culture for 3 weeks, with either sufficient (2mM high) or limiting (0.1mM low) P supply. Although variation on P supply had no effect on the total biomass, there were significant differences in specialised below-ground organ allocation to cluster roots and nodule formation. Cluster root formation and the associated C-costs increased during low P supply, but at sufficient P-supply the construction and growth respiration costs of cluster roots declined along with their growth. In contrast to the cluster root decline at high P supply, there was an increase in nodule growth allocation and corresponding C-costs. However, this was not associated with an increase in BNF. Since cluster roots were able to increase P acquisition under low P conditions, this below-ground investment may also have benefited the P nutrition of nodules. These findings provide evidence that when lupins acquire N via BNF in their nodules, there may be a trade-off in resource allocation between cluster roots and nodules. PMID:24709158

Thuynsma, Rochelle; Valentine, Alex; Kleinert, Aleysia



Identification of a Low Digestibility ?-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain ?conglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein.

Ogura, Takahiro; Hernandez, Adrian; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Ivan J.



RNA-seq analysis identifies an intricate regulatory network controlling cluster root development in white lupin  

PubMed Central

Background Highly adapted plant species are able to alter their root architecture to improve nutrient uptake and thrive in environments with limited nutrient supply. Cluster roots (CRs) are specialised structures of dense lateral roots formed by several plant species for the effective mining of nutrient rich soil patches through a combination of increased surface area and exudation of carboxylates. White lupin is becoming a model-species allowing for the discovery of gene networks involved in CR development. A greater understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms driving these developmental processes is important for the generation of smarter plants for a world with diminishing resources to improve food security. Results RNA-seq analyses for three developmental stages of the CR formed under phosphorus-limited conditions and two of non-cluster roots have been performed for white lupin. In total 133,045,174 high-quality paired-end reads were used for a de novo assembly of the root transcriptome and merged with LAGI01 (Lupinus albus gene index) to generate an improved LAGI02 with 65,097 functionally annotated contigs. This was followed by comparative gene expression analysis. We show marked differences in the transcriptional response across the various cluster root stages to adjust to phosphate limitation by increasing uptake capacity and adjusting metabolic pathways. Several transcription factors such as PLT, SCR, PHB, PHV or AUX/IAA with a known role in the control of meristem activity and developmental processes show an increased expression in the tip of the CR. Genes involved in hormonal responses (PIN, LAX, YUC) and cell cycle control (CYCA/B, CDK) are also differentially expressed. In addition, we identify primary transcripts of miRNAs with established function in the root meristem. Conclusions Our gene expression analysis shows an intricate network of transcription factors and plant hormones controlling CR initiation and formation. In addition, functional differences between the different CR developmental stages in the acclimation to phosphorus starvation have been identified.



Localized application of soil organic matter shifts distribution of cluster roots of white lupin in the soil profile due to localized release of phosphorus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phosphorus (P) is a major factor controlling cluster-root formation. Cluster-root proliferation tends to concentrate in organic matter (OM)-rich surface-soil layers, but the nature of this response of cluster-root formation to OM is not clear. Cluster-root proliferation in response to localized application of OM was characterized in Lupinus albus (white lupin) grown in stratified soil columns to test if the stimulating effect of OM on cluster-root formation was due to (a) P release from breakdown of OM; (b) a decrease in soil density; or (c) effects of micro-organisms other than releasing P from OM. Methods Lupin plants were grown in three-layer stratified soil columns where P was applied at 0 or 330 mg P kg?1 to create a P-deficient or P-sufficient background, and OM, phytate mixed with OM, or perlite was applied to the top or middle layers with or without sterilization. Key Results Non-sterile OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation and root length, and this effect became greater when phytate was supplied in the presence of OM. Both sterile OM and perlite significantly decreased cluster-root formation in the localized layers. The OM position did not change the proportion of total cluster roots to total roots in dry biomass among no-P treatments, but more cluster roots were concentrated in the OM layers with a decreased proportion in other places. Conclusions Localized application of non-sterile OM or phytate plus OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation of L. albus in the localized layers. This effect is predominantly accounted for by P release from breakdown of OM or phytate, but not due to a change in soil density associated with OM. No evidence was found for effects of micro-organisms in OM other than those responsible for P release.

Li, Hai-Gang; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lambers, Hans



Bradyrhizobium sp. ( Lupinus ) in the winter rainfall region of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread cultivation of lupin has resulted in the establishment of effective populations of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) in the winter rainfall region of the Western Cape, South Africa. To determine whether inoculation increased yields of Lupinus angustifolius L., field trials were carried out at five sites in this region. Populations ranged from 380 rhizobia g-1 in a moderately alkaline (pH 7.6)

Wilhelm J. Botha; Jacomina F. Bloem; Ian J. Law



The nutritional role of Lupinus arboreus in coastal sand dune forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the artificial plant succession used to stabilise coastal sand dunes in New Zealand,Lupinus arboreus is sown into plantedAmmophila arenaria stands primarily to provide shelter for youngPinus radiata trees. Recent observations have suggested that the lupin may play a nutritional, as well as a physical part in the stabilisation\\u000a technique. Work elsewhere with otherLupinus spp. and forest crops supports this

Ruth L. Gadgil



Lupinus luteus , a new host of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Spanish oak-rangeland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora cinnamomi is an aggressive pathogen on Lupinus luteus (yellow lupin), causing root rot, wilting and death of this crop, common in oak-rangeland ecosystems ('dehesas') in south-western\\u000a Spain. The oomycete, the main cause of Quercus decline in the region, was isolated from roots of wilted lupins in the field. Artificial inoculations on four cultivars of\\u000a L. luteus reproduced the symptoms

María Socorro Serrano; Pilar Fernández-Rebollo; Paolo De Vita; María Dolores Carbonero; Antonio Trapero; María Esperanza Sánchez



Digestive function and intestinal integrity in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) fed kernel meals and protein concentrates made from yellow or narrow-leafed lupins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) and narrow-leafed lupin (L. angustifolius) kernel meals and protein concentrates on the gastrointestinal integrity, capacity for digestive hydrolysis, and digestibility of nutrients in Atlantic salmon. A basal diet (FM) was made from fish meal, wheat, and fish oil. Six additional diets were formulated by replacing 30% of the FM diet

Ståle Refstie; Brett Glencross; Thor Landsverk; Mette Sørensen; Einar Lilleeng; Wayne Hawkins; Åshild Krogdahl



Recovering root system traits using image analysis exemplified by two-dimensional neutron radiography images of lupine.  


Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea



Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.  


The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4?µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6?µg/kg?d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins. PMID:23763660

Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims



Adverse effects of dietary lupine in broiler chickens.  


This study describes the adverse effects of dietary lupines in broiler chickens for which lupine seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) in raw, dehulled, or autoclaved forms were used as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in practical diets. Test diets contained 35% SBM (control) or raw (40%), autoclaved (40%), or dehulled (35%) lupine seed meal. All diets were isocaloric (3,230 kcal/kg AME) and isonitrogenous (23% crude protein). Each diet was offered ad libitum to a group of 16 (four replicates with four birds per replicate) day-old male broiler chicks for 21 d. Chemical analysis of lupine seeds showed no detectable levels of mycotoxins, and total alkaloid contents were below 0.01%. Decreased food intake and growth rate were the main signs observed in all birds fed lupine-based diets. These adverse effects were observed during the first week and persisted throughout the trial. Acute signs of toxicity were observed in four chicks fed the diet containing raw lupine seed during the first week of exposure. Initial clinical signs included leg weakness, lack of coordination, and torticollis. In later stages, during Weeks 2 and 3, some birds fed lupine-based diets showed signs of muscle paralysis and skeletal deformity. Postmortem examination did not show gross pathological changes associated with the dietary treatments. Liver microsomal cytochrome P-50 content was higher (P < 0.05) in birds fed the raw lupine-based diet (mean 0.56 pmol/mg protein) in comparison with controls (mean 0.25 pmol/mg protein), which indicated a systemic effect. Based on the present results, it can be stated that high levels of some varieties of sweet lupines in broiler diets may cause significant adverse effects manifested as 1) decreased feed intake and growth rate in most of the birds, and 2) specific signs of acute and chronic toxicity in some individuals. PMID:11372712

Olkowski, A A; Olkowski, B I; Amarowicz, R; Classen, H L



Pasta supplemented with isolated lupin protein fractions reduces body weight gain and food intake of rats and decreases plasma glucose concentration upon glucose overload trial.  


The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of ?-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed ?-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed ?, ? and ?-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the ?-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia. PMID:24394732

Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello



Recovering Root System Traits Using Image Analysis Exemplified by Two-Dimensional Neutron Radiography Images of Lupine1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models.

Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea



Putative Porin of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) Bacteroids Induced by Glyphosate?  

PubMed Central

Application of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus)-nodulated lupin plants caused modifications in the protein pattern of bacteroids. The most significant change was the presence of a 44-kDa polypeptide in bacteroids from plants treated with the higher doses of glyphosate employed (5 and 10 mM). The polypeptide has been characterized by the amino acid sequencing of its N terminus and the isolation and nucleic acid sequencing of its encoding gene. It is putatively encoded by a single gene, and the protein has been identified as a putative porin. Protein modeling revealed the existence of several domains sharing similarity to different porins, such as a transmembrane beta-barrel. The protein has been designated BLpp, for Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) putative porin, and would be the first porin described in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). In addition, a putative conserved domain of porins has been identified which consists of 87 amino acids, located in the BLpp sequence 30 amino acids downstream of the N-terminal region. In bacteroids, mRNA of the BLpp gene shows a basal constitutive expression that increases under glyphosate treatment, and the expression of the gene is seemingly regulated at the transcriptional level. By contrast, in free-living bacteria glyphosate treatment leads to an inhibition of BLpp mRNA accumulation, indicating a different effect of glyphosate on BLpp gene expression in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. The possible role of BLpp in a metabolite interchange between Bradyrhizobium and lupin is discussed.

de Maria, Nuria; Guevara, Angeles; Serra, M. Teresa; Garcia-Luque, Isabel; Gonzalez-Sama, Alfonso; de Lacoba, Mario Garcia; de Felipe, M. Rosario; Fernandez-Pascual, Mercedes



“ In situ” phytostabilisation of heavy metal polluted soils using Lupinus luteus inoculated with metal resistant plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is the evaluation of metal phytostabilisation potential of Lupinus luteus inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. 750 and heavy metal resistant PGPRs (plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria), for in situ reclamation of multi-metal contaminated soil after a mine spill. Yellow lupines accumulated heavy metals mainly in roots (Cu, Cd and especially Pb were poorly translocated to shoots). This indicates

M. Dary; M. A. Chamber-Pérez; A. J. Palomares; E. Pajuelo



Spatial distribution and expression of intracellular and extracellular acid phosphatases of cluster roots at different developmental stages in white lupin.  


Acid phosphatases (APases) play a key role in phosphorus (P) acquisition and recycling in plants. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) forms cluster roots (CRs) and produces large amounts of APases under P deficiency. However, the relationships between the activity of intracellular and extracellular APases (EC and CR development are not fully understood. Here, comparative studies were conducted to examine the spatial variation pattern of APase activity during CR development using the enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) and the p-nitrophenyl phosphate methods. The activity of intracellular and extracellular APases was significantly enhanced under P deficiency in the non-CRs and CRs at different developmental stages. These two APases exhibited different spatial distribution patterns during CR development, and these distribution patterns were highly modified by P deficiency. The activity of extracellular APase increased steadily with CR development from meristematic, juvenile, mature to senescent stages under P deficiency. In comparison, P deficiency-induced increase in the activity of intracellular APase remained relatively constant during CR development. Increased activity of intracellular and extracellular APases was associated with enhanced expression of LaSAP1 encoding intracellular APase and LaSAP2 encoding extracellular APase. The expression levels of these two genes were significantly higher at transcriptional level in both mature and senescent CRs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that both activity and gene expression of intracellular or extracellular APases exhibit a differential response pattern during CR development, depending on root types, CR developmental stages and P supply. Simultaneous in situ determination of intracellular and extracellular APase activity has proved to be an effective approach for studying spatial variation of APases during CR development. PMID:23746995

Tang, Hongliang; Li, Xiaoqing; Zu, Chao; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo



Lupine and Butterflies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-part activity about the connection between the lupine plant and butterflies, learners first read "Miss Rumphius," a storybook about lupine by Barbara Cooney. Then learners plant their own seeds that can be transplanted into the wild. Learners discuss what plants need to grow. Next, learners review the butterfly life cycle and create a butterfly puppet that emerges from a pupa. Educators can also use this activity to introduce learners to endangered species (the Karner Blue butterfly is endangered in Wisconsin because of the decreased lupine population).

Huff, Paula R.



Entomopathogenic nematodes: natural enemies of root-feeding caterpillars on bush lupine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of soil-dwelling entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis hepialus killed up to 100% (mean=72%) of root-boring caterpillars of a ghost moth Hepialus californicus in coastal shrub lands. When unchecked, ghost moth caterpillars killed bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus. Here we describe this strange food chain. Although unappreciated by ecologists, entomopathogenic nematodes are widespread and probably one of the most important groups

D. R. Strong; H. K. Kaya; A. V. Whipple; A. L. Child; S. Kraig; M. Bondonno; K. Dyer; J. L. Maron



Organ-specific expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) subunits in yellow lupine.  


Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.2-4) is present in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus cv. Juno) in many isoforms. The number and banding pattern of isoenzymes varies with respect to plant organ and developmental stage. To better understand the complex nature of GDH regulation in plants, the levels of GDH transcripts, enzyme activity and isoenzyme patterns in germinating seeds and roots of yellow lupine were examined. The analysis of GDH cDNA sequences in lupine revealed three mRNA types, of which two encoded the ?-GDH subunit and one encoded the ?-GDH subunit (corresponding to the GDH1(GDH3) and GDH2 genes, respectively). The relative expression of GDH1 and GDH2 genes was analyzed in various lupine organs by using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicate that different mRNA types were differently regulated depending on organ type. Although both genes appeared to be ubiquitously expressed in all lupine tissues, the GDH1 transcripts evidently predominated over those of GDH2. Immunochemical analyses confirmed that, during embryo development, varied expression of two GDH subunits takes place. The ?-GDH subunit (43kDa) predominated in the early stages of germinating seeds, while the ?-GDH subunit (44kDa) was the only GDH polypeptide present in lupine roots. These results firmly support the hypothesis that isoenzyme variability of GDH in yellow lupine is associated with the varied expression of ? and ? subunits into the complexes of hexameric GDH forms. The presence of several isogenes of GDH in yellow lupine may explain the high number (over 20) of its molecular forms in germinating lupine. PMID:21333382

Lehmann, Teresa; Dabert, Miros?awa; Nowak, Witold



Scrub Lupine ('Lupinus aridorum'). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review was completed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (Service) lead recovery biologist for this species who is located in the Jacksonville Field Office, Florida. We used peer-reviewed publications; interim and annual reports provided as part ...



The effect of short-term nutritional supplementation of ewes with lupin grain (Lupinus luteus) on folliculogenesis, the concentrations of hormones and glucose in plasma and follicular fluid and the follicular levels of P450 aromatase and IRS-1, -2 and -4.  


An experiment was conducted on 48 ewes during follicular and luteal phases of the oestrous cycle to determine the effect of a 5-day lupin grain supplementation (500?g/day) on folliculogenesis, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, FSH and oestradiol-17? (E2), follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, E2, androstenedione and progesterone and the levels of P450 aromatase and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), -2 and -4 in theca and granulosa cells. Average weight did not differ between lupin-fed and control groups. The numbers of follicles were increased (P<0.05; ?(2)) in the lupin-fed group. The plasma concentrations of glucose (P<0.05; ANOVA) and insulin (P<0.001; ANOVA) were higher in lupin-fed ewes. The plasma concentrations of FSH were not different but those of E2 were decreased (P<0.001) in the lupin-fed group. Both the follicular fluid concentration of E2 (P<0.05) and the level of P450 aromatase in granulosa cells (P<0.05; ANOVA) were decreased in the lupin-fed group, but only during the follicular phase. The level of P450 aromatase in granulosa cells was positively correlated with the concentration of E2 in follicular fluid (r=0.820; P<0.001; ANOVA). The levels of IRS-1 and -2 in theca and granulosa cell lysates were increased in the lupin-fed group. These data suggest that insulin has a local role in the control of folliculogenesis and is likely to be a mediator of the effects of dietary energy intake on ovulation rate. We suggest that insulin acting through IRS proteins mediates the reproductive actions of insulin in the follicle and that IRS-1 and -2 are nutritionally regulated mediators of the action of insulin in the follicle. PMID:23401596

Somchit-Assavacheep, A; Campbell, B K; Khalid, M; Kendall, N R; Scaramuzzi, R J



Putative porin of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) bacteroids induced by glyphosate.  


Application of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus)-nodulated lupin plants caused modifications in the protein pattern of bacteroids. The most significant change was the presence of a 44-kDa polypeptide in bacteroids from plants treated with the higher doses of glyphosate employed (5 and 10 mM). The polypeptide has been characterized by the amino acid sequencing of its N terminus and the isolation and nucleic acid sequencing of its encoding gene. It is putatively encoded by a single gene, and the protein has been identified as a putative porin. Protein modeling revealed the existence of several domains sharing similarity to different porins, such as a transmembrane beta-barrel. The protein has been designated BLpp, for Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) putative porin, and would be the first porin described in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). In addition, a putative conserved domain of porins has been identified which consists of 87 amino acids, located in the BLpp sequence 30 amino acids downstream of the N-terminal region. In bacteroids, mRNA of the BLpp gene shows a basal constitutive expression that increases under glyphosate treatment, and the expression of the gene is seemingly regulated at the transcriptional level. By contrast, in free-living bacteria glyphosate treatment leads to an inhibition of BLpp mRNA accumulation, indicating a different effect of glyphosate on BLpp gene expression in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. The possible role of BLpp in a metabolite interchange between Bradyrhizobium and lupin is discussed. PMID:17557843

de María, Nuria; Guevara, Angeles; Serra, M Teresa; García-Luque, Isabel; González-Sama, Alfonso; García de Lacoba, Mario; de Felipe, M Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes



Groundwater management through increased water use by lupin crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total evaporation ( E) was measured on lupin crops of differing leaf area per unit ground area in southwestern Australia. Leaf area was controlled by sowing at different times and rates. The objective was to explore the feasibility of increasing water use in order to reduce recharge to rising, shallow, saline water tables. Replicated plots of Lupinus angustifolius were sown at 100 and 200 kg ha -1 on 24 May and at 100 kg ha -1 on 7 June, 1988. E was measured by ventilated chambers from each of these treatments over eight 24 h periods grouped at the beginning, middle and end of a 28 day period. Mean rates of E were 2.16 mm day -1 for the later sown lupins at 100 kg ha -1, 2.49 mm day -1 for the earlier sown lupins at 100 kg ha -1 and 2.90 mm day -1 for the earlier sown lupins at 200 kg ha -1. The corresponding relative values for E were 1.00, 1.15 and 1.34. The transpiration component of E was estimated by measuring sap flow with a heat balance technique on individual plants within the chambers. Daily values of transpiration varied from 0.8 to 2 mm giving residual soil evaporation values of 1.0-1.6 mm day -1. E from soil was a significant cause of water loss particularly in the plots with low leaf area. At preflowering and early flowering E increased linearly with increasing leaf area per unit ground area up to values of 2.6. Soil evaporation decreased linearly with increasing leaf area. We conclude that increased seeding rates and earlier sowing of lupins have the potential to increase E and to reduce recharge and the rise of saline water tables.

Greenwood, E. A. N.; Turner, N. C.; Schulze, E.-D.; Watson, G. D.; Venn, N. R.



Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.  


Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring. PMID:2089736

Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Bunch, T D; Callan, R J



Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants Using 15N as Tracer. Part of a Coordinated Programme on the Use of Isotopes in Fertilizer Efficiency Studies on Grain Legumes. Final Report for the Period 1 May 1974--14 December 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques are described for studying the economy of carbon and nitrogen in annual nodulated legumes. Budgets for utilization of net photosynthate are constructed for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), including expen...

J. Pate C. Atkins



The Effect of Military Training Activity on Eastern Lupine and the Karner Blue Butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly ( Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine ( Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training.

Smith, Mark A.; Turner, Monica G.; Rusch, Donald H.



The effect of military training activity on eastern lupine and the Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA.  


The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training. PMID:11740627

Smith, Mark A; Turner, Monica G; Rusch, Donald H



Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 173Staphylococcus albus-strains for 32 different drugs were established. All examined strains were derived from clinical sources and were isolated in U.S.A., Canada, Denmark, ?SSR and in Germany. The resistance patterns ofS. albus were dependent on the origin and on the date of isolation of the strains. No correlation could be found between antibiotic susceptibility

G. Pulverer; G. Damen; M. Neugebauer



Studies on lysogeny of Staphylococcus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysogeny after Mitomycin C- and UV-induction was studied on 127 pathogenic strains of the speciesStaphylococcus albus. A lysogeny indicator set of 24Staphylococcus albus strains was used. All 127 examinedStaphylococcus albus strains could be shown to be lysogenic, sometimes even multilysogenic.

G. Pulverer; J. Pillich; A. Klein; M. K?ivánková



Sulfur Assimilation in Developing Lupin Cotyledons Could Contribute Significantly to the Accumulation of Organic Sulfur Reserves in the Seed  

PubMed Central

It is currently assumed that the assimilation of sulfur into reduced forms occurs predominantly in the leaves of plants. However, developing seeds have a strong requirement for sulfur amino acids for storage protein synthesis. We have assessed the capacity of developing seeds of narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) for sulfur assimilation. Cotyledons of developing lupin seeds were able to transfer the sulfur atom from 35S-labeled sulfate into seed proteins in vitro, demonstrating the ability of the developing cotyledons to perform all the steps of sulfur reduction and sulfur amino acid biosynthesis. Oxidized sulfur constituted approximately 30% of the sulfur in mature seeds of lupins grown in the field and almost all of the sulfur detected in phloem exuded from developing pods. The activities of three enzymes of the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway were found in developing cotyledons in quantities theoretically sufficient to account for all of the sulfur amino acids that accumulate in the protein of mature lupin seeds. We conclude that sulfur assimilation by developing cotyledons is likely to be an important source of sulfur amino acids for the synthesis of storage proteins during lupin seed maturation.

Tabe, Linda Marie; Droux, Michel



Genome sequence of the lupin-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417.  


Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen (N2) fixing root nodule of Lupinus sp. collected in Papudo, Chile, in 1995. However, this microsymbiont is a poorly effective N2 fixer with the legume host Lupinus angustifolius L.; a lupin species of considerable economic importance in both Chile and Australia. The symbiosis formed with L. angustifolius produces less than half of the dry matter achieved by the symbioses with commercial inoculant strains such as Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471. Therefore, WSM1417 is an important candidate strain with which to investigate the genetics of effective N2 fixation in the lupin-bradyrhizobia symbioses. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,048,963 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a single scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,695 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976884

Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Peters, Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos



Genome sequence of the lupin-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417  

PubMed Central

Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen (N2) fixing root nodule of Lupinus sp. collected in Papudo, Chile, in 1995. However, this microsymbiont is a poorly effective N2 fixer with the legume host Lupinus angustifolius L.; a lupin species of considerable economic importance in both Chile and Australia. The symbiosis formed with L. angustifolius produces less than half of the dry matter achieved by the symbioses with commercial inoculant strains such as Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471. Therefore, WSM1417 is an important candidate strain with which to investigate the genetics of effective N2 fixation in the lupin-bradyrhizobia symbioses. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,048,963 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a single scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,695 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program.

Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Peters, Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos



The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.  


The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (p<0.05). The results of the research revealed a decrease in the concentrations of antinutritional factors in the sprouts of yellow and blue lupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids. PMID:22540870

Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A



Successional Change in Phosphorus Stoichiometry Explains the Inverse Relationship between Herbivory and Lupin Density on Mount St. Helens  

PubMed Central

Background The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (N?P) of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus) colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to lupin density and are known to alter lupin colonization dynamics. We examined larval performance in response to leaf nutritional characteristics using gelechiid and pyralid leaf-tiers, and a noctuid leaf-cutter. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted four studies. First, growth of larvae raised on wild-collected leaves responded positively to leaf %P and negatively to leaf carbon (%C), but there was no effect of %N or quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs). Noctuid survival was also positively related to %P. Second, we raised gelechiid larvae on greenhouse-grown lupins with factorial manipulation of competitors and soil N and P. In the presence of competition, larval mass was highest at intermediate leaf N?P and high %P. Third, survival of gelechiid larvae placed on lupins in high-density patches was greater when plant competitors were removed than on controls. Fourth, surveys of field-collected leaves in 2000, 2002, and 2003 indicated that both %P and %N were generally greater in plants from low-density areas. QAs in plants from low-density areas were equal to or higher than QAs in high-density areas. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that declines in lupin P content under competitive conditions are associated with decreased larval growth and survival sufficient to cause the observed negative relationship between herbivore abundance and host density. The results support the theoretical finding that declines in stoichiometric resource quality (caused here by succession) have the potential to cause a decrease in consumer abundance despite very dense quantities of the resource.

Apple, Jennifer L.; Wink, Michael; Wills, Shannon E.; Bishop, John G.



Draft genome sequence, and a sequence-defined genetic linkage map of the legume crop species Lupinus angustifolius L.  


Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the most recently domesticated crop in major agricultural cultivation. Its seeds are high in protein and dietary fibre, but low in oil and starch. Medical and dietetic studies have shown that consuming lupin-enriched food has significant health benefits. We report the draft assembly from a whole genome shotgun sequencing dataset for this legume species with 26.9x coverage of the genome, which is predicted to contain 57,807 genes. Analysis of the annotated genes with metabolic pathways provided a partial understanding of some key features of lupin, such as the amino acid profile of storage proteins in seeds. Furthermore, we applied the NGS-based RAD-sequencing technology to obtain 8,244 sequence-defined markers for anchoring the genomic sequences. A total of 4,214 scaffolds from the genome sequence assembly were aligned into the genetic map. The combination of the draft assembly and a sequence-defined genetic map made it possible to locate and study functional genes of agronomic interest. The identification of co-segregating SNP markers, scaffold sequences and gene annotation facilitated the identification of a candidate R gene associated with resistance to the major lupin disease anthracnose. We demonstrated that the combination of medium-depth genome sequencing and a high-density genetic linkage map by application of NGS technology is a cost-effective approach to generating genome sequence data and a large number of molecular markers to study the genomics, genetics and functional genes of lupin, and to apply them to molecular plant breeding. This strategy does not require prior genome knowledge, which potentiates its application to a wide range of non-model species. PMID:23734219

Yang, Huaan; Tao, Ye; Zheng, Zequn; Zhang, Qisen; Zhou, Gaofeng; Sweetingham, Mark W; Howieson, John G; Li, Chengdao



Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-?- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-?-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.



Muralytic Activities of Ruminococcus albus 8  

PubMed Central

Ruminococcus albus 8 was cultured with isolated alfalfa cell walls as the carbon source. The culture broth was assayed for muralytic enzyme activities. The effect, with respect to the production of such muralytic enzymes, of growing the microorganism on different carbon sources was also investigated. Also, the rates of solubilization and utilization by R. albus of individual alfalfa cell wall sugars during a 96-h growth period were examined.

Greve, L. Carl; Labavitch, John M.; Stack, Robert J.; Hungate, Robert E.




Microsoft Academic Search

The Warburg microrespirometer technic (Warburg, 1926) was used in this series of experiments. The customary conical vessel was replaced with a cylindri- cal one of special design (Tang, 1931-1932, b). It is attached to the manometer from the side instead of the top which has a removable stopper bearing a glass cross on which the seed is fastened with a




Causes and Consequences of Herbivory on Prairie Lupine ( Lupinus lepidus ) in Early Primary Succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary succession, the formation and change of ecological communities in locations initially lacking organisms or other biological\\u000a materials, has been an important research focus for at least a century (Cowles 1899; Griggs 1933; Eggler 1941; Crocker and\\u000a Major 1955; Eggler 1959; Miles and Walton 1993; Walker and del Moral 2003). At approximately 60 km2, primary successional surfaces at Mount St.

John G. Bishop; William F. Fagan; John D. Schade; Charles M. Crisafulli


Composition and Protein Quality of Lupinus Mutabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and the protein quality of three samples of Lupinus mutabilis (a raw, semi-sweet variety; cooked, water-extracted seeds; and al cohol-extracted oil cake) were studied. The protein content varied from 47.7% dry weight (raw seeds) to 65.3% (oil-cake). Compared to the FAO reference pattern sulfur- containing amino acids are first limiting. The water-extracted sample contained 26.9% oil and



Comparative genomics of Lupinus angustifolius gene-rich regions: BAC library exploration, genetic mapping and cytogenetics  

PubMed Central

Background The narrow-leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., is a grain legume species with a relatively compact genome. The species has 2n?=?40 chromosomes and its genome size is 960 Mbp/1C. During the last decade, L. angustifolius genomic studies have achieved several milestones, such as molecular-marker development, linkage maps, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Here, these resources were integratively used to identify and sequence two gene-rich regions (GRRs) of the genome. Results The genome was screened with a probe representing the sequence of a microsatellite fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) marker linked to Phomopsis stem blight resistance. BAC clones selected by hybridization were subjected to restriction fingerprinting and contig assembly, and 232 BAC-ends were sequenced and annotated. BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) identified eight single-locus clones. Based on physical mapping, cytogenetic localization, and BAC-end annotation, five clones were chosen for sequencing. Within the sequences of clones that hybridized in FISH to a single-locus, two large GRRs were identified. The GRRs showed strong and conserved synteny to Glycine max duplicated genome regions, illustrated by both identical gene order and parallel orientation. In contrast, in the clones with dispersed FISH signals, more than one-third of sequences were transposable elements. Sequenced, single-locus clones were used to develop 12 genetic markers, increasing the number of L. angustifolius chromosomes linked to appropriate linkage groups by five pairs. Conclusions In general, probes originating from MFLP sequences can assist genome screening and gene discovery. However, such probes are not useful for positional cloning, because they tend to hybridize to numerous loci. GRRs identified in L. angustifolius contained a low number of interspersed repeats and had a high level of synteny to the genome of the model legume G. max. Our results showed that not only was the gene nucleotide sequence conserved between soybean and lupin GRRs, but the order and orientation of particular genes in syntenic blocks was homologous, as well. These findings will be valuable to the forthcoming sequencing of the lupin genome.



Albus 1: A Very Bright White Dwarf Candidate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have serendipitously discovered a previously unknown, bright source (BT=11.75+/-0.07 mag) with a very blue VT-Ks color, which we have named Albus 1. A photometric and astrometric study using Virtual Observatory tools has shown that it possesses an appreciable proper motion and magnitudes and colors very similar to those of the well-known white dwarf G191-B2B. We consider Albus 1 as a DA-type white dwarf located at about 40 pc. If its nature is confirmed, Albus 1 would be the sixth brightest isolated white dwarf in the sky, which would make it an excellent spectrophotometric standard.

Caballero, José Antonio; Solano, Enrique



Rheological properties of modified lupin proteins.  


The properties of acetylated, succinylated and phosphorylated protein isolates extracted from the flour of yellow lupins (L. luteus) were studied by means of oscillatory rheology. The flow behaviour of protein dispersions (15% w/w) and the properties of thermotropic gels were distinctly influenced by the modification. Succinylation increased the viscosity of the dispersions of unmodified protein isolate (LPI) from 99 mPas to 515 mPas and results in the lowest gel point (T = 30.5 degrees C). Acetylation and phosphorylation enhance the pseudoplastic flow behaviour of the dispersions. Acylated lupin samples formed the strongest gels with a small visco-elastic range while phosphorylation leads to weak and "rubber-like" gels. PMID:11712245

Krause, J P; Bagger, C; Schwenke, K D



Genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobial symbionts of the Lupinus mariae-josephae endemism from alkaline-limed soils within its area of distribution in Eastern Spain.  


The genomic diversity of a collection of 103 indigenous rhizobia isolates from Lupinus mariae-josephae (Lmj), a recently described Lupinus species endemic to alkaline-limed soils from a restricted habitat in Eastern Spain, was investigated by molecular methods. Isolates were obtained from soils of four geographic locations in the Valencia province that harbored the known Lmj plant populations. Using an M13 RAPD fingerprinting technique, 19 distinct RAPD profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA and the housekeeping genes glnII, recA and atpD showed a high diversity of native Bradyrhizobium strains that were able to establish symbiosis with Lmj. All the strains grouped in a clade unrelated to strains of the B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages that establish symbioses with lupines in acid soils of the Mediterranean area. The phylogenetic tree based on concatenated glnII, recA and atpD gene sequences grouped the Lmj isolates in six different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 93% similarity level. These OTUs were not associated to any specific geographical location, and their observed divergence predicted the existence of different Bradyrhizobium genomic species. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis of symbiotic genes based on nodC and nodA gene sequences, defined only two distinct clusters among the Lmj strains. These two Lmj nod gene types were largely distinct from nod genes of bradyrhizobia nodulating other Old World lupine species. The singularity and large diversity of these strains in such a small geographical area makes this an attractive system for studying the evolution and adaptation of the rhizobial symbiont to the plant host. PMID:23290449

Durán, David; Rey, L; Sánchez-Cañizares, C; Navarro, A; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argueso, T



Alteration of substrate specificity of valine dehydrogenase from Streptomyces albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catabolism of branched chain amino acids, especially valine, appears to play an important role in furnishing building blocks for macrolide and polyether antibiotic biosyntheses. To determine the active site residues of ValDH, we previously cloned, partially characterized, and identified the active site (lysine) of Streptomyces albus ValDH. Here we report further characterization of S. albus ValDH. The molecular weight

Chang-Gu Hyun; Sang Suk Kim; In Hyung Lee; Joo-Won Suh



Evaluation of total quinolizidine alkaloids content in lupin flours, lupin-based ingredients, and foods.  


Lupin proteins are gaining attention to replace animal proteins and other plants ingredients in several foods such as bakery products, imitation dairy and meat products, and beverages. One of the major safety issues of lupin-based foods is the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs), bitter compounds produced by lupin plants as a defense mechanism against predators. In mammals, QA intoxication is characterized by trembling, shaking, excitation, and convulsion. Lupanine and sparteine, the most common QAs, show acute oral toxicity due to neurological effects leading to the loss of motor co-ordination and muscular control. In this paper, 27 samples of lupin-based products, i. e., flours, protein isolates, and food (either model or commercially available ones), were analyzed for evaluating the QA content using a method based on GC/MS. All the analyzed samples were safe since they respect the maximum limit of 200 mg/kg fixed by the Health Authorities of Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, and France, that have regulated this topic. The QA contents were particularly low in protein isolates and in foods containing these ingredients, indicating that their use is a very effective tool for keeping low the daily intake of QAs. PMID:18324702

Resta, Donatella; Boschin, Giovanna; D'Agostina, Alessandra; Arnoldi, Anna



Conservation of Endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in Its Natural Habitat by Inoculation with Selected, Native Bradyrhizobium Strains  

PubMed Central

Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in “terra rossa” soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other “terra rossa” or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive.

Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simon; Laguna, Emilio; Duran, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argueso, Tomas



Nitrogen utilization and metabolism in Ruminococcus albus 8.  


The model rumen Firmicutes organism Ruminococcus albus 8 was grown using ammonia, urea, or peptides as the sole nitrogen source; growth was not observed with amino acids as the sole nitrogen source. Growth of R. albus 8 on ammonia and urea showed the same growth rate (0.08 h(-1)) and similar maximum cell densities (for ammonia, the optical density at 600 nm [OD600] was 1.01; and for urea, the OD600 was 0.99); however, growth on peptides resulted in a nearly identical growth rate (0.09 h(-1)) and a lower maximum cell density (OD600 = 0.58). To identify differences in gene expression and enzyme activities, the transcript abundances of 10 different genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and specific enzyme activities were analyzed by harvesting mRNA and crude protein from cells at the mid- and late exponential phases of growth on the different N sources. Transcript abundances and enzyme activities varied according to nitrogen source, ammonia concentration, and growth phase. Growth of R. albus 8 on ammonia and urea was similar, with the only observed difference being an increase in urease transcript abundance and enzyme activity in urea-grown cultures. Growth of R. albus 8 on peptides showed a different nitrogen metabolism pattern, with higher gene transcript abundance levels of gdhA, glnA, gltB, amtB, glnK, and ureC, as well as higher activities of glutamate dehydrogenase and urease. These results demonstrate that ammonia, urea, and peptides can all serve as nitrogen sources for R. albus and that nitrogen metabolism genes and enzyme activities of R. albus 8 are regulated by nitrogen source and the level of ammonia in the growth medium. PMID:24610852

Kim, Jong Nam; Henriksen, Emily Decrescenzo; Cann, Isaac K O; Mackie, Roderick I



Lupin alkaloids Part IV. The influence of some structural factors on the conformational equilibrium in bis-quinolizidine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

13C NMR and IR spectra of minor alkaloids of Lupinus albus such as multiflorine ( I), 13?-hydroxymultiflorine ( IV) and their monoperchlorates, 13?-hydroxy-5-dehydromultiflorine ( V) and 5-dehydromultiflorine ( VI) were taken. I and IV in CDCl 3, their monoperchlorates in CD 3CN and V in CD 3OD solution occur in conformational equilibrium. The share of the conformation with a boat ring C in I is about 74%, in IV 67%, in I · HClO 4 20%, in IV·HClO 43% and in V 3%. The change in conformational preference results mainly from a decreasing destabilization of the conformation with a chair ring C caused by an increase in the distance between the interacting hydrogen atom pairs 5?-17?, 8?-12?, 12?-17? and 14?-17?, due to protonation induced lengthening of the N (16)-C ? bonds. VI and most of the molecules of V remain in solution in conformation with a chair ring C. This conformation in V and VI is less destabilized than in I and IV because of a lower steric hindrance for the chair ring C, as a consequence of the planarity of ring A and a part of fragment B and because of the absence of the 5?-17? interaction.

Wysocka, Waleria; Brukwicki, Tadeusz



Differential recovery of lupin proteins from the gluten matrix in lupin-wheat bread as revealed by mass spectrometry and two-dimensional electrophoresis.  


Bread made from a mixture of wheat and lupin flour possesses a number of health benefits. The addition of lupin flour to wheat flour during breadmaking has major effects on bread properties. The present study investigated the lupin and wheat flour protein interactions during the breadmaking process including dough formation and baking by using proteomics research technologies including MS/MS to identify the proteins. Results revealed that qualitatively most proteins from both lupin and wheat flour remained unchanged after baking as per electrophoretic behavior, whereas some were incorporated into the bread gluten matrix and became unextractable. Most of the lupin ?-conglutins could be readily extracted from the lupin-wheat bread even at low salt and nonreducing/nondenaturing extraction conditions. In contrast, most of the ?-conglutins lost extractability, suggesting that they were trapped in the bread gluten matrix. The higher thermal stability of ?-conglutins compared to ?-conglutins is speculated to account for this difference. PMID:21548652

Islam, Shahidul; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun; Gao, Liyan; Appels, Rudi



Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.  


This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, ?-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for ?-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that ?-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements. PMID:24054261

Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora



Root excretion of carboxylic acids and protons in phosphorus-deficient plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus deficiency-induced metabolic changes related to exudation of carboxylic acids and protons were compared in roots\\u000a of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Haro), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Moneymaker), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and\\u000a white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga), grown in a hydroponic culture system. P deficiency strongly increased the net release\\u000a of protons from roots of tomato, chickpea

G. Neumann; V. Römheld



Isolation of lipase from germinating oilseeds for biotechnological processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germinating oilseeds have been explored as a possible source of lipases (glycerol ester hydrolase, EC. for the biotechnological\\u000a processing of oils and fats. Seedlings of rape (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) at day 4 of germination and cotyledons of lupine (Lupinus albus) seedlings at day 3 of germination yield active crude lipase preparations upon homogenization with Tricine buffer (pH

Fawzi R. Hassanienl; Kumar D. Mukherjee



The effect of lead on cyclin expression in lupine roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of cell cycle gene, cyclin, was analyzed in lupine roots exposed to lead. The level of cyclin mRNA and coding\\u000a protein were examined by Northern and Western blot techniques and by using lupine cDNA (CycB1;1) and animal-derived antibody, respectively.\\u000a \\u000a The cyclin mRNA level was either unchanged or slightly increased after lead treatment and it was concomitant with decrease

Joanna Deckert; Edward A. Gwó?d?



Eustrongylides sp. epizootic in young common egrets (Casmerodius albus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May 1985, epizootic mortality was reported in common egrets (Casmerodius albus) on Avery Island, Louisiana. Subsequent investigation revealed that more than 400 birds died. Severe peritoneal nematodiasis (Eustrongylides sp.) was found on postmortem examination. A nearby breeding rookery on the same island was apparently unaffected. Reasons for this selective mortality are presented. Three other reports of epizootic mortality due to Eustrongylides sp. have been reported. This is the first report of this type of epizootic in gulf-coast birds.

Roffe, Thomas J.



Lupin alkaloids from teratogenic and nonteratogenic lupins. III. Identification of anagyrine as the probable teratogen by feeding trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloidal extracts from teratogenic lupins produced congenital deformities in calves typical of crooked calf disease when the extracts were administered to pregnant cows during the susceptible gestational period. These data and previous epidemiologic studies suggest that one of the four alkaloids in the preparation, anagyrine, is the responsible teratogen. Severity of the malformations was directly related to the level of

Richard F. Keeler



Muscodor albus strain GBA, an endophytic fungus of Ginkgo biloba from United States of America, produces volatile antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscodor albus strain GBA is a newly isolated endophytic fungus from Ginko biloba (family Ginkoaceae) collected in Newport, RI, USA. The cultural characteristics (color, growth pattern) and mycelial\\/hyphal characteristics resemble many isolates of Muscodor albus. The ITS rDNA sequence of the strain has at least 98% similarity with other isolates of M. albus and M. crispans. This xylariaceaous species effectively

Debdulal Banerjee; Gary Strobel; Brad Geary; Joe Sears; David Ezra; Orna Liarzi; James Coombs



Draft Genome Sequence of Agarivorans albus Strain MKT 106T, an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Agarivorans albus is a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, and agar-hydrolyzing marine bacterium. We present the draft genome sequence of the A. albus strain MKT 106T, which is composed of 67 contigs (>500 bp) totaling 4,734,285 bp and containing 4,397 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), four rRNAs, and 64 tRNA sequences.

Nakamura, Yoji; Kai, Wataru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Fukui, Youhei; Satomi, Masataka; Sano, Motohiko



Production of Ruminococcus flavefaciens growth inhibitor(s) by Ruminococcus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

While trying to develop a most probable number (MPN) selective medium for the enumeration of Ruminococcus albus 7 and Ruminococcus flavefaciens B1a in coculture, it was observed that when cultures of the two organisms were mixed for testing the media, growth of R. flavefaciens B1a was inhibited. Subsequent studies indicated that R. albus 7 produced an inhibitory substance that was

W. W Chan; B. A Dehority



Restriction of a bacteriophage of Streptomyces albus G involving endonuclease SalI.  

PubMed Central

The bacteriophage Pa16, isolated from soil on Streptomyces albus G, was restricted when transferred from an alternative host back to S. albus G. Extracted unmodified Pa16 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at a single site by a cell-free extract of S. albus G. Fractions cleaving Pal6 deoxyribonucleic acid contained the endonuclease SalI first described by J. Arrand, P. Myers, and R. J. Roberts (unpublished data). A mutant of S. albus G was isolated which was defective in both restriction and modification of Pal6. This mutant lacked SalI activity. It is concluded that SalI is the agent of restriction of Pal6 by S. albus G. Images

Chater, K F; Wilde, L C



Genetic Structure and Symbiotic Characteristics of a Bradyrhizobium Population Recovered from a Pasture Soil †  

PubMed Central

We examined the genetic structure and symbiotic characteristics of Bradyrhizobium isolates recovered from four legume species (Lupinus albus [white lupine], Lupinus angustifolius [blue lupine], Ornithopus compressus [yellow serradella], and Macroptilium atropurpureum [sirato]) grown in an Oregon soil. We established that multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) can provide insights into the genetic relatedness among Bradyrhizobium strains by showing a positive correlation (r2 = ?0.90) between the relatedness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains determined by MLEE at 13 enzyme loci and that determined by other workers using either DNA-DNA hybridization or DNA sequence divergence estimates. MLEE identified 17 electrophoretic types (ETs) among 95 Bradyrhizobium isolates recovered from the four hosts. Although the overall genetic diversity among the ETs (H = 0.69) is one of the largest measured to date in a local population of any soilborne bacterial species, there was no evidence of multilocus structure (linkage disequilibrium) within the population. The majority of the isolates (73%) were represented by two closely related ETs (2 and 3) which dominated the root nodules of white lupine, serradella, and siratro. In contrast, ET1 dominated nodules of blue lupine. Although representative isolates from all of the 17 ETs nodulated siratro, white lupine, blue lupine, and big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus), they were either completely ineffective or poorly effective at fixing nitrogen on these hosts. Despite the widespread use of serradella as a surrogate host for lupine-nodulating bradyrhizobia, 7 of the 17 ETs did not nodulate this host, and the remaining 10 ETs were ineffective at fixing nitrogen.

Bottomley, Peter J.; Cheng, Hsin-Hua; Strain, Steven R.




Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with other legumes, lupins have a high percent of seed weight in the seed coat. It has been shown that genetic variation exists for seed coat proportion in lupin species and that the prospect for improvement by breeding is good. However, the standard method for assessing seed coat thickness involves manual separation of seed fractions, drying and weighing. This

Daniel Alomar; Mario Mera


In vitro binding of bile acids by lupin protein isolates and their hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the in vitro binding of bile acids by lupin, lupin protein isolates, and their hydrolysates compared to soybean products and cholestyramine. Sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, sodium chenodeoxycholate, sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate were individually tested and analyzed spectrophotometrically by enzymatic reaction. A degree of hydrolysis of up to 20% did not affect the bile-acid binding capacity. De-oiled

Yumiko Yoshie-Stark; Andreas Wäsche



Fermentation of Insoluble Cellulose by Continuous Cultures of Ruminococcus albus  

PubMed Central

The hydrolysis and fermentation of insoluble cellulose (Avicel) by continuous cultures of Ruminococcus albus 7 was studied. An anaerobic continuous culture apparatus was designed which permitted gas collection, continuous feeding, and wasting at different retention times. The operation of the apparatus was controlled by a personal computer. Cellulose destruction ranged from ca. 30 to 70% for hydraulic retention times of 0.5 to 2.0 days. Carbon recovery in products was 92 to 97%, and the oxidation-reduction ratios ranged from 0.91 to 1.15. The total product yield (biomass not included) per gram of cellulose (expressed as glucose) was 0.83 g g?1, and the ethanol yield was 0.41 g g?1. The product yield was constant, indicating that product formation was growth linked.

Pavlostathis, Spyros G.; Miller, Terry L.; Wolin, Meyer J.



Cardiovascular anatomy and cardiac function in the air-breathing swamp eel (Monopterus albus).  


Monopterus albus, a swamp eel inhabiting the freshwaters of South East Asia, relies on an extensive vascularisation of the buccal cavity, pharynx and anterior oesophagus for gas exchange, while the gills are much reduced. In the present study we describe the macro-circulation in the cephalic region and the vascularisation of the buccal cavity of M. albus using vascular fillings and micro-computed tomography (?CT). We also show that M. albus has the capacity to use the buccal cavity for aquatic gas exchange, being able to maintain normal arterial blood gas composition, blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output throughout 10h of forced submergence. M. albus therefore can be characterised as a facultative air-breather. Because M. albus aestivates for many months in moist mud during the dry season we characterised in vivo cardiovascular function during exposure to anoxia as well as the effects of anoxia on in vitro contractility of strip preparations from atria and ventricle. Both studies revealed a low anoxia tolerance, rendering it unlikely that M. albus can survive prolonged exposure to anoxia. PMID:22944727

Iversen, Nina K; Lauridsen, Henrik; Do, Thi Thanh Huong; Nguyen, Van Cong; Gesser, Hans; Buchanan, Rasmus; Bayley, Mark; Pedersen, Michael; Wang, Tobias



Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov.  


In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811(T) forms a cluster with five other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these other species, including Streptomyces almquistii NRRL B-1685(T), Streptomyces flocculus NRRL B-2465(T), Streptomyces gibsonii NRRL B-1335(T) and Streptomyces rangoonensis NRRL B-12378(T) are quite similar. This cluster is of particular taxonomic interest because Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. The related strains were subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB and confirmation of previously reported phenotypic characteristics. The five strains formed a coherent cluster supported by a 100?% bootstrap value in phylogenetic trees generated from sequence alignments prepared by concatenating the sequences of the housekeeping genes, and identical tree topology was observed using various different tree-making algorithms. Moreover, all but one strain, S. flocculus NRRL B-2465(T), exhibited identical sequences for all of the five housekeeping gene loci sequenced, but NRRL B-2465(T) still exhibited an MLSA evolutionary distance of 0.005 from the other strains, a value that is lower than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. These data support a proposal to reclassify S. almquistii, S. flocculus, S. gibsonii and S. rangoonensis as later heterotypic synonyms of S. albus with NRRL B-1811(T) as the type strain. The MLSA sequence database also demonstrated utility for quickly and conclusively confirming that numerous strains within the ARS Culture Collection had been previously misidentified as subspecies of S. albus and that Streptomyces albus subsp. pathocidicus should be redescribed as a novel species, Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov., with the type strain NRRL B-24287(T). PMID:24277863

Labeda, D P; Doroghazi, J R; Ju, K-S; Metcalf, W W



Degradation of quinolizidine alkaloids of lupin by Rhizopus oligosporus.  


Rhizopus oligosporus has proven beneficial in the detoxification of lupin seeds. The fermentation process is mainly affected by the initial pH in the medium. In the range of growth of mold, there are maximum enzymatic activities in pH of 3.5 and 5.5. Metabolism change occurs at these pH levels; therefore, we studied the growth, pH changes, dry matter intake, and alkaloid degradation within 48 h of fermentation. Cultures of lupin agar (LA) with pH of 3.5 and 5.5 were made in Petri dishes with lupin flour. Results showed pH directly affects the degradation of alkaloids and fungal growth. Detoxification levels achieved were 16.58 and 63.23 % in treatments LA 3.5 and LA 5.5, respectively. Fungal growth was 0.919 mg/cm(2) in LA 3.5 and 1.081 mg/cm(2) in LA 5.5. Maximum degradation rate in LA 5.5 was given between 16 and 20 h, which coincided with maximum fungal growth. Despite having similar dry matter intake in both treatments, a pH of 3.5 did not show the same degree of detoxification. The analysis with exponential, yield of growth, yield of dry matter intake and luedeking and piret equations, confirm the relation between intake and growth with detoxification. Dry matter intake equation predicts with R (2) of 0.94 the detoxification in LA 5.5. A pH of 5.5 is directly related with detoxification and fungal development. PMID:23435939

Ortega-David, Eduar; Rodríguez-Stouvenel, Aida



Valine dehydrogenase from Streptomyces albus: gene cloning, heterologous expression and identification of active site by site-directed mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene encoding valine dehydrogenase (Vdh) has been cloned from Streptomyces albus, a salinomycin producer, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The S. albus Vdh is composed of 364 amino acids that showed high homology with several other amino acid dehydrogenases as well as Vdhs from Streptomyces spp. and leucine and phenylalanine dehydrogenases (Ldh and Pdh) from Bacillus spp. A protein

Chang-Gu Hyun; Sang Suk Kim; Kwan-Hyung Park; Joo-Won Suh



Assessment of residual immunoreactivity in red or white wines clarified with pea or lupin extracts.  


Vegetable proteins could be a suitable alternative to animal proteins in the clarification of wine, but their residues could represent a risk for subjects with food allergy or intolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of specific immunoreactivity in red and white wines treated, as must or wine, with vegetable proteins in the clarification process. The proteins considered were prepared from lupins and peas, which are not included among the allergens listed in annex Illbis of Directive 2003/89/EC. The presence of residual immunoreactivity to specific rabbit anti-lupin and anti-pea polyclonal antibodies in treated wines was assessed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Residual protein was not detectable in red wines clarified with lupin, pea or a mixture of pea and lupin proteins or in white wines clarified with pea proteins. A small number of musts treated with lupin or pea proteins and white wines treated with lupin proteins yielded equivocal results, probably because of the presence of interfering material (e.g., sugar-rich proteins from grape and yeast). The use of bentonite as a secondary clarifying agent is therefore recommended since its combination with vegetable proteins is particularly effective in removing overall protein immunoreactivity. PMID:15244321

Cattaneo, A; Ballabio, C; Bernardini, R; Bertelli, A A E; Novembre, E; Vierucci, A; Restani, P



Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the detection of phomopsin A in lupin and lupin-containing retail food samples from the Netherlands.  


Phomopsins (PHO) are mycotoxins produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica (also referred to as Phomopsis leptostromiformis). Lupin is the most important host crop for this fungus and PHO are suspected as cause of lupinosis, a deadly liver disease, in sheep. Lupin is currently in use to replace genetically modified soy in many food products available on the European market. However, a validated method for analysis of PHO is not available until now. In this work, a dilute-and-shoot LC-MS/MS-based method was developed for the quantitative determination and identification of phomopsin A (PHO-A) in lupin and lupin-containing food. The method involved extraction by a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/20/1 v/v), dilution of the sample in water, and direct injection of the crude extract after centrifugation. The method was validated at 5 and 25 µg PHO-A kg(-1) product. The average recovery and RSD obtained were 79% and 9%, respectively. The LOQ (the lowest level for which adequate recovery and RSD were demonstrated) was 5 µg PHO-A kg(-1). Identification of PHO-A was based on retention time and two transitions (789 > 226 and 789 > 323). Using the average of solvent standards from the sequence as a reference, retention times were all within ± 0.03 min and ion ratios were within ± 12%, which is compliant with European Union requirements. The LOD (S/N = 3 for the least sensitive transition) was 1 µg PHO-A kg(-1) product. Forty-two samples of lupin and lupin-containing food products were collected in 2011-2012 from grocery stores and internet shops in the Netherlands and analysed. In none of the samples was PHO-A detected. PMID:23895245

de Nijs, Monique; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P K H; van Dam, Ruud C J; de Rijk, Theo C; van Egmond, Hans P; Mol, Hans J G J



Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.  

PubMed Central

Background In the last 30?years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA) sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible) in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM), and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA fingerprinting method for marker-assisted selection in the Australian national lupin breeding program. Conclusions We demonstrated that more than 30 molecular markers linked to a target gene of agronomic trait of interest can be identified from a small portion (1/8) of one sequencing run on HiSeq2000 by applying NGS based RAD sequencing in marker development. The markers developed by the strategy described in this study are all co-dominant SNP markers, which can readily be converted into high throughput multiplex format or low-cost, simple PCR-based markers desirable for large scale marker implementation in plant breeding programs. The high density and closely linked molecular markers associated with a target trait help to overcome a major bottleneck for implementation of molecular markers on a wide range of germplasm in breeding programs. We conclude that application of NGS based RAD sequencing as DNA fingerprinting is a very rapid and cost-effective strategy for marker development in molecular plant breeding. The strategy does not require any prior genome knowledge or molecular information for the species under investigation, and it is applicable to other plant species.



Degradation of barley straw, ryegrass, and alfalfa cell walls by Clostridium longisporum and Ruminococcus albus.  

PubMed Central

The recently isolated ruminal sporeforming cellulolytic anaerobe Clostridium longisporum B6405 was examined for its ability to degrade barley straw, nonlignified cell walls (mesophyll and epidermis) and lignified cell walls (fiber) of ryegrass, and alfalfa cell walls in comparison with strains of Ruminococcus albus. R. albus strains degraded 20 to 28% of the dry matter in barley straw in 10 days, while the clostridium degraded less than 2%. A combined inoculum of R. albus SY3 and strain B6405 was no more efficient than SY3 alone, and the presence of Methanobacterium smithii PS did not increase the amount of dry matter degraded. In contrast, with alfalfa cell walls as the substrate, the clostridium was twice as active (28% weight loss) as R. albus SY3 (15%). The percentages of dry matter degraded from ryegrass cell walls of mesophyll, epidermis, and fiber for the clostridium were 50, 47, and 32%, respectively, and for R. albus SY3 they were 77, 73, and 63%, respectively. Analyses of the predominant neutral sugars (arabinose, xylose, and glucose) in the plant residues after bacterial attack were consistent with the values for dry matter weight loss. Measurements of the amount of carbon appearing in the fermentation products indicated that R. albus SY3 degraded ryegrass mesophyll cell walls most rapidly, with epidermis and fiber cell walls being degraded at similar rates. Strain B6405 attacked alfalfa cell walls at a rate greater than that of any of the ryegrass substrates. These results indicate an unexpected degree of substrate specificity in the ability of C. longisporum to degrade plant cell wall material.

Varel, V H; Richardson, A J; Stewart, C S




EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


Properties of D-Xylose Isomerase from Streptomyces albus  

PubMed Central

A partially purified D-xylose isomerase has been isolated from cells of Streptomyces albus NRRL 5778 and some of its properties have been determined. D-Glucose, D-xylose, D-ribose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose served as substrates for the enzyme with respective Km values of 86, 93, 350, 153, and 312 mM and Vmax values measuring 1.23, 2.9, 2.63, 0.153, and 0.048 ?mol/min per mg of protein. The hexose D-allose was also isomerized. The enzyme was strongly activated by 1.0 mM Mg2+ but only partially activated by 1.0 mM Co2+. The respective Km values for Mg2+ and Co2+ were 0.3 and 0.003 mM. Mg2+ and Co2+ appear to have separate binding sites on the isomerase. These cations also protect the enzyme from thermal denaturation and from D-sorbitol inhibition. The optimum temperature for ketose formation was 70 to 80 C at pH values ranging from 7 to 9. D-Sorbitol acts as a competitive inhibitor with a Ki of 5.5 mM against D-glucose, D-xylose, and D-ribose. Induction experiments, Mg2+ activation, and D-sorbitol D-sorbitol inhibition indicated that a single enzyme (D-xylose isomerase) was responsible for the isomerization of the pentoses, methyl pentose, and glucose.

Sanchez, Sergio; Smiley, Karl L.



The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum: Two eary models of associative memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum are compared and contrasted. They are shown to be similar in their analysis of the function of the mossy fibers, granule cells, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cells. They both predict motor learning in the parallel fiber synapses on the Purkinje dendrites mediated by concurrent climbing fiber input. This prediction has been confirmed by experimental evidence. In contrast, Marr predicts these synapses would be facilitated by learning, while Albus predicts they would be weakened. Experimental evidence confirms synaptic weakening.

Albus, James S.



Reproductive physiology of free-living White Ibises ( Eudocimus albus) in the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured plasma concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and corticosterone; and recorded changes in gonad size, body condition, molt, and brood patch development of free-living adult White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) during the breeding season in the Florida Everglades. White Ibises are colonially breeding, long-legged wading birds that inhabit freshwater and estuarine wetlands. They have flexible breeding schedules (nest initiation dates

Julie A. Heath; Peter C. Frederick; Thea M. Edwards; Louis J. Guillette



Enumeration of transconjugated Ruminococcus albus and its survival in the goat rumen microcosm.  

PubMed Central

A transconjugant Ruminococcus albus A3 culture was released into a goat rumen, and the extent of its survival in the rumen microcosm was measured by distinguishing this bacterium from indigenous microbes by antibiotic resistance. A3 cells remained roughly constant for 14 days in this goat rumen.

Miyagi, T; Kaneichi, K; Aminov, R I; Kobayashi, Y; Sakka, K; Hoshino, S; Ohmiya, K



Effects of lupin kernel flour-enriched bread on blood pressure: a controlled intervention study1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Available data suggest that substitution of refined carbohydrate in the diet with protein and fiber may benefit blood pressure. Lupin kernel flour is high in protein and fiber and low in carbohydrate. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects on blood pressure of a diet moderately higher in dietary protein and fiber achieved by substituting lupin kernel flour

Ya P Lee; Trevor A Mori; Ian B Puddey; Sofia Sipsas; Timothy R Ackland; Lawrence J Beilin; Jonathan M Hodgson


Effect of Lupine and Amaranth on Growth Efficiency, Health, and Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Market Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zral? Z., B. Písafiíková, M. Trãková, I. Herzig, M. JÛzl, J. Simeonovová: Effect of Lupine and Amaranth on Growth Efficiency, Health, and Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Market Pigs. Acta Vet Brno 2006, 75: 363-372. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether it is possible to substitute animal protein in a pig diet with lupine of

Z. Zralý; B. Písa?íková; M. Tr?ková; I. Herzig; M. J?zl; J. Simeonovová



ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.  


The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 ?g/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 ?g/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin ?+? conglutin. PMID:24128446

Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna



Muscodor albus Volatiles Control Toxigenic Fungi under Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage Conditions  

PubMed Central

Muscodor albus, a biofumigant fungus, has the potential to control post-harvest pathogens in storage. It has been shown to produce over 20 volatile compounds with fungicidal, bactericidal and insecticidal properties. However, M. albus is a warm climate endophyte, and its biofumigant activity is significantly inhibited at temperatures below 5 °C. Conidia of seven mycotoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus carbonarius, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum, were killed or prevented from germinating by exposure to volatiles from 2 g M. albus-colonized rye grain per L of headspace in sealed glass jars for 24 h at 20 °C. Two major volatiles of M. albus, isobutyric acid (IBA) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (2MB) at 50 ?L/L and 100 ?L/L, respectively, gave differential control of the seven fungi when applied individually at 20 °C. When the fungi were exposed to both IBA and 2MB together, an average of 94% of the conidia were killed or suppressed. In a factorial experiment with controlled atmosphere storage (CA) at 3 °C and 72 h exposure to four concentrations of IBA and 2MB combinations, 50 ?L/L IBA plus 100 ?L/L 2MB killed or suppressed germination of the conidia of all seven fungi. Controlled atmosphere had no significant effect on conidial viability or volatile efficacy. Major volatiles of M. albus may have significant potential to control plant pathogens in either ambient air or CA storage at temperatures below 5 °C. However, combinations of volatiles may be required to provide a broader spectrum of control than individual volatiles.

Braun, Gordon; Vailati, Matteo; Prange, Robert; Bevis, Eric



High pH in the nutrient solution impairs water uptake in Lupinus angustifolius L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root growth in Lupinus angustifolius is greatly decreased when the nutrient solution has a pH above 6.0. This study examined the water relations in this species (cv. Yandee) in response to high pH in solution culture in a glasshouse.

C. Tang; B. T. Cobley; S. Mokhtara; C. E. Wilson; H. Greenway



Glucose Fermentation Products of Ruminococcus albus Grown in Continuous Culture with Vibrio succinogenes: Changes Caused by Interspecies Transfer of H2  

PubMed Central

The influence of a H2-utilizing organism, Vibrio succinogenes, on the fermentation of limiting amounts of glucose by a carbohydrate-fermenting, H2-producing organism, Ruminococcus albus, was studied in continuous cultures. Growth of V. succinogenes depended on the production of H2 from glucose by R. albus. V. succinogenes used the H2 produced by R. albus to obtain energy for growth by reducing fumarate in the medium. Fumarate was not metabolized by R. albus alone. The only products detected in continuous cultures of R. albus alone were acetate, ethanol, and H2. CO2 was not measured. The only products detected in the mixed cultures were acetate and succinate. No free H2 was produced. No formate or any other volatile fatty acid, no succinate or other dicarboxylic acids, lactate, alcohols other than ethanol, pyruvate, or other keto-acids, acetoin, or diacetyl were detected in cultures of R. albus alone or in mixed cultures. The moles of product per 100 mol of glucose fermented were approximately 69 for ethanol, 74 for acetate, 237 for H2 for R. albus alone and 147 for acetate and 384 for succinate for the mixed culture. Each mole of succinate is equivalent to the production of 1 mol of H2 by R. albus. Thus, in the mixed cultures, ethanol production by R. albus is eliminated with a corresponding increase in acetate and H2 formation. The mixed-culture pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form), formed during glycolysis by R. albus, is reoxidized during ethanol formation when R. albus is grown alone and is reoxidized by conversion to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and H2 when R. albus is grown with V. succinogenes. The ecological significance of this interspecies transfer of H2 gas and the theoretical basis for its causing changes in fermentation patterns of R. albus are discussed.

Iannotti, E. L.; Kafkewitz, D.; Wolin, M. J.; Bryant, M. P.



Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.  


Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India. PMID:24426163

Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary



Oxygen profiles in, and in the agar beneath, colonies of Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus albus and Escherichia coli.  


The paper reports the use of microelectrodes to measure O2 penetration in different aged colonies of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus albus. In young (18 h) colonies of B. cereus and E. coli O2 disappeared at depths of 25-30 micron and 35-40 micron respectively. In young S. albus colonies, O2 reached a minimum but was never completely absent. As colonies aged (24-168 h) the depth to which O2 penetrated increased. PMID:3116170

Peters, A C; Wimpenny, J W; Coombs, J P



Genetic structure and symbiotic characteristics of a bradyrhizobium population recovered from a pasture soil.  


We examined the genetic structure and symbiotic characteristics of Bradyrhizobium isolates recovered from four legume species (Lupinus albus [white lupine], Lupinus angustifolius [blue lupine], Ornithopus compressus [yellow serradella], and Macroptilium atropurpureum [sirato]) grown in an Oregon soil. We established that multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) can provide insights into the genetic relatedness among Bradyrhizobium strains by showing a positive correlation (r = >/=0.90) between the relatedness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains determined by MLEE at 13 enzyme loci and that determined by other workers using either DNA-DNA hybridization or DNA sequence divergence estimates. MLEE identified 17 electrophoretic types (ETs) among 95 Bradyrhizobium isolates recovered from the four hosts. Although the overall genetic diversity among the ETs (H = 0.69) is one of the largest measured to date in a local population of any soilborne bacterial species, there was no evidence of multilocus structure (linkage disequilibrium) within the population. The majority of the isolates (73%) were represented by two closely related ETs (2 and 3) which dominated the root nodules of white lupine, serradella, and siratro. In contrast, ET1 dominated nodules of blue lupine. Although representative isolates from all of the 17 ETs nodulated siratro, white lupine, blue lupine, and big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus), they were either completely ineffective or poorly effective at fixing nitrogen on these hosts. Despite the widespread use of serradella as a surrogate host for lupine-nodulating bradyrhizobia, 7 of the 17 ETs did not nodulate this host, and the remaining 10 ETs were ineffective at fixing nitrogen. PMID:16349270

Bottomley, P J; Cheng, H H; Strain, S R



Structure of a Ruminococcus albus endo-1,4-beta-glucanase gene.  


A chromosomal DNA fragment encoding an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase I (Eg I) gene from Ruminococcus albus cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with pUC18 was fully sequenced by the dideoxy-chain termination method. The sequence contained a consensus promoter sequence and a structural amino acid sequence. The initial 43 amino acids of the protein were deduced to be a signal sequence, since they are missing in the mature protein (Eg I). High homology was found when the amino acid sequence of the Eg I was compared with that of endoglucanase E from Clostridium thermocellum. Codon usage of the gene was not biased. These results suggested that the properties of the Eg I gene from R. albus was specified from the known beta-glucanase genes of the other organisms. PMID:2687251

Ohmiya, K; Kajino, T; Kato, A; Shimizu, S



Mercury in Eggs and Feathers of Great Egrets ( Ardea albus ) from the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great egret (Ardea albus) eggs and nestling feathers were collected for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) analysis from two colonies in\\u000a the Florida Everglades in 1999 and 2000. THg was present in all eggs at a mean concentration of 0.39 ± 0.19 ?g\\/g fresh weight\\u000a (n = 33, range = 0.08–0.86 ?g\\/g). Egg-THg levels did not differ significantly between

D. G. Rumbold; S. L. Niemczyk; L. E. Fink; T. Chandrasekhar; B. Harkanson; K. A. Laine



Lupine influence on soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial activity in developing ecosystems at Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupine influence on soil C, N, and microbial activity was estimated by comparing root-zone soil (LR) to nonroot-zone soil (NR) collected at Mount St. Helens. Samples were collected from 5 sites forming a gradient of C and N levels as a reflection of different locations and varying volcanic disturbance by the 1980 eruption. In volcanic substrates undergoing primary ecosystem development,

J. J. Halvorson; J. L. Smith; E. H. Franz



Phytoremediation of soils co-contaminated by organic compounds and heavy metals: Bioassays with Lupinus luteus L. and associated endophytic bacteria.  


In the central part of the Iberian Peninsula there are old sealed landfills containing soils co-contaminated by several heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Cr, Fe, Al, Mn) and organic pollutants of different families (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and other organochlorinated compounds, phenols and volatile compounds), which this work will address. We have focused on phytoremedial plants that are able to deal with this type of complex pollution, not only species that tolerate the joint effect of heavy metals in the soil, but also those that can take advantage of associated bacteria to efficiently break down organic compounds. This study was carried out with Lupinus luteus and its endophytes in two greenhouse experiments: A) growing in a substrate artificially contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and B) using real co-contaminated landfill soils. Endophytes of roots and shoots were isolated in both bioassays. Plant growth-promotion tests and organic pollutant tolerance and degradation tests were conducted on all strains isolated in bioassay A), and on those proving to be pure cultures from bioassay B). The selected landfill is described as are isolation and test procedures. Results indicate that plants did not show toxicity symptoms when exposed to BaP but did when grown in landfill soil. Some endophytes demonstrated plant growth-promotion capacity and tolerance to BaP and other organic compounds (diesel and PCB commercial mixtures). A few strains may even have the capacity to metabolize those organic pollutants. The overall decline in plant growth-promotion capacity in those strains isolated from the landfill soil experiment, compared with those from the bioassay with BaP, may indicate that lupin endophytes are not adapted to metal concentration in roots and shoots and fail to grow. As a result, most isolated root endophytes must have colonized root tissues from the soil. While preliminary degradation tests showed promising results (some strains exhibiting the potential to use organic pollutants as their sole source of carbon), these are not conclusive and further in-depth degradation assays need to be performed. PMID:24912107

Gutiérrez-Ginés, M J; Hernández, A J; Pérez-Leblic, M I; Pastor, J; Vangronsveld, J



Lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp: toxicity and teratogenicity in livestock.  


Many species of lupines contain quinolizidine or piperidine alkaloids known to be toxic or teratogenic to livestock. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum) and Nicotiana spp. including N. tabacum and N. glauca contain toxic and teratogenic piperidine alkaloids. The toxic and teratogenic effects from these plant species have distinct similarities including maternal muscular weakness and ataxia and fetal contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate. It is believed that the mechanism of action of the piperidine and quinolizidine alkaloid-induced teratogenesis is the same; however, there are some differences in incidence, susceptible gestational periods, and severity between livestock species. Wildlife species have also been poisoned after eating poison-hemlock but no terata have been reported. The most widespread problem for livestock producers in recent times has been lupine-induced "crooked calf disease." Crooked calf disease is characterized as skeletal contracture-type malformations and occasional cleft palate in calves after maternal ingestion of lupines containing the quinolizidine alkaloid anagyrine during gestation days 40-100. Similar malformations have been induced in cattle and goats with lupines containing the piperidine alkaloids ammodendrine, N-methyl ammodendrine, and N-acetyl hystrine and in cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs with poison-hemlock containing predominantly coniine or gamma-coniceine and N. glauca containing anabasine. Toxic and teratogenic effects have been linked to structural aspects of these alkaloids, and the mechanism of action is believed to be associated with an alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement during specific gestational periods. This review presents a historical perspective, description and distribution of lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp., toxic and teratogenic effects and management information to reduce losses. PMID:10091132

Panter, K E; James, L F; Gardner, D R



Localization of the Enzymes of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Leaf Chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus1  

PubMed Central

Studies with purified chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus LINDL. leaflets indicate that the first two enzymes of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, lysine decarboxylase and 17-oxosparteine synthase, are localized in the chloroplast stroma. Thus, both enzymes share the same subcellular compartment as the biosynthetic pathway of lysine, the precursor of quinolizidine alkaloids. The activity of diaminopimelate decarboxylase, the final enzyme in lysine biosynthesis, is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the enzymes of alkaloid formation.

Wink, Michael; Hartmann, Thomas



Nuclear DNA Content Variation and Species Relationships in the Genus Lupinus (Fabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2C nuclear DNA content has been estimated by flow cytometry in 18 species and botanical forms of the genus Lupinus (family Fabaceae), using propidium iodide as a fluorescent dye. They represented distinct infra- generic taxonomic groups and differed in somatic chromosome numbers. Estimated 2C DNA values ranged from 0·97 pg in L. princei to 2·44 pg in L. luteus,




Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic plant invasions threaten ecological communities world-wide. Some species are limited by a lack of suitable pollinators, but the introduction of exotic pollinators can facilitate rapid spread. In Tasmania, where many non-native plants are naturalised, exotic honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) have become established. We determined how these species affect the pollination of Lupinus arboreus, an invasive, nitrogen-fixing

Jane C. Stout; Andrea R. Kells; Dave Goulson



Structural and functional characteristics of two novel members of pathogensis-related multigene family of class 10 from yellow lupine  

Microsoft Academic Search

PR-10 proteins (pathogensis-related), ubiquitous within the plant kingdom, are usually encoded by multigene families. To date we have identified 10 homologous pr-10 genes in a yellow lupine cDNA library. Here, the structure and expression of two newly identified yellow lupine pr-10 genes (LlYpr10-2b and LlYpr10-2f) are presented. Many potential regulatory sites were found in both gene promoters including common ones

Luiza Handschuh; Iwona Femiak; Alina Kasperska; Marek Figlerowicz; M. Sikorski



[Genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA in white char Salvelinus albus and northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma].  


Comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation was performed in white char Salvelinus albus and in its putative ancestor species, northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma. Highly statistically significant differentiation of S. albus and S. m. malma in the areas of sympatric (Kamchatka River basin) and allopatric (Kronotskoe Lake and Kronotskaya River) residence was demonstrated. The mtDNA divergence between S. albus and S. m. malma did not exceed the range ofintraspecific variation in the populations of northern Dolly Varden char. At the same time, clusterization pattern of the Salvelinus chars provides hypothesis on the common origin of two allopatric populations of white char. Genealogical analysis of haplotypes indicates that S. albus and S. m. malma currently demonstrate incomplete radiation of mitochondrial lineages. The low nucleotide divergence estimates between S. albus and S. m. malma reflect the short time period since the beginning of the radiation of ancestral lineages. These estimates are determined by ancestral polymorphism and haplotype exchange between the diverged phylogenetic groups as a result of introgressive hybridization. PMID:20391784

Ole?nik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, Vl A



Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies against Aspartate Aminotransferase-P1 from Lupin Root Nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hybridoma clones were obtained that secreted monoclonal antibodies against the aspartate aminotransferase-P1 (AAT-Pl) isoenzyme from root nodules of Lupinus angustifolius (L.) cv Uni- harvest. This enzyme is found constitutively in the plant cytosol fraction. lhe monoclonal antibodies produced were all of the immunoglobulin G1 class, recognized two distinct epitopes on the protein, and represented the major paratopes found in

William T. Jones; Stephen D. Jones; Dawn Harvey; Karen R. Rodber; Gordon B. Ryan; Paul H. S. Reynolds



Soil solute concentration and water uptake by single lupin and radish plant roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of computer assisted tomography to gamma and X-ray attenuation measurements and Na+-LIX microelectrodes were used to determine the spatial distributions of soil water content and Na+ concentrations respectively near single roots of eighteen day old lupin and radish plants. These quantities were monitored\\u000a at root depths of 3, 6 and 9 cm and at zero, 2, 4, 6, and

M. A. Hamza; L. A. G. Aylmore



Mitigation of Cu stress by legume-Rhizobium symbiosis in white lupin and soybean plants.  


The effect of Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis on plant growth, toxicological variables and Cu bioaccumulation was studied in white lupin and soybean plants treated with 1.6, 48, 96 and 192 ?M Cu. In both species, those plants grown in the presence of root nodule-forming symbiotic Bradyrhizobium showed less root and shoot growth reduction, plus greater translocation of Cu to the shoot, than those grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. The effective added concentrations of Cu that reduced shoot and root dry weight by 50% (EC50), and the critical toxic concentration that caused a 10% reduction in plant growth (CTC10%), were higher in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, and were in general higher in the roots whether the plants were grown with or without these bacteria. The production of malondialdehyde and total thiols was stimulated by Cu excess in the shoots and roots of white lupin grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, but mainly in those without the symbionts. In contrast, in soybean, the increases in malondialdehyde and total thiols associated with rising Cu concentration were a little higher (1.2-5.0 and 1.0-1.6 times respectively) in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium than without. Finally, the organ most sensitive to Cu excess was generally the shoot, both in white lupin and soybean grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Further, Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis appears to increase the tolerance to Cu excess in both legumes, but mainly in white lupin; plant growth was less reduced and CTC10% and EC50 values increased compared to plants grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Bradyrhizobium N2 fixation in both legumes would therefore seem to increase the phytoremediation potential of these plants when growing on Cu-contaminated sites. PMID:24580814

Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Zornoza, Pilar



Microencapsulation by spray drying of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with lupin nodules.  


Plant growth promoting bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) used for crop inoculation have important biotechnological potential as a sustainable fertilization tool. However, the main limitation of this technology is the low inoculum survival rate under field conditions. Microencapsulation of bacterial cells in polymer matrices provides a controlled release and greater protection against environmental conditions. In this context, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative NFB associated with lupin nodules and to evaluate their microencapsulation by spray drying. For this purpose, 21 putative NFB were isolated from lupin nodules and characterized (16S rRNA genes). Microencapsulation of bacterial cells by spray drying was studied using a mixture of sodium alginate:maltodextrin at different ratios (0:15, 1:14, 2:13) and concentrations (15 and 30 % solids) as the wall material. The microcapsules were observed under scanning electron microscopy to verify their suitable morphology. Results showed the association between lupin nodules of diverse known NFB and nodule-forming bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In microencapsulation assays, the 1:14 ratio of sodium alginate:maltodextrin (15 % solids) showed the highest cell survival rate (79 %), with a microcapsule yield of 27 % and spherical microcapsules of 5-50 µm in diameter. In conclusion, diverse putative NFB genera and nodule-forming bacteria are associated with the nodules of lupine plants grown in soils in southern Chile, and their microencapsulation by spray drying using sodium alginate:maltodextrin represents a scalable process to generate a biofertilizer as an alternative to traditional nitrogen fertilization. PMID:24806812

Campos, Daniela C; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Aravena, Javiera; Amiard, Véronique; Jorquera, Milko A; Inostroza, Nitza G; Rubilar, Mónica



Changes in the activity and isozyme patterns of malate dehydrogenase in root nodules of yellow lupine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malate dehydrogenase present in the cytoplasmic fraction of plant origin and bacteroids from yellow lupine root nodules\\u000a was investigated. The plant enzyme was 14 times more active in nodules than in roots and it contained 6 molecular forms in\\u000a nodules compared with 3 forms detected in roots. The highest malate dehydrogenase activity in plant fraction and bacteroids\\u000a was noted

Ma?gorzata Garnczarska; Lech Ratajczak



Effect of colloidal metals on the induced chlorophyll fluorescence at the different lupin state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies about the effects of colloidal solutions of Fe and Zn on the photosynthetic activity of plants of yellow lupine affected by carbonate chlorosis are given. It is shown that the impression of plants by carbonate chlorosis causes a decrease in the efficiency of photosystem II and in result of that the affected plants lag in a weight. Processing plants by the colloidal solutions of iron and zinc creates conditions for improvement of function of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants.

Son'ko, R. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Trach, V. V.; Lopat'ko, K. G.



Hypoglycemic effect of lupin seed ?-conglutin in experimental animals and healthy human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lupin seed ?-conglutin-enriched preparation was tested in a glucose overload trial with both murine models and adult healthy volunteers. The results with rats showed a dose-dependent significant decrease of blood glucose concentration, which confirmed previous findings obtained with the purified protein. Moreover, three test-product doses equivalent to 630, 315, and 157.5mg ?-conglutin, orally administered 30min before the carbohydrate supply,

Juan C. Bertoglio; Mario A. Calvo; Juan L. Hancke; Rafael A. Burgos; Antonella Riva; Paolo Morazzoni; Cesare Ponzone; Chiara Magni; Marcello Duranti



Spatial scales of genetic structure and gene flow in Calochortus albus (Liliaceae)  

PubMed Central

Calochortus (Liliaceae) displays high species richness, restriction of many individual taxa to narrow ranges, geographic coherence of individual clades, and parallel adaptive radiations in different regions. Here we test the first part of a hypothesis that all of these patterns may reflect gene flow at small geographic scales. We use amplified fragment length polymorphism variation to quantify the geographic scales of spatial genetic structure and apparent gene flow in Calochortus albus, a widespread member of the genus, at Henry Coe State Park in the Coast Ranges south of San Francisco Bay. Analyses of 254 mapped individuals spaced 0.001–14.4 km apart show a highly significant decline in genetic identity with ln distance, implying a root-mean-square distance of gene flow ? of 5–43 m. STRUCTURE analysis implies the existence of 2–4 clusters over the study area, with frequent reversals among clusters over short distances (<200 m) and a relatively high frequency of admixture within individuals at most sampling sites. While the intensity of spatial genetic structure in C. albus is weak, as measured by the Sp statistic, that appears to reflect low genetic identity of adjacent plants, which might reflect repeated colonizations at small spatial scales or density-dependent mortality of individual genotypes by natural enemies. Small spatial scales of gene flow and spatial genetic structure should permit, under a variety of conditions, genetic differentiation within species at such scales, setting the stage ultimately for speciation and adaptive radiation as such scales as well.

Henss, Jillian M; Moeller, Jackson R; Theim, Terra J; Givnish, Thomas J



Activation and identification of five clusters for secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus J1074  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces albus?J1074 is a streptomycete strain widely used as a host for expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of this organism predicts the presence of 27 gene clusters for secondary metabolites. We have used three different strategies for the activation of some of these silent/cryptic gene clusters in S.?albus?J1074: two hybrid polyketide-non-ribosomal peptides (PK-NRP) (antimycin and 6-epi-alteramides), a type I PK (candicidin), a non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) (indigoidine) and glycosylated compounds (paulomycins). By insertion of a strong and constitutive promoter in front of selected genes of two clusters, production of the blue pigment indigoidine and of two novel members of the polycyclic tetramate macrolactam family (6-epi-alteramides A and B) was activated. Overexpression of positive regulatory genes from the same organism also activated the biosynthesis of 6-epi-alteramides and heterologous expression of the regulatory gene pimM of the pimaricin cluster activated the simultaneous production of candicidins and antimycins, suggesting some kind of cross-regulation between both clusters. A cluster for glycosylated compounds (paulomycins) was also identified by comparison of the high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the wild-type strain with that of a mutant in which two key enzymes of the cluster were simultaneously deleted.

Olano, Carlos; Garcia, Ignacio; Gonzalez, Aranzazu; Rodriguez, Miriam; Rozas, Daniel; Rubio, Julio; Sanchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Brana, Alfredo F; Mendez, Carmen; Salas, Jose A



Micro-PIXE studies of Lupinus angustifolius L. after treatment of seeds with molybdenum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An example of nuclear microprobe application in agriculture is presented. The NAC nuclear microprobe was used to determine quantitative elemental distribution of major, minor and trace elements in Lupinus angustifolius L. (Leguminosae) after treatment of seeds with molybdenum. Experiments were performed in order to establish safe concentration levels and sources of Mo in seed treatments. Elemental distributions in Mo-treated plants and in the non-treated control plants were studied in order to explain how Mo causes toxicity. Some specific regions of Mo and other main and trace elements enrichment were identified.

Przybylowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Wouters, K.; Vlassak, K.; Combrink, N. J. J.



Phenotypic variability and modelling of root structure of wild Lupinus angustifolius genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  Root plasticity in response to the edaphic environment represents a challenge in the quantification of phenotypic variation\\u000a in crop germplasm. The aim of this study was to use various growth systems to assess phenotypic variation among wild genotypes\\u000a of Lupinus angustifolius.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Ten wild genotypes of L. angustifolius selected from an earlier phenotyping study were grown in three different

Ying Long Chen; Vanessa M. Dunbabin; Johannes A. Postma; Art J. Diggle; Jairo A. Palta; Jonathan P. Lynch; Kadambot H. M. Siddique; Zed Rengel


Alkaloid profile and antimicrobial activity of Lupinus angustifolius L. alkaloid extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the present study was to evaluate alkaloid profile of the aerial parts of Lupinus angustifolius growing in Turkey by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen alkaloids were identified by capillary\\u000a GC-MS. 13?-Hydroxylupanine (50.78%) and lupanine (23.55%) were determined as the main alkaloids in the aerial parts of L. angustifolius. Ammodendrine, isoangustifoline, tetrahydrorhombifoline, angustifoline, ?-isolupanine, 5,6-dehydrolupanine, 11,12-dehydrolupanine,\\u000a 13?-acetoxylupanine, 13?-isovaleroyloxylupanine,

Nurgun Erdemoglu; Semiha Ozkan; Fatma Tosun



Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in Hokkaido, Japan. Body temperature of N. p. albus decreased from 38°C in autumn to 35.9-36.7°C while maintaining a circadian rhythm in late February ( n = 3). A transient 18-36% decrease in resting heart rate occurred when body temperature was low ( n = 2). Despite a 33-45% decrease in body weight due to winter fasting, circulating glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels were maintained ( n = 4). Serum urea nitrogen dropped by 43-45% from autumn to spring, suggesting protein conservation during fasting. The overwintering survival strategy of N. p. albus in central Hokkaido is based upon large changes in seasonal activity patterns, winter denning and communal housing without the large decrease in body temperature that is characteristic of subarctic animals exhibiting hibernation or torpor.

Kitao, Naoya; Fukui, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Osborne, Peter G.



The Effect of Pollination and Ethylene on the Colour Change of the Banner Spot of Lupinus albifrons (Bentham) Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Lupinus albifrons flowers the banner spot of the standard is initially coloured white or pale yellow. Two to three days after reaching the stage of full flower opening, this banner spot develops a pinkish blush and is deep magenta after a further 24 h. The development of this pigmentation is accelerated by exposure to ethylene in a concentration- and



Complete genome sequence of Thermocrinis albus type strain (HI 11/12T)  

SciTech Connect

Thermocrinis albus Eder and Huber 2002 is one of three species in the genus Thermocrinis in the family Aquificaceae. Members of this family have become of significant interest because of their involvement in global biogeochemical cycles in high-temperature ecosystems. This interest had already spurred several genome sequencing projects for members of the family. We here report the first completed genome sequence a member of the genus Thermocrinis and the first type strain genome from a member of the family Aquificaceae. The 1,500,577 bp long genome with its 1,603 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyc-lopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Wirth, Reinhard [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bilek, Yvonne [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Hader, Thomas [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany



CPD -20 1123 (Albus 1) Is a Bright He-B Subdwarf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on photometric and astrometric data it has been proposed that Albus 1 (also known as CPD -20 1123) might be a hot white dwarf similar to G191-B2B or, alternatively, a hot subdwarf. We obtained a series of optical spectra showing that CPD -20 1123 is a bright He-B subdwarf. We analyzed the H I Balmer and He I line spectra and measured Teff = 19,800 +/- 400 K, logg=4.55+/-0.10, and logN(He)/N(H)=0.15+/-0.15. This peculiar object belongs to a family of evolved helium-rich stars that may be the products of double-degenerate mergers, or, alternatively, the products of post horizontal- or giant-branch evolution.

Vennes, Stéphane; Kawka, Adéla; Smith, J. Allyn



Putrescine N-Methyltransferase in Cultured Roots of Hyoscyamus albus1  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids is thought to proceed by way of the diamine putrescine, followed by its methylation by putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT; EC High PMT activities were found in branch roots and/or cultured roots of several solanaceous plants. PMT was partially purified and characterized from cultured roots of Hyoscyamus albus that contain hyoscyamine as the main alkaloid. Initial velocity studies and product inhibition patterns of PMT are consistent with an ordered bi-bi mechanism, in which the Km values for putrescine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine are 277 and 203 ?m, respectively, and the Ki value for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine is 110 ?m. PMT efficiently N-methylated amines that have at least two amino groups separated by three or four methylene groups. Monoamines were good competitive inhibitors of PMT, among which n-butylamine, cyclohexylamine, and exo-2-aminonorbornane were most inhibitory, with respective Ki values of 11.0, 9.1, and 10.0 ?m. When n-butylamine was fed to root cultures of H. albus, the alkamine intermediates (tropinone, tropine, and pseudotropine) drastically decreased at 1 mm of the exogenous monoamine, and the hyoscyamine content decreased by 52% at 6 mm, whereas the contents of 6?-hydroxyhyoscyamine and scopolamine did not change. Free and conjugated forms of polyamines were also measured. The n-butylamine treatment caused a large increase in the putrescine content (especially in the conjugated pool), and the spermine content also increased slightly, whereas the spermidine content decreased slightly. The increase in the putrescine pool size (approximately 40 nmol/mg dry weight) was large enough to account for the decrease in the total alkaloid pool size. Similar results were also obtained in root cultures of Datura stramonium. These studies further support the role of PMT as the first committed enzyme specific to alkaloid biosynthesis. Images Figure 8

Hibi, Naruhiro; Fujita, Toshihiro; Hatano, Mika; Hashimoto, Takashi; Yamada, Yasuyuki



75 FR 60802 - Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Habitat Conservation Plan, and Receipt of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...federally listed species: Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides fenderi) (endangered), Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus ssp. Kincaidii) (threatened), Willamette daisy (Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens) (endangered),...



Staphylococcus albus-induced protein kinase C translocation in human neutrophils: the effect of opsonization, cytochalasin B, pertussis toxin, intra- and extracellular calcium, and R59022.  


Membrane-associated protein kinase C has been proposed to be essential in transmembrane signalling systems activating neutrophils. A main function of the neutrophil is phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms. Nevertheless, previously published reports mainly have described the effect of artificial or soluble stimulators upon neutrophil protein kinase C activity. Therefore, membrane-associated protein kinase C was studied in neutrophils stimulated by Staphylococcus albus. The bacteria were found to induce a striking increase in membrane-associated protein kinase C, an effect which depended upon a previous opsonization of the bacteria. Cytochalasin B, which inhibits phagocytosis, was shown to abrogate S. albus-induced protein kinase C translocation. Chelation of intracellular calcium totally abolished S. albus-induced protein kinase C translocation, a phenomenon that could not exclusively be ascribed to chelation of extracellular calcium. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022, which has been reported to increase endogenous diacylglycerol accumulation, nearly doubled the effect of S. albus upon membrane-associated protein kinase C. Pertussis toxin in concentrations which completely inhibited fLMP-induced superoxide generation did not affect S. albus-induced protein kinase C translocation. It is concluded that phagocytosis of S. albus is accompanied by a translocation of protein kinase C to the cell membrane, a phenomenon that relies upon enhanced diacylglycerol production and calcium transients and occurs independently of pertussis toxin-inhibitable G-proteins. PMID:1325668

Obel, N



Where do roots take up water? Neutron radiography of water flow into the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil.  


Where and how fast does water flow from soil into roots? The answer to this question requires direct and in situ measurement of local flow of water into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. We used neutron radiography to trace the transport of deuterated water (D?O) in lupin (Lupinus albus) roots. Lupins were grown in aluminum containers (30 × 25 × 1 cm) filled with sandy soil. D?O was injected in different soil regions and its transport in soil and roots was monitored by neutron radiography. The transport of water into roots was then quantified using a convection-diffusion model of D?O transport into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the lower ones. Along an individual root, the radial flux was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal segments. In lupins, most of the water uptake occurred in lateral roots. The function of the taproot was to collect water from laterals and transport it to the shoot. This function is ensured by a low radial conductivity and a high axial conductivity. Lupin root architecture seems well designed to take up water from deep soil layers. PMID:23692148

Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kim, Yangmin X; Carminati, Andrea



Genome sequence of the Ornithopus/Lupinus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471  

PubMed Central

Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing root nodule formed on the annual legume Ornithopus pinnatus (Miller) Druce growing at Oyster Harbour, Albany district, Western Australia in 1982. This strain is in commercial production as an inoculant for Lupinus and Ornithopus. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,784,016 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 1 scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,372 protein-coding genes and 58 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program.

Reeve, Wayne; De Meyer, Sofie; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos



Genome sequence of the Ornithopus/Lupinus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471.  


Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing root nodule formed on the annual legume Ornithopus pinnatus (Miller) Druce growing at Oyster Harbour, Albany district, Western Australia in 1982. This strain is in commercial production as an inoculant for Lupinus and Ornithopus. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,784,016 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 1 scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,372 protein-coding genes and 58 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976882

Reeve, Wayne; De Meyer, Sofie; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos



[Methods of eliminating alkaloids from the seeds of Lupinus mutabilis Sweet].  


The basic purpose of this work was to find a simple and economic method to control and eliminate the presence of alkaloids, as detected by organoleptic or toxicity tests, in Lupinus mutabilis, S. (tarhui) seeds. Taking advantage of the physical and chemical properties of the seeds, they were subjected to four methods of extraction; b) chemical treatment; c) extraction with two solvents, and d) treatment with a modified water-heat process. The results indicated that the most adequate method was the water-heat modified treatment, which showed a yield of 85% and a debittering efficiency of 98.6%, figures which were above those obtained with any of the other treatments studied. The final product had a bland taste without traces of bitterness and a 32% concentration of protein in the kayra line. Amino acid content showed this product to have an unusual high lysine content. PMID:7212919

Torres Tello, F; Nagata, A; Dreifuss Spiegel, W



A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification.  


LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 ?Sv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed. PMID:24985847

Caresana, M; Cassell, C; Ferrarini, M; Hohmann, E; Manessi, G P; Mayer, S; Silari, M; Varoli, V



A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 ?Sv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

Caresana, M.; Cassell, C.; Ferrarini, M.; Hohmann, E.; Manessi, G. P.; Mayer, S.; Silari, M.; Varoli, V.



Effect of soluble carbohydrates on digestion of cellulose by pure cultures of rumen bacteria. [Ruminococcus flavefaciens, R. albus, Bacteroides succinogenes  

SciTech Connect

The rate of cellulose digestion in the presence of either glucose or cellobiose was studied for the three predominant species of cellulolytic rumen bacteria: Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Bacteroides succinogenes. When a soluble carbohydrate was added to cellulose broth, the lag phase of cellulose digestion was shortened. Presumably, this was due to greater numbers of bacteria, because increasing the size of the inoculum had a similar effect. Cellulose digestion occurred simultaneously with utilization of the soluble carbohydrate. The rate of cellulose digestion slowed markedly for B. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens and slowed less for R. albus after the cellobiose or glucose had been utilized, and was accompanied by a decrease in pH. Both the rate and the extent of cellulose digestion were partially inhibited when the initial pH of the medium was 6.3 or below. R. albus appeared to be less affected by a low-pH medium than were B. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens. When a soluble carbohydrate was added to the fermentation during the maximum-rate phase of cellulose digestion, the rate of cellulose digestion was not affected until after the soluble carbohydrate had been depleted and the pH had decreased markedly. Prolonged exposure of the bacteria to a low pH had little if any effect on their subsequent ability to digest cellulose. Cellulase activity of intact bacterial cells appeared to be constitutive in nature for these three species of rumen bacteria. 30 references.

Hiltner, P.; Dehority, B.A.



Feeding high levels of lupine seeds to broiler chickens: plasma micronutrient status in the context of digesta viscosity and morphometric and ultrastructural changes in the gastrointestinal tract.  


This work examines the effects of lupine-based diets on the status of the host's riboflavin and zinc. Test diets contained 35% soybean meal (control) or raw (40%) or dehulled (35%) lupine seed meal and were isocaloric (13.4 MJ of AME/kg) and isonitrogenous (23% crude protein). Each diet was offered ad libitum to a group of 16 male commercial broiler chicks for 21 d, starting at 1 d of age. Broilers fed lupine diets had lower feed intakes and growth rates. All sections of the intestinal tract were significantly enlarged (P < 0.01) in all groups fed lupine-based diets in comparison with broilers fed the soybean meal diet, but there were no differences in the morphologies of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, or serosa. Increased size of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was predominantly attributed to the increase in length rather than intestinal tissue mass. Hence, the enlargement of the intestinal tract was consistent with physiological hyperplasia and not pathological remodeling and hypertrophy. Overall, broilers fed lupine-based diets had more viscous digesta than those fed the soybean meal diet, but the differences were statistically not significant. Blood plasma Zn concentration did not differ between broilers fed lupine-based diets and those fed soybean-meal-based diets, and all broilers fed lupine-based diets had significantly higher (P < 0.001) riboflavin concentrations. In this context, it is apparent that the bioavailability of these micronutrients from lupine diets is not compromised. Intestinal tissue hyperplasia may be interpreted as physiological adaptation to increase absorptive capacity and thus maximize absorption of essential nutrients in the face of antinutritional factors in the diet. PMID:16463967

Olkowski, B I; Classen, H L; Wojnarowicz, C; Olkowski, A A



Effect of soaking, dehulling, and cooking methods on certain antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of bitter and sweet lupin seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstarct  Effect of several physical treatments (soaking, dehulling, ordinary cooking, microwave cooking, and autoclaving) on the level\\u000a of antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of bitter and sweet lupin seeds were investigated. The raw bitter and sweet lupin seeds were found\\u000a to contain phytic acid, tannins, trypsin inhibitor activity, and lectin activity, but ?-amylase inhibitor was absent. Dehulling\\u000a significantly increased the

Hassan El-Sayed Embaby



Overexpression of the LASAP2 gene for secretory acid phosphatase in white lupin improves the phosphorus uptake and growth of tobacco plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of acid phosphatase (APase) from the roots to take up phosphorus (P) is a well-known strategy of plants under P-deficient conditions. White lupin, which shows vigorous growth in low-P soils, is noted for its ability to secrete APase under P-deficient conditions. The APase secreted by white lupin roots is stable in soil solution and shows low substrate specificity, suggesting

Jun Wasaki; Hayato Maruyama; Miho Tanaka; Takuya Yamamura; Hiraki Dateki; Takuro Shinano; Susumu Ito; Mitsuru Osaki



Ethanol production from cellobiose by Zymobacter palmae carrying the Ruminocuccus albus beta-glucosidase gene.  


Its metabolic characteristics suggest Zymobacter palmae gen. nov., sp. nov. could serve as a useful new ethanol-fermenting bacterium, but its biotechnological exploitation would require certain genetic improvements. We therefore established a method for transforming Z. palmae using the broad-host vector plasmids pRK290, pMFY31 and pMFY40 as a source of transforming DNA. Using electroporation, the frequency of transformation was 10(5) to 10(6) transformants/mug of DNA. To confer the ability to ferment cellobiose, which is a hydrolysis product from cellulosic materials treated enzymatically or with acid, the beta-glucosidase gene from Ruminococcus albus was introduced into Z. palmae, where its expression was driven by its endogenous promoter. About 56% of the enzyme expressed was localized on the cell-surface or in the periplasm. The recombinant Z. palmae could ferment 2% cellobiose to ethanol, producing 95% of the theoretical yield with no accumulation of organic acids as metabolic by-products. Thus, expression of beta-glucosidase in Z. palmae expanded the substrate spectrum of the strain, enabling ethanol production from cellulosic materials. PMID:15913824

Yanase, Hideshi; Yamamoto, Keiko; Sato, Dai; Okamoto, Kenji



Antitumor actinopyranones produced by Streptomyces albus POR-04-15-053 isolated from a marine sediment.  


Four new antitumor pyranones, PM050511 (1), PM050463 (2), PM060054 (3), and PM060431 (4), were isolated from the cell extract of the marine-derived Streptomyces albus POR-04-15-053. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. They consist of an ?-methoxy-?-pyrone ring containing a highly substituted tetraene side chain glycosylated at C-10 in the case of 1 and 4. Compounds 1 and 4 displayed strong cytotoxicity against three human tumor cell lines with GI?? values in the submicromolar range, whereas 2 showed subnanomolar activity as an inhibitor of EGFR-MAPK-AP1-mediated mitogenic signaling, causing inhibition of EGF-mediated AP1 trans-activation and EGF-mediated ERK activation and slight inhibition of EGF-mediated JNK activation. Taken together, these results suggest that members of the pyranone family of compounds could be developed as potential antitumor agents. PMID:21718029

Schleissner, Carmen; Pérez, Marta; Losada, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Pilar; Crespo, Cristina; Zúñiga, Paz; Fernández, Rogelio; Reyes, Fernando; de la Calle, Fernando



Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.  


Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat. PMID:22538454

Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide



Mercury contamination in free-ranging great egret nestlings (Ardea albus) from southern Florida, USA  

SciTech Connect

Between March and June of 1994 and 1995, mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined from 393 blood and 164 growing scapular feathers from 252 great egret nestlings (Ardea albus). Nestlings came from eight colonies located in Water Conservation Area 3 in the Everglades region in southern Florida. The ages of these birds ranged from 1 to 44 d (bill length 1.1 to 10.2 cm). Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of first-hatched great egret nestlings sampled during 1994 averaged 1.2 {micro}g/g (range = 0.07--3.9) wet weight and 16 {micro}g/g (4.5--40) dry weight, respectively. During 1995, first-hatched chicks had blood and feather Hg concentrations that averaged 0.8 {micro}g/g (0.2--1.7) and 9.7 {micro}g/g (2.3--26), respectively. In both years, Hg concentrations in blood and feathers were significantly correlated, and a significant correlation also was found between Hg in blood and age of the chicks. Blood and feather Hg concentrations differed significantly between years, with higher concentrations during 1994. Birds from JW1 and L67 colonies had the highest concentrations of Hg in blood and feathers. Mercury concentrations did not differ between chicks of different hatch order Mercury in feathers of great egret nestlings from southern Florida are approximately six times higher than when compared to feather Hg concentrations of nestlings wading birds sampled elsewhere.

Sepulveda, M.S.; Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Williams, G.E. Jr. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)



Influence of ethylene and Ag+ on hypocotyl growth in etiolated lupin seedlings. Effects on cell growth and division  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupin seeds treated with 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) produced hypocotyls showing a typicalethylene growth response (reduced elongation and increased thickness), whichcould be efficiently counteracted by the presence of silver thiosulfate (STS).The fact that ACC and CEPA stimulated the ethylene produced in different zonesalong the hypocotyls suggests that these compounds, which are stored in theseeds during treatment, were transported

I. López Nicolás; Manuel Acosta Echeverría; José Sánchez-Bravo



The neotropical shrub Lupinus elegans, fromtemperate forests, may not adapt to climate change.  


Considering that their distribution is limited to altitudinal gradients along mountains that are likely to become warmer and drier, climate change poses an increased threat to temperate forest species from tropical regions. We studied whether the understorey shrub Lupinus elegans, endemic to temperate forests of west-central Mexico, will be able to withstand the projected temperature increase under seven climate change scenarios. Seeds were collected along an altitudinal gradient and grown in a shade-house over 7 months before determining their temperature tolerance as electrolyte leakage. The plants from colder sites tolerated lower temperatures, i.e. the temperature at which half of the maximum electrolyte leakage occurred (LT50), ranged from ?6.4 ± 0.7 to ?2.4 ± 0.3 °C. In contrast, no pattern was found for tolerance to high temperature (LT50 average 42.8 ± 0.3 °C). The climate change scenarios considered here consistently estimated an increase in air temperature during the present century that was higher for the maximum air temperature than for the mean or minimum. In particular, the anomaly from the normal maximum air temperature at the study region ranged from 2.8 °C by 2030 to 5.8 °C by 2090. In this respect, the inability of L. elegans to adapt to increasingly higher temperatures found here, in addition to a possible inhibition of reproduction caused by warmer winters, may limit its future distribution. PMID:23696969

Soto-Correa, J C; Sáenz-Romero, C; Lindig-Cisneros, R; de la Barrera, E



Protein profile of Lupinus texensis phloem sap exudates: searching for Fe- and Zn-containing proteins.  


The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive overview of the phloem sap protein profile of Lupinus texensis, with a special focus on proteins binding Fe and Zn. L. texensis was chosen as model plant given the simplicity to obtain exudates from sieve elements. Protein profiling by 2DE revealed 249 spots, and 54 of them were unambiguously identified by MALDI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The largest number of identified protein species belongs to protein modification/turnover and general metabolism (19-21%), followed by redox homeostasis (9%) and defense and cell structural components (7%). This protein profile is similar to that reported in other plant species, suggesting that the phloem sap proteome is quite conserved. Staining of 2DE gels for Fe-containing proteins and affinity chromatography experiments revealed the presence of two low molecular weight Fe-binding proteins in phloem sap: a metallothionein-like protein type 2B identified in the Fe-affinity chromatography, and a second protein identified with both Fe staining methods. This protein species had a molecular weight of 13.5 kDa, a pI of 5.6 and 51% homology to a phloem-specific protein from Medicago truncatula. Zinc affinity chromatography revealed four Zn-binding proteins in phloem sap, one belonging to the dehydrin family and three Zn finger proteins. PMID:23712964

Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Andaluz, Sofía; Matros, Andrea; Calvete, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor



Chloroplast DNA diversity is low in a wild plant, Lupinus texensis.  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast DNA diversity was measured in an annual flowering plant, Lupinus texensis. Individual plants were collected from 21 local populations throughout the range of the species in Texas. Chloroplast DNA was isolated separately from each plant and digested with seven restriction enzymes. The most common form of the 150-kilobase-pair genome was cut at 134 sites, so that about 0.5% of the base pairs in the genome were sampled. Of the 100 plants examined, 88 had identical restriction fragment patterns. Three variant forms were found in different local populations. Two, represented in single plants, differed from wild type in the presence or absence of single restriction sites. The third variant was fixed in one of the local populations; it had lost a restriction site and also had a deletion of approximately equal to 100 base pairs. The data suggest that chloroplast DNA in this plant is much less polymorphic than mitochondrial DNA from animals and is probably less polymorphic than nuclear genes in the same plant or in animals. Images

Banks, J A; Birky, C W



Production of Rhizobium Inoculants for Lupinus nootkatensis on Nutrient-Supplemented Pumice  

PubMed Central

The use of the legume Lupinus nootkatensis as a pioneer plant to fight soil erosion and to reclaim eroded soils in Iceland has been under development for a few years. Production of a robust, low-cost bacterial inoculant was therefore a prerequisite for the extended use of this plant. Volcanic pumice is a naturally expanded mineral which is available in vast amounts in Iceland. It was tested as a carrier for solid fermentation of Rhizobium lupini. Nutrient-supplemented pumice containing a small percentage of peat and diatomaceous earth and kept in sterile plastic bags promoted good growth of the bacteria. Viable-colony counts remained stable at 108 to 109/g for at least 35 weeks when the carrier was stored at 22°C. The pumice-based inoculant had good storage and handling properties and could be mixed directly with the seeds during the sowing process. When seeds of L. nootkatensis were sown manually into nutrient-poor eroded sandy soils, about 56% of the first-year plants were successfully nodulated.

Einarsson, Sigurbjorn; Gudmundsson, Jon; Sverrisson, Halldor; Kristjansson, Jakob K.; Runolfsson, Sveinn



Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of ?-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. •The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. •The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed ?-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether ?-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, ?-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of ?-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, ?-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that ?-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin ?-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity.

Capraro, Jessica [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Magni, Chiara, E-mail: [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, UNIMI (Italy)] [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, UNIMI (Italy); Scarafoni, Alessio [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa [Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health, UNIMI (Italy)] [Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health, UNIMI (Italy); Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa [Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, UNIMI (Italy)] [Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, UNIMI (Italy); Duranti, Marcello [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)



Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

The authors estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish, though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and they found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. The authors estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. They estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish. The authors estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. They estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledgling mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Williams, G.E.; Nico, L.; Robins, R.



Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.  


Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93?% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32?% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93?%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15?:?0, iso-C16?:?0 and anteiso-C17?:?0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T)?=?CCTCC AA 2013003(T)?=?NRRL B-59998(T)?=?KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T)?=?CCTCC AA 2013004(T)?=?NRRL B-24927(T)?=?KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li



High-resolution structures of complexes of plant S--adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)  

PubMed Central

S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) catalyzes the reversible breakdown of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) to adenosine and homocysteine. SAH is formed in methylation reactions that utilize S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. By removing the SAH byproduct, SAHase serves as a major regulator of SAM-dependent biological methylation reactions. Here, the first crystal structure of SAHase of plant origin, that from the legume yellow lupin (LlSAHase), is presented. Structures have been determined at high resolution for three complexes of the enzyme: those with a reaction byproduct/substrate (adenosine), with its nonoxidizable analog (cordycepin) and with a product of inhibitor cleavage (adenine). In all three cases the enzyme has a closed conformation. A sodium cation is found near the active site, coordinated by residues from a conserved loop that hinges domain movement upon reactant binding. An insertion segment that is present in all plant SAHases is located near a substrate-pocket access channel and participates in its formation. In contrast to mammalian and bacterial SAHases, the channel is open when adenosine or cordycepin is bound and is closed in the adenine complex. In contrast to SAHases from other organisms, which are active as tetramers, the plant enzyme functions as a homodimer in solution.

Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz



Lupin protein isolate versus casein modifies cholesterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters in a pig model  

PubMed Central

Background Lupin proteins exert hypocholesterolemic effects in man and animals, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we investigated whether lupin proteins compared to casein modulate sterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters by use of pigs as an animal model with similar lipid metabolism as humans, and cellular cholesterol-uptake by Caco-2 cells. Methods Two groups of pigs were fed cholesterol-containing diets with either 230 g/kg of lupin protein isolate from L. angustifolius or 230 g/kg casein, for 4 weeks. Faeces were collected quantitatively over a 5 d period for analysis of neutral sterols and bile acids by gas chromatographically methods. The mRNA abundances of intestinal lipid transporters were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol-uptake studies were performed with Caco-2 cells that were incubated with lupin conglutin ?, phytate, ezetimibe or albumin in the presence of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol. Results Pigs fed the lupin protein isolate revealed lower cholesterol concentrations in total plasma, LDL and HDL than pigs fed casein (P?lupin protein isolate compared to pigs that received casein (+57.1%; P?lupin protein isolate than in those who received casein (P?lupin protein isolate is attributable to an increased faecal output of cholesterol and a reduced intestinal uptake of cholesterol. The findings indicate phytate as a possible biofunctional ingredient of lupin protein isolate.



Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 ?g/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution.

Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir



Nucleotide sequence of the Ruminococcus albus SY3 endoglucanase genes celA and celB.  


The complete nucleotide sequences of Ruminococcus albus genes celA and celB coding for endoglucanase A (EGA) and endoglucanase B (EGB), respectively, have been determined. The celA structural gene consists of an open reading frame of 1095 bp. Confirmation of the nucleotide sequence was obtained by comparing the predicted amino acid sequence with that derived by N-terminal analysis of purified EGA. The celB structural gene consists of an open reading frame of 1227 bp; 7 bp upstream of the translational start codon of celB is a typical gram-positive Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The deduced N-terminal region of EGB conforms to the general pattern for the signal peptides of secreted prokaryotic proteins. The complete celB gene, cloned into pUC vectors, caused lethality in Escherichia coli. In contrast, celA cloned in pUC18, under the control of lacZp, directed high-level synthesis of EGA in E. coli JM83. EGA in cell-free extract, purified to near homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography, had a Mr of 44.5 kDa. Gene deletion and subcloning studies with celA revealed that EGA hydrolysed both CMC and xylan, and did not contain discrete functional domains. EGA and EGB showed considerable homology with each other, in addition to exhibiting similarity with Eg1 (R. albus), EGE (Clostridium thermocellum) and End (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens). PMID:2250649

Poole, D M; Hazlewood, G P; Laurie, J I; Barker, P J; Gilbert, H J



Regio-selective bromination of multiflorine and structures of 3-bromomultiflorine and its molecular complex with succinimide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regio-specific bromination of multiflorine, an alkaloid isolated from Lupinus albus is described. The bromomultiflorine and its molecular complex with succinimide have been characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy, as well as by X-ray diffraction. The conformation in solution and in the solid state has been determined. The molecular complex formation between 3-bromomultiflorine and succinimide molecules is the first case in the class of lupine alkaloids. Both molecules of this complex are held together by an intermolecular hydrogen bond N?H⋯N which leads to a conversion of alkaloid nitrogen atom configuration. As a consequence, ring C adopts a chair conformation, whereas it is in a boat form in 3-bromomultiflorine.

Borowiak, Teresa; Kubicki, Maciej; Wysocka, Waleria; Przyby?, Anna



Adsorption at the air-water interface and emulsification properties of grain legume protein derivatives from pea and broad bean.  


Functional properties of native and modified (through induced autolysis) pea (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.) protein derivatives are studied. In specific, protein solubility and behavior at the air-water interface through surface pressure measurements are investigated. Furthermore the ability of the protein products to act as emulsifying agents and to stabilize emulsions is studied through oil droplet size distribution measurements and by the protein adsorbed at the oil-water interface. The data reveal that the ability of the proteins to act as surfactants and build up a rigid film around the oil droplets, mainly depends on their suitable molecular configuration and structure. Hydrolysis did not promote the functionality of the legume proteins. Broad bean exhibited better functionality than pea, before and after hydrolysis. Some comparisons were also made with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) protein isolate. PMID:17049437

Tsoukala, A; Papalamprou, E; Makri, E; Doxastakis, G; Braudo, E E



Biochemical Analyses of Multiple Endoxylanases from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 and Their Synergistic Activities with Accessory Hemicellulose-Degrading Enzymes ? †  

PubMed Central

Ruminococcus albus 8 is a ruminal bacterium capable of metabolizing hemicellulose and cellulose, the major components of the plant cell wall. The enzymes that allow this bacterium to capture energy from the two polysaccharides, therefore, have potential application in plant cell wall depolymerization, a process critical to biofuel production. For this purpose, a partial genome sequence of R. albus 8 was generated. The genomic data depicted a bacterium endowed with multiple forms of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. The endoxylanases of R. albus 8 exhibited diverse modular architectures, including incorporation of a catalytic module, a carbohydrate binding module, and a carbohydrate esterase module in a single polypeptide. The accessory enzymes of xylan degradation were a ?-xylosidase, an ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, and an ?-glucuronidase. We hypothesized that due to the chemical complexity of the hemicellulose encountered in the rumen, the bacterium uses multiple endoxylanases, with subtle differences in substrate specificities, to attack the substrate, while the accessory enzymes hydrolyze the products to simple sugars for metabolism. To test this hypothesis, the genes encoding the predicted endoxylanases were expressed, and the proteins were biochemically characterized either alone or in combination with accessory enzymes. The different endoxylanase families exhibited different patterns of product release, with the family 11 endoxylanases releasing more products in synergy with the accessory enzymes from the more complex substrates. Aside from the insights into hemicellulose degradation by R. albus 8, this report should enhance our knowledge on designing effective enzyme cocktails for release of fermentable sugars in the biofuel industry.

Moon, Young Hwan; Iakiviak, Michael; Bauer, Stefan; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.



Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan and its effect on behaviour and some hematological parameters of Asian swamp eel ( Monopterus albus, Zuiew)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Asia, Monopterus albus (Asian swamp eel) is commonly found in rice fields, muddy ponds and swamp areas. Because of its habitat, it is exposed to toxic pesticides used in rice fields, especially endosulfan, which is one of the most widely used insecticides. This study aims to determine the acute toxicity of endosulfan and its effect on the behaviour and

Yii Siang Hii; Mun Yee Lee; Tse Seng Chuah



Short communication The potential of the fungus, Muscodor albus, as a microbial control agent of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella, is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Entomopathogens oVer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. The fungus Muscodor albus, which produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals, was tested for its insecticidal activity against PTM. Adults and neo- nate larvae

Lawrence A. Lacey; Lisa G. Neven


Apparent competition with an invasive plant hastens the extinction of an endangered lupine.  


Invasive plants may compete with native plants by increasing the pressure of native consumers, a mechanism known as "apparent competition." Apparent competition can be as strong as or stronger than direct competition, but the role of apparent competition has rarely been examined in biological invasions. We used four years of demographic data and seed-removal experiments to determine if introduced grasses caused elevated levels of seed consumption on native plant species in a coastal dune system in California, USA. We show that the endangered, coastal dune plant Lupinus tidestromii experiences high levels of pre-dispersal seed consumption by the native rodent Peromyscus maniculatus due to its proximity to the invasive grass, Ammophila arenaria. We use stage-structured, stochastic population models to project that two of three study populations will decline toward extinction under ambient levels of consumption. For one of these declining populations, a relatively small decrease in consumption pressure should allow for persistence. We show that apparent competition with an invasive species significantly decreases the population growth rate and persistence of a native species. We expect that apparent competition is an important mechanism in other ecosystems because invasive plants often change habitat structure and plant-consumer interactions. Possible implications of the apparent-competition mechanism include selective extinction of species preferred by seed consumers in the presence of an invasive species and biological homogenization of communities toward non-preferred native plant species. PMID:20836448

Dangremond, Emily M; Pardini, Eleanor A; Knight, Tiffany M



Influence of diets to Wistar rats supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine products treated by lactofermentation to improve their gut health.  


The present study proposes the contribution of lactic acid bacteria and plants rich in bioactive substances and high-quality proteins as alternative products for human diets in improving the gut environment as potential against pathogenic bacteria. The effect of diets supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine flours fermented with a Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 probiotic strain in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Wistar rats were analyzed. In vivo experiments showed a positive effect of long time lactofermentation of plant material on the body weight of rats. Diets with fermented yellow lupine resulted in enhanced activities of ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidases, as well as high levels of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enterococci in the GIT were determined. Lactofermentation of analyzed plant products had a significantly lowering effect on Escherichia coli compared with the control group. The dominant flora of large intestines like Bifidobacterium and anaerobic cocci were found in high levels after diets with fermented lupine. PMID:23480304

Bartkiene, E; Juodeikiene, G; Vidmantiene, D; Zdunczyk, Z; Zdunczyk, P; Juskiewicz, J; Cizeikiene, D; Matusevicius, P



Total phenolic and phytosterol compounds and the radical scavenging activity of germinated Australian sweet lupin flour.  


In addition to their favourable nutritional profile, legumes also contain a range of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds and phytosterols which may protect against chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Germination of some legume seeds has been previously reported to increase the concentration of the bioactive compounds. In this study, the effect of germination of Australian Sweet Lupin (ASL) seeds for 9 days on the concentration of some bioactive compounds and the radical scavenging activity in the resulting flour was determined. The concentration of total phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts of germinated ASL flour was determined using Folin Ciocalteu reagent and phytosterols in oil extracts were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The methanolic and oil extracts were also used to determine radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. In the methanolic extracts of germinated ASL flour, phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity were significantly increased following germination (700 and 1400 %, respectively). Analysis of the oil extracts of germinated ASL flour revealed that the concentration of phytosterols and the antioxidant activity were also increased significantly compared to ungerminated ASL flour (300 and 800 %, respectively). The relative proportion of phytosterols in germinated ASL flour was: ?-sitosterol (60 %), stigmasterol (30 %) and campesterol (10 %). Germination increases the concentration of bioactive compounds and the radical scavenging activity in the germinated ASL flour. PMID:23943234

Rumiyati; Jayasena, Vijay; James, Anthony P



Metabolic Mechanism of Mannan in a Ruminal Bacterium, Ruminococcus albus, Involving Two Mannoside Phosphorylases and Cellobiose 2-Epimerase  

PubMed Central

Ruminococcus albus is a typical ruminal bacterium digesting cellulose and hemicellulose. Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE; EC, which converts cellobiose to 4-O-?-d-glucosyl-d-mannose, is a particularly unique enzyme in R. albus, but its physiological function is unclear. Recently, a new metabolic pathway of mannan involving CE was postulated for another CE-producing bacterium, Bacteroides fragilis. In this pathway, ?-1,4-mannobiose is epimerized to 4-O-?-d-mannosyl-d-glucose (Man-Glc) by CE, and Man-Glc is phosphorolyzed to ?-d-mannosyl 1-phosphate (Man1P) and d-glucose by Man-Glc phosphorylase (MP; EC Ruminococcus albus NE1 showed intracellular MP activity, and two MP isozymes, RaMP1 and RaMP2, were obtained from the cell-free extract. These enzymes were highly specific for the mannosyl residue at the non-reducing end of the substrate and catalyzed the phosphorolysis and synthesis of Man-Glc through a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In a synthetic reaction, RaMP1 showed high activity only toward d-glucose and 6-deoxy-d-glucose in the presence of Man1P, whereas RaMP2 showed acceptor specificity significantly different from RaMP1. RaMP2 acted on d-glucose derivatives at the C2- and C3-positions, including deoxy- and deoxyfluoro-analogues and epimers, but not on those substituted at the C6-position. Furthermore, RaMP2 had high synthetic activity toward the following oligosaccharides: ?-linked glucobioses, maltose, N,N?-diacetylchitobiose, and ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides. Particularly, ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides served as significantly better acceptor substrates for RaMP2 than d-glucose. In the phosphorolytic reactions, RaMP2 had weak activity toward ?-1,4-mannobiose but efficiently degraded ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose. Consequently, RaMP2 is thought to catalyze the phosphorolysis of ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose to produce Man1P and ?-1,4-mannobiose.

Kawahara, Ryosuke; Saburi, Wataru; Odaka, Rei; Taguchi, Hidenori; Ito, Shigeaki; Mori, Haruhide; Matsui, Hirokazu



Gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry investigation of tropane alkaloids in Hyoscyamus albus L. from Morocco.  


Thirty-four alkaloids were identified in the organs of Hyoscyamus albus L. by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). Eight new compounds for the roots, eleven for the stems, twelve for the leaves, nineteen for the flowers, and seven for the seeds were detected. The alkaloids 5-(2-oxopropyl)-hygrine (8) and phygrine (20) are new for this species and 3-(hydroxyacetoxy)tropane (9), 6,7-dehydro-3-phenylacetoxytropane (15), 3-(2'-phenylpropionyloxy)tropane (17), 6,7-dehydro-3-apotropoyloxytropane (18), 3-(3'-methoxytropoyloxy)tropane (23), and aponorscopolamine (25) are described for the first time for the genus Hyoscyamus. Hyoscyamine was the main alkaloid in the plant organs. PMID:23198403

El Bazaoui, Ahmed; Bellimam, My Ahmed; Lançar, Ibn Toumert; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid



Effect of water activity on the production of volatile organic compounds by Muscodor albus and their effect on three pathogens in stored potato.  


Muscodor albus (Xylariaceae, Ascomycetes) isolate CZ-620 produces antimicrobial volatile organic compounds (VOC), which appear to have potential for the control of various postharvest diseases. The effect of water activity (Aw) on the production of VOC by M. albus culture, and their inhibitory effects on the growth of three pathogens of potato tuber (Fusarium sambucinum, Helminthosporium solani, and Pectobacterium atrosepticum) and the development of diseases caused by the three pathogens (dry rot, silver scurf, and bacterial soft rot, respectively) were investigated. Rye grain culture of the fungus produced six alcohols, three aldehydes, five acids or esters, and two terpenoids. The most abundant VOC were: isobutyric acid; bulnesene, a sesquiterpene; an unidentified terpene; 2 and 3-methyl-1-butanol; and ethanol. However, the level of each of those VOC varied with Aw of the culture. Emission activity occurred mainly at Aw above 0.75 and high emission of most VOC occurred only at Aw above 0.90. The aldehydes (2-methyl-propanal and 3-methyl-butanal) were the only VOC produced in quantities below an Aw of 0.90. An Aw value of 0.96 favored maximum emission of acids, esters, and terpenoids. There was a higher production of alcohols and a decrease in aldehydes with increase in Aw. Isobutyric acid, which has been the main M. albus VOC monitored in previous studies as an indicator of antifungal activity, had a rather narrow optimum, peaking at Aw of 0.96 and declining sharply above 0.98. Results showed that substrate Aw affects the production dynamics of each group of VOC by the fungus, and suggest that VOC production can be prolonged by maintaining M. albus culture at a constant optimum Aw. The VOC was inhibitory to F. sambucinum, H. solani, and P. atrosepticum; and biofumigation with M. albus significantly reduced dry rot and soft rot development, and completely controlled silver scurf in inoculated tubers incubated at both 8°C and 22°C. The results show that Aw of grain culture affects the production of VOC by M. albus; and that the VOC inhibit the growth of the tested pathogens and the diseases caused by them in potato tubers. PMID:21354528

Corcuff, Ronan; Mercier, Julien; Tweddell, Russell; Arul, Joseph



Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of ?-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells.  


Lupin seed ?-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether ?-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, ?-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of ?-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, ?-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that ?-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin ?-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity. PMID:23872149

Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario; Scarafoni, Alessio; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa; Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa; Duranti, Marcello



Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling  

PubMed Central

Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different clades, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that iteroparity functioned as an adaptive key innovation, providing a mechanism for range expansion and rapid divergence in upper elevation regions across much of the New World.

Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.



Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N=140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N=15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9cm to 12.2cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51days old (N=13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Long, J. M.; Lafleur, C.



hrcA, Encoding the Repressor of the groEL Genes in Streptomyces albus G, Is Associated with a Second dnaJ Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the principal chaperones of the heat shock stimulon of Streptomyces albus G are under the negative control of different repressors. The dnaK operon is regulated by hspR, the last gene of the operon (dnaK-grpE-dnaJ-hspR). hsp18, encoding a member of the small heat shock protein family, is regulated by orfY, which is in the opposite orientation upstream of hsp18.




Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential  

PubMed Central

A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts.

Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Ruckert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jorn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.



The effect of inclusion of lupins\\/triticale whole crop silage in the diet of winter finishing beef cattle on their performance and meat quality at two levels of concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the performance and instrumental meat quality of finishing beef steers offered grass silage (GS), grass silage:maize silage (GS:MS) and grass silage:lupins\\/triticale silage (GS:LT). The lupins\\/triticale silage was grown as either two separate crops in the same field and harvested together (LT1) or grown and harvested as a mixture (LT2). The silages were offered to eighty continental cross

L. E. R. Dawson


Hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters in and below the base of thick permafrost at Lupin, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryShield fluids are commonly understood to evolve through water-rock interaction. However, fluids may also concentrate during ice formation. Very little is currently known about groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost in crystalline environments. This paper evaluates three possible Shield fluid evolution pathways at a crystalline Shield location currently under 500+ meters of permafrost, including surfical cryogenic concentration of seawater, in situ cryogenic concentration and water-rock interaction. A primary goal of this study was to further scientific understanding of permafrost and its role in influencing deep flow system evolution, fluid movement and chemical evolution of waters in crystalline rocks. Precipitation, surface, permafrost and subpermafrost water samples were collected, as well as dissolved and free gas samples, fracture fillings and matrix fluid samples to characterize the site. Investigations of groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost provides valuable information which can be applied to safety assessment of deep, underground nuclear waste repositories, effects of long-term mining in permafrost areas and understanding analogues to potential life-bearing zones on Mars. The study was conducted in the Lupin gold mine in Nunavut, Canada, located within the zone of continuous permafrost. Through-taliks beneath large lakes in the area provided potential hydraulic connections through the permafrost. Na-Cl and Na-Cl-SO 4 type permafrost waters were contaminated by mining activities, affecting the chloride and nitrate concentrations. High nitrate concentrations (423-2630 mg L -1) were attributed to remnants of blasting. High sulfate concentrations in the permafrost (578-5000 mg L -1) were attributed to naturally occurring and mining enhanced sulfide oxidation. Mine dewatering created an artificial hydraulic gradient, resulting in methane hydrate dissociation at depth. Less contaminated basal waters had medium sulfate concentrations and were Ca-Na dominated, similar to deeper subpermafrost waters. Subpermafrost waters had a wide range of salinities (2.6-40 g L -1). It was unclear from this investigation what impact talik waters would have on deep groundwaters in undisturbed environments. In situ cryogenic concentration due to ice and methane hydrate formation may have concentrated the remaining fluids, however there was no evidence that infiltration of cryogenically concentrated seawater occurred since the last glacial maximum. Matrix waters were dilute and unable to affect groundwater salinity. Fracture infillings were scarce, but calcite fluid inclusion microthermometry indicated a large range in salinities, potentially an additional source of salinity to the system.

Stotler, Randy L.; Frape, Shaun K.; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Onstott, Tullis C.; Hobbs, Monique Y.



Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada  

SciTech Connect

We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient created during mine dewatering. Although the absence of methanogens from this subsurface ecosystem is somewhat surprising, it may be attributable to an energy bottleneck that restricts their migration from surface permafrost deposits where they are frequently reported. These results have implications for the biological origin of CH4 on Mars.

Onstott, Tullis [Princeton University; McGown, Daniel [Princeton University; Bakermans, Corien [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ruskeeniemi, T [Geological Survey of Finland; Ahonen, L [Geological Survey of Finland; Telling, J [University of Toronto; Soffientino, B [University of Rhode Island; Pfiffner, Susan M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara [University of Toronto; Frape, S [University of Waterloo, Canada; Stotler, R [University of Waterloo, Canada; Johnson, E [Indiana University; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Rothmel, Randi [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana University



A comparative study of phase States of the peribacteroid membrane from yellow lupin and broad bean nodules.  


A comparative study of the lipid bilayer phase status and structure of the outer membrane of free-living Bradyrhizobium strain 359a (Nod(+)Fix(+)) and 400 (Nod(+)FixL) or Rhizobium leguminosarum 97 (Nod(+)Fix(+), effective) and 87 (Nod(+)FixL, ineffective) has been carried out. Also, the effect of the symbiotic pair combination on the lipid bilayer structure of the bacteroid outer membrane and peribacteroid membrane, isolated from the nodules of Lupinus luteus L. or Vicia faba L., has been studied. As a result, it is shown that the lipid bilayer status of the bacteroid outer membrane is mainly determined by microsymbiont, but not the host plant. In the contrast, the lipid bilayer status of the peribacteroid membrane and, as a consequence, its properties depend on interaction of both symbiotic partners. PMID:24804101

Kudryavtseva, Natalia N; Sof'in, Alexis V; Bobylev, Georgiy S; Sorokin, Evgeny M



A Comparative Study of Phase States of the Peribacteroid Membrane from Yellow Lupin and Broad Bean Nodules  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of the lipid bilayer phase status and structure of the outer membrane of free-living Bradyrhizobium strain 359a (Nod+Fix+) and 400 (Nod+FixL) or Rhizobium leguminosarum 97 (Nod+Fix+, effective) and 87 (Nod+FixL, ineffective) has been carried out. Also, the effect of the symbiotic pair combination on the lipid bilayer structure of the bacteroid outer membrane and peribacteroid membrane, isolated from the nodules of Lupinus luteus L. or Vicia faba L., has been studied. As a result, it is shown that the lipid bilayer status of the bacteroid outer membrane is mainly determined by microsymbiont, but not the host plant. In the contrast, the lipid bilayer status of the peribacteroid membrane and, as a consequence, its properties depend on interaction of both symbiotic partners.

Kudryavtseva, Natalia N.; Sof'in, Alexis V.; Bobylev, Georgiy S.; Sorokin, Evgeny M.



Effects of feeding finisher pigs with chicory or lupine feed for one week or two weeks before slaughter with respect to levels of Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter.  


This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar plates. DNA extracted from the luminal content of distal ileum and caecum was used for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the composition of intestinal microbiota and for measuring the amount of bifidobacterial and total bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control- and chicory-fed pigs (mean log(10) 2.9 v. 4.1 CFU/g; P < 0.05). The qPCR analysis showed that feeding with lupines resulted in higher levels of bifidobacteria in caecum as compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). T-RFLP analysis showed that four of the most abundant bacteria with terminal restriction fragment values >5% relative to the intensity of total abundance differed between the feed treatments (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study showed that even a short-term alternative feeding strategy with prebiotics in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs elicited changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, where lupine increased the level of bifidobacteria in caecum and reduced the Campylobacter spp. excretion level after 1 week. PMID:23031645

Jensen, A N; Hansen, L L; Baggesen, D L; Mølbak, L



alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Ruminococcus albus 8: purification and possible role in hydrolysis of alfalfa cell wall.  

PubMed Central

An alpha-L- arabinofuranosidase has been purified from the extracellular broth of cultures of Ruminococcus albus 8. The purification procedure utilized gel filtration, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, and isoelectric focusing. The purified enzyme appeared to be homogeneous when chromatographed on disc and analytical isoelectric focusing gels. The estimated molecular weight of the native protein was 305,000 to 310,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis analysis suggested that the native protein is a tetramer composed of 75,000-molecular-weight subunits. The enzyme appeared to have no metal cofactor requirement but was sensitive to several sulfhydryl reagents. The pH optimum with p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside as the substrate was 6.9 and the Km was 1.3 mM. Several lines of evidence indicated that the enzyme is a glycoprotein. When assayed against alfalfa cell wall material, the enzyme hydrolyzed only small amounts of arabinose from the substrate. When assayed together with hemicellulolytic or pectinolytic enzymes against the same substrate, the arabinosidase significantly enhanced the hydrolytic action of the glycanases . Images

Greve, L C; Labavitch, J M; Hungate, R E



An assessment of heavy metal bioaccumulation in Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, during plowing stages of a paddy cycle.  


Livers and muscles of swamp eels (Monopterus albus) were analyzed for bioaccumulation of heavy metals during the plowing stage of a paddy cycle. Results showed heavy metals were bioaccumulated more highly in liver than muscle. Zinc (Zn) was the highest bioaccumulated metal in liver (98.5 ± 8.95 ?g/g) and in muscle (48.8 ± 7.17 ?g/g). The lowest bioaccumulated metals were cadmium (Cd) in liver (3.44 ± 2.42 ?g/g) and copper (Cu) in muscle (0.65 ± 0.20 ?g/g). In sediments, Zn was present at the highest mean concentration (52.7 ± 2.85 ?g/g), while Cd had the lowest mean concentration (1.04 ± 0.24 ?g/g). The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, Cd and nickel (Ni) in liver tissue was greater than the corresponding BSAF for muscle tissue. For the three plowing stages, metal concentrations were significantly correlated between liver and muscle tissues in all cases, and between sediment and either liver or muscle in most cases. Mean measured metal concentrations in muscle tissue were below the maximum permissible limits established by Malaysian and U.S. governmental agencies, and were therefore regarded as safe for human consumption. PMID:23666324

Sow, Ai Yin; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir



Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of the perirenal fat of bulls fattened on grass silage and maize silage supplemented with tannins, garlic, maca and lupines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcass fat composition of cattle fed a forage-based diet might be inferior with maize silage compared to grass-silage based systems. This was quantified using complete diets with concentrate. To test whether supplements may influence carcass fat properties as well, the maize-silage diet was additionally supplemented either with Acacia mearnsii tannins, garlic, maca or lupines, feeds rich in secondary metabolites. The

S. M. Staerfl; C. R. Soliva; F. Leiber; M. Kreuzer



[Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].  


The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile. PMID:21519742

Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R



77 FR 61017 - Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and Application for an Incidental Take Permit, Yamhill County, OR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the County for impacts caused by HCP-covered activities to the butterfly's larval host plant, the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus oreganus), which is federally listed as threatened, should the ESA be amended to include take prohibitions for listed...



78 FR 48898 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Florida. The applicant requests authorization to take scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum) for the purpose of seed harvesting, germ plasm storage, and germination research in Polk County, Florida. Permit Application Number: TE812344 Applicant:...



Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrient status, and total antioxidant activity of Melilotus albus during phytoremediation of a diesel-contaminated substrate.  


This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg(-1)). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted to non-contaminated or contaminated sand. After 60 days, diesel significantly reduced plant growth. AMF- plants had no significant greater (64% and 89%, respectively) shoot and leaf dry weight than Non-AMF plants, but AMF plants had lower specific leaf area. AMF-plants had significantly greater content of microelements than non-AMF plants. Regardless diesel contamination, the total AOX and TPC were significantly higher in leaves when compared to roots; in contrast, NRA was higher in roots than leaves. Diesel increased total AOX of leaves, but AMF-plants had significantly lower AOX than non-AMF plants. In contrast, roots of AMF-plants had significantly higher AOX but lower NRA than non-AMF plants. AMF-colonization in roots detected via the fungal alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly reduced by the presence of diesel. AMF-inoculation alleviated diesel toxicity on M. albus by enhancing plant biomass, nutrient content, and AOX activity. In addition, AMF-plants significantly contributed in higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons when compared to non-AMF-plants. PMID:21420227

Hernández-Ortega, Herminia Alejandra; Alarcón, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Zavaleta-Mancera, Hilda Araceli; López-Delgado, Humberto Antonio; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios



[Effects of 6-BA on cluster root formation and organic acid exudation in white lupin grown under phosphorus deficiency].  


Phosphorus deficiency results in cluster root formation and increased organic acid exudation. The regulatory mechanisms for these processes, however, are not yet clear. In the present study, influences of 6-BA (6-benzyl aminopurine) on cluster root formation, exudation of citrate and malate and their concentrations in the root clusters of P-deficient white lupin plants were studied by using non-destructive localized collection method and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The results showed that application of exogenous 6-BA to P-deficient plants did not influence plant growth and P distribution within the plant (Tables 2,3), whereas the cluster root formation (Fig. 1, Table 1) and organic acid exudation (Table 4) were inhibited. The inhibitory effects could be reversed by omitting 6-BA from the growth medium, and even some stimulatory effects was observed, when lower concentration of 6-BA (10(-8) mol/L) was applied (Fig. 1, Tables 1 and 4). The inhibitory effects of higher concentration of 6-BA (10(-7) mol/L) were not reversible. (Table 4). Treatment with 6-BA also had some influence on organic acid concentration in the tissue of cluster roots (Table 5). The possible reasons for the effects on cluster root formation and organic acid exudation by 6-BA are discussed. PMID:15643080

Liang, Rui-Xia; Li, Chun-Jian; Song, Jian-Lan



Nitrogen metabolism in dairy cows fed restricted amounts of grass–clover silage supplemented with seeds from narrow-leafed lupin or pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve dairy cows in mid to late lactation were fed iso-nitrogenous diets (161g CP\\/kg DM, forage:concentrate ratio 65:35) where rolled barley and coarsely ground seeds from either narrow-leafed lupin or field pea supplemented grass–clover silage. Feed allowance was individually restricted and fixed (18.8±0.6kg dry matter\\/day) throughout the experiment to avoid refusals. The experiment was of 2×2 change-over design and utilized

T. Eriksson



Effects of broad-leaf crops and their sowing time on subsequent wheat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupin, field pea, lentil, chickpea, canola, linseed, and barley were sown at different times (late April-early July) to study their effects on subsequent wheat production on a red earth at Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. The cultivars of field pea (Pisum sativum) included Dunn, Derrimut, Maitland and Dinkum; narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) cultivars were Danja, Geebung and Gungurru, and either

D. P. Heenan



A small-scale proteomic approach reveals a survival strategy, including a reduction in alkaloid biosynthesis, in Hyoscyamus albus roots subjected to iron deficiency.  


Hyoscyamus albus is a well-known source of the tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are biosynthesized in the roots. To assess the major biochemical adaptations that occur in the roots of this plant in response to iron deficiency, we used a small-scale proteomic approach in which 100 mg of root tips were treated with and without Fe, respectively, for 5 days. Two-dimensional mini gels showed that 48 spots were differentially accumulated between the two conditions of Fe availability and a further 36 proteins were identified from these spots using MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins that showed elevated levels in the roots lacking Fe were found to be associated variously with carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation, secondary metabolism, and oxidative defense. Most of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were increased in abundance, but mitochondrial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was decreased, possibly resulting in malate secretion. Otherwise, all the proteins showing diminished levels in the roots were identified as either Fe-containing or ATP-requiring. For example, a significant decrease was observed in the levels of hyoscyamine 6?-hydroxylase (H6H), which requires Fe and is involved in the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. To investigate the effects of Fe deficiency on alkaloid biosynthesis, gene expression studies were undertaken both for H6H and for another Fe-dependent protein, Cyp80F1, which is involved in the final stage of hyoscyamine biosynthesis. In addition, tropane alkaloid contents were determined. Reduced gene expression was observed in the case of both of these proteins and was accompanied by a decrease in the content of both hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Finally, we have discussed energetic and Fe-conservation strategies that might be adopted by the roots of H. albus to maintain iron homeostasis under Fe-limiting conditions. PMID:24009619

Khandakar, Jebunnahar; Haraguchi, Izumi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kitamura, Yoshie



Validation and comparison of a sandwich ELISA, two competitive ELISAs and a real-time PCR method for the detection of lupine in food.  


Methods applied in food allergen analysis should be specific, sensitive and applicable to both raw and highly processed foods. The performance of the most commonly used methods, ELISA and real-time PCR, may, however, be influenced by food processing steps, e.g., heat treatment. The present study compares the applicability of four in-house developed methods, one sandwich ELISA, two competitive ELISAs and a real-time PCR method, for the detection of lupine in four different food matrices, comprising bread, biscuits, rice patties and noodles. In order to investigate the influence of food processing on the detectability, not only the heat treated model foods but also the corresponding doughs were analysed. The sandwich ELISA proved to be the most sensitive method. The LOD was found to be 10 ppm lupine, independent from the food matrix and independent if the dough or the heat treated food was analysed. In addition, the methods were applied to the analysis of commercial foodstuffs differing in their labelling. PMID:23768374

Ecker, Christina; Ertl, Anna; Pulverer, Walter; Nemes, Albert; Szekely, Pal; Petrasch, Angelika; Linsberger-Martin, Gertrud; Cichna-Markl, Margit



The effects of increased CO[sub 2] on the competitive ability of Lupinus arboreus, a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub  

SciTech Connect

Plant responses to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] have been shown to be both species-specific and dependent on other environmental factors, potentially changing competitive interactions and altering community structure. The competitive response of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub to an introduced annual (Bromus diandrus) and a native perennial grass (Bromus carinatus) was measured under ambient and high CO[sub 2] and two nitrogen levels. These species coexist in a generally nitrogen-limited coastal grassland reserve besieged with alien species. The relative competitive ability of the lupin increased with CO[sub 2] for all treatments, with the largest difference occurring at low nitrogen in competition with the introduced annual. This study provides a global change perspective for those interested in conserving native Californian grassland species, as well as the first data on the competitive response of nitrogen-fixers to high CO[sub 2].

Wallace, A.M. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brooks (United States))



Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann



The formation of short-chain Fatty acids is positively associated with the blood lipid-lowering effect of lupin kernel fiber in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.  


Lupin kernel fiber beneficially modifies blood lipids because of its bile acid-binding capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of a lupin kernel fiber preparation on cardiovascular diseases and to clarify possible mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 60 moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (plasma total cholesterol: >5.2 mmol/L) passed 3 intervention periods in different orders with a 2-wk washout phase between each. Participants consumed either a high-fiber diet containing 25-g/d lupin kernel fiber (LF) or citrus fiber (CF), or a low-fiber control diet (CD) for 4 wk each. Anthropometric, plasma, and fecal variables were assessed at baseline and after the interventions. Contrary to the CF period, total (9%) and LDL (12%) cholesterol as well as triacylglycerols (10%) were lower after the LF period when compared with the CD period [P ? 0.02, adjusted for baseline, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)]. HDL cholesterol remained unchanged. Moreover, the LF period reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) when compared with baseline. Bile acid binding could not be shown because the excretion of total bile acids remained constant after the high-fiber diets. However, the LF period resulted in an enhanced formation of the main short-chain fatty acids in comparison with the CD period. During the CF period, only acetate increased significantly. Both high-fiber diets led to higher satiety and modified nutritional behavior, resulting in significantly lower body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with the CD period. The blood lipid-lowering effects of LF are apparently not a result of bile acid binding. Rather, we hypothesize for the first time, to our knowledge, that the blood lipid-lowering effects of LF may be mainly attributed to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, specifically propionate and acetate. This trial was registered at as NCT01035086. PMID:24572041

Fechner, Anita; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard



Lupin protein positively affects plasma LDL cholesterol and LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio in hypercholesterolemic adults after four weeks of supplementation: a randomized, controlled crossover study  

PubMed Central

Background A couple of studies indicate a favorable impact of lupin protein on cardiovascular risk factors in humans. These studies, however, used relatively high doses of?>?33 g/d, which can hardly be consumed under physiological conditions. Therefore, we investigated the effect of 25 g/d lupin protein isolate (LPI) on selected cardiovascular markers and on serum amino acids. Methods A total of 33 hypercholesterolemic subjects participated in a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study. LPI and the active comparator milk protein isolate (MPI) were incorporated in protein drinks and consumed over 8 wk separated by a 4 wk washout period. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 8 wk of both protein interventions. Blood was sampled at baseline, wk 4 and wk 8. All 33 subjects were included in final statistical analyses using repeated measures ANOVA with the general linear model or using linear mixed model. Results Except for higher HDL cholesterol at wk 4 of LPI (P???0.036), anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and plasma lipids did not differ among LPI and MPI intervention. Compared to baseline, the primary outcome LDL cholesterol was significantly reduced after 4 wk of both interventions (P???0.008), while LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio was decreased only by LPI (P?=?0.003). These time effects were restricted to subjects with higher hypercholesterolemia and disappeared after 8 wk. Blood pressure was reduced after 8 wk of LPI (P???0.044). Almost all serum amino acids were higher at wk 4 but not at wk 8 of MPI compared to LPI. Following 4 wk and 8 wk of LPI intervention, most amino acids remained unchanged. Both interventions caused a slight, but significant rise in body weight and body fat after 8 wk (P???0.045). Conclusion In conclusion, 25 g LPI can beneficially modulate plasma LDL cholesterol at least over short-term. Using appropriate dietetic conditions that improve consumer compliance and avoid changes in energy intake as well as in body composition, lupin protein could positively impact cardiovascular risk factors particularly in individuals with higher hypercholesterolemia. Trial registration NCT01304992



Gene Cloning and mRNA Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in the Liver, Brain, and Intestine of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), Exposed to Freshwater, Terrestrial Conditions, Environmental Ammonia, or Salinity Stress  

PubMed Central

The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5? UTR, a complete coding sequence region spanning 1629?bp and a 3? UTR of approximately 717?bp, from the liver, intestine, and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence had 542 residues, and it formed a monophyletic clade with Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2, and O. mykiss Gdh1a. One day of exposure to terrestrial conditions or 75?mmol?l?1 NH4Cl, but not to water at salinity 20, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the liver of M. albus. However, exposure to brackish water, but not to terrestrial conditions or 75?mmol?l?1 NH4Cl, led to a significant increase in the mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the intestine. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus, despite a significant decrease in the Gdh amination activity in the brain of fish exposed to 75?mmol?l?1 NH4Cl for 6?days. Our results indicate for the first time that the mRNA expression of gdh1a was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus in response to ammonia toxicity and salinity stress, respectively. The increases in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity would probably lead to an increase in glutamate production in support of increased glutamine synthesis for the purpose of ammonia detoxification or cell volume regulation under these two different environmental conditions.

Tok, Chia Y.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.



[A new lupin alkaloid, (-)-leontalbinine N-oxide, in Sophora flavescens var. angustifolia seeds and its synthesis by biomimetic transformation from (+)-matrine N-oxide].  


The possibility of the biomimetic transformation of (+)-matrine N-oxide, a main alkaloid in Sophora flavescens var. angustifolia, under various oxidative conditions was examined by the use of several metallic ions. When (+)-matrine N-oxide was warmed with FeSO4, or Fe(COOH)2 in MeOH-H2O at 40 degrees C, (-)-7, 11-didehydromatrine [(-)-leontalbinine], a minor alkaloid in the same plant, was obtained along with (+)-matrine. This selective formation of (-)-leontalbinine seems to be specific to the reaction of (+)-matrine N-oxide with ferrous reagents. In addition, the structure of the newly isolated minor lupin alkaloid from the seeds of S. flavescens. was determined as (-)-leontalbinine N-oxide from its spectral comparison with the authentic sample. PMID:8463957

Sekine, T; Saito, K; Minami, R; Arai, N; Suzuki, H; Koike, Y; Murakoshi, I



Pituitary extract of the ricefield eel Monopterus albus (Synbranchidae, Teleostei) exhibits gonadotropic activity in the classes Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia and Amphibia.  


Pituitary extract of the ricefield eel Monopterus albus demonstrated gonadotropic activity in mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates. Using the rat as the recipient, FSH activity was detected in Monopterus pituitaries in the HCG augmentation test and LH activity in the ovarian ascorbic acid depletion test. Cyclic AMP level in superovulated ovaries, ovarian lactate production and glucose uptake in vitro, plasma testosterone level in males, testicular enzymes, ventral prostate weight and other androgen-dependent parameters were stimulated after treatment with Monopterus pituitary extract. Testicular and ovarian 32P5+ uptake in the chick, testicular weight in the grass turtle Chinemys reevesi, and ovulation in the amphibians Xenopus laevis and Rana tigrina were enhanced. Both the FSH-like and LH-like activities in Monopterus pituitaries were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and chemicals that attack the disulfide linkage, carbohydrate moiety, tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine residues. This constitutes the first report of dual gonadotropic activities elicited by a teleost pituitary extract in the mammal in vivo. PMID:2873938

Ng, T B; Lee, Y H; Chan, S T



Unusual site-specific DNA integration into the highly active pseudo-attB of the Streptomyces albus J1074 genome.  


The ?C31-encoded recombination system has become a widely used tool for genetic analysis of streptomycetes, gene therapy and generation of transgenic animals. However, the application of this system, even in the context of its natural host genus, Streptomyces, may require a specific approach for each species. In this study, we have identified a novel pseudo-attB site, called pseB4, for integration of vectors using the ?C31 system. More than 90 % of clones contained two copies of pSET152- or pOJ436-based cosmids, after their introduction into S. albus. The efficiency of the integration of ?C31-based vectors into pseB4 is therefore comparable to that of the integration into attB. Moreover, in contrast with integration into the native attB, integration into pseB4 is not polar and does not require a complementary sequence in the TT-core region. Furthermore, an analysis of conjugation frequency revealed mutual inhibition of plasmid integration into either site when both the attB and pseB4 sites were present in the genome. PMID:24566921

Bilyk, Bohdan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy



Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), eel (Monopterus albus) and cockle (Anadara granosa).  


This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish. PMID:24191621

Rahman, M M; Zamri, M; Fadilla, N



Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Haddix, T. M.; Holte, L. D.; Wilson, R. H.; Bartron, M. L.; Kalie, J. A.; DeHaan, P. W.; Ardren, W. R.; Holm, R. J.; Jaeger, M. E.



Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: A comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r2 ??? 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both ??15N and ??13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day-1) using stable ??15N and ??13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue ??15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but ??13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species. ?? 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Andvik, R. T.; VanDeHey, J. A.; Fincel, M. J.; French, W. E.; Bertrand, K. N.; Chipps, S. R.; Klumb, R. A.; Graeb, B. D. S.



An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean?=?0.66–0.70 m?s?1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m?s?1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day?1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Ruggles, M. P.; Brandt, T. F.; Legare, R. G.; Holm, R. J.



A novel image-analysis toolbox enabling quantitative analysis of root system architecture.  


We present in this paper a novel, semiautomated image-analysis software to streamline the quantitative analysis of root growth and architecture of complex root systems. The software combines a vectorial representation of root objects with a powerful tracing algorithm that accommodates a wide range of image sources and quality. The root system is treated as a collection of roots (possibly connected) that are individually represented as parsimonious sets of connected segments. Pixel coordinates and gray level are therefore turned into intuitive biological attributes such as segment diameter and orientation as well as distance to any other segment or topological position. As a consequence, user interaction and data analysis directly operate on biological entities (roots) and are not hampered by the spatially discrete, pixel-based nature of the original image. The software supports a sampling-based analysis of root system images, in which detailed information is collected on a limited number of roots selected by the user according to specific research requirements. The use of the software is illustrated with a time-lapse analysis of cluster root formation in lupin (Lupinus albus) and an architectural analysis of the maize (Zea mays) root system. The software, SmartRoot, is an operating system-independent freeware based on ImageJ and relies on cross-platform standards for communication with data-analysis software. PMID:21771915

Lobet, Guillaume; Pagès, Loïc; Draye, Xavier



Modeling the Transport and Utilization of Carbon and Nitrogen in a Nodulated Legume 1  

PubMed Central

An empirical modeling technique was developed for depicting quantitatively the transport and partitioning of photosynthetically fixed C and symbiotically fixed N during 10-day intervals of a 40-day period in the growth of nodulated plants of white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra). Model construction utilized data for C and N consumption of plant parts and C:N weight ratios of the xylem and phloem fluids serving specific plant organs. Formulas were derived from calculating the net transport of C and N between plant parts in xylem and phloem. The models provided quantitative information on the dependence of growing organs on xylem and phloem for their supply of C and N, the cycling of N through leaflets and of C through nodules, the extent of direct incorporation of fixed N into growing nodules, and the involvement of N from shoot translocate in the nutrition of the nodulated root. Stem plus petioles abstracted considerably more N from xylem than expected from their transpirational activity. Xylem to phloem transfer of recently fixed N in mature stem and petioles was substantiated by the models, being depicted as a device for dispensing N to growing parts of the shoot extra to that attracted transpirationally in xylem or received as translocate from leaflets.

Pate, John S.; Layzell, David B.; McNeil, David L.



Asparagine Metabolism--Key to the Nitrogen Nutrition of Developing Legume Seeds 1  

PubMed Central

Asparagine accounted for 50 to 70% of the nitrogen carried in translocatory channels serving fruit and seed of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). Rates of supply of the amide always greatly exceeded its incorporation as such into protein. An asparaginase (l-asparagine amido hydrolase EC was demonstrated in crude extracts of seeds. In vitro activity was up to 5 ?moles of aspartate formed per hour per gram fresh weight at the apparent KmAsn value of 10 mM, and this more than accounted for the estimated rates of asparagine utilization in vivo. Asparaginase activity per seed increased 10-fold in the period 5 to 7 weeks after anthesis, coinciding with early stages of storage protein synthesis in the cotyledons. Double labeled (14C (U), 15N (amide)) asparagine was fed to fruiting shoots through the transpiration steram. Fruit phloem sap analysis indicated that virtually all of the label was translocated to seeds in the form of asparagine. In young seeds 15N from asparagine breakdown was traced to the ammonia, glutamine, and alanine of endospermic fluid, the 14C appearing mainly in nonamino compounds. In the cotyledon-filling stage the C and N of asparagine was contributed to a variety of amino acid residues of protein.

Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.; Sharkey, Patrick J.



Modeling the transport and utilization of carbon and nitrogen in a nodulated legume.  


An empirical modeling technique was developed for depicting quantitatively the transport and partitioning of photosynthetically fixed C and symbiotically fixed N during 10-day intervals of a 40-day period in the growth of nodulated plants of white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra). Model construction utilized data for C and N consumption of plant parts and C:N weight ratios of the xylem and phloem fluids serving specific plant organs. Formulas were derived from calculating the net transport of C and N between plant parts in xylem and phloem. The models provided quantitative information on the dependence of growing organs on xylem and phloem for their supply of C and N, the cycling of N through leaflets and of C through nodules, the extent of direct incorporation of fixed N into growing nodules, and the involvement of N from shoot translocate in the nutrition of the nodulated root. Stem plus petioles abstracted considerably more N from xylem than expected from their transpirational activity. Xylem to phloem transfer of recently fixed N in mature stem and petioles was substantiated by the models, being depicted as a device for dispensing N to growing parts of the shoot extra to that attracted transpirationally in xylem or received as translocate from leaflets. PMID:16660802

Pate, J S; Layzell, D B; McNeil, D L



Apple polygalacturonase inhibiting protein1 expressed in transgenic tobacco inhibits polygalacturonases from fungal pathogens of apple and the anthracnose pathogen of lupins.  


Extracts from apple fruit (cultivar "Granny Smith") inhibited the cell-wall degrading polygalacturonase (PG) activity of Colletotrichum lupini, the causal agent of anthracnose on lupins, as well as Aspergillus niger PG. Southern blot analysis indicated that this cultivar of apple has a small gene family of polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (pgips), and therefore heterologous expression in transgenic tobacco was used to identify the specific gene product responsible for the inhibitory activity. A previously isolated pgip gene, termed Mdpgip1, was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The mature MdPGIP1 protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from tobacco leaves by high salt extraction, clarification by DEAE-Sepharose and cation exchange HPLC. Purified MdPGIP1 inhibited PGs from C. lupini and PGs from two economically important pathogens of apple trees, Botryosphaeria obtusa and Diaporthe ambigua. It did not inhibit the A. niger PG, which was in contrast to the apple fruit extract used in this study. We conclude that there are at least two active PGIPs expressed in apple, which differ in their charge properties and ability to inhibit A. niger PG. PMID:16364381

Oelofse, Dean; Dubery, Ian A; Meyer, Riaan; Arendse, Melanie S; Gazendam, Inge; Berger, Dave K



Oxalotrophy, a widespread trait of plant-associated Burkholderia species, is involved in successful root colonization of lupin and maize by Burkholderia phytofirmans  

PubMed Central

Plant roots and shoots harbor complex bacterial communities. Early seed and plantlet colonization plays a key role in determining which bacterial populations will successfully invade plant tissues, yet the mechanisms enabling plants to select for beneficial rather than harmful populations are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a role of oxalate as a determinant in this selection process, using members of the genus Burkholderia as model organisms. Oxalotrophy, i.e., the ability to use oxalate as a carbon source, was found to be a property strictly associated with plant-beneficial species of the Burkholderia genus, while plant pathogenic (B. glumae, B. plantarii) or human opportunistic pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia complex strains) were unable to degrade oxalate. We further show that oxalotrophy is required for successful plant colonization by the broad host endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN: an engineered ?oxc mutant, which lost the ability to grow on oxalate, was significantly impaired in early colonization of both lupin and maize compared with the wild-type. This work suggests that in addition to the role of oxalate in heavy metal tolerance of plants and in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi, it is also involved in specifically recruiting plant-beneficial members from complex bacterial communities.

Kost, Thomas; Stopnisek, Nejc; Agnoli, Kirsty; Eberl, Leo



Effects of the aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis seeds on the growth and development of Hypothenemus hampei: an inhibitor showing high homology with storage proteins.  


The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei is a pest that causes great economic damage to coffee grains worldwide. Because the proteins consumed are digested by aspartic proteases in the insect's midgut, the inhibition of these proteases by transferring a gene encoding an aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis Benth. to coffee plants could provide a promising strategy to control this pest. Five aspartic protease inhibitors from L. bogotensis (LbAPI) were accordingly purified and characterized. The gene encoding the L. bogotensis aspartic protease inhibitor (LbAPI), with the highest inhibitory activity against H. hampei, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant protein (rLbAPI), with a molecular mass of 15 kDa, was subsequently assessed for its ability to inhibit the aspartic protease activity present in the H. hampei midgut in vitro, as well as its effects on the growth and development of H. hampei in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that rLbAPI was highly effective against aspartic proteases from H. hampei guts, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.9 ?g. The in vivo experiments showed that the concentration of rLbAPI (w/w) in the artificial diet necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of the larvae was 0.91%. The amino acid sequence of LbAPI had high homology (52-80%) to the seed storage proteins, vicilin and ?-conglutin, suggesting that this protein was generated by evolutionary events from a ?-conglutin precursor. Based on these results, LbAPI may have a dual function as storage protein, and as defense protein against H. hampei. These results provide a promising alternative to obtain a coffee plant resistant to H. hampei. PMID:24314849

Molina, Diana; Patiño, Luisa; Quintero, Mónica; Cortes, José; Bastos, Sara



The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Larvae of the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, feed solely on wild lupine, Lupinus perennis, from the emergence to summer senescence of the plant. Wild lupine is most abundant in open areas but Karner blue females oviposit more frequently on lupines growing in moderate shade. Can differences in lupine quality between open and shaded areas help explain this disparity in resource use? Furthermore, many lupines are senescent before the second larval brood completes development. How does lupine senescence affect larval growth? We addressed these questions by measuring growth rates of larvae fed lupines of different phenological stages and lupines growing under different shade conditions. The habitat conditions under which lupines grew and plant phenological stage did not generally affect final larval or pupal weight but did significantly affect duration of the larval period. Duration was shortest for larvae fed leaves from flowering lupines and was negatively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration. Ovipositing in areas of moderate shade should increase second-brood larval exposure to flowering lupines. In addition, larval growth was significantly faster on shade-grown lupines that were in seed than on similar sun-grown lupines. These are possible advantages of the higher-than-expected oviposition rate on shade-grown lupines. Given the canopy-related trade-off between lupine abundance and quality, maintenance of canopy heterogeneity is an important conservation management goal. Larvae were also fed leaves growing in poor soil conditions and leaves with mildew infection. These and other feeding treatments that we anticipated would inhibit larval growth often did not. In particular, ant-tended larvae exhibited the highest weight gain per amount of lupine eaten and a relatively fast growth rate. This represents an advantage of ant tending to Karner blue larvae.

Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.



Growth performance, gastrointestinal function and meat quality in growing-finishing turkeys fed diets with different levels of yellow lupine (L. luteus) seeds.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a different dietary content of sweet yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on gastrointestinal tract development and function, the growth performance (13-18 weeks of age) and meat quality of growing-finishing turkeys. Control grower and finisher diets contained soybean meal (SBM), and in experimental diets, SBM was replaced with YLM at 6%, 12% and 18% (Groups L6, L12 and L18, respectively). The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic. In the first phase of feeding, YLM tended to decrease feed intake (p = 0.087) and body weight gain (BWG, p = 0.078) linearly due to significant deterioration in feed conversion ratio (FCR, p = 0.030). An opposite trend was noted in the second phase of feeding: BWG increased (p = 0.069) and FCR improved significantly (p = 0.004). Over the entire experiment, inclusion of YLM did not affect feed intake, BWG, FCR or excreta dry matter (DM) content. The highest YLM dietary level had no adverse effects on fermentation processes in the caeca. Positive changes, which were observed in turkeys fed YLM-supplemented diets, included an increased gizzard weight, a decreased pH of gizzard contents and a decreased viscosity of small intestinal digesta. The inclusion of YLM at 18% had no effect on carcass quality, the pH and colour intensity of breast meat. The highest inclusion rate of YLM (18%) in turkey diets significantly (p < 0.05) intensified the fatty flavour of meat and increased its hardness, springiness and chewiness, whereas it had no effect on the appearance, aroma and overall acceptability of breast meat. It can be concluded that YLM at the highest dietary rate used in the present experiment (18% of the diet) had no adverse effects on the growth performance or the analysed physiological parameters of turkeys. PMID:24870269

Zdu?czyk, Zenon; Jankowski, Jan; Mikulski, Dariusz; Mikulska, Marzena; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Slominski, Bogdan A; Ju?kiewicz, Jerzy



Cyanide Metabolism in Higher Plants: Cyanoalanine Hydratase is a NIT4 Homolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanoalanine hydratase (E.C. is an enzyme involved in the cyanide detoxification pathway of higher plants and catalyzes\\u000a the hydrolysis of ?-cyano-l-alanine to asparagine. We have isolated the enzyme from seedlings of blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) to obtain protein sequence information for molecular cloning. In contrast to earlier reports, extracts of blue lupine cotyledons\\u000a were found also to contain cyanoalanine-nitrilase

Markus Piotrowski; Julia Jutta Volmer



Phloem bleeding from legume fruits—A technique for study of fruit nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleeding from phloem of cut distal tips of attached fruits was demonstrated in the genera Spartium, Genista, Lupinus and Jacksonia. Bleeding occurred over a 2–25 min period enabling 0.5–10 µl of sap to be collected from a fruit. A detailed study of Lupinus albus L. showed that exudation rate declined exponentially after cutting, but without any change with time in

J. S. Pate; P. J. Sharkey; O. A. M. Lewis



Effect of diets containing whole white lupin seeds on rabbit doe milk yield and milk fatty acid composition as well as the growth and health of their litters.  


The effect of dietary inclusion of white lupin seed (WLS) on the milk composition and yield of rabbit does as well as the performance of their litters was studied. Two lactation diets having identical digestible protein (DP):DE ratio and two weaning diets having identical DP:DE ratio were formulated. The first lactation diet (SL) contained soybean meal (SBM; 13.0%) and sunflower meal (5.0%) as the main CP sources, whereas the second lactation diet (LL) was based on WLS (25.0%). As a result, the LL diet had a greater ether extract (EE) content than did the SL diet. The first weaning diet (SW) included SBM (7.0%) as the main CP source, whereas the second weaning diet (LW) diet was based on WLS (12.0%). No additional fat was added to any of the diets. A total of 32 (16 per treatment) Hyplus PS 19 does (4,225 ± 607 g BW, at the second parturition) were fed 1 of the 2 lactation diets. The litters were standardized to 9 kits (564 ± 81 g BW) on the day of birth and were fed 1 of the 2 weaning diets from d 17 to 69 of age. At d 30 of age (weaning), 66 rabbits on each weaning diet (689 ± 71 g BW; 3 per cage) were used to evaluate performance. Feed intake and doe BW were not affected by the dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be higher between d 1 and 30 of lactation in does fed the LL diet (P = 0.094), a finding that is related to the higher dietary EE content and intake in the LL diet. When expressed per kilogram of metabolic weight, milk output (P < 0.05) and fat output (P < 0.05) were greater in these does. Improved G:F (P < 0.05) between d 1 and 21 of lactation and greater ADG (P = 0.072) and milk efficiency (P < 0.05) of litters was observed in does fed the LL diet. The milk of does fed the LL diet contained less linoleic acid (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (C 20:4n-6; P < 0.05) and more oleic acid (P < 0.05), ?-linolenic acid (P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenic acid (P < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the total PUFA n-3:C 20:4n-6 ratio (P < 0.05). The performance of fattening rabbits was not affected by dietary treatment. The number of ill plus dead rabbits caused by digestive disease was lower (P < 0.05) in rabbits fed the LW diet. Therefore, WLS is a suitable dietary CP source for lactating does that can replace traditionally used CP sources without adverse effects on feed intake and milk yield or on the growth and viability of their litters. Due to its fatty acid (FA) composition, the use of WLS in the lactation diet has the potential to improve the milk FA composition of does. PMID:24663193

Volek, Z; Marounek, M; Volková, L; Kudrnová, E



The nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora in soilof the Bodega marine reserve: distribution and dependenceon nematode-parasitized moth larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 13 nematode-trapping fungi previously detected at the Bodega Marine Reserve (BMR, Sonoma County, CA, USA), Arthrobotrys oligospora is by far the most abundant. Why A. oligospora is so abundant is unclear, but the answer may involve bush lupines (Lupinus arboreus), ghost moth larvae (Hepialus californicus), and insect-parasitic nematodes (Heterorhabditis marelatus). Previous research documented a dramatic increase of A.

F. C. Farrell; B. A. Jaffee; D. R. Strong



77 FR 40375 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orzell, Avon Park, Florida Applicant requests authorization to collect a small number of leaves from a limited number of Lupinus aridorum (scrub lupine) to conduct genetic research. This activity will occur on the McLeod Unit of the Lakes Wales...



Toward Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. PART I. Analysis of the Primary Links of the Production Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. R. Owusu Apenten, Department of Food Science, The Leeds University, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods that can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum),

Anita R. Linnemann; Dolf Swaving Dijkstra



Restoring resources for an endangered butterfly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Recent changes in land use have resulted in dramatic habitat loss for numerous species. More than 99% of the habitat for Fender's blue butterfly Icaricia icarioides fenderi , an endangered butterfly in Oregon, USA, has been lost. 2. Fender's blue butterflies require larval host-plants (Kincaid's lupine Lupinus sul- phureus kincaidii ) and nectar from native wildflowers. 3. An




Rapid transformations of plant water-soluble organic compounds in relation to cation mobilization in an acid Oxisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of plant residues on the surface of acid soils in no-tillage cropping systems reportedly increases the downward mobility of Ca and Al. This study investigated the effects of application of aqueous extracts of residues of radish (Raphanus sativus), blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), black oat (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glicine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), without incubation (initial extract) or

J. C. Franchini; F. J. Gonzalez-Vila; F. Cabrera; M. Miyazawa; M. A. Pavan



Aromatase (P450arom) and 11beta-hydroxylase (P45011beta) genes are differentially expressed during the sex change process of the protogynous rice field eel, Monopterus albus.  


Steroids are known to play a crucial role in gonadal sex differentiation in many non-mammalian vertebrates, but also in the gonadal sex change of hermaphroditic teleosts. We investigated the expression of two genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes, i.e., cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) and cytochrome P45011beta-hydroxylase (P45011beta), during the sex change of the protogynous rice field eel, Monopterus albus. Using RT-PCR with degenerate primers, we cloned rice field eel homologous fragments for both genes (rcP450arom and rcP45011beta) as indicated by the high level of homology with P450arom and P45011beta sequences from various vertebrates. Gonadal expression of rcP450arom and rcP45011beta mRNA levels were then assessed during the sex change by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and a real-time RT-PCR. rcP450arom was predominantly expressed in ovary, much less in ovotestis, and barely in testis. Conversely, P45011beta was markedly up-regulated at the onset of testicular development. These findings underline that regulation of steroidogenesis is an important process in the sex change of protogynous rice field eel, and they clearly indicate that the concomitant down-regulation of P450arom and up-regulation of P45011beta are of pivotal importance to the sex change of this species. PMID:18807204

Liu, Ji-Fang; Guiguen, Yann; Liu, Shao-Jun



Modified micro suction cup\\/rhizobox approach for the in-situ detection of organic acids in rhizosphere soil solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root–soil interactions can strongly influence the soil solution chemistry in the rhizosphere. In the present study we propose a modification of the classical rhizobox\\/micro suction cup system to make it suitable for the collection and analysis of organic acids in the rhizosphere. In order to show the potential of the method, we tested the modified system with Lupinus albus L.

Jacynthe Dessureault-Rompré; Bernd Nowack; Rainer Schulin; Jörg Luster



Xylem to phloem transfer of solutes in fruiting shoots of legumes, studied by a phloem bleeding technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons were made of the levels of various solutes in xylem (tracheal) sap and fruit tip phloem sap of Lupinus albus (L.) and Spartium junceum (L.). Sucrose was present at high concentration (up to 220 mg ml-1) in phloem but was absent from xylem whereas nitrate was detected in xylem (up to 0.14 mg ml-1) but not in phloem. Total

J. S. Pate; P. J. Sharkey; O. A. M. Lewis



Suppression of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Potting Mixes Amended with Uncomposted and Composted Animal Manures.  


ABSTRACT We examined the effects of fresh and composted animal manures on the development of root rot, dieback, and plant death caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Fresh chicken manure, or chicken manure composted for 5 weeks before incorporation into the potting mix (25%, vol/vol), significantly reduced pathogen survival and the development of symptoms on Lupinus albus seedlings. Chicken manure composted for 2 weeks was less suppressive. Cow, sheep, and horse manure, whether fresh or composted, did not consistently suppress populations of P. cinnamomi or disease symptoms at the rates used (25%, vol/vol). All composts increased organic matter content, total biological activity, and populations of actinomycetes, fluorescent pseudomonads, and fungi. Only chicken manure stimulated endospore-forming bacteria, a factor that was strongly associated with seedling survival. Fallowing the potting mix for an additional 8 weeks after the first harvest increased the survival of lupin seedlings in a second bioassay, with survival rates in chicken manure compost-amended potting mix exceeding 90%. These data suggest that the ability of composted manure to stimulate sustained biological activity, in particular the activity of endospore-forming bacteria, is the key factor in reducing disease symptoms caused by P. cinnamomi. Supporting these results, the survival of rooted cuttings of Thryptomene calycina was significantly higher in sand-peat potting mix following amendment with commercially available chicken manure (15% vol/vol). However, this protection was reduced if the potting mix was steam pasteurized before amendment, indicating that suppression was due to endogenous as well as introduced microbes. Chicken manure compost incorporated at 5% (vol/vol) or more was strongly phytotoxic to young Banksia spinulosa plants and is not suitable as an amendment for phosphorus-sensitive plants. PMID:18944498

Aryantha, I P; Cross, R; Guest, D I



Uptake and Utilization of Xylem-borne Amino Compounds by Shoot Organs of a Legume 1  

PubMed Central

Amino compounds representative of the major N solutes of xylem sap were pulse-fed (10 to 20 minutes) singly in 14C-labeled form to cut transpiring shoots of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). 14C distribution was studied by autoradiography and radioassays of phloem sap, leaflet tissues, and shoot parts harvested at intervals after labeling. Primary distribution of N by xylem was simulated using a 20-minute labeling pulse followed by a 30-minute chase in unlabeled xylem sap. Shoots fed 14C-labeled asparagine, glutamine, valine, serine, or arginine showed intense labeling of leaflet veins and marked retention (35 to 78%) of 14C by stem + petioles. Shoots fed 14C-labeled aspartic acid or glutamic acid showed heaviest 14C accumulation in interveinal regions of leaflets and low uptake (11 to 20%) of 14C by stem + petioles. Departing leaf traces were major sites of uptake of all amino compounds, and the implications of this were evaluated. Fruits acquired only 1 to 5% of the fed label directly from xylem, but more than doubled their intake during the period 30 to 160 minutes after feeding through receipt of 14C transferred from xylem to phloem in stem and leaves. 14C-Labeled asparagine and valine transferred directly from xylem to phloem, but the 14C of 14C-labeled aspartic acid and arginine appeared in phloem mainly as metabolic products of the fed compound. The labeling of the soluble pool of leaflets reflected these differences. The significance of heterogeneity in distribution and metabolism of xylem amino compounds in the shoot was discussed. Images

McNeil, David L.; Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.



Characterization of bacterial community structure in rhizosphere soil of grain legumes.  


Molecular techniques were used to characterize bacterial community structure, diversity (16S rDNA), and activity (16S rRNA) in rhizospheres of three grain legumes: faba beans (Vicia faba L., cv. Scirocco), peas (Pisum sativum L., cv. Duel) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L., cv. Amiga). All plants were grown in the same soil under controlled conditions in a greenhouse and sampled after fruiting. Amplified 16S rDNA and rRNA products (using universal bacterial primers) were resolved by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Distinct profiles were observed for the three legumes with most of the bands derived from RNA being a subset of those derived from DNA. Comparing the total bacterial profiles with actinomycete-specific ones (using actinomycete-specific primers) highlighted the dominance of this group in the three rhizospheres. 16S PCR and RT-PCR products were cloned to construct libraries and 100 clones from each library were sequenced. Actinomycetes and proteobacteria dominated the clone libraries with differences in the groups of proteobacteria. Absence of beta-subdivision members in pea and gamma-subdivision members of proteobacteria in faba bean rhizosphere was observed. Plant-dependent rhizosphere effects were evident from significant differences in the bacterial community structure of the legume rhizospheres under study. The study gives a detailed picture of both residing and "active" bacterial community in the three rhizospheres. The high abundance of actinomycetes in the rhizospheres of mature legumes indicates their possible role in soil enrichment after the legumes are plowed into the soil as biofertilizers. PMID:16003473

Sharma, S; Aneja, M K; Mayer, J; Munch, J C; Schloter, M



Cel6B of Thermobifidus fusca and a Cel5-CBM6 of Ruminococcus albus containing a cellulose binding site show synergistic effect on hydrolysis of native plant cellulose.  


Hydrolysis of cellulose requires two different types of cellulases: exo- and endocellulase. Here, we investigated for the hydrolysis of cellulose by two types of cellulases, an endoglucanase (Cel5) from Ruminococcus albus fused with the xylanase A cellulose binding domain II (CBM6) of Clostridium stercorarium and Thermobifidus fusca E3, an exoglucanase (Cel6B). Cel5-CBM6 or Cel6B showed a linear relationship between the production of soluble sugars and the incubation time when native alfalfa cellulose was used as a substrate. Cel5-CBM6 produces more soluble sugars than Cel6B and the hydrolysis of cellulose by a mixture of the two enzymes produces substantially more (22%) soluble sugars than the total amount produced by these enzymes individually. Although Cel5-CBM6 solubilized high quantities of sugars from alfalfa cellulose, it did not significantly decrease its crystallinity, while Cel6B decreased the crystallinity of cellulose by 34%. When the two cellulases were combined, a decrease of more than 50% in the content of crystalline cellulose was observed. The enzyme-gold labeling experiments revealed that both enzymes showed a high affinity for all substrates. Furthermore, simultaneous visualization of the enzyme-binding sites revealed the preferred substrates in native lignocellulosic material. When plant cellulose was pre-incubated with Cel5-CBM6, density of the gold labeling greatly increased suggesting that preliminary exposure of lignocellulosic material to Cel5-CBM6 may have enhanced the accessibility of the substrate to Cel5-CBM6 and Cel6B. This result provides a plausible explanation for the observed endo/exo cellulase synergism during hydrolysis. PMID:15063503

Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Turcotte, Ginette; Soo Kim, Yoon; Vézina, Louis-Philippe; Laberge, Serge



Roles of Morphology, Anatomy, and Aquaporins in Determining Contrasting Hydraulic Behavior of Roots1[OA  

PubMed Central

The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (Lax) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater Lax than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. Lax and root hydraulic conductance (Lr) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. Lax and Lr were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lpc) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lpc was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lpc by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced Lr. This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics.

Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C.; Turner, David W.; Tyerman, Stephen D.



Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally larger in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy openings and shade, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N. B.; Sulzman, C. L.



Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally large in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy opening and shades, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.



Green Manure as Nitrogen Source for Sweet Corn in a Warm–Temperate Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legumes utilized as GM may provide on-farm organic N. None- theless, data regarding GM use on sandy soils in warm-temperate environments remains scarce. We conducted a 2-yr field study to eval- uate growth and decomposition of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L., winter 2001-2002), and Cahaba white vetch (Vicia sativa L., winter 2002-2003) used as GM

C. M. Cherr; J. M. S. Scholberg; R. McSorley



on the Mt Hood National Forest and implications for seed collection and deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of a common-garden study of broadleaf lupine (Lupinus latifolius Lindl. ex J.G.Agardh ssp. latifolius (Fabaceae)) indicates that use of watershed delineations is better than use of plant association series for determining seed zones on the Mt Hood National Forest. Risk analysis further confirmed that only 4 seed zones are required, providing a reasonable compromise between managing costs and maintaining

David L Doede; Broadleaf Lupine



Grain legume species in low rainfall Mediterranean-type environments II. Canopy development, radiation interception, and dry-matter production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptation of a wide range of grain legume species (Lupinus albus L. cv. Kiev mutant, L. angustifolius L. cv. Yorrel, L. atlanticus L. accs. P22924 and P22927, L. pilosus Murr. acc. P23030, Cicer arietinum L. acc. T1587, Lens culinaris Med. acc. ILL6002 and cv. Digger, Vicia faba L. cv. Fiord,V. narbonensis L. acc. ACT60104, Lathyrus cicera L. acc. 495,

B. D. Thomson; K. H. M. Siddique



Comparison of life history parameters of two Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) strains in New Zealand.  


Two strains of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), are reputedly found in New Zealand. One strain was recorded in 1934, and it is most common in flowers of Lupinus arboreus outdoors (lupin strain); the other strain was first recorded in New Zealand in 1992 and is found mostly indoors on greenhouse crops (greenhouse strain). Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the life history parameters of these two strains. Thrips from each strain were fed sucrose solution and capsicum or lupin pollen and reared at 25 degrees C, >60% RH, and 16 L:8 D photoperiod. Significant differences in life history parameters were found. Preoviposition time was significantly shorter, and oviposition rate and fecundity were markedly higher (four-fold) for the greenhouse than for the lupin strain. The lupin strain performed significantly better on the capsicum pollen, laying more than twice as many eggs than on the lupin pollen over a 14-d period. The greenhouse strain development time from larvae to adult was marginally faster (0.7-1.1 d less) than the lupin strain because of a shorter prepupal and a marginally shorter pupal development time. Females of the greenhouse strain lived on average 69% longer than females from the lupin strain. Large differences in the intrinsic growth rate (r(m)) were found, with r(m) being 1.4-1.8 times higher for the greenhouse strain than the lupin strain, depending on pollen source. The results are discussed in relation to different ecological requirements and pest status of the two strains. PMID:20388257

Nielsen, M-C; Teulon, D A J; Chapman, R B; Butler, R C; Drayton, G M; Philipsen, H



Classification of Staphylococcus albus strains isolated from the urinary tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Gram-positive, catalase-positive, coagulase-negative cocci isolated from urine specimens were classified by the system of Baird-Parker (1963). Urinary infections attributed to instrumentation or pathological abnormalities of the urinary tract were caused almost entirely by various Staphylococcus subgroups. These showed a wide range of antibiotic sensitivities, unrelated to subgroups and not obviously related to previous chemotherapy. Attacks of cystitis occurring

R. G. Mitchell



Modification of Baird-Parkers's classification system of Staphylococcus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study was to check the possibilities of differentiating coagulase-negative staphylococci with the help of biochemical and morphological characteristics. Altogether 59 reactions were examined on a material of 147 strains, which were isolated from human pathogenic processes in USA, Canada, Denmark, CSSR and Germany.

K. Pelzer; G. Pulverer; J. Jeljaszewicz; J. Pillich



Growth of Bacterium coli and Staphylococcus albus in Heavy Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the mid 1930's when heavy water became available, workers experimenting on its biological effects reported delayed growth, complete inhibition, and morphological changes in many types of organisms including bacteria1,2. Some reported normal growth3. Recently Walker and Syrett4 confirmed the inhibition of autotrophic growth of Chlorella by heavy water but found less inhibition in the presence of glucose.

Elizabeth van Horn; G. C. Ware



Small mammals cause non-trophic effects on habitat and associated snails in a native system.  


Legacy effects occur when particular species or their interactions with others have long-lasting impacts, and they are increasingly recognized as important determinants of ecological processes. However, when such legacy effects have been explicitly explored, they most often involve the long-term direct effects of species on systems, as opposed to the indirect effects. Here, we explore how a legacy of small mammal exclusion on the abundance of a shrub, bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus), influences the abundance of a native land snail (Helminthoglypta arrosa) in coastal prairie and dune habitats in central California. The factors that limit populations of land snails are very poorly known despite the threats to the persistence of this group of species. In grasslands, prior vole (Microtus californicus) exclusion created long-lasting gains in bush lupine abundance, mediated through the seedbank, and was associated with increased snail numbers (10×) compared to control plots where mammals were never excluded. Similar plots in dune habitat showed no difference in snail numbers due to previous mammal exclusion. We tested whether increased competition for food, increased predation, and/or lower desiccation explained the decline in snail numbers in plots with reduced lupine cover. Tethering experiments supported the hypothesis that voles can have long-lasting impacts as ecosystem engineers, reducing woody lupine habitat required for successful aestivation by snails. These results add to a growing list of studies that have found that non-trophic interactions can be limiting to invertebrate consumers. PMID:21691854

Huntzinger, Mikaela; Karban, Richard; Maron, John L



Elevated CO(2) and nitrogen effects on a dominant N(2)- fixing shrub  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The responses of N2-fixing species to global change are likely to be an important component in predicting the existence and direction of feedbacks between carbon and nitrogen cycles, as both are radically changing at an unprecedented pace. Increased carbon storage may be more likely in ecosystems not limited by available nitrogen, such as those with abundant N2-fixing species. If elevated CO2 affects growth and N2-fixation of dominant N2-fixers, then non-fixers in the system may experience indirect effects through changes in competitive interactions and nitrogen availability. The goal of this research was to investigate these effects on the growth, competitive ability, leaf and litter chemistry, and litter decomposition of Lupinus arboreus, a N2-fixing evergreen shrub, and to test the central hypothesis that an increase in growth and competitive ability would occur at low nitrogen and high CO2. In a growth chamber experiment, three CO2 levels, 350, 500, and 650 ppm were crossed with two nitrogen levels. Lupins were grown alone or in competition with an introduced annual grass, Bromus diandrus. Contrary to findings from previous studies of positive growth and competition responses by N2-fixers, Lupinus seedlings demonstrated no significant responses to CO2. Nitrogen was far more important than CO2 in affecting relative competitive ability. Nitrogen, alkaloids, and C:N ratios in fresh foliage did not change with CO2 or nitrogen. Carbon and biomass increased slightly in lupins at 500 ppm only, suggesting an early but limited growth response. Nitrogen did decrease in lupin litter at elevated CO2, but there were no effects on litter decomposition rates in the field. Simulations by the CENTURY surface litter decomposition model predicted the litter decomposition rates of field-grown litter nearly perfectly, and predicted the general direction but underestimated the rate of litter from the greenhouse grown at different CO2 levels. Very low or high nitrogen decreased growth and competitive ability of lupin seedlings in an additional greenhouse experiment. Slight increases of nitrogen in the field did not affect lupin aboveground biomass. In conclusion, it is unlikely that Lupinus abundance or rate of its nitrogen inputs will be affected by elevated CO2 and/or changes in nitrogen availability.

Wallace, Alison Marie


Melatonin: a growth-stimulating compound present in lupin tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxi-tryptamine), a well-known animal hormone synthetised by the pineal gland, plays a key role in the circadian rhythm of vertebrates. An exhaustive bibliographical revision of studies on melatonin in plants published since 1990 points to very few studies (around 20), of which only 8 have a clear plant physiological focus. The data presented in this study demonstrate that melatonin

Josefa Hernández-Ruiz; Antonio Cano; Marino B. Arnao



Water distribution at the root-soil interface: is there more water next to roots?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are big water movers and have a significant impact on soil water dynamics as well as on the global water cycle. Despite the relevance of root water uptake in terrestrial ecology, the movement of water from soil to roots still presents important open questions, e.g the following two. Which are the properties of the soil near the roots? And what effect do these properties have on soil plant water relations? Most models are based on brute-force spatial averaging of soil properties and assume that the bulk soil has the same properties as the rhizosphere. However, there is evidence in the literature that the rhizosphere has specific properties that may affect water and nutrient uptake (Young 1995, Gregory 2007). In order to investigate the rhizosphere hydraulic properties and their effect on soil plant water relations, we used neutron radiography and neutron tomography to image the water content distribution in soils during plant transpiration. Rectangular (quasi-2D) and cylindrical containers were filled with sandy soil and planted with lupins (Lupinus albus). Three weeks after planting, the samples were equilibrated at water potentials of -10 and 30 hPa and have been imaged for 5 days at intervals of 6 hours. At day 5 the samples were irrigated again via capillary rise and the water distribution was monitored for 4 more days. During the first day of the drying period, regions of water depletion formed around the central part of the tap root where first order laterals were present. As the soil dried up, the picture changed: instead of less water around the roots, as commonly supposed by models, we observed that more water was present around the lateral roots. Interestingly, these regions during drying were retaining high water content, but after irrigation remained markedly drier than the bulk soil. Our hypothesis is that high water content near roots during drying and lower water content during rewetting are explained by the presence of bio-polymers exuded by roots forming a hydrogel that consists of up to 99% water at very negative water potentials (Read et al. 1999). Thanks to its high water holding capacity, this hydrogel maintains a continuous hydraulic pathway across soil and roots for an extended period of time during drying. During rewetting it adversely affects water redistribution, like a storage that needs time to fill up again. These data show for the first time in situ the potential role of mucilage in controlling water dynamics in the rhizosphere and consequences for plant water extraction. Gregory P J, Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science, 57: 2-12, 2006. Read D P, Gregory P J, and Bell A E. Physical properties of axenic maize root mucilage. Plant and Soil, 211: 87-91, 1999. Young I M. Variation in moisture contents between bulk soil and the rhizosheath of wheat. New Phytologist, 130: 135-139, 1995.

Carminati, A.; Moradi, A.; Oswald, S.; Vetterlein, D.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.



Macro- and microelement contents of some legume seeds.  


Macro- and microelement contents of legume seeds were determined by ICP-AES. The potassium K contents of seeds ranged between 7,426 mg/kg (Lupinus albus L.) and 16,558 mg/kg (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ssp. sphaericus Mart). In addition, while P contents of seeds changed from 2,719 mg/kg (L. albus L.) to 5,792 mg/kg (Vigna sinensis (L.) Savi), Ca contents ranged at the levels between 1,309 mg/kg (Cicer arietinum L.) and 2,781 mg/kg (L. albus L.). The microelement contents of samples were found to be different depending on several species. The iron levels of samples were determined at the levels between 90.51 mg/kg (Phaseolus mungo L.) and 152.80 mg/kg (P. vulgaris L. ssp. sphaericus Mart). In addition, Zn contents of seeds were found between 31.32 mg/kg (C. arietinum L.) and 44.75 mg/kg (V. sinensis (L.) Savi). PMID:23715731

Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Dursun, Nesim; Al Juhaimi, Fahad



Use of a single method in the extraction of the seed storage globulins from several legume species. Application to analyse structural comparisons within the major classes of globulins.  


In this study, a single, improved methodology was used to extract, fractionate and purify the 11S (legumin-type or related to the alpha-conglutin from Lupinus albus L.), 7S (vicilin-type or related to the beta-conglutin from L. albus) and 2S (related to the gamma-conglutin from L. albus) families of proteins from eight legume species: L. albus, Glycine max (L.) Merr., Pisum sativum L., Vicia faba L., Cicer arietinum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Lens culinaris Med. and Arachis hypogaea L. The sedimentation coefficients obtained varied from 1.9 to 8.1 for the gamma-conglutin-related proteins, from 5.1 to 10.5 for the beta-conglutin-related proteins and from 12.0 to 14.9 for the alpha-conglutin-related globulins. The gamma-conglutin-related proteins is the most heterogeneous group. Antibodies produced against each type of gamma-conglutin polypeptide chain recognize the other polypeptide chain as well as other polypeptides in the corresponding globulins from all species examined. The 7S globulins are typically composed of a large number of polypeptides, covering a wide range of molecular masses (10 to 70 kD). The presence of disulphide bonds is apparently absent and the occurrence of glycopolypeptides is not widespread. Finally, the 11S globulins are characteristically formed by a limited number of polypeptides that may be divided into a lighter group (20-25 kD) and a heavier group (35-50 kD). The presence of disulphide bonds is apparently widespread but the occurrence of glycopolypeptides seems to be relatively rare. Both the 7S family and the 11S globulins studied by immunoblotting exhibit a low level of structural similarity. PMID:11103299

Freitas, R L; Ferreira, R B; Teixeira, A R



Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.  


Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. PMID:22449544

Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R



Nanostructured liquid crystalline particles as an alternative delivery vehicle for plant agrochemicals.  


Agrochemical spray formulations applied to plants are often mixed with surfactants that facilitate delivery of the active ingredient. However, surfactants cause phytotoxicity and off-target effects in the environment. We propose the use of nanostructured liquid crystalline particles (NLCP) as an alternative to surfactant-based agrochemical delivery. For this, we have compared the application of commercial surfactants, di (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate and alkyl dimethyl betaine, with NLCP made from phytantriol, at concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 5% on the adaxial surface of leaves of four plant species Ttriticum aestivum (wheat), Zea mays (maize), Lupinus angustifolius (lupin), and Arabidopsis thaliana. In comparison with the application of surfactants there was less phytotoxicity on leaves of each species following treatment with NLCP. Following treatment of leaves with NLCP analysis of cuticular wax micromorphology revealed less wax solubilization in the monocot species. The results clearly show that there are advantages in the use of NLCP rather than surfactants for agrochemical delivery. PMID:23421455

Nadiminti, Pavani P; Dong, Yao D; Sayer, Chad; Hay, Phillip; Rookes, James E; Boyd, Ben J; Cahill, David M



Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy).  


In the years 2002-2003 research was carried out concerning ethnomedicine in the Acquapendente district (Viterbo, Latium, central Italy), an area so far less frequently studied from the perspective of plant folk traditions. The district, from the ethnobotanical point of view, shows traces of the influences of the neighbouring regions. In this study 96 plant entities are described, belonging to 45 families, of which 64 are employed in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 22 in the feeding of domestic animals, 5 as antiparasitics and 5 for other uses. Some medicinal uses are linked to beliefs or residual forms of magic prescriptions (11 plants). Amongst the more notable uses the most interesting are those of: Verbena officinalis (rheumatic pains, wounds), Juglans regia (antiparasitic use for cheeses), Santolina etrusca (antimoth use), Stellaria media and Lupinus albus (birdseed for poultry and fodder for lambs), and Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis (used to curdle milk). PMID:15619562

Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Forti, Gianluca; Marignoli, Silvia



Host resistance reverses the outcome of competition between microparasites.  


Predators and parasites can control the abundance or biomass of herbivores with indirect effects on producer communities and ecosystems, but the interplay of multiple natural enemies may yield unexpected dynamics. We experimentally examined interactions between two microparasites (entomopathogenic nematodes) isolated from sandy grassland soils of coastal California: Heterorhabditis marelatus (Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema feltiae (Steinernematidae). Heterorhabditis marelatus drives trophic cascades by attacking root- and stem-boring ghost moth caterpillars (Hepialus californicus, Hepialidae), thereby indirectly protecting bush lupine shrubs (Lupinus arboreus, Fabaceae). Extensive field surveys demonstrated sympatric overlap in microhabitat use under lupine canopies and similar mean prevalence of the two nematode species. Using a response-surface design in the laboratory, we varied relative and absolute microparasite densities to test for competitive outcomes within an evolutionary naive host, larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae), and within the native host Hepialus californicus. Independent of conspecific or interspecific density, S. feltiae dominated as expected over H. marelatus within the naive Galleria, but S. feltiae infected hosts at low frequency and showed lower reproductive fitness than H. marelatus within native Hepialus hosts. Contrary to studies that demonstrate the pairwise dominance of steinernematid over heterorhabditid species in laboratory hosts, host resistance to S. feltiae may provide a mechanism for coexistence of multiple microparasite species. We hypothesize that the ubiquitous field prevalence and rapid life history of S. feltiae imply its use of widespread, abundant but small-bodied hosts and indicate the lack of direct competition with H. marelatus in the Hepialus-Lupinus trophic cascade. PMID:19694121

Gruner, Daniel S; Kolekar, Arunima; McLaughlin, John P; Strong, Donald R



Ethanol production from cellobiose by Zymobacter palmae carrying the Ruminocuccus albus ?-glucosidase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Its metabolic characteristics suggest Zymobacter palmae gen. nov., sp. nov. could serve as a useful new ethanol-fermenting bacterium, but its biotechnological exploitation would require certain genetic improvements. We therefore established a method for transforming Z. palmae using the broad-host vector plasmids pRK290, pMFY31 and pMFY40 as a source of transforming DNA. Using electroporation, the frequency of transformation was 105 to

Hideshi Yanase; Keiko Yamamoto; Dai Sato; Kenji Okamoto



A study into the antibiotic effect of garlic Allium sativum on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative method involving colony counting was undertaken to assess the antibiotic effects of garlic Allium sativum on possible food-borne bacteria. The investigation using garlic was targeted at higher education students planning an Independent Study or Dissertation into the antibacterial properties of food plants. The effect of concentrations of garlic varying from 0 per cent to 20 per cent in

D. C. J. Maidment; Z. Dembny; C. Harding



Macrophage binding of Staphylococcus albus is blocked by anti I-region alloantibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell surface interactions involving carbohydrate may be important in immune recognition. Previous work from this laboratory has demonstrated the presence of `lectin-like' receptors on mouse peritoneal macrophages that bind bacteria by means of their cell wall sugars1-4. Others have shown that Ia molecules can bind antigen at specific sites which may be involved in presenting antigen to the immune system5

John Stewart; Elizabeth J. Glass; Donald M. Weir



Superoxide involvement in the bactericidal effects of negative air ions on Staphylococcus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical nature of small air ions is well established and it is recognised that they can produce a variety of biological effects1. However, in only a few instances have any underlying biochemical changes been detected2-4. Theoretically, one can consider the hydrated Superoxide radical anion (O2-) (H2O)n with n~=4-8 as a likely candidate for a biologically active species of negative

E. W. Kellogg; M. G. Yost; N. Barthakur; A. P. Kreuger



Investigation of Great Egret (Casmerodius albus) breeding success in Hara Biosphere Reserve of Iran.  


Study of Great Egret breeding success was carried out for the first time in Hara Biosphere Reserve of Iran. Since Great Egret is considered as wading bird as well as wetland-dependent species which is located on top of the food chain in this ecosystem, its breeding study is an appropriate means for evaluating food supply fluctuations and environmental threatening factors by comparison of different years. On the other hand, Great Egret is considered a suitable indicator to examination of biological changes, impact of pollutions, and other effective human activities on Hara Biosphere Reserve. Therefore, read-ahead is required for area management planning in order to maintain the health of mangrove ecosystem and control threatening factors of the sensitive biodiversity of area. The results indicate that the average breeding success of Great Egret in different stages of hatching success, fledging success, and breeding success were equal to 0.54, 0.61, and 0.50 in 2008 and 0.61, 0.59, and 0.42 in 2009, respectively. PMID:21049287

Neinavaz, Elnaz; Karami, Mahmood; Danehkar, Afshin



Resource availability, matrix quality, microclimate, and spatial pattern as predictors of patch use by the Karner blue butterfly  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determination of which aspects of habitat quality and habitat spatial arrangement best account for variation in a species' distribution can guide management for organisms such as the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), a federally endangered subspecies inhabiting savannas of Midwest and Eastern United States. We examined the extent to which three sets of predictors, (1) larval host plant (Lupinus perennis, wild lupine) availability, (2) characteristics of the matrix surrounding host plant patches, and (3) factors affecting a patch's thermal environment, accounted for variation in lupine patch use by Karner blues at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana and Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA. Each predictor set accounted for 7-13% of variation in patch occupancy by Karner blues at both sites and in larval feeding activity among patches at Indiana Dunes. Patch area, an indicator of host plant availability, was an exception, accounting for 30% of variation in patch occupancy at Indiana Dunes. Spatially structured patterns of patch use across the landscape accounted for 9-16% of variation in patch use and explained more variation in larval feeding activity than did spatial autocorrelation between neighboring patches. Because of this broader spatial trend across sites, a given management action may be more effective in promoting patch use in some portions of the landscape than in others. Spatial trend, resource availability, matrix quality, and microclimate, in general, accounted for similar amounts of variation in patch use and each should be incorporated into habitat management planning for the Karner blue butterfly.

Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N. B.



Phytostabilization of gold mine tailings, New Zealand. Part 1: Plant establishment in alkaline saline substrate.  


Tailings from the Macraes mine, southern New Zealand, are prone to wind erosion. Use of a vegetation cover for physical stabilization is one potential solution to this environmental problem. This study used field trials contained in lysimeters to 1), test the ability of different plant species to grow in un/amended tailings and 2), provide background information on the nutrient and chemical content of waters in tailings. Barley (Hordeum vulgare), blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and rye corn (Secale cereale) were trialed, using Superphosphate fertilizer and sewage sludge as amendments. Rye corn grew well in fertilizer-amended tailings, but poorly in unamended tailings; barley growth was similar in amended and unamended tailings; blue lupins grew poorly overall The tailings had alkaline pH (7-8.5) and water rapidly (< 1 mo) interacted with the tailings to become strongly saline. Minor acid generation was neutralized by calcite, with associated release of calcium and carbonate ions. Leachate waters were supersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. Dissolved sodium concentrations were up to 1000 mg L(-1), but elevated Ca2+ calcium and Mg2+ ensured that sodicity was lower than plant-toxic levels. Rye corn is a potentially useful plant for rapid phytostabilization of tailings, with only minor phosphate amendment required. PMID:16924962

Mains, D; Craw, D; Rufaut, C G; Smith, C M S



Bioactivities of some essential oils against the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator.  


Nasopharyngeal myiasis of camels is caused by the larvae of Cephalopina titillator. We determined the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) of pumpkin, Cucurbita maxima; lupinus, Lupinus luteus; garlic oil, Allium sativum; and peppermint, Mentha piperita, against the third larval stage of C. titillator using larval immersion tests. The positive control group was treated with ivermectin and the negative control one was treated with distilled water and few drops of Tween 80. Larvae were reared until adult emergence. The data indicated that complete larval mortalities were reached 24 h post treatment (PT) with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupinus, and 0.15 % ivermectin. The lethal values, LC50s, were 0.20, 0.44, 0.42, 0.47, and 0.03 %, respectively. Pumpkin and ivermectin were 2 and 17 times, respectively, more effective than the other EOs. Ivermectin was seven times more intoxicating than pumpkin oil. Formation of pupae had been stopped after treatment of larvae with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupines, and 0.04 % ivermectin. Adult emergence had been completely ceased following treatment of larvae with 0.5 % EOs and 0.04 % ivermectin. Morphological abnormalities were pronounced after treatments, and peppermint oil was the foremost cause of deformation in larvae (44 % PT with 7.5 %) and pupae (40 % PT with 2 %). Pumpkin oil (6 %) was selected to be the drug of choice for controlling C. titillator. Besides their insecticidal effects, EOs are much safer than ivermectin regarding health and environmental issues. Consequently, EOs described herein merit further study as potential nasal drench for C. titillator control. PMID:24276644

Khater, Hanem F



Impact of Lupinus Leucophyllous on the Nitrogen Budgets of Semi-Arid Plant Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the semi-arid grassland on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, three legume flushes occurred in the past decade. Estimates of leguminous nitrogen in both native and disturbed vegetation after a flush sh...

W. T. Hinds N. R. Hinds




EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


Ferritins and nodulation in Lupinus luteus: iron management in indeterminate type nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ability to form symbiotic associations with rhizobia and to utilize atmospheric nitrogen makes legumes ecologically successful. High iron content in legume grains, partially relocated from root nodules, is an- other-nutritional-advantage of this group of plants. The ferritin complex is the major cell iron storage and detoxification unit and has been recognized as a marker of many stress-induced responses. The

Pawel M. Strozycki; Anna Szczurek; Barbara Lotocka; Marek Figlerowicz; Andrzej B. Legocki



Predicting Iron Chlorosis of Lupin in Calcareous Spanish Soils from Iron Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency chlorosis is a major nutritional problem affecting sensitive cultivated plants in calcareous soils. Our main objective was to study the suitability of various Fe extracts for predicting the inci- dence of Fe deficiency chlorosis in calcareous soils from southern Spain. Six single Fe extractions were used: unbuffered hydroxylamine (room temperature), DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) at 2 and 17 h,

Ana de Santiago; Antonio Delgado



Sophora flavescens (Kurara): In Vitro Culture and the Production of Lupin Alkaloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Sophora flavescens, (Kurara-Fig. 1) belongs to the family Leguminosae and is distributed in Mongolia, the eastern part of Russia, China, Korea, and Japan. The\\u000a dry roots of this plant have been used as antipyretic analgesic, bitter stomachic, anthelmintic, as an external preparation\\u000a for eczema, and an agricultural insecticide in China and Japan (Jiang su xin xue yuan 1977a; Mitsuhashi 1988).

K. Saito; M. Yamazaki; I. Murakoshi



EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


Island radiation on a continental scale: Exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes  

PubMed Central

Species radiations provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species diversification and patterns of biodiversity. To compare plant diversification over a similar time period to the recent cichlid fish radiations, which are an order of magnitude faster than documented bird, arthropod, and plant radiations, we focus on the high-altitude flora of the Andes, which is the most species-rich of any tropical mountains. Because of the recent uplift of the northern Andes, the upland environments where much of this rich endemic flora is found have been available for colonization only since the late Pliocene or Pleistocene, 2–4 million years (Myr) ago. Using DNA sequence data we identify a monophyletic group within the genus Lupinus representing 81 species endemic to the Andes. The age of this clade is estimated to be 1.18–1.76 Myr, implying a diversification rate of 2.49–3.72 species per Myr. This exceeds previous estimates for plants, providing the most spectacular example of explosive plant species diversification documented to date. Furthermore, it suggests that the high cichlid diversification rates are not unique. Lack of key innovations associated with the Andean Lupinus clade suggests that diversification was driven by ecological opportunities afforded by the emergence of island-like habitats after Andean uplift. Data from other genera indicate that lupines are one of a set of similarly rapid Andean plant radiations, continental in scale and island-like in stimulus, suggesting that the high-elevation Andean flora provides a system that rivals other groups, including cichlids, for understanding rapid species diversification.

Hughes, Colin; Eastwood, Ruth



Water repellency: a whole-farm bio-economic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A whole-farm bio-economic model was used to assess the profitability of innovations aimed at improving agricultural production on the non-wetting sands of wheatbelt farms of Western Australia. It was found that amelioration of water repellency might be an economical option for some farms in the northern wheatbelt of Western Australia. It was shown that a minimum of 30% increase in lupin yields and a 10% increase in wheat yields would be required before expenditure on innovations aimed at improving production on non-wetting soils could be justified. However, due to costs of amelioration of repellency much higher crop yield responses may be required for economical adoption of such innovations on most farms. The decision to ameliorate water repellency depends not only on the consideration of direct benefits and costs per hectare of ameliorated sand but also on other whole-farm factors. One such factor found to be important was the scale of relevance or the soil mix of the farm. It was found that farms with proportionately large areas of non-wetting sands were more likely to benefit from adoption of innovations aimed at amelioration of repellency. Another important factor in the decision to adopt innovations for amelioration of water repellency is availability of alternative enterprises on the non-wetting soils. In particular, whether or not sandplain lupins ( lupinus cosentinii) and tagasaste ( chamaecystisus proliferus) were options that a farmer could consider determined the profitability of taking remedial measures against water repellency. This study identified, through a series of sensitivity analyses, the magnitude of production responses that may be required for profitable amelioration of water repellency. Some gaps in our knowledge of biological and economic parameters related to costs and benefits of various innovations have also been highlighted and discussed.

Abadi Ghadim, A. K.



Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.  


Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P

Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N



Growth of Nitrogen-Fixing 'Alnus incana' and 'Lupinus' spp. for Restoration of Degenerated Forest Soil in Northern Sweden,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the interior of northern Sweden, more than 100,000 ha of previously productive forest land have degenerated soils. The presently thin humus layer and the resulting lack of mineralizable nitrogen and organic material results from strongly reduced litter...

K. Huss-Danell J. E. Lundmark



In planta selfing and oospore production of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the presence of Acacia pulchella.  


This paper provides the first evidence of A2 type 1 and type 2 isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi producing selfed oospores in planta in an Australian soil and in a potting mix. Oospores were observed in infected lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) roots incubated for 7d either in the substrate under potted Acacia pulchella plants, or in soils collected from under and near varieties of A. pulchella in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest. The A2 type isolates varied in their ability to produce selfed oospores and none were produced by A1 isolates. The gametangial association was amphigynous and spores were predominantly spherical with diameters from 13-40 microm. The oospores were viable but dormant. Two A2 type isolates produced small numbers of selfed oospores with amphigynous antheridia axenically in Ribeiro's liquid medium within 30 d, and one A2 type 2 isolate produced oospores after mating with an A1 strain. Evidence is presented that the presence of roots of Acacia pulchella, and particularly A. pulchella var. glaberrima and var. goadbyi, enhances the production of oospores. PMID:17350243

Jayasekera, Arunodini U; McComb, Jen A; Shearer, Bryan L; Hardy, Giles E St J



Ultrasound studies of the effects of certain poisonous plants on uterine function and fetal development in livestock.  


Ingestion of locoweed (Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp.) by pregnant livestock may result in fetal malformations, delayed placentation, reduced placental and uterine vascular development, hydrops amnii, hydrops allantois, abnormal cotyledonary development, interruption of fetal fluid balance, and abortion. Ultrasonography of pregnant sheep fed locoweed demonstrated that abortion was first preceded by changes in fetal heart rate and strength of contraction and structural changes of the cotyledons, followed by increased accumulation of fetal fluid within the placental membranes and death of the fetus. During pregnancy the toxic agent in locoweed (swainsonine) apparently passes through the placental barrier to the fetus and during lactation through the milk to the neonate. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), and lunara lupine (Lupinus formosus) all contain piperidine alkaloids and induce fetal malformations, including multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate in livestock. Ultrasonography studies of pregnant sheep and goats gavaged with these plants during 30 to 60 d of gestation suggests that the primary cause of multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate is the degree and the duration of the alkaloid-induced fetal immobilization. PMID:1526931

Bunch, T D; Panter, K E; James, L F



Effect of succession after fire on species contribution to evapotranspiration in sagebrush steppe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrubland ecosystems play an important role in the hydrology of the often drought stricken inter-mountain basins of the United Sates. Our objective was to investigate the impact of changing environmental conditions on three major plant functional types, shrubs, grasses and forbs. We measured changes in diurnal water flux from Artemisia tridentata var vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush), Elymus smithii (western wheatgrass) and Lupinus argentus (lupine) with changing environmental drivers for a sagebrush ecosystem fire chronosequence near the Sierra Madre Mountains, Wyoming, USA. The measurements were conducted on four stands ranging in age from 2 to 38 years, during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Leaf scale measurements and shrub sapflux were compared with ecosystem scale measurements. We explained the diurnal and monthly variability of water fluxes from June through October using vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, light and temperature. In the year 2005, peak ecosystem level evapotranspiration of 5-7 mmol m-2 s-1 was higher than 2004 with 2-3 mmol m-2 s-1. The interannual difference in evapotranspiration was explained by higher precipitation causing greater biomass, especially in non shrub species, in 2005. Our results show that environmental conditions have impacts on total evapotranspiration that depend on plant functional type.

Naithani, K.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Bayless, M. K.



Plant toxins that affect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a review.  


Plants produce a wide variety of chemical compounds termed secondary metabolites that are not involved in basic metabolism, photosynthesis, or reproduction. These compounds are used as flavors, fragrances, insecticides, dyes, hallucinogens, nutritional supplements, poisons, and pharmaceutical agents. However, in some cases these secondary metabolites found in poisonous plants perturb biological systems. Ingestion of toxins from poisonous plants by grazing livestock often results in large economic losses to the livestock industry. The chemical structures of these compounds are diverse and range from simple, low molecular weight toxins such as oxalate in halogeton to the highly complex norditerpene alkaloids in larkspurs. While the negative effects of plant toxins on people and the impact of plant toxins on livestock producers have been widely publicized, the diversity of these toxins and their potential as new pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of diseases in people and animals has also received widespread interest. Scientists are actively screening plants from all regions of the world for bioactivity and potential pharmaceuticals for the treatment or prevention of many diseases. In this review, we focus the discussion to those plant toxins extensively studied at the USDA Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory that affect the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors including species of Delphinium (Larkspurs), Lupinus (Lupines), Conium (poison hemlock), and Nicotiana (tobaccos). PMID:23848825

Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T



Consumers limit the abundance and dynamics of a perennial shrub with a seed bank  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For nearly 30 years, ecologists have argued that predators of seeds and seedlings seldom have population-level effects on plants with persistent seed banks and density-dependent seedling survival. We parameterized stage-based population models that incorporated density dependence and seed dormancy with data from a 5.5-year experiment that quantified how granivorous mice and herbivorous voles influence bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus) demography. We asked how seed dormancy and density-dependent seedling survival mediate the impacts of these consumers in dune and grassland habitats. In dune habitat, mice reduced analytical ?? (the intrinsic rate of population growth) by 39%, the equilibrium number of above-ground plants by 90%, and the seed bank by 98%; voles had minimal effects. In adjacent grasslands, mice had minimal effects, but seedling herbivory by voles reduced analytical ?? by 15% and reduced both the equilibrium number of aboveground plants and dormant seeds by 63%. A bootstrap analysis demonstrated that these consumer effects were robust to parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that the quantitative strengths of seed dormancy and density-dependent seedling survival-not their mere existence-critically mediate consumer effects. This study suggests that plant population dynamics and distribution may be more strongly influenced by consumers of seeds and seedlings than is currently recognized. ?? 2006 by The University of Chicago.

Kauffman, M. J.; Maron, J. L.



A Calluna vulgaris extract 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor shows potent antiproliferative effects on human leukemia HL-60 cells.  


A water-Calluna vulgaris extract (water-CVE) was found to be a relatively specific arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor and showed potent anti-proliferative effects on human leukemic HL60 cells. Water-CVE completely inhibited potato 5-lipoxygenase activity at 250 micrograms/ml, partially inhibited soybean 15-lipoxygenase at pH 7.4 and had no effect either on this 15-lipoxygenase at its optimal activity pH (pH 9) or on Lupinus albus 5-, 8-, 15-lipoxygenase. In culture, the proliferation and DNA synthesis of HL60 cells were decreased by water-CVE in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 200 micrograms/ml at day 4. This effect of water-CVE is related to the starting density of HL60 cells. These results suggest that arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase metabolites and/or leukotrienes could play an essential role in cellular functions of leukemic cells and may explain the success of the use of Calluna vulgaris as tea and baths in folk medicine. PMID:1419080

Najid, A; Simon, A; Delage, C; Chulia, A J; Rigaud, M



Transport of Organic Solutes in Phloem and Xylem of a Nodulated Legume 1  

PubMed Central

Collections of xylem exudate of root stumps or detached nodules, and of phloem bleeding sap from stems, petioles, and fruits were made from variously aged plants of Lupinus albus L. relying on nodules for their N supply. Sucrose was the major organic solute of phloem, asparagine, glutamine, serine, aspartic acid, valine, lysine, isoleucine, and leucine, the principal N solutes of both xylem and phloem. Xylem sap exhibited higher relative proportions of asparagine, glutamine and aspartic acid than phloem sap, but lower proportions of other amino acids. Phloem sap of petioles was less concentrated in asparagine and glutamine but richer in sucrose than was phloem sap of stem and fruit, suggesting that sucrose was unloaded from phloem and amides added to phloem as translocate passed through stems to sinks of the plant. Evidence was obtained of loading of histidine, lysine, threonine, serine, leucine and valine onto phloem of stems but the amounts involved were small compared with amides. Analyses of petiole phloem sap from different age groups of leaves indicated ontogenetic changes and effects of position on a shoot on relative rates of export of sucrose and N solutes. Diurnal fluctuations were demonstrated in relative rates of loading of sucrose and N solutes onto phloem of leaves. Daily variations in the ability of stem tissue to load N onto phloem streams were of lesser amplitude than, or out of phase with fluctuations in translocation of N from leaves. Data were related to recent information on C and N transport in the species.

Pate, John S.; Atkins, Craig A.; Hamel, Kathy; McNeil, David L.; Layzell, David B.



[Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].  


The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality. PMID:21519743

Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R



Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.



Photoreceptors and visual pigments in the retina of the fully anadromous green sturgeon ( Acipenser medirostrus ) and the potamodromous pallid sturgeon ( Scaphirhynchus albus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green sturgeon and pallid sturgeon photoreceptors were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microspectrophotometry\\u000a and, in the case of the green sturgeon, retinal whole-mounts. The retinas of both species contain both rods and cones: cones\\u000a comprise between 23% (whole-mount) and 36% (SEM) of the photoreceptors. The cone population of both species is dominated by\\u000a large single cones, but a rare

Arnold J. Sillman; Allicia K. Beach; David A. Dahlin; Ellis R. Loew



Identification of a gonad-expression differential gene insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) in the swamp eel (Monopterus albus).  


In vertebrate species, the biopotential embryonic gonad differentiation is affected by many key genes and key steroidogenic enzymes. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) has been considered as an important sex-differentiation gene in mammals and could mediate the biological action of Igf1, an important regulator of key steroidogenic enzymes. However, Igf1r gene is still unknown in the swamp eel, an economically important fish. In our study, we identified Igf1r gene in the swamp eel, which was a 2,148-bp open-reading frame encoding a protein of 716 amino acids. The alignment and the phylogenetic tree showed that Igf1r of the swamp eel had a conservative sequence with other vertebrates, especial fishes. Western blotting of Igf1r showed that Igf1r expressed much more in ovotestis and testis than in ovary, indicating an important role of Igf1r during gonad differentiation. We analyzed ubiquitination of Igf1r by co-immunoprecipitation and found the amount of ubiquitinated Igf1r was increased from ovary, ovotestis to testis, which was reversely to the trend of Hsp10 expression during gonadal transformation. It was possible that Hsp10 could suppress Igf1r ubiquitination during gonadal development of the swamp eel. PMID:24488410

Mei, Jie; Yan, Wei; Fang, Jie; Yuan, Gailing; Chen, Nan; He, Yan



Dune Scrub Communities and Their Correlation with Environmental Factors at Point Reyes National Seashore, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dune scrub vegetation characterized by three soft-leaved shrubs, Haplopappus ericoides, Lupinus arboreaus and Lupinus chamissonis, was sampled at Point Reyes National Seashore (PRNS), Marin County, California, using the Braun-Blanquet releve method. Eight...

B. Holton A. F. Johnson



Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.  


Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P

McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N




EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


How does glutamine synthetase activity determine plant tolerance to ammonium?  


The wide range of plant responses to ammonium nutrition can be used to study the way ammonium interferes with plant metabolism and to assess some characteristics related with ammonium tolerance by plants. In this work we investigated the hypothesis of plant tolerance to ammonium being related with the plants' capacity to maintain high levels of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in the roots. Plants of several species (Spinacia oleracea L., Lycopersicon esculentum L., Lactuca sativa L., Pisum sativum L. and Lupinus albus L.) were grown in the presence of distinct concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6 mM) of nitrate and ammonium. The relative contributions of the activity of the key enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS; under light and dark conditions) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were determined. The main plant organs of nitrogen assimilation (root or shoot) to plant tolerance to ammonium were assessed. The results show that only plants that are able to maintain high levels of GS activity in the dark (either in leaves or in roots) and high root GDH activities accumulate equal amounts of biomass independently of the nitrogen source available to the root medium and thus are ammonium tolerant. Plant species with high GS activities in the dark coincide with those displaying a high capacity for nitrogen metabolism in the roots. Therefore, the main location of nitrogen metabolism (shoots or roots) and the levels of GS activity in the dark are an important strategy for plant ammonium tolerance. The relative contribution of each of these parameters to species tolerance to ammonium is assessed. The efficient sequestration of ammonium in roots, presumably in the vacuoles, is considered as an additional mechanism contributing to plant tolerance to ammonium nutrition. PMID:16292661

Cruz, C; Bio, A F M; Domínguez-Valdivia, M D; Aparicio-Tejo, P M; Lamsfus, C; Martins-Loução, M A



Eremophila glabra reduces methane production and methanogen populations when fermented in a Rusitec.  


Eremophila glabra Juss. (Scrophulariaceae), a native Australian shrub, has been demonstrated to have low methanogenic potential in a batch in vitro fermentation system. The present study aimed to test longer-term effects of E. glabra on rumen fermentation characteristics, particularly methane production and the methanogen population, when included as a component of a fermentation substrate in an in vitro continuous culture system (Rusitec). E. glabra was included at 150, 250, 400 g/kg DM (EG15, EG25, and EG40) with an oaten chaff and lupin-based substrate (control). Overall, the experiment lasted 33 days, with 12 days of acclimatization, followed by two periods during which fermentation characteristics (total gas, methane and VFA productions, dry matter disappearance, pH) were measured. The number of copies of genes specifically associated with total bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria (16S rRNA gene) and total ruminal methanogenic archaeal organisms (the methyl coenzyme M reductase A gene (mcrA)) was also measured during this time using quantitative real-time PCR. Total gas production, methane and volatile fatty acid concentrations were significantly reduced with addition of E. glabra. At the end of the experiment, the overall methane reduction was 32% and 45% for EG15 and EG25 respectively, compared to the control, and the reduction was in a dose-dependent manner. Total bacterial numbers did not change, but the total methanogen population decreased by up to 42.1% (EG40) when compared to the control substrate. The Fibrobacter succinogenes population was reduced at all levels of E. glabra, while Ruminococcus albus was reduced only by EG40. Our results indicate that replacing a portion of a fibrous substrate with E. glabra maintained a significant reduction in methane production and methanogen populations over three weeks in vitro, with some minor inhibition on overall fermentation at the lower inclusion levels. PMID:24225531

Li, XiXi; Durmic, Zoey; Liu, ShiMin; McSweeney, Chris S; Vercoe, Philip E



Root Water Uptake and Tracer Transport in a Lupin Root System: Integration of Magnetic Resonance Images and the Numerical Model RSWMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combination of experimental studies with detailed deterministic models help understand root water uptake processes. Recently, Javaux et al. developed the RSWMS model by integration of Doussa?s root model into the well established SWMS code[1], which simulates water and solute transport in unsaturated soil [2, 3]. In order to confront RSWMS modeling results to experimental data, we used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique to monitor root water uptake in situ. Non-invasive 3-D imaging of root system architecture, water content distributions and tracer transport by MR were performed and compared with numerical model calculations. Two MRI experiments were performed and modeled: i) water uptake during drought stress and ii) transport of a locally injected tracer (Gd-DTPA) to the soil-root system driven by root water uptake. Firstly, the high resolution MRI image (0.23x0.23x0.5mm) of the root system was transferred into a continuous root system skeleton by a combination of thresholding, region-growing filtering and final manual 3D redrawing of the root strands. Secondly, the two experimental scenarios were simulated by RSWMS with a resolution of about 3mm. For scenario i) the numerical simulations could reproduce the general trend that is the strong water depletion from the top layer of the soil. However, the creation of depletion zones in the vicinity of the roots could not be simulated, due to a poor initial evaluation of the soil hydraulic properties, which equilibrates instantaneously larger differences in water content. The determination of unsaturated conductivities at low water content was needed to improve the model calculations. For scenario ii) simulations confirmed the solute transport towards the roots by advection. 1. Simunek, J., T. Vogel, and M.T. van Genuchten, The SWMS_2D Code for Simulating Water Flow and Solute Transport in Two-Dimensional Variably Saturated Media. Version 1.21. 1994, U.S. Salinity Laboratory, USDA, ARS: Riverside, California. 2. Javaux, M., et al., Use of a Three-Dimensional Detailed Modeling Approach for Predicting Root Water Uptake. Vadose Zone J., 2008. 7(3): p. 1079-1088. 3. Schröder, T., et al., Effect of Local Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Drop Using a Three Dimensional Root Water Uptake Model. Vadose Zone J., 2008. 7(3): p. 1089-1098.

Pohlmeier, Andreas; Vanderborght, Jan; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Wienke, Sandra; Vereecken, Harry; Javaux, Mathieu




Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus albus has a genus specific component, probably a polysaccharide, which has the property of sensitising sheep and mouse erythrocytes for haemagglutination and of producing an interference type of protection in mice. Antibodies to this component can be detected in sera of rabbits immunised with either Staphlyococcus aureus or Staphylococcus albus.Although both albus and aureus strains could produce the “interference”

G Pawlyszyn



Soil zymography - A novel technique for mapping enzyme activity in the rhizosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect plant roots on microbial activity in soil at the millimeter scale is poorly understood. One reason for this is that spatially explicit methods for the study of microbial activity in soil are limited. Here we present a quantitative in situ technique for mapping the distribution of exoenzymes in soil along with some results about the effects of roots on exoenzyme activity in soil. In the first study we showed that both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were up to 5.4-times larger in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus than in the bulk soil. While acid phosphatase activity (produced by roots and microorganisms) was closely associated with roots, alkaline phosphatase activity (produced only by microorganisms) was more widely distributed, leading to a 2.5-times larger area of activity of alkaline than of acid phosphatase. These results indicate a spatial differentiation of different ecophysiological groups of organic phosphorus mineralizing organisms in the rhizosphere which might alleviate a potential competition for phosphorus between them. In a second study cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activities were analyzed in the presence of living Lupinus polyphyllus roots and dead/dying roots (in the same soils 10, 20 and 30 days after cutting the L. polyphyllus shoots). The activity of all three enzymes was 9.0 to 13.9-times higher at the living roots compared to the bulk soil. Microhotspots of cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activity in the soil were found up to 60 mm away from the living roots. 10 days after shoot cutting, the areas of high activities of cellulase and phosphatase activity were extend up to 55 mm away from the next root, while the extension of the area of chitinase activity did not change significantly. At the root, cellulase and chitinase activity increased first at the root tips after shoot cutting and showed maximal activity 20 days after shoot cutting. The number and activity of microhotspots of chitinase activity was maximal 10 days after shoot cutting and decreased thereafter. In conclusion, the study showed that fresh root detritus stimulates enzyme activities much stronger than living roots, probably because of the high pulse input of C and N from dying roots compared to slow continuous release of rhizodeposits. Taken together, soil zymography is a very promising novel technique to gain insights the effects of roots on the spatial and temporal dynamic of exoenzyme activity in soil. References Spohn, M., Carminati, A., Kuzyakov, Y. (2013). Zymography - A novel in situ method for mapping distribution of enzyme activity in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 58, 275-280. Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y. (2013): Distribution of microbial- and root- derived phosphatase activities in the rhizosphere depending on P availability and C allocation - Coupling soil zymography with 14C imaging. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 67, 106-113. Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y. (accepted): Spatial and temporal dynamics of hotspots of enzyme activity as affected by living and dead roots - A soil zymography analysis. Plant and Soil

Spohn, Marie



Suppression of the auxin response pathway enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi while phosphite-mediated resistance stimulates the auxin signalling pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Phytophthora cinnamomi is a devastating pathogen worldwide and phosphite (Phi), an analogue of phosphate (Pi) is highly effective in the control of this pathogen. Phi also interferes with Pi starvation responses (PSR), of which auxin signalling is an integral component. In the current study, the involvement of Pi and the auxin signalling pathways in host and Phi-mediated resistance to P. cinnamomi was investigated by screening the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 and several mutants defective in PSR and the auxin response pathway for their susceptibility to this pathogen. The response to Phi treatment was also studied by monitoring its effect on Pi- and the auxin response pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that phr1-1 (phosphate starvation response 1), a mutant defective in response to Pi starvation was highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi compared to the parental background Col-0. Furthermore, the analysis of the Arabidopsis tir1-1 (transport inhibitor response 1) mutant, deficient in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skp1???Cullin???F-Box) ubiquitination pathway was also highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi and the susceptibility of the mutants rpn10 and pbe1 further supported a role for the 26S proteasome in resistance to P. cinnamomi. The role of auxin was also supported by a significant (P?lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) to P. cinnamomi following treatment with the inhibitor of auxin transport, TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Given the apparent involvement of auxin and PSR signalling in the resistance to P. cinnamomi, the possible involvement of these pathways in Phi mediated resistance was also investigated. Phi (especially at high concentrations) attenuates the response of some Pi starvation inducible genes such as AT4, AtACP5 and AtPT2 in Pi starved plants. However, Phi enhanced the transcript levels of PHR1 and the auxin responsive genes (AUX1, AXR1and AXR2), suppressed the primary root elongation, and increased root hair formation in plants with sufficient Pi. Conclusions The auxin response pathway, particularly auxin sensitivity and transport, plays an important role in resistance to P. cinnamomi in Arabidopsis, and phosphite-mediated resistance may in some part be through its effect on the stimulation of the PSR and auxin response pathways.



Dynamics of air gap formation around roots with changing soil water content.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most models regarding uptake of water and nutrients from soil assume intimate contact between roots and soil. However, it is known for a long time that roots may shrink under drought conditions. Due to the opaque nature of soil this process could not be observed in situ until recently. Combining tomography of the entire sample (field of view of 16 x 16 cm, pixel side 0.32 mm) with local tomography of the soil region around roots (field of view of 5 x 5 cm, pixel side 0.09 mm), the high spatial resolution required to image root shrinkage and formation of air-filled gaps around roots could be achieved. Applying this technique and combining it with microtensiometer measurements, measurements of plant gas exchange and microscopic assessment of root anatomy, a more detailed study was conducted to elucidate at which soil matric potential roots start to shrink in a sandy soil and which are the consequences for plant water relations. For Lupinus albus grown in a sandy soil tomography of the entire root system and of the interface between taproot and soil was conducted from day 11 to day 31 covering two drying cycles. Soil matric potential decreased from -36 hPa at day 11 after planting to -72, -251, -429 hPa, on day 17, 19, 20 after planting. On day 20 an air gap started to occur around the tap root and extended further on day 21 with matric potential below -429 hPa (equivalent to 5 v/v % soil moisture). From day 11 to day 21 stomatal conductivity decreased from 467 to 84 mmol m-2 s-1, likewise transpiration rate decreased and plants showed strong wilting symptoms on day 21. Plants were watered by capillary rise on day 21 and recovered completely within a day with stomatal conductivity increasing to 647 mmol m-2 s-1. During a second drying cycle, which was shorter as plants continuously increased in size, air gap formed again at the same matric potential. Plant stomatal conductance and transpiration decreased in a similar fashion with decreasing matric potential and appearance of air gap as during the first cycle. Microscopic assessment of the tap root at day 31 showed that secondary thickening of the taproot occurred all along the region of interest observed during X-ray tomography. A large part of the cross sections consists of lignified tissue; no root hairs could be observed along the tap root. Gaps are expected to reduce water transfers between soil and roots. Opening and closing of gaps may help plants to prevent water loss when the soil dries, and to restore the soil-root continuity when water becomes available.

Vetterlein, D.; Carminati, A.; Weller, U.; Oswald, S.; Vogel, H.-J.



The Possible Induction of Resistance in Lupinus termis L. Against Fusarium oxysporum by Streptomyces chibaensis and its Mode of Action: I. Changes in Certain Morphological Criteria and Biochemical Composition Related to Induced Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much attention has been focused on examining the sequence of different changes that are triggered upon invasion of a pathogenic organism to a higher plant. Of the most rapid changes are those related to the morphological appearance of the infected plant. In the present work, growth of L. termis in Fusarium-pathogenized soil points to marked increases in root and shoot



78 FR 19517 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi), Alabama shad (Alosa alabamae), pearl darter (Percina aurora), fat pocketbook (Potamilus capax), inflated heelsplitter (Potamilus inflatus), Louisiana...



Die Einwirkung der Kurzwellen auf Bakterien  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wurde die Einwirkung von Kurzwellen zwischen 4 und 8 m Wellenlänge auf Kulturen von Pmeumokokken, Staphylococcus albus haemolyticus, Streptococcus haemolyticus und Bacterium coli commune geprüft.

Heinrich Lippelt; Carl Heller



21 CFR 522.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...caused by Brucella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, secondary bacterial infections caused by Micrococcus pyogenes var. albus, Brucella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus spp. (2) The drug is administered...



21 CFR 522.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...caused by Brucella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, secondary bacterial infections caused by Micrococcus pyogenes var. albus, Brucella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus spp. (2) The drug is administered...



Legume presence increases photosynthesis and N concentrations of co-occurring non-fixers but does not modulate their responsiveness to carbon dioxide enrichment.  


Legumes, with the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N), may help alleviate the N limitations thought to constrain plant community response to elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)). To address this issue we assessed: (1) the effects of the presence of the perennial grassland N(2 )fixer, Lupinus perennis, on biomass accumulation and plant N concentrations of nine-species plots of differing plant composition; (2) leaf-level physiology of co-occurring non-fixing species (Achillea millefolium, Agropyron repens, Koeleria cristata) in these assemblages with and without Lupinus; (3) the effects of elevated CO(2) on Lupinus growth and symbiotic N(2) fixation in both monoculture and the nine-species assemblages; and (4) whether assemblages containing Lupinus exhibit larger physiological and growth responses to elevated CO(2 )than those without. This study was part of a long-term grassland field experiment (BioCON) that controls atmospheric CO(2) at current ambient and elevated (560 micromol mol(-1)) concentrations using free-air CO(2) enrichment. Nine-species plots with Lupinus had 32% higher whole plot plant N concentrations and 26% higher total plant N pools than those without Lupinus, based on both above and below ground measurements. Co-occurring non-fixer leaf N concentrations increased 22% and mass-based net photosynthetic rates increased 41% in plots containing Lupinus compared to those without. With CO(2) enrichment, Lupinus monocultures accumulated 32% more biomass and increased the proportion of N derived from fixation from 44% to 57%. In nine-species assemblages, Lupinus N derived from fixation increased similarly from 43% to 54%. Although Lupinus presence enhanced photosynthetic rates and leaf N concentrations of co-occurring non-fixers, and increased overall plant N pools, Lupinus presence did not facilitate stronger photosynthetic responses of non-fixing species or larger growth responses of overall plant communities to elevated CO(2). Non-fixer leaf N concentrations declined similarly in response to elevated CO(2) with and without Lupinus present and the relationship between net photosynthesis and leaf N was not affected by Lupinus presence. Regardless of the presence or absence of Lupinus, CO(2) enrichment resulted in reduced leaf N concentrations and rates of net photosynthesis. PMID:12802677

Lee, Tali D; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G



Ultrasensitive aptamer based detection of ?-conglutin food allergen.  


Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, there has been a response to the increasing number of severe cases of lupine allergies reported during the last decade, and as a result lupine was recently added to the list of substances requiring mandatory advisory labelling on foodstuffs sold in the European Union. In this paper we report the robust and ultrasensitive detection of the anaphylactic ?-conglutin allergen using Apta-PCR achieving a detection limit of 85pM (25ngmL(-1)). No cross-reactivity with other conglutins or plant species potentially used in lupine containing foodstuffs was observed. This robust method provides an effective analytical tool for the detection and quantification of the toxic ?-conglutin subunit present in lupine flour. PMID:25038695

Svobodova, Marketa; Mairal, Teresa; Nadal, Pedro; Bermudo, M Carmen; O'Sullivan, Ciara K




Microsoft Academic Search

The possibiltty of increasing the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus albus ; artificially introduced into irradiated guinea-pigs was investigated. The ; transition of the saprophytic Staph. albus to a more pathogenic form while ; vegetating in an irradiated animal was established. The variation of ; sthphylococci in an irradiated animal is linked with the intermediate influence ; of irradiation on organisms by




Competition for cellobiose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-limited conditions.  

PubMed Central

The ruminal cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 and Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 coexisted in substrate-excess coculture with about equal population size, but R. flavefaciens outcompeted F. succinogenes for cellobiose in the substrate-limited cocultures whether the two strains were coinoculated or a steady-state culture of F. succinogenes was challenged by R. flavefaciens. This outcome of competition between these two strains is due to a classical pure and simple competition mechanism based on affinity for cellobiose. Although the population size of F. succinogenes was much higher (> 70%) than that of another cellulolytic species, Ruminococcus albus 7 in substrate-excess coculture, F. succinogenes was replaced by a population of R. albus in the substrate-limited coculture in both coinoculation and challenge experiments. R albus outcompeted F. succinogenes, apparently due to selection in the chemostat of a population of R. albus with a higher affinity for cellobiose. R. albus also outcompeted R. flavefaciens under substrate-limited conditions.

Shi, Y; Weimer, P J



Physiologisch - Chemische Grundlagen der Chinolizidin-Alkaloid - Biosynthese (Physiological - Chemical Bases of Quinolizidine Alkaloid - Biosynthesis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Callus cultures were established from 14 alkaloid plants. Cultivation as a suspension culture was possible for 10 of these. Growth conditions were optimized for Lupinus polyphyllus, Sarothamnus scoparius, Baptisia australis, Conium maculatum and Symphytum...

M. Wink



Nutrient limitation of native and invasive N2-fixing plants in northwest prairies.  


Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope ?(15)N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar ?(15)N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar ?(15)N averaged -0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar ?(15)N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications. PMID:24386399

Thorpe, Andrea S; Perakis, Steven; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N



40 CFR 180.111 - Malathion; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Loganberry 8 Lupin, seed 8 Mango 8 Melon 8 Mushroom 8 Nectarine 8 ...amounts not exceeding 100 milligrams per square foot. (ii) Treated paper trays...amounts not exceeding 100 milligrams per square foot. (7) Malathion...



40 CFR 180.111 - Malathion; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Loganberry 8 Lupin, seed 8 Mango 8 Melon 8 Mushroom 8 Nectarine 8 ...amounts not exceeding 100 milligrams per square foot. (ii) Treated paper trays...amounts not exceeding 100 milligrams per square foot. (7) Malathion...



Karner Blue Butterfly: A Symbol of a Vanishing Landscape.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: A Review of Lycaeides Hubner and Karner Blue Taxonomy; Historical Notes on Wild Lupine and the Kaener Blue Butterfly at the Albany Pine Bush, New York; Benefits to Karner Blue Butterfly Larvae from Association with Ants; The Distribution...

C. P. Lane D. A. Andow R. J. Baker




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. WARDROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, AT TABLE, WEAPONS CLOSET, AND DESK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME


Acta Biochimica Polonica. Volume 17, Number 2, 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Properties and specificity of ribonuclease IIA from Thiobacillus thioparus; Electron transport system of Salmonella typhimurium cells; Purification of yellow lupin seed tRNA's specific for isoleucine and some other amino acids; Biosynthesis of r...



78 FR 69856 - Determination That BANZEL (Rufinamide) Tablet, 100 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...determines that the listed drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness...initiative, whether a listed drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness...equivalent to withdrawing the drug from sale. Lupin...



Untersuchungen über die Phagocytosebereitschaft der Leukocyten von an interstitieller Pneumonie erkrankten Säuglingen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verfasser haben im Blutserum von Säuglingen mit interstitieller Pneumonie (i. P.) den Gehalt an Gesamteiweiß und den einzelnen Eiweißfraktionen bestimmt und das Phagocytosevermögen der Leukocyten bzw. die diesbezüglichen Zusammenhange untersucht. Als zu phagocytierende Bakterien dienten Staphylococcus albus-Suspensionen.

Gy. Ivady; E. Dux; Maria Illyés



Foreign Medical Literature in Translation. Volume 1, Number 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: An electron microscopy study of adenosinetriphosphatase activity of Staphylococcus aureus; Identification of a factor in Staphylococcus albus extracts, which causes penicillinase formation in Staphylococcus aureous; Changes of Stophylococcus ult...



Differentiation of Streptomyces Strains by Gas Chromatography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Culture fluids of representative strains of Streptomyces griseus, S. griseoluteus, S. albus, S. viridochromogenes and S. fradiae were distilled at 100 C, the distillates extracted with ether and the concentrated extracts analyzed by dual-channel gas chrom...

Y. Henis M. Alexander



Monocyte Function in Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocytes derived from the peripheral blood of psoriatic patients demonstrated a significantly higher phagocytic capacity (36 to 40%) for both 125I-labeled Shigella flexneri and 125I-labeled Staphylococcus albus compared with monocytes from healthy subjects. Monocytes from psoriatic patients showed a 2-to-4fold increase in bactericidal capacity against S. albus when compared with normal monocytes. However, the bactericidal capacity of monocytes from diphylline-treated

Menashe Bar-Eli; Ruth Gallily; Haim A. Cohen; Asher Wahba



Competition for cellulose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-limited conditions.  

PubMed Central

Three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, and Ruminococcus albus 7) were grown in different binary combinations to determine the outcome of competition in either cellulose-excess batch culture or in cellulose-limited continuous culture. Relative populations of each species were estimated by using signature membrane-associated fatty acids and/or 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Both F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens coexisted in cellulose-excess batch culture with similar population sizes (58 and 42%, respectively; standard error, 12%). By contrast, under cellulose limitation R. flavefaciens predominated (> 96% of total cell mass) in coculture with F. succinogenes, regardless of whether the two strains were inoculated simultaneously or whether R. flavefaciens was inoculated into an established culture of F. succinogenes. The predominance of R. flavefaciens over F. succinogenes under cellulose limitation is in accord with the former's more rapid adherence to cellulose and its higher affinity for cellodextrin products of cellulose hydrolysis. In batch cocultures of F. succinogenes and R. albus, the populations of the two species were similar. However, under cellulose limitation, F. succinogenes was the predominant strain (approximately 80% of cell mass) in cultures simultaneously coinoculated with R. albus. The results from batch cocultures of R. flavefaciens and R. albus were not consistent within or among trials: some experiments yielded monocultures of R. albus (suggesting production of an inhibitory agent by R. albus), while others contained substantial populations of both species. Under cellulose limitation, R. flavefaciens predominated over R. albus (85 and 15%, respectively), as would be expected by the former's greater adherence to cellulose. The retention of R. albus in the cellulose-limited coculture may result from a combination of its ability to utilize glucose (which is not utilizable by R. flavefaciens), its demonstrated ability to adapt under selective pressure in the chemostat to utilization of lower concentrations of cellobiose, a major product of cellulose hydrolysis, and its possible production of an inhibitory agent.

Shi, Y; Odt, C L; Weimer, P J



Biological activity of a heptaketide metabolite from Pleiochaeta setosa.  


An uncommon heptaketide metabolite, setosol (2,8-dimethyl-4 methoxy-6,10,11-trihydroxy-benzo-oxaonin), was isolated from a liquid culture filtrate of the fungus Pleiochaeta setosa. The biological activity of the molecule was studied by using 12 microbial strains consisting of three bacteria, three yeasts and six fungi. The level of activity was compared with those of known antibiotics and antifungal agents. The metabolite exhibited antifungal and antibiotic activity against Drechslera oryzae, Gerlachia oryzae, Pyricularia oryzae, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Staphylococcus aureus. The acetylated derivative of setosol did not inhibit the growth of any of the target pathogens. Phytotoxicity studies on whole lupine leaves show that setosol is implicated in the pathogenesis of the brown spot disease of lupines since artificial inoculation of the leaves with the metabolite provoked lesions similar to the characteristic brown spots and lesions on lupine leaves infected by the fungus. PMID:7766015

Okeke, B; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R



Individual contributions of the aromatic chromophores to the near-UV Circular Dichroism in class A beta-lactamases: A comparative computational analysis.  


Class A beta-lactamases are enzymes which are responsible for the bacterial resistance against antibiotics and therefore are of great importance in rational inhibitor design. In this paper we comparatively analyze all the individual contributions of the aromatic chromophores in three class A beta-lactamases (from Staphylococcus aureus, Streptomyces albus and Bacillus licheniformis) to their near-UV Circular Dichroism. The analysis is performed using recently developed procedure based on established theoretical method. We found that in beta-lactamase from S. albus the most significant contributions to the total near-UV CD intensity exhibit Y251 and Y229. In the tryptophan-containing beta-lactamases from B. licheniformis and S. albus, W229 and W251 express the strongest individual contributions. A comparative analysis of the individual contributions of conservative chromophores in class A enzymes namely W165, W210, W229, W251, Y97 and Y105 is presented. PMID:20637975

Karabencheva, Tatyana; Donev, Rossen; Balali-Mood, Kia; Christov, Christo



Effects of Acid Rain on Plant Microbial Associations in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of simulated acid rain of pH 5.6 to 3.0, with ionic composition similar to that found in California, on Trifolium repens, Lupinus densiflorus and L. benthamii grown in two soils were tested. The interactions of treatment intensity, soil type, ...

D. Harris E. A. Paul



Nitrogen Mineralization in Sphagnum Peat and Salix Leaf-Litter. Progress Report, 1978-1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies on decomposition and N-mineralization of leaf litter and peat have been initiated. Leaf litter from varous Salix spp., Alnus incana, and Lupinus polyphyllus are compared with respect to weight loss and change in N-content during in situ incubation...

U. Granhall T. Slapokas I. Boerjesson



Symptomatology of subterranean clover red leaf virus and its incidence in some crops, weed hosts, and certain alate in Canterbury, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Top-yellowing of peas, stunting and yellowing of dwarf beans. and leaf roll of broad beans in Canterbury, New Zealand, were found to be due almost entirely to infection with subterranean clover red leaf virus (SCRL V). SCRLV was also isolated from lupins, soya beans, and lentils and from a wide range of clovers and weed hosts including some non-leguminous species.

J. W. Ashby; P. B. Teh; R. C. Close



Effect of some animal feeds and oviposition substrates on Aedes oviposition in ovitraps in Cairns, Australia.  


Animal feed pellets containing lupin seed or alfalfa were added to ovitraps set in Cairns, Australia. Although they collected fewer Aedes eggs than Centers for Disease Control enhanced ovitraps, they did outperform tap water alone. A wooden tongue depressor collected comparable number of Aedes eggs as a Masonite board and seed germination paper. PMID:14529089

Ritchie, S A



Nitrate leaching from ploughed pasture and the effectiveness of winter catch crops in reducing leaching losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of five catch crops (ryecorn, ryegrass, mustard, lupin, bean) on nitrogen (N) leaching following the autumn ploughing of a grass ley was compared with N leaching from bare fallow soil. The concentrations of nitrate N and ammonium N in the drainage water and the quantities of drainage water from the various treatments were measured over a winter period

R. D. McLenaghen; K. C. Cameron; N. H. Lampkin; M. L. Daly; B. Deo



The identification of bean mosaic, pea yellow mosaic and pea necrosis strains of bean yellow mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve virus isolates from pea, broad bean, red clover and yellow lupin have been compared with the B25 strain of bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV-B25), the E198 strain of pea mosaic virus (PMV-E198) and the pea necrosis virus (E178), which were described earlier (Bos, 1970).

L. Bos; Cz. Kowalska; D. Z. Maat



The relationships between morphological features and social signalling behaviours in juvenile dogs: The effect of early experience with dogs of different morphotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on dog communication has tended to focus on breed differences and the use of lupine signals by the domestic dog. However, the relationship between morphological change and communication has received little empirical study. The link between morphology and behavioural selection in a canid undergoing domestication, the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), has been well documented. Therefore, it is reasonable to

Keven J. Kerswell; Kym L. Butler; Pauleen Bennett; Paul H. Hemsworth



What We Muggles Can Learn about Teaching from Hogwarts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Harry Potter series furnishes many instances of both good and bad teaching. From them, we can learn more about three principles outlined in "How People Learn" (National Research Council 2000a). (1) Teachers should question students about their prior knowledge, as Professor Lupin does before his lessons; (2) we should encourage students to…

Bixler, Andrea



Effect of a variety of animal, plant and single cell-based feed ingredients on diet digestibility and digestive enzyme activity in redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (Von Martens 1868)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Readily available agricultural products are often considered as feed ingredients when investigating cost-effective diet formulations for aquatic organisms. We investigated the potential use of fish meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry meal (PM), soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), lupin meal (LM) and brewer's yeast (BY) in dietary formulations for redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. Test ingredients were incorporated

Ana Pavasovic; Alex J. Anderson; Peter B. Mather; Neil A. Richardson



Comparison of root growth and nitrogen absorbing ability between Gramineae and Leguminosae during the vegetative stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight Gramineae crops (rice, spring wheat, barley, oat, maize, sorghum, redtop, and orchardgrass), and seven Leguminosae crops (soybean, field bean, adzuki bean, lupin, pea, alfalfa, and red clover) were grown in a field. The characteristics of nitrogen absorption were parametrized as root size (root length or dry weight), root activity (specific absorption rate of nitrogen per unit root dry weight;

Takuro Shinano; Mitsuru Osaki; Satoshi Yamada; Toshiaki Tadano




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Replacement of fish meal in diets for Australian silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three digestibility experiments were conducted using juvenile silver perch. The first factorial experiment evaluated four ingredients; field peas (Pisum sativum), faba beans (Vicia faba), chick peas (Cicer arietinum) and vetch (Vicia sativa) with and without hulls. The second and third experiments determined digestibility of field pea, faba bean and lupin protein concentrates. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) were determined using indirect

Mark A Booth; Geoff L Allan; Jane Frances; Scott Parkinson



Distribution of Inorganic and Organic Phosphorus Fractions in Two Phosphorus-Deficient Soils as Affected by Crop Species and Nitrogen Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is desirable to know the distribution of phosphorus (P) fractions in soil so that plants may use P efficiently. Here we report the dynamics of inorganic and organic P in P-deficient black and rice soil cropped by soybean, white lupin, and maize supplied with nitrogen (N) inputs by N fixation and urea fertilizer. Inorganic P fractions of the three

Shujie Miao Yunfa Qiao



Extent of Solubilization of  Cellulose and Hemicellulose of Low-protein Teff Hay by Pure Cultures of Cellulolytic Rumen Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY . Ten isolates belonging to the genus Butyri vibrio and two each of Rumino- coccusalbus, R. flavefaciens and an unidentified Clostridiurn sp. were isolated from high dilutions of men fluid from sheep conditioned to low-protein teff hay. The butyrivibrios solubilized between Ioand 37 % of the a-cellulose of the hay (average 21 %). The two isolates of Ruminococcw albus




Delphi Study of Instructional Strategies for English Language Learners with Disabilities: Recommendations from Educators Nationwide. ELLs with Disabilities Report 21  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of national research over the past seven years at the National Center on Educational Outcomes focused on identifying and validating instructional strategies for ELLs with disabilities (Shyyan, Thurlow, & Liu, 2008; Thurlow, Albus, Shyyan, Liu, & Barrera, 2004). In recent work (Barrera, Shyyan, Liu, & Thurlow, 2008), educators…

Thurlow, Martha; Shyyan, Vitaliy; Barrera, Manuel; Liu, Kristi



Graduation Exam Participation and Performance of English Language Learners with Disabilities, 1999-2000. ELLs with Disabilities Report 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the central themes in the standards-based education movement continues to be the importance of clear and detailed system accountability data showing how students from special needs groups perform on statewide accountability assessments (Albus, Thurlow & Liu, 2002; National Research Council, 1997; Thurlow & Liu, 2001). Armed with such data,…

Liu, Kristi; Barrera, Manuel; Thurlow, Martha; Guven, Kamil; Shyyan, Vitaliy



Habitat Use of Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon with Implications for Water-Level Management in a Downstream Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural recruitment of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus has not been observed in the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana, for at least 20 years. To augment the population, age-1 hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon were released in 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate the habitat use of these fish and compare it with that of indigenous shovelnose

Paul C. Gerrity; Christopher S. Guy; William M. Gardner



Identification of Ruminococcus flavefaciens as the Predominant Cellulolytic Bacterial Species of the Equine Cecum  

PubMed Central

Detection and quantification of cellulolytic bacteria with oligonucleotide probes showed that Ruminococcus flavefaciens was the predominant species in the pony and donkey cecum. Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus were present at low levels. Four isolates, morphologically resembling R. flavefaciens, differed from ruminal strains by their carbohydrate utilization and their end products of cellobiose fermentation.

Julliand, Veronique; de Vaux, Albane; Millet, Liliane; Fonty, Gerard



Five Lessons of a Dumbledore Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and the world of Harry Potter may help educators re-imagine their daily work and provide good reminders that intentional formal and informal mentoring, informed by educational theory, play an essential role in student learning and development. Mentoring principles at Hogwarts flow from Albus Dumbledore,…

Music, Rusmir; Agans, Lyndsay J.



Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch.,

L. Hajkova; J. Nekovar; M. Novak; D. Richterova



Individual contributions of the aromatic chromophores to the near-UV Circular Dichroism in class A ?-lactamases: A comparative computational analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class A ?-lactamases are enzymes which are responsible for the bacterial resistance against antibiotics and therefore are of great importance in rational inhibitor design. In this paper we comparatively analyze all the individual contributions of the aromatic chromophores in three class A ?-lactamases (from Staphylococcus aureus, Streptomyces albus and Bacillus licheniformis) to their near-UV Circular Dichroism. The analysis is performed

Tatyana Karabencheva; Rossen Donev; Kia Balali-Mood; Christo Christov



Establishment of the microorganism growth model at an inhibitory condition by microcalorimetric method.  


The growth thermograms of Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus were determined by using the 2277 thermal activity monitor, using a microorganism growth model with inhibitory conditions, the specific growth rate and the thermogram curves at different temperature and acidities were determined. From these curves, the microorganism optimum growth temperature and acidity were defined. PMID:7780023

Zhang, H; Liu, Y; Nan, Z; Sun, H; Gao, P



Antimicrobial activity of silicone rubber used in hydrocephalus shunts, after impregnation with antimicrobial substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonisation of cerebrospinal fluid shunts by coagulate-negative staphylococci (Staphylococcus albus) is a serious problem. Because of its possible role in prevention of the condition, the antimicrobial activity of silicone rubber after impregnation with antimicrobial drugs was studied. The method of impregnation used and test methods were found to be important. Formaldehyde-urea condensates gave no activity. Gentamicin sulphate gave activity which

R Bayston; R D Milner



The Action of Lysozyme on Heat-killed Gram-positive Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The change in the Gram staining reaction which occurs when heat- killed Gram-positive Clostridium welchii and Staphylococcus albus are incubated with lysozyme is due to the removal of the ribonucleic acid component of the Gram complex, and is brought about by the hydrolysis of certain sugar linkages in polysaccharides located at the cell surface. Lysozyme, the enzyme in egg-white

M. Webb



Do non-pathogenic bacilli aggravate tissue reaction around silicone implants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue reactions around various silicone implants, contaminated by Staphylococcus albus and bacillus subtilis, have been studied in rabbits by Silicone Radiation Measurements. No increase of phagocytosis was found around the contaminated materials compared to the non-contaminated implants. The morphology of the capsule was the same in the contaminated and the non-contaminated groups. Concerning the specific tissue reaction in silicone implants,

P. Wilflingseder; R. Schlögel; H. Hussl; J. C. Bruck; G. Mikuz; E. Semenitz; G. Hoinkes



Coagulase-negative strains of staphylococcus possessing antigen 51 as agents of urinary infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of strains of Staphylococcus albus is described which produced neither coagulase nor haemolysin, was slightly sensitive or resistant to novobiocin, and sensitive to all other antibiotics, to sulphonamides, and to nitrofurantoin. The agglutinating antigen 51 was isolated from all strains from patients with urinary infections and abundant pyuria.In more than 40 cases studied it was not possible to

A. Torres Pereira



Clinical Observations Showing the Role of Some Factors in the Etiology of Multiple Myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

7 cases of multiple myeloma with a history of exposure to benzene, radioactive iodine, chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease and of repeated injections of autovaccine to Staphylococcus albus hemolyticus are described. The relationship between the development of multiple myeloma and possible etiologic factors is discussedCopyright © 1984 S. Karger AG, Basel

Muzaffer Aksoy; Abdullah Kutlar; Turhan Hepyüksel



Opsonic activity of the serum of germfree guinea pigs contaminated by single strains of the intestinal microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of contamination of germfree guinea pigs by single strains of the intestinal microflora (Bacillus mesentericus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus albus, andStreptococcus faecalis), on the formation of the opsonic activity of the blood serum was studied. An increase in opsonic activity against all microorganisms was observed on the 11th day after the corresponding monocontamination, and the serum had a stimulating

V. N. Andreev; G. I. Podoprigora




Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments were staged on rabbits subjected to x ray irradiation ; (800 r). The adsorptive properties were studied with the cells of blood, liver, ; kidneys, spleen, small intestine, mesenteric ganglia, and muscles with respect to ; live culture oi Staphylococcus albus. In the irradiated rabbits the changes of ; adsorption were insignificant and they did not lead to




Intravenous feeding in a gastroenterological unit: a prospective study of infective complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assessed the bacteriological safety of a system of intravenous feeding by culturing catheters on removal, swabs taken from the catheter's skin entry sites, and samples of infusion fluid. Among 38 treatment periods using 51 catheters over 1551 patient days, septicaemia due to Staphylococcus aureus was observed in one treatment period and bacteraemias due to Staphylococcus albus and Diphtheroid

J Powell-Tuck; J E Lennard-Jones; J A Lowes; K T Danso; E J Shaw



A note on the contamination of eye-drops following use by hospital out-patients.  


Examination of 273 eye-drops, returned to a hospital pharmacy by out-patients showed that 27% were contaminated. Common contaminants included Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus albus and Sarcina spp. Those eye-drops containing the preservatives chlorbutol or thiomersal showed above average levels of contamination, thus questioning the suitability of these preservatives for ophthalmic preparations. PMID:4019793

Ford, J L; Brown, M W; Hunt, P B



Shunt Nephritis: Histological Dynamics following Removal of the Shunt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse crescentic glomerulonephritis was observed in a 40-year-old male patient who had a ventriculoatrial shunt implanted after a traffic accident 10 years previously. Immediately after treatment with immunosuppressants and plasma pheresis, signs of meningitis and septicemia developed. The responsible organism isolated was Staphylococcus albus. After the shunt was removed, clinical signs and renal function improved, associated with normalization of hypocomplementemia

Yasuhisa Wakabayashi; Yutaka Kobayashi; Hidekazu Shigematsu



Intracellular survival of Vibrio anguillarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular survival of a Vibrio anguillarum strain, ingested by head kidney phagocytes and peripheral leukocytes of grouper, Epinephelus awoara, was assessed in vitro by comparing with that of V. parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus albus. There was an increase in numbers of V. alginolyticus in macrophages from head kidney and peripheral leukocytes during the first 30min after infection, followed by a

Wenbo Chen; Yingxue Qin; Qingpi Yan



Urinary tract infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of Staphylococcus albus urinary infections is reported from a general hospital. The infection followed urethral instrumentation in 75% of the patients, and was usually caused by organisms already present in the urethra. Novobiocin-resistant strains caused infections in four out-patients with no predisposing lesions or instrumentation of the urinary tract.

R. G. Mitchell



Effects of bacteria involved with the pathogenesis of infection-induced urolithiasis on the urokinase and sialidase (Neuraminidase) activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hypothesized that urinary urokinase and sialidase may play a role in urolithiasis. If these theories have substance it is to be expected that microorganisms may also affect these enzymes, since the association between urinary tract infection and renal stone formation is well known. It is generally assumed that Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus albus, which produce the urea-splitting

P. J. du Toit; C. H. van Aswegen; P. L. Steyn; A. Pols; D. J. Plessis