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Legumes such as white lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) provide a valuable nitrogen source in organic agriculture. With organic farming becoming an increasing sector of US agriculture and white lupin interest increasing in the southeastern USA because winter hardy cultivars are available, non-chemical weed c...
Acidic exocellular class III chitinase (EC 220.127.116.11) was previously identified in healthy white lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) plants and suspension-cultured cells by N-terminal microse-quencing. In this study, the detection of chitinase activity\\u000a with Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R (RBV)-labelled chitin derivatives is described. Chitinase activity was observed in protein\\u000a fractions of cytoplasmic or exocellular origin from roots, hypocotyls, cotyledons, and leaves
Adam Burzytiski; Mariola Pi?lewska; Przemys?aw Wojtaszek
A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinusalbus L.) 7–14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96?h on Heller medium with 60?mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (–S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35?mM asparagine or 35?mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed.
Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinusalbus [L.] cv Kiev mutant), in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%), followed by protein modification/turnover (9%), redox regulation (8%), cell structural components (6%), stress and defence response (6%) with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT) protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt) 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams) and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level). Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.
A rhizobox experiment was conducted to examine the P acquisition characteristics of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and white lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) under P-deficient conditions. We aimed to identify whether cotton is physiologically efficient at acquiring P through\\u000a release of protons, phosphatases or carboxylates. Plants were pre-grown in the upper compartment of rhizoboxes filled with\\u000a a
...tolerance is established for the residues of Banda de Lupinusalbus doce (BLAD), a naturally occurring polypeptide from the catabolism of a seed storage protein (Î²-conglutin) of sweet lupines (Lupinusalbus ), in or on all food commodities when...
Lupin is a legume known for 3000 years in the Mediterranean basin. Lupinusalbus is known as the old world lupin. Lupin endosperm contains more than 50% protein and no starch. A Lupinusalbus sample was hand dissected and dehulled. The endosperm was milled into whole meal and sieved through 40 m...
1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the nutritional value of lupin (Lupinusalbus)-seed meal for growing pigs. In the first, the availability of lysine was assessed using slope-ratio analysis. In the second, the effects of autoclaving lupin seeds and formulating the diets on the basis of estimated digestible or net energy were assessed. 2. In the first experiment, the availability of lysine in three samples of lupin-seed meal was compared with that in meat-and-bone meal and soya-bean meal. Availability of lysine in the five protein concentrates, using food conversion efficiency on a carcass basis as the criterion of response, was (proportion of total): lupin-seed meal no. 1 0.44, no. 2 0.57, no. 3 0.53, meat-and-bone meal 0.42, soya-bean meal 0.80. 3. Availability estimates, based on protein deposited:food intake, were: lupin-seed meal no. 1 0.82, no. 2 0.73, no. 3 0.70, meat-and-bone meal 0.27, soya-bean meal 0.77. These estimates had higher standard deviations than those based on carcass response. 4. Regressing the measures of response v. lysine intake resulted in estimates of availability similar to, or higher than, the slope-ratio analysis but was associated with greater statistical invalidity and higher standard deviations. 5. The proportion of energy retained in the carcasses was unaffected by the inclusion levels of lysine or soya-bean meal. Energy retention was depressed (P less than 0.05) with the three lupin-seed meals and the meat-and-bone meal. 6. In the second experiment, the response of pigs given a diet containing lupin-seed meal was inferior, on a carcass basis (P less than 0.05), to that of pigs given a diet containing soya-bean meal formulated to similar total lysine and digestible energy contents. 7. The addition of soya-bean oil to the diet containing lupin-seed meal, to equalize the estimated net energy of the diet to that of the diet containing soya-bean meal, depressed protein deposition (P less than 0.05) and increased fat deposition (P less than 0.05), indicating that energy was not limiting the growth of pigs given the lupin-seed-meal diet. 8. Autoclaving the lupin-seed at 121 degrees for 5 min had no effect on the growth of pigs, indicating that the low availability of lysine was not due to the presence of heat-labile anti-nutritional factors. PMID:3118937
Batterham, E S; Andersen, L M; Lowe, R F; Darnell, R E
White lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) is able to acclimate to phosphorus deficiency by forming proteoid roots that release a large amount of citric acid, resulting in the mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphate in the rhizosphere. The mechanisms responsible for the release of organic acids have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we focused on the link between citrate and malate release and the release of H+ and other inorganic ions by proteoid roots of white lupin. The release of citrate was closely correlated with the release of H+, K+, Na+ and Mg2+, but not with that of Ca2+. The stoichiometric relationships between citrate release and the release of H+, K+, Na+ and Mg2+ were 1 : 1.3, 1 : 2.1, 1 : 1.5 and 1 : 0.47, respectively. Similar correlations were found between exudation of malate and cations. During 30 min incubation, fusicoccin addition stimulated H+ and malate release, but not citrate release. A concomitant stimulation of H+, malate and citrate release was measured after 60 min incubation. Vanadate inhibited the release of H+ and malate, but not that of citrate. Anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, an anion channel blocker, caused a concomitant decrease in release of citrate, malate and H+. We conclude that for export of citrate across the plasma membrane of proteoid root cells, H+ release is not strictly related to citrate release. Other cations such as K+ and Na+ can also serve as counterions for citrate release. In contrast, malate release shows a strong H+ release dependency. PMID:15821025
Zhu, Yiyong; Yan, Feng; Zörb, Christian; Schubert, Sven
A chemotyping and genotyping comprehensive approach may be useful for the analytical traceability of food ingredients. The interest for lupin (Lupinus spp.) is developing owing to the high protein percentage as well as the positive technological and nutraceutical properties. The objective was the development of innovative models for discerning between Lupinusalbus and Lupinus angustifolius, the most used in human
Jean Daniel Coïsson; Marco Arlorio; Monica Locatelli; Cristiano Garino; Donatella Resta; Elena Sirtori; Anna Arnoldi; Giovanna Boschin
The nutritional composition of the legume Lupinusalbus var. multolupa, raw or after alpha-galactoside extraction, and its effect on the bioavailability of protein, P, Ca, and Mg by growing rats was evaluated using a balance technique. The protein and dietary fibre content of the lupin flours studied was high, and 89-94% of the dietary fibre was present as insoluble dietary fibre. The alpha-galactoside extraction process did not disrupt the nutritional quality of protein, and the digestive and metabolic utilisation of this nutrient was high and comparable with that obtained from a casein-cystine control diet (pair-fed to the average daily food intake of the experimental groups fed the different lupin diets). Bioavailability of P, Ca, and Mg from the lupin diets tested was high, and supplementation of an exogenous microbial phytase (750 phytase units/kg) did not cause any further improvement. Mineral content in the bone tissue (femur and sternum) did not correlate to mineral balance, which, on the other hand, was related to the mineral content of other tissues such as blood, plasma, liver and kidney. Due to its ability to grow under adverse edaphic and climatic conditions and to its good nutritional quality, alpha-galactoside-free lupin flour supplemented with the required amounts of minerals and vitamins to meet nutrient requirements can be used as an excellent dietary source for the preparation of dietetic products. PMID:16768832
Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar; López-Jurado, María; Urbano, Gloria
In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively. PMID:21568822
White lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and applications as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47%) and oil (6-13%). It also has many secondary metabolites that are pote...
We have isolated a genomic DNA fragment encoding a ?-tubulin in white lupin ( Lupinusalbus L.). The predicted polypeptide encoded by the La-TubG1 gene possesses between 91 and 95% identity with other higher-plant ?-tubulins. The mRNA and protein level of lupin ?-tubulin is highly correlated with ß-tubulin as well as with the growth rate of the tissue. Both La-TubG1
Nelson J. M. Saibo; Dominique Van Der Straeten; Claudina Rodrigues-Pousada
The effects of ?-galactoside removal, using a hydroalcoholic extraction process and phytase supplementation, on the digestive and metabolic utilization of total ash, Mn, Fe, Zn and K from Lupinusalbus var. multolupa-based diets by growing rats were evaluated, using a balance technique, and compared to the results obtained using a casein–cystine control diet. The specific amount of minerals needed to
Jesus M. Porres; Pilar Aranda; María López-Jurado; Antonio Vilchez; Gloria Urbano
Aims This study aimed to determine whether white lupin adaptation to moderately calcareous soils could be enhanced by lime-tolerant\\u000a plants and Bradyrhizobium strains.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Fourteen landraces from Italy, Morocco and Egypt and some cultivars were grown in moderate-lime (ML) and low-lime (LL) soil\\u000a with each of two inoculants, one commercial and one including three Bradyrhizobium strains well-nodulating under ML soil (isolated\\u000a from
Cluster root formation by white lupin (Lupinusalbus L. cv. Kiev Mutant) in response to stratified application of hydroxyapatite was examined in a split-root system. The system consisted of two vertical compartments, each divided horizontally into five 60-mm layers. Hydroxyapatite was applied to different layers at 150 mg phosphorus(P) kg soil. The proportion of dry biomass of cluster roots in
Seedborne mycobiota of Lupinusalbus was assessed using blotter paper and agar media with Rose Bengal or semi-selective for Pythium or Fusarium. Samples of 200 seeds were taken from each of 16 inventories, comprising 14 accessions originating from Germany, France, Ukraine, Syria, Hungary or Spain, a...
Certain lupines (Lupinus spp.) contain alkaloids that cause contracture-type skeletal birth defects and cleft palate ('crooked calf syndrome') if the pregnant cow consumes them during the 40 - 70th day of gestation. The objective of this study was to determine when cattle graze velvet lupine (Lupin...
Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced “crooked calf disease” occur in northern Oregon and e...
Certain lupines (Lupinus spp.) contain alkaloids that cause contracture-type skeletal birth defects and cleft palate (“Crooked calf syndrome”) if the pregnant cow consumes them during the 40 – 70th day of gestation. The objective of this study was to determine when cattle graze velvet lupine (Lupi...
Proteoid roots develop in Lupinusalbus L. in response to nutrient stress, especially P. Proteoid roots excrete citrate and thus increase the availability of P, Fe, and Mn in the rhizosphere. In an effort to understand citrate synthesis and organic acid metabolism in proteoid roots of lupin, we have evaluated in vitro enzyme activities of citrate synthase (CS), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in proteoid and normal roots of plants grown with or without P. Organic acid concentrations, respiration rates, and dark 14CO2-labeling patterns were also determined. The in vitro specific activities of CS, MDH, and PEPC and in vivo dark 14CO2 fixation were higher in proteoid roots compared to normal roots, particularly under P stress. Western blot analysis showed that PEPC enzyme protein was more highly expressed in -P proteoid roots compared to other tissues. The majority of the fixed 14C was found in organic acids, predominantly malate and citrate. A larger fraction of citrate was labeled in P- stressed proteoid roots compared to other root tissue. Respiration rates of proteoid roots were 31% less than those of normal roots. The data provide evidence for increased synthesis of citrate in proteoid roots compared to normal roots, particularly under P stress. A portion of the carbon for citrate synthesis is derived from nonautotrophic CO2 fixation via PEPC in proteoid roots.
The aim of this work was to evaluate chemical responses to biomass removal mimicking large herbivore action in Lupinusalbus and Lupinus angustifolius aerial parts. GC and GC-MS were used to determine total alkaloid content (TAC) and alkaloid relative abundances in bitter and sweet varieties of each species. Bitter genotypes Vila vehla (Vv; 3.95 +/- 0.26 mg/g of DM) and El Harrach (EH; 3.99 +/- 0.19 mg/g of DM) showed after damage 22 and 32.8% TAC increases, respectively. Even sweet varieties, with very low alkaloid contents, Gungurru (Gu; 0.51 +/- 0.09 mg/g of DM) and Rumbo (Ru; 0.53 +/- 0.09 mg/g of DM) exhibited higher induced responses of 58.8 and 67.9%, respectively, and their final TAC values remained low, distinctly apart from those corresponding to bitter species. Moreover, minor components such as ammodendrine, reported to exhibit teratogenic potential, showed no significant changes in their relative abundances in response to biomass removal in these genotypes. PMID:19537792
Chludil, Hugo Daniel; Vilariño, María Del Pilar; Franco, María Luz; Leicach, Silvia Rosa
We have isolated a genomic DNA fragment encoding a gamma-tubulin in white lupin ( Lupinusalbus L.). The predicted polypeptide encoded by the La-TubG1 gene possesses between 91 and 95% identity with other higher-plant gamma-tubulins. The mRNA and protein level of lupin gamma-tubulin is highly correlated with beta-tubulin as well as with the growth rate of the tissue. Both La-TubG1 transcript and gamma-tubulin protein expression levels are down-regulated in the embryonic axis of dry seeds as compared with the embryonic axis of germinated seeds. In 7-day-old seedlings, the La-TubG1 gene is ubiquitously expressed, with the highest level found in immature leaves. In contrast, La-TubG1 gene expression is down-regulated in mature leaves. The gamma-tubulin protein level follows a similar age-dependent accumulation, decreasing during leaf development. The expression of the gamma-tubulin gene in the hypocotyl is down-regulated by light. Nevertheless, the protein levels were not significantly altered by light, suggesting that gamma-tubulin accumulation might be controlled at both transcriptional and protein levels. Immunocytochemistry studies showed that lupin gamma-tubulin displays the localization observed in most plant microtubule arrays, corroborating a functional conservation in different species. PMID:14986143
Saibo, Nelson J M; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina
Research on the structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein is limited. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins' thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties of lupin meal was studi...
Lupinus mariae-josephi H. Pascual is an intriguing lupin species recently discovered in the Mediterranean region. New data from seed coat micromorphology,\\u000a cytology, and DNA sequences were generated in order to extend our knowledge on this species and to examine its evolutionary\\u000a relationships within Lupinus. This species shows morphological similarities with the Mediterranean smooth seeded species of sections Micranthi and Lutei.
Previous research has suggested that successful establishment of narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) in the field may be limited by low phosphorus (P) content of the seed. This relationship has not been evaluated for white lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) and thus the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seed P concentration on the growth of
Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a high-protein grain legume growing well in a range of acid soil types. However, the lack of herbicide tolerance for effective weed control has limited its adoption in broad acre farming systems. In order to breed herbicide-tolerant cultivars, a source of resistance needs to be identified. This paper reports the identification of a number
Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a high-protein grain legume growing well in a range of acid soil types. However, the lack of herbicide tolerance for effective weed control has limited its adoption in broad acre farming systems. In order to breed herbicide-tolerant cultivars, a source of resistance needs to be identified. This paper reports the identification of a number
The temperature characteristics for the oxygen consumption and CO2-production of the germinating seeds of Lupinusalbus were previously found to be different. It was predicted qualitatively that the respiratory quotient of the seed should be a function of temperature. A quantitative treatment is presented here, relating the change of the respiratory quotient with temperature and the temperature characteristics. Experimental results agree satisfactorily with the calculated value.
Two Gram-negative bacterial strains capable of using lupanine, the predominant quinolizidine alkaloid in Lupinusalbus, as a sole carbon source were isolated from soil in which L. albus and L. luteus had been grown [Santana, F. M. et al. J. Ind. Microbiol. 1996, 17, 110-115]. In the present study, we present results suggesting that these isolates are of potential interest for removing lupanine and other quinolizidine alkaloids (QA) from the effluent resulting from the wet processing of Lupinus seeds, at temperatures within the range 20-34 degrees C. Growth in L. albus aqueous extract was diauxic, with a first period of rapid growth leading to the simultaneous consumption of a significant part of the initial concentration of QA (3 g L(-1), being 2 g L(-1) lupanine) and amino acids (1.5 g L(-1)). This period was followed by a second period of slower growth corresponding to the subsequent partial utilization (25%) of the carbohydrates (initial concentration of 20 g L(-1)) together with further removal of QA and amino acids. Despite the differences detected in the susceptibility of the two strains to lupanine toxicity, in particular at supraoptimal temperatures, and in the efficiency of lupanine catabolism, their performance on L. albus extract did not vary significantly. PMID:11929291
Santana, Filomena M C; Pinto, Teresa; Fialho, Arsénio M; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Empis, José M A
The response of nonnodulated white lupin (Lupinusalbus L. cv. Ultra) plants to a range of NO3 levels in the rooting medium was studied by in vitro assays of extracts of plant parts for NO3 reductase (EC 18.104.22.168) activity, measurements of NO3-N in plant organs, and solute analyses of root bleeding (xylem) sap and phloem sap from stems and petioles. Plants were grown for 65 days with 5 millimolar NO3 followed by 10 days with 1, 5, 15, or 30 millimolar NO3. NO3 reductase was substrate-induced in all tissues. Roots contained 76, 68, 62 and 31% of the total NO3 reductase activity of plants fed with 1, 5, 15, and 30 millimolar NO3, respectively. Stem, petioles, and leaflets contained virtually all of the NO3 reductase activity of a shoot, the activity in extracts of fruits amounting to less than 0.3% of the total enzyme recovered from the plant. Xylem sap from NO3-grown nonnodulated plants contained the same organic solutes as from nodulated plants grown in the absence of combined N. Asparagine accounted for 50 to 70% and glutamine 10 to 20% of the xylem-borne N. The level of NO3 in xylem sap amounted to 4, 13, 12, and 17% of the total xylem N at 1, 5, 15, and 30 millimolar NO3, respectively. Xylem to phloem transfer of N appeared to be quantitatively important in supplying fruits and vegetative apices with reduced N, especially at low levels of applied NO3. NO3 failed to transfer in any quantity from xylem to phloem, representing less than 0.3% of the phloem-borne N at all levels of applied NO3. Shoot organs were ineffective in storing NO3. Even when NO3 was supplied in great excess (30 millimolar level) it accounted for only 8% of the total N of stem and petioles, and only 2 and 1% of the N of leaflets and fruits, respectively.
Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.; Layzell, David B.
White lupin (Lupinusalbus, L.), a widely cultivated crop that has been consumed for many years in Western Europe, may provide a useful alternative for individuals wishing to substitute animal with plant proteins for cardiovascular disease prevention. Lupin seeds have a very low content of isoflavones, and lupin protein isolates are essentially isoflavone free. In rats fed a casein-based cholesterol
Cesare R. Sirtori; Maria Rosa Lovati; Cristina Manzoni; Silvia Castiglioni; Marcello Duranti; Chiara Magni; Sheila Morandi; Alessandra D'Agostina; Anna Arnoldi
Plants exposed to trace elements can suffer from oxidative stress, which is characterised by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alteration in the cellular antioxidant defence system and ultimately lipid peroxidation. We assessed the most-appropriate stress indexes to describe the response of two plant species, with different strategies for coping with trace elements (TEs), to particular contaminants. Noccaea caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator, and Lupinusalbus, an excluder, were grown in three soils of differing pH: an acidic soil, a neutral soil (both contaminated mainly by Cu, Zn and As) and a control soil. Then, plant stress indicators were measured. As expected, N. caerulescens accumulated higher levels of Zn and Cd in shoots than L. albus, this effect being stronger in the acid soil, reflecting greater TE solubility in this soil. However, the shoot concentrations of Mn were higher in L. albus than in N. caerulescens, while the As concentration was similar in the two species. In L. albus, the phenolic content and lipid peroxidation were related with the Cu concentration, whereas the Zn and Cd concentrations in N. caerulescens were more closely related to glutathione content and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, phytochelatins were only found in L. albus grown in polluted soils. Hence, the two species differed with respect to the TEs which provoked stress and the biochemical indicators of the stress, there being a close relationship between the accumulation of TEs and their associated stress indicators in the different plant organs. PMID:23466747
Martínez-Alcalá, Isabel; Hernández, Luis E; Esteban, Elvira; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS; EC 22.214.171.124) is the key regulatory enzyme of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and is encoded by a multigene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, mung bean and other plants. Southern blot analysis revealed the existence of at least five ACS genes in white lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) genome. Four complete and one partial sequences representing different ACS genes were cloned from the lupin genomic library. The levels of expression of two of the genes, LA-ACS1 and LA-ACS3, were found to increase after hypocotyl wounding. Apparently, these two genes were up-regulated by exogenous IAA treatment of seedlings. The LA-ACS3 mRNA levels were also elevated in the apical part of hypocotyl, which is reported to contain a high endogenous auxin concentration. This gene may be involved in the auxin- and ethylene-controlled apical hook formation. The expression of the LA-ACS4 gene was found to be almost undetectable. This gene may represent a "silent" twin of LA-ACS5 as these two genes share a considerable level of homology in coding and non-coding regions. The LA-ACS5 mRNA is strongly up-regulated in the embryonic axis of germinating seeds at the time of radicle emergence, and was also found in roots and hypocotyls of lupin seedlings. PMID:11089679
Bekman, E P; Saibo, N J; Di Cataldo, A; Regalado, A P; Ricardo, C P; Rodrigues-Pousada, C
White lupin (Lupinusalbus L.), a well adapted species to phosphate (Pi) impoverished soils, develops short, densely clustered lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) to increase Pi uptake. Here, we report two white lupin glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes which share strong homo...
Endosperm from hand dissected and dehulled Lupinusalbus seeds was milled into meal, sieved through a 40 mesh screen, and suspended in phosphate buffers (pH 4, 6.8, and 8) at 20% (w/v). The suspensions were treated at 75, 90 or 100ºC for one hour. The heat-treated protein was characterized by SDS-...
The present work studies the antioxidant capacity as well as the vitamin C and E contents of raw, fermented and germinated seeds of Lupinusalbus L. var. Multolupa. Vitamin C was quantified by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis and vitamin E isomers by high performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant capacity was determined by spectrophotometry and expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity
Juana Frias; Martha L. Miranda; Rosa Doblado; Concepción Vidal-Valverde
The paper describes the purification, structural characterization and inhibitory properties of a trypsin inhibitor from Lupinusalbus L., a leguminous plant believed to be devoid of any protease inhibitor. The protein has been isolated by a newly set-up procedure and characterized by direct amino acid sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy and circular dichroism. Inhibitory properties toward bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin, as
Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly crooked calf disease in preg- nant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primarily responsible for crooked calf disease. Lupines also contain teratogenic piperidine alkaloids including
S. T. Lee; K. E. Panter; J. A. Pfister; D. R. Gardner; K. D. Welch
Lupines (Lupinus species; Fabaceae) are an ancient crop with great potential to be developed further for high-protein feed and food, cover crops, and phytoremediation. Being legumes, they are capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric nitrogen. However, Lupinus species appear to be nonmycorrhizal or weakly mycorrhizal at most; instead some produce cluster roots, which release vast amounts of phosphate-mobilizing carboxylates (inorganic anions). Other lupines produce cluster-like roots, which function in a similar manner, and some release large amounts of carboxylates without specialized roots. These traits associated with nutrient acquisition make lupines ideally suited for either impoverished soils or soils with large amounts of phosphorus that is poorly available for most plants, e.g., acidic or alkaline soils. Here we explore how common the nonmycorrhizal phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on exudation of carboxylates is in the genus Lupinus, concluding it is very likely more widespread than generally acknowledged. This trait may partly account for the role of lupines as pioneers or invasive species, but also makes them suitable crop plants while we reach "peak phosphorus". PMID:23347972
This is report of mutational analysis of higher plant 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTAN). We identified and characterized the gene encoding yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus) MTAN (LlMTAN). The role of active site amino acids residues Glu24, Phe134, Glu188 and Asp211 was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis. The Glu24Gln and Asp211Asn substitutions completely abolished the enzyme activity. The Glu188Gln mutant showed only trace activity toward 5'-methylthioadenosine. These results indicate that these three amino acid residues are necessary for enzyme activity. Furthermore, as the result of replacement of Phe134 by less bulky leucine, LlMTAN acquired the ability to bind and hydrolyze S-adenosylhomocysteine. We also analyzed the sequence of the LlMTAN promoter region. It appeared that there may be a direct link between LlMTAN expression regulation and sulfate metabolism. PMID:21443501
Background: Peanut allergy is common, but cross-allergy between legumes is rare. Proteins from Lupinusalbus are increasingly eaten in the form of seeds or additives to wheat flour. The risk of cross-allergenicity is still insufficiently known. Objective: We sought to study the risk of cross-allergy to lupine in patients allergic to peanut and to study lupine allergenicity. Methods: Twenty-four patients
gamma-Conglutin, a glycoprotein from Lupinusalbus seed, has been characterized at molecular level but its physiological function is still unknown. gamma-Conglutin shares a high structural similarity with xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanase inhibitor proteins (XEGIPs) and Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI-I), which act specifically against fungal glycosyl hydrolase belonging to families 12 and 11, respectively. To assess the possible involvement of gamma-conglutin in plant defense, germinating lupin seeds were incubated with chitosan. The relative quantification of gamma-conglutin mRNA extracted from cotyledons was then carried out by RT-qPCR and indicated that chitosan strongly elicited the expression of gamma-conglutin. Moreover, biochemical trials aimed to test the inhibitory capacity of the protein have been also carried out. gamma-Conglutin failed to inhibit representative fungal endo-glucanases and other cell wall-degrading enzymes. To explain the lack of inhibitory capacity we investigated the possible structural differences between gamma-conglutin and XEGIPs and TAXI-I, including the construction of a predictive 3D model of the protein. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that the lack of inhibitory activity of gamma-conglutin can be attributed to sequence differences in the inhibitor interaction domains, and in particular to a sequence deletion in one of the functional loops. PMID:19962718
The rates of production of CO2 by germinating seeds of Lupinusalbus and Zea mays were studied between temperatures 12.5° and 25°C. with the HCl-Ba(OH)2 titration method. The temperature characteristics found are different from those previously obtained for the oxygen consumption of the same seeds germinated in the same manner. For Lupinus, the temperature characteristics above and below the critical temperature of 20° are 16,100 ± and 24,000 ± calories respectively. For Zea, no evidence of a critical temperature was found in this region, and the temperature characteristic is 20,750 ± calories throughout the range of temperature tested. The possible interpretations of the difference in the values of temperature characteristics for oxygen consumption and for production of CO2 are noted.
Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...
To adapt to low soil fertility, white lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) produces cluster roots that are characterized by the synchronous and determinate development of rootlets that arise from pericycle and the secretion of organic acid and acid phosphatase. To understand the molecular mechanisms controlling...
White lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) is a phosphate (Pi) deficiency tolerant legume which develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and...
Proteins in the intercellular fluid (IF) of healthy Lupinusalbus leaves were characterized. Silver staining of the proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed more than 30 polypeptides, with the major ones having a molecular mass lower than 36 kD. After amino-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, one of the major polypeptides, IF4, was shown to have no identity with any of the proteins present in the data bases. Two others, IF1 and IF3, showed identity with previously reported pathogenesis-related proteins, IF1 with an antifungal protein from Hordeum vulgare that belongs to the thaumatin family (PR-5 family), and IF3 with class III chitinase-lysozymes. IF3 was also present in the IF of stem and root and it represents the major polypeptide in the medium of L. albus cell-suspension cultures. The ubiquitous presence of this enzyme in healthy, nonstressed tissues of L. albus cannot be explained.
Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205?Mb and 530?Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64?L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome sequencing will facilitate the further development of genomic tools and lupin germplasm. Massive sequencing of cDNA libraries will continue to produce raw materials for gene discovery, identification of polymorphisms (SNPs, EST-SSRs, INDELs, etc.) for marker development, anchoring sequences for genome comparisons and putative gene candidates for QTL detection.
Six authentic gibberellins marginally promoted hypocotyl lengthening of etiolated lupin seedlings whereas extracted lupin “gibberellin-like” compounds were ineffective. However, dwarfing by AMO-1618 [2'-isopropyl-4'-(trimethyl-ammonium chloride)-5'-methylphenyl piperidine carboxylate] was totally counteracted by co-application with GA3 and partially overcome by extracted lupin “gibberellins”. Meaningful quantities of free extractable and diffusible gibberellins were detected; “bound” gibberellin activity was not found. The time-course of the
Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi-deficiency remains largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) has evolved unique adaptation systems for gro...
Analyses for trypsin inhibitor were carried out on a group of legume seed samples previously evaluated nutritionally in rat growth studies. Sweet lupin seeds (Lupinusalbus and L. angustifolius) had no detectable amount of inhibitor (less than 0.1 mg\\/g). Glycine max (soya beans) had 26.2 mg\\/g. Phaseolus lunatus (lima beans) and three varieties of P. vulgaris had 10–20 mg\\/g; the
Poorly crystalline Fe oxides and organic matter are two important factors affecting Fe nutrition of plants. The main objective\\u000a of this work was to study the contribution of humic substances to Fe nutrition of a typical Fe-chlorosis sensitive plant (white\\u000a lupin, Lupinusalbus L.). An experiment was performed involving two growing media (siliceous and calcareous) and different Fe sources: control
A mapping population of F8 derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was established from a cross between a domesticated breeding line 83A:476 and a wild type P27255 in narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). The parents together with the 89 RILs were subjected to DNA fingerprinting using microsatellite-anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) to rapidly generate DNA markers to construct a linkage map.
JEFFREY G. BOERSMA; MARGARET PALLOTTA; CHENGDAO LI; BEVAN J. BUIRCHELL; KRISHNAPILLAI SIVASITHAMPARAM; HUAAN YANG
The paper describes the purification, structural characterization and inhibitory properties of a trypsin inhibitor from Lupinusalbus L., a leguminous plant believed to be devoid of any protease inhibitor. The protein has been isolated by a newly set-up procedure and characterized by direct amino acid sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy and circular dichroism. Inhibitory properties toward bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin, as well as its thermal and pH stabilities, have been also assessed. The inhibitor is 63 amino acid long (Mr 6858; pI 8.22) and it is capable to inhibit two trypsin molecules simultaneously, with a Kd of 4.2+/-0.4 nM, but not chymotrypsin. BLAST search against UniProtKB/TrEMBL database indicates that the inhibitor belongs to the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) family. The interest in these serine-protease inhibitors arises from the ability to prevent or suppress carcinogen-induced transformation, as shown in various in vitro and in vivo model systems. PMID:18474386
The coding sequences of two S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolases (SAHases) were identified in yellow lupine by screenig of a cDNA library. One of them, corresponding to the complete protein, was sequenced and compared with 52 other SAHase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins identified three groups of the enzymes. Group A comprises only bacterial sequences. Group B is subdivided into two subgroups, one of which (B1) is formed by animal sequences. Subgroup B2 consist of two distinct clusters, B2a and B2b. Cluster B2b comprises all known plant sequences, including the yellow lupine enzyme, which are distinguished by a 50-residue insert. Group C is heterogeneous and contains SAHases from Archaea as well as a new class of animal enzymes, distinctly different from those in group B1. PMID:11732617
Brzezi?ski, K; Janowski, R; Podkowi?ski, J; Jaskólski, M
Ultrafiltration followed by diafiltration (UF-DF) was evaluated for the production of protein products from partially defatted\\u000a soybean meal or undefatted lupin (Lupinusalbus L.2043N) meal. This study determined the effects of UF-DF on functional properties of the extracted proteins and compared\\u000a the results with those of protein prepared by acid-precipitation (AP). UF-DF produced only protein concentrates (73% crude\\u000a protein, dry
Mila P. Hojilla-Evangelista; David J. Sessa; Abdellatif Mohamed
The effects of a limed soil upon root and shoot growth of white lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) were investigated using soil tubes and pots. After 75?days in the soil tubes, the combined taproot and lateral root dry\\u000a weight in limed soil (2.5% CaO w\\/w) was significantly less than in neutral pH soil (by 57%). However, the dry weight and numbers
The elongation growth of etiolated hypocotyl segments of lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) was stimulated by acid pH (4.6 versus 6.5) and by IAA for periods of up to 4 h. After this time, the segments were unable to grow further. In the presence of an optimal IAA concentration (10 µM), acid pH increased the growth rate but had no effect
J. M. Botía; A. Ortuno; F. Sabater; M. Acosta; J. Sánchez-Bravo
We analyzed the effect of different copper (Cu) concentrations (0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.35 mM) and time (1 day to 9 days) on several growth and biochemical parameters of roots and shoots of white lupin plants (Lupinusalbus cv Estoril) grown in nutrient solution. A significant decrease in leaf fresh weight and leaf area was detected. Copper accumulated in the
Miguel P. Mourato; Luisa Louro Martins; Ann Cuypers
Background Dehydrins represent hydrophilic proteins acting mainly during cell dehydration and stress response. Dehydrins are generally thermostable; however, the so-called dehydrin-like (dehydrin-related) proteins show variable thermolability. Both groups immunoreact with antibodies directed against the K-segment of dehydrins. Plant mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to extend previous reports on plant dehydrins by comparing the level of immunoprecipitated dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. Results All the analyzed plant species showed constitutive accumulation of thermostable mitochondrial putative dehydrins ranging from 50 to 70 kDa. The mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins observed in cauliflower and Arabidopsis ranged from 10 to 100 kDa and in lupin imbibed seeds and hypocotyls - from 20 to 90 kDa. Cold treatment increased mainly the accumulation of 10-100 kDa cauliflower and Arabidopsis dehydrin-like proteins, in the patterns different in cauliflower leaf and inflorescence mitochondria. However, in lupin mitochondria, cold affected mainly 25-50 kDa proteins and seemed to induce the appearance of some novel dehydrin-like proteins. The influence of frost stress on cauliflower leaf mitochondrial dehydrin- like proteins was less significant. The impact of heat stress was less significant in lupin and Arabidopsis than in cauliflower inflorescence mitochondria. Cauliflower mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are localized mostly in the mitochondrial matrix; it seems that some of them may interact with mitochondrial membranes. Conclusions All the results reveal an unexpectedly broad spectrum of dehydrin-like proteins accumulated during some abiotic stress in the mitochondria of the plant species analyzed. They display only limited similarity in size to those reported previously in maize, wheat and rye mitochondria. Some small thermolabile dehydrin-like proteins were induced under stress conditions applied and therefore they are likely to be involved in stress response.
Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, lupine provokes allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. The presence of undeclared lupine residues in foods can pose a serious health risk to lupine-allergic individuals. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a sandwich-type ELISA for the detection of lupine residues in foods. Lupine flour derived from Lupinusalbus was used to immunize 3 rabbits and a sheep. Pooled lupine-specific antibodies were partially purified from the sera by ammonium sulfate precipitation. A sandwich lupine ELISA with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 ppm was developed by utilizing the rabbit antisera as the capture reagent and the sheep antiserum as the detector reagent. The binding of the antigen-antibody complex was visualized by the addition of commercial rabbit antisheep IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase with subsequent addition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate to produce a colored product for quantification. Minor cross-reactivity was observed with soy (Glycine max) and black bean (Castanospermum australe). The performance of the lupine ELISA was evaluated in reference food standards (beef frankfurter and apple cinnamon muffin) and laboratory-prepared cooked frankfurters and corn muffins. The mean percent recovery for lupine spiked-frankfurters and corn muffins were 108.4%+/- 8.8% and 103.1%+/- 11.5%, respectively. The sandwich-type lupine ELISA developed in this study provides food manufacturers and regulatory agencies with an effective analytical tool to detect and quantify lupine residues in processed foods. PMID:19019135
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of cholesterol-enriched casein (CAS) and blue lupin seed (BL) diets on the cholesterol metabolism of intact (INT) and ileorectal anastomosed (IRA) pigs. For 3 weeks, four groups of six pigs were allocated to the treatments (CAS- INT, CAS-IRA, BL-INT, and BL-IRA). Diet-induced hyper- cholesterolemia was inhibited by the BL through a
José M. Martins; Michel Riottot; Manuel C. de Abreu; Ana M. Viegas-Crespo; Maria J. Lança; José A. Almeida; João B. Freire; Ofélia P. Bento
With the aim of improving the nutritive value of an important grain legume crop, a chimeric gene specifying seed-specific expression of a sulfur-rich, sunflower seed albumin was stably transformed into narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Sunflower seed albumin accounted for 5% of extractable seed protein in a line containing a single tandem insertion of the transferred DNA. The transgenic seeds contained less sulfate and more total amino acid sulfur than the nontransgenic parent line. This was associated with a 94% increase in methionine content and a 12% reduction in cysteine content. There was no statistically significant change in other amino acids or in total nitrogen or total sulfur contents of the seeds. In feeding trials with rats, the transgenic seeds gave statistically significant increases in live weight gain, true protein digestibility, biological value, and net protein utilization, compared with wild-type seeds. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using genetic engineering to improve the nutritive value of grain crops.
Molvig, Lisa; Tabe, Linda M.; Eggum, Bjorn O.; Moore, Andrew E.; Craig, Stuart; Spencer, Donald; Higgins, Thomas J. V.
Plant interactions with environmental factors cause changes in the metabolism and regulation of biochemical and physiological processes. Plant defense against pathogenic microorganisms depends on an innate immunity system that is activated as a result of infection. There are two mechanisms of triggering this system: basal immunity activated as a result of a perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns through pattern recognition receptors situated on the cell surface and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). An induced biosynthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites, in particular phytoalexins, is one of the mechanisms of plant defense to fungal infection. Results of the study on narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) plants infected with the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum lupini and treated with fungal phytotoxic metabolites are described in the paper. The C. lupini phytotoxins were isolated from liquid cultures, purified and partially characterized with physicochemical methods. Accumulation of secondary metabolites on leaf surface and within the tissues of plants either infected, treated with the fungal phytotoxin or submitted to both treatments was studied using GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. Substantial differences in isoflavone aglycones and glycoconjugate profiles occurred in response to different ways of plant treatment. PMID:23678343
We examined changes in profiles of isoflavonoids in roots of lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) seedlings in response to treatment with two heavy metals: cadmium (at 10 mg/l) and lead (at 150 mg/l). Overall, 21 flavonoid conjugates were identified in root extracts, some of them with up to six positional isomers. The total amount of all isoflavonoids increased by about 15 % in cadmium-treated plants and by 46 % in lead-treated ones. Heavy metals markedly increased the content of two compounds: 2'-hydroxygenistein glucoside and 2'-hydroxygenistein 7-O-glucoside malonylated. Possible functions of the identified isoflavonoids in yellow lupine exposed to heavy metal stress are discussed. PMID:21503277
Background and Aims In some lupin species, phosphate deficiency induces cluster-root formation, which enhances P uptake by increasing root surface area and, more importantly, the release of root exudates which enhances P availability. Methods Three species of Lupinus, L. albus, L. atlanticus and L. micranthus, with inherently different relative growth rates were cultivated under hydroponics in a greenhouse at four phosphate concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 150 µm) to compare the role of internal P in regulating cluster-root formation. Key Results The highest growth rate was observed in L. atlanticus, followed by L. albus and L. micranthus. At 1 µm P, cluster-root formation was markedly induced in all three species. The highest P uptake and accumulation was observed in L. micranthus, followed by L. atlanticus and then L. albus. Inhibition of cluster-root formation was severe at 10 µm P in L. atlanticus, but occurred stepwise with increasing P concentration in the root medium in L. albus. Conclusions In L. atlanticus and L. albus cluster-root formation was suppressed by P treatments above 10 µm, indicating a P-inducible regulating system for cluster-root formation, as expected. By contrast, production of cluster roots in L. micranthus, in spite of a high internal P concentration, indicated a lower sensitivity to P status, which allowed P-toxicity symptoms to develop.
Abdolzadeh, Ahmad; Wang, Xing; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans
Lupines (Lupinus spp.) containing certain alkaloids are either acutely toxic or cause birth defects in livestock. Lupine toxicity has been especially troublesome in portions of eastern Washington state. Some reports suggest that naïve, younger animals may consume more lupine than more experienced, o...
Mature seeds of yellow lupine contained sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and galactosyl cyclitols as major soluble carbohydrates. The study showed that RFOs dominated in lupine seeds (16% DW). The disappearance of both types of alpha-d-galactosides in germinating lupine seeds was strongly inhibited by the presence of jasmonic acid-methyl ester (JA-Me) at a concentration of 10(-3)M in the incubation medium. JA-Me inhibited the activity of alpha-D-galactosidase (fraction I) during seed germination. Anatomical studies of lupine roots have shown certain cell structure differences between control and JA-Me-treated seedlings. The cross-sections of plant roots treated with JA-Me showed a characteristic folding of the cell walls in all root tissues, starting from the rhyzodermis, cortex and vascular cylinder. In water-treated (control) plants, the cell walls were rounded with no folding. PMID:20417986
One hundred fifty-two Holstein calves were used to evaluate white lupines (Lu- pinus albus cv. Ultra) and triticale in starter diets. The basal diet contained corn, oats, minerals, and vitamins. Starter components were 1) 14% soybean meal; 2) 10% soybean meal and 27% triticale; 3) 22% lupines; 4) 16% lupines and 24.5% triticale; 5) 11% lupines and 8% soybean meal;
K. L. Wright; D. E. Otterby; J. G. Linn; M. D. Stern; G. D. Marx; D. G. Johnson
Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (P(i)), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to P(i) deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinusalbus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in P(i)-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to P(i) supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ? 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to P(i) deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ? 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to P(i) deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the P(i) status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in P(i) deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to P(i) deficiency. PMID:23197803
O'Rourke, Jamie A; Yang, S Samuel; Miller, Susan S; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W; Vance, Carroll P
White lupin (Lupinusalbus) is a legume that is very efficient in accessing unavailable phosphorus (Pi). It develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report, we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2) from white lupin and propose a role for these two GPX-PDEs in root hair growth and development and in a Pi stress-induced phospholipid degradation pathway in cluster roots. Both GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are highly expressed in Pi-deficient cluster roots, particularly in root hairs, epidermal cells, and vascular bundles. Expression of both genes is a function of both Pi availability and photosynthate. GPX-PDE1 Pi deficiency-induced expression is attenuated as photosynthate is deprived, while that of GPX-PDE2 is strikingly enhanced. Yeast complementation assays and in vitro enzyme assays revealed that GPX-PDE1 shows catalytic activity with glycerophosphocholine while GPX-PDE2 shows highest activity with glycerophosphoinositol. Cell-free protein extracts from Pi-deficient cluster roots display GPX-PDE enzyme activity for both glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoinositol. Knockdown of expression of GPX-PDE through RNA interference resulted in impaired root hair development and density. We propose that white lupin GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are involved in the acclimation to Pi limitation by enhancing glycerophosphodiester degradation and mediating root hair development. PMID:21464471
Selenium has been recognized as essential for all mammals; therefore, its concentration level and speciation are of great concern. Plants are one of the main sources of selenium in the diet. Thus, inorganic selenium uptake and its transformation in different species were evaluated in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), sunflower (Helianthus annus), and white lupine (Lupinusalbus). More than 1.2 g x kg(-)(1) (dry matter) of Se was found in the aerial part of Indian mustard when growing on 1 mg x L(-)(1) of Se as Na(2)SeO(4), and approximately half this amount was determined in the leaves of the lupine, which is still quite high. Selenomethionine was the main selenium-containing amino acid identified in most of the extracts by HPLC-ICP-MS. The higher values were 6.8 and 14.5 mg x kg(-)(1) (expressed as Se in dry matter) in the leaves of lupine and sunflower, respectively. This is of great importance because some authors have considered the combination of this enriched material with non-enriched food as a source of selenium supplementation. PMID:14969538
Ximénez-Embún, Pilar; Alonso, Inmaculada; Madrid-Albarrán, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen
Plant viruses pose a threat to the acquisition, maintenance, and distribution of lupin germplasm (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). The availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from maintained lupin collections is mandatory for conducting lupin research. The objective of t...
The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens. PMID:23332028
White lupin (Lupinusalbus) adapts to phosphorus deficiency (?P) by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots. In an effort to better understand the molecular events mediating these adaptive responses, we have isolated and sequenced 2,102 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cDNA libraries prepared with RNA isolated at different stages of proteoid root development. Determination of overlapping regions revealed 322 contigs (redundant copy transcripts) and 1,126 singletons (single-copy transcripts) that compile to a total of 1,448 unique genes (unigenes). Nylon filter arrays with these 2,102 ESTs from proteoid roots were performed to evaluate global aspects of gene expression in response to ?P stress. ESTs differentially expressed in P-deficient proteoid roots compared with +P and ?P normal roots include genes involved in carbon metabolism, secondary metabolism, P scavenging and remobilization, plant hormone metabolism, and signal transduction.
Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Zinn, Kelly E.; Ramirez-Yanez, Mario; Li, Aiguo; Vance, Carroll P.; Allan, Deborah L.
White lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots. To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere. The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, an activator of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of the LHA1 PM H+-ATPase gene, an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzyme and post-translational modification of an H+-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux. PMID:19183296
An L-asparaginase cDNA clone, BR4, was isolated from a Lupinus arboreus Sims developing seed expression library by screening with polyclonal antibodies to the seed asparaginase. The cDNA hybridised with an oligonucleotide probe designed from amino acid sequence data and was found on sequencing to be 947 bp in length. Six polypeptide sequences obtained previously could be placed along the longest open reading frame. Computer-aided codon use analysis revealed that the cDNA sequence was consistent with other plant genes in terms of codon use. The cDNA insert was used to analyse asparaginase transcription in various tissues by northern blot analysis. A transcript size of approximately 1.2 kb was detected in L. arboreus seed total and poly(A)+ RNA. The level of this transcript declined from 30 days after anthesis to an undetectable level by day 55. Furthermore, under the high stringency conditions used, the seed asparaginase cDNA did not hybridise with total or poly(A)+ RNA isolated from root tips, suggesting that the asparaginase known to be present in this tissue may be the product of a different gene. Southern analysis suggested the seed asparaginase is a single-copy gene. The plant asparaginase amino acid sequence did not have any significant homology with microbial asparaginases but was 23% identical and 66% similar (allowing for conservative substitutions) to a human glycosylasparaginase. PMID:1377963
Lough, T J; Reddington, B D; Grant, M R; Hill, D F; Reynolds, P H; Farnden, K J
Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming. PMID:23279626
Simultaneous measurements of CO2 (CER) and O2 (OER) exchange in roots and shoots of vegetative white lupin (Lupinusalbus) were used to calculate the flow of reducing power to the synthesis of biomass that was more reduced per unit of carbon than carbohydrate. On a whole-plant basis, the diverted reductant utilization rate (DRUR which is: 4 × [CER + OER]) of shoot tissue was consistently higher than that of roots, and values obtained in the light were greater than those in the dark. An analysis of the biomass being synthesized over a 24-h period provided an estimate of whole-plant DRUR (3.5 mmol e? plant?1 d?1), which was similar to that measured by gas exchange (3.2 mmol e? plant?1 d?1). Given that nitrate reduction to ammonia makes up about 74% of whole-plant DRUR, root nitrate reduction in white lupin was estimated to account for less than 43% of whole-plant nitrate reduction. The approach developed here should offer a powerful tool for the noninvasive study of metabolic regulation in intact plants or plant organs.
Cen, Yan-Ping; Turpin, David H.; Layzell, David B.
The USDA, ARS, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, in Pullman, Washington is responsible for the acquisition, maintenance, storage, and distribution of lupine (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). Availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from lupine collections is ma...
Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is widely planted in infertile acidic soils where phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major limiting factors for plant growth. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to examine the morphological and physiological responses of roots of narrow-leafed lupin in response to altered P supply at 0, 1, 10, 25 or 75 ? M P as
Background In legumes, seed storage proteins are important for the developing seedling and are an important source of protein for humans and animals. Lupinus angustifolius (L.), also known as narrow-leaf lupin (NLL) is a grain legume crop that is gaining recognition as a potential human health food as the grain is high in protein and dietary fibre, gluten-free and low in fat and starch. Results Genes encoding the seed storage proteins of NLL were characterised by sequencing cDNA clones derived from developing seeds. Four families of seed storage proteins were identified and comprised three unique ?, seven ?, two ? and four ? conglutins. This study added eleven new expressed storage protein genes for the species. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of NLL conglutins with those available for the storage proteins of Lupinusalbus (L.), Pisum sativum (L.), Medicago truncatula (L.), Arachis hypogaea (L.) and Glycine max (L.) permitted the analysis of a phylogenetic relationships between proteins and demonstrated, in general, that the strongest conservation occurred within species. In the case of 7S globulin (? conglutins) and 2S sulphur-rich albumin (? conglutins), the analysis suggests that gene duplication occurred after legume speciation. This contrasted with 11S globulin (? conglutin) and basic 7S (? conglutin) sequences where some of these sequences appear to have diverged prior to speciation. The most abundant NLL conglutin family was ? (56%), followed by ? (24%), ? (15%) and ? (6%) and the transcript levels of these genes increased 103 to 106 fold during seed development. We used the 16 NLL conglutin sequences identified here to determine that for individuals specifically allergic to lupin, all seven members of the ? conglutin family were potential allergens. Conclusion This study has characterised 16 seed storage protein genes in NLL including 11 newly-identified members. It has helped lay the foundation for efforts to use molecular breeding approaches to improve lupins, for example by reducing allergens or increasing the expression of specific seed storage protein(s) with desirable nutritional properties.
The ABA concentrations of leaves, roots, soils and transport fluids of chickpea and lupin plants growing in acid (pH=4.8) and alkaline (pH=8.0) soils and an acid soil with an alkaline subsoil and an alkaline soil with an acid subsoil were measured with the aim of explaining the poor growth of narrow-leafed lupins in alkaline soil. The ABA concentration in the
Wolfram Hartung; Laurent Leport; R. George Ratcliffe; Angela Sauter; Regina Duda; Neil C. Turner
Background and Aims Phosphorus (P) is a major factor controlling cluster-root formation. Cluster-root proliferation tends to concentrate in organic matter (OM)-rich surface-soil layers, but the nature of this response of cluster-root formation to OM is not clear. Cluster-root proliferation in response to localized application of OM was characterized in Lupinusalbus (white lupin) grown in stratified soil columns to test if the stimulating effect of OM on cluster-root formation was due to (a) P release from breakdown of OM; (b) a decrease in soil density; or (c) effects of micro-organisms other than releasing P from OM. Methods Lupin plants were grown in three-layer stratified soil columns where P was applied at 0 or 330 mg P kg?1 to create a P-deficient or P-sufficient background, and OM, phytate mixed with OM, or perlite was applied to the top or middle layers with or without sterilization. Key Results Non-sterile OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation and root length, and this effect became greater when phytate was supplied in the presence of OM. Both sterile OM and perlite significantly decreased cluster-root formation in the localized layers. The OM position did not change the proportion of total cluster roots to total roots in dry biomass among no-P treatments, but more cluster roots were concentrated in the OM layers with a decreased proportion in other places. Conclusions Localized application of non-sterile OM or phytate plus OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation of L. albus in the localized layers. This effect is predominantly accounted for by P release from breakdown of OM or phytate, but not due to a change in soil density associated with OM. No evidence was found for effects of micro-organisms in OM other than those responsible for P release.
Li, Hai-Gang; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lambers, Hans
Responses of narrow?leafed sweet lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) to foliar sprays of different sources of manganese (Mn) were compared in field experiments in three years at six sites in Western Australia. The relative effectiveness of manganese chelate (EDTA; 14% Mn) and manganese sulfate (25% Mn) applied as foliar sprays for alleviating Mn deficiency of lupins was assessed. Each source was
This study compares the digestibility of a series of lupin and soybean protein products when fed to either rainbow trout or Atlantic salmon. The test ingredients in the study, from one of two key grain resources (lupins: Lupinus angustifolius and soybeans), represented various levels of processing of each grain in order to increase the protein content of the meals. A
Brett D Glencross; Chris G Carter; Neil Duijster; David R Evans; Ken Dods; Peter McCafferty; Wayne E Hawkins; Maas van der R; Sofia Sipsas
Abstract The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4?µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6?µg/kg?d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins. PMID:23763660
Controlled laboratory microcosms were used to research the phytoremediation potential of lupines (Lupinus chamissonis) for hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former oil field near Guadalupe, California. During oil production in the Guadalupe Oil Field, a kerosene-like hydrocarbon mixture was used as a diluent to improve the flow of the heavy crude oil. Leaking tanks and pipes resulted in diluent contamination in
White lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 ?m phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals (proteoid rootlets) emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length (4 mm), citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. We suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated (700 ?L L?1) atmospheric [CO2] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO2].
In animals, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has several physiological roles, mostly related with circadian and seasonal rhythms. In 1995, it was detected in a variety of edible plants, and it is known that melatonin from plant foods is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and incorporated in the blood stream. This indoleamine also crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, being incorporated at the subcellular level. The possibility of modulating blood melatonin levels in mammals and avians through the ingestion of plant foodstuffs seems to be an interesting prospect. However, data concerning the melatonin content of edible plants are scarce and have not been contrasted. Obtained with very different analytical techniques, in some cases inappropriate, the quantitative data show a high degree of variation. Possibly for the first time in plants, we have used liquid chromatography with time-of-flight/mass spectrometry to identify melatonin. This sophisticated technique, combined with the more commonly used liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for melatonin quantification, has permitted us to describe the distribution of this compound in different organs and zones in plants. Also, changes in melatonin levels with age and the possible influence of a light/dark photoperiod or constant darkness on its levels are studied. The proposal, applied here to lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), may also serve as a model for application to other plant foodstuffs. PMID:18975965
The changes in water distribution in maturing lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds were visualized with mag- netic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI data showed local inhomogeneities of water distribution inside the seed. At the late seed-filling stage the most intense signal was detected in the seed coat and the outer parts of cotyledons in the hilum area, but during maturation drying
Ninety male crossbred pigs were allocated at 30kg live weight to a 6×5 factorial experiment involving six diets and five levels of feeding where average daily intakes were 1.11, 1.36, 1.67, 1.90kg and ad libitum between 30 and 60kg live weight. The control diet contained predominantly animal protein sources, another four diets contained 350g\\/kg of either kernels or seeds of
R. H King; F. R Dunshea; L Morrish; P. J Eason; R. J van Barneveld; B. P Mullan; R. G Campbell
An experiment was conducted on 48 ewes during follicular and luteal phases of the oestrous cycle to determine the effect of a 5-day lupin grain supplementation (500?g/day) on folliculogenesis, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, FSH and oestradiol-17? (E2), follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, E2, androstenedione and progesterone and the levels of P450 aromatase and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), -2 and -4 in theca and granulosa cells. Average weight did not differ between lupin-fed and control groups. The numbers of follicles were increased (P<0.05; ?(2)) in the lupin-fed group. The plasma concentrations of glucose (P<0.05; ANOVA) and insulin (P<0.001; ANOVA) were higher in lupin-fed ewes. The plasma concentrations of FSH were not different but those of E2 were decreased (P<0.001) in the lupin-fed group. Both the follicular fluid concentration of E2 (P<0.05) and the level of P450 aromatase in granulosa cells (P<0.05; ANOVA) were decreased in the lupin-fed group, but only during the follicular phase. The level of P450 aromatase in granulosa cells was positively correlated with the concentration of E2 in follicular fluid (r=0.820; P<0.001; ANOVA). The levels of IRS-1 and -2 in theca and granulosa cell lysates were increased in the lupin-fed group. These data suggest that insulin has a local role in the control of folliculogenesis and is likely to be a mediator of the effects of dietary energy intake on ovulation rate. We suggest that insulin acting through IRS proteins mediates the reproductive actions of insulin in the follicle and that IRS-1 and -2 are nutritionally regulated mediators of the action of insulin in the follicle. PMID:23401596
Somchit-Assavacheep, A; Campbell, B K; Khalid, M; Kendall, N R; Scaramuzzi, R J
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.2-4) is present in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus cv. Juno) in many isoforms. The number and banding pattern of isoenzymes varies with respect to plant organ and developmental stage. To better understand the complex nature of GDH regulation in plants, the levels of GDH transcripts, enzyme activity and isoenzyme patterns in germinating seeds and roots of yellow lupine were examined. The analysis of GDH cDNA sequences in lupine revealed three mRNA types, of which two encoded the ?-GDH subunit and one encoded the ?-GDH subunit (corresponding to the GDH1(GDH3) and GDH2 genes, respectively). The relative expression of GDH1 and GDH2 genes was analyzed in various lupine organs by using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicate that different mRNA types were differently regulated depending on organ type. Although both genes appeared to be ubiquitously expressed in all lupine tissues, the GDH1 transcripts evidently predominated over those of GDH2. Immunochemical analyses confirmed that, during embryo development, varied expression of two GDH subunits takes place. The ?-GDH subunit (43kDa) predominated in the early stages of germinating seeds, while the ?-GDH subunit (44kDa) was the only GDH polypeptide present in lupine roots. These results firmly support the hypothesis that isoenzyme variability of GDH in yellow lupine is associated with the varied expression of ? and ? subunits into the complexes of hexameric GDH forms. The presence of several isogenes of GDH in yellow lupine may explain the high number (over 20) of its molecular forms in germinating lupine. PMID:21333382
The addition of some legume ingredients to bread has been associated with effects on glycaemic, insulinaemic and satiety responses that may be beneficial in controlling type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity. However, the effect of Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) flour (ASLF) is unknown. This investigation examined the effect of adding ASLF to standard white bread on post-meal glycaemic,
Proximate analyses, amino acid profiles, and protein efficiency ratios (PER) from rat-feeding trials were conducted on samples from soya beans (Glycine max), lupin species (L. angustifolius, L. albus, L. mutabilis), phaseolus species (P. lunatus, P. vulgaris), peas (Pisum sativum), and field beans (Vicia faba). These legume seeds were included as the sole protein source in diets fed to rats, with
The interactive effect of salinity and presoaking in ascorbic acid or phyridoxine on germination, seedling growth, and some\\u000a relevant metabolic changes ofLupinus termis andVicia faba seeds were studied. Germination studies indicated that broad bean tolerated NaCl salinity up to 240mM NaCl and lupin to 200mM NaCl. The lengths of roots and shoots and their water content, as well as dry
M. A. Shaddad; A. F. Radi; A. M. Abdel-Rahman; M. M. Azooz
Two genotypes ofLupinusalbus L., resistant and susceptible to drought, were subjected to water deficiency for up to two weeks. Such treatment progressively lowered the leaf water content from about 85% to about 60% (water potential from ?0.8 to ?4.3 MPa). Light-saturation curves of the uncoupled electron transport were analyzed according to a simple kinetic model of separated or connected
Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week
Ramon S. Hall; Amynta L. Baxter; Cathy Fryirs; Stuart K. Johnson
Bradyrhizobium strains isolated in Europe from Genisteae and serradella legumes form a distinct lineage, designated clade II, on nodulation gene trees. Clade II bradyrhizobia appear to prevail also in the soils of Western Australia and South Africa following probably accidental introduction with seeds of their lupine and serradella hosts. Given this potential for dispersal, we investigated Bradyrhizobium isolates originating from a range of native New World lupines, based on phylogenetic analyses of nodulation (nodA, nodZ, noeI) and housekeeping (atpD, dnaK, glnII, recA) genes. The housekeeping gene trees revealed considerable diversity among lupine bradyrhizobia, with most isolates placed in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum lineage, while some European strains were closely related to Bradyrhizobium canariense. The nodA gene tree resolved seven strongly supported groups (clades I to VII) that correlated with strain geographical origins and to some extent with major Lupinus clades. All European strains were placed in clade II, whereas only a minority of New World strains was placed in this clade. This work, as well as our previous studies, suggests that clade II diversified predominately in the Old World, possibly in the Mediterranean. Most New World isolates formed subclade III.2, nested in a large “pantropical” clade III, which appears to be New World in origin, although it also includes strains originating from nonlupine legumes. Trees generated using nodZ and noeI gene sequences accorded well with the nodA tree, but evidence is presented that the noeI gene may not be required for nodulation of lupine and that loss of this gene is occurring.
Stepkowski, Tomasz; Hughes, Colin E.; Law, Ian J.; Markiewicz, Lukasz; Gurda, Dorota; Chlebicka, Agnieszka; Moulin, Lionel
The involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) on the growth of light-grown seedlings and rooting is generally accepted, while the role of auxin and PAT on the growth of dark-grown seedlings is subject to controversy. To further investigate this question, we have firstly studied the influence of NPA, a known inhibitor of PAT, on the rooting and growth of etiolated Lupinusalbus hypocotyls. Rooting was inhibited when the basal ends of de-rooted seedlings were immersed in 100 micro m NPA but was partially restored after immersion in NPA + auxin. However, NPA applied to de-rooted seedlings or the roots of intact seedlings did not inhibit hypocotyl growth. It was taken up and distributed along the organ, and actually inhibited the basipetal transport of ((3)H)-IAA applied to isolated hypocotyl sections. Since the apex is the presumed auxin source for hypocotyl growth and rooting, and the epidermis is considered the limiting factor in auxin-induced growth, the basipetal and lateral auxin movement (LAM) after application of ((3)H)-IAA to decapitated seedlings were studied, in an attempt to evaluate the role of PAT and LAM in the provision of auxin to competent cells for growth and rooting. Local application of ((3)H)-IAA to the stele led to the basipetal transport of auxin in this tissue, but the process was drastically reduced when roots were immersed in NPA since no radioactivity was detected below the apical elongation region of the hypocotyl. LAM from the stele to the cortex and the epidermis occurred during basipetal transport, since radioactivity in these tissues increased as transport time progressed. Radioactivity on a per FW basis in the epidermis was 2-4 times higher than in the cortex, which suggests that epidermal cells acted as a sink for LAM. NPA did not inhibit LAM along the elongation region. These results suggest that while PAT was essential for rooting, LAM from the PAT pathway to the auxin-sensitive epidermal cells could play a key role in supplying auxin for hypocotyl elongation in etiolated lupin seedlings. PMID:15153197
López Nicolás, Juana Inés; Acosta, Manuel; Sánchez-Bravo, José
Background and Aims Some Lupinus species produce cluster roots in response to low plant phosphorus (P) status. The cause of variation in cluster-root formation among cluster-root-forming Lupinus species is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if cluster-root formation is, in part, dependent on different relative growth rates (RGRs) among Lupinus species when they show similar shoot P status. Methods Three cluster-root-forming Lupinus species, L. albus, L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, were grown in washed river sand at 0, 7·5, 15 or 40 mg P kg(-1) dry sand. Plants were harvested at 34, 42 or 62 d after sowing, and fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems, cluster roots and non-cluster roots of different ages were measured. The percentage of cluster roots, tissue P concentrations, root exudates and plant RGR were determined. Key Results Phosphorus treatments had major effects on cluster-root allocation, with a significant but incomplete suppression in L. albus and L. pilosus when P supply exceeded 15 mg P kg(-1) sand. Complete suppression was found in L. atlanticus at the highest P supply; this species never invested more than 20 % of its root weight in cluster roots. For L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, cluster-root formation was decreased at high internal P concentration, irrespective of RGR. For L. albus, there was a trend in the same direction, but this was not significant. Conclusions Cluster-root formation in all three Lupinus species was suppressed at high leaf P concentration, irrespective of RGR. Variation in cluster-root formation among the three species cannot be explained by species-specific variation in RGR or leaf P concentration. PMID:24061491
Plastid biogenesis in etiolated lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) cotyledons is highly sensitive to cytokinins and abscisic acid. In the presence of the synthetic cytokinin N6-benzylaminopurine, greening and plastid biogenesis is substantially promoted as compared to untreated controls, whereas abscisic\\u000a acid has an inhibitory effect. Faster greening in cytokinin-treated cotyledons is accompanied by a higher level and slower\\u000a degradation of the
V. Kusnetsov; R. G. Herrmann; O. N. Kulaeva; R. Oelmüller
The study examined the interactive effect of pH and P supply on cluster-root formation, carboxylate exudation and proton release by an alkaline-tolerant lupin species (Lupinus pilosus Murr.) in nutrient solution. The plants were exposed to 1 (P1, deficient) and 50 M P (P50, adequate) for 34 days in nutrient solution at either pH 5.6 or 7.8. Plant biomass was not influenced by
The low sulfur amino acid content of legume seeds restricts their nutritive value for animals. We have investigated the limitations to the accumulation of sulfur amino acids in the storage proteins of narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seeds. Variation in sulfur supply to lupin plants affected the sulfur amino acid accumulation in the mature seed. However, when sulfur was in abundant supply, it accumulated to a large extent in oxidized form, rather than reduced form, in the seeds. At all but severely limiting sulfur supply, addition of a transgenic (Tg) sink for organic sulfur resulted in an increase in seed sulfur amino acid content. We hypothesize that demand, or sink strength for organic sulfur, which is itself responsive to environmental sulfur supply, was the first limit to the methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) content of wild-type lupin seed protein under most growing conditions. In Tg, soil-grown seeds expressing a foreign Met- and Cys-rich protein, decreased pools of free Met, free Cys, and glutathione indicated that the rate of synthesis of sulfur amino acids in the cotyledon had become limiting. Homeostatic mechanisms similar to those mediating the responses of plants to environmental sulfur stress resulted in an adjustment of endogenous protein composition in Tg seeds, even when grown at adequate sulfur supply. Uptake of sulfur by lupin cotyledons, as indicated by total seed sulfur at maturity, responded positively to increased sulfur supply, but not to increased demand in the Tg seeds.
We applied a multilocus phylogenetic approach to elucidate the origin of serradella and lupin Bradyrhizobium strains that persist in soils of Western Australia and South Africa. The selected strains belonged to different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR clusters that were distinct from RAPD clusters of applied inoculant strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with nodulation genes (nodA, nodZ, nolL, noeI), housekeeping genes (dnaK, recA, glnII, atpD), and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences. Housekeeping gene phylogenies revealed that all serradella and Lupinus cosentinii isolates from Western Australia and three of five South African narrow-leaf lupin strains were intermingled with the strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, forming a well supported branch on each of the trees. All nodA gene sequences of the lupin and serradella bradyrhizobia formed a single branch, referred to as clade II, together with the sequences of other lupin and serradella strains. Similar patterns were detected in nodZ and nolL trees. In contrast, nodA sequences of the strains isolated from native Australian legumes formed either a new branch called clade IV or belonged to clade I or III, whereas their nonsymbiotic genes grouped outside the B. canariense branch. These data suggest that the lupin and serradella strains, including the strains from uncultivated L.?cosentinii plants, are descendants of strains that most likely were brought from Europe accidentally with lupin and serradella seeds. The observed dominance of B. canariense strains may be related to this species' adaptation to acid soils common in Western Australia and South Africa and, presumably, to their intrinsic ability to compete for nodulation of lupins and serradella.
Stepkowski, Tomasz; Moulin, Lionel; Krzyzanska, Agnieszka; McInnes, Alison; Law, Ian J.; Howieson, John
A gene for the delta9 desaturase specific to stearoyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein) was identified from yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus) cDNA and genomic libraries through the differential display method. The desaturase transcript appears in plants infected with Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) as revealed by Northern hybridization, RT-PCR and expression of beta-glucuronidase under the desaturase promoter. A small amount of desaturase transcript was also detected in uninfected plants, which suggests that the gene does not belong to the strict nodule-specific sequences. The desaturase provides unsaturated fatty acids for additional cell membrane synthesis. During nodule and symbiosome development a peribacteroid membrane is formed and the requirement for membrane surface increases, thus the level of desaturase expression is also higher. Transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum with overexpression of the full-length lupine stearoyl-ACP desaturase sequence were obtained. They revealed higher content of unsaturated fatty acids (especially oleic acid) in comparison with control plants. PMID:12136953
Zaborowska, Zaneta; Starzycki, Micha?; Femiak, Iwona; Swiderski, Micha?; Legocki, Andrzej B
Protein synthesis is an essential growth process in all animals. Little information is available on post-prandial protein synthesis and even less where different protein sources are compared. Protein synthesis was measured at 4 and 24 h after feeding juvenile barramundi in order to determine the effect of using lupin as a partial protein replacement for fish meal on the post-prandial protein metabolism. Juvenile barramundi (4.3+/-0.6 g) were held in a recirculation system (27 degrees C, salinity 10 per thousand and 24 h light) for 15 days. Fish were fed one of two isonitrogenous isoenergetic diets (40% crude protein, 16% lipid and 18.5 GE MJ kg(-1)). One diet was formulated with 100% fish meal as the protein source while the other had 45% of the protein replaced with lupin ingredients (lupin kernel meal (Lupinus angustifolius) and lupin protein concentrate). All fish were fed a ration of 6%.d(-1) and feed intake was not significantly different between the two diets. Specific growth rate (SGR) and growth efficiency (in relation to protein (PPV) and energy (PEV)) were 6.5+/-0.14%.d(-1), 43.8+/-2.72% and 38.31+/-1.56%, respectively, and were not significantly different between the two diets. There was no significant difference in protein synthesis between the two diets at 4 and 24 h after feeding, however protein synthesis was significantly higher 4 h after feeding than at 24 h (p=0.02). Neither growth performance nor protein metabolism was altered by replacing 45% of the protein with lupin protein and indicated this to be a suitable protein source for barramundi feeds. PMID:19167511
The 15N abundance of some, but not all, legume root nodules is significantly elevated compared to that of the whole plant. It seems probable that differences in 15N enrichment reflect differences in the assimilatory pathway of fixed N. In that context, we have determined the distribution of naturally occurring 15N in structural fractions of nodules from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), and pea (Pisum sativum) nodules and in chemical components from soybean nodules and to a lesser extent, pea and lupin nodules. None of the fractions of pea nodules (cortex, bacteriod, or host plant cytoplasm) was enriched in 15N. The differences among bacteriods, cortex, and plant cytoplasm were smaller in lupin than in soybean nodules, but in both, bacteriods had the highest 15N enrichment. In soybean nodules, the 15N abundance of bacteriods and cortex was higher than plant cytoplasm, but all three fractions were more enriched in 15N than the entire plant. Plant cytoplasm from soybean nodules was fractionated into protein-rich material, nonprotein alcohol precipitable material (NA), and a low molecular weight fraction. The N of the latter was further separated into N of ureides, nucleotides and free amino acids. Most of these components were either similar to or lower in 15N abundance than the plant cytoplasm as a whole, but the NA fraction showed unusual 15N enrichment. However, the percentage of nodule N in this fraction was small. NA fractions from yellow lupin and pea nodules and from soybean leaves were not enriched in 15N. Nor was the NA fraction in ruptured bacteriods and cortical tissue of soybean nodules. Variation among soybean nodule fractions in the preponderance in protein of different amino acids was not large enough to explain the differences in 15N abundances among them. A hypothesis, consistent with all known data, concerning the mechanism leading to the observed excess 15N of lupin and soybean bacteriods is offered. Images Figure 1
Kohl, Daniel H.; Reynolds, Paul H. S.; Shearer, Georgia
Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the most recently domesticated crop in major agricultural cultivation. Its seeds are high in protein and dietary fibre, but low in oil and starch. Medical and dietetic studies have shown that consuming lupin-enriched food has significant health benefits. We report the draft assembly from a whole genome shotgun sequencing dataset for this legume species with 26.9x coverage of the genome, which is predicted to contain 57,807 genes. Analysis of the annotated genes with metabolic pathways provided a partial understanding of some key features of lupin, such as the amino acid profile of storage proteins in seeds. Furthermore, we applied the NGS-based RAD-sequencing technology to obtain 8,244 sequence-defined markers for anchoring the genomic sequences. A total of 4,214 scaffolds from the genome sequence assembly were aligned into the genetic map. The combination of the draft assembly and a sequence-defined genetic map made it possible to locate and study functional genes of agronomic interest. The identification of co-segregating SNP markers, scaffold sequences and gene annotation facilitated the identification of a candidate R gene associated with resistance to the major lupin disease anthracnose. We demonstrated that the combination of medium-depth genome sequencing and a high-density genetic linkage map by application of NGS technology is a cost-effective approach to generating genome sequence data and a large number of molecular markers to study the genomics, genetics and functional genes of lupin, and to apply them to molecular plant breeding. This strategy does not require prior genome knowledge, which potentiates its application to a wide range of non-model species. PMID:23734219
Yang, Huaan; Tao, Ye; Zheng, Zequn; Zhang, Qisen; Zhou, Gaofeng; Sweetingham, Mark W; Howieson, John G; Li, Chengdao
Glutamine synthetase, purified from Lupinus angustifolius legume nodules, was carboxymethylated and succinylated prior to chemical or enzymatic cleavage. Peptides were purified and sequenced. An oligonucleotide probe was constructed for the sequence MPGQW. This probe was used to identify a glutamine synthetase cDNA clone, pGS5, from a lupin nodule cDNA library constructed in pBR322. pGS5 was sequenced (1043 bp) and computer-assisted homology searching revealed a high degree of conservation between this lupin partial cDNA clone and other plant glutamine synthetases at both the amino acid (greater than 90%) and nucleotide (greater than 80%) level. Northern and Southern analyses using pGS5 supported the conclusion that a multigene glutamine synthetase family exists in lupin which is differentially expressed in both an organ-specific and temporal manner. Western and Northern blot analyses indicated the accumulation of a glutamine synthetase specific mRNA species during nodule development corresponded to the appearance of a novel glutamine synthetase polypeptide between 8 and 10 days after rhizobial inoculation. PMID:2577495
The genetic diversity of 45 bradyrhizobial isolates that nodulate several Lupinus and Ornithopus species in different geographic locations was investigated by 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis, 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) PCR-RFLP analysis, and ERIC-PCR genomic fingerprinting. Reference strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, B. liaoningense and B. elkanii and some Canarian isolates from endemic woody legumes in the tribe Genisteae were also included. The 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis resolved 9 genotypes of lupin isolates, a group of fourteen isolates presented restriction-genotypes identical or very similar to B. japonicum, while another two main groups of isolates (69%) presented genotypes that clearly separated them from the reference species of soybean. 16S rDNA sequencing of representative strains largely agreed with restriction analysis, except for a group of six isolates, and showed that all the lupin isolates are relatives of B. japonicum, but different lineages were observed. The 16S-23S IGS-RFLP analysis showed a high resolution level, resolving 19 distinct genotypes among 30 strains analysed, and so demonstrating the heterogeneity of the 16S-RFLP groups. ERIC-PCR fingerprint analysis showed an enormous genetic diversity producing a different pattern for each but two of the isolates. Phylogeny of nodC gene was independent from the 16S rRNA phylogeny, and showed a tight relationship in the symbiotic region of the lupin isolates with isolates from Canarian genistoid woody legumes, and in concordance, cross-nodulation was found. We conclude that Lupinus is a promiscuous host legume that is nodulated by rhizobia with very different chromosomal genotypes, which could even belong to several species of Bradyrhizobium. No correlation among genomic background, original host plant and geographic location was found, so, different chromosomal genotypes could be detected at a single site and in a same plant species, on the contrary, an identical genotype was detected in very different geographical locations and plants. PMID:14666990
Lupinus mariae-josephae is an intriguing lupine species recently discovered in the Mediterranean region and constitutes an endemism of a small area of Eastern Spain (Valencia province; Pascual, 2004; Mahé et al. 2011). It opens new perspectives for ecological and agronomic interests, as it represents the sole lupine species that preferentially grows in basic soils, while almost all other lupine species occur in acid to neutral soils. The L. mariae-josephae symbionts isolated from soils of calcareous areas of Valencia are extremely slow-growing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhrizobium genus and showing symbiotic specificity that prevents nodulation of other Lupinus spp. such as L. angustifolius or L. luteus typically thriving in acid soils (Sanchez-Cañizares et al, 2011). Their phylogenetic analysis based on housekeeping and symbiotic genes showed that L. mariae-josephae symbionts belong to an evolutionary lineage that also includes endosymbiotic bacteria from Retama spp. of Northern Algeria basic soils (Boulila et al. 2009). Conversely, this new lineage is phylogenetically distinct from that of endosymbiotic bacteria from other Lupinus spp. native of the Iberian Peninsula, which were nested mainly within B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages. A genomic diversity study of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population of the calcareous areas in Valencia, based on fingerprint and phylogenetic analysis, showed the existence of a large diversity of genotypes, some of which are related to bacteria from the Retama spp. symbiosis in Algeria. This singular genomic divergence of L. mariae-josephae symbiotic bacteria in such a small geographical area fosters attractive studies on the origin, ecology and evolution of both partners of the symbiosis. Furthermore, it is expected that ongoing seed inoculation experiments with selected strains will allow us to extend the extant distribution spots of L. mariae-josephae plants in Valencia area, and also to determine whether the observed edaphic restrictions represent a limitation to the expansion of L. mariae-josephae crops to wide areas of poor calcareous soils in the Mediterranean region. Work supported by FBBVA Contract BIOCON08-078 to TRA and MICINN Project CGL2011-26932 to JI. Mahé et al. 2010 Genet Resour Crop Evol 58, 101-114. Pascual, H. 2004 Anal Jardín Botán Madrid 61(1): 69-72. Sánchez-Cañizares et al 2011 Syst Appl Microbiol 34 207-215 Boulila et al 2009 Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 32, 245-255.
Twenty-one monoclonal antibodies were raised against the aspartate aminotransferase-P2 isoenzyme from root nodules of Lupinus angustifolius [L.] cv Uniharvest. Induction of this isoenzyme is positively correlated with the onset of N2 fixation in effective root nodules and is associated with the assimilation of ammonia by the plant in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The monoclonal antibodies produced were all of the IgG class, recognized five different epitopes on the protein, and represented greater than 90% of the available epitopes. These epitopes were not unique to lupin nodule aspartate aminotransferase-P2 but were shown to be present on the enzyme from tobacco leaves and potato. Four of the epitopes were conformational with a fifth epitope recognized by the appropriate monoclonals in both its native and denatured forms. None of the monoclonal antibodies produced reacted with Rhizobium Iupini NZP2257 extracts. Antibodies against two epitopes showed some cross-reaction with the constitutive aspartate aminotransferase-P1 isoenzyme also found in lupin root nodules. However, affinity of these monoclonals for AAT-P1 was three orders of magnitude lower than for AAT-P2. Monoclonals against the other epitopes appeared to be specific for aspartate aminotransferase-P2. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4
Jones, William T.; Reynolds, Paul H. S.; Jones, Stephen D.; Liddane, Cherry P.; Rodber, Karen A.
Six hybridoma clones were obtained that secreted monoclonal antibodies against the aspartate aminotransferase-P1 (AAT-P1) isoenzyme from root nodules of Lupinus angustifolius [L.] cv Uniharvest. This enzyme is found constitutively in the plant cytosol fraction. The monoclonal antibodies produced were all of the immunoglobulin G1 class, recognized two distinct epitopes on the protein, and represented the major paratopes found in the immunoglobulin fraction of sera taken from mice and rabbits immunized with the pure AAT-P1 protein. One of these epitopes was unique to lupin nodule AAT-P1. The other epitope was shown to be present on enzyme from lupin bean, white clover and tobacco leaves, lupin roots and nodules, and potato tubers. Both epitopes were recognized by the appropriate monoclonal antibodies in both their native and denatured forms. None of the monoclonal antibodies produced reacted with Rhizobium lupini NZP2257, Escherichia coli extracts, or with the inducible aspartate aminotransferase-P2 (AAT-P2) isoform also found in root nodules. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing two monoclonal antibodies recognizing the two distinct epitopes was developed and was capable of quantitating AAT-P1 in plant extracts. The limit of detection of AAT-P1 was less than 15 pg/mL and AAT-P1 protein could be quantified in the range 80 to 1000 pg/mL. Using this assay, AAT-P1 protein was shown to remain relatively constant during nodule development. Use of an AAT-P2-specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits the enzyme activity of this isoform enabled the direct determination of AAT-P1 enzyme activity in nodule extracts. Using these assays, specific activities of the individual isoforms were calculated; that of the AAT-P1 isoform was shown to be 7.5-fold higher than that of the AAT-P2 isoform.
Jones, W. T.; Jones, S. D.; Harvey, D.; Rodber, K. R.; Ryan, G. B.; Reynolds, PHS.
Whether seed consumers affect plant establishment is an important unresolved question in plant population biology. Seed consumption\\u000a is ubiquitous; at issue is whether seedling recruitment is limited by safe-sites or seeds. If most seeds inhabit sites unsuitable\\u000a for germination, post-dispersal seed consumption primarily removes seeds that would otherwise never contribute to the population\\u000a and granivory has minimal impacts on plant
Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus cosentinii was performed using flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and differential chromosome staining. Genome size was determined as 2.07 pg for L. angustifolius and 1.54 pg for L. cosentinii. Analysis of nuclear DNA amount in cells during plant development has shown endopolyploidisation in different organs. The highest level of endopolyploidy was in
Inga Hajdera; Dorota Siwinska; Robert Hasterok; Jolanta Maluszynska
The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson) was listed as an endangered species on September 6, 1990 (55 FR 36641) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (Act) of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) as amended. The range of the pallid sturg...
Pleiochaeta root rot, caused by Pleiochaeta setosa , is a world-wide fungal disease in white lupin ( Lupinusalbus) crops. The breeding of resistant genotypes is the preferred control method. An improved screening and scoring method was developed to facilitate selection. A 0-9 lesion severity scale was developed and validated. Seedlings were grown in a controlled environment using potting mix
David J. Luckett; Ray B. Cowley; Mark F. Richards; David M. Roberts
Decomposition patterns of cover crops determine availability of nutrients to subsequent crops. Decomposition and mineralization patterns of Lupinusalbus L. (white lupin), Avena strigosa Shreb (black oat), Trifolium incarnatum L. (crimson clover) and Brassica napus L. (rape) were studied under fiel...
Germination of Lactuca sativa L. was inhibited by mixtures of quinolizidine alkaloids. The alkaloid esters resulted in the strongest inhibition: 6 mM 13-tigloyloxylupanine inhibited germination by 100%, whereas the other lupin alkaloids, such as lupanine and sparteine, gave a 45 and 20% inhibition, respectively. Seedlings of Lupinusalbus L., which are not affected by quinolizidine alkaloids, excrete lupanine and 13-tigloyloxylupanine
Background The narrow-leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., is a grain legume species with a relatively compact genome. The species has 2n?=?40 chromosomes and its genome size is 960 Mbp/1C. During the last decade, L. angustifolius genomic studies have achieved several milestones, such as molecular-marker development, linkage maps, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Here, these resources were integratively used to identify and sequence two gene-rich regions (GRRs) of the genome. Results The genome was screened with a probe representing the sequence of a microsatellite fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) marker linked to Phomopsis stem blight resistance. BAC clones selected by hybridization were subjected to restriction fingerprinting and contig assembly, and 232 BAC-ends were sequenced and annotated. BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) identified eight single-locus clones. Based on physical mapping, cytogenetic localization, and BAC-end annotation, five clones were chosen for sequencing. Within the sequences of clones that hybridized in FISH to a single-locus, two large GRRs were identified. The GRRs showed strong and conserved synteny to Glycine max duplicated genome regions, illustrated by both identical gene order and parallel orientation. In contrast, in the clones with dispersed FISH signals, more than one-third of sequences were transposable elements. Sequenced, single-locus clones were used to develop 12 genetic markers, increasing the number of L. angustifolius chromosomes linked to appropriate linkage groups by five pairs. Conclusions In general, probes originating from MFLP sequences can assist genome screening and gene discovery. However, such probes are not useful for positional cloning, because they tend to hybridize to numerous loci. GRRs identified in L. angustifolius contained a low number of interspersed repeats and had a high level of synteny to the genome of the model legume G. max. Our results showed that not only was the gene nucleotide sequence conserved between soybean and lupin GRRs, but the order and orientation of particular genes in syntenic blocks was homologous, as well. These findings will be valuable to the forthcoming sequencing of the lupin genome.
By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55?kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1?M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5?Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17?Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.
By degrading S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4(3)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 A and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 A) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation. PMID:18607106
The promoter from the Lupinus angustifolius late nodulin gene, Nodulin-45, has been analysed to identify cis-elements and trans-acting factors. Various regions of the Nodulin-45 promoter, fused to the luciferase reporter gene, were introduced into Lotus roots using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes, transformation procedure. The transgenic roots were then nodulated. The promoter region A (-172 to +13, relative to the transcription start site) was capable of directing low-level expression of the reporter gene and in a nodule-enhanced manner when compared to roots. The addition of region C (-676 to -345) resulted in a significant increase in the expression within the nodule, whilst a low level of root expression was maintained. The C region, which confers this high-level nodule expression, contains the nodule consensus motifs AAAGAT and CTCTT. When region C was ligated to a minimal promoter element from the unrelated asparaginase gene rather than the Nodulin-45 A region, nodule-enhanced expression was still apparent, but at a much lower level. Mutation of the AAAGAT element in this construct resulted in a further significant decrease of expression. Gel retardation assays revealed that a factor from lupin nodule nuclear extracts interacted with two sequences of the C region. The binding of the factor to both of these regions could be removed by the addition of an oligonucleotide containing the AT-rich binding site for the soybean factor NAT2. This suggests that the lupin factor identified here is a NAT2 homologue. No factor binding was observed to the AAAGAT or CTCTT elements present in the C region. PMID:7894011
We have serendipitously discovered a previously unknown, bright source (BT=11.75+/-0.07 mag) with a very blue VT-Ks color, which we have named Albus 1. A photometric and astrometric study using Virtual Observatory tools has shown that it possesses an appreciable proper motion and magnitudes and colors very similar to those of the well-known white dwarf G191-B2B. We consider Albus 1 as a DA-type white dwarf located at about 40 pc. If its nature is confirmed, Albus 1 would be the sixth brightest isolated white dwarf in the sky, which would make it an excellent spectrophotometric standard.
The competition with other energy crops has caused a drop of the production area assigned to lupin in Chile. Nevertheless, the comparison of production costs shows a higher profitability of the lupin. A higher profitability has been achieved with winter varieties, with high quality through winter production with determinate growth. The crop is profitable only where protein plus oil content
Six cows with a history of lupine induced crooked calf disease and 6 cows with no history of lupine induced birth defects were challenged with lupine and plasma alkaloid pharmacokinetic parameters compared. Anagyrine, the alkaloid known to cause crooked calf disease, and two other alkaloids, 5, 6-d...
Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA gene, recA, nodA, nifD, and nifH sequences suggested that nitrogen-fixing symbionts from two populations of Lupinus texensis acquired the capacity for nodule symbiosis separately from other rhizobia in the alphaproteobacteria. Their closest 16S rRNA relatives were the nonsymbiotic taxa Chelatococcus, Bosea, and Balneomonas. PMID:17616612
Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA gene, recA, nodA, nifD, and nifH sequences suggested that nitrogen-fixing symbionts from two populations of Lupinus texensis acquired the capacity for nodule symbiosis separately from other rhizobia in the alphaproteobacteria. Their closest 16S rRNA relatives were the nonsymbiotic taxa Chelatococcus, Bosea, and Balneomonas.
Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.
Suen, Garret [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stevenson, David M [USDA-ARS, Madison WI; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Boyum, Julie [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Mead, David [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Weimer, Paul J [USDA-ARS, Madison WI
Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability. PMID:20542068
Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K
Lupine-induced "crooked calf" syndrom is a significant problem for ranches in the semi-arid region of the channeled scablands of eastern Washington State. Rainfall and soil moisture has been proposed to affect the alkaloid content and/or palatability of L. leucophyllus. It is also possible that shad...
This study evaluated the effects of exogenous LASAP2 for acid phosphatase (APase) and LASAP3 for phytase of white lupin (Lupinusalbus L.) on phosphorus (P) accumulation from organic P in soils. The potential for LASAP2-overexpressing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) to increase organic P in soil was examined in our previous study. However, LASAP2 has low specificity for phytate, the predominant
Using simplified model systems, the effects of salts and oil on enzymatic texturisation of protein isolates from soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.; SPI), pea (Pisum sativum L.; PPI) and sweet lupine (Lupinusalbus L.; LPI) were evaluated. In aqueous systems, protein cross-linking by microbial transglutaminase (MTG) was significantly\\u000a improved when NaCl (1–2 g hg?1) was added, but respective doses of CaCl2 reduced
Christian Schäfer; Sybille Neidhart; Reinhold Carle
Both soil and plant samples of nine different plant species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed for the plant uptake and translocation of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th. Substantial differences were observed in the soil–plant transfer factor (TF) among these radionuclides and plant species. Lupine (Lupinusalbus) exhibited the highest uptake of 238U (TF
Bread made from a mixture of wheat and lupin flour possesses a number of health benefits. The addition of lupin flour to wheat flour during breadmaking has major effects on bread properties. The present study investigated the lupin and wheat flour protein interactions during the breadmaking process including dough formation and baking by using proteomics research technologies including MS/MS to identify the proteins. Results revealed that qualitatively most proteins from both lupin and wheat flour remained unchanged after baking as per electrophoretic behavior, whereas some were incorporated into the bread gluten matrix and became unextractable. Most of the lupin ?-conglutins could be readily extracted from the lupin-wheat bread even at low salt and nonreducing/nondenaturing extraction conditions. In contrast, most of the ?-conglutins lost extractability, suggesting that they were trapped in the bread gluten matrix. The higher thermal stability of ?-conglutins compared to ?-conglutins is speculated to account for this difference. PMID:21548652
This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, ?-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for ?-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that ?-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements. PMID:24054261
An enzyme active against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside was purified from logarithmic-phase cells of Ruminococcus albus cultivated in a medium containing ball-milled cellulose. The purification yielded homogeneous enzyme after an approximately 520-fold increase in specific activity and a 9% yield. The enzyme was identified as a beta-glucosidase because it can hydrolyze cellobiose and cellooligosaccharides to glucose from the nonreducing ends. Images
Cereal Chem. 79(5):662-669 The nutritional quality of various food products could be improved by supplementation with grain legumes to increase protein content and to improve the balance of essential amino acids. The lupin grain is a good candidate for this role, given its yield potential in a range of climatic environments and soil types. To establish the practicality of extending
N. J. Pollard; F. L. Stoddard; Y. Popineau; C. W. Wrigley; F. MacRitchie
Results of studies on the content of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) in plants of 11 species of the Leguminosae family are presented. It is clearly shown that plants of the Leguminosae family, especially of the lupin species, are the richest source of these sugars among the plants tested. A simple method of preparative isolation and purification of RFOs from bitter
Mercedes Muzquiz; Carmen Burbano; Mercedes M Pedrosa; Wojciech Folkman; Krzysztof Gulewicz
Colorado populations of herbaceous perennial lupines show three distinct patterns of amounts, kinds, and individual variability of inflorescence alkaloids. These patterns, interpreted as alternative chemical defense strategies, can be related to the susceptibility of populations to attack by larvae of a small flower-feeding lycaenid butterfly, Glaucopsyche lygdamus.
Peter M. Dolinger; Paul R. Ehrlich; William L. Fitch; Dennis E. Breedlove
Light and dark buckwheat, amaranth, and lupin flours were substituted for extra fancy and fancy durum wheat flours at 5, 15, 25, and 30% to produce multigrain pastas. The samples were analyzed for color, cooked weight, firmness, cooking loss (total solids) and total carbohydrate loss in the cooking water, in vitro protein digestibility, lysine content, and sensory attributes. Color scores
The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames ORFs with a similar genetic organization and conceptual translations of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The orde...
Agarivorans albus is a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, and agar-hydrolyzing marine bacterium. We present the draft genome sequence of the A. albus strain MKT 106T, which is composed of 67 contigs (>500 bp) totaling 4,734,285 bp and containing 4,397 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), four rRNAs, and 64 tRNA sequences.
Control of postharvest lemon diseases by biofumigation with the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus was investigated. In vitro exposure to M. albus volatile compounds for 3 days killed Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, causes of green mold and sour rot of lemons, respectively...
The bacteriophage Pa16, isolated from soil on Streptomyces albus G, was restricted when transferred from an alternative host back to S. albus G. Extracted unmodified Pa16 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at a single site by a cell-free extract of S. albus G. Fractions cleaving Pal6 deoxyribonucleic acid contained the endonuclease SalI first described by J. Arrand, P. Myers, and R. J. Roberts (unpublished data). A mutant of S. albus G was isolated which was defective in both restriction and modification of Pal6. This mutant lacked SalI activity. It is concluded that SalI is the agent of restriction of Pal6 by S. albus G. Images
Technical Abstract A new virus named Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was isolated from native lupine plants confined to a relatively small area in the Talkeetna Mountains of south-central Alaska. Spherical particles about 30 nm in diameter were isolated from these leaves. Virions contained...
A 48-year-old man presented with an itchy rash that resembled superficial burns or cane marks on his left forearm; similar lesions had appeared every summer for 5 years. Poison ivy dermatitis had been the initial diagnosis, but the patient knew that this plant was absent from his well tended garden. A visit to the garden revealed the gas plant Dictamnus albus, and occlusive patch testing with leaf cuttings produced a reaction after the skin was exposed to sunlight. Gas plant phytophotodermatitis was diagnosed. Images p889-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2
Lupin seeds, raw or roasted, were compared with soybean meal as protein supplements for dairy cows by determination of crude protein fractions, rumen fermentation characteristics, digestibility of nutrients, and lactation performance. Roasting increased the estimated undegraded crude protein fraction of lupins from 37.7% to 44.7% compared to that of soybean meal at 36.0%. Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen in roasted lupins
Protein isolates from L. campestris and soybean seeds were prepared using isoelectric precipitation (PI) and micellization (MI) procedures. The amount of protein recovered was considerably higher with the isoelectric precipitation than with the micellization procedure (60% and 30%, respectively). Protein contents were higher than 90% in protein isolates. Antinutritional factors content (alkaloids, lectins, and tannins) were reduced to innocuous levels after protein isolate preparation. Minimum protein solubility for the precipitated lupin protein isolate (LPI) was at pH 4.0, and between pH 4 and 6 for the micellized lupin protein isolate (LMI), increasing at both extremes of the pH scale. Water absorption for the LMI was 1.3 ml/g of protein and its oil absorption 2.2 ml/g of protein. The LPI had 1.7 ml/g of protein in both water and oil absorption. Foaming capacity and stability was pH-dependent. Foaming capacity was higher at pH 2 and lower near the protein isoelectric points. Minimum protein concentration for gelation in LMI was 8% w/v at pH 4, while for LPI was 6% at pH 4 and 6. Amino acid composition in L. campestris flour and protein isolates was high in lysine and low in methionine. Most of the essential amino acids in lupin protein isolates were at acceptable levels compared to a reference pattern for infants and adults. The electrophoretic pattern of both protein isolates showed three bands with different mobilities, suggesting that the protein fractions belong to alpha-conglutin (11S-like protein), beta-conglutin (7S-like protein) and gamma-conglutin. It is proven that some of the functional properties of L. campestris protein isolates are similar to those soybean protein isolates recovered under equal conditions. PMID:16187011
Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Martínez-Ayala, A L; Millán, F; Dávila-Ortíz, G
Background During seed germination, ?-conglutin undergoes a major cycle of limited proteolysis in which many of its constituent subunits are processed into a 20 kDa polypeptide termed blad. Blad is the main component of a glycooligomer, accumulating exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Principal Findings The sequence of the gene encoding ?-conglutin precursor (1791 nucleotides) is reported. This gene, which shares 44 to 57% similarity and 20 to 37% identity with other vicilin-like protein genes, includes several features in common with these globulins, but also specific hallmarks. Most notable is the presence of an ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM), which possibly links the unique catabolic route of ?-conglutin to the ubiquitin/proteasome proteolytic pathway. Significance Blad forms through a unique route from and is a stable intermediary product of its precursor, ?-conglutin, the major Lupinus seed storage protein. It is composed of 173 amino acid residues, is encoded by an intron-containing, internal fragment of the gene that codes for ?-conglutin precursor (nucleotides 394 to 913) and exhibits an isoelectric point of 9.6 and a molecular mass of 20,404.85 Da. Consistent with its role as a storage protein, blad contains an extremely high proportion of the nitrogen-rich amino acids.
Monteiro, Sara; Freitas, Regina; Rajasekhar, Baru T.; Teixeira, Artur R.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.
Peribacteroid membranes can be isolated in essentially pure form from 20-day lupin root nodules by osmotic shock of the purified membrane enclosed bacteroids. The ATPase (EC 126.96.36.199) associated with this membrane has an acid pH optimum (5.25) and is specific for ATP (Mg-ATP Km = 0.16 mM). The enzyme activity requires magnesium or manganese ions, is slightly stimulated by the cations potassium and rubidium, and is inhibited by vanadate, diethylstilbestrol, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, fluoride, molybdate, and calcium. Molybdate and fluoride sensitivity do not in this case indicate the presence of significant nonspecific phosphatase activity. The ATPase is not inhibited by oligomycin, azide, or the soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide. In some respects the lupin peribacteroid membrane ATPase appears to differ from the plasma membrane ATPase of other plants. PMID:2969700
Domigan, N M; Farnden, K J; Robertson, J G; Monk, B C
Lupin proteins allow the preparation of some innovative protein-rich food products, e.g., steaks chunks, cutlets, gyros. With\\u000a the objective of evaluating the acceptability of these foods in sport nutrition, they were provided to 34 healthy competitive\\u000a track and field athletes (mean age 25±5, 17 males and 17 females), to be taken before training or a competitive event. Athletes\\u000a were asked
Giampietro Alberti; Cesare R. Sirtori; Marcello Iriti; Anna Arnoldi
The continued cultivation of Lupinus pilosus L. as an endemic coffee substitute in the mountain village of Altrei, South Tyrol, located in the Val di Fiemme\\/Fleimstal\\u000a valley ca. 24 km south of Bolzano\\/Bozen, since the middle of the nineteenth century is demonstrable. Former reports of cultivation\\u000a of Lupinus cosentinii Guss. and L. varius auct., non L. for this purpose in Tyrol
White lupin grown under phosphorus (P) deficient conditions undergoes synchronized changes in gene expression which lead to strikingly modified root development and an altered rhizosphere. In P-limited environments white lupin develops clusters of tertiary lateral roots (proteoid/cluster) which exud...
Background: In a case monitored by the Norwegian National Register for Severe Allergic Reactions to Food, a patient with peanut allergy experienced an allergic reaction after eating a particular brand of hot dog bread. The aim of this study was to identify the eliciting allergen. Methods: Extracts from the hot dog bread and reference material from peanut, lupine and lupine-fortified
Christiane K. Fæste; Martinus Løvik; Harald G. Wiker; Eliann Egaas
Spaghetti was prepared by replacing semolina with different amounts of lupin protein, in order to increase the protein content. A detailed investigation of the rheological properties of the dough and the cooking quality of pasta was performed in comparison to standard semolina spaghetti. Moreover, the effect of the addition of lupin protein on non-enzymatic browning was evaluated by measuring ?-furoylmethyllysine
Georgios Doxastakis; Maria Papageorgiou; Dimitra Mandalou; Maria Irakli; Evdoxia Papalamprou; Alessandra D’Agostina; Donatella Resta; Giovanna Boschin; Anna Arnoldi
The hydrolysis and fermentation of insoluble cellulose (Avicel) by continuous cultures of Ruminococcus albus 7 was studied. An anaerobic continuous culture apparatus was designed which permitted gas collection, continuous feeding, and wasting at different retention times. The operation of the apparatus was controlled by a personal computer. Cellulose destruction ranged from ca. 30 to 70% for hydraulic retention times of 0.5 to 2.0 days. Carbon recovery in products was 92 to 97%, and the oxidation-reduction ratios ranged from 0.91 to 1.15. The total product yield (biomass not included) per gram of cellulose (expressed as glucose) was 0.83 g g?1, and the ethanol yield was 0.41 g g?1. The product yield was constant, indicating that product formation was growth linked.
Pavlostathis, Spyros G.; Miller, Terry L.; Wolin, Meyer J.
Synopsis \\u000a Scaphirhynchus albus and S. platorynchus were studied in Missouri during 1978–1979 to assess their distribution and abundance, to obtain information on their life\\u000a histories, and to identify existing or potential threats to their survival. S. platorynchus was collected in substantial numbers (4355 specimens) at all 12 sampling stations in the Missouri and Mississippi rivers,\\u000a while only 11 S. albus
Douglas M. Carlson; William L. Pflieger; Linden Trial; Pamela S. Haverland
Asparaginase (EC 188.8.131.52) activity reached a maximum 40 days post anthesis in developing seeds of Lupinus arboreus and this correlated with the appearance of other ammonia assimilatory enzymes. Asparaginase, purified from these developing seeds, was resolved into three isoforms, designated asparaginases A, B and C. A major protein species in asparaginase A preparations co-focussed with enzyme activity on an isoelectric focussing gel. When analysed by SDS-PAGE, asparaginase isoforms A and B each yielded several polypeptides with M(r)s in the 14,000 to 19,000 ranged. These peptides are fragmentation products of an M(r) 36,000 asparaginase subunit. Polyclonal antibodies raised against asparaginase isoforms A and B precipitated asparaginase activity from a partially purified L. arboreus seed extract. Immunoaffinity chromatography recovered polypeptides with M(r)s between 14,000 and 19,000. Partial protein sequences were obtained for these asparaginase polypeptides. PMID:1368361
Lough, T J; Chang, K S; Carne, A; Monk, B C; Reynolds, P H; Farnden, K J
Monopterus albus, a swamp eel inhabiting the freshwaters of South East Asia, relies on an extensive vascularisation of the buccal cavity, pharynx and anterior oesophagus for gas exchange, while the gills are much reduced. In the present study we describe the macro-circulation in the cephalic region and the vascularisation of the buccal cavity of M. albus using vascular fillings and micro-computed tomography (?CT). We also show that M. albus has the capacity to use the buccal cavity for aquatic gas exchange, being able to maintain normal arterial blood gas composition, blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output throughout 10h of forced submergence. M. albus therefore can be characterised as a facultative air-breather. Because M. albus aestivates for many months in moist mud during the dry season we characterised in vivo cardiovascular function during exposure to anoxia as well as the effects of anoxia on in vitro contractility of strip preparations from atria and ventricle. Both studies revealed a low anoxia tolerance, rendering it unlikely that M. albus can survive prolonged exposure to anoxia. PMID:22944727
Rhizopus oligosporus has proven beneficial in the detoxification of lupin seeds. The fermentation process is mainly affected by the initial pH in the medium. In the range of growth of mold, there are maximum enzymatic activities in pH of 3.5 and 5.5. Metabolism change occurs at these pH levels; therefore, we studied the growth, pH changes, dry matter intake, and alkaloid degradation within 48 h of fermentation. Cultures of lupin agar (LA) with pH of 3.5 and 5.5 were made in Petri dishes with lupin flour. Results showed pH directly affects the degradation of alkaloids and fungal growth. Detoxification levels achieved were 16.58 and 63.23 % in treatments LA 3.5 and LA 5.5, respectively. Fungal growth was 0.919 mg/cm(2) in LA 3.5 and 1.081 mg/cm(2) in LA 5.5. Maximum degradation rate in LA 5.5 was given between 16 and 20 h, which coincided with maximum fungal growth. Despite having similar dry matter intake in both treatments, a pH of 3.5 did not show the same degree of detoxification. The analysis with exponential, yield of growth, yield of dry matter intake and luedeking and piret equations, confirm the relation between intake and growth with detoxification. Dry matter intake equation predicts with R (2) of 0.94 the detoxification in LA 5.5. A pH of 5.5 is directly related with detoxification and fungal development. PMID:23435939
Root rot caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks lupine plants. Isolation trials from diseased plants in some areas of Dakahlia Province (Egypt) was carried out. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani proved to be the most dominant isolates. Meanwhile, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were less frequent. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors viz.: chitosan (CHI), Salicylic Acid (SA) and hydroquinone (HQ) in comparing to the fungicide Rhizolex T-50 as seed treatments showed significant reduction in the fungal growth in vitro. Chitosan at 8 g L(-1) and fungicide completely inhibited the growth of all isolated fungi, while SA at 1.4 g L(-1) and HQ at 1.2 g L(-1) inhibited the growth of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, respectively. The greenhouse experiments showed that S. rolfesii (No. 6) and R. solani (No. 2) followed by F. solani (No. 5) and F. oxysporum (No. 9) were the most aggressive root rot fungi. Soaking susceptible lupine seeds (Giza 1) in each one of the three selected elicitors showed a significant reduction in seedlings mortality. CHI at 8 g L(-1) was superior in increasing the percentage of healthy plants to record 72.5, 80.9, 62.7and 64.3%, when seeds were grown in soil infested with of F. solani, F. oxysporum, R. solani and S. rolfesii, respectively. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i.e., Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow Research Stations. CHI 8 g L(-1) proved to be the best elicitor after fungicide, in reducing lupine root rot disease. It showed 41 and 60% reduction in the plants mortality comparing to 56.37 and 69.13% in case of Rhizolex-T in Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow locations, respectively. The treatments were accompanied with a significant increase in lupine growth parameters, yield components and physiological aspects. Application of CHI at 8 g L(-1) or HQ at 1.2 g L(-1) was the most potent in this respect as compared to check treatment. PMID:19579949
Ali, Abeer A; Ghoneem, K M; El-Metwally, M A; Abd El-Hai, K M
Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic, gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium (Pc Sm Km), and an anaerobic recombinant, FE7 (Pc Sm Km), having lignin-related compound-degrading activities, was performed under strictly anaerobic conditions to introduce cellulase genes into strain FE7. The fusion frequency varied with different selected markers from 3.0 x 10 to 3.3 x 10. Two fusants, obtained from a synthetic medium with selective pressures of penicillin and streptomycin and with cellooli-gomer as the sole carbon source, were gram-negative rods. One of them, named FE7R2, showed 45 to 47% of the beta-glucosidase and cellobiosidase activities of its parent R. albus and still maintained a level of degradation activity against dehydrodivanillin, a lignin-related compound, of up to 87% of that of the parent strain FE7. To verify that the cellulolytic activities expressed in the fusant FE7R2 originated from R. albus cellulase genes, the beta-glucosidase gene of R. albus was cloned into Escherichia coli HB101 with plasmid pBR322. Cells bearing a recombinant plasmid, pRAII, produced high enzyme activities against both p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucoside and p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-cellobioside and could degrade cellobiose to glucose. Southern blot results showed that the cloned DNA fragment could hybridize with chromosomal DNAs of both R. albus and FE7R2, but did not with the chromosomal DNA of FE7, indicating that the beta-glucosidase gene fragment was introduced into the chromosome of FE7R2 from R. albus via the protoplast fusion. The fusant FE7R2 could utilize simultaneously both cellobiose and dehydrodivanillin. These results gave evidence that the fusion product FE7R2 is a recombinant strain between its parents R. albus and FE7. This recombinant has stably kept the above properties for about 2 years. PMID:16347634
Chen, W; Nagashima, K; Kajino, T; Ohmiya, K; Shimizu, S
Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic, gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium (Pcs Smr Kms), and an anaerobic recombinant, FE7 (Pcr Sms Kmr), having lignin-related compound-degrading activities, was performed under strictly anaerobic conditions to introduce cellulase genes into strain FE7. The fusion frequency varied with different selected markers from 3.0 × 10?6 to 3.3 × 10?7. Two fusants, obtained from a synthetic medium with selective pressures of penicillin and streptomycin and with cellooli-gomer as the sole carbon source, were gram-negative rods. One of them, named FE7R2, showed 45 to 47% of the ?-glucosidase and cellobiosidase activities of its parent R. albus and still maintained a level of degradation activity against dehydrodivanillin, a lignin-related compound, of up to 87% of that of the parent strain FE7. To verify that the cellulolytic activities expressed in the fusant FE7R2 originated from R. albus cellulase genes, the ?-glucosidase gene of R. albus was cloned into Escherichia coli HB101 with plasmid pBR322. Cells bearing a recombinant plasmid, pRAII, produced high enzyme activities against both p-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucoside and p-nitrophenyl-?-d-cellobioside and could degrade cellobiose to glucose. Southern blot results showed that the cloned DNA fragment could hybridize with chromosomal DNAs of both R. albus and FE7R2, but did not with the chromosomal DNA of FE7, indicating that the ?-glucosidase gene fragment was introduced into the chromosome of FE7R2 from R. albus via the protoplast fusion. The fusant FE7R2 could utilize simultaneously both cellobiose and dehydrodivanillin. These results gave evidence that the fusion product FE7R2 is a recombinant strain between its parents R. albus and FE7. This recombinant has stably kept the above properties for about 2 years. Images
Nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and net proton release were compared in five grain legumes grown at 0.2 and 2 mM nitrate in nutrient solution. Nitrate treatments, imposed on 22-d-old, fully nodulated plants, lasted for 21 d. Increasing nitrate supply did not significantly influence the growth of any of the species during the treatment, but yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) had a higher growth rate than the other species examined. At 0.2 mM nitrate supply, nitrate uptake rates ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 mg N g(-1) d(-1) in the order: yellow lupin > field pea (Pisum sativum) > chickpea (Cicer arietinum) > narrow-leafed lupin (L angustifolius) > white lupin (L albus). At 2 mM nitrate supply, nitrate uptake ranged from 1.7 to 8.2 mg N g(-1) d(-1) in the order: field pea > chickpea > white lupin > yellow lupin > narrow-leafed lupin. Nitrate reductase activity increased with increased nitrate supply, with the majority of NRA being present in shoots. Field pea and chickpea had much higher shoot NRA than the three lupin species. When 0.2 mM nitrate was supplied, narrow-leafed lupinreleased the most H+ per unit root biomass per day, followed by yellow lupin, white lupin, field pea and chickpea. At 2 mM nitrate, narrow-leafed lupin and yellow lupin showed net proton release, whereas the other species, especially field pea, showed net OH- release. Irrespective of legume species and nitrate supply, proton release was negatively correlated with nitrate uptake and NRA in shoots, but not with NRA in roots. PMID:12234143
Ruminococcus albus, considered best fibrolytic bacterium was isolated and characterized from the rumen of crossbred steers. It was found as wrinkled white colonies, slightly elevated with a slightly undulated margin, no surface spreading with the absence of liquefaction and a zone of hydrolysis. The cells were gram positive single cocci or diplococci. R. albus DNA was a high molecular weight
Background In the last 30?years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA) sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible) in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM), and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA fingerprinting method for marker-assisted selection in the Australian national lupin breeding program. Conclusions We demonstrated that more than 30 molecular markers linked to a target gene of agronomic trait of interest can be identified from a small portion (1/8) of one sequencing run on HiSeq2000 by applying NGS based RAD sequencing in marker development. The markers developed by the strategy described in this study are all co-dominant SNP markers, which can readily be converted into high throughput multiplex format or low-cost, simple PCR-based markers desirable for large scale marker implementation in plant breeding programs. The high density and closely linked molecular markers associated with a target trait help to overcome a major bottleneck for implementation of molecular markers on a wide range of germplasm in breeding programs. We conclude that application of NGS based RAD sequencing as DNA fingerprinting is a very rapid and cost-effective strategy for marker development in molecular plant breeding. The strategy does not require any prior genome knowledge or molecular information for the species under investigation, and it is applicable to other plant species.
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Male glandular organs characterized by porous surfaces with hair-like cuticular elaborations are known from several trichoniscid isopods. In the subterranean species Titanethes albus, males possess paired tubercles with numerous hairs and pores dorsally on the pleon. We analyzed the microscopic anatomy of these structures with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Diverse epicuticular formations and numerous sensilla, which are probably chemoreceptive, are present on the tubercles. We found several secretory surfaces on the pleon in addition to the dorsal tubercles. We also examined the distribution, architecture and ultrastructure of male-specific glands in T. albus with light and transmission electron microscopy. Three distinct types of male-specific rosette glands are present in different parts of the pleon and in the uropods. Glands secreting on the dorsal tubercles contain stellar central cells. The ultrastructure and histochemical staining properties of male-specific glands in T. albus suggest that they produce peptides which might function as contact pheromones. PMID:22075129
The recently isolated ruminal sporeforming cellulolytic anaerobe Clostridium longisporum B6405 was examined for its ability to degrade barley straw, nonlignified cell walls (mesophyll and epidermis) and lignified cell walls (fiber) of ryegrass, and alfalfa cell walls in comparison with strains of Ruminococcus albus. R. albus strains degraded 20 to 28% of the dry matter in barley straw in 10 days, while the clostridium degraded less than 2%. A combined inoculum of R. albus SY3 and strain B6405 was no more efficient than SY3 alone, and the presence of Methanobacterium smithii PS did not increase the amount of dry matter degraded. In contrast, with alfalfa cell walls as the substrate, the clostridium was twice as active (28% weight loss) as R. albus SY3 (15%). The percentages of dry matter degraded from ryegrass cell walls of mesophyll, epidermis, and fiber for the clostridium were 50, 47, and 32%, respectively, and for R. albus SY3 they were 77, 73, and 63%, respectively. Analyses of the predominant neutral sugars (arabinose, xylose, and glucose) in the plant residues after bacterial attack were consistent with the values for dry matter weight loss. Measurements of the amount of carbon appearing in the fermentation products indicated that R. albus SY3 degraded ryegrass mesophyll cell walls most rapidly, with epidermis and fiber cell walls being degraded at similar rates. Strain B6405 attacked alfalfa cell walls at a rate greater than that of any of the ryegrass substrates. These results indicate an unexpected degree of substrate specificity in the ability of C. longisporum to degrade plant cell wall material.
Phomopsins (PHO) are mycotoxins produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica (also referred to as Phomopsis leptostromiformis). Lupin is the most important host crop for this fungus and PHO are suspected as cause of lupinosis, a deadly liver disease, in sheep. Lupin is currently in use to replace genetically modified soy in many food products available on the European market. However, a validated method for analysis of PHO is not available until now. In this work, a dilute-and-shoot LC-MS/MS-based method was developed for the quantitative determination and identification of phomopsin A (PHO-A) in lupin and lupin-containing food. The method involved extraction by a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/20/1 v/v), dilution of the sample in water, and direct injection of the crude extract after centrifugation. The method was validated at 5 and 25 µg PHO-A kg(-1) product. The average recovery and RSD obtained were 79% and 9%, respectively. The LOQ (the lowest level for which adequate recovery and RSD were demonstrated) was 5 µg PHO-A kg(-1). Identification of PHO-A was based on retention time and two transitions (789 > 226 and 789 > 323). Using the average of solvent standards from the sequence as a reference, retention times were all within ± 0.03 min and ion ratios were within ± 12%, which is compliant with European Union requirements. The LOD (S/N = 3 for the least sensitive transition) was 1 µg PHO-A kg(-1) product. Forty-two samples of lupin and lupin-containing food products were collected in 2011-2012 from grocery stores and internet shops in the Netherlands and analysed. In none of the samples was PHO-A detected. PMID:23895245
de Nijs, Monique; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P K H; van Dam, Ruud C J; de Rijk, Theo C; van Egmond, Hans P; Mol, Hans J G J
Nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but background resource levels influence nodulation, fixation, and plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine the separate and interacting effects of water and N availability on biomass production, tissue N concentration, nodulation, nodule activity, and rhizodeposition of Lupinus argenteus (Pursh), a legume native to sagebrush steppe. Plants were grown in a
Our current knowledge of plant-microbe interactions indicate that populations inhabiting a host plant are not restricted to a single microbial species but comprise several genera and species. No one knows if communities inside plants interact, and it has been speculated that beneficial effects are the result of their combined activities. During an ecological study of nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities from Lupinus
Martha E Trujillo; Pablo Alonso-Vega; Raúl Rodríguez; Lorena Carro; Eugenia Cerda; Pilar Alonso; Eustoquio Martínez-Molina
Volatiles produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, T. indica, and T. tritici which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of wheat, and common bunt of wheat, respectively. Ten g...
Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus of tropical tree species that produces volatile organic compounds (VOC's) that have antibiotic activity. A new isolate of this organism has been obtained from a small, unidentified vine, generally used by the indigenous people of the Tesso Nilo region in Central Sumatra, Indonesia, to treat snakebites. This unique organism produces a number of VOC's
Ines Atmosukarto; Uvidelio Castillo; Wilford M. Hess; Joe Sears; Gary Strobel
The swamp eel Monopterus albus lives in muddy ponds, swamps, canals, and rice fields in the tropics. It encounters high concentrations of environmental ammonia (HEA) during dry seasons or during agricultural fertilization in rice fields. This study aimed at determining the tolerance of M. albus to environmental ammonia and at elucidating the strategies that it adopts to defend against ammonia toxicity in HEA. In the laboratory, M. albus exhibited very high environmental ammonia tolerance; the 48-, 72-, and 96-h median lethal concentrations of total ammonia at pH 7.0 and 28 degrees C were 209.9, 198.7, and 193.2 mM, respectively. It was apparently incapable of actively excreting ammonia against a concentration gradient. In addition, it did not detoxify ammonia to urea, the excretion of which would lead to a loss of nitrogen and carbon, during ammonia loading. The high tolerance of M. albus to HEA was attributable partially to its exceptionally high tolerance to ammonia at the cellular and subcellular levels. During the 144 h of exposure to 75 mM NH(4)Cl at pH 7.0, the ammonia contents in the muscle, liver, brain, and gut of M. albus reached 11.49, 15.18, 6.48, and 7.51 mu mol g(-1), respectively. Such a capability allowed the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonia in the plasma (3.54 mu mol mL(-1)) of M. albus exposed to HEA, which would reduce the net influx of exogenous ammonia. Subsequent to the buildup of internal ammonia levels, M. albus detoxified ammonia produced endogenously to glutamine. The glutamine contents in the muscle and liver reached 10.84 and 17.06 mu mol g(-1), respectively, after 144 h of exposure to HEA, which happened to be the highest known for fish. Unlike urea, the storage of glutamine in the muscle during ammonia loading allowed its usage for anabolic purposes when the adverse environmental condition subsides. Glutamine synthetase activity increased significantly in the liver and gut (2.8- and 1.5-fold, respectively) of specimens exposed to HEA for 144 h. These results suggest that the liver was the main site of ammonia detoxification and the gut was more than a digestive/absorptive organ in M. albus. Monopterus albus did not undergo a reduction in amino acid catabolism during the first 24 h of ammonia exposure. However, assuming a total inhibition of excretion of endogenous ammonia, there was a deficit of -312 mu mol N between the reduction in nitrogenous excretion (3,360 mu mol N) and the retention of nitrogen (3,048 mu mol N) after 72 h of aerial exposure. The deficit became much greater after 144 h, reaching a value of -3,243 mu mol N. These results suggest that endogenous ammonia production in M. albus was suppressed in order to prevent the newly established internal steady state concentration of ammonia from rising to an intolerable level after an extended period of exposure to HEA. PMID:15286913
Ip, Yuen K; Tay, Angeline S L; Lee, Kong H; Chew, Shit F
Epigeal germination of a dicot, like lupin (Lupinusalbus L.), produces a seedling with a characteristic hypocotyl, which grows in darkness showing a steep growth gradient with an elongation zone just below the apex. The role of phytohormones, such as auxin and ethylene, in etiolated hypocotyl growth has been the object of our research for some time. The recent cloning and expression of three genes of influx and efflux carriers for polar auxin transport (LaAUX1, LaPIN1 and LaPIN3) reinforces a previous model proposed to explain the accumulation of auxin in the upper growth zone of the hypocotyl.
Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocio; Nicolas, Carlos; Acosta, Manuel
There are over 500 species of lupine in the world with over 300 in North America and over 150 in the Intermountain West. Past research at the Poisonous Plant Research Lab determined that lupine was responsible for skeletal birth defects in cattle in the western U.S. Anagyrine was determined to be...
The possibility of a total substitution of egg proteins in yellow cakes by vegetable proteins isolated from white lupine seeds was studied. The effects of several components on hardness, moisture content, volume, and shape characteristics of lupine-cakes were evaluated, using response surface methodology. Baking powder, soy lecithin, and mono- and diglycerides (MDG), were studied through a central composite rotatable experimental
Iñigo Arozarena; Hugo Bertholo; José Empis; Andrea Bunger; Isabel Sousa
The intrinsic characteristics of white lupin regarding biomass production and tolerance to abiotic stresses could make it a good candidate to be used in degraded mine soils containing mercury (Hg), but white lupin behaviour in response to Hg has to be previously evaluated. With this aim, kinetic parameters of Hg uptake in short and long-term experiments, and Hg resistance of
Elvira Esteban; Eduardo Moreno; Jesús Peñalosa; José I. Cabrero; Rocio Millán; Pilar Zornoza
The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226?g/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138?g/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin ?+? conglutin. PMID:24128446
Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna
Monopterus albus inhabits muddy ponds, swamps, canals, and rice fields, where it can burrow into the moist earth, and it survives for long periods during the dry summer season. However, it had been reported previously that mortality increased when M. albus was exposed to air for 8 d or more. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the strategies adopted by M. albus to defend against ammonia toxicity during 6 or 40 d of estivation in mud and to evaluate whether these strategies were different from those adopted by fish to survive 6 d of aerial exposure. Ammonia and glutamine accumulations occurred in the muscle and liver of fish exposed to air (normoxia) for 6 d, indicating that ammonia was detoxified to glutamine under such conditions. In contrast, ammonia accumulation occurred only in the muscle, with no increases in glutamine or glutamate contents in all tissues, of fish estivated in mud for 6 d. Similar results were obtained from fish estivated in mud for 40 d. While estivating in mud prevented excessive water loss through evaporation, M. albus was exposed to hypoxia, as indicated by significant decreases in blood P(O(2)), muscle energy charge, and ATP content in fish estivated in mud for 6 d. Glutamine synthesis is energy intensive, and that could be the reason why M. albus did not depend on glutamine synthesis to defend against ammonia toxicity when a decrease in ATP supply occurred. Instead, suppression of endogenous ammonia production was adopted as the major strategy to ameliorate ammonia toxicity when M. albus estivated in mud. Our results suggest that a decrease in O(2) level in the mud could be a more effective signal than an increase in internal ammonia level during aerial exposure to induce a suppression of ammonia production in M. albus. This might explain why M. albus is able to estivate in mud for long periods (40 d) but can survive in air for only <10 d. PMID:15957116
Comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation was performed in white char Salvelinus albus Glubokovsky and in its putative ancestor species, northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma Walbaum. Highly statistically significant differentiation of S. albus and S. m. malma in the areas of sympatric (Kamchatka River basin) and allopatric (Kronotskoe Lake and Kronotskaya River) residence was demonstrated.\\u000a The mtDNA divergence
Chloroplast DNA diversity was measured in an annual flowering plant, Lupinus texensis. Individual plants were collected from 21 local populations throughout the range of the species in Texas. Chloroplast DNA was isolated separately from each plant and digested with seven restriction enzymes. The most common form of the 150-kilobase-pair genome was cut at 134 sites, so that about 0.5% of
Exotic plant invasions threaten ecological communities world-wide. Some species are limited by a lack of suitable pollinators, but the introduction of exotic pollinators can facilitate rapid spread. In Tasmania, where many non-native plants are naturalised, exotic honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) have become established. We determined how these species affect the pollination of Lupinus arboreus, an invasive, nitrogen-fixing
Two leaf-feeding caterpillars, western tussock moth (Orgyia vetusta) and ranchman's tiger moth (Platyprepia virginalis) are abundant on Lupinus arboreus along the California coast. Previous experiments and observations suggested that feeding caused by either of these two folivores\\u000a could reduce the performance and possibly the abundance and distribution of the other species. Previous common garden experiments\\u000a also indicated that genetically determined
Two early nodulin 40 (enod40) genes, ENOD40-1, the shortest legume ENOD40 gene, and ENOD40-2, were isolated from Lupinus luteus, a legume with indeterminate nodules. Both genes were expressed at similar levels during symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. ENOD40 phylog- eny clustered the L. luteus genes with legumes forming determinate nodules and revealed pep- tide similarities. The ENOD40-1 small ORF A fused
Jan Podkowinski; Agnieszka Zmienko; Blazena Florek; Pawel Wojciechowski; Agnieszka Rybarczyk; Jan Wrzesinski; Jerzy Ciesiolka; Jacek Blazewicz; Adam Kondorosi; Martin Crespi; Andrzej Legocki
This paper investigates the features of GSCs in the process of the gonad development of sex reversal in Monopterus albus by the histological methods and the histological immunochemical techniques. In Monopterus albus, the GSCs are located in the gonadal lamellae,which are scattered or accumulated during the female phase. In the intersex and the male,the GSCs are distinguished by two types A and B, both of them differ from the GSCs at the female stage in ultrastructure. It shows that the GSCs existing in the gonadal lamellae are the unique germ family, which owns the capability of mitosis in the differential gonads. The GSCs represent the ovogonia in the female phase, while the spermagonia in the intersex and the male phases. CD49 is the molecular marker for the GSCs at the female stage and the GSCs of type A. PMID:17674771
Xiao, Ya Mei; Chen, Li Li; Cheng, Song; Liu, Jiao; Zhao, Ru Rong
A chromosomal DNA fragment encoding an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase I (Eg I) gene from Ruminococcus albus cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with pUC18 was fully sequenced by the dideoxy-chain termination method. The sequence contained a consensus promoter sequence and a structural amino acid sequence. The initial 43 amino acids of the protein were deduced to be a signal sequence, since they are missing in the mature protein (Eg I). High homology was found when the amino acid sequence of the Eg I was compared with that of endoglucanase E from Clostridium thermocellum. Codon usage of the gene was not biased. These results suggested that the properties of the Eg I gene from R. albus was specified from the known beta-glucanase genes of the other organisms. Images
Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots with\\/without an exogenous gene (11 clones) were established by inoculation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. All clones cultured under iron-deficient condition secreted riboflavin from the root tips into the culture medium and the productivity depended on the number and size of root tips among the clones. A decline of pH was observed before riboflavin production and root development.
Ataru Higa; Erika Miyamoto; Laiq ur Rahman; Yoshie Kitamura
Effect of medium composition and culture conditions on agarase production by Agarivorans albus YKW-34 was investigated in shake flasks. The most suitable carbon source, nitrogen source, and culture temperature were agar, yeast extract, and 25°C, respectively, for agarase production by one-factor-at-a-time design. The nutritional components of the medium and culture conditions were analyzed by Plackett–Burman design. Among the nine factors
The characteristics of a bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 and its potential as an antibiotic alternative were examined in this study. The addition of 3 µM 3-phenylpropanoic acid (PPA) and 0.2% Tween 80 to the culturing medium improved bacteriocin production by 2.5-fold. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the antagonistically active gel filtration fraction established that the molecular weight of the R. albus 7 bacteriocin was approximately 36 kDa. The bacteriocin was sensitive to pepsin, protease, and pancreatin, and was inactivated by heating at 65 °C for 1 h. Simulating in vitro avian digestion decreased the antagonistic activity by 74.7%, but the addition of 1% bovin serum albumin restored 13% of the lost antagonistic activity. Following ion-exchange purification, the bacteriocin had sufficient antagonistic activity against five tested pathogenic strains, but the addition of a protectant is necessary for utilization of bacteriocin of R. albus 7 as an antibiotic alternative in animal feed. PMID:22232237
Ruminococcus albus 8 is a fibrolytic ruminal bacterium capable of utilization of various plant cell wall polysaccharides. A bioinformatic analysis of a partial genome sequence of R. albus revealed several putative enzymes likely to hydrolyze glucans, including lichenin, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide of glucose linked together in ?-1,3 and ?-1,4 glycosidic bonds. In the present study, we demonstrate the capacity of four glycoside hydrolases (GHs), derived from R. albus, to hydrolyze lichenin. Two of the genes encoded GH family 5 enzymes (Ra0453 and Ra2830), one gene encoded a GH family 16 enzyme (Ra0505), and the last gene encoded a GH family 3 enzyme (Ra1595). Each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified to near homogeneity. Upon screening on a wide range of substrates, Ra0453, Ra2830, and Ra0505 displayed different hydrolytic properties, as they released unique product profiles. The Ra1595 protein, predicted to function as a ?-glucosidase, preferred cleavage of a nonreducing end glucose when linked by a ?-1,3 glycosidic bond to the next glucose residue. The major product of Ra0505 hydrolysis of lichenin was predicted to be a glucotriose that was degraded only by Ra0453 to glucose and cellobiose. Most importantly, the four enzymes functioned synergistically to hydrolyze lichenin to glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose. This lichenin-degrading enzyme mix should be of utility as an additive to feeds administered to monogastric animals, especially those high in fiber.
Iakiviak, Michael; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.
Abstract Terrestrial isopods are a suitable group for the study of cuticle synthesis and calcium dynamics because they molt frequently and have evolved means to store calcium during molt. Little data is currently available on molting in Synocheta and subterranean isopods. We studied the molting dynamics in the subterranean trichoniscid Titanethes albus under laboratory conditions and performed a microscopic investigation of sternal CaCO3 deposits and the tergal epithelium during molt in this species. In accordance with its lower metabolic rate, molting in the laboratory is roughly 2–3 times less frequent in Titanethes albus than would be expected for an epigean isopod under similar conditions. Animals assumed characteristic postures following the molt of each body half and did not consume the posterior exuviae after posterior molt. The structure of sternal calcium deposits and the ultrastructural characteristics of the epidermis during cuticle formation in Titanethes albus are similar to those described in representatives of Ligiidae. During the deposition of the exocuticle, the apical plasma membrane of epidermal cells forms finger-like extensions and numerous invaginations. In the ecdysial space of individuals in late premolt we observed cellular extensions surrounded by bundles of tubules.
The direct measurement and partial characterization of circulating immune complexes has been performed in a longitudinal study of a patient with Staphylococcus albus-induced shunt nephritis. The high levels of immune complexes were associated with cryoglobulinaemia and hypocomplementaemia. The activation of complement was found to be via the classical pathway, but the functioning of the alternative pathway may have been impaired in vivo due to very low levels of C3. The host response to the infection was also characterized by the production of a marked macroglobulinaemia, high titres of rheumatoid factor and a typical acute phase increase in the C-reactive protein level. Immune complex levels were persistently elevated many months after the removal of the focus of the infection. A possible explanation for this surprising finding may lie in the nature of the antigens in the immune complexes. It was found that the immune complexes contained both antibodies to and antigens from Staphlococcus albus. In particular, glycerol teichoic acid and staphylococcal nuclease were identified as components of the immune complexes present during the acute phase. Glycerol teichoic acid was also identified in the immune complexes found later although other Staphylococcus albus antigens as yet unidentified were also present and persisted in the circulation for several months. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4
Roots of phosphorus (P) deficient white lupin exhibit striking changes in morphology and gene expression. In this report we provide further insight into genetic elements affecting transcription of P-deficiency induced genes. Moreover, we also show that sugars and photosynthate are integrally related...
White lupine is an As-resistant legume that is of interest for phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. To achieve successful phytoremediation, monitoring of the nutritional status of the selected plant species during the entire culture cycle is required to maintain a plant cover with high biomass production. A long-term pot experiment was carried out with nodulated lupine grown on perlite with 10 and 100 microM As concentrations. The reproductive period (from 10 weeks) was the most sensitive phenologic stage of white lupine to long-term As exposure. The 10 microM As treatment increased the uptake and translocation of micronutrients, except for Cu, mainly at flowering with As levels in pods below the statutory limit (1 mg kg (-1) fresh weight). However, the 100 microM As treatment induced significant differences compared to the control. These findings confirm the relatively high resistance of white lupine to arsenate and support the use of this species in phytoremediation and/or revegetation of As-contaminated sites, with special attention on P and Cu nutrition at flowering. PMID:18795759
Cadmium and arsenic are two of the most important and toxic pollutants ubiquitous in the environment. The occurrence of numerous polluted areas as the affected by the accident of Aznalcóllar pyrite mine has promoted the employment of the phytoremediation as a feasible technology able to control and reduce the risk of this contamination at low cost. White lupin plant is
S. Vázquez; R. Agha; A. Granado; M. J. Sarro; E. Esteban; J. M. Peñalosa; R. O. Carpena
Lupine influence on soil C, N, and microbial activity was estimated by comparing root-zone soil (LR) to nonroot-zone soil (NR) collected at Mount St. Helens. Samples were collected from 5 sites forming a gradient of C and N levels as a reflection of different locations and varying volcanic disturbance by the 1980 eruption. In volcanic substrates undergoing primary ecosystem development,
Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...
The fungus Muscodor albus produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals with activity against post-harvest disease causing organisms, insect pests of harvested fruit and tubers, and soil-borne disease causing agents and plant parasitic nematodes. M. albus was tested for its potenti...
A genomic sequence encoding Lupinus angustifolius L-asparaginase has been obtained, and is the first report of this gene from a plant source. The 3.2 kb of DNA sequenced contains a 1136 bp 5' flanking sequence, four exons and three introns. Intron-exon borders were mapped by comparing the genomic sequence with that of a L. arboreus cDNA. Primer extension analysis revealed transcription start sites 16 bp and 13 bp 5' of the initiating ATG for L. angustifolius and L. arboreus, respectively. The 5' flanking region contained sequences associated with seed-specific expression. PMID:1391778
Dickson, J M; Vincze, E; Grant, M R; Smith, L A; Rodber, K A; Farnden, K J; Reynolds, P H
Background and aims Root plasticity in response to the edaphic environment represents a challenge in the quantification of phenotypic variation\\u000a in crop germplasm. The aim of this study was to use various growth systems to assess phenotypic variation among wild genotypes\\u000a of Lupinus angustifolius.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Ten wild genotypes of L. angustifolius selected from an earlier phenotyping study were grown in three different
Ying Long Chen; Vanessa M. Dunbabin; Johannes A. Postma; Art J. Diggle; Jairo A. Palta; Jonathan P. Lynch; Kadambot H. M. Siddique; Zed Rengel
The main objective of this work was to study the influence of humic substances (HS) on the effectiveness of Fe sulfate and\\u000a Vivianite in preventing Fe chlorosis in white lupin with a view of performing cost-effective methods to overcome the problem.\\u000a Two consecutive crops were performed using calcareous sand treated with different Fe sources (FeSO4·7H2O and Vivianite, at three different
Ana de Santiago; José M. Quintero; Eusebio Carmona; Antonio Delgado
1. Separate balance experiments were conducted to assess the potential of 2 commercial enzyme supplements to improve the nutritive value of dehulled lupin kernels. One supplement (enzyme A) contained primarily xylanase, pen?tosanase, hemicellulase activities and the other (enzyme B) primarily ß?glucanase, hemicellulase and pectinase activities.2. The enzymes were added at 0, 025, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 g\\/kg in diets containing
Calochortus (Liliaceae) displays high species richness, restriction of many individual taxa to narrow ranges, geographic coherence of individual clades, and parallel adaptive radiations in different regions. Here we test the first part of a hypothesis that all of these patterns may reflect gene flow at small geographic scales. We use amplified fragment length polymorphism variation to quantify the geographic scales of spatial genetic structure and apparent gene flow in Calochortus albus, a widespread member of the genus, at Henry Coe State Park in the Coast Ranges south of San Francisco Bay. Analyses of 254 mapped individuals spaced 0.001–14.4 km apart show a highly significant decline in genetic identity with ln distance, implying a root-mean-square distance of gene flow ? of 5–43 m. STRUCTURE analysis implies the existence of 2–4 clusters over the study area, with frequent reversals among clusters over short distances (<200 m) and a relatively high frequency of admixture within individuals at most sampling sites. While the intensity of spatial genetic structure in C. albus is weak, as measured by the Sp statistic, that appears to reflect low genetic identity of adjacent plants, which might reflect repeated colonizations at small spatial scales or density-dependent mortality of individual genotypes by natural enemies. Small spatial scales of gene flow and spatial genetic structure should permit, under a variety of conditions, genetic differentiation within species at such scales, setting the stage ultimately for speciation and adaptive radiation as such scales as well.
Henss, Jillian M; Moeller, Jackson R; Theim, Terra J; Givnish, Thomas J
The rumen bacterium Ruminococcus albus binds to and degrades crystalline cellulosic substrates via a unique cellulose degradation system. A unique family of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM37), located at the C terminus of different glycoside hydrolases, appears to be responsible both for anchoring these enzymes to the bacterial cell surface and for substrate binding. PMID:18931104
Composition and spatial distribution of organic and inorganic materials within the cuticle of isopods vary between species. These variations are related to the behaviour and habitat of the animal. The troglobiotic isopod Titanethes albus lives in the complete darkness of caves in the Slovenian Karst. This habitat provides constant temperature and saturated humidity throughout the year and inconsistent food supply.
Sabine Hild; Frank Neues; Nada Žnidarši?; Jasna Štrus; Matthias Epple; Othmar Marti; Andreas Ziegler
The effects of pressure toasting of whole and broken peas, lupins and faba beans on in situ degradability of protein and starch and intestinal digestibility of protein were studied. To test for associative effects on rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility after toasting, a mixture of peas, lupins and faba beans was examined and results were compared with weighted averages of
J. O. Goelema; M. A. M. Spreeuwenberg; G. Hof; S. Tamminga
Upon the establishment of an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in amide-transporting plants the enzymatic activity and transcript levels of L-asparaginase are dramatically decreased. This decrease in L-asparaginase activity is essential for the correct functioning of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis in lupin in which asparagine, synthesized from recently fixed nitrogen, is exported to aerial parts of the plant for use in growth and development. Concomitant with this decrease in L-asparaginase transcript a DNA-binding protein was detected in the nodules. This binding protein was not detectable in ineffective nodules, in nodules treated with nitrate, or in root tips, mature roots, developing flowers or developing seeds. The DNA-binding activity was shown to interact with a 59 bp sequence proximal to the transcription start site. Within this sequence a CTAAAAT direct repeat and a ACTGT/TGTCA incomplete inverted repeat were implicated in the binding of protein to the DNA by DNase I protection experiments. Competitive binding studies with synthesized binding sites were consistent with the CTAAAAT/TGTCA sequence pair proximal to the transcription start site having the highest affinity for the DNA-binding protein. We postulate that this DNA-binding protein is associated with repression of L-asparaginase gene expression in mature lupin root nodules. PMID:7948878
Vincze, E; Reeves, J M; Lamping, E; Farnden, K J; Reynolds, P H
Based on photometric and astrometric data it has been proposed that Albus 1 (also known as CPD -20 1123) might be a hot white dwarf similar to G191-B2B or, alternatively, a hot subdwarf. We obtained a series of optical spectra showing that CPD -20 1123 is a bright He-B subdwarf. We analyzed the H I Balmer and He I line spectra and measured Teff = 19,800 +/- 400 K, logg=4.55+/-0.10, and logN(He)/N(H)=0.15+/-0.15. This peculiar object belongs to a family of evolved helium-rich stars that may be the products of double-degenerate mergers, or, alternatively, the products of post horizontal- or giant-branch evolution.
Strain LU14T, isolated from the roots of Lupinus angustifolius, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed a similarity of 98.7% to the corresponding sequence of Kribbella sandramycini DSM 15626T. Chemotaxonomic data gathered for fatty acids, phospholipids, cell-wall peptidoglycan and menaquinones strongly supported the classification of this strain in the genus Kribbella and DNA-DNA hybridization studies suggested that it may represent a novel species. Many physiological features were found that clearly distinguished isolate LU14T from other Kribbella species. Based on the above data, a novel species of the genus Kribbella, Kribbella lupini sp. nov., is proposed with the type strain LU14T (=DSM 16683T=LMG 22957T). PMID:16449448
Trujillo, Martha E; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Schumann, Peter; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio
Biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids is thought to proceed by way of the diamine putrescine, followed by its methylation by putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT; EC 184.108.40.206). High PMT activities were found in branch roots and/or cultured roots of several solanaceous plants. PMT was partially purified and characterized from cultured roots of Hyoscyamus albus that contain hyoscyamine as the main alkaloid. Initial velocity studies and product inhibition patterns of PMT are consistent with an ordered bi-bi mechanism, in which the Km values for putrescine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine are 277 and 203 ?m, respectively, and the Ki value for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine is 110 ?m. PMT efficiently N-methylated amines that have at least two amino groups separated by three or four methylene groups. Monoamines were good competitive inhibitors of PMT, among which n-butylamine, cyclohexylamine, and exo-2-aminonorbornane were most inhibitory, with respective Ki values of 11.0, 9.1, and 10.0 ?m. When n-butylamine was fed to root cultures of H. albus, the alkamine intermediates (tropinone, tropine, and pseudotropine) drastically decreased at 1 mm of the exogenous monoamine, and the hyoscyamine content decreased by 52% at 6 mm, whereas the contents of 6?-hydroxyhyoscyamine and scopolamine did not change. Free and conjugated forms of polyamines were also measured. The n-butylamine treatment caused a large increase in the putrescine content (especially in the conjugated pool), and the spermine content also increased slightly, whereas the spermidine content decreased slightly. The increase in the putrescine pool size (approximately 40 nmol/mg dry weight) was large enough to account for the decrease in the total alkaloid pool size. Similar results were also obtained in root cultures of Datura stramonium. These studies further support the role of PMT as the first committed enzyme specific to alkaloid biosynthesis. Images Figure 8
Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images
Five Arthrobacter isolates from clinical specimens were studied by phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genetic characterization. Two strains had characteristics consistent with those of Arthrobacter oxydans. One strain was related to A. citreus; however, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics indicated that this strain belongs to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov. is proposed. Two strains were closely related to A. cumminsii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, but DNA-DNA hybridization, peptidoglycan type, and some phenotypic features indicated that they should be assigned to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter albus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. luteolus is CF25 (DSM 13067). The type strain of A. albus is CF43 (DSM 13068).
Wauters, Georges; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michele; Delmee, Michel
The swamp eel Monopterus albus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical freshwaters ranging from Southeast Asia to East Asia, and is unique in\\u000a its ability to breathe air through the buccal mucosa. To examine the genetic structure of this widespread species, molecular\\u000a phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequence (514 bp) were conducted for 84 specimens from 13 localities in
Extreme heart-rate lability accompanies the air- breathing cycles of Synbranchus marmoratus and Monopterus albus. When air is taken into the buccopharyngeal air-breathing organ of these fishes, heart rate increases sharply above pre-inspiration rates of 3-25 beats min 21 to as high as 40-45 beats min 21 . With time, and as O2 is depleted from the air-breathing organ, heart rate
JEFFREY B. GRAHAM; N. C. LAI; DAVID CHILLER; JOHN L. ROBERTS
Mercier, J., Jiménez-Santamaría, J.I., and Tamez-Guerra, P. 2007. Development of the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel, and Hess as a novel antimicrobial biofumigant. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología 25:173-179. Abstract. Worldwide growers are seeking for safer alternatives to control soil-borne and postharvest diseases. Chemical fumigants, such as methyl bromide, are currently used because of their high efficacy and yield enhancement.
Julien Mercier; Jorge Isaac Jiménez-Santamaría; Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Bioconversion of cellulose to acetate was accomplished with cocultures of two organisms. One was the cellulolytic species Ruminococcus albus. It ferments crystalline cellulose (Avicel) to acetate, ethanol, CO(inf2), and H(inf2). The other organism (HA) obtains energy for growth by using H(inf2) to reduce CO(inf2) to acetate. HA is a gram-negative coccobacillus that was isolated from horse feces. Coculture of R. albus with HA in batch or continuous culture alters the fermentation products formed from crystalline cellulose by the ruminococcus via interspecies H(inf2) transfer. The major product of the fermentation by R. albus and HA coculture is acetate. High concentrations of acetate (333 mM) were obtained when batch cocultures grown on 5% cellulose were neutralized with Ca(OH)(inf2). Continuous cocultures grown at retention times of 2 and 3.1 days produced 109 and 102 mM acetate, respectively, when fed 1% cellulose with utilization of 84% of the substrate.
Data were from 45 Holstein cows (23 multiparous, 22 primiparous) assigned by calving date and parity within groups to one of two isonitrogenous (16% crude protein) diets. The diets were 50% forages (corn silage, alfalfa silage) and 50% concentrate, dry basis. In diet A, soybean meal supplied 34.2% of total crude protein; in diet B, ground sweet white lupin seeds
B. Guillaume; D. E. Otterby; J. G. Linn; M. D. Stern; D. G. Johnson
We characterized varying capacity of two wheat cultivars (‘Brookton’ and ‘Krichauff’) and white lupin to acquire and utilize phosphorus (P) from different P resources [P0, rock phosphate, composted rock phosphate, phytate and soluble P) at 200 mg P kg soil]. In all three genotypes, shoot P concentration and content were highest in the phytate treatment and lowest in P0. Roots
White lupin has unique developmental and biochemical adaptations to acquire phosphorus (P) under P-deficient conditions including: cluster root formation and enhanced expression of many genes involved in cluster root development and metabolism; exudation of enzymes and organic acids from roots; incr...
Nigella sativa, lupin and artichoke seed oils have been investigated. The oils were subjected to detailed studies using gas chromatographic analysis (GLC) for fatty acids (FA, as methyl esters) and whole sterols (as silyl derivatives). Whereas, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of molecular species of triacylglycerols (TAG), four sterol lipids (free and acylated sterols, FS and AS, and free and acylated sterylglycosides, FSG and ASG, as their anthroylnitrile derivatives) as well as tocopherol patterns (T). The results showed that the three seed oils are rich in oleic and linoleic acids whereas, lupin had high linolenic acid content. It was found that the TAGs of the three oils showed some similarity with sunflower oil. Lupin oil had higher sterol content and it was very rich in campe- and ?-sitosterol. Nigella sativa oil had a high content of isofucosterol, whereas artichoke oil was unique in having a high content of 5-stigma-, 7-stigma-, and avena- sterol. Concerning the FS and AS, Nigella sativa oil had the highest content, whereas artichoke oil had the highest content of FSG and ASG. Nigella sativa and lupin oils contained over 90 % ?-T while, artichoke oil comprised about 100 % ?-T. It is recommended to use the three oils as healthy oils and folk medicine. PMID:21343657
M Hassanein, Minar Mahmoud; El-Shami, Safinaz M; El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan
The use of vegetable protein sources in diets for freshwater fish has been studied in more detail than for marine fish species. Two experiments were conducted to compare the effect of the partial substitution of fish meal by two different vegetable protein sources, soybean and lupin seed meals. Mean feed intake and growth were not significantly influenced by type or
L. Robaina; M. S. Izquierdo; F. J. Moyano; J. Socorro; J. M. Vergara; D. Montero; H. Fernández-Palacios
Abstarct Effect of several physical treatments (soaking, dehulling, ordinary cooking, microwave cooking, and autoclaving) on the level\\u000a of antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of bitter and sweet lupin seeds were investigated. The raw bitter and sweet lupin seeds were found\\u000a to contain phytic acid, tannins, trypsin inhibitor activity, and lectin activity, but ?-amylase inhibitor was absent. Dehulling\\u000a significantly increased the
Lupin and soya are members of the Leguminosae family which are recognised as some of the richest source of vegetable proteins. Lupin- and soya-containing products are available on the EU market and could cause severe adverse reactions in allergic individuals, even if consumed at low concentrations. In this context the development of methods for reliable detection of these allergens in food products is a useful tool for the surveillance of established legislation on food labelling within the EU. This work described the development of a duplex real-time PCR method allowing the simultaneous detection of traces of lupin and soya in processed food based on a specific TaqMan® probe designed on a mitochondrial tRNA-MET gene. A set of primers and probes was designed for the amplification of a 168 and 175bp fragment of lupin and soya mitochondrial DNA, respectively. The performance of the method was established using lupin and soya flours and cookies baked from lupin- and soya-containing dough (different concentrations and baking times). The PCR platform yielded consistent and repeatable results. The specificity of the system was tested with DNA from 28 plant species. The sensitivity of the method was suitable to detect allergenic ingredients in the low mg per kg range. Both lupin and soya at a level of 2.5mg per kg food matrix could be detected in cookies baked at 180°C for 10min. The method was successfully applied to bakery (e.g. bread) and vegetarian (e.g. non-meat sausages) food products that contain or may contain soya and/or lupin as ingredient or contaminant (according to the declaration on the product label). PMID:23140743
Galan, Antonio M Gomez; Brohée, Marcel; de Andrade Silva, Eugénia; van Hengel, Arjon J; Chassaigne, Hubert
Background:Regular consumption of diets with increased protein or fibre intakes may benefit body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lupin flour is a novel food ingredient high in protein and fibre.Objective:To investigate the effects of a lupin-enriched diet, during and following energy restriction, on body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight individuals.Design:Participants (n=131) were
R Belski; T A Mori; I B Puddey; S Sipsas; R J Woodman; T R Ackland; L J Beilin; E R Dove; N B Carlyon; V Jayaseena; J M Hodgson
Background:Lupin kernel flour (LKF) is a novel food ingredient that is high in protein and fibre. We have previously shown that partial substitution of refined wheat-derived carbohydrate in bread with protein and fibre from LKF can reduce appetite and energy intake acutely. In addition, several studies have suggested that lupin may reduce cholesterol concentrations and benefit glucose and insulin metabolism.Aim:The
J M Hodgson; Y P Lee; I B Puddey; S Sipsas; T R Ackland; L J Beilin; R Belski; T A Mori
Working with a Streptomyces albus strain that had previously been bred to produce industrial amounts (10 mg/ml) of salinomycin, we demonstrated the efficacy of introducing drug resistance-producing mutations for further strain improvement. Mutants with enhanced salinomycin production were detected at a high incidence (7 to 12%) among spontaneous isolates resistant to streptomycin (Strr), gentamicin, or rifampin (Rifr). Finally, we successfully demonstrated improvement of the salinomycin productivity of the industrial strain by 2.3-fold by introducing a triple mutation. The Strr mutant was shown to have a point mutation within the rpsL gene (encoding ribosomal protein S12). Likewise, the Rifr mutant possessed a mutation in the rpoB gene (encoding the RNA polymerase ? subunit). Increased productivity of salinomycin in the Strr mutant (containing the K88R mutation in the S12 protein) may be a result of an aberrant protein synthesis mechanism. This aberration may manifest itself as enhanced translation activity in stationary-phase cells, as we have observed with the poly(U)-directed cell-free translation system. The K88R mutant ribosome was characterized by increased 70S complex stability in low Mg2+ concentrations. We conclude that this aberrant protein synthesis ability in the Strr mutant, which is a result of increased stability of the 70S complex, is responsible for the remarkable salinomycin production enhancement obtained.
Salinomycin is widely used in animal husbandry as a food additive due to its antibacterial and anticoccidial activities. However, its biosynthesis had only been studied by feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors. A strategy with degenerate primers based on the polyether-specific epoxidase sequences was successfully developed to clone the salinomycin gene cluster. Using this strategy, a putative epoxidase gene, slnC, was cloned from the salinomycin producer Streptomyces albus XM211. The targeted replacement of slnC and subsequent trans-complementation proved its involvement in salinomycin biosynthesis. A 127-kb DNA region containing slnC was sequenced, including genes for polyketide assembly and release, oxidative cyclization, modification, export, and regulation. In order to gain insight into the salinomycin biosynthesis mechanism, 13 gene replacements and deletions were conducted. Including slnC, 7 genes were identified as essential for salinomycin biosynthesis and putatively responsible for polyketide chain release, oxidative cyclization, modification, and regulation. Moreover, 6 genes were found to be relevant to salinomycin biosynthesis and possibly involved in precursor supply, removal of aberrant extender units, and regulation. Sequence analysis and a series of gene replacements suggest a proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of salinomycin. The information presented here expands the understanding of polyether biosynthesis mechanisms and paves the way for targeted engineering of salinomycin activity and productivity.
The treatment of hairy roots of Hyoscyamus albus with copper sulfate (Cu2+) and methyl jasmonate (JAMe) produced several phytoalexins having the vetispyrane skeleton. Lubimin and solavetivone were isolated after treatment with Cu2+. Seven sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins were isolated from the culture medium after treatment with JAMe, including lubimin, solavetivone, 3-hydroxysolavetivone and four new compounds (1-4). Structures of the new compounds were elucidated to be (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-hydroxy-9-tigloyloxysolavetivone (1), (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-hydroxy-9-(3-methylbutenoyloxy)-solavetivone (2), (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-hydroxy-9-isobutanoyloxysolavetivone (3); and (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3,9-dihydroxysolavetivone (4). The induction pattern of phytoalexins in hairy roots treated with JAMe was different in those treated with Cu2+, and co-treatment with JAMe and Cu2+ gave only solavetivone. PMID:9868154
Kuroyanagi, M; Arakawa, T; Mikami, Y; Yoshida, K; Kawahar, N; Hayashi, T; Ishimaru, H
Data from analyses of continuous culture fermentation of insoluble cellulose by Ruminococcus albus 7 were used to derive constants for the rate of cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation, growth yield, and maintenance. Cellulose concentration was 1% in the nutrient reservoir, and hydraulic retention times of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 1.75, and 2.0 days were used. Concentrations of reducing sugars in the cultures were negligible (less than 1%) compared with the amount of hydrolyzed cellulose, indicating that cellulose hydrolysis was the rate-limiting step of the fermentation. The rate of utilization of cellulose depended on the steady-state concentration of cellulose and was first order with a rate constant (k) of 1.18 day?1. The true microbial growth yield (Y) was 0.11 g g?1, the maintenance coefficient (m) was 0.10 g g?1 h?1, and the maximum YATP was 7.7 g of biomass (dry weight) mol of ATP?1.
Pavlostathis, Spyros G.; Miller, Terry L.; Wolin, Meyer J.
S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) catalyzes the reversible breakdown of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) to adenosine and homocysteine. SAH is formed in methylation reactions that utilize S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. By removing the SAH byproduct, SAHase serves as a major regulator of SAM-dependent biological methylation reactions. Here, the first crystal structure of SAHase of plant origin, that from the legume yellow lupin (LlSAHase), is presented. Structures have been determined at high resolution for three complexes of the enzyme: those with a reaction byproduct/substrate (adenosine), with its nonoxidizable analog (cordycepin) and with a product of inhibitor cleavage (adenine). In all three cases the enzyme has a closed conformation. A sodium cation is found near the active site, coordinated by residues from a conserved loop that hinges domain movement upon reactant binding. An insertion segment that is present in all plant SAHases is located near a substrate-pocket access channel and participates in its formation. In contrast to mammalian and bacterial SAHases, the channel is open when adenosine or cordycepin is bound and is closed in the adenine complex. In contrast to SAHases from other organisms, which are active as tetramers, the plant enzyme functions as a homodimer in solution.
S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) catalyzes the reversible breakdown of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) to adenosine and homocysteine. SAH is formed in methylation reactions that utilize S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. By removing the SAH byproduct, SAHase serves as a major regulator of SAM-dependent biological methylation reactions. Here, the first crystal structure of SAHase of plant origin, that from the legume yellow lupin (LlSAHase), is presented. Structures have been determined at high resolution for three complexes of the enzyme: those with a reaction byproduct/substrate (adenosine), with its nonoxidizable analog (cordycepin) and with a product of inhibitor cleavage (adenine). In all three cases the enzyme has a closed conformation. A sodium cation is found near the active site, coordinated by residues from a conserved loop that hinges domain movement upon reactant binding. An insertion segment that is present in all plant SAHases is located near a substrate-pocket access channel and participates in its formation. In contrast to mammalian and bacterial SAHases, the channel is open when adenosine or cordycepin is bound and is closed in the adenine complex. In contrast to SAHases from other organisms, which are active as tetramers, the plant enzyme functions as a homodimer in solution. PMID:22349223
Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus, represented by a number of isolates from tropical tree and vine species in several of the world's rainforests, that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antibiotic activity. A new isolate, E-6, of this organism, with unusual biochemical and biological properties, has been obtained from the branches of a mature Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) tree growing in a dry tropical forest in SW Ecuador. This unique organism produces many VOCs not previously observed in other M. albus isolates, including butanoic acid, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-; 2-butenal, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester; 3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl; guaiol; 1-octene, 3-ethyl-; formamide, N-(1-methylpropyl); and certain azulene and naphthalene derivatives. Some compounds usually seen in other M. albus isolates also appeared in the VOCs of isolate E-6, including caryophyllene; phenylethyl alcohol; acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester; bulnesene; and various propanoic acid, 2-methyl- derivatives. The biological activity of the VOCs of E-6 appears different from the original isolate of this fungus, CZ-620, since a Gram-positive bacterium was killed, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani were not. Scanning electron micrographs of the mycelium of isolate E-6 showed substantial intertwining of the hyphal strands. These strands seemed to be held together by an extracellular matrix accounting for the strong mat-like nature of the mycelium, which easily lifts off the agar surface upon transfer, unlike any other isolate of this fungus. The ITS-5.8S rDNA partial sequence data showed 99 % similarity to the original M. albus strain CZ-620. For the first time, successful establishment of M. albus into its natural host, followed by recovery of the fungus, was accomplished in seedlings of G. ulmifolia. Overall, isolates of M. albus, including E-6, have chemical, biological and structural characteristics that make them potentially useful in medicine, agricultural and industrial applications. PMID:17660425
Strobel, Gary A; Kluck, Katreena; Hess, Wilford M; Sears, Joe; Ezra, David; Vargas, Percy N
Lupin seeds treated with 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) produced hypocotyls showing a typicalethylene growth response (reduced elongation and increased thickness), whichcould be efficiently counteracted by the presence of silver thiosulfate (STS).The fact that ACC and CEPA stimulated the ethylene produced in different zonesalong the hypocotyls suggests that these compounds, which are stored in theseeds during treatment, were transported
I. López Nicolás; Manuel Acosta Echeverría; José Sánchez-Bravo
The complete nucleotide sequences of Ruminococcus albus genes celA and celB coding for endoglucanase A (EGA) and endoglucanase B (EGB), respectively, have been determined. The celA structural gene consists of an open reading frame of 1095 bp. Confirmation of the nucleotide sequence was obtained by comparing the predicted amino acid sequence with that derived by N-terminal analysis of purified EGA. The celB structural gene consists of an open reading frame of 1227 bp; 7 bp upstream of the translational start codon of celB is a typical gram-positive Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The deduced N-terminal region of EGB conforms to the general pattern for the signal peptides of secreted prokaryotic proteins. The complete celB gene, cloned into pUC vectors, caused lethality in Escherichia coli. In contrast, celA cloned in pUC18, under the control of lacZp, directed high-level synthesis of EGA in E. coli JM83. EGA in cell-free extract, purified to near homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography, had a Mr of 44.5 kDa. Gene deletion and subcloning studies with celA revealed that EGA hydrolysed both CMC and xylan, and did not contain discrete functional domains. EGA and EGB showed considerable homology with each other, in addition to exhibiting similarity with Eg1 (R. albus), EGE (Clostridium thermocellum) and End (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens). PMID:2250649
Poole, D M; Hazlewood, G P; Laurie, J I; Barker, P J; Gilbert, H J
Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus, represented by a number of isolates from tropical tree and vine species in several of the world's rainforests, that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antibiotic activity. A new isolate, E-6, of this organism, with unusual biochemical and biological properties, has been obtained from the branches of a mature Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) tree growing
Gary A. Strobel; Katreena Kluck; Wilford M. Hess; Joe Sears; David Ezra; Percy N. Vargas
The complete nucleotide sequence of the ssRNA genome of a lupine potyvirus (LP) isolate was determined. It comprised 10,113 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail. Phylogenetic analysis of CP protein sequences identified pepper veinal mottle virus, narcissus yellow stripe virus, and chili veinal mottle virus as the closest relatives, sharing coat protein amino acid sequence identities of only about 64% with the LP isolate. Thus, LP can be regarded as a member of a newly described potyvirus species, for which the name Lupine mosaic virus (LuMV) is proposed. PMID:20981559
A root tip cDNA library, constructed in the lambda Zap II expression vector, was immunoscreened with a monoclonal antibody raised against aspartate aminotransferase-P1 from Lupinus angustifolius L. var Uniharvest. One 1452-base pair clone was isolated. The encoded protein sequence had high homology to both plant and animal aspartate aminotransferase sequences. The clone was converted to the phagemid form and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was enzymically active and could be immunocomplexed with aspartate aminotransferase-P1-specific antibodies. The complete aspartate aminotransferase-P1 cDNA was cloned into the yeast expression vector pEMBL-yex4 and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BRSCS6, which possesses a mutated aspartate aminotransferase gene (the asp5 mutation). Complementation of the mutation was achieved using this construct.
Winefield, C S; Reddington, B D; Jones, W T; Reynolds, P H; Farnden, K J
A root tip cDNA library, constructed in the lambda Zap II expression vector, was immunoscreened with a monoclonal antibody raised against aspartate aminotransferase-P1 from Lupinus angustifolius L. var Uniharvest. One 1452-base pair clone was isolated. The encoded protein sequence had high homology to both plant and animal aspartate aminotransferase sequences. The clone was converted to the phagemid form and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was enzymically active and could be immunocomplexed with aspartate aminotransferase-P1-specific antibodies. The complete aspartate aminotransferase-P1 cDNA was cloned into the yeast expression vector pEMBL-yex4 and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BRSCS6, which possesses a mutated aspartate aminotransferase gene (the asp5 mutation). Complementation of the mutation was achieved using this construct. PMID:8159784
Winefield, C S; Reddington, B D; Jones, W T; Reynolds, P H; Farnden, K J
Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different clades, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that iteroparity functioned as an adaptive key innovation, providing a mechanism for range expansion and rapid divergence in upper elevation regions across much of the New World.
Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.
Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N=140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N=15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9cm to 12.2cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51days old (N=13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Inclusion of high levels of the high-fibre ingredient sugar-beet pulp in pre-mating diets has been shown to increase gonadotrophin concentrations and improve oocyte quality in nulliparous pigs (gilts). This study evaluated the effects of two alternative fibre sources on reproductive performance in gilts. Gilts received one of three diets from 3 weeks before puberty stimulation until Day 19 of the first oestrous cycle: control (39gkg(-1) fibre), bran (500gkg(-1) wheat bran, 65gkg(-1) fibre) or lupin (350gkg(-1) lupin, 118gkg(-1) crude fibre). Diet did not affect circulating LH concentrations or ovarian follicle size. However, a higher percentage of oocytes collected from lupin-supplemented gilts reached metaphase II in vitro compared with those collected from bran-fed or control gilts (89±5% versus 72±5% and 66±5%, respectively; P<0.05). Furthermore, in a second experiment, gilts fed the same lupin-based diet before mating had improved embryo survival (92±5%) on Day 28 after mating compared with control gilts (76±4%; P<0.05). Therefore, feeding a high-fibre diet before mating can improve oocyte quality in gilts without changes in circulating LH, but this effect is dependent on the fibre source. PMID:23257568
Weaver, A C; Kelly, J M; Kind, K L; Gatford, K L; Kennaway, D J; Herde, P J; van Wettere, W H E J
. The objectives of this study were to determine whether elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations have a negative impact on the\\u000a health and survival of nestling and juvenile free-ranging great egrets (Ardea albus) from southern Florida. During 1994, when health and survival was monitored in a cohort of young birds with naturally variable\\u000a concentrations of Hg, packed cell volume was positively
Three forms of hyssop Hyssopus officinalis L., f. cyaneus Alef., f. ruber Mill, and f. albus Alef. occurring wild in Yugoslavia were multiplied and cultivated. The cyaneus form, characterized by its blue flowers, yielded between 4.9 and 5.8 tonnes of fresh plant material per hectare, and essential oil in yields ranging from 0.65–0.75%. The pink-flowered ruber form and the white
Jean-Claude Chalchat; D. Adamovic; M. S. Gorunovic
: Sox proteins belong to the HMG box-containing family of DNA-binding proteins and are found in vertebrates. They have diverse\\u000a functions in the regulation of development. We present here the two kinds of Sox genes, the Sox11, Sox11a and Sox11b, and\\u000a the Sox19 genes from rice field eel (Monopterus albus) using highly degenerate and nested PCR. All the three Sox
We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient created during mine dewatering. Although the absence of methanogens from this subsurface ecosystem is somewhat surprising, it may be attributable to an energy bottleneck that restricts their migration from surface permafrost deposits where they are frequently reported. These results have implications for the biological origin of CH4 on Mars.
Onstott, Tullis [Princeton University; McGown, Daniel [Princeton University; Bakermans, Corien [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ruskeeniemi, T [Geological Survey of Finland; Ahonen, L [Geological Survey of Finland; Telling, J [University of Toronto; Soffientino, B [University of Rhode Island; Pfiffner, Susan M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara [University of Toronto; Frape, S [University of Waterloo, Canada; Stotler, R [University of Waterloo, Canada; Johnson, E [Indiana University; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Rothmel, Randi [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana University
We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na-Ca-Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, approximately25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were approximately10(3) cells mL(-1). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient created during mine dewatering. Although the absence of methanogens from this subsurface ecosystem is somewhat surprising, it may be attributable to an energy bottleneck that restricts their migration from surface permafrost deposits where they are frequently reported. These results have implications for the biological origin of CH4 on Mars. PMID:19568805
Onstott, T C; McGown, Daniel J; Bakermans, Corien; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Telling, Jon; Soffientino, Bruno; Pfiffner, Susan M; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Frape, Shaun; Stotler, Randy; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Rothmel, Randi; Pratt, Lisa M
Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots secrete riboflavin under Fe-deficient conditions. To determine whether this secretion was linked to an enhancement of respiration, both riboflavin secretion and the reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), as a measure of respiration activity, were determined in hairy roots cultured under Fe-deficient and Fe-replete conditions, with or without aeration. Appreciable TTC-reducing activity was detected at the root tips, at the bases of lateral roots and in internal tissues, notably the vascular system. TTC-reducing activity increased under Fe deficiency and this increase occurred in concert with riboflavin secretion and was more apparent under aeration. Riboflavin secretion was not apparent under Fe-replete conditions. In order to examine which elements of the mitochondrial electron transport chain might be involved, the effects of the respiratory inhibitors, barbiturate, dicoumarol, malonic acid, antimycin, KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) were investigated. Under Fe-deficient conditions, malonic acid affected neither root growth, TTC-reducing activity nor riboflavin secretion, whereas barbiturate and SHAM inhibited only root growth and TTC-reducing activity, respectively, and the other compounds variously inhibited growth and TTC-reducing activity. Riboflavin secretion was decreased, in concert with TTC-reducing activity, by dicoumarol, antimycin and KCN, but not by SHAM. In Fe-replete roots, all inhibitors which reduced riboflavin secretion in Fe-deficient roots showed somewhat different effects: notably, antimycin and KCN did not significantly inhibit TTC-reducing activity and the inhibition by dicoumarol was much weaker in Fe-replete roots. Combined treatment with KCN and SHAM also revealed that Fe-deficient and Fe-replete roots reduced TTC in different ways. A decrease in the Fe content of mitochondria in Fe-deficient roots was confirmed. Overall, the results suggest that, under conditions of Fe deficiency in H. albus hairy roots, the alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, complex III and complex IV, but not the alternative oxidase, are actively involved both in respiration and in riboflavin secretion. PMID:20181408
Marr–Albus adaptive filter models of the cerebellum have been applied successfully to a range of sensory and motor control problems. Here we analyze their properties when applied to classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in rabbits. We consider a system-level model of eyeblink conditioning based on the anatomy of the eyeblink circuitry, comprising an adaptive filter model of the cerebellum, a comparator model of the inferior olive and a linear dynamic model of the nictitating membrane plant. To our knowledge, this is the first model that explicitly includes all these principal components, in particular the motor plant that is vital for shaping and timing the behavioral response. Model assumptions and parameters were systematically investigated to disambiguate basic computational capacities of the model from features requiring tuning of properties and parameter values. Without such tuning, the model robustly reproduced a range of behaviors related to sensory prediction, by displaying appropriate trial-level associative learning effects for both single and multiple stimuli, including blocking and conditioned inhibition. In contrast, successful reproduction of the real-time motor behavior depended on appropriate specification of the plant, cerebellum and comparator models. Although some of these properties appear consistent with the system biology, fundamental questions remain about how the biological parameters are chosen if the cerebellar microcircuit applies a common computation to many distinct behavioral tasks. It is possible that the response profiles in classical conditioning of the eyeblink depend upon operant contingencies that have previously prevailed, for example in naturally occurring avoidance movements.
Lepora, Nathan F.; Porrill, John; Yeo, Christopher H.; Dean, Paul
A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 93624(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang province of China and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain YIM 93624(T) grew at 15-45 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), 1-17% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5-10 %, w/v) and pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-7. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, a glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 93624(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus and exhibited the highest similarity of 97.0 % to Virgibacillus koreensis KCTC 3823(T). However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 93624(T) and V. koreensis KCTC 3823(T) was 32.5 %. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analysis data, the isolate is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain of YIM 93624(T) (=DSM 23711(T) = JCM 17364(T)). PMID:22622623
Three pepsinogens (PG1, PG2, and PG3) were highly purified from the stomach of freshwater fish rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographies on DEAE-Sephacel, Sephacryl S-200 HR. The molecular masses of the three purified PGs were all estimated as 36 kDa using SDS-PAGE. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) showed that pI values of the three PGs were 5.1, 4.8, and 4.6, respectively. All the PGs converted into corresponding pepsins quickly at pH 2.0, and their activities could be specifically inhibited by aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin A. Optimum pH and temperature of the enzymes for hydrolyzing hemoglobin were 3.0-3.5 and 40-45 °C. The K (m) values of them were 1.2 × 10?? M, 8.7 × 10?? M, and 6.9 × 10?? M, respectively. The turnover numbers (k(cat)) of them were 23.2, 24.0, and 42.6 s?¹. Purified pepsins were effective in the degradation of fish muscular proteins, suggesting their digestive functions physiologically. PMID:21140210
This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar plates. DNA extracted from the luminal content of distal ileum and caecum was used for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the composition of intestinal microbiota and for measuring the amount of bifidobacterial and total bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control- and chicory-fed pigs (mean log(10) 2.9 v. 4.1 CFU/g; P < 0.05). The qPCR analysis showed that feeding with lupines resulted in higher levels of bifidobacteria in caecum as compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). T-RFLP analysis showed that four of the most abundant bacteria with terminal restriction fragment values >5% relative to the intensity of total abundance differed between the feed treatments (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study showed that even a short-term alternative feeding strategy with prebiotics in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs elicited changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, where lupine increased the level of bifidobacteria in caecum and reduced the Campylobacter spp. excretion level after 1 week. PMID:23031645
Jensen, A N; Hansen, L L; Baggesen, D L; Mølbak, L
The distribution of basic soluble isoperoxidases along the growth gradient of lupin hypocotyl was studied in order to establish\\u000a the role of these isoenzymes in controlling polarly transported indole-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) levels. The observation that\\u000a the levels of basic isoperoxidases, which diminish from the young (vascular differentiating) to the older (vascular differentiated)\\u000a tissues, are related with previously reported IAA oxidation
M. A. Ferrer; M. A. Pedrefio; R. Mufioz; A. Ros Barceló
Two different types of hydroponic cultures, "water culture" and "perlite system", were compared using white lupin plants (Lupinusalbus L., cv. Marta) under different Cd treatments: 0, 0.2, 0.6, 2, 4, 6, 13, 20, 40 and 60 microM (water culture) and 0.2, 2, 20, 60 and 150 microM (moistened perlite). Fresh weight, shoot and root length, and total Cd concentration in the plants were measured. Moreover, a batch experiment was carried out to study the ability of perlite to adsorb and desorb Cd from nutrient solution. Lupin plants under Cd treatments in "water culture" showed a higher growth inhibition than those grown on perlite. A high positive correlation between Cd concentration in the plant and Cd supply was obtained regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, a high positive correlation between Cd doses with the "perlite system" and their equivalent Cd doses estimated for the "water culture" system was observed. Thus, the "water culture-equivalent" Cd doses were 14 times lower than the Cd doses in the perlite system. On the other hand, desorbed Cd concentrations were calculated giving values 12 times lower than the tested Cd doses. PMID:16307096
Lyons, A. J., Jr. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.) and T. G. Pridham. Proposal to designate strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici. J. Bacteriol. 83:370–380. 1962.—It is proposed that strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) be designated henceforth as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici and as the type strain of the genus Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici. The proposal is based not only on the fact that the holotype strain [Streptotrix (sic) alba] of Rossi-Doria is no longer extant, but also on the fact that a study of the literature and a taxonomic study of 55 strains of the organism indicate the species should exhibit these characteristics: catenulate ovoidal spores, white aerial mycelium, coiled sporophores, proteolytic activity, and nonchromogenicity (inability to form brown, deep brown, or black diffusible pigments). Strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) exhibits these characteristics, as do 16 other acquisitions. Study of the 16 additional strains that conform with the general definition of the species shows differences in some physiological characteristics. It is suggested that these differences are of subspecific significance. Images
Methane oxidation by pure cultures of the methanotrophs Methylobacter albus BG8 and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was inhibited by ammonium choride and sodium nitrite relative to that in cultures assayed in either nitrate-containing or nitrate-free medium. M. albus was generally more sensitive to ammonium and nitrate than M. Trichosporium. Both species produced nitrite from ammonium; the concentrations of nitrite produced increased with increasing methane concentrations in the culture headspaces. Inhibition of methane oxidation by nitrite was inversely proportional to headspace methane concentrations, with only minimal effects observed at concentrations of >500 ppm in the presence of 250 [mu]M nitrite. Inhibition increased with increasing ammonium at methane concentrations of 100 ppm. In the presence of 500 [mu]M ammonium, inhibition increased initially with increasing methane concentrations from 1.7 to 100 ppm; the extent of inhibition decreased with methane concentrations of >100 ppm. The results of this study provide new insights that explain some of the previously observed interactions among ammonium, nitrate, methane, and methane oxidation in soils and aquatic systems. 44 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
King, G.M.; Schnell, S. (Univ. of Maine, Walpole, ME (United States))
This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg(-1)). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted to non-contaminated or contaminated sand. After 60 days, diesel significantly reduced plant growth. AMF- plants had no significant greater (64% and 89%, respectively) shoot and leaf dry weight than Non-AMF plants, but AMF plants had lower specific leaf area. AMF-plants had significantly greater content of microelements than non-AMF plants. Regardless diesel contamination, the total AOX and TPC were significantly higher in leaves when compared to roots; in contrast, NRA was higher in roots than leaves. Diesel increased total AOX of leaves, but AMF-plants had significantly lower AOX than non-AMF plants. In contrast, roots of AMF-plants had significantly higher AOX but lower NRA than non-AMF plants. AMF-colonization in roots detected via the fungal alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly reduced by the presence of diesel. AMF-inoculation alleviated diesel toxicity on M. albus by enhancing plant biomass, nutrient content, and AOX activity. In addition, AMF-plants significantly contributed in higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons when compared to non-AMF-plants. PMID:21420227
Hyoscyamus albus is a well-known source of the tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are biosynthesized in the roots. To assess the major biochemical adaptations that occur in the roots of this plant in response to iron deficiency, we used a small-scale proteomic approach in which 100 mg of root tips were treated with and without Fe, respectively, for 5 days. Two-dimensional mini gels showed that 48 spots were differentially accumulated between the two conditions of Fe availability and a further 36 proteins were identified from these spots using MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins that showed elevated levels in the roots lacking Fe were found to be associated variously with carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation, secondary metabolism, and oxidative defense. Most of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were increased in abundance, but mitochondrial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was decreased, possibly resulting in malate secretion. Otherwise, all the proteins showing diminished levels in the roots were identified as either Fe-containing or ATP-requiring. For example, a significant decrease was observed in the levels of hyoscyamine 6?-hydroxylase (H6H), which requires Fe and is involved in the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. To investigate the effects of Fe deficiency on alkaloid biosynthesis, gene expression studies were undertaken both for H6H and for another Fe-dependent protein, Cyp80F1, which is involved in the final stage of hyoscyamine biosynthesis. In addition, tropane alkaloid contents were determined. Reduced gene expression was observed in the case of both of these proteins and was accompanied by a decrease in the content of both hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Finally, we have discussed energetic and Fe-conservation strategies that might be adopted by the roots of H. albus to maintain iron homeostasis under Fe-limiting conditions. PMID:24009619
Hyoscyamus albus is a well-known source of the tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are biosynthesized in the roots. To assess the major biochemical adaptations that occur in the roots of this plant in response to iron deficiency, we used a small-scale proteomic approach in which 100 mg of root tips were treated with and without Fe, respectively, for 5 days. Two-dimensional mini gels showed that 48 spots were differentially accumulated between the two conditions of Fe availability and a further 36 proteins were identified from these spots using MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins that showed elevated levels in the roots lacking Fe were found to be associated variously with carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation, secondary metabolism, and oxidative defense. Most of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were increased in abundance, but mitochondrial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was decreased, possibly resulting in malate secretion. Otherwise, all the proteins showing diminished levels in the roots were identified as either Fe-containing or ATP-requiring. For example, a significant decrease was observed in the levels of hyoscyamine 6?-hydroxylase (H6H), which requires Fe and is involved in the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. To investigate the effects of Fe deficiency on alkaloid biosynthesis, gene expression studies were undertaken both for H6H and for another Fe-dependent protein, Cyp80F1, which is involved in the final stage of hyoscyamine biosynthesis. In addition, tropane alkaloid contents were determined. Reduced gene expression was observed in the case of both of these proteins and was accompanied by a decrease in the content of both hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Finally, we have discussed energetic and Fe-conservation strategies that might be adopted by the roots of H. albus to maintain iron homeostasis under Fe-limiting conditions.
Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g(-1) and 2.7 µmol g(-1) after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l(-1) NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance. PMID:24069137
Ip, Yuen K; Hou, Zhisheng; Chen, Xiu L; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Chng, You R; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C; Chew, Shit F
Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g-1 and 2.7 µmol g-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance.
Ip, Yuen K.; Hou, Zhisheng; Chen, Xiu L.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C.; Chew, Shit F.
The formation and stability of structural elements in two 5S rRNA molecules from wheat germ (WG) and lupin seeds (LS) as a function of Mg2+ concentration in solution was determined using the adiabatic differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC). The experimentally determined thermodynamic parameters are compared with calculations using thermodynamic databases used for prediction of RNA structure. The 5S rRNA molecules which show minor differences in the nucleotide sequence display very different thermal unfolding profiles (DSC profiles). Numerical deconvolution of DSC profiles provided information about structural transformations that take place in both 5S rRNA molecules. A comparative analysis of DSC data and the theoretical thermodynamic models of the structure was used to establish a relationship between the constituting transitions found in the melting profiles and the unfolding of structural domains of the 5S rRNA and stability of its particular helical elements. Increased concentrations of Mg2+ ions induces additional internal interactions stabilising 5S rRNA structures found at low Na+ concentrations. Observed conformational transitions suggest a structural model in which the extension of helical region E dominates over the postulated tertiary interaction between hairpin loops. We propose that helix E is stabilised by a sequence of non-standard pairings extending this helix by the formation of tetra loop e and an almost total reduction of loop d between helices E and D. Two hairpin structures in both 5S rRNA molecules: the extended C-C' and the extended E-E'-E" hairpins appear as the most stable elements of the structure. The cooperativity of the unfolding of helixes in these 5S rRNA molecules changes already at 2 mM Mg2+. PMID:9172649
Kuli?ski, T; Bratek-Wiewiórowska, M D; Zielenkiewicz, A; Zielenkiewicz, W
Two groups of 26 male and 26 female rats at the initial age 30 ± 2 days were fed during 31 weeks on diets containing 20 percent of yellow lupin seeds having low (LG) or high (HG) gramine content. The animals were mated twice within nutritional groups, 1 male: 1 female, and their main reproductive parameters were recorded. In both
Barbara Pastuszewska; Anna Ochtabi?ska; R. Lechowski
Nuclear DNA and AgNOR-area quantity have been measured cytophotometrically, the number of silver grains after in situ3 H rDNA\\/DNA hybridization has been counted, and the level of rDNA methylation has been estimated in root meristems, differentiated root zones, hypocotyls, cotyledons, and leaves of 7-day-old seedlings of Lupinus luteus. DNA content increases by endoreplication, reaching the average DNA C-value of 4.2,
Nuclear DNA and AgNOR-area quantity have been measured cytophotometrically, the number of silver grains afterin situ3H rDNA\\/DNA hybridization has been counted, and the level of rDNA methylation has been estimated in root meristems, differentiated root zones, hypocotyls, cotyledons, and leaves of 7-day-old seedlings ofLupinus luteus. DNA content increases by endoreplication, reaching the average DNA C-value of 4.2 in the meristem,
Methods applied in food allergen analysis should be specific, sensitive and applicable to both raw and highly processed foods. The performance of the most commonly used methods, ELISA and real-time PCR, may, however, be influenced by food processing steps, e.g., heat treatment. The present study compares the applicability of four in-house developed methods, one sandwich ELISA, two competitive ELISAs and a real-time PCR method, for the detection of lupine in four different food matrices, comprising bread, biscuits, rice patties and noodles. In order to investigate the influence of food processing on the detectability, not only the heat treated model foods but also the corresponding doughs were analysed. The sandwich ELISA proved to be the most sensitive method. The LOD was found to be 10 ppm lupine, independent from the food matrix and independent if the dough or the heat treated food was analysed. In addition, the methods were applied to the analysis of commercial foodstuffs differing in their labelling. PMID:23768374
The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5' UTR, a complete coding sequence region spanning 1629?bp and a 3' UTR of approximately 717?bp, from the liver, intestine, and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence had 542 residues, and it formed a monophyletic clade with Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2, and O. mykiss Gdh1a. One day of exposure to terrestrial conditions or 75?mmol?l(-1) NH(4)Cl, but not to water at salinity 20, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the liver of M. albus. However, exposure to brackish water, but not to terrestrial conditions or 75?mmol?l(-1) NH(4)Cl, led to a significant increase in the mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the intestine. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus, despite a significant decrease in the Gdh amination activity in the brain of fish exposed to 75?mmol?l(-1) NH(4)Cl for 6?days. Our results indicate for the first time that the mRNA expression of gdh1a was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus in response to ammonia toxicity and salinity stress, respectively. The increases in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity would probably lead to an increase in glutamate production in support of increased glutamine synthesis for the purpose of ammonia detoxification or cell volume regulation under these two different environmental conditions. PMID:22319499
The unparalleled diversity of tropical ecosystems like the Amazon Basin has been traditionally explained using spatial models within the context of climatic and geological history. Yet, it is adaptive genetic diversity that defines how species evolve and interact within an ecosystem. Here, we combine genome scans, population genetics and sequence-based phylogeographic analyses to examine spatial and ecological arrangements of selected and neutrally evolving regions of the genome of an Amazonian fish, Triportheus albus. Using a sampling design encompassing five major Amazonian rivers, three hydrochemical settings, 352 nuclear markers and two mitochondrial DNA genes, we assess the influence of environmental gradients as biodiversity drivers in Amazonia. We identify strong divergent natural selection with gene flow and isolation by environment across craton (black and clear colour)- and Andean (white colour)-derived water types. Furthermore, we find that heightened selection and population genetic structure present at the interface of these water types appears more powerful in generating diversity than the spatial arrangement of river systems and vicariant biogeographic history. The results from our study challenge assumptions about the origin and distribution of adaptive and neutral genetic diversity in tropical ecosystems. In addition, they have important implications for measures of biodiversity and evolutionary potential in one of the world's most diverse and iconic ecosystems. PMID:22512735
Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Beheregaray, Luciano B
Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.
Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Haddix, T. M.; Holte, L. D.; Wilson, R. H.; Bartron, M. L.; Kalie, J. A.; DeHaan, P. W.; Ardren, W. R.; Holm, R. J.; Jaeger, M. E.
The effects of several technological treatments on the rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of a mixture of broken peas, lupins and faba beans were studied. The treatments included pressure toasting (132°C, 3min), expander treatment (115°C, 8s) and pelleting (80°C, 10s). Toasting was the most effective treatment in altering rumen protein degradability, as it decreased rumen protein degradability, mainly by reducing
J. O. Goelema; A. Smits; L. M. Vaessen; A. Wemmers
Chemical composition, rumen degradability and the effect of particle losses, and intestinal digestibility of protein by using in situ-in vitro and in vitro techniques were stated for beans (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinusalbus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and four diets including those legume seeds. In addition, the apparent digestibility of experimental diets was determined in goats. The legume seeds showed high protein content (206-319 g/kg dry matter). Effective degradability of protein for legumes and diets varied from 0.80 to 0.87 and 0.76 to 0.82, respectively, decreasing to 0.53-0.76 and 0.61-0.67, respectively, when particle loss was taken into account. Different intestinal digestibility values were obtained with both methodologies without significant relationship between them (y = 1.058-0.463x; R(2)=0.068; RSD = 0.140; p = 0.53). There were no differences in the apparent nutrients and energy digestibility among diets (p > 0.05). These legumes can supply rapidly degradable protein for microbial protein synthesis and contribute to the pool of amino acids available for the synthesis of milk protein and for retention in the body. PMID:19138343
Ramos-Morales, E; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Molina-Alcaide, E
We present in this paper a novel, semiautomated image-analysis software to streamline the quantitative analysis of root growth and architecture of complex root systems. The software combines a vectorial representation of root objects with a powerful tracing algorithm that accommodates a wide range of image sources and quality. The root system is treated as a collection of roots (possibly connected) that are individually represented as parsimonious sets of connected segments. Pixel coordinates and gray level are therefore turned into intuitive biological attributes such as segment diameter and orientation as well as distance to any other segment or topological position. As a consequence, user interaction and data analysis directly operate on biological entities (roots) and are not hampered by the spatially discrete, pixel-based nature of the original image. The software supports a sampling-based analysis of root system images, in which detailed information is collected on a limited number of roots selected by the user according to specific research requirements. The use of the software is illustrated with a time-lapse analysis of cluster root formation in lupin (Lupinusalbus) and an architectural analysis of the maize (Zea mays) root system. The software, SmartRoot, is an operating system-independent freeware based on ImageJ and relies on cross-platform standards for communication with data-analysis software.
Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Escherichia coli HB101 with pBR322 carrying the cloned o-(carboxymethyl)cellulase (CMCase) gene of Ruminococcus albus (Pro- Leu- Apr Kms) and an anaerobic mutant strain, FEM29 (Trp- His- Aps Kmr), with dehydrodivanillin-degrading activity was performed in the presence of 40% polyvinyl alcohol 300 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to transfer the cloned cellulase gene into the mutant. The mutant FEM29 had a unique property. When it was incubated in liquid medium with 1% glucose and sucrose, protoplasts could be produced autogenously and regenerated on the agar slant. E. coli spheroplasts formed from a plasmid-amplified overnight culture after 10 min of treatment with lysozyme (20 ?g/ml) in a hypertonic solution (0.01 M Tris hydrochloride [pH 7.5], 0.4 M mannitol). Protoplast regeneration rates of FEM29 and HB101 were 30 and 83%, respectively, on the agar-yeast extract medium. Apr Kmr fusants were obtained at high frequency: 1.7 × 10?2 anaerobically and 8.2 × 10?3 aerobically. These fusants showed 23 to 57% of CMCase and dehydrodivanillin-degrading activities, respectively, as compared with parental strains. All the fusants isolated were gram-negative rods with main phenotypes such as urease and catalase activities as in HB101 and esterase and chymotrypsin activities as in FEM29. Southern hybridization experiments suggested that pBR322 with the cloned CMCase gene existed autonomously in the fusant cells. This is the first report describing transfer of pBR322 with a cloned cellulase gene into an anaerobic mutant by polyvinyl alcohol-mediated fusion with an E. coli spheroplast. Images
The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sucrose in the mechanisms of synthesis and accumulation of isoflavonoids in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno. It was verified whether the interaction of these molecules can modulate the defense response of axes to infection and development of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. Sucrose alone strongly stimulated a high level of genistein glucoside in axes pretreated with exogenous nitric oxide (SNP or GSNO) and non-pretreated axes. As a result of amplification of the signal coming from sucrose and GSNO, high isoflavonoids accumulation was observed (+Sn+GSNO). It needs to be stressed that infection in tissues pretreated with SNP/GSNO and cultured on the medium with sucrose (+Si+SNP/+Si+GSNO) very strongly enhances the accumulation of free isoflavone aglycones. In +Si+SNP axes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was high up to 72h. As early as at 12h in +Si+SNP axes an increase was recorded in gene expression level of the specific isoflavonoid synthesis pathway. At 24h in +Si+SNP axes a very high total antioxidant capacity dependent on the pool of fast antioxidants was noted. Post-infection generation of semiquinone radicals was lower in axes with a high level of sucrose than with a deficit. PMID:23987816
Thermal unfolding of 5S rRNA from wheat germ (WG) and lupin seeds (LS) was studied in solution. Experimental curves of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were resolved into particular components according to the thermodynamic model of two-state transitions. The DSC temperature profiles for WG and LS differ significantly in spite of very high similarities in the sequence of both molecules. Those results are interpreted according to a model of the secondary and tertiary molecular structure of 5S rRNA. A comparison of the 'nearest neighbour' model of interaction with the experimental thermodynamic results enables a complete interpretation of the process of the melting of its structures. In light of our observations, the crucial differences between both DSC melting profiles are mainly an outcome of different thermodynamic properties of the first helical fragment 'A' made up of 9 complementary base pairs. It contains 6 differences in the nucleotide sequence of both types of molecules, which still retain 9-meric double helixes. The temperature stability of his helix in WG is much lower than of the LS one. Moreover, the results supply evidence for a strong specific tertiary interaction between the two hairpin loops 'c' and 'e' in both 5S rRNA molecules, modulated by small differences in the thermodynamic properties of both 5S rRNA.
Kulinski, T; Bratek-Wiewiorowska, M D; Wiewiorowski, M; Zielenkiewicz, A; Zolkiewski, M; Zielenkiewicz, W
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Lupinusalbus, L. (Lupinus termis), family L. leguminosae, Cymbopogon proximus, (Halfa barr), family Gramineae, and Zygophyllum coccineum L. (Kammun quaramany), family L. Zygophyllacae on biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A dose of 1.5 ml of aqueous suspension of each herb\\/100 g body weight (equivalent to 75 mg\\/100 g
Hamdy A Mansour; Al-Sayeda A Newairy; M. I Yousef; S. A Sheweita
Bleeding from phloem of cut distal tips of attached fruits was demonstrated in the genera Spartium, Genista, Lupinus and Jacksonia. Bleeding occurred over a 2–25 min period enabling 0.5–10 µl of sap to be collected from a fruit. A detailed study of Lupinusalbus L. showed that exudation rate declined exponentially after cutting, but without any change with time in
Two groups of 26 male and 26 female rats at the initial age 30 +/- 2 days were fed during 31 weeks on diets containing 20 percent of yellow lupin seeds having low (LG) or high (HG) gramine content. The animals were mated twice within nutritional groups, 1 male: 1 female, and their main reproductive parameters were recorded. In both reproductive cycles body weight of females at mating, after parturition and after 21-days lactation was lower in HG than in LG group. Fertility rate and body weight of neonates were not affected by the diet while number of neonates per litter tended to be lower by 0.7 and 0.8 pups in HG than in LG group. Body weight of weaners was also substantially smaller in dams fed on HG than LG diet. Relative weight of spleen but not of liver, kidney and heart was significantly greater in HG females. Four weeks old males and females issued from the first litters born to LG and HG animals (ten males and ten females per treatment) were fed individually on respective diets during 3 weeks. Feed intake and growth rate did not differ between the treatments. In males relative weight of liver and testicles was greater, while hematocrit and red blood count were lower in HG than in LG group. In females organ weights did not differ. Activity of liver enzymes determined in males was not affected by the diet. It may be concluded that high-gramine lupin affects negatively lactational performance, probably via lower feed intake, but it does not induce apparent teratogenic effects in the progeny. PMID:11901977
Phytoremediation of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen) using Armoracia rusticana and Linum usitatissimum cell cultures and by hydroponically cultivated Lupinusalbus, Hordeum vulgaris, and Phragmites australis plants in laboratory conditions is described. During in vitro experiments, the best results for acetaminophen were achieved using Armoracia rusticana hairy root cultures, where 100% of the starting amount was removed from the
Jan Kotyza; Petr Soudek; Zden?k Kafka; Tomáš Van?k
Although not often thought of as a major center of crop diversity, the European continent harbors rich wild gene pools of many crop species. These include: cereals, particularly oats (Avena) and rye (Secale); food legumes such as pea (Pisum) and lupins (Lupinus); fruit crops, such as apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus), plums and cherries (Prunus), grape vine (Vitis), raspberries and blackberries
Urinary excretion of purine derivatives was used to estimate the microbial N supply to growing lambs in an experiment designed to examine the effect of raw and dry roasting whole lupin (lupinus angustifolius) seeds (WLS) and whole faba (vicia faba) beans (WFB) as protein supplements. Lambs were fed a fixed quantity of oat straw and alfalfa hay plus a daily
The western tussock moth, Orgyia vetusta (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a coastal Californian species which frequent feeds on bush lupines, Lupinus, or live oaks, Quercus agrifolia, was found to utilize a diene ketone, (Z,E)-6,8-Heneicosadien-11-one, as its major sex pheromone component. We can now us...
Herbivores can have indirect effects on local nutrient availability if their direct effects on plants lead to changes in the amount or chemical composition of litter reaching the soil surface. Using two exclosure experiments, we evaluated this possibility for black- tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus ) feeding on silver bush lupine (Lupinus chamissonis ) in a coastal dune system in
Systemic translocation of RNA exerts non-cell-autonomous control over plant development and defense. Long-distance delivery of mRNA has been proven, but transport of small interfering RNA and microRNA remains to be demonstrated. Analyses performed on phloem sap collected from a range of plants identified populations of small RNA species. The dynamic nature of this population was reflected in its response to growth conditions and viral infection. The authenticity of these phloem small RNA molecules was confirmed by bioinformatic analysis; potential targets for a set of phloem small RNA species were identified. Heterografting studies, using spontaneously silencing coat protein (CP) plant lines, also established that transgene-derived siRNA move in the long-distance phloem and initiate CP gene silencing in the scion. Biochemical analysis of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem sap led to the characterization of C. maxima Phloem SMALL RNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (CmPSRP1), a unique component of the protein machinery probably involved in small RNA trafficking. Equivalently sized small RNA binding proteins were detected in phloem sap from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and lupin (Lupinusalbus). PSRP1 binds selectively to 25-nucleotide single-stranded RNA species. Microinjection studies provided direct evidence that PSRP1 could mediate the cell-to-cell trafficking of 25-nucleotide single-stranded, but not double-stranded, RNA molecules. The potential role played by PSRP1 in long-distance transmission of silencing signals is discussed with respect to the pathways and mechanisms used by plants to exert systemic control over developmental and physiological processes.
Yoo, Byung-Chun; Kragler, Friedrich; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Haywood, Valerie; Archer-Evans, Sarah; Lee, Young Moo; Lough, Tony J.; Lucas, William J.
ABSTRACT We examined the effects of fresh and composted animal manures on the development of root rot, dieback, and plant death caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Fresh chicken manure, or chicken manure composted for 5 weeks before incorporation into the potting mix (25%, vol/vol), significantly reduced pathogen survival and the development of symptoms on Lupinusalbus seedlings. Chicken manure composted for 2 weeks was less suppressive. Cow, sheep, and horse manure, whether fresh or composted, did not consistently suppress populations of P. cinnamomi or disease symptoms at the rates used (25%, vol/vol). All composts increased organic matter content, total biological activity, and populations of actinomycetes, fluorescent pseudomonads, and fungi. Only chicken manure stimulated endospore-forming bacteria, a factor that was strongly associated with seedling survival. Fallowing the potting mix for an additional 8 weeks after the first harvest increased the survival of lupin seedlings in a second bioassay, with survival rates in chicken manure compost-amended potting mix exceeding 90%. These data suggest that the ability of composted manure to stimulate sustained biological activity, in particular the activity of endospore-forming bacteria, is the key factor in reducing disease symptoms caused by P. cinnamomi. Supporting these results, the survival of rooted cuttings of Thryptomene calycina was significantly higher in sand-peat potting mix following amendment with commercially available chicken manure (15% vol/vol). However, this protection was reduced if the potting mix was steam pasteurized before amendment, indicating that suppression was due to endogenous as well as introduced microbes. Chicken manure compost incorporated at 5% (vol/vol) or more was strongly phytotoxic to young Banksia spinulosa plants and is not suitable as an amendment for phosphorus-sensitive plants. PMID:18944498
A series of small and large pot trials were conducted to assess the phytoextraction potential of several plant species for weathered polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil (105 microg/g Arochlor 1268). In addition, the effect of citric acid on PCB bioavailability to both plants and earthworms was assessed. Under small pot conditions (one plant, 400 g soil), three cucurbits (Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo [zucchini] and ssp ovifera [nonzucchini summer squash], Cucumis sativus, cucumber) accumulated up to 270 microg PCB/g in the roots and 14 microg/g in the stems, resulting in 0.10% contaminant removal from soil. Periodic 1 mM subsurface amendments of citric acid increased the stem and leaf PCB concentration by 330 and 600%, respectively, and resulted in up to a 65% increase in the total amount of contaminant removed from soil. Although citric acid at 10 mM more than doubled the amount of PCB desorbed in abiotic batch slurries, contaminant accumulation by two earthworm species (Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus terrestris) was unaffected by citric acid at 1 and 10 mM and ranged from 11-15 microg/g. Two large pot trials were conducted in which cucurbits (C. pepo ssp pepo and ssp ovifera, C. sativus) and white lupin (Lupinusalbus) were grown in 70 kg of PCB-contaminated soil White lupin was the poorest accumulator of PCBs, with approximately 20 microg/g in the roots and 1 microg/g in the stems. Both C. pepo ssp ovifera (summer squash) and C. sativus (cucumber) accumulated approximately 65-100 microg/g in the roots and 6-10 microg/g in the stems. C. pepo ssp pepo (zucchini) accumulated significantly greater levels of PCB than all other species, with 430 microg/g in the roots and 22 microg/g in the stems. The mechanism by which C. pepo spp pepo extracts and translocates weathered PCBs is unknown, but confirms earlier findings on the phytoextraction of other weathered persistent organic pollutants such as chlordane, p,p'-DDE, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:16615308
White, Jason C; Parrish, Zakia D; Isleyen, Mehmet; Gent, Martin P N; Iannucci-Berger, William; Eitzer, Brian D; Kelsey, Jason W; Mattina, Maryjane Incorvia
The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (Lax) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater Lax than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. Lax and root hydraulic conductance (Lr) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. Lax and Lr were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lpc) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lpc was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lpc by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced Lr. This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics.
Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C.; Turner, David W.; Tyerman, Stephen D.
The potential to control leaf rust (Puccinia triticina; pathotype UVPt9) in vivo in susceptible (Thatcher) and resistant (Thatcher\\/Lr15) near-isogenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines by foliar applications of crude plant leaf extracts from Tulbaghia violacea and Agapanthus africanus, as well as a commercially available natural product, ComCat®, and a Lupinusalbus seed suspension (SS) was investigated. In vitro activities of the
M. E. Cawood; J. C. Pretorius; A. J. van der Westhuizen; Z. A. Pretorius
The 1980 eruption ofMount St Helens (Washington, U.S.A.) created a 60-km2 region ofprimary successional habitat. Since colonising in 1981, the spatial spread ofthe legume Lupinus lepidus at Mount St Helens, Washington, U.S.A., has afforded intriguing opportunities to study the effect of trophic dynamics on primary succession. 2. Insect herbivory on this lupine has exhibited striking spatial structure for over a
Four Holstein heifers (297.5±27.7kg BW) fed high concentrate diets were used in a crossover experiment in order to characterize the rumen fermentation pattern, and to estimate by the in situ method rumen degradation kinetics of alfalfa hay and seven plant protein supplements: solvent-extracted soybean meal, solvent-extracted sunflower meal, peas (Pisum sativum L.), lupin seeds (Lupinus sp.), broadbean (Vicia faba L.),
Nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and net proton release were compared in five grain legumes grown at 0·2 and 2 mM nitrate in nutrient solution. Nitrate treatments, imposed on 22-d-old, fully nodulated plants, lasted for 21 d. Increasing nitrate supply did not significantly influence the growth of any of the species during the treatment, but yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)
Chilean volcanic soils contain large amounts of total and organic phosphorus, but P availability is low. Phosphobacteria [phytate-mineralizing\\u000a bacteria (PMB) and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB)] were isolated from the rhizosphere of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), wheat (Triticum aestivum), oat (Avena sativa), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) growing in volcanic soil. Six phosphobacteria were selected, based on their
Milko A. Jorquera; Marcela T. Hernández; Zed Rengel; Petra Marschner; María de la Luz Mora
Protein isolates from L. campestris and soybean seeds were prepared using isoelectric precipitation (PI) and micellization (MI) procedures. The amount of protein recovered was considerably higher with the isoelectric precipitation than with the micellization procedure (60% and 30%, respectively). Protein contents were higher than 90% in protein isolates. Antinutritional factors content (alkaloids, lectins, and tannins) were reduced to innocuous levels
S. L. Rodríguez-Ambriz; A. L. Martínez-Ayala; F. Millán; G. Dávila-Ortíz
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an indoleamine which is structurally related to tryptophan, serotonin and indole-3-acetic\\u000a acid (IAA), among other important substances. Many studies have clearly demonstrated its presence in different plant organs,\\u000a including roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Since it discovery in plants in 1995, authors have postulated many\\u000a physiological roles for melatonin, although research into this molecule in
Macro- and microelement contents of legume seeds were determined by ICP-AES. The potassium K contents of seeds ranged between 7,426 mg/kg (Lupinusalbus L.) and 16,558 mg/kg (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ssp. sphaericus Mart). In addition, while P contents of seeds changed from 2,719 mg/kg (L. albus L.) to 5,792 mg/kg (Vigna sinensis (L.) Savi), Ca contents ranged at the levels between 1,309 mg/kg (Cicer arietinum L.) and 2,781 mg/kg (L. albus L.). The microelement contents of samples were found to be different depending on several species. The iron levels of samples were determined at the levels between 90.51 mg/kg (Phaseolus mungo L.) and 152.80 mg/kg (P. vulgaris L. ssp. sphaericus Mart). In addition, Zn contents of seeds were found between 31.32 mg/kg (C. arietinum L.) and 44.75 mg/kg (V. sinensis (L.) Savi). PMID:23715731
Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dursun, Nesim; Al Juhaimi, Fahad
Inosine nucleosidase (EC 220.127.116.11), the enzyme which hydrolyzes inosine to hypoxanthine and ribose, has been partially purified from Lupinus luteus L. cv. Topaz seeds by extraction of the seed meal with low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and chromatography on aminohexyl-Sepharose, Sephadex G-100, and hydroxyapatite. Molecular weight of the native enzyme is 62,000 as judged by gel filtration. The inosine nucleosidase exhibits optimum activity around pH 8. Energy of activation for inosine hydrolysis estimated from Arrhenius plot is 14.2 kilocalories per mole. The Km value computed for inosine is 65 micromolar. Among the inosine analogs tested, the following nucleosides are substrates for the lupin inosine nucleosidase: xanthosine, purine riboside (nebularine), 6-mercaptopurine riboside, 8-azainosine, adenosine, and guanosine. The ratio of the velocities measured at 500 micromolar concentration of inosine, adenosine, and guanosine was 100:11:1, respectively. Specificity (Vmax/Km) towards adenosine is 48 times lower than that towards inosine. In contrast to the adenosine nucleosidase activity which is absent from lupin seeds and appears in the cotyledons during germination (Guranowski, Pawe?kiewicz 1978 Planta 139: 245-247), the inosine nucleosidase is present in both lupin seeds and seedlings.
Activity of 5-methylthioribose kinase, the enzyme which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose, has been revealed in the extracts from various higher plant species. Almost 2,000-fold-purified enzyme has been obtained from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv Topaz) seed extract. Molecular weight of the native enzyme is 70,000 as judged by gel filtration. The lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase exhibits a strict requirement for divalent metal ions. Among the ions tested, only Mg2+ and Mn2+ acted as cofactors. The curve of kinase initial velocity versus pH reaches plateau at pH 10 to 10.5. The Km values calculated for 5-methylthioribose and ATP are 4.3 and 8.3 micromolar, respectively. Among nucleoside triphosphates tested as potential phosphate donors, only dATP could substitute in the reaction for ATP. 5-Isobutylthioribose, an analog of 5-methylthioribose, proved to be the ?-ATP-phosphate acceptor, too. The compound inhibits competitively synthesis of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose (Ki = 1.4 micromolar). Lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase is completely and irreversibly inhibited by the antisulfhydryl reagent, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. As in bacteria (Ferro, Barrett, Shapiro 1978 J Biol Chem 253: 6021-6025), the enzyme may be involved in a new, alternative pathway of methionine synthesis in plant tissues.
Small population size, genetic diversity, and spatial patterns of vegetative spread are important aspects to consider when managing populations of rare clonal plant species. We used 5 variable nuclear simple sequence repeat nDNA loci to determine the extent of genet rhizome spread, examine the possibility of very small population sizes, and project how Bombus spp. (bumblebee) foraging may impact selfing (through geitonogamy) for a threatened lupine (Lupinus oreganus Heller) that sprawls through nonadventitious rhizomes. Genotyping identified 1 genet (27 × 13 m) that dominated about 30% of a study site, whereas 15 genets spread a maximum average distance of about 5.5 m (range 1.6 -27.1 m) and appeared to be well integrated with intervening genets. We found unexpectedly high genotype diversity, no evidence of a recent genetic bottleneck, and 5 of 6 patches had mean fixation index values that were near Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium expectations. If the median maximum Bombus foraging distance observed in lupine patches (1.2 m) occurred within genotyped populations, a typical foraging flight would have >80% chance of occurring between different genets. Our study demonstrates that inferences associated with clonality, small population size, and inbreeding depression should be directly evaluated for rare vegetatively spreading plants. PMID:21566003
Study of Great Egret breeding success was carried out for the first time in Hara Biosphere Reserve of Iran. Since Great Egret is considered as wading bird as well as wetland-dependent species which is located on top of the food chain in this ecosystem, its breeding study is an appropriate means for evaluating food supply fluctuations and environmental threatening factors by comparison of different years. On the other hand, Great Egret is considered a suitable indicator to examination of biological changes, impact of pollutions, and other effective human activities on Hara Biosphere Reserve. Therefore, read-ahead is required for area management planning in order to maintain the health of mangrove ecosystem and control threatening factors of the sensitive biodiversity of area. The results indicate that the average breeding success of Great Egret in different stages of hatching success, fledging success, and breeding success were equal to 0.54, 0.61, and 0.50 in 2008 and 0.61, 0.59, and 0.42 in 2009, respectively. PMID:21049287
White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are non-indigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of non-indigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing viable seed from these plants after ingestio...
The crow is commonly regarded as an indicator species for the surveillance of important diseases such as West Nile fever and\\u000a avian influenza, as these diseases had been associated with significant pathology in crows and death of crows in most cases.\\u000a This study evaluated the blood picture (haematology) and serum biochemistry profile of apparently healthy African pied crows\\u000a trapped in
John Ikechukwu Ihedioha; Christian O. Okorie-Kanu; Chioma P. Ugwu
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
In a field experiment on a sandplain soil in a low rainfall (326mm per annum) Mediterranean environment of south-western Australia, seven levels of single superphosphate, 0, 7.5, 10, 14, 19.5, 30 and 39 kg P ha-1, were placed at either 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 or 13 cm depth before sowing wheat (Triticum aestivum) at 3 cm. In a separate
A study was established in a year of high incidence and severity (28.4% of 2210 calves born on 13 ranches were severely deformed) to examine management and other risk factors for disease occurrence. Ten ranches with a crooked calf incidence varying from zero to 100% were selected for study and lupi...
Although numerous studies have been completed on pallid sturgeon populations and behavior, few have addressed the potential for water-quality characteristics to limit recruitment and population success of pallid sturgeon. Literature on sturgeon and water-...
Terrestrial isopods are well adapted to terrestrial life and inhabit different areas with abundant organic matter. Structural\\u000a and biochemical characteristics of their cuticle enable them to survive also in the driest environments, including deserts.\\u000a Amphibious species are mostly found in the humid areas of litoral and cave habitats. The structure and composition of the\\u000a cuticle might reflect special ecophysiological and\\/or
Seed size variation within species and individuals is common. This variation may be adaptive in heterogeneous landscapes if the fitness consequences of seed size differ among environments or through time. Variation may also arise from constraints that limit control of seed size. I manipulated resource availability in both maternal and offspring environments to test conditions underlying these explanations for seed
The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinusalbus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality. PMID:21519743
In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinusalbus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep). PMID:15664457
Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinusalbus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations <900 mg kg(-1) only <10% of the poplar leaf area showed signs of toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue. PMID:22050628
Revegetation of mine tailings usually requires amendments of phosphorus. However, phosphate addition can mobilize arsenic (As) from the tailings. A 5-mo lysimeter field trial was conducted to quantify As mobilization in gold mine tailings, in association with different P amendment products and different plant species (barley Hordeum vulgare, blue lupinLupinus angustifolius, rye corn Secale cereale) necessary for short-term revegetation of mine tailings. A simultaneous laboratory experiment was run to examine As mobilization in 1-cm-deep tailings in relation to different P amendment rates. The experimental results showed that the amount of As leached was proportional to the amount of P added. In the larger scale lysimeters, P amendment of < 3 g m(-2) caused As leaching of 0.5 mg L(-1) from unplanted lysimeters and up to 0.9 mg L(-1) on average in planted lysimeters. Variable species-amendment combinations produced differences in the amount of As leached and uptaken. Leachates and uptakes were higher with an organic fertilizer amendment than Superphosphate, particularly in combination with barley. Arsenic accumulated in plant biomass to 126 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 469 mg kg(-1) in roots. PMID:16924964
This paper expands upon previous reports of 15N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N2-fixing plants. N2-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in 15N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N2-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in 15N. Thus, 15N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N2-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of 15N enrichment in N2-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N2 and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit 15N enrichment.
Shearer, Georgia; Feldman, Lori; Bryan, Barbara A.; Skeeters, Jerri L.; Kohl, Daniel H.; Amarger, Noelle; Mariotti, Francoise; Mariotti, Andre
Chemical composition of soybeans, lupin seeds and black beans, and protein utilization and energy digestibility of soybeans and lupin seeds determined in a rat model, were compared before and after a 48-h germination. Black beans had a much higher starch content and lower levels of low-molecular-weight (LMW) sugars than soybeans and lupin seeds. Lupin seeds had about twice as much
C. M. Donangelo; L. C. Trugo; N. M. F. Trugo; B. O. Eggum
Dune scrub vegetation characterized by three soft-leaved shrubs, Haplopappus ericoides, Lupinus arboreaus and Lupinus chamissonis, was sampled at Point Reyes National Seashore (PRNS), Marin County, California, using the Braun-Blanquet releve method. Eight...
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
There have been many advances in testing procedures to detect seed-borne virus infection in seed samples. However, scant attention has been given to the implications of improved test results in terms of the economic losses resulting from sowing seed stocks with different amounts of infection. For agricultural and horticultural industries to use the results of tests on representative samples, defined 'threshold' values for percentage seed infection are required that identify acceptable levels of risk of economic losses resulting from sowing the virus-infected seed stocks. Such information is provided by field experiments in which infected seed is sown and the consequences are followed in terms of virus spread, yield losses and infection of newly produced seed. These field experiments need to continue over several years at diverse sites so that they represent a wide range of infection scenarios. Extensive surveys to determine seed-borne virus occurrence in different regions are also required to define areas of greater or lesser risk of economic losses. In this paper, an example is described of how field experiments and surveys were used to define 'threshold' values of seed-borne Cucumber mosaic virus infection in an annual crop (lupin: Lupinus angustifolius) and two such examples are given for pasture species: Cucumber mosaic virus in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum), and Alfalfa mosaic virus in annual burr medic (Medicago polymorpha). The aim of this paper is to encourage others to address the urgent need for similar 'threshold' information with other economically important combinations of seed-borne viruses and host plant. PMID:11137171
...Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Pallid Sturgeon AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...revised recovery plan for the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). This species...the approved recovery plan. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), found in...
A monoclonal antibody produced to abscisic acid (ABA) has been characterised and the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for ABA using the antibody is described. The antibody had a high selectivity for the free acid of (S)-cis, trans-ABA. Using the antibody, ABA could be assayed reliably in the RIA over a range from 100 to 4000 pg (0.4 to 15
S. A. Quarrie; P. N. Whitford; N. E. J. Appleford; T. L. Wang; S. K. Cook; I. E. Henson; B. R. Loveys
The production of plant protein isolates and especially legumes is of growing interest to industry, because of the increasing application of plant protein in food and non-food markets. The use of plant protein isolates in foods as functional ingredients to improve the texture, the nutritional quality of the product or for economical reasons is very extended. In spite of the
growthandtherebyplant-microbialinteractionsandnutri- ent cycling in ecosystems. Most experiments conducted Whitelupine(LupinusalbusL.)wasusedasaphosphorus(P)-efficient with elevated CO2 concentrations showed a higher bio- model plant to study the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concen- mass gain of plants, grown at sufficient nutrient supply
Jun Wasaki; Annett Rothe; Angelika Kania; Günter Neumann; Volker Römheld; Takuro Shinano; Mitsuru Osaki; Ellen Kandeler
Rhizoctonia spp. are important pathogens of a broad range of crop plants that are economically important to the farm economy of the Western Cape region of South Africa. However, there is little information concerning the identity and relative importance of these fungal pathogens, and the effect of ...
Combination of experimental studies with detailed deterministic models help understand root water uptake processes. Recently, Javaux et al. developed the RSWMS model by integration of Doussa?s root model into the well established SWMS code, which simulates water and solute transport in unsaturated soil [2, 3]. In order to confront RSWMS modeling results to experimental data, we used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique to monitor root water uptake in situ. Non-invasive 3-D imaging of root system architecture, water content distributions and tracer transport by MR were performed and compared with numerical model calculations. Two MRI experiments were performed and modeled: i) water uptake during drought stress and ii) transport of a locally injected tracer (Gd-DTPA) to the soil-root system driven by root water uptake. Firstly, the high resolution MRI image (0.23x0.23x0.5mm) of the root system was transferred into a continuous root system skeleton by a combination of thresholding, region-growing filtering and final manual 3D redrawing of the root strands. Secondly, the two experimental scenarios were simulated by RSWMS with a resolution of about 3mm. For scenario i) the numerical simulations could reproduce the general trend that is the strong water depletion from the top layer of the soil. However, the creation of depletion zones in the vicinity of the roots could not be simulated, due to a poor initial evaluation of the soil hydraulic properties, which equilibrates instantaneously larger differences in water content. The determination of unsaturated conductivities at low water content was needed to improve the model calculations. For scenario ii) simulations confirmed the solute transport towards the roots by advection. 1. Simunek, J., T. Vogel, and M.T. van Genuchten, The SWMS_2D Code for Simulating Water Flow and Solute Transport in Two-Dimensional Variably Saturated Media. Version 1.21. 1994, U.S. Salinity Laboratory, USDA, ARS: Riverside, California. 2. Javaux, M., et al., Use of a Three-Dimensional Detailed Modeling Approach for Predicting Root Water Uptake. Vadose Zone J., 2008. 7(3): p. 1079-1088. 3. Schröder, T., et al., Effect of Local Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Drop Using a Three Dimensional Root Water Uptake Model. Vadose Zone J., 2008. 7(3): p. 1089-1098.
1. Two aspects of landscape composition shape the behavioural response of animals to habitat heterogeneity: physical habitat structure and abundance of key resources. In general, within-habitat movement behaviour has been investigated in relation to resources, and preference at boundaries has been quantified in response to physical structure. 2. Habitat preference studies suggest that responses to resources vs. structure should differ, e.g. between male and female animals, and effects of responses to structure and resources may also interact. However, most studies of animal movement combine various aspects of behavioural responses to 'habitat', implicitly assuming that resources and structure are broadly equivalent. 3. We conducted a large-scale experiment of the movement of Fender's blue (Icaricia icarioides fenderi), an endangered butterfly, to investigate butterfly response to physical structure of the landscape (prairie, open woods and dense woods) and to resources [presence or absence of Kincaid's lupine, Lupinus oreganus (larval hostplant patches)]. The experiment included 606 butterfly flight paths across four habitat types and nine ecotones. 4. Responses to physical structure and resource patches were not congruent. Butterflies were attracted to resource patches within both prairies and open woods and moved more slowly when in resource patches. Butterflies tended to prefer prairie at prairie-forest edges but tended to move faster in prairies than in open woods. Physical structure and resources also interacted; butterflies did not respond to physical habitat structure when resource patches spanned prairie - open woods ecotones. 5. Even dense woods were not perfect barriers, in contrast to a large body of literature that assumes insects from open habitats will not enter dense forests. 6. Movement of both males and females responded to resources and structure. However, female butterflies had stronger responses to both resources and structure in most cases. Females had strongest response to resource (hostplant) patches at patch edges, whereas the strongest preference of males was to return to prairie from open forest. 7. If other species behave like Fender's blue, then combining different definitions of 'habitat' (physical structure vs. resources), different aspects of movement (edge preference vs. within-habitat movement) and/or males and females within species could all lead to misleading conclusions. Our results highlight the importance of investigating these responses, and our study provides a framework for separating them in other systems. PMID:22272654
Schultz, Cheryl B; Franco, Aldina M A; Crone, Elizabeth E
The antibiotic bruneomycin, close to streptomycin, has been separated from the cultural solution of the strain 471/63. This organism producing the antibiotic is a variety of Act. albus and has been named Act. albus var. bruneomycin. The organism producing...
E. S. Kudrina O. L. Olkhovatova L. I. Muraveva G. G. Gauze
-1 ) in diets for weaned piglets. Piglets fed pea diets performed as well as those fed the control diet, whereas the highest faba bean level resulted in reduced feed intake and growth performance. In Experiment 2, we studied the replacement (0, 33, or 67%) of rapeseed cake with blue lupins in fattening pig diets. The dietary lupin level had
Kirsi Partanen; Hilkka Siljander-Rasi; Timo Alaviuhkola
Callus cultures were established from 14 alkaloid plants. Cultivation as a suspension culture was possible for 10 of these. Growth conditions were optimized for Lupinus polyphyllus, Sarothamnus scoparius, Baptisia australis, Conium maculatum and Symphytum...
Jul 1, 2013 ... Induction and release of secondary dormancy under field conditions ... of four native Lupinus species, Jones, C. D.; Jensen, S. L.; Stevens, M. R., 2010, -- ... Mullen, Lindy B.; Woods, H. Arthur; Schwartz, Michael K.; Sepulveda ...
Induction and release of secondary dormancy under field conditions in ... methods of four native Lupinus species, Jones, C. D.; Jensen, S. L.; Stevens, M. R., 2010, -- ... McKelvey, Kevin S.; Lofroth, Eric C.; Copeland, Jeffrey P.; Aubry, Keith B.; ...
Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and clef...
...to take (capture and release) pallid sturgeon (Scaphyrinchus albus) throughout Illinois...nesting success, and salvaging orphaned eggs and nestlings to enhance the survival of...Lycaeides melissa samuelis) adults, eggs and larvae to test interactions with...
1. Peptides that inhibit the dd-carboxypeptidases from Streptomyces strains albus G and R61 were synthesized. They are close analogues of the substrates of these enzymes. The enzymes from albus G and R61 strains are in general inhibited by the same peptides, but the enzyme from strain R39 differs considerably. 2. The two C-terminal residues of the peptide substrates and inhibitors appear to be mainly responsible for the initial binding of the substrate to the enzymes from albus G and R61 strains. The side chain in the third residue from the C-terminus seems critical in inducing catalytic activity. 3. Experimental evidence is presented suggesting that the amide bond linking the two C-terminal residues has a cis configuration when bound to the enzymes from strains albus G and R61. 4. The peptide inhibitors are not antibiotics against the same micro-organisms.
Nieto, Manuel; Perkins, Harold R.; Leyh-Bouille, Melina; Frere, Jean-Marie; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie
...requests a renewed permit to take pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), June sucker (Chasmistes liorus), bonytail (Gila elegans), and woundfin (Plagopterus argentissimus) in conjunction with recovery activities throughout the species' range for...
The vasa (vas)-related gene encodes an RNA helicase protein member of the DEAD-box family and plays key roles in germ-cell formation in\\u000a higher metazoans. Using degenerate PCR and RACE, we cloned the vasa gene of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), which is homologous to the Drosophila\\u000a vasa gene. We named it ma-vas (Monopterus albus vas). Ma-vas encodes a protein
Ding Ye; Daoyuan Lv; Ping Song; Maoyu Peng; Yungui Chen; Ming Guo; Qiwen Yang; Yinchang Hu
10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE DECK, SHOWING MOST OF BOOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME
Lupines are important ecosystem engineers, linking above and belowground recovery of Mount St. Helens pyroclastic substrates by increasing soil organic matter and microbial activity and by influencing other biotic processes. Various soil properties were measured in samples collected from locations ...
Three new minor compounds, 18-oleanene (1), lupine (2), and 12-oleanene (3) type triterpenoid saponins, along with four major known triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the buds of Lonicera macranthoides. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. 18-oleanene and lupine-type triterpenoid saponins were first isolated from this plant. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against HSC-2 cells. PMID:23454139
Skatole, androstenone and other compounds such as indole cause boar taint in entire male pork. However, female pigs also produce skatole and indole. The purpose of this experiment was to minimise boar taint and increase overall impression of sensory quality by feeding entire male and female pigs with fibre-rich feedstuffs. The pigs have been fed three organic diets for either 1 or 2 weeks prior to slaughter of which two diets contained different fermentable fibre-rich feedstuffs - 10-13.3% dried chicory roots or 25% blue lupines. These two treatments were compared with pigs fed with an organic control diet for either 1 or 2 weeks prior to slaughter. Lupines significantly reduced skatole in blood and backfat for both genders after 1 week. Moreover, lupines showed negative impact on growth rate and feed conversion whilst chicory showed no significant differences in this respect. However, the indole concentration was significantly lower in chicory than lupine fed pigs. From a sensory perspective, chicory and lupine feeding reduced boar taint since odour and flavour of manure related to skatole and urine associated to androstenone were minimised. The level of boar taint in the entire male pigs was most effectively reduced after 14 days by both fibre-rich feeds while lupine had the largest influence on "boar" taint reduction in female pigs. PMID:22063852
Initial investigations of the cerebellar microcircuit inspired the Marr-Albus theoretical framework of cerebellar function. We review recent developments in the experimental understanding of cerebellar microcircuit characteristics and in the computational analysis of Marr-Albus models. We conclude that many Marr-Albus models are in effect adaptive filters, and that evidence for symmetrical long-term potentiation and long-term depression, interneuron plasticity, silent parallel fibre synapses and recurrent mossy fibre connectivity is strikingly congruent with predictions from adaptive-filter models of cerebellar function. This congruence suggests that insights from adaptive-filter theory might help to address outstanding issues of cerebellar function, including both microcircuit processing and extra-cerebellar connectivity. PMID:19997115
Dean, Paul; Porrill, John; Ekerot, Carl-Fredrik; Jörntell, Henrik
Outside of Alaska, the Owyhee Uplands is considered by some to be the largest remaining wild region in the United States. Endemic legume species include Astragalus camptopus, A. sterilis, A. mulfordiae, Lupinus biddlei, Peteria thompsoniae, Trifolium leibergii, and T. owyheense. More common legumes ...
Deoxyribonucleic acid homologies were determined between five fast-growing soybean-nodulating strains from the People's Republic of China and other rhizobia. Type strains Rhizobium trifolii ATCC 14480, Rhizobium meliloti ATCC 9930, Rhizobium phaseoli ATCC 14482, Rhizobium leguminosarum ATCC 10004, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum ATCC 10324 were used to represent recognized species. Bradyrhizo- bium sp. (Lupinus) strain ATCC 10319, the type strain of the
MICHAEL H. SCHOLLA; S JOHN A. MOOREFIELD; GERALD H. ELKAN
Piperidine and pyridine alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Lobelia spp., Conium spp., Nicotiana spp., and Lupinus spp. Some of these alkaloids cause multiple congenital contracture deformities (MCC) and cleft palates in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The mechanism behind MCC ...
Ammodendrine (1) was found to occur as a mixture of enantiomers in two different collections of plants identified as Lupinus formosus. The ammodendrine fraction was reacted in a peptide coupling reaction with Fmoc-L-Ala-OH to give diastereomers which were separated by preparative HPLC. The pure D ...
Ammodendrine (1) was found to occur as a mixture of enantiomers in two different collections of plants identified as Lupinus formosus. The ammodendrine fraction was reacted in a peptide coupling reaction with Fmoc-L-Ala-OH to give diastereomers which were separated by preparative HPLC. The pure D ...
Piperidine alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum, Nicotiana spp., and Lupinus spp. A pharmacodynamic comparison was made of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, and coniine in; SH-SY5Y cells which express autonomic-type nicotinic acetylcholine recept...
Plants often synthesize secondary metabolites that are enantiomers. Enantiomers can cause very different physiological responses. Ammodendrine (1) and anabasine (2) are teratogens that can cause congenital malformations in livestock and enantiomeric forms of each have been found in Lupinus spp. an...
Many birds undergo bare part color changes during the breeding season. Most investigators have focused on color as a signal of individual quality. An alternative, but not exclusive, function of bare part color may be signaling readiness to breed, especially in colonial, asynchronous breeders. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus )a re colonial waterbirds that show vivid bare part colors on their
A group of river managers, stakeholders, and scientists met during summer 2005 to design a more naturalized flow regime for the Lower Missouri River (LMOR). The objective was to comply with requirements under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to support reproduction and survival of threatened and endangered species, with emphasis on the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), while minimizing negative
Previous research has found that foster mother state of mind with respect to attachment and infant age at placement into foster care influence the developing foster mother- foster child relationship (Dozier, Albus, Stovall, & Bates, 2000; Stovall & Dozier, 2000). This study extends prior research by assessing factors related to foster mothers' representations of their foster infants. Participants were 48
We examined the diets of age-6 and age-7 hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (mean fork length [FL] = 538 ± 13 mm [90% confidence interval]; mean weight = 518 ± 49 g) and indigenous shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus (mean FL = 525 ± 12 mm; mean weight = 683 ± 41 g) sampled in 2003 and 2004 from the
Paul C. Gerrity; Christopher S. Guy; William M. Gardner
Using primers to amplify the gene AMP2 in Amaranthus caudatus, we found the gene to be present in seven other species of the Amaranthus genus (A. albus, A. cruentus, A. blitum, A. hybridus, A. hypochondriacus, A. retroflexus and A. tricolor), in which it had not been described previously. The PCR products were sequenced and it was established that all the
Radka Pribylova; Petr Kralik; Bohumila Pisarikova; Ivo Pavlik
Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the rivers structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeons inability to adapt to these
Eric W. Oldenburg; Timothy P. Hanrahan; Ryan A. Harnish; Brian J. Bellgraph; Joanne P. Duncan; Craig H. Allwardt
Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the rivers structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeons inability to adapt to these
Eric W. Oldenburg; Timothy P. Hanrahan; Ryan A. Harnish; Brian J. Bellgraph; Joanne P. Duncan; Craig H. Allwardt
Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the rivers structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeons inability to adapt to these
Eric W. Oldenburg; Timothy P. Hanrahan; Ryan A. Harnish; Brian J. Bellgraph; Joanne P. Duncan; Craig H. Allwardt
The pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is an endangered riverine species that is less abundant than the sympatric shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus with which it hybridizes. The two species are morphologically similar, and due to morphological variation within species, allometry, and the occurrence of morphological intermediates, morphological identification of specimens can be problematic. When the pallid sturgeon was listed under the
Pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus are recognized morphologically as separate species. A previous genetic study with allozymes was unable to distinguish between the two species or demonstrate their reproductive isolation in regions of sympatry. Our main objective was to measure the genetic variability within and among pop- ulations of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon at the northern
Gregory J. Tranah; Harold L. Kincaid; Charles C. Krueger; Donald E. Campton; Bernie May
Abstract In this paper we formulate a new theory of how information is coded along the parallel fibers in the cerebellar cortex. A question which may,arise is why such a new theory is needed at all. Previously we have argued that the dominant theory of cerebellar coding, i.e. the perceptron learning theory formulated by Marr (1969) and Albus (1971) that
|Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and the world of Harry Potter may help educators re-imagine their daily work and provide good reminders that intentional formal and informal mentoring, informed by educational theory, play an essential role in student learning and development. Mentoring principles at Hogwarts flow from Albus Dumbledore,…
The response of microbial functional diversity as well as its resistance to stress or disturbances caused by the introduction of an exotic tree species, Acacia holosericea, ectomycorrhized or not with Pisolithus albus, was examined. The results show that this ectomycorrhizal fungus promotes drastically the growth of this fast- growing tree species in field conditions after 7 years of plantation. Compared
P. Remigi; A. Faye; A. Kane; M. Deruaz; J. Thioulouse; M. Cissoko; Y. Prin; A. Galiana; B. Dreyfus; R. Duponnois
Pure cultures of the cellulolytic rumen bacterial strains Bacteroides succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD1 and Ruminococcus albus 7 were grown on lucerne cell walls (CW) or on cellobiose as the sole added carbohydrate substrate. Scanning electron microscopy visualization using cationized-feritin pretreatment have shown that cell surface topology of these strains grown on and attached to CW particles was specified by
Species delineation and taxonomy within the sturgeon genus Scaphirhynchus is controversial. This issue is made more complex by political issues regarding the Alabama sturgeon S. suttkusi and potential hybridization between sympatric shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus and pallid sturgeon S. albus. We investigated phylogenetic relationships among species of Scaphirhynchus based on nucleotide sequences for two mitochondrial loci, cytochrome b and the
Andrew M. Simons; Robert M. Wood; Lucie S. Heath; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden
Heat and cold are environmental abiotic factors that restrict the use of entomopathogenic fungi as agents for biological control of insects. The thermotolerance and cold activity of 60 entomopathogenic fungal isolates, including five species of Beauveria and one isolate of Engyodontium albus (=Beauveria alba) were examined as to tolerance of temperatures that might be encountered during field use. In addition,
Éverton K. K. Fernandes; Drauzio E. N. Rangel; Áurea M. L. Moraes; Vânia R. E. P. Bittencourt; Donald W. Roberts
The Marr-Albus model of the cerebellum has been reformulated with linear system analysis. This adaptive linear filter model of the cerebellum performs a filtering action of a phase lead-lag compensator with learning capability, and will give an account for the phenomena which have been termed “cerebellar compensation”. It is postulated that a Golgi cell may act as a phase lag
SUMMARY: In twenty-nine of a series of thirty strains of Staphylococcus aureus and albus there was correspondence between penicillinase production, ' cell sensitivity ' to penicillin and penicillin lysis, but no relation between these characteristics and the results of eleven routine tests for pigmentation, \\/3-haemolysis, coagulase formation and various biochemical reactions. It has been recognized for some time that staphylococci
Tissue reactions around various silicone implants, contaminated by Staphylococcus albus and bacillus subtilis, have been studied in rabbits by Silicone Radiation Measurements. No increase of phagocytosis was found around the contaminated materials compared to the non-contaminated implants. The morphology of the capsule was the same in the contaminated and the non-contaminated groups. Concerning the specific tissue reaction in silicone implants,
P. Wilflingseder; R. Schlögel; H. Hussl; J. C. Bruck; G. Mikuz; E. Semenitz; G. Hoinkes
A novel agarase-producing, non-endospore-forming marine bacterium WH0801T was isolated from a fresh seaweed sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. Preliminary characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that WH0801T shared 96.1% identity with Agarivorans albus MKT 10...
|This study is part of national research over the past seven years at the National Center on Educational Outcomes focused on identifying and validating instructional strategies for ELLs with disabilities (Shyyan, Thurlow, & Liu, 2008; Thurlow, Albus, Shyyan, Liu, & Barrera, 2004). In recent work (Barrera, Shyyan, Liu, & Thurlow, 2008), educators…
|One of the central themes in the standards-based education movement continues to be the importance of clear and detailed system accountability data showing how students from special needs groups perform on statewide accountability assessments (Albus, Thurlow & Liu, 2002; National Research Council, 1997; Thurlow & Liu, 2001). Armed with such data,…
Grain legumes are valuable sources of protein and energy for monogastric animals. Grain legumes, such as faba beans, peas and lupins, can partially or even totally replace traditional protein sources of animal origin such as meat and bone meal or fish meal. Moreover, they represent an alternative protein-rich feed ingredient for soybean meal (SBM) and other oilseed meals. However, the
A Spanish goat model was developed to ascertain the mechanism of action of lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”. This goat model is now being used to study new treatments and improved intervention in the treatment of cleft palate in children. We previously demonstrated that in utero palatoplasty...
We have compared the sequence organization of four previously uncharacterized legume chloroplast DNAs - from alfalfa, lupine, wisteria and subclover — to that of legume chloroplast DNAs that either retain a large, ribosomal RNA-encoding inverted repeat (mung bean) or have deleted one half of this repeat (broad bean). The circular, 126 kilobase pair (kb) alfalfa chloroplast genome, like those of
Jeffrey D. Palmer; Bernardita Osorio; Jane Aldrich; William F. Thompson
Teratology, as a scientific discipline, is relatively new and recognition of poisonous plants that cause birth defects in livestock only came to the forefront in the 1950’s and 1960’s. The Veratrum-induced “monkey faced” lamb syndrome and lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”, both studied extensive...
Surface active materials obtained by chemical modification of plant protein isolates (lupin, barley, oat), corn starches (dextrin, normal, high amylose, and waxy) and soybean oil (soybean oil based polysoaps, SOPS) were investigated for their surface and interfacial properties using axisymmetric dro...
11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH DOOR INTO WINCH ROOM IN THE SUPERSTRUCTURE (LABELED AS FASSAGE & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY ON PLAN), SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF GEARED WHEEL OF BOOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME
12. BOOM, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), SHOWING DETAIL OF GEARED WHEEL OF BOOM, FLYBRIDGE AT LEFT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME
Four strains of Bacillus isolated from lupine compost exhibited an antifungal activity against six plant fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Trichothecium roseum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum). It was significantly influenced by the composition of the cultivation media. PMID:11501422
Czaczyk, K; Stachowiak, B; Trojanowska, K; Gulewicz, K
... or not you should avoid peanut oil. A study showed that unlike other legumes, there is a strong possibility of cross-reaction between peanuts and lupine. Arachis oil is peanut oil. Sunflower seeds are often produced on equipment shared with ...
The replacement of fish meal protein with soybean meal (SB) or protein concentrates made from narrow-leafed lupin (LP) or field peas (PP) was investigated in extruded feeds for Atlantic salmon. Salmon (47 g) were fed for 63 days on extruded feeds containing each of the plant meals to replace 25% and 33% of the fish meal protein and performance compared
Because of the difficulties in growing soybean in many parts of the world, other leguminosae crops (fababean, pea, lentil, lupine, bean chickpea, cow pea, etc.) are now being studied as new protein sources. They generally have a high protein content and a satisfactory amino acid composition. The studies which have led to the development of industrial flow sheets for protein
Empirical studies of spatial heterogeneity in parasitism by insect parasitoids have focused largely on patterns, while the many possible underlying mechanisms have been little studied in the field. We conducted experimental and observational studies on Tachinomyia similis (Diptera: Tachinidae) attacking western tussock moths ( Orgyia vetusta; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on lupine bushes at Bodega Bay, Calif., USA. We examined several foraging
|The Harry Potter series furnishes many instances of both good and bad teaching. From them, we can learn more about three principles outlined in "How People Learn" (National Research Council 2000a). (1) Teachers should question students about their prior knowledge, as Professor Lupin does before his lessons; (2) we should encourage students to…
The underlying mechanisms by which excessive salinity reduces plant growth are not well understood. A few reports indicate that salinity reduces the hydraulic conductivity of the roots in salt sensitive legumes such as bean and lupin: However salinity had little effect on root conductivity in barley, a cereal plant which is relatively salt tolerant. In order to determine whether roots
Grain legumes contain numerous phytochemicals useful for their nutritional or nutraceutical properties, such as tocopherols, involved in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and eye pathologies. In this work, tocopherols were quantified in soybean, chickpea, lentil, pea, common bean, broad bean, and three lupin species. In all samples, the gamma congener was the most abundant tocopherol, followed by minor quantities of
Summary • Plant root mucilages contain powerful surfactants that will alter the interaction of soil solids with water and ions, and the rates of microbial processes. • The lipid composition of maize, lupin and wheat root mucilages was analysed by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A commercially available phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), chemically similar to the phospholipid surfactants identified in
D. B. Read; A. G. Bengough; P. J. Gregory; J. W. Crawford; D. Robinson; C. M. Scrimgeour; I. M. Young; K. Zhang; X. Zhang
The effects of feeding varied levels of low- and high-gramine yellow lupin seeds (LG and HG, respectively), and of synthetic gramine added to the diets in amounts ranging from 0.15 to 1.2 g per kg were investigated in one experiment on growing chicken and in two experiments on growing rats. The comparison of LG and HG lupin and the effect of 0.5 g gramine per kg of LG diet were determined in a growth-balance experiment with pigs. Organ weights and histology, blood parameters and activity of liver enzymes were determined. The response to HG lupin and gramine concentration varied among the species, the rats being more affected than chicken; no adverse effects of HG lupin or gramine were found in growing pigs. The common reaction of rats and chicken to the high levels of gramine (native or synthetic) was the decrease of feed intake and body gain. The increase of the relative weight of liver or kidney, changes in hematological parameters and liver enzymes were found only in rats. The estimated NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level) of gramine was about 0.3 g/kg diet for rats, 0.65 g for chicken and at least 0.5 g for growing pigs. PMID:11901976
The study was addressed to evaluate the in vitro iron and zinc dialysability from the globulin fraction of six legumes. Five legume species including white bean, mottled bean (Taylor bean), chickpea, lentil, lupin, and a modified mottled bean variety, selected by back-crossing to obtain seeds with globulins composed by G1 fraction only, were used. Globulins (G1 + G2) were extracted
Three sets of rock samples have been subjected to planar impact to characterize loading, Hugoniot and release responses. A slate form Pennsylvania was tested over the stress range of 5 GPa to 140 GPa. Phyllite from the Lupin Mine (Canada) was tested over ...
Cool season food legumes including pea, lentil, chickpea and lupin are produced worldwide as protein and food crops for both human and animal consumption. In many developing countries these crops are a staple and serve as the primary source of dietary protein. These crops serve valuable roles within...
The occurrence of many polluted areas as that affected by the accident of the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine has promoted phytoremediation as a technology able to reduce the risk of heavy metal contamination at low cost. White lupin plant has been considered a good candidate for phytoremediation. We studied the capacity of several complexing agents to improve the ability of white
Jesus Manuel Peñalosa; Ramón O. Carpena; Saúl Vázquez; Ramsy Agha; Ana Granado; María José Sarro; Elvira Esteban
l-asparaginases (EC 18.104.22.168) are hypothesized to play an important role in nitrogen supply to sink tissues, especially in legume-developing seeds. Two plant l-asparaginase subtypes were previously identified according to their K+-dependence for catalytic activity. An l-asparaginase homologous to Lupinus K+-independent enzymes with activity towards ?-aspartyl dipeptides, At5g08100, has been previously characterized as a member of the N-terminal nucleophile amidohydrolase superfamily
The gas exchange responses of potted, outdoor and greenhouse grown plants of the Sonoran Desert annuals Lupinus arizonicus (Wats.) and Malvastrum rotundifolium (Gray) were examined. Light saturation of leaf photosynthetic rates did not occur in either species at quantum flux densities exceeding 2.0 mmol m-2 s-1. Decreasing water potentials due to long-term drought did not alter this pattern of light
Nurse-plant effects have been used as an effective reforestation and restoration strategy, and mulching has also effectively ameliorated soil-adverse conditions. However, use of nurse plants is limited by the presence of suitable nurse species before trees are planted, and use of mulching depends on availability of appropriate materials. The effects of Lupinus elegans as a nurse plant and pine-bark mulch
Arnulfo Blanco-García; Cuauhtémoc Sáenz-Romero; Carlos Martorell; Pedro Alvarado-Sosa; Roberto Lindig-Cisneros
A comparison was made between 65 strains of root nodule bacteria from indigenous New Zealand legumes and 45 reference strains including: Rhizobium trifolii, R. phaseoli, R. leguminosarum, R. meliloti, and both “acid-producing” and “non-acid-producing” strains from the Lotus-Lupinus-Ornithopus cross-inoculation group. The strains were classified into 10 clusters on the basis of 37 morphological, cultural, and physiological tests. Relationships disclosed among
B. D. W. Jarvis; T. S. MacLean; I. G. C. Robertson; G. R. Fanning
Administration to inbred mice of the methanol extraction residue fraction of tubercle bacilli by some, but not by all, routes affected markedly the in vitro phagocytic and antibacterial capacities of their peritoneal macrophages harvested several days to weeks after treatment. Phagocytosis of living [3H]thymidine- labeled Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus organisms, but not of Listeria monocytogenes, was markedly enhanced. Uptake of the deoxyribonucleic acid precursor thymidine by the phagocytized staphylococci was consistently and significantly inhibited in macrophages taken from methanol extraction residue-treated donors. Such macrophages also displayed a significant facility to reduce the viability of intracellular S. albus and L. monocytogenes, but not of S. aureus, under the present experimental conditions.
Impacts of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) eradication program on native, nontarget Lepidoptera were assessed in 1999, on southeastern Vancouver Island (BC, Canada). The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) was applied aerially over two areas totalling 12,805 ha on May 8, May 19, and June 8, 1999, at a dosage of 50 billion international units in 4.0 L/ha. Lepidoptera were collected from two host plant species: Garry oak (Quercus garryana) and common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus). Lepidopteran larvae were collected from common snowberry foliage at 24 urban parks and from Garry oak foliage at 28 oak-dominated habitats, representing 12 and 14 replicates, respectively, of two treatments: unsprayed (reference) and sprayed (treatment). Prespray data were collected from March 25 to May 6 for S. albus, and from April 26 to May 6 for Q. garryana. Postspray data were collected from May 10 through June 15 for S. albus and from May 10 to July 6 for Q. garryana. The 15 most abundant lepidopteran species were analyzed statistically. However, the majority of species were collected infrequently, and, therefore were pooled for statistical analysis. After the Btk spray applications, 11 of the individual species and groups of uncommon species were found to be significantly less abundant in the treatment sites than in the reference sites. The effects of sample date were statistically significant on almost all groups of Lepidoptera analyzed, both before and after Btk spray applications, indicating temporal variation in lepidopteran abundance. Significant variation in diversity of members of the Lepidoptera, as a result of Btk spray application, was not detected on S. albus or Q. garryana. However, results showed significant variation in lepidoptera richness and abundance on both host plant species. PMID:15180383
we describe the relative abundance, foraging habitat, and feeding behavior of seven sympatric species of ibises (Threskiomithidae) in the Venezuelan llanos during the dry season of 1989. Scarlet (Eudocimus ruber), Glossy (Plegadis falcinellus), and Bare-faced (Phimosus infiscatus) ibises were the most common species. White (E. albus), Green (Me- sembrinibis cayennensis), Sharp-tailed (Cercibis oxycerca), and Buff-necked (Theristicus cau- datus) ibises together
The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), which is protected under the US endangered species act, and shovelnose sturgeon (S. platorhynchus), which is legally harvested in some locations, are sympatric throughout the range of pallid sturgeon. There is considerable\\u000a morphological overlap between the species making discrimination problematic. The inability to reliably differentiate between\\u000a species across all life stages has hampered pallid sturgeon
A. W. Schrey; B. L. Sloss; R. J. Sheehan; R. C. Heidinger; E. J. Heist
The pinnotherid crab Pinnaxodes chilensis is a common commensal of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus along the Chilean coast. Several aspects of the reproductive biology of P. chilensis were examined between April and June 1999, along temperature and salinity gradients, at three sampling sites along the Chilean coast (23°45'S-39°24'S). Results demonstrated significant differences in egg number, egg volume, dry
In the Great Lakes region, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests snowberries, Symphoricarpos albus variety laevigatus (Fern.) Blake, a western North American native plant that has been introduced widely into eastern North America. TheseR.zephyria infestations have been hypothesized to be the result of ßies that were introduced into eastern North America along with their host plants. In its native range,R.zephyria
Vesna Gavrilovic; Guy L. Bush; Dietmar Schwarz; Joseph E. Crossno; James J. Smith
We sought to develop sperm cryopreservation methods for the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, a federally listed endangered species. Males were injected with synthetic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone at 50 ?g\\/kg of body weight. After 24 h, sperm were collected, diluted at a ratio of 1:4 (sperm : extender) with Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS; diluted to 100 milliosmoles\\/kg), and kept
William R. Wayman; Gregory L. Looney; Robert J. Holm; Terrence R. Tiersch
A real-time polymerase chain reaction approach was used in this study to determine the population of major ruminal bacterial\\u000a species (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens) in digesta and rumen fluid of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Four rumen-fistulated, male swamp buffalo were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the\\u000a effect of the urea-treated rice
Apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) and eggs and nestlings of anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) were collected in Palm Beach County, Florida from 1989–1991 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues. Pesticide residues were not detected in the apple snails. Residues of DDT, with maximum concentrations of 1,200 µg\\/kg wet weight occurred in 50% of the ibis samples
D. G. Rumbold; M. C. Bruner; M. B. Mihalik; E. A. Marti; L. L. White
Mundy. P. J. & Cook, A. W. 1977. Observations on the breeding of the Pied Crow and Great Spotted Cuckoo in northern Nigeria. Ostrich 48:72-84.The breeding cycle of the Pied Crow Corvus albus was studied in 1971. The birds bred in the wet season and all of 23 pairs were single-brooded. They appeared to nest territorially, and mostly close to
Lake Kronotskoye (the Kronotsky Biosphere State Reserve, south-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula) contains three closely related\\u000a resident morphotypes charrs, which are considered to be either independent species (white charr Salvelinus albus, longhead charr Salvelinus kronocius, Schmidt’s charr Salvelinus schmidti) or a united lacustrine-riverine charrs, represented by several phenotypes. Salvelinus malma malma is isolated from the lake charr populations by an upstream migration barrier in the Kronotskaya River,
Alcoholic extracts of seven plants belonging to the Solanaceae family were phytochemically screened and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Test (BST) with Artemia salina larvae, Inhibition of Cell Division Test (ICDT) on sea urchin Loxechinus albus fertilized eggs and inhibition of crown gall tumors on Potato Disk Bioassay (PDB). From Salpichroa diffusa, bioassay-guided chromatographic separation afforded some active fractions from which epi-katonic acid was identified. PMID:11543969
Cluster roots are an adaptation for nutrient acquisition from nutrient-poor soils. They develop on root systems of a range\\u000a of species belonging to a number of different families (e.g., Proteaceae, Casuarinaceae, Fabaceae and Myricaceae) and are\\u000a also found on root systems of some crop species (e.g., albus, Macadamia integrifoliaandCucurbita pepo). Their morphology is variable but typically, large numbers of determinate
SUMMARY: Dispersion of isolated cell walls of Streptococcus faecalis in washed agar provided an opaque medium on which cell-wall decomposing micro-organisms were isolated from soil. All of the organisms isolated on S. faecalis cell-wall agar were Streptomyces spp. The lytic activities of seven isolates of Streptomyces, S. albus, two strains of Micromonospora chalceae, Micromonospora sp., Nocardia gardneri and three strains
Acid hydrolases from extracts of human blood leucocytes lyseStaph. aureus, Staph.albus andStrep. faecalis in vitro. The leucocyte enzymes can be substituted by a lytic mixture which contains crude trypsin, lysolecithin, phospholipase C and lysozyme, which lyse other bacterial species, e.g.E. coli and Listeria which are resistant to leucocyte enzymes. Bacteriolysis by the lytic agents is strongly inhibited by the anionic
I. Ginsburg; M. Lahav; N. Ne'eman; Z. Duchan; S. Chanes; M. N. Sela
The presence of multiple molecular forms (MMF) of glutamine synthetase (GS) has been studied in pumpkin plants and in cotyledons of bean plants. Two MMF of GS have been found in pumpkin leaves and in green cotyledons: chloroplast GS and cytosol GS. Cotyledons of etiolated pumpkin seedlings contain only the cytosol GS. Illumination of etiolated pumpkin seedlings with white light results in the appearance, within one minute, of the second molecular form, the chloroplast GS, which appears to be due to activation rather than de novo synthesis of the enzyme. Cotyledons of resting seeds of horse bean, pea, soybean and lupine contain only one form of GS. The second form, chloroplast GS, appears after germination in the light, but only in those cotyledons of soybean and lupine that can become green. PMID:6118828
Evstigneeva, Z G; Pushkin, A V; Solovieva, N A; Golova, T V; Kretovich, W L
Minimally invasive, non-lethal methods of ultrasonography were used to assess sex, egg diameter, fecundity, gonad volume, and gonadosomatic index, as well as endoscopy to visually assess the reproductive stage of Scaphirhynchus albus. Estimated mean egg diameters of 2.202 ± 0.187 mm and mean fecundity of 44 531 ± 23 940 eggs were similar to previous studies using invasive techniques. Mean S. albus gonadosomatic indices (GSI) for reproductive and nonreproductive females were 16.16 and 1.26%, respectively, while reproductive and non-reproductive male GSI were 2.00 and 0.43%, respectively. There was no relationship between hybrid status or capture location and GSI. Mean fecundity was 48.5% higher than hatchery spawn estimates. Fecundity increased as fork length increased but did so more dramatically in the upper river kilometers of the Missouri River. By examining multiple fish over multiple years, the reproductive cycle periodicity for hatchery female S. albus was found to be 2-4 years and river dwelling males 1-4 years. The use of ultrasonic and endoscopic methods in combination was shown to be helpful in tracking individual gonad characteristics over multi-year reproductive cycles.
We investigated conservation and cycling of N under oat–oat and lupine–oat rotations in disturbed and undisturbed soil, when\\u000a roots or roots plus aboveground residues were retained. Crop residues were labelled with 15N in Year 1, and differential soil disturbance was imposed after harvest. In Year 2, plant growth, N transfer from residue\\u000a into the various sinks of the second crop
A. de Varennes; M. O. Torres; C. Cunha-Queda; M. J. Goss; C. Carranca
We have found in a number of plants (lentil, lupine, bean, barley, oats, rye, wheat, cucumber, melon, flax, sunflower and\\u000a rape) that varying amounts of ethanol are formed under natural anaerobiosis and, that in later growth periods these plants\\u000a continue to react to anaerobiosis by formation of ethanol. When the testa has opened in germinating plants or, when plants\\u000a are
Sylva Leblová; Ilona Zimáková; Jana Barthová; Dana Ehlichová
A method is described for the rapid and comprehensive subcellular fraction-ation of plant tissue using a combination of differential\\u000a and discontinuous Ficoll gradient centrifugation. The procedure has been used to study the synthesis of fatty acids from acetate-1-14C or malonyl CoA-1,3-14C, by fractions of germinating pea and lupin seeds and developing avocado fruit, castor bean and safflower seeds. Particle\\u000a free
Saline fracture water (0.3 to 3.7% TDS) trapped beneath 500 meters of frozen Archean metasediment was collected from boreholes at 880 and 1130 meters depth at Lupin Au mine. Temperatures range from 4 to 10oC, pH from 8 to 9, Eh from -150 to -190 mV. H2 and CH4 gas concentration range from 20 to 600 nM and 6 to
C. Boettig; D. McGown; M. Davidson; T. C. Onstott; B. Soffentino; A. Spivak; S. D'Hondt; S. Miller; D. Balkwill; L. Pratt; T. Ruskeeniemi; L. Ahonen; J. Telling; B. Sherwood Lollar; S. Frape; R. Stotler
Straková E., P. Suchý, M. Šugerková, M. Machá?ek: Positive Effect of Plant-Based Diet on the Performance and Health of Laying Hens. acta v et. Brno 2007, 76: S31-S37. an entirely plant-based feed mixture was prepared to minimize the potential risk of transmitting prion infections through animal feed. It consisted of two protein components (soya extracted meal and lupin seed meal)
The effect of extruding the cereal and\\/or the protein supplement of a compound feed on its nutritive value and on the performance of intensively reared male calves was studied. The compound feed was formulated with 0.65 of a cereal blend (60:40 maize:barley), 0.25 of a protein blend (1\\/3:1\\/3:1\\/3 raw soybeans:peas:lupins), and 0.08 of urea to contain 0.17 of crude protein.
E. Solanas; C. Castrillo; M. Fondevila; Q. O. Ruiz Narváez; J. A Guada
The effect of traces of sulfamethazine (SMZ) in soil (0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 1, 5, 15, and 20 mM) on cellular distribution of cytochrome c oxidase activity, shoot and root growth, and leachate electroconductivity was analyzed in germinating seeds of yellow lupin, pea, lentil, soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa. Results showed that a high activity of cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria
Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cie?lak; Barbara Adomas; Grzegorz Na??cz-Jawecki; Dariusz J. Michalczyk
Survival of two plant-growth-promoting bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens PsIA12 and Rhizobium trifolii R39 (rifampicin-resistant mutants), was studied in the rhizosphere of different crops in field experiments on loamy sand in the years 1993 and 1994 (Müncheberg, Germany). After seed inoculation with a peat formulation the Rhizobium strain colonized the rhizosphere of pea and white lupin as well as that of the
Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis. PMID:18167174
This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of reducing boar taint in boars (Piétrain×Hybrid) by addition of different feed ingredients (raw potato starch (RPS) 10%, raw potato starch 10%+wheat bran 5% (RPS+WB), lupins 10%, inulin 5%, clinoptilolite 1%) to a standard diet over a period of 4–6 weeks before slaughter. Control boars (CBOAR) as well as barrows were fed the
M. Aluwé; S. Millet; G. Nijs; F. A. M. Tuyttens; K. Verheyden; H. F. De Brabander; D. L. De Brabander; M. J. Van Oeckel
Seed hulls (or coats) of peanut, soybean, cottonseed, lupine, broad beans, and sunflower seeds, were subjected to various treatments in order to get adsorbing carbons. Characterization of porosity was determined by N2\\/77K adsorption isotherms. Simple pyrolysis at 500°C yields low adsorbing carbons of meso-\\/macroporous character, whereas steam activation of these chars at 850°C enhances porosity, in micropores, to a limited
Cereal Chem. 83(6):655-662 The effect of different protein sources (soy flour, lupin flour, egg albumin, gelatin powder, protein-rich beer yeast flour) on wheat dough functionality was tested by determining gluten index, texture properties, and thermomechanical parameters. Transglutaminase (TG) was also added to improve the dough functionality by forming cross-links. The presence of protein sources had a significant effect on the
Poplar, a plant species frequently used for phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with organic solvents, was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468. This strain, whose natural host is yellow lupine, contains the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid coding for constitutively expressed toluene degradation. Noninoculated plants or plants inoculated with the soil bacterium B. cepacia Bu61(pTOM-Bu61) were used as controls. Inoculation of poplar had
Safiyh Taghavi; Tanja Barac; Bill Greenberg; Brigitte Borremans; Jaco Vangronsveld; Daniel van der Lelie
We describe herein four unusual clinical cases of rare allergy to foods in patients affected by allergic rhinitis and asthma. The patients were skin tested both with commercial food extracts and using prick-prick procedure with fresh foods. Total and specific IgE in serum were determined by REAST. Grapes, lupine seeds, black mulberry and artichoke resulted positive in the patients under study. This is the first time allergy to ingested artichoke has been described. PMID:10879999
|The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the Rum…
This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii. PMID:23693143
Arias, M C; Atteke, Christiane; Augusto, S C; Bailey, J; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Benoit, Laure; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Born, Céline; Brito, R M; Chen, Hai-kui; Covarrubias, Sara; de Vega, Clara; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Francisco, F O; García, Cristina; Gonçalves, P H P; González, Clementina; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Hammer, Michael P; Herrera, Carlos M; Itoh, H; Kamimura, S; Karaoglu, H; Kojima, S; Li, Shou-Li; Ling, Hannah J; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; McKey, Doyle; Mezui-M'Eko, Judicaël; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Park, R F; Pozo, María I; Ramula, Satu; Rigueiro, Cristina; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Santiago, L R; Seino, Miyuki M; Song, Chang-Bing; Takeshima, H; Vasemägi, Anti; Wellings, C R; Yan, Ji; Yu-Zhou, Du; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Tian-Yun
The sphingoid long-chain base (LCB) composition of glucosylceramides was characterized in 31 species of Fabaceae including\\u000a the model legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. With the exception of Lupinus texensis L, the 8-trans\\/cis-unsaturated isomers of 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenines [i.e., t18:1 (8t) plus t18:1 (8c)] were the major components in each species.\\u000a In tribe Fabeae, each species from four genera—Pisum, Lathyrus, Lens, and
The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a destructive defoliator that is not established in British Columbia, Canada, because of successful eradication programs involving the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). In 1999, three aerial applications of Btk were made over two areas, totaling 12,805 ha, on southern Vancouver Island, Canada. The impacts of these Btk applications on nontarget Lepidoptera were studied from 1999 to 2004 on Garry oak (Quercus garryana) and common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus). In 1999, lepidopteran larvae were collected from S. albus foliage at 24 urban parks and from Q. garryana foliage at 28 oak-dominated habitats. The initial impacts (i.e., 1999 data) were published previously, and the present paper is a continuation of the same study. We tested two hypotheses: Reductions of nontarget Lepidoptera would be more severe at 12 to 13 months postspray than at one to two months postspray, and recovery would be significant, though not necessarily complete, at four years postspray. The total number of nontarget Lepidoptera on S. albus and Q. garryana was significantly reduced in the treatment sites in each year of the study: the reduction was greatest in 2000. Relative to the reference sites, each of 11 species that were initially reduced by the Btk applications showed an increase in the treatment sites between 2000 and 2003, by which time only four species remained significantly reduced in the treatment sites. The uncommon species were significantly reduced in 1999 and 2000 but not in 2003, indicating that some recovery had occurred. Limitations and economic implications of the present study are discussed. PMID:17447559
Boulton, Timothy J; Otvos, Imre S; Halwas, Karen L; Rohlfs, Doris A
This study reports the isolation and identification of aerobic organisms from biopsies/slit-skin smears/scrapings from 129 leprosy patients and 50 healthy controls. These include 56 paucibacillary (PB) and 73 multibacillary (MB) cases. Thirty-six isolates from the specimens from 21 patients and 15 healthy controls were grown. The non-mycobacterial isolates from clinically PB leprosy (TT/BT/I) patients were: (1) Gram-positive cocci: Staphylococcus aureus(1), Staphylococcus albus(1); (b) Gram-positive bacilli: Bacillus subtilis(1), Corynebacterium xerosis(1); (c) Gram-negative bacilli: Escherichia coli(1), Proteus mirabilis(2), Klebsiella pneumoniae(1) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(1). The isolates from clinically MB leprosy (BB/BL/LL) patients were: (a) Gram-positive cocci: Micrococci(1), Staphylococcus aureus(1) and Staphylococcus albus(1); (b) Gram-positive bacilli: Corynebacterium xerosis(1); Corynebacterium hofmanni(1) and Bacillus cereus(1). (c) Gram-negative bacilli: Escherichia coli(2), Klebsiella pneumoniae(1) and Proteus mirabilis(2). The specimens from healthy controls yielded similar organisms. These were (a) Gram-positive cocci: Staphylococcus albus(2), Staphylococcus aureus(2) and Micrococci(2); (b) Gram-positive bacilli: Corynebacterium xerosis(1), Bacillus subtilis(2), Corynebacterium hofmanni(1) and Bacillus cereus(1); (c) Gram-negative bacilli: Escherichia coli(3), Proteus vulgaris(1) and Proteus mirabilis(1). While these results show no significant differences in the species types of non-mycobacterial aerobic organisms isolated from healthy skin and PB/MB types of leprosy, these isolates need to be characterized by immunological/molecular methods to find out subtypes if any. PMID:8576610
Sharma, R K; Katoch, K; Sharma, V D; Shivannavar, C T; Natarajan, M; Katoch, V M
Antagonism between Enterobacter agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was due to an extracellular substance produced by E. agglomerans which accumulates in the culture medium. This substance was also toxic to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus albus and its MIC for P. aeruginosa ranged between 7.8 and 3.9 micrograms/ml. However, when the extracts from the culture medium were irradiated from 2 h with white light (15 mW/cm2), the MIC was lower (3.9-1.9 micrograms/ml) suggesting that the active substance was a phototoxin. PMID:1406340
The Goldman-Albus treatment of the action-potential dynamics is combined with a phenomenological description of molecular hyperpolarizabilities into a closed-form model of the action-potential-sensitive second-harmonic response of myelinated nerve fibers with nodes of Ranvier. This response is shown to be sensitive to nerve demyelination, thus enabling an optical diagnosis of various demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The model is applied to examine the nonlinear-optical response of a three-neuron reverberating circuit--the basic element of short-term memory.
Two new azaquinones, utahmycins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from cultures of Streptomyces albus J1704 transformed with the environmental DNA derived Erd gene cluster. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The structure of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Both metabolites appear to arise from the addition of a nitrogen atom to erdacin biosynthetic intermediates. Utahmycin A (1) is the first example of a biologically derived 1,3-dimethyl-2-azaanthraquinone.
Samples of air removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41km, were previously found to contain viable, but non-cultureable bacteria (cocci and rods). Here, we describe experiments aimed at growing these organisms, together with any others, present in the samples. Two bacteria (Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri) and a single fungus, Engyodontium albus (limber)de Hoog were isolated from the samples. Contamination can never be ruled out when space-derived samples are studied on earth, however, we are confident that the organisms isolated here originated from the stratosphere.
Wainwright, Milton; Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Rajaratnam, P.
Colonisation of cerebrospinal fluid shunts by coagulate-negative staphylococci (Staphylococcus albus) is a serious problem. Because of its possible role in prevention of the condition, the antimicrobial activity of silicone rubber after impregnation with antimicrobial drugs was studied. The method of impregnation used and test methods were found to be important. Formaldehyde-urea condensates gave no activity. Gentamicin sulphate gave activity which was short-lived. Sodium and diethanolamine fusidates and clindamycin hydrochloride gave prolonged activity. A method of impregnation was developed which could be applied to commercially available shunts before use.
To search for extraterrestrial life surrogate extreme environments on Earth have been chosen for investigation. An example of a surrogate site is the Canadian subpermafrost. Investigations into microbial communities occurred by access fracture borehole water in the Lupin gold mine, and drill rock cores and drilling waters in the High Lake region of Nunavut, Canada. Membrane lipid analyses uses GC/MS and HPLC/ES/MS/MS to provide estimates of biomass, phospholipid (PLFA) and respiratory quinone composition, and compositional changes related to membrane stress caused by nutritional limitations or exposure to toxic conditions. Lupin fracture borehole waters were collected from 800 to 1200 meters, while the High Lake rock cores were collected from 335 to 535 meters. Biomass estimates based on PLFA ranged from 0.25 to 22 pmol L-1 for the Lupin waters. High Lake drill waters had biomass that ranged from below detection limits (bdl) to 595 pmol/ml, while rock core samples had biomass estimates ranging from bdl to 32 pmol g-1. PLFA profiles revealed the presence of both Gram +/- bacteria and sulfatereducing bacteria. Specific PLFA ratios indicate that the bacterial communities were physiologically stressed. Menaquinones were the most abundant but varied in the dominant isoprene units between the two sites. Ubiquinone to menaquinone ratio indicated that these samples have been anoxic for a long time. Methods to detect life signatures at surrogate sites on Earth will be critical for assessing extraterrestrial life. Currently, the membrane lipid analyses provide additional information not easily provided by other molecular techniques.
Pfiffner, Susan M.; DiFurio, Sarah; Gan, Ying-Dong; Hoover, Richard B.
An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of extrusion and carbohydrate addition on rumen degradation and intestinal digestion of raw legume seeds and solvent extracted soya bean meal (SBM) protein. Whole soya beans (WSB) without or with maize added (75:25) (WSB-M), peas, lupins and SBM were extruded at 140 degrees C. Protein rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of unprocessed and extruded protein sources were measured by in sacco and mobile bag procedures, respectively, in two dairy cows cannulated in rumen and duodenum. Between 12 and 15 polyester bags with 4 g of each protein source were incubated in rumen for 12 h and the residues, pooled by feed, were introduced into the duodenum in small nylon bags after pre-incubation in a pepsin solution, and recovered from faeces the day after. Extrusion significantly (p < 0.001) reduced N degradation of all protein sources, from 98.1%, 91.6%, 90.5% and 64.8% to 53.1%, 73.8%, 70.3% and 44.2% for peas, lupins, WSB and SBM respectively. The addition of maize to WSB strengthened the effect of extrusion on rumen N degradation, from 88.2% to 52.6%. Residues from rumen incubation of extruded feeds showed a higher (p < 0.001) intestinal N digestibility except for SBM (87.0%, 82.9%, 66.3%, 85.0% and 97.2%, and 99.1%, 95.8%, 96.8%, 97.8% and 98.7%, respectively, for non-extruded and extruded, peas, lupins, WSB, WSB-M and SBM). In conclusion, the extrusion of studied legume seeds and SBM promotes a clear and significant increase of their metabolizable protein value, particularly in peas, and the inclusion of a source of carbohydrates before extrusion increase this response. PMID:15787989
Lotus species are legumes with potential for pastures in soils with low-fertility and environmental constraints. The aim of this work was to characterize bacteria that establish efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the forage species Lotus uliginosus. A total of 39 isolates were obtained from nodules of L. uliginosus naturally growing in two different locations of Portugal. Molecular identification of the isolates plus the commercial inoculant strain NZP2039 was performed by REP-PCR, 16S rRNA RFLP, and 16S rRNA, glnII and recA sequence analyses. Limited genetic diversity was found among the L. uliginosus symbionts, which showed a close phylogenetic relationship with the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The symbiotic nifH, nodA and nodC gene sequences were closely related with the corresponding genes of various Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Lupinus and other genistoid legumes and therefore were phylogenetically separated from other Lotus spp. rhizobia. The L. uliginosus bradyrhizobia were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in association with L. uliginosus, could nodulate Lotus corniculatus with generally poor nitrogen-fixing efficiency, formed nonfixing nodules in Lotus tenuis and Lupinus luteus roots and were unable to nodulate Glycine soja or Glycine max. Thus, L. uliginosus rhizobia seem closely related to B. japonicum biovar genistearum strains. PMID:22092879
Lorite, María J; Videira e Castro, Isabel; Muñoz, Socorro; Sanjuán, Juan
In experiments with fattening pigs peas and lupines were used, both pealed and unpealed, in order to investigate the influence of native crude fibres on the true digestibility of nitrogen and the amino acids in pigs. The results of the experiments allow the conclusion that native crude fibres, as long as they remain in the normal range between 3 and 7% in the ration does not cause a depression in the true digestibility of nitrogen and the amino acids in the feeding of fattening pigs. Only the increased content of native crude fibres in the ration has a negative effect on true digestibility. PMID:6268013
How vegetation recovers from disturbances is an important question for land managers. We examined 500 m2 plots to determine the progress made by native herbaceous plant species in colonizing the edges of abandoned cultivated fields at different elevations and microclimates, but with similar soils in a big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass steppe. Alien species, especially cheatgrass and cereal rye, were the major competitors to the natives. The native species with best potential for restoring steppe habitats were sulphur lupine, hawksbeard, bottlebrush squirreltail, needle-and-thread grass, Sandberg's bluegrass, and several lomatiums.
Simmons, Sally A. (OFFICE OF FELLOWSHIP PROG); Rickard, William H. (OFFICE OF FELLOWSHIP PROG)
Barley and maize were combined with either lupine seeds or corn gluten meal so that the 4 blends present different rumen degradation rates for their carbohydrate and/or nitrogen constituents. The measured values (dm) of dry matter in sacco degradability of these concentrates were higher before and lower after 8 h of incubation compared to the calculated values of degradability (dc) obtained by the additive method according to their composition. Moreover, the differences (dm-dc) were the highest for the less degradable feeds. PMID:2206310
We report here the in vivo expression of the synthetic transposase gene himar1(a) in Streptomyces coelicolor M145 and Streptomyces albus. Using the synthetic himar1(a) gene adapted for Streptomyces codon usage, we showed random insertion of the transposon into the streptomycetes genome. The insertion frequency for the Himar1-derived minitransposons is nearly 100 % of transformed Streptomyces cells, and insertions are stably inherited in the absence of an antibiotic selection. The minitransposons contain different antibiotic resistance selection markers (apramycin, hygromycin, and spectinomycin), site-specific recombinase target sites (rox and/or loxP), I-SceI meganuclease target sites, and an R6K? origin of replication for transposon rescue. We identified transposon insertion loci by random sequencing of more than 100 rescue plasmids. The majority of insertions were mapped to putative open-reading frames on the S. coelicolor M145 and S. albus chromosomes. These insertions included several new regulatory genes affecting S. coelicolor M145 growth and actinorhodin biosynthesis. PMID:23143534
Action and uptake of azides, nitrates, nitrites, hydroxylamines, and ammonium salts were measured on germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, Phleum pratense, Barbarea vulgaris, B. verna, and Setaria glauca seeds. Nitrate and nitrite reductase activities were measured in vivo for each of these kinds of seeds. Activities were measured in vitro for catalase, peroxidase, glycolate oxidase, and pyridine nucleotide quinone reductase on extracts of A. albus and L. sativa seeds before and after germination. The enzymic activities measured and the responsiveness of the haemproteins to inhibition by the several compounds indicate that nitrites, azides, and hydroxylamines promote seed germination by inhibition of H2O2 decomposition by catalase. Ammonium salts showed pronounced promotive activity only for B. verna and B. vulgaris seeds, for which they served as metabolic substrates. The promotion of germination is thought to depend on coupling of peroxidase action to NADPH oxidation, which can regulate the pentose pathway of d-glucose 6-phosphate use. Pyridine nucleotide quinone reductase is the possible coupling enzyme. This enzyme and others required for the action are present in the seeds before imbibition of water.
Two fungal species, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium brevicompactum and three bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces albus were cultivated on two media, malt extract agar and dichloran glycerol agar. The volatile metabolite samples from the cultures were adsorbed on Tenax TA and analyzed qualitatively by thermal desorption gas chromatography and with a mass selective detector. Various hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, esters and terpenes were identified. The production was highly dependent on both the medium and the microbial species. 2-Methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol were the most commonly produced substances. The bacterial species did not produce any hydrocarbons that were characteristic to the fungi (e.g. methyl-1,3-pentadiene, 1-octene and 1,3-octadiene or 8-carbon alcohols 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanol). Instead, K. pneumoniae and E. agglomerans produced 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, which were not produced by the fungi. Geosmin and a large number of sesquiterpenes were produced by S. albus. PMID:9919382
Kiviranta, H; Tuomainen, A; Reiman, M; Laitinen, S; Liesivuori, J; Nevalainen, A
Co-electrospinning provides a novel and highly versatile approach towards composite fibers with diameters ranging from a few hundred nm down to 30 nm with embedded elements. In the present work, co-electrospinning of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and viruses (T7, T4, ?) or bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus) was carried out. These preparations should have applications for tissue engineering, gene therapy, phage therapy and biosensing. The average diameter of the co-spun nanofibers was about 300 nm. We found that the encapsulated viruses and bacteria manage to survive the electrospinning process, its pressure buildup in the core of the fiber and the electrostatic field in the co-electrospinning process. Approximately 10% of the Escherichia coli and 20% of Staphylococcus albus cells are viable after spinning. Approximately 5% of the bacterial viruses were also viable after the electrospinning. It should be noted that the encapsulated cells and viruses remain stable for two months without a further decrease in number. These results demonstrate the potential of the co-electrospinning process for the encapsulation and immobilization of bio-objects and the possibility of adapting them to technical applications (e.g., bio-chips).
The reactions between seven fluorogenic substrates and different groups of enzymes, esterases, lipases, phosphatases, and dehydrogenases, were studied in a search for a new method for the detection of actinomycete spores. Fluorescence measurement was chosen as a fast and sensitive method for microbial analysis. The focus of the research was on the spores of important air contaminants: Streptomyces albus and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. For the measurement of the enzymatic activity, the chosen fluorogenic substrate was added to a mixture of spores and nutrient media, and the resulting fluorescence was measured with a spectrofluorometer. Fluorogenic substrates were found to show enzymatic activities even for dormant spores. Comparison of the enzymatic activities of dormant spores with those of vegetative cells showed similarity of the enzymatic profiles but higher activity for vegetative cells. The increase of enzymatic activity from dormant spores to vegetative cells was not linear but fluctuating. The largest fluctuations were found after 4 to 5 h of incubation. The enzymatic activities of S. albus were 10 to 50 times lower than those of T. vulgaris, except for the dehydrogenase activity, which was seven times higher. These results indicate that analysis with fluorogenic substrates has the potential for becoming a fast and sensitive method for the enumeration and identification of airborne actinomycete spores.
Gazenko, S. V.; Reponen, T. A.; Grinshpun, S. A.; Willeke, K.
4 ruminally cannulated cows were fed a forage diet (93% hay + 7% straw) and a mixed diet (33 % hay + 7% straw + 40% barley) in a 2 x 2 crossover experimental design. In sacco degradation of forage, fibrolytic activities (polysaccharidases and glycosidases) of the solid-associated bacteria (SAB), and distribution of the 3 main cellulolytic bacterial species (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens) were determined for both diets. Barley supplementation decreased the hay degradation rate and mainly the polysaccharidase activities of the SAB (30% on average). The sum of rRNA of the 3 cellulolytic bacterial species represented on average 17% of the total bacterial signal and R. albus was the dominant cellulolytic bacterial species of the 3 studied. Barley supplementation did not modify the proportion of the 3 cellulolytic bacteria attached to plant particles. The negative effect of barley on the ruminal hay degradation rate is due to a decrease in fibrolytic activity of the SAB, and not to a modification of the balance of the three cellulolytic bacterial species examined. PMID:11993799
Martin, C; Millet, L; Fonty, G; Michalet-Doreau, B
The focus of this project has been to identify and characterize mox genes and other methylotrophy genes in both methane- and methanol-utilizing bacteria, and study expression of those genes. In the last three years of support, the project has focused on identifying methylotrophy genes and the regions involved in their expression for comparative purposes, and has begun the process of analyzing the genes involved in transcriptional regulation of the mox system in the strain for which the authors have the most information, M. extorquens AM1. In order to carry out comparative studies of the transcription of methylotrophy genes, they have cloned and characterized genes involved in methanol oxidation (mox genes) from two Type I methanotrophs, Methylobacter marinus A45 (formerly Methylomonas sp A45) and Methylobacter albus BG8 (formerly Methylomonas albus BG8). In both cases, the organization of the genes was found to be identical, and the transcriptional start sites upstream of the mxaF genes were mapped. Other methylotrophy genes have been cloned and characterized from these methanotrophs, including mxaAKL and fdh. The rest of this project has focused on the regulatory network for the mox system in M. extorquens AM1. The authors have sequenced two mox regulatory genes, mxbD and mxbM and they show identify with a specific group of sensor-kinase/response regulator pair systems.
The vasa (vas)-related gene encodes an RNA helicase protein member of the DEAD-box family and plays key roles in germ-cell formation in higher metazoans. Using degenerate PCR and RACE, we cloned the vasa gene of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), which is homologous to the Drosophila vasa gene. We named it ma-vas (Monopterus albus vas). Ma-vas encodes a protein of 618 amino acids, which contains all of the known characteristics of vasa homologs. RT-PCR analysis revealed that ma-vas was exclusively expressed in the gonads of the female, intersex, and male. During gonadal natural sex reversal, ma-vas is expressed in oocytes at all stages of oogenesis, in degenerating oocytes of ovotestis, and in spermatogonia and spermatocytes at early stages. The vasa positive signal was also observed in the peripheral layer of late ovary. It was not found, however, in that layer of the testis. Alkaline phosphatase (AKP) staining on the ovary and testis also indicated that some cells had differentiational potential in the peripheral layer of the ovary, suggesting that spermatogonia might arise from cells with AKP and vasa-positive staining in the peripheral layer of the female gonad. PMID:17318374
Weaner pigs (n = 72) were fed 1 of 4 diets. These were based on either cooked rice and animal protein, cooked rice and lupin, wheat and lupin, or wheat and animal protein. Twenty-six of the pigs were slaughtered after 1 month. Those fed the highly digestible cooked rice and animal protein diet had drier colonic contents and faeces, lighter large intestines, and the contents of their large intestines had increased pH values and decreased total VFA concentrations. The other 46 were orally challenged with broth cultures of Serpulina hyodysenteriae, and were monitored for faecal excretion of the spirochaetes, and for the development of swine dysentery (SD). None of 18 pigs fed the cooked rice and animal protein diet developed colonic changes or disease, whereas most pigs on the other diets developed mucohaemorrhagic colitis and dysentery. The reduced fermentation that occurred in the large intestines of pigs fed cooked rice and animal protein was associated with a subsequent failure of colonization by S. hyodysenteriae, and resultant protection against SD.
The distribution of xanthine dehydrogenase throughout the soybean plant as well as the intercellular localization of xanthine dehydrogenase within soybean nodules was determined. Polyclonal antibodies against purified xanthine dehydrogenase were prepared and used in an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay to determine whether xanthine dehydrogenase is a nodule-specific protein. This immunological assay showed that xanthine dehydrogenase is present in far greater concentration in the nodule than in any other plant organ. Immunodiffusion tests showed that anti-soybean nodule xanthine dehydrogenase would cross-react with nodule crude extracts from the ureide producers, soybean, cowpea, and lima bean, but would not cross-react with those of the amide producers, alfalfa and lupine. A crude extract from pea nodules cross-reacted slightly with anti-soybean xanthine dehydrogenase. Anti-soybean xanthine dehydrogenase did not cross-react with buttermilk xanthine oxidase either by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or by immunodiffusion test. Fresh nodule sections from the ureide-producers, soybean, cowpea, and lima bean, all stained positively for xanthine dehydrogenase. The substrate-dependent stain was inhibited by allopurinol and was observed only in the infected nodule cells of these species. Nodules from the amideproducers, alfalfa and white lupine, did not stain for xanthine dehydrogenase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7
Using in vitro selection, high affinity DNA aptamers to the food allergen Lup an 1, ß-conglutin, were selected from a pool of DNA, 93 bases in length, containing a randomised sequence of 49 bases. ß-conglutin was purified from lupin flour and chemically crosslinked to carboxylated magnetic beads. Peptide mass fingerprinting was used to confirm the presence of the ß-conglutin. Single stranded DNA was generated from the randomised pool using T7 Gene 6 Exonuclease and was subsequently incubated with the magnetic beads and the captured DNA was released and amplified prior to a further round of Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). Evolution was monitored using enzyme linked oligonucleotide assay and surface plasmon resonance. Once a plateau in evolution was reached, the isolated DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced. The consensus motif was identified via alignment of the sequences and the affinities of these sequences for immobilised ß-conglutin were determined using surface plasmon resonance. The selected aptamer was demonstrated to be highly specific, showing no cross-reactivity with other flour ingredients or with other conglutin fractions of lupin. The secondary structures of the selected aptamers were predicted using m-fold. Finally, the functionality of the selected aptamers was demonstrated using a competitive assay for the quantitative detection of ß-conglutin. . Future work will focus on structure elucidation and truncation of the selected sequences to generate a smaller aptamer for application to the analysis of the Lup an 1 allergen in foodstuffs. PMID:22529997
The dagger nematode Xiphinema index has a high economic impact in vineyards by direct pathogenicity and above all by transmitting the Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV). Agrochemicals have been largely employed to restrict the spread of GFLV by reducing X. index populations but are now banned. As an alternative to nematicides, the use of fallow plants between two successive vine crops was assessed. We selected plant species adapted to vineyard soils and exhibiting negative impact on nematodes and we evaluated their antagonistic effect on X. index in greenhouse using artificially infested soil, and in naturally infested vineyard conditions. The screening was conducted with plants belonging to the families Asteraceae (sunflower, marigold, zinnia, and nyjer), Poaceae (sorghum and rye), Fabaceae (white lupin, white melilot, hairy vetch, and alfalfa), Brassicaceae (rapeseed and camelina), and Boraginaceae (phacelia). In the greenhouse controlled assay, white lupin, nyjer, and marigold significantly reduced X. index populations compared with that of bare soil. The vineyard assay, designed to take into account the aggregative pattern of X. index distribution, revealed that marigold and hairy vetch are good candidates as cover crops to reduce X. index populations in vineyard. Moreover, this original experimental design could be applied to manage other soilborne pathogens. PMID:22376084
Villate, Laure; Morin, Elisa; Demangeat, Gérard; Van Helden, Maarten; Esmenjaud, Daniel