Sample records for lupin lupinus albus

  1. White Lupin (Lupinus albus) Response to Phosphorus Stress: Evidence for Complex Regulation of LaSAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) has a unique adaptation to phosphorus deficiency stress, such that a set of tightly coordinated physiological and morphological responses gives rise to the formation of cluster, or proteoid roots, structures that allow the plant to live in extremely infertile soils. The c...

  2. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies root-soil interactions of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) have drawn special attention to researchers due to its particularly high potential to increase bioavailability of phosphorous (P) and trace nutrients in soils. In mixed cultures, white lupine has the ability to mobilize P and trace nutrients in soil in excess of its own need and make this excess available for other intercropped companion species. While improved acquisition of P and improved yield parameters have mostly been documented in cereal-lupine intercrops, compared to sole crops, only a few recent studies have evidenced similar effects for trace elements e.g. Fe, Zn and Mn. In this preliminary study we tried to obtain more information about the mobilization of trace elements due to intercropping under field conditions. We hypothesize, that processes that lead to a better acquisition of trace nutrients might also affect other trace elements what could be useful for phytoremediation and phytomining research. Here we report the results of a semi-field experiment were we investigated the effects of an intercropping of white lupine with oat (Avena sativa L.) on the concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat. We investigated the effects on 12 trace elements, including 4 elements with relevance for plant nutrition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) and 8 trace elements, belonging to the group of metalloids, lanthanides and actinides with high relevance in phytoremediation (Cd, Pb Th, U) and phytomining research (Sc, La, Nd, Ge). The experiment was carried out on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the intercropping-dependent mobilization of trace metals in soil and enhanced uptake of elements by oat, white lupine and oat were cultivated on 20 plots (4 m² each) in monocultures and mixed cultures and two different white lupin /oat-ratios (11% and 33%, respectively) applying various treatments. The geometrical arrangement of plots was randomized and every treatment was fivefold replicated. Soil solution was collected weekly with plastic suction cups. Concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat and soil solution were measured with ICP-MS. As a result, we found that both, concentrations of trace elements in oat plants, as well as the mobility of P and trace metals in soil solution was increased by an intercropping with white lupine. Mixed culture of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of the trace nutrients Fe, Mn and Zn, as well as the concentrations of the trace metals Pb, La, Nd, Sc, Th and U in tissues of oat. Surprisingly, mixed cultures with 33 % white lupin did not significantly affect trace metal concentrations in oat, what might be the consequence of an increasing competition of roots of white lupin and oat for nutrients and trace metals. In conclusion we found that mixed cultures of white lupin with cereals might be a powerful tool for enhanced phytoremediation and phytomining. However, processes involved in the physiochemical mechanism of element uptake as affected by the oat/white lupin co-cultivation remain unknown and further studies on this topic are planned. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  3. Effects of extracts of lupine seed on blood glucose levels in glucose resistant mice: antihyperglycemic effects of Lupinus albus (white lupine, Egypt) and Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine, Mesa Verde National Park).

    PubMed

    Knecht, Kathryn T; Nguyen, Hoa; Auker, Adrienne D; Kinder, David H

    2006-01-01

    Lupine is a medicinal food plant with potential value in the management of diabetes. In white mice, extracts of seeds of the white lupine [Lupinus albus (L. termis L.)] were associated with increased tolerance to an oral glucose bolus. Antihyperglycemic activity was present in extracts of the whole seed but not extracts of the seed coat, and was not detected when glucose was administered intraperitoneally rather than orally. However, in contrast to results seen with the prescription drug, acarbose, lupine extract did not appear to increase the bulk or carbohydrate content of the feces. Antihyperglycemic activity was also seen in extracts of the tailcup lupine (L. caudatus) found in the Four Corners Region of the United States. PMID:17317651

  4. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant), in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%), followed by protein modification/turnover (9%), redox regulation (8%), cell structural components (6%), stress and defence response (6%) with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT) protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt) 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams) and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level). Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes. PMID:21342527

  5. Hormonal interactions during cluster-root development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengrui; Rahman, A B M Moshiur; Wang, Guoying; Ludewig, Uwe; Shen, Jianbo; Neumann, Günter

    2015-04-01

    This study addresses hormonal interactions involved in cluster-root (CR) development of phosphate (Pi)-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus), which represents the most efficient plant strategy for root-induced mobilisation of sparingly soluble soil phosphorus (P) sources. Shoot-to-root translocation of auxin was unaffected by P-limitation, while strong stimulatory effects of external sucrose on CR formation, even in P-sufficient plants, suggest sucrose, rather than auxins, acts as a shoot-borne signal, triggering the induction of CR primordia. Ethylene may act as mediator of the sucrose signal, as indicated by moderately increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis in pre-emergent clusters and by strong inhibitory effects of the ethylene antagonist CoCl2 on CR formation induced by sucrose amendments or P-limitation. As reported in other plants, moderately increased production of brassinosteroids (BRs) and cytokinin, in pre-emergent clusters, may be required for the formation of auxin gradients necessary for induction of CR primordia via interference with auxin biosynthesis and transport. The well-documented inhibition of root elongation by high doses of ethylene may be involved in the growth inhibition of lateral rootlets during CR maturation, indicated by a massive increased expression of gene involved in ethylene production, associated with a declined expression of transcripts with stimulatory effects (BR and auxin-related genes). PMID:25668414

  6. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages of bioavailable Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr, which were 5.7±0.7, 5.3±1.7, 1.2±0.1, 12±1.5 and 0.1±0.02%, respectively, before lupin growth, increased to 9.6±1.6, 7±2, 2±0.3, 14±1.5 and 0.1±0.02% after lupin harvest. On the whole, our results indicate that the winter cultivation of white lupin in sequence with a metal-accumulator summer crop can improve the recovery of soil quality during the phytoextraction period. It improves the safety of the area, limiting additional ecological and human health problems, and enhances soil health by avoiding the use of chemical amendments and by increasing the levels of viable microorganisms. PMID:24992047

  7. Nitric oxide is the shared signalling molecule in phosphorus- and iron-deficiency-induced formation of cluster roots in white lupin (Lupinus albus)

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhi Bin; Chen, Li Qian; Suo, Dong; Li, Gui Xin; Tang, Cai Xian; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Formation of cluster roots is one of the most specific root adaptations to nutrient deficiency. In white lupin (Lupinus albus), cluster roots can be induced by phosphorus (P) or iron (Fe) deficiency. The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential shared signalling pathway in P- and Fe-deficiency-induced cluster root formation. Methods Measurements were made of the internal concentration of nutrients, levels of nitric oxide (NO), citrate exudation and expression of some specific genes under four P × Fe combinations, namely (1) 50 µm P and 10 µm Fe (+P + Fe); (2) 0 P and 10 µm Fe (–P + Fe); (3) 50 µm P and 0 Fe (+P–Fe); and (4) 0 P and 0 Fe (–P–Fe), and these were examined in relation to the formation of cluster roots. Key Results The deficiency of P, Fe or both increased the cluster root number and cluster zones. It also enhanced NO accumulation in pericycle cells and rootlet primordia at various stages of cluster root development. The formation of cluster roots and rootlet primordia, together with the expression of LaSCR1 and LaSCR2 which is crucial in cluster root formation, were induced by the exogenous NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) under the +P + Fe condition, but were inhibited by the NO-specific endogenous scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl- 3-oxide (cPTIO) under –P + Fe, +P–Fe and –P–Fe conditions. However, cluster roots induced by an exogenous supply of the NO donor did not secrete citrate, unlike those formed under –P or –Fe conditions. Conclusions NO plays an important role in the shared signalling pathway of the P- and Fe-deficiency-induced formation of cluster roots in white lupin. PMID:22351487

  8. Transgenic yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Li; S. J. Wylie; M. G. K. Jones

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) plants have been generated by meristem co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The binary plasmid pPZBNIa contains the bar gene under the control of a CaMV 35?S promoter. The transformation method involves inoculation of embryonic axis explants\\u000a with A. tumefaciens, flooding the meristem with glufosinate, and initial culture on non-selective medium. Shoots were transferred to culture

  9. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this element. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  10. Auxin mediates patterning of cluster root development induced by phosphorus deficiency in Lupinus albus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) develops cluster roots under phosphorus (P) deficiency. This species is widely used as a model system to study the morphology and physiology of cluster roots. However, the mechanism of P deficiency-induced cluster root formation is not fully understood. To evaluate the...

  11. A re-assessment of sucrose signaling involved in cluster-root formation and function in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengrui; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2015-07-01

    Apart from substrate functions, a signaling role of sucrose in root growth regulation is well established. This raised the question whether sucrose signals might also be involved in formation of cluster-roots (CRs) under phosphate (Pi) limitation, mediating exudation of phosphorus (P)-mobilizing root exudates, e.g. in Lupinus albus and members of the Proteaceae. Earlier studies demonstrated that CR formation in L. albus was mimicked to some extent by external application of high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) in the presence of extremely high P supply (1-10 mM), usually suppressing CR formation. In this study, we re-addressed this question using an axenic hydroponic culture system with normal P supply (0.1 mM) and a range of sucrose applications (0.25-25 mM). The 2.5 mM sucrose concentration was comparable with internal sucrose levels in the zone of CR initiation in first-order laterals of P-deficient plants (3.4 mM) and induced the same CR morphology. Similar to earlier studies, high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) resulted in root thickening and inhibition of root elongation, associated with a 10-fold increase of the internal sucrose level. The sucrose analog palatinose and a combination of glucose/fructose failed to stimulate CR formation under P-sufficient conditions, demonstrating a signal function of sucrose and excluding osmotic or carbon source effects. In contrast to earlier findings, sucrose was able to induce CR formation but had no effect on CR functioning with respect to citrate exudation, in vitro activity and expression of genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, secretory acid phosphatase and MATE transporters, mediating P-mobilizing functions of CRs. PMID:25412792

  12. Rapid shotgun proteomic liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-based method for the lupin ( Lupinus albus L.) multi-allergen determination in foods.

    PubMed

    Mattarozzi, Monica; Bignardi, Chiara; Elviri, Lisa; Careri, Maria

    2012-06-13

    Allergy to lupin is a growing food safety problem because this legume, increasingly exploited in the food industry, is one of the allergens that, according to law, must be declared on the labels of food products in the European Union. In this context, a rapid targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis was proposed and aimed to unequivocal confirmation and reliable determination of the major lupin allergens, i.e., conglutins, in pasta and biscuits. Detected concentrations were around 1 mg of lupin/kg of pasta and biscuits, proving the capabilities of the MS-based method in terms of the sensitive allergen screening method. Good precision was observed in terms of both intra- and interday repeatability, with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 23%. Recoveries from 95 ± 10 to 118 ± 12% and from 103 ± 1 to 110 ± 12% ranges were calculated for biscuits and pasta, respectively. Finally, the applicability of the devised method was investigated by analyzing market samples containing lupin and samples that may possibly contain traces of lupin deriving from cross-contamination between products and production lines. PMID:22612429

  13. Interactions Between High pH and Iron Supply on Nodulation and Iron Nutrition of Lupinus albus L. Genotypes Differing in Sensitivity to Iron Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tang; S. J. Zheng; Y. F. Qiao; G. H. Wang; X. Z. Han

    2006-01-01

    Poor growth of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on alkaline soils may result from its sensitivity to iron deficiency and poor nodulation. This study examined interactive\\u000a effects of iron supply and high pH on the growth and nodulation of three genotypes differing in their sensitivity to iron\\u000a deficiency. Three genotypes (P27486, Ultra and WTD180) were grown for 17 days in buffered

  14. Possibilities of chemical weed control in Lupinus albus and Lupinus luteus-screening of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Dewitte, K; Latré, J; Haesaert, G

    2006-01-01

    Weed control in sweet lupins is still a problem. Especially the phytotoxicity of herbicides in sweet lupins is not enough studied. Therefore a screening with 16 selected herbicides and 4 lupin varieties has been set up. During the growing season 2005, 10 of the tested herbicides were applied in pre-emergence, 6 in post-emergence. Pre-emergence: Most of the active matters tested in pre-emergence were not phytotoxic for lupins. Pendimethalin (1000 g/ha), linuron (500 g/ha), chlorotoluron (1500 g/ha), prosulfocarb (2400 g/ha), clomazone (72 g/ha), isoxaben (100 g/ha), metamitron (1050 g/ha) and dimethenamid-P (720 g/ha) were applied without causing any significant phytotoxic symptoms. Only the lupins treated with aclonifen (1200 g/ha) showed a significant growth inhibition, 3 weeks after treatment. Significantly more chlorosis was noticed when the lupins were treated with aclonifen or with diflufenican, in preemergence. Post-emergence: In post-emergence, diflufenican (50 g/ha) did not cause any crop damage. Florasulam (5 g/ha) caused almost 100% necrosis in L. albus as well as in L. luteus. Bentazon (652 g/ha), thifensulfuron-methyl (15 g/ha) and metribuzin (175 g/ha) caused obvious necrosis and growth inhibition of the crop. The growth inhibition was significantly more severe for lupins treated with bentazon than if they were treated with thifensulfuron-methyl or metribuzin. Three weeks after treatment, clomazone (90 g/ha) and diflufenican (50 g/ha), did not cause any crop injury at all. The results indicated an interesting range of active matters which can be applied in pre-emergence, but weed control in post-emergence stays difficult. PMID:17390816

  15. THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein is limited. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins' thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties of lupin meal was studi...

  16. Article original Valeur alimentaire du lupin blanc

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Effet de la cuisson-extrusion D Bangoula, JP Parent, F Vellas* Laboratoire d). Effects of extrusion cooking. Two experiments were conducted in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss lupin. Oncorhynchus mykiss= rainbow trout / Lupinus albus = white lupin / extrusion / digestibility

  17. THE THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thermal and rheological properties of lupin flour meal were investigated by DSC and rheometry. DSC study exhibited that non-de-fatted and de-fatted lupin meal had the identical thermal properties, and lupin had the same glass transition as the wheat protein gluten. By measuring the linear rheo...

  18. THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is very little research done in the area of structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties o...

  19. Phosphorus deficiency affects the allocation of below-ground resources to combined cluster roots and nodules in Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Thuynsma, Rochelle; Valentine, Alex; Kleinert, Aleysia

    2014-02-15

    Lupins can rely on both cluster roots and nodules for P acquisition and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), respectively. The resource allocation (C, N and P) between cluster roots and nodules has been largely understudied during P-deficient conditions. The aim of this investigation was therefore to determine the changes in resource allocation between these organs during fluctuations in P supply. Lupinus albus was cultivated in sand culture for 3 weeks, with either sufficient (2 mM high) or limiting (0.1 mM low) P supply. Although variation on P supply had no effect on the total biomass, there were significant differences in specialised below-ground organ allocation to cluster roots and nodule formation. Cluster root formation and the associated C-costs increased during low P supply, but at sufficient P-supply the construction and growth respiration costs of cluster roots declined along with their growth. In contrast to the cluster root decline at high P supply, there was an increase in nodule growth allocation and corresponding C-costs. However, this was not associated with an increase in BNF. Since cluster roots were able to increase P acquisition under low P conditions, this below-ground investment may also have benefited the P nutrition of nodules. These findings provide evidence that when lupins acquire N via BNF in their nodules, there may be a trade-off in resource allocation between cluster roots and nodules. PMID:24129121

  20. Biosynthesis of a (1. -->. 4)-. beta. -D-glucan. [Lupinus albus

    SciTech Connect

    Brummond, D.O.

    1983-01-01

    An enzymatic activity isolated from Lupinus albus that produced an insoluble (1..-->..4)-..beta..-D-glucan from UDP-D-glucose has been solubilized and partially purified. Some of the properties of the enzyme system have been characterized. A proposed sequence of reactions between UDP-D-glucose and the final dextran may involve a (1..-->..4)-..beta..-linked polysaccharide bonded to UDP.

  1. Characterisation of a developmentally related polypeptide with glutelin solubility characteristics from Lupinus albus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Júlia Costa; David A. Ashford; Cândido P. Pinto Ricardo

    1996-01-01

    Proteins from Lupinus albus L. cv. Rio Maior seeds were fractionated according to solubility criteria. Patterns of concanavalin A (ConA)-binding polypeptides from the different classes, albumins, globulins, glutelins and prolamins, were established by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two bands of apparent molecular masses of 29 and 23.5 kDa with glutelin solubility characteristics bound the lectin. The 23.5-kDa band was

  2. Presence of nitric oxide synthase activity in roots and nodules of Lupinus albus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercedes Cueto; Octavio Hernández-Perera; Raquel Martín; Maria Luisa Bentura; José Rodrigo; Santiago Lamas; Maria Pilar Golvano

    1996-01-01

    NO is a widespread messenger molecule in physiology. We were interested in investigating whether an NO-generating system could be present in plants. NO and l-[14C]citrulline were synthesized by roots and nodules of Lupinus albus in an l-arginine-dependent manner. l-[14C]Citrulline production was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-l-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase antagonist, in a competitive way. NADPH-diaphorase activity was localized in the vascular

  3. Differential expression of four genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-caroboxylate synthase in Lupinus albus during germination, and in response to indole-3-acetic acid and wounding.

    PubMed

    Bekman, E P; Saibo, N J; Di Cataldo, A; Regalado, A P; Ricardo, C P; Rodrigues-Pousada, C

    2000-10-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS; EC 4.4.1.14) is the key regulatory enzyme of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and is encoded by a multigene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, mung bean and other plants. Southern blot analysis revealed the existence of at least five ACS genes in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) genome. Four complete and one partial sequences representing different ACS genes were cloned from the lupin genomic library. The levels of expression of two of the genes, LA-ACS1 and LA-ACS3, were found to increase after hypocotyl wounding. Apparently, these two genes were up-regulated by exogenous IAA treatment of seedlings. The LA-ACS3 mRNA levels were also elevated in the apical part of hypocotyl, which is reported to contain a high endogenous auxin concentration. This gene may be involved in the auxin- and ethylene-controlled apical hook formation. The expression of the LA-ACS4 gene was found to be almost undetectable. This gene may represent a "silent" twin of LA-ACS5 as these two genes share a considerable level of homology in coding and non-coding regions. The LA-ACS5 mRNA is strongly up-regulated in the embryonic axis of germinating seeds at the time of radicle emergence, and was also found in roots and hypocotyls of lupin seedlings. PMID:11089679

  4. Lupinus albus L. pathogenesis-related proteins that show similarity to PR10 proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Paula Pinto; Cândido P. P. Ricardo

    1995-01-01

    We describe a group of three acidic proteins, pathogenesis- related (PR)-pl6.5a, PR-p16.5b, and PR-pl6.5c, that accumulate in the leaves of Lupinus albus L. cv Rio Maior plants when infected with the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. These pro- teins co-migrate in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels as a single band of 16.5 kD, behaving as charge isomers, and are related to several

  5. Nitric oxide is involved in phosphorus deficiency-induced cluster root development and citrate exudation in white lupin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) forms specialized cluster roots characterized by exudation of organic anions under phosphorus (P) deficiency. Here, we evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in P deficiency-induced cluster-root formation and citrate exudation in white lupin. Plants were treated with NO ...

  6. Incorporation of high levels of extruded lupin in diets for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss): nutritional value and effect on thyroid status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Burel; Thierry Boujard; Geneviève Corraze; Sadasivam J Kaushik; Gilles Boeuf; Koen A Mol; Serge Van Der Geyten; Eduard R Kühn

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments and a digestibility trial were conducted in order to assess the incorporation of extruded lupin (Lupinus albus) in diets for juvenile rainbow trout. Digestibility of protein and phosphorus were higher in lupin than in fish meal, but digestibility of dry matter and energy were lower. The first trial was designed to determine the maximum level of incorporation of

  7. Cluster Roots of Leucadendron laureolum (Proteaceae) and Lupinus albus (Fabaceae) Take Up Glycine Intact: An Adaptive Strategy to Low Mineral Nitrogen in Soils?

    PubMed Central

    HAWKINS, HEIDI-JAYNE; WOLF, GABRIELLE; STOCK, WILLIAM DAVID

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims South African soils are not only low in phosphorus (P) but most nitrogen (N) is in organic form, and soil amino acid concentrations can reach 2·6?g kg?1 soil. The Proteaceae (a main component of the South African Fynbos vegetation) and some Fabaceae produce cluster roots in response to low soil phosphorus. The ability of these roots to acquire the amino acid glycine (Gly) was assessed. • Methods Uptake of organic N as 13C–15N-Gly was determined in cluster roots and non-cluster roots of Leucadendron laureolum (Proteaceae) and Lupinus albus (Fabaceae) in hydroponic culture, taking account of respiratory loss of 13CO2. • Key Results Both plant species acquired doubly labelled (intact) Gly, and respiratory losses of 13CO2 were small. Lupin (but not leucadendron) acquired more intact Gly when cluster roots were supplied with 13C–15N-Gly than when non-cluster roots were supplied. After treatment with labelled Gly (13C : 15N ratio = 1), lupin cluster roots had a 13C : 15N ratio of about 0·85 compared with 0·59 in labelled non-cluster roots. Rates of uptake of label from Gly did not differ between cluster and non-cluster roots of either species. The ratio of C : N and 13C : 15N in the plant increased in the order: labelled roots < rest of the root < shoot in both species, owing to an increasing proportion of 13C translocation. • Conclusions Cluster roots of lupin specifically acquired more intact Gly than non-cluster roots, whereas Gly uptake by the cluster and non-cluster roots of leucadendron was comparable. The uptake capacities of cluster roots are discussed in relation to spatial and morphological characteristics in the natural environment. PMID:16223736

  8. White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a phosphate (Pi) deficiency tolerant legume which develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and...

  9. Molecular Analysis of SCARECROW Genes Expressed in White Lupin Cluster Roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Scarecrow (SCR) transcription factor plays a crucial role in root cell radial patterning and is required for maintenance of the quiescent center and differentiation of the endodermis. In response to phosphorus (P) deficiency, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) root surface area increases some 50- to...

  10. TILLAGE AND ROTATION EFFECTS ON LUPIN IN DOUBLE-CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful introduction of a new crop into a region requires that basic crop management parameters be determined and provided to producers through an information extension system. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was cultivated in the southeastern USA from 1930-1950 on up to 1 million ha, primarily a...

  11. The analysis of Lupinus albus root proteome revealed cytoskeleton altered features due to long-term boron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Alves, M; Moes, S; Jenö, P; Pinheiro, C; Passarinho, J; Ricardo, C P

    2011-08-12

    Boron (B) deficiency greatly limits plants' growth and development. Since the root is the organ that first senses the deficiency, we have analyzed the adaptive responses of Lupinus albus roots to long-term B deficiency. Large morphological differences were observed between plants grown with or without B, and 265 polypeptides were found to be responsive to B deficiency out of a total of 406 polypeptides detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis in the L. albus root proteome. By using mass spectrometry techniques we were able to securely identify 128 of the responsive polypeptides that are related to cell wall metabolism, cell structure, defense, energy pathways and protein metabolism. The detection of multiple peptide isoforms is striking, suggesting that protein modification may have an important contribution during the plant response to long-term B deficiency. Furthermore, detected changes in cytoskeletal associated proteins indicate altered cytoskeletal biosynthesis and suggest that B may have an important contribution in this process. PMID:21406259

  12. RNA-Seq atlas of white lupin: a guide to the phosphorus deficiency response pathway in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptation systems for growth in P-deficient conditions (-P) in soils including: 1) development of densely clustered determinant lateral roots called pr...

  13. White lupin protein isolate as a foaming agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Raymundo; J. Empis; I. Sousa

    1998-01-01

    In this work the foaming ability of white lupin protein isolates was investigated in order to evaluate the potential use\\u000a of these isolates as functional additives in food products and to find a vegetable alternative to egg-white foams. Lupinus albus protein isolate, modified in order to improve its foaming ability, was tested. Thermal denaturation, chemical treatment (acylation)\\u000a and enzymatic hydrolysis

  14. Biplot analysis of trait relations of white lupin in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rubio; J. I. Cubero; L. M. Martín; M. J. Suso; F. Flores

    2004-01-01

    A 2-year study of autumn-sown white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was conducted under rainfed Mediterranean conditions in southern Spain. 108 landraces were evaluated for yield and major\\u000a phonological and plant structural characteristics. Path coefficient and Genotype-Trait (GT) biplot analysis were used. Applying\\u000a both types of analyses to the multiple trait data revealed that GT biplot graphically displayed the interrelationships among

  15. Identification of genes induced in proteoid roots of white lupin under nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with functional characterization of a formamidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is considered a model system for understanding plant acclimation to nutrient deficiency. It acclimates to phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots; proteoid-root development ...

  16. Functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, and health aspects of Lupinus albus protein isolates.

    PubMed

    Yoshie-Stark, Yumiko; Bez, Jürgen; Wada, Yoshiko; Wäsche, Andreas

    2004-12-15

    To utilize lupin seeds for food and pharmaceutical applications, lupin seeds were pretreated to remove oil using hexane or carbon dioxide. Two types of lupin protein isolate were prepared. Both types of protein isolate showed good foaming activity, comparable to egg white. Protein isolate extracted under acid conditions showed higher foaming activity than protein isolate extracted at neutral pH. The lipoxygenase activity was much reduced in both of the protein isolates. The protein isolate extracted at neutral pH showed a stronger angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition than the protein isolate extracted under acidic pH. In contrast, the protein isolate extracted under acid conditions had a greater sodium cholate binding capacity, comparable to that of cholestyramine. Lupin samples showed less DPPH radical scavenging activity than deoiled soybean. The deoiling method did not affect the functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, sodium cholate binding, and radical scavenging activity. PMID:15675820

  17. Enhanced Methionine Levels and Increased Nutritive Value of Seeds of Transgenic Lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) Expressing a Sunflower Seed Albumin Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Molvig; Linda M. Tabe; Bjorn O. Eggum; Andrew E. Moore; Stuart Craig; Donald Spencer; Thomas J. V. Higgins

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of improving the nutritive value of an important grain legume crop, a chimeric gene specifying seed-specific expression of a sulfur-rich, sunflower seed albumin was stably transformed into narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Sunflower seed albumin accounted for 5% of extractable seed protein in a line containing a single tandem insertion of the transferred DNA. The transgenic seeds

  18. Comportement du lupin blanc, Lupinus albus L, cv Lublanc, en sols calcaires. Seuils de tolrance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    par 2 réactifs différents, avec les valeurs du pH eau et CaCl2, ont été lâches bien que significatives (chlorotic leaf symptoms, chlorophyll leaf content, total dry matter yield), was the content of CaCO3 results on the contrary were poorly related to DTPA or (COONH4)2- extractable Fe soil content and to water

  19. THE VALUE OF LUPINUS ALBUS L. CV. AU HOMER AS A WINTER COVER CROP FOR COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) management in the southeastern USA with conservation tillage requires the utilization of winter cover crops to increase organic matter in the top 5 cm of the soil. The objective of our research was to test the newly-developed bitter white lupin cv. `AU Home...

  20. Lipoxygenase activity in different species of sweet lupin (Lupinus L.) seeds and flakes.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Michael; Bader-Mittermaier, Stephanie; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-05-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalysed degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids is supposed to be a major cause of undesirable off-flavour development in legumes. In the present study, a photometric LOX assay including adequate sample workup was adapted to lupin seeds, kernels and flakes, respectively. Optimum reaction conditions were at pH 7.5 using a phosphate buffer concentration of 150 mmol l(-1) without the addition of sodium chloride. The LOX activities of different lupin species and varieties were compared. Significant variations among the species and varieties ranging from 50 to 1004 units mg(-1) protein were determined, being significantly lower than soybean LOX activity. Hulling and flaking of the seeds resulted in a 15% increase of LOX activity. In contrast to soy and other legumes, LOX from lupin only converted free fatty acids, whereas trilinolein and ?-carotene were not oxidised. Consequently, according to the established classification, lupin LOX activity may be assigned to the LOX type-1, which, to the best of our knowledge, was demonstrated for the first time. PMID:25529698

  1. Lupine inhalation induced asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; Gil-Adrados, Ana C; Domínguez-Noche, Carmen; Cosmes, Pedro M

    2005-09-01

    The ingestion of lupine seed flour has been reported as a cause of allergic reactions. There is some evidence of its allergenic potential after inhalation. An 8-year-old asthmatic child, who was allergic to peanut, was studied in our clinic with the suspicion of an adverse drug reaction due to salbutamol. He suffered an asthma attack while playing with his brother, who had been eating lupine seed as snack; surprisingly, the asthma attack worsened with salbutamol. The skin tests showed a positive result with Lupinus albus extract, peanut, garbanzo bean, navy bean, pea, green bean, lentil, soy, Olea europea pollen, grass pollen and Plantago lanceolata pollen. The prick-by-prick tests both from dried seeds and those preserved in salt and water were strongly positive. Serum specific IgE antibodies were positive to Lupine albus (1.43 kU/l), peanut (4.32 kU/l), soy (2.15 kU/l), lentil (3.12 kU/l) and garbanzo (0.7 kU/l). After informed consent salbutamol was well tolerated but the patient had asthma in 5 min of manipulation of the lupine seeds. In our case, reactivity with other legumes was also demonstrated, but only peanut allergy was relevant because boiled legumes were tolerated. It is also notorious that anamnesis is so important to assess the true etiological agents of asthma. PMID:16176404

  2. The effect of nitrogen nutrition on cluster root formation and proton extrusion by Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Sas, Lidia; Rengel, Zed; Tang, Caixian

    2002-04-01

    Nitrogen nutrition can influence cluster root formation in many wild species, but the effect of N form on cluster root formation and root exudation by white lupin is not known. In a solution culture study, we examined the effect of N nutrition (ammonium, nitrate, both or N2 fixation) on cluster root formation and H+ extrusion by white lupin plants under deficient and adequate P supply. The number of cluster roots increased greatly when plants were supplied with I microM P compared with 50 microM P, the increase being 7.8-fold for plants treated with (NH4)2SO4, 3-fold for plants treated with KNO3 and NH4NO3, and 2-4-fold for N2-fixing plants. Under P deficiency. NH4+-N supply resulted in production of a greater number and biomass of cluster roots than other N sources. Dry weight of cluster roots was 30 % higher than that of non-cluster roots in P-deficient plants treated with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3. In plants treated with sufficient P (50 microM), the weight of non-cluster roots was approx. 90 % greater than that of cluster roots. Both total (micromol per plant h(-1)) and specific (micromol g(-1) root d. wt h(-1)) H+ extrusions were greatest from roots of plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4, followed by those supplied with NH4NO3 and N2 fixation, whereas plants receiving KNO3 had negative net H+ extrusion between the third and fifth week of growth (indicating uptake of protons or release of OH- ions). The rate of proton extrusion by NH4+-N-fed plants was similar under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. In contrast, proton exudation by N2-fixing plants and KNO3-treated plants was ten-fold greater under P deficiency than under P sufficiency. In comparison with P deficiency, plants treated with 50 microM P had a significantly higher concentration of P in roots, shoots and youngest expanded leaves (YEL). Compared with the N2 fixation and KNO3 treatments, total N concentration was highest in roots, shoots and YEL of plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, regardless of P supply. Under P deficiency, K concentrations in roots decreased at all N supplies, especially in plants treated with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, which coincided with the greatest H+ extrusion at these P and N supplies. In conclusion, NH4-N nutrition stimulated cluster root formation and H+ extrusion by roots of P-deficient white lupin. PMID:12096804

  3. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    Przysiecka, ?ucja; Ksi??kiewicz, Micha?; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI), a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL), and fatty acid-binding (FAP) proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1) main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis, and Glycine. PMID:25954293

  4. Soil microorganisms and the growth of Lupinus albus on a high metal soil in the presence of EDTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishan Chander; Rainer Georg Joergensen

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was designed with the objective of determining whether the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and the resulting mobilization of heavy metals have any affect on: (i) soil microorganisms, (ii) growth of L. albus, and (iii) microbial colonization of roots. There was no effect of the different treatments on the contents of soil microbial biomass C and microbial

  5. Energy and protein value of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and its mode of utilization in pig feeding

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of fattening pigs. Results of two trials concerning substitution of cassava for barley in bacon pig feeding P in the growing-finishing pig for studying the utilization of poor quality cassava incorporated at increasing (group 1), 15 p. joocassava (group 2), 3o p. i oo cassava (group3) i.e. 30 pigs per treatment

  6. Enhanced methionine levels and increased nutritive value of seeds of transgenic lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) expressing a sunflower seed albumin?gene

    PubMed Central

    Molvig, Lisa; Tabe, Linda M.; Eggum, Bjorn O.; Moore, Andrew E.; Craig, Stuart; Spencer, Donald; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of improving the nutritive value of an important grain legume crop, a chimeric gene specifying seed-specific expression of a sulfur-rich, sunflower seed albumin was stably transformed into narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Sunflower seed albumin accounted for 5% of extractable seed protein in a line containing a single tandem insertion of the transferred DNA. The transgenic seeds contained less sulfate and more total amino acid sulfur than the nontransgenic parent line. This was associated with a 94% increase in methionine content and a 12% reduction in cysteine content. There was no statistically significant change in other amino acids or in total nitrogen or total sulfur contents of the seeds. In feeding trials with rats, the transgenic seeds gave statistically significant increases in live weight gain, true protein digestibility, biological value, and net protein utilization, compared with wild-type seeds. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using genetic engineering to improve the nutritive value of grain crops. PMID:9237987

  7. Effects of self-pollination and maternal resources on reproduction and offspring performance in the wild lupine, Lupinus perennis (Fabaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J. Shi; H. J. Michaels; R. J. Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of self-pollination and resource addition to maternal plants of Wild Lupine on seed production in\\u000a the field, and on offspring performance in the greenhouse. Although 24% of flowers set fruits when open-pollinated, only 11%\\u000a of flowers set fruits when self-pollinated. Self-pollination significantly reduced fruit and seed production per inflorescence\\u000a and increased aborted seeds per fruit. Resource

  8. Nutrient Metabolism The Utilization of Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and Faba Bean Globulins by Rats Is Poorer than of Soybean Globulins or Lactalbumin but the Nutritional Value of Lupin Seed Meal Is Lower only than That of Lactalbumin1'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUIS A. RUBIO; GEORGE GRANT; PIOTR W. O. SCISLOWSKI; DAVID BROWN

    The effects of dietary sweet lupin (Lu pinus angustifolius, (Jnicrop)seed meal or its insoluble fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides + lignin) on perfor mance, digestibility and nitrogen utilization in growing rats were studied in four experiments. Globulinproteins isolated from lupin, faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor) or soybean (Glycine max) were also incorporated into pu rified diets as replacements for lactalbumin (control)

  9. Occurrence of H(2)-Uptake Hydrogenases in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) and Their Expression in Nodules of Lupinus spp. and Ornithopus compressus.

    PubMed

    Murillo, J; Villa, A; Chamber, M; Ruiz-Argüeso, T

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-four strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) from worldwide collections were screened by a colony hybridization method for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the structural genes of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase. Twelve strains exhibited strong colony hybridization signals, and subsequent Southern blot hybridization experiments showed that they fell into two different groups on the basis of the pattern of EcoRI fragments containing the homology to the hup probe. All strains in the first group (UPM860, UPM861, and 750) expressed uptake hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, and Ornithopus compressus, but both the rate of H(2) uptake by bacteroids and the relative efficiency of N(2) fixation (RE = 1 - [H(2) evolved in air/acetylene reduced]) by nodules were markedly affected by the legume host. L. angustifolius was the less permissive host for hydrogenase expression in symbiosis with the three strains (average RE = 0.76), and O. compressus was the more permissive (average RE = 1.0). None of the strains in the second group expressed hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules, and only one exhibited low H(2)-uptake activity in symbiosis with O. compressus. The inability of these putative Hup(+) strains to induce hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules is discussed on the basis of the legume host effect. Among the 42 strains showing no homology to the B. japonicum hup-specific probe in the colony hybridization assay, 10 were examined in symbiosis with L. angustifolius. The average RE for these strains was 0.51. However, one strain, IM43B, exhibited high RE values (higher than 0.80) and high levels of hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with L. angustifolius, L. albus, and L. luteus. In Southern blot hybridization experiments, no homology was detected between the B. japonicum hup-specific DNA probe and total DNA from vegetative cells or bacteroids from strain IM43B even under low stringency hybridization conditions. We conclude from these results that strain IM43B contains hup DNA sequences different from those in B. japonicum and in other lupine rhizobia strains. PMID:16666550

  10. Occurrence of H2-Uptake Hydrogenases in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) and Their Expression in Nodules of Lupinus spp. and Ornithopus compressus1

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Jesús; Villa, Ana; Chamber, Manuel; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-four strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) from worldwide collections were screened by a colony hybridization method for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the structural genes of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase. Twelve strains exhibited strong colony hybridization signals, and subsequent Southern blot hybridization experiments showed that they fell into two different groups on the basis of the pattern of EcoRI fragments containing the homology to the hup probe. All strains in the first group (UPM860, UPM861, and 750) expressed uptake hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, and Ornithopus compressus, but both the rate of H2 uptake by bacteroids and the relative efficiency of N2 fixation (RE = 1 - [H2 evolved in air/acetylene reduced]) by nodules were markedly affected by the legume host. L. angustifolius was the less permissive host for hydrogenase expression in symbiosis with the three strains (average RE = 0.76), and O. compressus was the more permissive (average RE = 1.0). None of the strains in the second group expressed hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules, and only one exhibited low H2-uptake activity in symbiosis with O. compressus. The inability of these putative Hup+ strains to induce hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules is discussed on the basis of the legume host effect. Among the 42 strains showing no homology to the B. japonicum hup-specific probe in the colony hybridization assay, 10 were examined in symbiosis with L. angustifolius. The average RE for these strains was 0.51. However, one strain, IM43B, exhibited high RE values (higher than 0.80) and high levels of hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with L. angustifolius, L. albus, and L. luteus. In Southern blot hybridization experiments, no homology was detected between the B. japonicum hup-specific DNA probe and total DNA from vegetative cells or bacteroids from strain IM43B even under low stringency hybridization conditions. We conclude from these results that strain IM43B contains hup DNA sequences different from those in B. japonicum and in other lupine rhizobia strains. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666550

  11. Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction – Many species in the Lupinus genus are poorly defined resulting in improper taxonomic identification. Lupine species may contain quinolizidine and/or piperidine alkaloids that can be acutely toxic and/or teratogenic resulting in crooked calf disease. Objective – To identify any char...

  12. Lupine Colonies (not yet published; shorter version) Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens

    E-print Network

    del Moral, Roger

    on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens by Roger del Moral & Lara Rozzell Abstract: The nitrogen-fixing legume Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant herb on recently formed volcanic surfaces at Mount St. Helen species on Mount St. Helens. Some patches were established in 1981, others only within the last few years

  13. Matrix effects of lupine ( Lupinus luteus L.) and rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.) products on in vitro non-haem iron availability from pork meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne D. Sørensen; Hilmer Sørensen; Charlotte Bjergegaard; Keld E. Andersen; Ib Søndergaard; Susanne Sørensen; Klaus Bukhave

    2007-01-01

    Limited iron bioavailability is regarded as one of the most confounding factors responsible for low iron absorption and utilisation. In the gastrointestinal lumen of humans and monogastric animals, iron absorption is highly affected by dietary components that decrease or enhance iron availability. This study aims at investigating the matrix effects of lupine and rapeseed products on in vitro non-haem iron

  14. Response of lupins ( Lupinus angustifolius L.) and peas ( Pisum sativum L.) to Fe deficiency induced by low concentrations of Fe in solution or by addition of HCO 3 -

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. White; A. D. Robson

    1990-01-01

    Lupins appear to be more sensitive than peas to Fe deficiency. However, when grown in nutrient solutions between pH 5–6, little\\u000a difference existed between them in their ability to acidify the solution or to release FeIII reducing compounds. This experiment was aimed at determining whether differences between species which occurred when Fe deficiency\\u000a was induced by withholding Fe from an

  15. An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Orthophosphate-Deficient White Lupin Reveals Novel Insights into Phosphorus Acclimation in Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Jamie A.; Yang, S. Samuel; Miller, Susan S.; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W.; Vance, Carroll P.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (Pi), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in Pi-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to Pi supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ? 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to Pi deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ? 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to Pi deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the Pi status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in Pi deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. PMID:23197803

  16. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking. PMID:22566327

  17. White Lupin Cluster Root Acclimation to Phosphorus Deficiency and Root Hair Development Involve Unique Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterases1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lingyun; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Zinn, Kelly; Miller, Susan; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Allan, Deborah; Shen, Jianbo; Vance, Carroll P.

    2011-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) is a legume that is very efficient in accessing unavailable phosphorus (Pi). It develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report, we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2) from white lupin and propose a role for these two GPX-PDEs in root hair growth and development and in a Pi stress-induced phospholipid degradation pathway in cluster roots. Both GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are highly expressed in Pi-deficient cluster roots, particularly in root hairs, epidermal cells, and vascular bundles. Expression of both genes is a function of both Pi availability and photosynthate. GPX-PDE1 Pi deficiency-induced expression is attenuated as photosynthate is deprived, while that of GPX-PDE2 is strikingly enhanced. Yeast complementation assays and in vitro enzyme assays revealed that GPX-PDE1 shows catalytic activity with glycerophosphocholine while GPX-PDE2 shows highest activity with glycerophosphoinositol. Cell-free protein extracts from Pi-deficient cluster roots display GPX-PDE enzyme activity for both glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoinositol. Knockdown of expression of GPX-PDE through RNA interference resulted in impaired root hair development and density. We propose that white lupin GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are involved in the acclimation to Pi limitation by enhancing glycerophosphodiester degradation and mediating root hair development. PMID:21464471

  18. [Ruminal digestion and intestinal absorption of lupine proteins extruded in the lactating cow].

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R; Vernay, M

    1991-01-01

    Four lactating cows fitted with permanent ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae were used to study the effect of extrusion of whole lupin seeds at 195 degrees C (Lupinus albus cv Lublanc) on organic matter (OM) and nitrogen (N) degradation in the rumen and their flow to and absorption from the small intestine. Raw whole lupin seeds (RWLS) and extruded whole lupin seeds (EWLS) were fed in diets containing 15.5% crude protein and composed of 22.6% whole lupin seeds, 56.5% corn silage, 10.2% corn grain and 10.7% Italian ray-grass on a DM basis, supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Chromium ethylenediaminotetraacetic (Cr-EDTA) and ytterbium chloride (YbCl3) were used as liquid and particulate markers respectively, while purines and 15N ammonium sulfate were utilized as bacterial markers. Cows fed EWLS had a similar ruminal ammonia N and volatile fatty acid concentrations and efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis compared to those fed the RWLS diet. Total tract OM and N digestion were not affected by inclusion of EWLS instead of RWLS; the corresponding mean values were 70 and 71%. Apparent degradation of OM and N in the rumen were 44 and 64% for diets containing RWLS, and 40 and 39% for EWLS diets. Feeding diets including EWLS both increased non ammonia N and dietary N flow to the duodenum compared with diets containing RWLS (472 vs 357 g/d) and (263 vs 153 g/d) respectively. Absorption from the small intestine (g/d and % entering) of dietary N was higher for EWLS diets (146 vs 62 g/d; 34 vs 15%). The PDIA, PDIE and PDIN contents (g/kg of DM) of RWLS were 18, 94 and 245 respectively; the corresponding values after extrusion were 145, 220 and 220. PMID:1777057

  19. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    PubMed

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming. PMID:23279626

  20. In situ evaluation of the ruminal and intestinal degradability of extruded whole lupin seed nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Cros, P; Benchaar, C; Bayourthe, C; Vernay, M; Moncoulon, R

    1991-01-01

    The effect of whole lupin seeds (Lupinus albus cv Lublanc) at 120, 150 and 195 degrees C on in situ nitrogen degradability (Dg.N) was measured by the nylon bag technique using fistulated non-lactating Holstein cows. The N degradation was evaluated in nylon bags suspended in the rumen; heating the seeds at 120, 150 and 195 degrees C decreased the Dg.N value: 83.9, 72.9 and 53.0 respectively vs 95.3% (rumen outflow rate of 0.06/h). To estimate the total N disappearing in the digestive tract, bags were incubated in the rumen for 16 h, then in a pepsin bath for 2 h and then introduced into the duodenum for subsequently recovery in feces. The whole tract degradability of N was always high, approximately 98.3%. The amounts of N which disappeared in the intestine increased from 3.1 (untreated seeds) to 15.1, 26.3 and 44.7% as the temperature rose to 120, 150 and 195 degrees C respectively. The PDIN and PDIE contents (g/kg of DM) of the raw whole lupin seeds were 224 and 84 respectively; extrusion elevated these values by 10-32% for PDIN and 57-194% for PDIE. The augmentation in the supply of dietary proteins to the postruminal parts as a result of extrusion could rapidly benefit high yielding cows. PMID:1768316

  1. Whole-Plant Gas Exchange and Reductive Biosynthesis in White Lupin1

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Yan-Ping; Turpin, David H.; Layzell, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of CO2 (CER) and O2 (OER) exchange in roots and shoots of vegetative white lupin (Lupinus albus) were used to calculate the flow of reducing power to the synthesis of biomass that was more reduced per unit of carbon than carbohydrate. On a whole-plant basis, the diverted reductant utilization rate (DRUR which is: 4 × [CER + OER]) of shoot tissue was consistently higher than that of roots, and values obtained in the light were greater than those in the dark. An analysis of the biomass being synthesized over a 24-h period provided an estimate of whole-plant DRUR (3.5 mmol e? plant?1 d?1), which was similar to that measured by gas exchange (3.2 mmol e? plant?1 d?1). Given that nitrate reduction to ammonia makes up about 74% of whole-plant DRUR, root nitrate reduction in white lupin was estimated to account for less than 43% of whole-plant nitrate reduction. The approach developed here should offer a powerful tool for the noninvasive study of metabolic regulation in intact plants or plant organs. PMID:11500554

  2. Prick by Prick Induced Anaphylaxis in a Patient with Peanuts and Lupine Allergy: Awareness of Risks and Role of Component Resolved Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarelli, Anna; Calabrò, Claudia; Imperatore, Clara; Scala, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    A case of anaphylaxis is reported in the course of a prick by prick with Lupinus albus and roasted peanut in a 20-year-old woman. We focused on some main topics. First of all it seems important to underscore the potential risks connected to the practice of the prick-by-prick with fresh foods in allergic patients, especially when testing cross-reactive substances, such as White Lupine, peanuts, or soy. It is important that clinicians who perform prick tests be aware of the risk related with in vivo tests in allergic patients. Second, we discuss the problem of the hidden allergens, such as White Lupine flour, or soy flour which are utilized to improve wheat flour because of their lower cost. Patients with a demonstrated allergy to peanuts should be assessed for lupine allergy and informed about the “hidden allergens” issue. Finally, we believe that component resolved diagnosis, the serum specific IgE against molecular components, that is normally considered a second-level diagnostic step has an important role even as a first line approach at least in some selected cases. PMID:25477973

  3. Differential scanning calorimetry of lupin and soy proteins.

    PubMed

    Sousa, I M; Mitchell, J R; Ledward, D A; Hill, S E; da Costa, M L

    1995-12-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the 7S and 11S globulin fractions extracted from lupin seed (Lupinus luteus) flour. In agreement with previous work on other lupin species, the isolate showed three denaturation peaks compared to the two observed with soy. By comparison with the isolated globulin fractions, the denaturation peaks at the two higher temperatures in the lupin isolate were assigned to the 11S and 7S globulins. The denaturation temperature of the lupin 7S globulin was about 10 K higher than that for the corresponding soy globulin, whereas the values for the 11S globulin were similar. All globulins displayed increasing thermal stability with decreasing moisture contents. Possible reasons for the differences in behaviour of soy and lupin protein isolates are discussed. PMID:8585334

  4. A differential scanning calorimetry study of different lupin species meals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarida M. Falcão-Rodrigues; Margarida Moldão-Martins; Luisa M. Beirão-da-Costa

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the thermal behaviour of meals of six lupin species (L. albus, L. angustifolius, L. mutabilis, L. luteus, L. pilosus and L. hispanicus) by monitoring transition temperature, transition enthalpies and activation energy by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results showed two thermal transitions in the meals of all the species at about 27 °C and 53 °C

  5. The nutritional role of Lupinus arboreus in coastal sand dune forestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth L. Gadgil

    1971-01-01

    Summary  In the artificial plant succession used to stabilise coastal sand dunes in New Zealand,Lupinus arboreus is sown into plantedAmmophila arenaria stands primarily to provide shelter for youngPinus radiata trees. Recent observations have suggested that the lupin may play a nutritional, as well as a physical part in the stabilisation\\u000a technique. Work elsewhere with otherLupinus spp. and forest crops supports this

  6. Recovering Root System Traits Using Image Analysis Exemplified by Two-Dimensional Neutron Radiography Images of Lupine1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

  7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2012.00935.x Population dynamics of the invasive weed Lupinus

    E-print Network

    in Tasmania, and interactions with two non-native pollinators D GOULSON & E L ROTHERAY School of Biological, pollinator visitation and seed set of the tree lupin, Lupinus arboreus, in Tasmania between 1999 and 2010 and Chile, but has not yet become a serious weed in Tasmania. Our data suggest that the main pollinators

  8. Preliminary investigation of the relationship between bovine congenital lathyrism induced by aminoacetonitrile and the lupine induced crooked calf disease.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F; Binns, W; James, L F; Shupe, J L

    1969-04-01

    Maternal feeding of the lathyrogen aminoacetonitrile, the range plant Lupinus caudatus, and an extract of this plant - expected to contain lathyrogens if present in the plant - all produced clinically similar congenital defects in calves. The defects included excessive flexure, malpositioning, malalignment and rotation of the front limbs. The results suggest a possible relationship between lathyrism and lupine-induced crooked calf disease. PMID:4238569

  9. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  10. Nitrogen-fixers Alnus and Lupinus influence soil characteristics but not colonization by later successional species in primary succession on Mount St. Helens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan H. Titus

    2009-01-01

    Changes to the primary successional environment caused by colonizing plants that present symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing\\u000a bacteria were investigated at two areas on Mount St. Helens. One area was occupied by alder (Alnus viridis) thickets and old lupine (Lupinus lepidus) patches and the other area by young lupine patches and pumice barrens. Alder thicket soils had higher levels for a few soil

  11. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-06-01

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause congenital defects known as crooked calf disease that is periodically economically devastating for the cattle industry. Previous research indicates that cattle breeds may eliminate plant toxins differently, potentially altering their susceptibility. The objective of this study was to describe the toxicokinetics in Holsteins of anagyrine, the teratogenic lupine alkaloid that produces crooked calf disease. Other alkaloids including lupanine, an unidentified alkaloid and 5,6-dehydrolupanine were also evaluated. Dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus was orally dosed to four Holstein steers and blood samples were collected for 96?h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated. The serum elimination of anagyrine in Holstein steers was faster than those reported for beef breeds. This suggests that Holsteins may be less susceptible to lupine-induced crooked calf disease. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings and to verify if there is a breed difference in disease incidence or severity. PMID:25912242

  12. Early Primary Succession on Mount St. Helens: Impact of Insect Herbivores on Colonizing Lupines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Bishop

    2002-01-01

    Lupinus lepidusvar. lobbii, the earliest plant colonist of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, can dramatically influence successional rates and ecosystem development through N fixation and other facilitative effects. However, 15 yr after the eruption, lupine effects remained localized because high rates of population growth in newly founded patches ( l5 11.2, 1981-1985) were short lived ( l5 1.51,

  13. Lupin kernel fibre-enriched foods beneficially modify serum lipids in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R S Hall; S K Johnson; A L Baxter; M J Ball

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To examine the effect of a diet containing a novel legume food ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre), compared to a control diet without the addition of LKFibre, on serum lipids in men.Design:Randomized crossover dietary intervention study.Setting:Melbourne, Australia — Free-living men.Subjects:A total of 38 healthy males between the ages of 24 and 64 y completed the intervention.Intervention:Subjects

  14. Groundwater management through increased water use by lupin crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, E. A. N.; Turner, N. C.; Schulze, E.-D.; Watson, G. D.; Venn, N. R.

    1992-06-01

    Total evaporation ( E) was measured on lupin crops of differing leaf area per unit ground area in southwestern Australia. Leaf area was controlled by sowing at different times and rates. The objective was to explore the feasibility of increasing water use in order to reduce recharge to rising, shallow, saline water tables. Replicated plots of Lupinus angustifolius were sown at 100 and 200 kg ha -1 on 24 May and at 100 kg ha -1 on 7 June, 1988. E was measured by ventilated chambers from each of these treatments over eight 24 h periods grouped at the beginning, middle and end of a 28 day period. Mean rates of E were 2.16 mm day -1 for the later sown lupins at 100 kg ha -1, 2.49 mm day -1 for the earlier sown lupins at 100 kg ha -1 and 2.90 mm day -1 for the earlier sown lupins at 200 kg ha -1. The corresponding relative values for E were 1.00, 1.15 and 1.34. The transpiration component of E was estimated by measuring sap flow with a heat balance technique on individual plants within the chambers. Daily values of transpiration varied from 0.8 to 2 mm giving residual soil evaporation values of 1.0-1.6 mm day -1. E from soil was a significant cause of water loss particularly in the plots with low leaf area. At preflowering and early flowering E increased linearly with increasing leaf area per unit ground area up to values of 2.6. Soil evaporation decreased linearly with increasing leaf area. We conclude that increased seeding rates and earlier sowing of lupins have the potential to increase E and to reduce recharge and the rise of saline water tables.

  15. Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Bunch, T D; Callan, R J

    1990-01-01

    Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring. PMID:2089736

  16. Response of seeds of Lupinus termis and Vicia faba to the interactive effect of salinity and ascorbic acid or pyridoxine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Shaddad; A. F. Radi; A. M. Abdel-Rahman; M. M. Azooz

    1990-01-01

    The interactive effect of salinity and presoaking in ascorbic acid or phyridoxine on germination, seedling growth, and some\\u000a relevant metabolic changes ofLupinus termis andVicia faba seeds were studied. Germination studies indicated that broad bean tolerated NaCl salinity up to 240mM NaCl and lupin to 200mM NaCl. The lengths of roots and shoots and their water content, as well as dry

  17. Effects of an early-season folivorous moth on the success of a later-season species, mediated by a change in the quality of the shared host, Lupinus arboreus Sims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Harrison; Richard Karban

    1986-01-01

    Larvae of Platyprepia virginalis (Lep.: Arctiidae) and Orgyia vetusta (Lep.: Lymantriidae) feed on the foliage of bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus Sims) at Bodega Bay, California, USA, in February–April and May–July, respectively. Female O. vetusta attained lower pupal weights and produced fewer eggs on branches of L. arboreus which had experimentally received P. virginalis damage earlier in the same year, compared

  18. Successional Change in Phosphorus Stoichiometry Explains the Inverse Relationship between Herbivory and Lupin Density on Mount St. Helens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Apple; Michael Wink; Shannon E. Wills; John G. Bishop

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThe average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (N?P) of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus) colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to

  19. Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship Between Bovine Congenital Lathyrism Induced by Aminoacetonitrile and the Lupine Induced Crooked Calf Disease

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, R. F.; Binns, W.; James, L. F.; Shupe, J. L.

    1969-01-01

    Maternal feeding of the lathyrogen aminoacetonitrile, the range plant Lupinus caudatus, and an extract of this plant — expected to contain lathyrogens if present in the plant — all produced clinically similar congenital defects in calves. The defects included excessive flexure, malpositioning, malalignment and rotation of the front limbs. The results suggest a possible relationship between lathyrism and lupine-induced crooked calf disease. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4238569

  20. Iridoids from Symphoricarpos albus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. F. Makarevich; S. N. Kovalenko; T. D. Gusarova; Yu. I. Gubin

    2009-01-01

    Twelve compounds including secologanin, loganin, the aglycon of loganin, and a new iridoid called glucologanin were isolated\\u000a from fruit of common snowberry Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake. The structure of glucologanin was confirmed using PMR and mass spectroscopy and chemical transformations. 2?,3?,4?,6?,7-Penta-O-acetylloganin and 2?,3?,4?,6?-tetra-O-acetylloganin were synthesized.

  1. Cytokinin stimulates and abscisic acid inhibits greening of etiolated Lupinus luteus cotyledons by affecting the expression of the light-sensitive protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kusnetsov; R. G. Herrmann; O. N. Kulaeva; R. Oelmüller

    1998-01-01

    Plastid biogenesis in etiolated lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) cotyledons is highly sensitive to cytokinins and abscisic acid. In the presence of the synthetic cytokinin N6-benzylaminopurine, greening and plastid biogenesis is substantially promoted as compared to untreated controls, whereas abscisic\\u000a acid has an inhibitory effect. Faster greening in cytokinin-treated cotyledons is accompanied by a higher level and slower\\u000a degradation of the

  2. Cluster-root formation and carboxylate release in three Lupinus species as dependent on phosphorus supply, internal phosphorus concentration and relative growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Pearse, Stuart J.; Lambers, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Some Lupinus species produce cluster roots in response to low plant phosphorus (P) status. The cause of variation in cluster-root formation among cluster-root-forming Lupinus species is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if cluster-root formation is, in part, dependent on different relative growth rates (RGRs) among Lupinus species when they show similar shoot P status. Methods Three cluster-root-forming Lupinus species, L. albus, L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, were grown in washed river sand at 0, 7·5, 15 or 40 mg P kg?1 dry sand. Plants were harvested at 34, 42 or 62 d after sowing, and fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems, cluster roots and non-cluster roots of different ages were measured. The percentage of cluster roots, tissue P concentrations, root exudates and plant RGR were determined. Key Results Phosphorus treatments had major effects on cluster-root allocation, with a significant but incomplete suppression in L. albus and L. pilosus when P supply exceeded 15 mg P kg?1 sand. Complete suppression was found in L. atlanticus at the highest P supply; this species never invested more than 20 % of its root weight in cluster roots. For L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, cluster-root formation was decreased at high internal P concentration, irrespective of RGR. For L. albus, there was a trend in the same direction, but this was not significant. Conclusions Cluster-root formation in all three Lupinus species was suppressed at high leaf P concentration, irrespective of RGR. Variation in cluster-root formation among the three species cannot be explained by species-specific variation in RGR or leaf P concentration. PMID:24061491

  3. Cloning and expression of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate hydrolase from Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed Central

    Maksel, D; Guranowski, A; Ilgoutz, S C; Moir, A; Blackburn, M G; Gayler, K R

    1998-01-01

    The first isolation, cloning and expression of cDNA encoding an asymmetric diadenosine 5',5'''P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (Ap4A hydrolase) from a higher plant is described. Ap4A hydrolase protein was purified from seeds of both Lupinus luteus and Lupinus angustifolius and partially sequenced. The Ap4A hydrolase cDNA was cloned from L. angustifolius cotyledonary polyadenylated RNA using reverse transcription and PCR with primers based on the amino acid sequence. The cDNA encoded a protein of 199 amino acids, molecular mass 22982Da. When expressed in Escherichia coli fused to a maltose-binding protein, the enzyme catalysed asymmetric cleavage of Ap4A to AMP and ATP which was inhibited at concentrations of F- as low as 3 microM. These are properties characteristic of Ap4A hydrolase (asymmetrical) (EC 3.6.1. 17). Comparison of the Ap4A hydrolase sequences derived from the four known cDNAs from pig, human, lupin and fission yeast showed that, like the mammalian hydrolase, the lupin enzyme possesses a Mut T motif but no other significant similarities. No sequence similarity to the human fragile histidine triad protein, as found in the Ap4A hydrolase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, was detected in the Ap4A hydrolase from lupin. PMID:9425114

  4. Metabolism of amino acids in germinating yellow lupin seeds III. Breakdown of arginine in sugar-starved organs cultivated in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S?awomir Borek; Iwona Morkunas; Wiktoria Ratajczak; Lech Ratajczak

    2001-01-01

    The pathways of arginine transformations in organs of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) cultivated in vitro in the presence and absence of sucrose were investigated. Isolated embryo axes, isolated cotyledons and seeds deprived of\\u000a their coat were cultured for 96 h on Heller medium with 60 mM saccharose (the fed variant, +S), without sugar (the starved\\u000a variant, ?S) and for

  5. Influence of windbreak orientation, shade and rainfall interception on wheat and lupin growth in the absence of below-ground competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Sudmeyer; Jane Speijers

    2007-01-01

    In the temperate cropping regions of Australia, the benefits of shelter from windbreaks are often offset by tree-crop competition.\\u000a The aim of this trial was to quantify microclimate and crop growth close to shade-cloth windbreaks with various orientations,\\u000a to determine the effect of shelter and above-ground competition on the growth and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and lupins (Lupinus angustifolius)

  6. Assessment of Lupin Allergenicity in the Cholera Toxin Model: Induction of IgE Response Depends on the Intrinsic Properties of the Conglutins and Matrix Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolai Foss; Marcello Duranti; Chiara Magni; Hanne Frøkiær

    2006-01-01

    Background: The well-established murine model of IgE-mediated food allergy, based on oral administration of antigen and cholera toxin (CT), has within the previous years been used to evaluate various food proteins. Nonetheless, little knowledge on the factors that determine the allergenicity of food proteins is available so far. The use of proteins from the legume seed Lupinus albus as food

  7. The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.

    PubMed

    Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

    2013-08-01

    The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (p<0.05). The results of the research revealed a decrease in the concentrations of antinutritional factors in the sprouts of yellow and blue lupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids. PMID:22540870

  8. IN VITRO RUMINAL PROTEIN DEGRADATION AND MICROBIAL PROTEIN FORMATION OF SEED LEGUMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed legumes such as peas, lupins, and faba beans are important feeds for dairy cows in Europe and other regions. Ruminal protein degradability was quantified using the inhibitor in vitro (IIV) system for samples of 5 seed legumes: 2 peas (cv. Alembo and Helena), 1 white lupin (Lupinus albus, cv. Mu...

  9. Successional Change in Phosphorus Stoichiometry Explains the Inverse Relationship between Herbivory and Lupin Density on Mount St. Helens

    PubMed Central

    Apple, Jennifer L.; Wink, Michael; Wills, Shannon E.; Bishop, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Background The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (N?P) of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus) colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to lupin density and are known to alter lupin colonization dynamics. We examined larval performance in response to leaf nutritional characteristics using gelechiid and pyralid leaf-tiers, and a noctuid leaf-cutter. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted four studies. First, growth of larvae raised on wild-collected leaves responded positively to leaf %P and negatively to leaf carbon (%C), but there was no effect of %N or quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs). Noctuid survival was also positively related to %P. Second, we raised gelechiid larvae on greenhouse-grown lupins with factorial manipulation of competitors and soil N and P. In the presence of competition, larval mass was highest at intermediate leaf N?P and high %P. Third, survival of gelechiid larvae placed on lupins in high-density patches was greater when plant competitors were removed than on controls. Fourth, surveys of field-collected leaves in 2000, 2002, and 2003 indicated that both %P and %N were generally greater in plants from low-density areas. QAs in plants from low-density areas were equal to or higher than QAs in high-density areas. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that declines in lupin P content under competitive conditions are associated with decreased larval growth and survival sufficient to cause the observed negative relationship between herbivore abundance and host density. The results support the theoretical finding that declines in stoichiometric resource quality (caused here by succession) have the potential to cause a decrease in consumer abundance despite very dense quantities of the resource. PMID:19907662

  10. Quinolizidine alkaloids and phomopsins in lupin seeds and lupin containing food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Reinhard; Heinz Rupp; Fritz Sager; Michael Streule; Otmar Zoller

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in replacing (genetically modified) soya by lupin. Lupin seeds, flours and lupin containing food have been analyzed in order to assess the relevance of a potential health hazard given by mycotoxins and\\/or naturally occurring alkaloids. Since not all important alkaloids used for quantitation were commercially available, isolation of lupanine, 13?-hydroxylupanine and angustifoline

  11. WHITE LUPIN NITROGEN FIXATION UNDER PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin is highly adapted to growth in a low P environment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether white lupin grown under P-stress has adaptations in nodulation and N2 fixation that facilitate continued functioning. Nodulated plants were grown in silica sand supplied with N-...

  12. Nodulation of Lupinus albus by Strains of Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha E. Trujillo; Anne Willems; Adriana Abril; A.-M. Planchuelo; R. Rivas; D. Ludena; P. F. Mateos; E. Martinez-Molina; E. Velazquez

    2005-01-01

    The nodulation of legumes has for more than a century been considered an exclusive capacity of a group of microorganisms commonly known as rhizobia and belonging to the -Proteobacteria. However, in the last 3 years four nonrhizobial species, belonging to and subclasses of the Proteobacteria, have been described as legume-nodulating bacteria. In the present study, two fast-growing strains, LUP21 and

  13. Intra-plant variability in seed size and seed quality in Lupinus albus L

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    taille individuelle d'un grain est intra-inflorescence comme cela a été rapporté chez différentes espèces croissance déterminée est celui qui présente la plus faible variance intra-inflorescence. Les conséquences du'a pas d'effet. La variation pour la taille du grain à l'intérieur d'une inflorescence a peu d'effet sur

  14. 78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but...developmental toxicant. There are no known effects on endocrine systems via oral, dermal, or inhalation exposure....

  15. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies against Aspartate Aminotransferase-P1 from Lupin Root Nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, W. T.; Jones, S. D.; Harvey, D.; Rodber, K. R.; Ryan, G. B.; Reynolds, PHS.

    1994-01-01

    Six hybridoma clones were obtained that secreted monoclonal antibodies against the aspartate aminotransferase-P1 (AAT-P1) isoenzyme from root nodules of Lupinus angustifolius [L.] cv Uniharvest. This enzyme is found constitutively in the plant cytosol fraction. The monoclonal antibodies produced were all of the immunoglobulin G1 class, recognized two distinct epitopes on the protein, and represented the major paratopes found in the immunoglobulin fraction of sera taken from mice and rabbits immunized with the pure AAT-P1 protein. One of these epitopes was unique to lupin nodule AAT-P1. The other epitope was shown to be present on enzyme from lupin bean, white clover and tobacco leaves, lupin roots and nodules, and potato tubers. Both epitopes were recognized by the appropriate monoclonal antibodies in both their native and denatured forms. None of the monoclonal antibodies produced reacted with Rhizobium lupini NZP2257, Escherichia coli extracts, or with the inducible aspartate aminotransferase-P2 (AAT-P2) isoform also found in root nodules. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing two monoclonal antibodies recognizing the two distinct epitopes was developed and was capable of quantitating AAT-P1 in plant extracts. The limit of detection of AAT-P1 was less than 15 pg/mL and AAT-P1 protein could be quantified in the range 80 to 1000 pg/mL. Using this assay, AAT-P1 protein was shown to remain relatively constant during nodule development. Use of an AAT-P2-specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits the enzyme activity of this isoform enabled the direct determination of AAT-P1 enzyme activity in nodule extracts. Using these assays, specific activities of the individual isoforms were calculated; that of the AAT-P1 isoform was shown to be 7.5-fold higher than that of the AAT-P2 isoform. PMID:12232065

  16. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of genome structure in Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus cosentinii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga Hajdera; Dorota Siwinska; Robert Hasterok; Jolanta Maluszynska

    2003-01-01

    Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus cosentinii was performed using flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and differential chromosome staining. Genome size was determined as 2.07 pg for L. angustifolius and 1.54 pg for L. cosentinii. Analysis of nuclear DNA amount in cells during plant development has shown endopolyploidisation in different organs. The highest level of endopolyploidy was in

  17. Causes and Consequences of Herbivory on Prairie Lupine ( Lupinus lepidus ) in Early Primary Succession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Bishop; William F. Fagan; John D. Schade; Charles M. Crisafulli

    Primary succession, the formation and change of ecological communities in locations initially lacking organisms or other biological\\u000a materials, has been an important research focus for at least a century (Cowles 1899; Griggs 1933; Eggler 1941; Crocker and\\u000a Major 1955; Eggler 1959; Miles and Walton 1993; Walker and del Moral 2003). At approximately 60 km2, primary successional surfaces at Mount St.

  18. Effects of prior crop residue management on microbial properties and crop residue decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Cookson; M. H. Beare; P. E. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    A litterbag decomposition experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in crop residue management practices influence the size and activity of the microbial community that regulates residue decomposition. Residues of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum uulgare) and lupin (Lupinus albus) were incorporated into soils in which cereal crop residues were previously managed by burning, removal or incorporation for

  19. Genetic Variability for Low Phosphorous Tolerance in Cowpea

    E-print Network

    Alexander, Tulle W

    2014-04-18

    and fertilizer phosphate by cover crops. Plant Soil 211:19–27. Keerthisinghe, G., E. Delhaize, P.R. Ryan, and P.J. Hocking. 1998. Effect of phosphorus supply on the formation and function of proteoid roots of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). Plant, Cell...

  20. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE DEFICIENCY INDUCED PROMOTERS IN TRANSGENIC ALFALFA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphate transporter and acid phosphatase genes are among the major phosphate (P) deficiency induced genes in higher plants. We have previously reported the cloning and characterization of a phosphate transporter gene LaPT1 and acid phosphatase gene LaSAP1 from white lupin Lupinus albus and demonst...

  1. LegumeDB1 bioinformatics resource: comparative genomic analysis and novel cross-genera marker identification in lupin and pasture legume species.

    PubMed

    Moolhuijzen, P; Cakir, M; Hunter, A; Schibeci, D; Macgregor, A; Smith, C; Francki, M; Jones, M G K; Appels, R; Bellgard, M

    2006-06-01

    The identification of markers in legume pasture crops, which can be associated with traits such as protein and lipid production, disease resistance, and reduced pod shattering, is generally accepted as an important strategy for improving the agronomic performance of these crops. It has been demonstrated that many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified in one species can be found in other plant species. Detailed legume comparative genomic analyses can characterize the genome organization between model legume species (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus) and economically important crops such as soybean (Glycine max), pea (Pisum sativum), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), and lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), thereby identifying candidate gene markers that can be used to track QTLs in lupin and pasture legume breeding. LegumeDB is a Web-based bioinformatics resource for legume researchers. LegumeDB analysis of Medicago truncatula expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has identified novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (16 tested), some of which have been putatively linked to symbiosome membrane proteins in root nodules and cell-wall proteins important in plant-pathogen defence mechanisms. These novel markers by preliminary PCR assays have been detected in Medicago truncatula and detected in at least one other legume species, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, Cicer arietinum, and (or) Lupinus angustifolius (15/16 tested). Ongoing research has validated some of these markers to map them in a range of legume species that can then be used to compile composite genetic and physical maps. In this paper, we outline the features and capabilities of LegumeDB as an interactive application that provides legume genetic and physical comparative maps, and the efficient feature identification and annotation of the vast tracks of model legume sequences for convenient data integration and visualization. LegumeDB has been used to identify potential novel cross-genera polymorphic legume markers that map to agronomic traits, supporting the accelerated identification of molecular genetic factors underpinning important agronomic attributes in lupin. PMID:16936848

  2. Lupin allergy: a hidden killer in the home.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M L; de Las Marinas, M D; Fernández, J; Gamboa, P M

    2010-10-01

    This review addresses the problem of lupin sensitization in the home environment. We summarize the data currently available on allergy to lupin, which has become, in recent years, a hidden killer in our homes. Since 2006, when lupin was included in European regulations as a food whose presence must be declared, the situation may have changed. Nevertheless, we must take into account the possibility of undeclared allergenic ingredients or the presence of 'hidden' allergens, given that contamination during food production processes may be a great risk for sensitized individuals. Furthermore, the United States, Japan, Australia and New Zealand still do not include lupin among the ingredients that must be listed on foodstuff labelling. Our responsibility is to educate the public so that they are aware of the danger and look for lupin in the labels of products that run the risk of containing it. Lupin allergy can manifest itself in isolation or in parallel to peanut allergy. Identification of the proteins causing possible cross-reactivity is complicated, and new structural studies are needed. To date, it has not been possible to clearly identify the allergens responsible for isolated lupin sensitization in relation to parallel and/or cross-sensitization between lupin and peanut. Most of the allergenic proteins of lupin are ?- and ?-conglutins, with a lesser presence of ?- and ?-conglutins. A ?-conglutin corresponding to Lup an 1, with a sequence similar to Ara h 1, has been identified as a major allergen of lupin in patients with allergy following lupin ingestion. PMID:20701610

  3. Potential of plant-protein sources as fish meal substitutes in diets for turbot ( Psetta maxima): growth, nutrient utilisation and thyroid status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Burel; Thierry Boujard; Sadasivam J Kaushik; Gilles Boeuf; Serge Van Der Geyten; Koen A Mol; Eduard R Kühn; Alain Quinsac; Michel Krouti; Daniel Ribaillier

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to assess the incorporation in diets for juvenile turbot of extruded lupin (Lupinus albus) and heat-treated (RM1) or untreated (RM2) rapeseed meals (Brassica napus) (26 and 40 ?mol glucosinolate\\/g DM, respectively). The level of incorporation of 30% for each plant-protein, as well as 46% for RM1 and 50% for lupin was tested and compared

  4. 75 FR 37460 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for the Prairie Species of Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ...threatened species: Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii (Kincaid's lupine), Sidalcea...Bradshaw's lomatium), Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii (Kincaid's lupine), Sidalcea...peacock larkspur), Horkelia congesta ssp. congesta (shaggy horkelia),...

  5. Ecology of invasive melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, J.; Werdin-Pfisterer, N.; Beattie, K.; Densmore, R.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific. Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorum and Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  6. Sound Production in Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and S. platorynchus (Acipenseridae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol E. Johnston; Catherine T. Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Sound production has been recently discovered in several species of Acipenser. Our work has focused on testing for sound production in species of sturgeon in the genus Scaphirhynchus. We discovered that pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon, S. albus produce sounds during the breeding season. These signals may be used as part of efforts to localize populations of sturgeon

  7. Effects of experience and lactation on lupine consumption by cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two grazing studies using non-pregnant cows were conducted in the Channel Scablands of eastern Washington during 2003-2004. Six cows naïve to lupine and 6 cows with several years experience grazing lupine-infested rangelands were grazed together for 25 days. Diets were determined by bite counts. ...

  8. Conservation of Endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in Its Natural Habitat by Inoculation with Selected, Native Bradyrhizobium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simón; Laguna, Emilio; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in “terra rossa” soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other “terra rossa” or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive. PMID:25019379

  9. Control of fungal decay of apples and peaches by the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Mercier; Jorge I Jiménez

    2004-01-01

    The potential of the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for controlling postharvest diseases of fresh fruit by biological fumigation was investigated. In vitro tests showed that M. albus volatiles inhibited and killed a wide range of storage pathogens belonging to species of Botrytis, Colletotrichum, Geotrichum, Monilinia, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Fumigation of apples for 7 days with culture of M. albus grown

  10. Ultramafic soils from New Caledonia structure Pisolithus albus in ecotype.

    PubMed

    Jourand, Philippe; Ducousso, Marc; Loulergue-Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Santoni, Sylvain; Prin, Yves; Lebrun, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Isolates of ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus were sampled from both ultramafic and volcano-sedimentary soils in New Caledonia, a tropical hotspot of biodiversity, to investigate the relationships between genetic diversity and edaphic constraint through tolerance to nickel (Ni). Carpophore description, spore morphology and phylogenetic analysis based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences confirmed that all isolates belong to P. albus and are closely related to other Australasian specimens. Using molecular tools, ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we showed the existence of two distinct genetic clusters within P. albus: ultramafic and volcano-sedimentary. Mycelia response to Ni toxicity supports such a population structure. Pisolithus albus from ultramafic soils included isolates with a high diversity of in vitro Ni tolerance, with both Ni-tolerant isolates (average Ni EC(50) at 575 microM) and Ni-sensitive isolates (average Ni EC(50) at 37 microM). In contrast, all isolates from volcano-sedimentary soils were found to be Ni sensitive (average Ni EC(50) at 32 microM). We highlight that (1) P. albus population from ultramafic soils of New Caledonia are genetically structured in ecotype, and that (2) Ni tolerance among ultramafic isolates suggests an adaptive physiological response to Ni toxicity. PMID:20199570

  11. Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Del Moral; L. r. Rozzell

    Abstract The nitrogen-fixing legume,Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant,herb on new volcanic surfaces at Mount St. Helen. We compared vegetation structure in 30 Lupinus colonies in three age classes (old, mature, or young,based,on known,years of their establishment) to adjacent sites that were sparsely populated,by Lupinus. Our goals were to determine,if the age of colonies affected either species composition,or vegetation structure

  12. Long-term Effects of Lupinus lepidus on Vegetation Dynamics at Mount St. Helens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. del Moral; L. R. Rozzell

    2005-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant herb on new volcanic surfaces at Mount St. Helen. We compared vegetation structure in 30 Lupinus colonies in three age classes (old, mature, or young based on known years of their establishment) to adjacent sites that\\u000a were sparsely populated by Lupinus. Our goals were to determine if the age of colonies

  13. Multilocus sequence analysis reveals taxonomic differences among Bradyrhizobium sp. symbionts of Lupinus albescens plants growing in arenized and non-arenized areas.

    PubMed

    Granada, Camille E; Beneduzi, Anelise; Lisboa, Bruno B; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia C; Vargas, Luciano K; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-07-01

    Lupinus albescens is a leguminous plant that belongs to "New World" lupine species, which is native to southern Brazil. This Brazilian region is characterized by poor degraded soils with low organic matter and is designated as an arenized area. The symbiosis between Lupinus plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus may help the plant establish itself in these areas. To characterize the bradyrhizobial population symbionts of L. albescens plants grown in arenized and non-arenized areas, a multilocus phylogenetic analysis allied to genetic diversity indices were conducted. Seventy-four bradyrhizobial isolates were analyzed, 38 coming from L. albescens plants growing in an arenized area and 36 from a non-arenized area. Isolates were different between arenized and non-arenized areas. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, dnaK, atpD, recA, glnII, rpoB, gyrB, nodA, nodB, and nodZ genes resulted in three supported clades, which were most likely to be three different new Bradyrhizobium species: one species from the arenized area and two from the non-arenized area. Estimates of genetic diversity, which decreased in arenized areas, were positively correlated with habitat variability. These results suggested that a few resistant and efficient Bradyrhizobium sp. strains were capable of forming nodules on L. albescens plants growing in an arenized area. An in vivo inoculation experiment with L. albescens plants showed that Bradyrhizobium ssp. isolated from this extreme environment were more efficient at promoting plant growth than those from the non-arenized area. This result suggested that the environment affected the selection of more efficient plant growth promoters in order to sustain plant growth. PMID:25976031

  14. Soil to plant transfer of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from southeastern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Chen; Y. G. Zhu; Q. H. Hu

    2005-01-01

    Both soil and plant samples of nine different plant species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed for the plant uptake and translocation of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th. Substantial differences were observed in the soil–plant transfer factor (TF) among these radionuclides and plant species. Lupine (Lupinus albus) exhibited the highest uptake of 238U (TF

  15. Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.

    PubMed

    Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora

    2014-01-15

    This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, ?-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for ?-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that ?-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements. PMID:24054261

  16. Alkaloid variation in the Lupinus pusillus group (Fabaceae: tribe Genisteae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben-Erik van Wyk; Roland Greinwald; Ludger Witte

    1995-01-01

    The major alkaloids of Lupinus pusillus and related species were studied by GC and GC-MS. More than 25 alkaloids were detected in 20 extracts from L. flavoculatus, L. kingii, L. odoratus, L. pusillus and L. shockleyi. Esters of alkaloids appear to be absent, and sparteine, ?-isosparteine, isolupanine, 5,6-dehydrolupanine, lupanine and anagyrine are the major alkaloids. The presence of the ?-pyridone

  17. Hypoglycemic effect of Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and subjects with dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Fornasini, M; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Villamar, M P; Baldeón, M E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are increasing health problems that negatively affect health care systems worldwide. There is a constant urge to develop new therapies with better effects, lower side effects at lower prices to treat these diseases. Lupinus species and their derivates are good candidates to be used as hypoglycaemic agents. A phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the role of raw Lupinus mutabilis on blood glucose and insulin in normoglycemic and dysglycemic subjects. Results show that consumption of L. mutabilis by normal weight healthy young individuals did not change importantly blood glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, consumption of similar doses of lupinus by dysglycemic individuals (fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL) decreased significantly blood glucose. Lupinus effects were greater in those subjects with higher basal glucose levels. Glucose lowering effects of lupinus were not observed after soy intake that was used as control. A statistically significant reduction in insulin levels was also observed in the lupinus group compared with the soy group after 60 minutes of treatment. Furthermore, only treatment with lupinus improved insulin resistance in dysglycemic subjects. These data demonstrate that lupinus consumption could be a feasible and low cost alternative to treat chronic hyperglycemic diseases. PMID:22732964

  18. Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount R. del Moral1,

    E-print Network

    del Moral, Roger

    -1 Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens R. del Moral1 surfaces at Mount St. Helen. We compared vegetation structure in 30 Lupinus colonies in three age classes Lindl., the most studied species on new volcanic substrates on Mount St. Helen (Washington state, USA

  19. SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF TERATOGENIC PIPERIDINE ENANTIOMERS FROM NICOTIANA AND LUPINUS SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingestion of Lupinus and Nicotiana species by pregnant livestock at specific gestational periods can result in calves, piglets, lambs and kids with cleft palate and front limb contractures. Ammodendrine and anabasine are teratogens and are found in Lupinus and Nicotiana species, respectively. Both...

  20. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

  1. Isolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Isolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) Suggests an Interclass Host #12;· Pallid Sturgeon Conservation within the Missouri River Basin ­ History of the decline · Significance & Future Directions Topics Covered #12;Decline of Pallid Sturgeon within the Missouri River Basin

  2. Phenolic acids from Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake (Caprifoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Szaufer-Hajdrych, Miros?awa; Zgórka, Grazyna

    2003-01-01

    The leaves, flowers and fruits of Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake (Caprifoliaceae) were analysed for the presence of phenolic acids. Eleven free and liberated by hydrolysis phenolic acids were identified by TLC, HPLC and spectral (UV) methods. Moreover, the HPLC method was applied for the quantitative determination of phenolic acids in the analysed fractions. PMID:12848374

  3. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stevenson, David M [USDA-ARS, Madison WI; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Boyum, Julie [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Mead, David [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Weimer, Paul J [USDA-ARS, Madison WI

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  4. Complete nucleotide sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames ORFs with a similar genetic organization and conceptual translations of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The orde...

  5. Effects of Culture Filtrates of Rhizobacteria Isolated from Wild Lupine on Germination, Growth, and Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Lupine Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco J. Gutiérrez Mañero; Agustin Probanza; Beatriz Ramos; Juan J. Colón Flores; Jose A. Lucas García

    2003-01-01

    In order to select potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), a selection of strains from the predominant genera in the rhizosphere of four lupine species, based on genetic divergence criteria, carried out in a previous study, yielded 11 Aureobacterium (Aur), four Cellulomonas (Cell), two Arthrobacter (Arth), two Pseudomonas (Ps), and six Bacillus (Bc) strains. Cell?free culture filtrates of each bacterium

  6. Eustrongylides sp. epizootic in young common egrets (Casmerodius albus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    In May 1985, epizootic mortality was reported in common egrets (Casmerodius albus) on Avery Island, Louisiana. Subsequent investigation revealed that more than 400 birds died. Severe peritoneal nematodiasis (Eustrongylides sp.) was found on postmortem examination. A nearby breeding rookery on the same island was apparently unaffected. Reasons for this selective mortality are presented. Three other reports of epizootic mortality due to Eustrongylides sp. have been reported. This is the first report of this type of epizootic in gulf-coast birds.

  7. Pentose utilization by the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, B; Dawson, K A; Strobel, H J

    1994-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus is an important fibrolytic ruminal bacteria which degrades hemicellulose and ferments the resulting pentose sugars. However, little information is available on the utilization of pentoses by this organism or the effect of hexose sugars on pentose metabolism. Enzymatic studies indicated that R. albus metabolized pentoses via the pentose phosphate pathway and possessed constitutive transketolase activity. Cellobiose was preferred over xylose and arabinose, and it appeared that the disaccharide decreased pentose metabolism by repression of transport activity and catabolic enzymes (isomerases and kinases). Glucose and xylose were co-utilized, and transport studies suggested that there was a common transport system for both sugars. In contrast, glucose was preferred over arabinose and the hexose noncompetitively inhibited the transport of arabinose. Since R. albus lacks a glucose phosphotransferase system, the inhibition of arabinose uptake could not be explained by previously described models of inducer exclusion involving such a system. Because accumulation of radiolabeled xylose, arabinose, and glucose proceeded in the absence of a proton motive force and since transport was correlated with the intracellular ATP concentration, it appeared that monosaccharide uptake was driven by ATP hydrolysis. PMID:8017905

  8. High Pressure Effect on Meat and Lupin Protein Digestibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. de Lamballerie-Anton; S. Delépine; N. Chapleau

    2002-01-01

    High pressure treatment is a mild treatment concerning the nutritional characteristics: for instance vitamins content is very few affected by high-pressure treatment. But the impact of high-pressure on protein digestibility remains poorly understood. This work presents effect of high-pressure treatment on in vitro digestibility of meat and lupin proteins. Two high-pressure conditions (200 and 500 MPa 10 min.) and a

  9. CONTROL OF GREEN MOLD AND SOUR ROT OF STORED LEMONS BY BIOFUMIGATION WITH MUSCODOR ALBUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of postharvest lemon diseases by biofumigation with the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus was investigated. In vitro exposure to M. albus volatile compounds for 3 days killed Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, causes of green mold and sour rot of lemons, respectively...

  10. Control of common bunt of wheat under field conditions with the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the biological control potential of the fungus Muscodor albus, when applied as a seed treatment or an in furrow soil treatment, for control of common bunt (CB) of wheat caused by Tilletia caries. For seed treatments, dry rye grain culture of M. albus wa...

  11. LUPINE EFFECTS ON SOIL QUALITY AND FUNCTION DURING PRIMARY SUCCESSION AT MOUNT ST. HELENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines, early legume colonists of Mount St. Helens pyroclastic flows, are important mediators of above and belowground succession because they are sources of C and N that impact soil genesis, establishment of other plant species and soil microbial communities. Rates of N2 fixation by lupines can va...

  12. Gas plant (Dictamnus albus) phytophotodermatitis simulating poison ivy.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. A.; DesGroseilliers, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with an itchy rash that resembled superficial burns or cane marks on his left forearm; similar lesions had appeared every summer for 5 years. Poison ivy dermatitis had been the initial diagnosis, but the patient knew that this plant was absent from his well tended garden. A visit to the garden revealed the gas plant Dictamnus albus, and occlusive patch testing with leaf cuttings produced a reaction after the skin was exposed to sunlight. Gas plant phytophotodermatitis was diagnosed. Images p889-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6231089

  13. Hybridization between pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus.

    PubMed

    Schrey, A W; Boley, R; Heist, E J

    2011-12-01

    This study found that introgressive hybridization of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus with the common shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus has probably occurred across the range of S. albus. Bayesian clustering found evidence of hybridization in all management units of S. albus. Some individuals were intermediate at both genetic and morphological characters, and some had discordant results. The results support introgressive hybridization throughout much of the range of S. albus, yet individuals consistent with being pure members of each species were detected in all management units. Simulations demonstrated that it would be very difficult to distinguish introgressed individuals from pure specimens after multiple generations of backcrossing with these microsatellite markers. Using hybrid or backcross fish as broodstock could artificially accelerate the loss of unique genetic variation in S. albus. Additional microsatellite loci or additional genetic markers, along with morphological data may be required to ensure that hybrid or backcross fish are not used. Introgressive hybridization requires at least two generations and generation lengths of S. albus are long, perhaps as long as 30 years. The proportion of individuals consistent with introgressive hybrid origins indicates that hybridization between S. albus and S. platorynchus probably has occurred for several generations and is not a recent phenomenon. PMID:22141890

  14. `ORIGINAL ARTICLE'1! The first complete chloroplast genome of the genistoid legume Lupinus luteus: Evidence for a3!

    E-print Network

    plastome4! evolutionary landscape.5! Key words: Lupinus luteus, chloroplast genome evolution, structural! 1! `ORIGINAL ARTICLE'1! 2! The first complete chloroplast genome of the genistoid legume Lupinus #12;! 3! Summary1! Background and Aims To date chloroplast genomes are available only for members

  15. Distribution, biology and hybridization of Scaphirhynchus albus and S. platorynchus in the Missouri and Mississippi rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas M. Carlson; William L. Pflieger; Linden Trial; Pamela S. Haverland

    1985-01-01

    Synopsis  \\u000a Scaphirhynchus albus and S. platorynchus were studied in Missouri during 1978–1979 to assess their distribution and abundance, to obtain information on their life\\u000a histories, and to identify existing or potential threats to their survival. S. platorynchus was collected in substantial numbers (4355 specimens) at all 12 sampling stations in the Missouri and Mississippi rivers,\\u000a while only 11 S. albus

  16. Cardiovascular anatomy and cardiac function in the air-breathing swamp eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Iversen, Nina K; Lauridsen, Henrik; Do, Thi Thanh Huong; Nguyen, Van Cong; Gesser, Hans; Buchanan, Rasmus; Bayley, Mark; Pedersen, Michael; Wang, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Monopterus albus, a swamp eel inhabiting the freshwaters of South East Asia, relies on an extensive vascularisation of the buccal cavity, pharynx and anterior oesophagus for gas exchange, while the gills are much reduced. In the present study we describe the macro-circulation in the cephalic region and the vascularisation of the buccal cavity of M. albus using vascular fillings and micro-computed tomography (?CT). We also show that M. albus has the capacity to use the buccal cavity for aquatic gas exchange, being able to maintain normal arterial blood gas composition, blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output throughout 10h of forced submergence. M. albus therefore can be characterised as a facultative air-breather. Because M. albus aestivates for many months in moist mud during the dry season we characterised in vivo cardiovascular function during exposure to anoxia as well as the effects of anoxia on in vitro contractility of strip preparations from atria and ventricle. Both studies revealed a low anoxia tolerance, rendering it unlikely that M. albus can survive prolonged exposure to anoxia. PMID:22944727

  17. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Labeda, D P; Doroghazi, J R; Ju, K-S; Metcalf, W W

    2014-03-01

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811(T) forms a cluster with five other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these other species, including Streptomyces almquistii NRRL B-1685(T), Streptomyces flocculus NRRL B-2465(T), Streptomyces gibsonii NRRL B-1335(T) and Streptomyces rangoonensis NRRL B-12378(T) are quite similar. This cluster is of particular taxonomic interest because Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. The related strains were subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB and confirmation of previously reported phenotypic characteristics. The five strains formed a coherent cluster supported by a 100?% bootstrap value in phylogenetic trees generated from sequence alignments prepared by concatenating the sequences of the housekeeping genes, and identical tree topology was observed using various different tree-making algorithms. Moreover, all but one strain, S. flocculus NRRL B-2465(T), exhibited identical sequences for all of the five housekeeping gene loci sequenced, but NRRL B-2465(T) still exhibited an MLSA evolutionary distance of 0.005 from the other strains, a value that is lower than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. These data support a proposal to reclassify S. almquistii, S. flocculus, S. gibsonii and S. rangoonensis as later heterotypic synonyms of S. albus with NRRL B-1811(T) as the type strain. The MLSA sequence database also demonstrated utility for quickly and conclusively confirming that numerous strains within the ARS Culture Collection had been previously misidentified as subspecies of S. albus and that Streptomyces albus subsp. pathocidicus should be redescribed as a novel species, Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov., with the type strain NRRL B-24287(T). PMID:24277863

  18. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the detection of phomopsin A in lupin and lupin-containing retail food samples from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Monique; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P K H; van Dam, Ruud C J; de Rijk, Theo C; van Egmond, Hans P; Mol, Hans J G J

    2013-01-01

    Phomopsins (PHO) are mycotoxins produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica (also referred to as Phomopsis leptostromiformis). Lupin is the most important host crop for this fungus and PHO are suspected as cause of lupinosis, a deadly liver disease, in sheep. Lupin is currently in use to replace genetically modified soy in many food products available on the European market. However, a validated method for analysis of PHO is not available until now. In this work, a dilute-and-shoot LC-MS/MS-based method was developed for the quantitative determination and identification of phomopsin A (PHO-A) in lupin and lupin-containing food. The method involved extraction by a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/20/1 v/v), dilution of the sample in water, and direct injection of the crude extract after centrifugation. The method was validated at 5 and 25 µg PHO-A kg(-1) product. The average recovery and RSD obtained were 79% and 9%, respectively. The LOQ (the lowest level for which adequate recovery and RSD were demonstrated) was 5 µg PHO-A kg(-1). Identification of PHO-A was based on retention time and two transitions (789 > 226 and 789 > 323). Using the average of solvent standards from the sequence as a reference, retention times were all within ± 0.03 min and ion ratios were within ± 12%, which is compliant with European Union requirements. The LOD (S/N = 3 for the least sensitive transition) was 1 µg PHO-A kg(-1) product. Forty-two samples of lupin and lupin-containing food products were collected in 2011-2012 from grocery stores and internet shops in the Netherlands and analysed. In none of the samples was PHO-A detected. PMID:23895245

  19. LUPIN, a new instrument for pulsed neutron fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Ferrarini, M.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.; Varoli, V.

    2013-06-01

    A number of studies focused in the last decades on the development of survey meters to be used in pulsed radiation fields. This is a topic attracting widespread interest for applications such as radiation protection and beam diagnostics in accelerators. This paper describes a new instrument specifically conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fields (PNF). The detector, called LUPIN, is a rem counter type instrument consisting of a 3He proportional counter placed inside a spherical moderator. It works in current mode with a front-end electronics consisting of a current-voltage logarithmic amplifier, whose output signal is acquired with an ADC and processed on a PC. This alternative signal processing allows the instrument to be used in PNF without being affected by saturation effects. Moreover, it has a measurement capability ranging over many orders of burst intensity. Despite the fact that it works in current mode, it can measure a single neutron interaction. The LUPIN was first calibrated in CERN's calibration laboratory with a PuBe source. Measurements were carried out under various experimental conditions at the Helmholtz-Zentrum in Berlin, in the stray field at various locations of the CERN Proton Synchrotron complex and around a radiotherapy linear accelerator at the S. Raffaele hospital in Milan. The detector can withstand single bursts with values of H*(10) up to 16 nSv/burst without showing any saturation effect. It efficiently works in pulsed stray fields, where a conventional rem-counter underestimates by a factor of 2. It is also able to reject the very intense and pulsed photon contribution that often accompanies the neutron field with good reliability.

  20. Effects of air pollution on Lupinus in the Los Angeles area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunn

    1959-01-01

    Experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of air pollution on two groups of plants of the genus Lupinus. One group was used as controls and were grown under conditions approximating those in nature. The other group was given variations of temperature and daylength and was treated with filtered smog. The number of plants that survived under each of the

  1. Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania

    E-print Network

    Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania pollinators can facilitate rapid spread. In Tasmania, where many non-native plants are naturalised, exotic). There are currently >2000 species of non-native plants growing wild in Australia and it is estimated that in Tasmania

  2. Physiological responses of lupinus mutabilis to phosphorus nutrition and season of growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Passarinho; M. L. Rodrigues; M. L. Osório; C. P. P. Ricardo; M. M. Chaves

    2000-01-01

    The response to phosphorus (P) concentration in the nutrient solution (0–0.5 mol P m) was studied in Lupinus mutabilis Sweet cv. Potosi in two different seasons (winter and spring). Phosphorus deficiency was more severe on growth than on photosynthesis and the season of growth dramatically influenced the optimal concentration of P for plant growth; root biomass was proportionally less affected

  3. Facilitation of Urtica dioica colonisation by Lupinus arboreus on a nutrient-poor mining spoil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gosling

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation is an important process during succession. Legumes often play a significant role as facilitators, particularly in primary succession, enriching the soil with nitrogen (N). The leguminous shrub Lupinus arboreus (Sims) can fix significant N on acidic, nutrient-poor soils. An apparent association between L. arboreus and Urtica dioica (L), which requires high concentrations of soil N and phosphorus (P), suggested

  4. Evidence of nickel (Ni) efflux in Ni-tolerant ectomycorhizal Pisolithus albus isolated from ultramafic soil.

    PubMed

    Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel; Jourand, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Nickel (Ni)-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus was isolated from extreme ultramafic soils that are naturally rich in heavy metals. This study aimed to identify the specific molecular mechanisms associated with the response of P.?albus to nickel. In presence of high concentration of nickel, P.?albus?Ni-tolerant isolate showed a low basal accumulation of nickel in its fungal tissues and was able to perform a metal efflux mechanism. Three genes putatively involved in metal efflux were identified from the P.?albus transcriptome, and their overexpression was confirmed in the mycelium that was cultivated in vitro in the presence of nickel and in fungal tissues that were sampled in situ. Cloning these genes in yeast provided significant advantages in terms of nickel tolerance (+?31% Ni EC50) and growth (+?83% ?) compared with controls. Furthermore, nickel efflux was also detected in the transformed yeast cells. Protein sequence analysis indicated that the genes encoded a P-type-ATPase, an ABC transporter and a major facilitator superfamily permease (MFS). This study sheds light on a global mechanism of metal efflux by P.?albus cells that supports nickel tolerance. These specific responses to nickel might contribute to the fungal adaptation in ultramafic soil. PMID:25646544

  5. Ixodid ticks collected from the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides albus and the common raccoon Procyon lotor in southern Hokkaido, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeo Yamauchi; Naoki Agetsuma; Natsuko Araki; Moe Fukushima

    2012-01-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from the endemic raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides albus (Hornaday) and the alien raccoon Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) in southern Hokkaido, Japan. Ixodes ovatus Neumann was the most abundant species collected from both host species, followed by Ixodes persulcatus Schulze. Haemaphysalis flava Neumann, I. ovatus, I. persulcatus, and Ixodes pavlovskyi Pomerantzev were first collected from N. p. albus.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus Strain NBRC 13014T, the Type Species of the Genus Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Natsuko; Oguchi, Akio; Hamada, Moriyuki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. albus strain NBRC 13014T. The genome contains at least seven orphan polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters. The genome sequence will also serve as a valuable reference for Streptomyces taxonomy. PMID:25657283

  7. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. 126. Amaranthus albus L., A. blitoides S. Watson and A. blitum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihai Costea; François J. Tardif

    2003-01-01

    A review of biological information is provided for three species of the genus Amaranthus: A. albus L., A. blitoides S. Watson and A. blitum L. The last species has been revised taxonomically and a new subspecies for Canada is presented—A. blitum subsp. emarginatus (Moq. ex Uline & Bray) Carretero, Munoz Garmendia & Pedrol. Amaranthus albus and A. blitoides are native

  8. Digestibility of extruded peas, extruded lupin, and rapeseed meal in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) and turbot ( Psetta maxima)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Burel; Thierry Boujard; Francesca Tulli; Sadasivam J Kaushik

    2000-01-01

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy of extruded peas, extruded lupin and rapeseed meals were determined in juvenile rainbow trout and turbot. Extruded lupin was found to be a promising substitute for fish meal in the diets of trout and turbot, with an acceptable digestibility of its dry matter (70% in trout and 81% in turbot) and a

  9. Predicting dry matter and crude protein yields of lupin and cereal mono- and bi-crops using a computer model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Azo; W. P. Davies; N. D. Cannon

    2011-01-01

    Spring sown forage lupins and lupin\\/cereal bi-crops are postulated as suitable crops for wholecrop forage. The Conductance model is proposed as an aid to the evaluation of the yield and quality of potential crop combinations. Spaced plant measurements and field trials are described which took place on The Royal Agricultural College's Harnhill Manor Farm Cirencester UK in 2005 and 2006

  10. Study of the total replacement of egg by white lupine protein, emulsifiers and xanthan gum in yellow cakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iñigo Arozarena; Hugo Bertholo; José Empis; Andrea Bunger; Isabel Sousa

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of a total substitution of egg proteins in yellow cakes by vegetable proteins isolated from white lupine seeds was studied. The effects of several components on hardness, moisture content, volume, and shape characteristics of lupine-cakes were evaluated, using response surface methodology. Baking powder, soy lecithin, and mono- and diglycerides (MDG), were studied through a central composite rotatable experimental

  11. ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 ?g/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 ?g/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin ?+? conglutin. PMID:24128446

  12. The Marr and Albus Theories of the Cerebellum: Two Eary Models of Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1989-01-01

    The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum are compared and contrasted. They are shown to be similar in their analysis of the function of the mossy fibers, granule cells, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cells. They both predict motor learning in the parallel fiber synapses on the Purkinje dendrites mediated by concurrent climbing fiber input. This prediction has been confirmed by experimental evidence. In contrast, Marr predicts these synapses would be facilitated by learning, while Albus predicts they would be weakened. Experimental evidence confirms synaptic weakening.

  13. Variation in Flowering Phenology and Its Consequences for Lupines Colonizing Mount St. Helens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Bishop; Douglas W. Schemske

    1998-01-01

    Species colonizing large-scale disturbances face heterogeneous environmental conditions that may strongly affect the relationship between phenotypic variation and repro- duction. We investigated spatiotemporal variation in individual plant flowering phenology, flower and fruit predation, plant size, and fruit production in populations of Lupinus lepidus colonizing landscapes created by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. We quantified these variables in three

  14. The first complete chloroplast genome of the Genistoid legume Lupinus luteus: evidence for a novel major lineage-specific rearrangement and new insights regarding plastome evolution in the legume family

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Guillaume E.; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Cordonnier, Solenn; Lima, Oscar; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Naquin, Delphine; de Carvalho, Julie Ferreira; Aïnouche, Malika; Salmon, Armel; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims To date chloroplast genomes are available only for members of the non-protein amino acid-accumulating clade (NPAAA) Papilionoid lineages in the legume family (i.e. Millettioids, Robinoids and the ‘inverted repeat-lacking clade’, IRLC). It is thus very important to sequence plastomes from other lineages in order to better understand the unusual evolution observed in this model flowering plant family. To this end, the plastome of a lupine species, Lupinus luteus, was sequenced to represent the Genistoid lineage, a noteworthy but poorly studied legume group. Methods The plastome of L. luteus was reconstructed using Roche-454 and Illumina next-generation sequencing. Its structure, repetitive sequences, gene content and sequence divergence were compared with those of other Fabaceae plastomes. PCR screening and sequencing were performed in other allied legumes in order to determine the origin of a large inversion identified in L. luteus. Key Results The first sequenced Genistoid plastome (L. luteus: 155 894 bp) resulted in the discovery of a 36-kb inversion, embedded within the already known 50-kb inversion in the large single-copy (LSC) region of the Papilionoideae. This inversion occurs at the base or soon after the Genistoid emergence, and most probably resulted from a flip–flop recombination between identical 29-bp inverted repeats within two trnS genes. Comparative analyses of the chloroplast gene content of L. luteus vs. Fabaceae and extra-Fabales plastomes revealed the loss of the plastid rpl22 gene, and its functional relocation to the nucleus was verified using lupine transcriptomic data. An investigation into the evolutionary rate of coding and non-coding sequences among legume plastomes resulted in the identification of remarkably variable regions. Conclusions This study resulted in the discovery of a novel, major 36-kb inversion, specific to the Genistoids. Chloroplast mutational hotspots were also identified, which contain novel and potentially informative regions for molecular evolutionary studies at various taxonomic levels in the legumes. Taken together, the results provide new insights into the evolutionary landscape of the legume plastome. PMID:24769537

  15. Phytoremediation of soils co-contaminated by organic compounds and heavy metals: bioassays with Lupinus luteus L. and associated endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Ginés, M J; Hernández, A J; Pérez-Leblic, M I; Pastor, J; Vangronsveld, J

    2014-10-01

    In the central part of the Iberian Peninsula there are old sealed landfills containing soils co-contaminated by several heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Cr, Fe, Al, Mn) and organic pollutants of different families (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and other organochlorinated compounds, phenols and volatile compounds), which this work will address. We have focused on phytoremedial plants that are able to deal with this type of complex pollution, not only species that tolerate the joint effect of heavy metals in the soil, but also those that can take advantage of associated bacteria to efficiently break down organic compounds. This study was carried out with Lupinus luteus and its endophytes in two greenhouse experiments: A) growing in a substrate artificially contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and B) using real co-contaminated landfill soils. Endophytes of roots and shoots were isolated in both bioassays. Plant growth-promotion tests and organic pollutant tolerance and degradation tests were conducted on all strains isolated in bioassay A), and on those proving to be pure cultures from bioassay B). The selected landfill is described as are isolation and test procedures. Results indicate that plants did not show toxicity symptoms when exposed to BaP but did when grown in landfill soil. Some endophytes demonstrated plant growth-promotion capacity and tolerance to BaP and other organic compounds (diesel and PCB commercial mixtures). A few strains may even have the capacity to metabolize those organic pollutants. The overall decline in plant growth-promotion capacity in those strains isolated from the landfill soil experiment, compared with those from the bioassay with BaP, may indicate that lupin endophytes are not adapted to metal concentration in roots and shoots and fail to grow. As a result, most isolated root endophytes must have colonized root tissues from the soil. While preliminary degradation tests showed promising results (some strains exhibiting the potential to use organic pollutants as their sole source of carbon), these are not conclusive and further in-depth degradation assays need to be performed. PMID:24912107

  16. Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane C. Stout; Andrea R. Kells; Dave Goulson

    2002-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions threaten ecological communities world-wide. Some species are limited by a lack of suitable pollinators, but the introduction of exotic pollinators can facilitate rapid spread. In Tasmania, where many non-native plants are naturalised, exotic honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) have become established. We determined how these species affect the pollination of Lupinus arboreus, an invasive, nitrogen-fixing

  17. Localization of the Enzymes of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Leaf Chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus1

    PubMed Central

    Wink, Michael; Hartmann, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Studies with purified chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus LINDL. leaflets indicate that the first two enzymes of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, lysine decarboxylase and 17-oxosparteine synthase, are localized in the chloroplast stroma. Thus, both enzymes share the same subcellular compartment as the biosynthetic pathway of lysine, the precursor of quinolizidine alkaloids. The activity of diaminopimelate decarboxylase, the final enzyme in lysine biosynthesis, is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the enzymes of alkaloid formation. PMID:16662483

  18. 2C DNA variation and relationships among New World species of the genus Lupinus (Fabaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Naganowska; B Wolko; E ?liwi?ska; Z Kaczmarek; M T Schifino-Wittmann

    2005-01-01

    The 2C DNA values in 38 species and accessions of the genus Lupinus (Fabaceae) from the New World have been analysed using flow cytometry. They are representatives of North and South American\\u000a species (the Atlantic and the Andean regions). Estimated 2C DNA values ranged from 1.08 pg in L. pusillus to 2.68 pg in L. albicaulis (both from North America),

  19. Effects of genetic structure of Lupinus arboreus and previous herbivory on Platyprepia virginalis caterpillars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Karban; Pamela M. Kittelson

    1999-01-01

    Two leaf-feeding caterpillars, western tussock moth (Orgyia vetusta) and ranchman's tiger moth (Platyprepia virginalis) are abundant on Lupinus arboreus along the California coast. Previous experiments and observations suggested that feeding caused by either of these two folivores\\u000a could reduce the performance and possibly the abundance and distribution of the other species. Previous common garden experiments\\u000a also indicated that genetically determined

  20. The quantitative determination of phenolic acids and antimicrobial activity of Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake.

    PubMed

    Szaufer-Hajdrych, Miros?awa; Go?li?ska, Olga

    2004-01-01

    The content of phenolic acids was determined in the extracts and fractions from leaves, flowers and fruits of Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake (Caprifoliaceae) by the Arnov's method. Antimicrobial activity of all extracts against Gram-positive anti Gram-negative microorganisms has been tested. PMID:15259860

  1. Effect of biofumigation with volatiles from Muscodor albus on the viability of Tilletia spp. teliospores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on dormant and physiologically active teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, T. indica, and T. tritici which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of w...

  2. Mortality of Tilletia spp. teliospores caused by volatiles from the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatiles produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, T. indica, and T. tritici which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of wheat, and common bunt of wheat, respectively. Ten g...

  3. Strategies for surviving high concentrations of environmental ammonia in the swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Ip, Yuen K; Tay, Angeline S L; Lee, Kong H; Chew, Shit F

    2004-01-01

    The swamp eel Monopterus albus lives in muddy ponds, swamps, canals, and rice fields in the tropics. It encounters high concentrations of environmental ammonia (HEA) during dry seasons or during agricultural fertilization in rice fields. This study aimed at determining the tolerance of M. albus to environmental ammonia and at elucidating the strategies that it adopts to defend against ammonia toxicity in HEA. In the laboratory, M. albus exhibited very high environmental ammonia tolerance; the 48-, 72-, and 96-h median lethal concentrations of total ammonia at pH 7.0 and 28 degrees C were 209.9, 198.7, and 193.2 mM, respectively. It was apparently incapable of actively excreting ammonia against a concentration gradient. In addition, it did not detoxify ammonia to urea, the excretion of which would lead to a loss of nitrogen and carbon, during ammonia loading. The high tolerance of M. albus to HEA was attributable partially to its exceptionally high tolerance to ammonia at the cellular and subcellular levels. During the 144 h of exposure to 75 mM NH(4)Cl at pH 7.0, the ammonia contents in the muscle, liver, brain, and gut of M. albus reached 11.49, 15.18, 6.48, and 7.51 mu mol g(-1), respectively. Such a capability allowed the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonia in the plasma (3.54 mu mol mL(-1)) of M. albus exposed to HEA, which would reduce the net influx of exogenous ammonia. Subsequent to the buildup of internal ammonia levels, M. albus detoxified ammonia produced endogenously to glutamine. The glutamine contents in the muscle and liver reached 10.84 and 17.06 mu mol g(-1), respectively, after 144 h of exposure to HEA, which happened to be the highest known for fish. Unlike urea, the storage of glutamine in the muscle during ammonia loading allowed its usage for anabolic purposes when the adverse environmental condition subsides. Glutamine synthetase activity increased significantly in the liver and gut (2.8- and 1.5-fold, respectively) of specimens exposed to HEA for 144 h. These results suggest that the liver was the main site of ammonia detoxification and the gut was more than a digestive/absorptive organ in M. albus. Monopterus albus did not undergo a reduction in amino acid catabolism during the first 24 h of ammonia exposure. However, assuming a total inhibition of excretion of endogenous ammonia, there was a deficit of -312 mu mol N between the reduction in nitrogenous excretion (3,360 mu mol N) and the retention of nitrogen (3,048 mu mol N) after 72 h of aerial exposure. The deficit became much greater after 144 h, reaching a value of -3,243 mu mol N. These results suggest that endogenous ammonia production in M. albus was suppressed in order to prevent the newly established internal steady state concentration of ammonia from rising to an intolerable level after an extended period of exposure to HEA. PMID:15286913

  4. Article original Utilisation du lupin blanc doux pour l'alimentation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Article original Utilisation du lupin blanc doux pour l'alimentation des ruminants : résultats et'alimentation du bétail mais également être valori- sées directement pour nourrir les ruminants dans les ruminants sur la base du sys- tème des protéines digestibles dans l'intestin (PDI). Les essais menés sur

  5. Growth and siderophore production in vitro of Bradyrhizobium (Lupin) strains under iron limitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Hemida Abd-Alla

    1998-01-01

    Six Bradyrhizobium (lupin) strains were evaluated for their ability to produce in vitro siderophores using four chemical assays. Bradyrhizobium strains WPBS 3201 D and 3211 D gave positive reactions with the chrome azurol S assay (CAS) and produced hydroxamate-type siderophores. The other four strains (USDA 3040, 3041, 3042 and CB 2272) gave negative results for siderophore production with the four

  6. Replacement of soya in pig diets with white lupine cv. Butan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Zralý; B. Písa?íková; M. Tr?ková; M. Doležal; J. Thiemel; J. Simeonovová; M. J?zl

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of soya replacement (50 or 100%) with whole (WL) or dehulled seeds (DL) of white lupine cv. Butan in the diets for market pigs. The experiment was performed on 50 pigs in equal numbers of barrows and gilts with the initial mean body weight (BW) of 18.3 ± 2.1

  7. Lupine influence on soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial activity in developing ecosystems at Mount St. Helens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Halvorson; J. L. Smith; E. H. Franz

    1991-01-01

    Lupine influence on soil C, N, and microbial activity was estimated by comparing root-zone soil (LR) to nonroot-zone soil (NR) collected at Mount St. Helens. Samples were collected from 5 sites forming a gradient of C and N levels as a reflection of different locations and varying volcanic disturbance by the 1980 eruption. In volcanic substrates undergoing primary ecosystem development,

  8. Discrimination des lupins basse teneur en alcalodes par les adultes de Sitona lineatus L. (Col. Curculionidae)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with low alkaloid content by adult Sitona lineatus L. To develop lupin-growing, we have to breed cultivars with low alkaloid content. Following field observations, an experiment under semi-controlled conditions showed that adults of Sitona lineatus L. fed preferentially on low-alkaloid plants and hardly at all

  9. Lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp: toxicity and teratogenicity in livestock.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; James, L F; Gardner, D R

    1999-02-01

    Many species of lupines contain quinolizidine or piperidine alkaloids known to be toxic or teratogenic to livestock. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum) and Nicotiana spp. including N. tabacum and N. glauca contain toxic and teratogenic piperidine alkaloids. The toxic and teratogenic effects from these plant species have distinct similarities including maternal muscular weakness and ataxia and fetal contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate. It is believed that the mechanism of action of the piperidine and quinolizidine alkaloid-induced teratogenesis is the same; however, there are some differences in incidence, susceptible gestational periods, and severity between livestock species. Wildlife species have also been poisoned after eating poison-hemlock but no terata have been reported. The most widespread problem for livestock producers in recent times has been lupine-induced "crooked calf disease." Crooked calf disease is characterized as skeletal contracture-type malformations and occasional cleft palate in calves after maternal ingestion of lupines containing the quinolizidine alkaloid anagyrine during gestation days 40-100. Similar malformations have been induced in cattle and goats with lupines containing the piperidine alkaloids ammodendrine, N-methyl ammodendrine, and N-acetyl hystrine and in cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs with poison-hemlock containing predominantly coniine or gamma-coniceine and N. glauca containing anabasine. Toxic and teratogenic effects have been linked to structural aspects of these alkaloids, and the mechanism of action is believed to be associated with an alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement during specific gestational periods. This review presents a historical perspective, description and distribution of lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp., toxic and teratogenic effects and management information to reduce losses. PMID:10091132

  10. Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoya Kitao; Daisuke Fukui; Masaaki Hashimoto; Peter G. Osborne

    2009-01-01

    The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese\\u000a subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and\\u000a blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in

  11. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, during 6 or 40 days of estivation in mud.

    PubMed

    Chew, S F; Gan, J; Ip, Y K

    2005-01-01

    Monopterus albus inhabits muddy ponds, swamps, canals, and rice fields, where it can burrow into the moist earth, and it survives for long periods during the dry summer season. However, it had been reported previously that mortality increased when M. albus was exposed to air for 8 d or more. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the strategies adopted by M. albus to defend against ammonia toxicity during 6 or 40 d of estivation in mud and to evaluate whether these strategies were different from those adopted by fish to survive 6 d of aerial exposure. Ammonia and glutamine accumulations occurred in the muscle and liver of fish exposed to air (normoxia) for 6 d, indicating that ammonia was detoxified to glutamine under such conditions. In contrast, ammonia accumulation occurred only in the muscle, with no increases in glutamine or glutamate contents in all tissues, of fish estivated in mud for 6 d. Similar results were obtained from fish estivated in mud for 40 d. While estivating in mud prevented excessive water loss through evaporation, M. albus was exposed to hypoxia, as indicated by significant decreases in blood P(O(2)), muscle energy charge, and ATP content in fish estivated in mud for 6 d. Glutamine synthesis is energy intensive, and that could be the reason why M. albus did not depend on glutamine synthesis to defend against ammonia toxicity when a decrease in ATP supply occurred. Instead, suppression of endogenous ammonia production was adopted as the major strategy to ameliorate ammonia toxicity when M. albus estivated in mud. Our results suggest that a decrease in O(2) level in the mud could be a more effective signal than an increase in internal ammonia level during aerial exposure to induce a suppression of ammonia production in M. albus. This might explain why M. albus is able to estivate in mud for long periods (40 d) but can survive in air for only <10 d. PMID:15957116

  12. Skin prick test reactivity to lupin in comparison to peanut, pea, and soybean in atopic and non-atopic German subjects: A preliminary cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bähr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kaatz, Martin; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of lupin in food processing poses a problem of potential (cross-)allergic reactions. To evaluate the prevalence of sensitization to lupin in comparison to that of other legumes skin prick tests were performed with lupin, pea, peanut, and soybean in atopic (n = 81) and non-atopic (n = 102) German adults. Of these 183 subjects, 20 subjects had to be excluded due to invalid skin prick tests (reaction to histamine <3 mm or to sodium chloride >2 mm). Thus, skin prick tests of 163 subjects were included in final analyses. Of 163 subjects, 18 had a positive reaction to at least one legume tested. Overall skin prick test reactivity was different among non-atopic and atopic subjects (P = 0.005). Altogether, six subjects (4%) were sensitized to lupin, 12 (7%) to pea, 5 (3%) to peanut, and 8 (5%) to soybean. Two (2%) of the 92 non-atopic subjects and 4 (6%) of the 71 atopic subjects had a positive skin prick test to lupin. Of the 6 subjects sensitized to lupin, 3 (50%) were also sensitized to pea, 3 (50%) to peanut, and 5 (83%) to soybean. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of lupin sensitization were comparable to or even lower than those of pea, peanut, and soybean. To date, lupin allergy is suspected to be relatively uncommon in the overall German population since lupin sensitization occurred in only 2% of non-atopic subjects. However, there is a clear risk of a lupin allergy in predisposed subjects, since the frequency of lupin sensitization was 6% in atopic subjects. In particular, subjects with existing sensitization or allergy to other legumes are at higher risk for a sensitization or allergy to lupin due to cross-reactivity. PMID:25400931

  13. Decomposition of lupine biomass by soil microorganisms in developing mount St. Helens' pyroclastic soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan J. Halvorson; Jeffrey L. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Legumes like Lupinus lepidus and L. latifolius affect soil C and N concentrations and microbial activity in Mount St. Helens' pyroclastic deposits. Concentrations of total Kjeldahl-N (TKN), total organic-C (TOC) and water soluble-C (H2O?C) were measured in soil from under live L. lepidus (LULE), live L. latifolius (LULA) and dead L. lepidus (DEAD), and in bare soil (BARE). Soil microbial

  14. Preliminary evaluation of annually cultivated forage legumes for organic farming in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nykänen-Kurki; P. Leinonen; A. Nykänen

    In Finland, the most common legume in organic farming is Trifolium pratense, which cultivation needs to be broken regularly to maintain high productivity. Use of annuals also decreases peaks of field work and increases open field area for manure. In 1998-2001, 19 forage legume species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, Medicago littoralis, Medicago scutellata, Melilotus albus, Melilotus officinalis, Pisum

  15. Tracking nickel-adaptive biomarkers in Pisolithus albus from New Caledonia using a transcriptomic approach.

    PubMed

    Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Soupe, Marie-Estelle; Carriconde, Fabian; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel; Jourand, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The fungus Pisolithus albus forms ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations with plants growing on extreme ultramafic soils, which are naturally rich in heavy metals such as nickel. Both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive isolates of P. albus are found in ultramafic soils in New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot in the Southwest Pacific. The aim of this work was to monitor the expression of genes involved in the specific molecular response to nickel in a nickel-tolerant P. albus isolate. We used pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approaches to investigate and compare the transcriptomes of the nickel-tolerant isolate MD06-337 in the presence and absence of nickel. A total of 1,071,375 sequencing reads were assembled to infer expression patterns of 19,518 putative genes. Comparison of expression levels revealed that 30% of the identified genes were modulated by nickel treatment. The genes, for which expression was induced most markedly by nickel, encoded products that were putatively involved in a variety of biological functions, such as the modification of cellular components (53%), regulation of biological processes (27%) and molecular functions (20%). The 10 genes that pyrosequencing analysis indicated were induced the most by nickel were characterized further by qPCR analysis of both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive P. albus isolates. Five of these genes were expressed exclusively in nickel-tolerant isolates as well as in ECM samples in situ, which identified them as potential biomarkers for nickel tolerance in this species. These results clearly suggest a positive transcriptomic response of the fungus to nickel-rich environments. The presence of both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive fungal phenotypes in ultramafic soils might reflect environment-dependent phenotypic responses to variations in the effective concentrations of nickel in heterogeneous ultramafic habitats. PMID:22429322

  16. Complete mitogenome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus: genetic structure and comparative genomics within Echinozoa.

    PubMed

    Cea, Graciela; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2015-06-01

    The edible Chilean red sea urchin, Loxechinus albus, is the only species of its genus and endemic to the Southeastern Pacific. In this study, we reconstructed the mitochondrial genome of L. albus by combining Sanger and pyrosequencing technologies. The mtDNA genome had a length of 15,737 bp and encoded the same 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes as other animal mtDNAs. The size of this mitogenome was similar to those of other Echinodermata species. Structural comparisons showed a highly conserved structure, composition, and gene order within Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in Asteroidea and Crinoidea, with the majority of differences explained by the inversions of some tRNA genes. Phylogenetic reconstruction supported the monophyly of Echinozoa and recovered the monophyletic relationship of Holothuroidea and Echinoidea. Within Holothuroidea, Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses recovered a sister-group relationship between Dendrochirotacea and Aspidochirotida. Similarly within Echinoidea, these analyses revealed that L. albus was closely related to Paracentrotus lividus, both being part of a sister group to Strongylocentrotidae and Echinometridae. In addition, two major clades were found within Strongylocentrotidae. One of these clades comprised all of the representative species Strongylocentrotus and Hemicentrotus, whereas the other included species of Mesocentrotus and Pseudocentrotus. PMID:25433433

  17. Production and characterization of a bacteriocin from ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han-Tsung; Chen, I-Hung; Hsu, Jih-Tay

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of a bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 and its potential as an antibiotic alternative were examined in this study. The addition of 3 µM 3-phenylpropanoic acid (PPA) and 0.2% Tween 80 to the culturing medium improved bacteriocin production by 2.5-fold. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the antagonistically active gel filtration fraction established that the molecular weight of the R. albus 7 bacteriocin was approximately 36 kDa. The bacteriocin was sensitive to pepsin, protease, and pancreatin, and was inactivated by heating at 65 °C for 1 h. Simulating in vitro avian digestion decreased the antagonistic activity by 74.7%, but the addition of 1% bovin serum albumin restored 13% of the lost antagonistic activity. Following ion-exchange purification, the bacteriocin had sufficient antagonistic activity against five tested pathogenic strains, but the addition of a protectant is necessary for utilization of bacteriocin of R. albus 7 as an antibiotic alternative in animal feed. PMID:22232237

  18. Growth and siderophore production in Bradyrhizobium (lupin) strains under iron limitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Abd-Alla

    1999-01-01

    SixBradyrhizobium (lupin) strains were evaluated for their ability to produce siderophores using four chemical assays. Two strains gave positive\\u000a reactions with chrome azurol S assay (CAS) and produced hydroxamate-type siderophores. The other four strains gave negative\\u000a results for siderophore production using the four assays. Generation time, growth yield and hydroxamate production of one\\u000a strain (WPBS 3201 D) were affected by

  19. [Genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA in white char Salvelinus albus and northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma].

    PubMed

    Ole?nik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, Vl A

    2010-03-01

    Comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation was performed in white char Salvelinus albus and in its putative ancestor species, northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma. Highly statistically significant differentiation of S. albus and S. m. malma in the areas of sympatric (Kamchatka River basin) and allopatric (Kronotskoe Lake and Kronotskaya River) residence was demonstrated. The mtDNA divergence between S. albus and S. m. malma did not exceed the range ofintraspecific variation in the populations of northern Dolly Varden char. At the same time, clusterization pattern of the Salvelinus chars provides hypothesis on the common origin of two allopatric populations of white char. Genealogical analysis of haplotypes indicates that S. albus and S. m. malma currently demonstrate incomplete radiation of mitochondrial lineages. The low nucleotide divergence estimates between S. albus and S. m. malma reflect the short time period since the beginning of the radiation of ancestral lineages. These estimates are determined by ancestral polymorphism and haplotype exchange between the diverged phylogenetic groups as a result of introgressive hybridization. PMID:20391784

  20. The effect of temperature and duration of exposure of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in infested tubers to the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Lacey; David R. Horton; Dana C. Jones

    2008-01-01

    The endophytic fungus, Muscodor albus produces several volatile compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, acids and lipids) that are biocidal for a range of organisms including plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, nematodes and insects. We studied the effects of these volatiles on 3-day-old potato tuber moth larvae within infested tubers inside sealed chambers. The length of exposure to M. albus significantly affected

  1. Early growth of introduced and native grasses on lupine-enriched soil Taraneh M. Emam1, Peter Alpert2, Don Strong3

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    species? Bromus diandrus Lolium multiflorum Vulpia bromoides Biomass, growth rate studied ntroduced pecies. In contrast, L. multiflorum, B. carinatus, H. brachyantherum, and H. lanatus had higher percent germination eafblade(mm) B. diandrus L. multiflorum Lupine Non-Lupine 50 60 70 80 90 100 eafblade(mm) 50 60 70 80 90

  2. Effect of pressure toasting on the rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of whole and broken peas, lupins and faba beans and a mixture of these feedstuffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Goelema; M. A. M. Spreeuwenberg; G. Hof; S. Tamminga

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pressure toasting of whole and broken peas, lupins and faba beans on in situ degradability of protein and starch and intestinal digestibility of protein were studied. To test for associative effects on rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility after toasting, a mixture of peas, lupins and faba beans was examined and results were compared with weighted averages of

  3. SPARSE-1997 DENSE-2002 Potholes are small (typically about 12 m2

    E-print Network

    del Moral, Roger

    potholes were sampled to determine the effects of Lupinus lepidus. This was undertaken because lupines. These samples tend to be dominated by Penstemon, Lupinus, or mosses to a greater degree than do the potholes

  4. Myopathy in cattle induced by alkaloid extracts from Thermopsis montanta, Laburnum anagyroides and a Lupinus sp.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F; Baker, D C

    1990-08-01

    A purified alkaloid preparation containing N-methylcytisine, cytisine, 5,6-dehydrolupanine, thermopsine and anagyrine from Thermopsis montana induced prolonged recumbency and microscopic acute hyaline skeletal myodegeneration with myofibre regeneration in cattle similar in type and severity to that induced by Thermopsis montanta plant material. This indicates that the alkaloid(s) of Thermopsis montana are responsible for the myopathy caused by the plant. An alkaloid preparation containing mostly anagyrine from a Lupinus sp. and an alkaloid preparation containing only cytisine from Laburnum anagyroides each caused microscopic skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis similar to, but less severe than, the alkaloid extract from T. montana, but without clinical recumbency. Dosage and severity of response suggest that neither of those two alkaloids alone can account for the effects induced by Thermopsis. The data suggest that quinolizidine alkaloids with a alpha-pyridone A-ring may be responsible for the lesions and that individual alpha-pyridones may have additive effects. PMID:2246392

  5. Genome sequence of the Ornithopus/Lupinus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; De Meyer, Sofie; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing root nodule formed on the annual legume Ornithopus pinnatus (Miller) Druce growing at Oyster Harbour, Albany district, Western Australia in 1982. This strain is in commercial production as an inoculant for Lupinus and Ornithopus. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,784,016 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 1 scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,372 protein-coding genes and 58 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976882

  6. Genome sequence of the Ornithopus/Lupinus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; De Meyer, Sofie; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-12-20

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing root nodule formed on the annual legume Ornithopus pinnatus (Miller) Druce growing at Oyster Harbour, Albany district, Western Australia in 1982. This strain is in commercial production as an inoculant for Lupinus and Ornithopus. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,784,016 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 1 scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,372 protein-coding genes and 58 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976882

  7. 3-Phenylpropanoic Acid Improves the Affinity of Ruminococcus albus for Cellulose in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Mark; Mackie, Roderick I.; Kistner, Albrecht

    1990-01-01

    A continuous-culture device, adapted for use with solid substrates, was used to evaluate the effects of 3-phenylpropanoic acid (PPA) upon the ability of the South African strain Ruminococcus albus Ce63 to ferment cellulose. Steady states of fermentation were established with a dilution rate of 0.17 h?1, and the extent and volumetric rates of cellulose fermentation were determined over four consecutive days. When the growth medium contained no additions (control), 25 ?M phenylacetate alone, 25 ?M PPA alone, or 25 ?M each of phenylacetate and PPA, the extent of cellulose hydrolysis was determined to be 41.1, 35.7, 90.2, and 86.9%, respectively, and the volumetric rate of cellulose hydrolysis was 103.0, 97.9, 215.5, and 230.4 mg liter?1 h?1, respectively. To evaluate the effect of PPA availability on affinity for cellulose, the values for dilution rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis were used in combination with values for maximum specific growth rate determined from previous studies of growth rates and kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis. The findings support the contention that PPA maintains a competitive advantage for R. albus when grown in a dynamic, fiber-rich environment. Images PMID:16348327

  8. Effect of 3-Phenylpropanoic Acid on Capsule and Cellulases of Ruminococcus albus 8

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Robert J.; Hungate, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    The morphology and cellulases of Ruminococcus albus 8 were markedly affected by the inclusion of 3-phenylpropanoic acid (PPA) in a defined growth medium. PPA-grown bacteria produced substantial quantities of cell-bound cellulase, as well as a very high-molecular-weight extracellular enzyme and lesser amounts of two low-molecular-weight enzymes. PPA-deprived bacteria produced greater total amounts of cellulase, but all of it exists in soluble, low-molecular-weight forms. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the availability of PPA did not affect the kinds of proteins produced, but the distribution of two major proteins between cells and supernatant was PPA dependent. These two proteins (85 and 102 kilodaltons) were primarily associated with the cells of PPA-grown bacteria but were found chiefly in the supernatants of PPA-deprived cultures. Examination of thin sections of PPA-grown R. albus 8 by transmission electron microscopy showed a lobed ruthenium red-staining capsule surrounding the cell wall, as well as small vesicular structures (diameter, 0.05 to 0.06 ?m) which appeared to aggregate into larger spherical units (diameter, 0.2 to 0.3 ?m). In contrast, thin sections of PPA-deprived cells were devoid of vesicles and showed little or no capsule surrounding the cells. Images PMID:16346590

  9. Effect of 3-Phenylpropanoic Acid on Capsule and Cellulases of Ruminococcus albus 8.

    PubMed

    Stack, R J; Hungate, R E

    1984-07-01

    The morphology and cellulases of Ruminococcus albus 8 were markedly affected by the inclusion of 3-phenylpropanoic acid (PPA) in a defined growth medium. PPA-grown bacteria produced substantial quantities of cell-bound cellulase, as well as a very high-molecular-weight extracellular enzyme and lesser amounts of two low-molecular-weight enzymes. PPA-deprived bacteria produced greater total amounts of cellulase, but all of it exists in soluble, low-molecular-weight forms. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the availability of PPA did not affect the kinds of proteins produced, but the distribution of two major proteins between cells and supernatant was PPA dependent. These two proteins (85 and 102 kilodaltons) were primarily associated with the cells of PPA-grown bacteria but were found chiefly in the supernatants of PPA-deprived cultures. Examination of thin sections of PPA-grown R. albus 8 by transmission electron microscopy showed a lobed ruthenium red-staining capsule surrounding the cell wall, as well as small vesicular structures (diameter, 0.05 to 0.06 mum) which appeared to aggregate into larger spherical units (diameter, 0.2 to 0.3 mum). In contrast, thin sections of PPA-deprived cells were devoid of vesicles and showed little or no capsule surrounding the cells. PMID:16346590

  10. 3-Phenylpropanoic Acid Improves the Affinity of Ruminococcus albus for Cellulose in Continuous Culture.

    PubMed

    Morrison, M; Mackie, R I; Kistner, A

    1990-10-01

    A continuous-culture device, adapted for use with solid substrates, was used to evaluate the effects of 3-phenylpropanoic acid (PPA) upon the ability of the South African strain Ruminococcus albus Ce63 to ferment cellulose. Steady states of fermentation were established with a dilution rate of 0.17 h, and the extent and volumetric rates of cellulose fermentation were determined over four consecutive days. When the growth medium contained no additions (control), 25 muM phenylacetate alone, 25 muM PPA alone, or 25 muM each of phenylacetate and PPA, the extent of cellulose hydrolysis was determined to be 41.1, 35.7, 90.2, and 86.9%, respectively, and the volumetric rate of cellulose hydrolysis was 103.0, 97.9, 215.5, and 230.4 mg liter h, respectively. To evaluate the effect of PPA availability on affinity for cellulose, the values for dilution rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis were used in combination with values for maximum specific growth rate determined from previous studies of growth rates and kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis. The findings support the contention that PPA maintains a competitive advantage for R. albus when grown in a dynamic, fiber-rich environment. PMID:16348327

  11. Autonomic control of the heart in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Iversen, Nina K; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2011-04-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an air-breathing teleost with very reduced gills that uses the buccal cavity for air-breathing. Here we characterise the cardiovascular changes associated with the intermittent breathing pattern in M. albus and we study the autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing. The shift from water- to air-breathing was associated with a rise in heart rate from 27.7 ± 1.6 to 41.4 ± 2.6 min(-1) and an increase in cardiac output from 23.1 ± 3.0 to 58.7 ± 6.5 mLmin(-1)kg(-1), while mean systemic blood pressure did not change (39.0 ± 3.5 and 46.4 ± 1.3 cmH(2)O). The autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing was revealed by infusion of the ?-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and muscarinic antagonist atropine (3 mgkg(-1)) in eels instrumented with an arterial catheter. Inhibition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of the heart revealed a strong vagal tone on the heart of water-breathing eels and that the tachycardia during air-breathing is primarily mediated by withdrawal of cholinergic tone. PMID:21147247

  12. Activation and identification of five clusters for secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus J1074

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Carlos; García, Ignacio; González, Aranzazu; Rodriguez, Miriam; Rozas, Daniel; Rubio, Julio; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Braña, Alfredo F; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces albus?J1074 is a streptomycete strain widely used as a host for expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of this organism predicts the presence of 27 gene clusters for secondary metabolites. We have used three different strategies for the activation of some of these silent/cryptic gene clusters in S.?albus?J1074: two hybrid polyketide-non-ribosomal peptides (PK-NRP) (antimycin and 6-epi-alteramides), a type I PK (candicidin), a non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) (indigoidine) and glycosylated compounds (paulomycins). By insertion of a strong and constitutive promoter in front of selected genes of two clusters, production of the blue pigment indigoidine and of two novel members of the polycyclic tetramate macrolactam family (6-epi-alteramides A and B) was activated. Overexpression of positive regulatory genes from the same organism also activated the biosynthesis of 6-epi-alteramides and heterologous expression of the regulatory gene pimM of the pimaricin cluster activated the simultaneous production of candicidins and antimycins, suggesting some kind of cross-regulation between both clusters. A cluster for glycosylated compounds (paulomycins) was also identified by comparison of the high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the wild-type strain with that of a mutant in which two key enzymes of the cluster were simultaneously deleted. PMID:24593309

  13. Humibacter albus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sewage sludge compost.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nobre, M Fernanda; Ferreira, António C Silva; Schumann, Peter; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2008-04-01

    A bacterial strain isolated from sewage sludge compost, strain SC-083T, was characterized. The isolate was a motile, Gram-positive, short rod, forming coryneform V-shaped cells during the early stages of growth. The organism was strictly aerobic and able to grow between 22 and 36 degrees C and between pH 5.5 and 8.0. The predominant fatty acids were cyclohexyl-C17 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, the major respiratory quinones were menaquinone 11 (MK-11) and 12 (MK-12), and the genomic DNA G+C content was 68 mol%. The peptidoglycan contained the diagnostic diamino acids ornithine and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid and was of acetyl type. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that this isolate belongs to the family Microbacteriaceae with the type strains of the species Leifsonia xyli (96 % gene sequence similarity), Leifsonia shinshuensis (96 %), Leifsonia naganoensis (95 %), Leifsonia aquatica (95 %), Agromyces ramosus (95 %) and Curtobacterium citreum (95 %) among the closest phylogenetic neighbours. The phylogenetic analysis and phenetic characteristics support the proposal of a new genus and a novel species, with the name Humibacter albus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Humibacter albus is SC-083T (=DSM 18994T =CCUG 54538T =LMG 23996T). PMID:18398211

  14. Spatial scales of genetic structure and gene flow in Calochortus albus (Liliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Henss, Jillian M; Moeller, Jackson R; Theim, Terra J; Givnish, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Calochortus (Liliaceae) displays high species richness, restriction of many individual taxa to narrow ranges, geographic coherence of individual clades, and parallel adaptive radiations in different regions. Here we test the first part of a hypothesis that all of these patterns may reflect gene flow at small geographic scales. We use amplified fragment length polymorphism variation to quantify the geographic scales of spatial genetic structure and apparent gene flow in Calochortus albus, a widespread member of the genus, at Henry Coe State Park in the Coast Ranges south of San Francisco Bay. Analyses of 254 mapped individuals spaced 0.001–14.4 km apart show a highly significant decline in genetic identity with ln distance, implying a root-mean-square distance of gene flow ? of 5–43 m. STRUCTURE analysis implies the existence of 2–4 clusters over the study area, with frequent reversals among clusters over short distances (<200 m) and a relatively high frequency of admixture within individuals at most sampling sites. While the intensity of spatial genetic structure in C. albus is weak, as measured by the Sp statistic, that appears to reflect low genetic identity of adjacent plants, which might reflect repeated colonizations at small spatial scales or density-dependent mortality of individual genotypes by natural enemies. Small spatial scales of gene flow and spatial genetic structure should permit, under a variety of conditions, genetic differentiation within species at such scales, setting the stage ultimately for speciation and adaptive radiation as such scales as well. PMID:23789059

  15. Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitao, Naoya; Fukui, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Osborne, Peter G.

    2009-03-01

    The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in Hokkaido, Japan. Body temperature of N. p. albus decreased from 38°C in autumn to 35.9-36.7°C while maintaining a circadian rhythm in late February ( n = 3). A transient 18-36% decrease in resting heart rate occurred when body temperature was low ( n = 2). Despite a 33-45% decrease in body weight due to winter fasting, circulating glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels were maintained ( n = 4). Serum urea nitrogen dropped by 43-45% from autumn to spring, suggesting protein conservation during fasting. The overwintering survival strategy of N. p. albus in central Hokkaido is based upon large changes in seasonal activity patterns, winter denning and communal housing without the large decrease in body temperature that is characteristic of subarctic animals exhibiting hibernation or torpor.

  16. Unique aspects of fiber degradation by the ruminal ethanologen Ruminococcus albus 7 revealed by physiological and transcriptomic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus are important and ubiquitous members of mammalian guts. In particular, ruminococci are key contributors to the rumen ecosystem because they are capable of digesting a wide range of plant cell wall polysaccharides. In bovines, Ruminococcus albus 7 is a primary cellu...

  17. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    E-print Network

    Heist, Edward J.

    for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) By P. W. Bettoli1 , M. Casto-Yerty1 , G. D. Scholten2 and E (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five datesBycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery

  18. Gene cloning and induced expression pattern of IRF4 and IRF10 in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiao-Qing; Yang, Dai-Qin; Tuo, Rui; Wan, Jing; Chang, Ming-Xian; Nie, Pin

    2014-09-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish in East Asia, but data on the immune genes of M. albus are scarce compared to other commercially important fish. A better understanding of the eel's immune responses may help in developing strategies for disease management, potentially improving yields and mitigating losses. In mammals, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play a vital role in both the innate and adaptive immune system; though among teleosts IRF4 and IRF10 have seldom been studied. In this study, we characterized IRF4 and IRF10 from M. albus (maIRF4 and maIRF10) and found that maIRF4 cDNA consists of 1 716 nucleotides encoding a 451 amino acid (aa) protein, while maIRF10 consists of 1 744 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 236 nt encoding 411 aa. The maIRF10 gene was constitutively expressed at high levels in a variety of tissues, while maIRF4 showed a very limited expression pattern. Expression of maIRF4 and maIRF10 in head kidney, and spleen tissues was significantly up-regulated from 12 h to 48 h post-stimulation with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a common pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. These results suggest that IRF4 and IRF10 play roles in immune responses to both viral and bacterial infections in M. albus. PMID:25297077

  19. The swamp eel Monopterus albus reduces endogenous ammonia production and detoxifies ammonia to glutamine during 144 h of aerial exposure.

    PubMed

    Tay, Angeline S L; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2003-07-01

    The swamp eel Monopterus albus inhabits muddy ponds, swamps, canals and rice fields, where it can burrow within the moist earth during the dry summer season, thus surviving for long periods without water. This study aimed to elucidate the strategies adopted by M. albus to defend against endogenous ammonia toxicity when kept out of water for 144 h (6 days). Like any other fish, M. albus has difficulties in excreting ammonia during aerial exposure. In fact, the rates of ammonia and urea excretions decreased significantly in specimens throughout the 144 h of aerial exposure. At 144 h, the ammonia and urea excretion rates decreased to 20% and 25%, respectively, of the corresponding control values. Consequently, ammonia accumulated to high levels in the tissues and plasma of the experimental specimens. Apparently, M. albus has developed relatively higher ammonia tolerance at the cellular and subcellular levels compared with many other teleost fish. Since the urea concentration in the tissues of specimens exposed to air remained low, urea synthesis was apparently not adopted as a strategy to detoxify endogenous ammonia during 144 h of aerial exposure. Instead, ammonia produced through amino acid catabolism was detoxified to glutamine, leading to the accumulation of glutamine in the body during the first 72 h of aerial exposure. Complementing the increased glutamine formation was a significant increase in glutamine synthetase activity in the liver of specimens exposed to air for 144 h. Formation of glutamine is energetically expensive. It is probably because M. albus remained relatively inactive on land that the reduction in energy demand for locomotory activity facilitated its exploitation of glutamine formation to detoxify endogenous ammonia. There was a slight decrease in the glutamine level in the body of the experimental animals between 72 h and 144 h of aerial exposure, which indicates that glutamine might not be the end product of nitrogen metabolism. In addition, these results suggest that suppression of endogenous ammonia production, possibly through reductions in proteolysis and amino acid catabolism, acts as the major strategy to avoid ammonia intoxication in specimens exposed to air for >/=72 h. It is concluded that glutamine formation and reduction in ammonia production together served as effective strategies to avoid the excessive accumulation of ammonia in the body of M. albus during 144 h of aerial exposure. However, these strategies might not be adequate to sustain the survival of M. albus in the mud for longer periods during drought because ammonia and glutamine concentrations had already built up to high levels in the body of specimens exposed to air for 144 h. PMID:12796462

  20. Utilization of sweet kalina lupin seed by the weaned piglet Effect of the incorporation level and the physical form

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to conclude that the use of lupin in second age diets is not advisable. Utilization of " simple 0 " rapeseed of « simple 0» rapeseed oilmeal were compared in a trial involving 96 bacon pigs between 28.5 and 100.3 kg restricted as moistened meal at the through. « Simple 0» rapeseed oilmeal was prepared with grains free

  1. SIMULATING AND UNDERSTANDING ROOT GROWTH USING ROOTMAP TO GUIDE PHOSPHORUS FERTILISER PLACEMENT IN WIDE ROW LUPIN CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Chen; Vanessa Dunbabin; Richard Bell; Ross Brennan; Bill Bowden

    Research in Western Australia (WA) for the last few years reveals that in the warm and low rainfall environments of the northern agricultural region, wide rows (50 cm or more) can produce better lupin yields than narrow rows (25 cm or less) due to improved soil-crop water relations. However, in the broader sense the influence of wide row cropping on

  2. A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Caresana, M.; Varoli, V. [Department of Energy, Polytechnic of Milan, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Cassell, C. [Department of Energy, Polytechnic of Milan, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Centre for Medical Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Ferrarini, M. [CNAO, Via Privata Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Hohmann, E.; Mayer, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Manessi, G. P., E-mail: giacomo.manessi@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZE Liverpool (United Kingdom); Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 ?Sv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

  3. Effects of Untreated and Thermally Treated Lupin Protein on Plasma and Liver Lipids of Rats Fed a Hypercholesterolemic High Fat or High Carbohydrate Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinna Brandsch; Diana Kappis; Kristin Weiße; Gabriele I. Stangl

    2010-01-01

    Lupin protein is capable of reducing plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic man and animals. Whether lipid-lowering properties\\u000a of lupin protein will be influenced by thermal treatment or by other nutrients has not been elucidated. In a two-factorial\\u000a study, rats were fed hypercholesterolemic diets based on high amounts of carbohydrates (HC) or fat (HF), which contained either\\u000a (20.4% of energy) untreated or

  4. [Molecular cloning and expression analysis of swamp eel (Monopterus albus) Hprt].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Shang, Xuan; Cheng, Han-Hua; Zhou, Rong-Jia

    2006-06-01

    The enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) plays an important role in the purine salvage pathways. Full-length cDNA of swamp eel (Monopterus albus, the rice field eel) Hprt gene was obtained by the RACE method. The cDNA sequence was 1452 bp in length, which encoded a protein of 218 amino acids. Amino acid identities of Hprt between swamp eel and other vertebrates including human, mouse, chicken and zebrafish were more than 76.7%. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on the amino acid sequences showed that Hprt of swamp eel and zebrafish was in one clade. RT-PCR analysis showed ubiquitous expression pattern of swamp eel Hprt in adult tissues, suggesting that it has a constitutive function and is conserved during evolution. PMID:16818429

  5. Crystal structure of Ruminococcus albus cellobiose 2-epimerase: structural insights into epimerization of unmodified sugar.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takaaki; Saburi, Wataru; Inoue, Sota; Mori, Haruhide; Matsui, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2013-04-01

    Enzymatic epimerization is an important modification for carbohydrates to acquire diverse functions attributable to their stereoisomers. Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) catalyzes interconversion between d-glucose and d-mannose residues at the reducing end of ?-1,4-linked oligosaccharides. Here, we solved the structure of Ruminococcus albus CE (RaCE). The structure of RaCE showed strong similarity to those of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase and aldose-ketose isomerase YihS with a high degree of conservation of residues around the catalytic center, although sequence identity between them is low. Based on structural comparison, we found that His184 is required for RaCE activity as the third histidine added to two essential histidines in other sugar epimerases/isomerases. This finding was confirmed by mutagenesis, suggesting a new catalytic mechanism for CE involving three histidines. PMID:23462136

  6. Acute ammonia toxicity and the protective effects of methionine sulfoximine on the swamp eel, Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Tng, Yvonne Y M; Chew, Shit F; Wee, Nicklaus L J; Wong, Fung K; Wong, Wai P; Tok, Chia Y; Ip, Yuen K

    2009-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine how the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, defended against acute ammonia toxicity derived from the intraperitoneal injection with a sublethal dose (10 micromol g(-1) fish) of ammonium acetate (CH(3)COONH(4)) followed by 24 hr of emersion, and to elucidate the mechanisms of acute ammonia toxicity with respect to glutamine accumulation in the brain using L-methionine S-sulfoximine [MSO; a glutamine synthetase inhibitor]. When confronted with a sublethal dose of CH(3)COONH(4) followed by emersion, only a small fraction of the exogenous ammonia was excreted, and ammonia contents in various organs, especially the brain, increased transiently to high levels. Increased glutamine synthesis and decreased amino acid catabolism in and outside the brain were involved in the defence against acute ammonia toxicity. When injected with a lethal dose (16 micromol g(-1) fish) of CH(3)COONH(4) followed by emersion, ammonia (approximately 30 micromol g(-1) tissue), but not glutamine ( approximately 5 micromol g(-1) tissue), accumulated to extraordinarily high levels in the brain of succumbed fish. Hence, glutamine accumulation in the brain might not be the major mechanism of acute ammonia toxicity in M. albus. MSO (100 microg g(-1) fish) had a partial protective effect in fish injected with a lethal dose of CH(3)COONH(4). However, this effect was unrelated to the suppression of glutamine synthesis and accumulation in the brain. Instead, MSO suppressed the rate of ammonia buildup in the brain, possibly through its effects on glutamate dehydrogenase therein. PMID:19544359

  7. Aquibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake, and reclassification of Virgibacillus koreensis as Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. and Virgibacillus albus as Aquibacillus albus comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Bagheri, Maryam; Didari, Maryam; Mehrshad, Maliheh; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain B6B(T), was isolated from the water of an Iranian hypersaline lake, Aran-Bidgol, and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain B6B(T) were rod-shaped, motile and produced ellipsoidal endospores in terminal positions in non-swollen sporangia. Strain B6B(T) was a strictly aerobic bacterium and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-20.0% (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 10.0% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain B6B(T) was shown to belong to the phylum Firmicutes and its closest phylogenetic similarities were with the species Virgibacillus koreensis BH30097(T) (97.5%), Virgibacillus albus YIM 93624(T) (97.4%), Sediminibacillus halophilus EN8d(T) (96.8%), Sediminibacillus albus NHBX5(T) (96.6%), Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964(T) (96.3%) and Paraliobacillus quinghaiensis YIM-C158(T) (96.0%), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain B6B(T), along with V. koreensis BH30097(T) and V. albus YIM 93624(T), clustered in a separate clade in the family Bacillaceae. The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was 35.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed low levels of relatedness between strain B6B(T)and V. koreensis BH30097(T) (13%) and V. albus YIM 93624(T) (33%). The major cellular fatty acid of strain B6B(T) was anteiso-C15 : 0 (75.1%) and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown glycolipid. The isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (90%) and MK-6 (3%). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. All of these features support the placement of isolate B6B(T) within the phylum Firmicutes. It is closely related to V. koreensis and V. albus, but with features that clearly distinguish it from species of the genus Virgibacillus or of other related genera. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence derived in this study, we propose that strain B6B(T) be placed within a new genus, as Aquibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., with B6B(T) as the type strain (?=IBRC-M 10775(T)?=KCTC 13828(T)). We also propose that V. koreensis and V. albus should be transferred to this new genus and be named Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. and Aquibacillus albus comb. nov., respectively. The type strain of Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. is BH30097(T) (?=KCTC 3823(T)?=IBRC-M 10657(T)?=JCM 12387(T)) and the type strain of Aquibacillus albus comb. nov. is YIM 93624(T) (?=DSM 23711(T)?=IBRC-M 10798(T)?=JCM 17364(T)). PMID:25062698

  8. Identification of Arthrobacter oxydans, Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov., and Arthrobacter albus sp. nov., Isolated from Human Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Wauters, Georges; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michèle; Delmée, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Five Arthrobacter isolates from clinical specimens were studied by phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genetic characterization. Two strains had characteristics consistent with those of Arthrobacter oxydans. One strain was related to A. citreus; however, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics indicated that this strain belongs to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov. is proposed. Two strains were closely related to A. cumminsii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, but DNA-DNA hybridization, peptidoglycan type, and some phenotypic features indicated that they should be assigned to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter albus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. luteolus is CF25 (DSM 13067). The type strain of A. albus is CF43 (DSM 13068). PMID:10835019

  9. High-resolution structures of complexes of plant S-­adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    PubMed Central

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) catalyzes the reversible breakdown of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) to adenosine and homocysteine. SAH is formed in methylation reactions that utilize S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. By removing the SAH byproduct, SAHase serves as a major regulator of SAM-dependent biological methylation reactions. Here, the first crystal structure of SAHase of plant origin, that from the legume yellow lupin (LlSAHase), is presented. Structures have been determined at high resolution for three complexes of the enzyme: those with a reaction byproduct/substrate (adenosine), with its nonoxidizable analog (cordycepin) and with a product of inhibitor cleavage (adenine). In all three cases the enzyme has a closed conformation. A sodium cation is found near the active site, coordinated by residues from a conserved loop that hinges domain movement upon reactant binding. An insertion segment that is present in all plant SAHases is located near a substrate-pocket access channel and participates in its formation. In contrast to mammalian and bacterial SAHases, the channel is open when adenosine or cordycepin is bound and is closed in the adenine complex. In contrast to SAHases from other organisms, which are active as tetramers, the plant enzyme functions as a homodimer in solution. PMID:22349223

  10. Senecio albus , a new species of Senecio sect. Adamantina (Senecioneae – Asteraceae) with an emendment to the section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristônio M. Teles; Jimi Naoki Nakajima; João Renato Stehmann

    2009-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Senecio albus J. N. Nakaj. & A. M. Teles, a new species of Senecio (Senecioneae – Asteraceae), is described from the National Park of Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species shares discoid\\u000a capitula with S. gertii Zardini and is assigned to sect. Adamantina. This character is not in the circumscription for the sect. Adamantina and thus

  11. Development of the neo-morphic air breathing organ in the swamp-eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew).

    PubMed

    Singh, B R; Prasad, M S; Devi, K P

    1990-01-01

    The embryonic gill material derived from the 1st gill arch gives rise to the respiratory epithelium of the mouth cavity for aerial respiration in Monopterus albus. A comprehensive gill mass formed by mixing of the embryonic gill materials derived from the dorsal ends of the gill arches (II to V) gives rise to the fused gill filaments on the 1st and IInd gill arches that subserve the purpose of utilizing O2 from air or water. PMID:2083821

  12. Mating system and size advantage of male mating in the protogynous swamp eel Monopterus albus with paternal care.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro; Kohda, Masanori

    2011-05-01

    In fish with paternal care, protogynous sex change (female to male) is rare and has only been reported from species with haremic polygyny. The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous fish with paternal care, but little is known about its mating system. To understand protogyny in this species, we examined the mating system and male size advantage in mating in M. albus under semi-natural condition. Females swam over wide ranges and visited multiple male nests. Males defended a narrow territory around nests against other males that approached nests; at these nests, males courted and accepted visiting females. After spawning inside nests, caring males continued to perform courtship activities, and multiple breeding was observed. These observations suggest that the M. albus mating system is male-territory-visiting (MTV)-polygamy. Larger males had nests, and mated more frequently compared with small males. Because small initial males of this species are not found in nature, and because M. albus does not engage in sneaking tactics, larger nesting males do not suffer from reproductive parasitism. Thus, protogyny in this fish is likely consistent with the predictions of the size-advantage model. Biting attacks by territorial males of this predatory fish seriously wounded intruding males, occasionally resulting in the death of the intruder. We discuss the possibility that sexual differences in mortality rates in small fish may facilitate the evolution of protogyny in this species. Protogyny of the swamp eel is, to our knowledge, the first example of an MTV-polygamous mating system in a fish with paternal care. PMID:21557660

  13. Purification and Characterization of Galanin and Scyliorhinin I from the Hybrid Sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus× Scaphirhynchus albus(Acipenseriformes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuqi Wang; Bruce A. Barton; Lars Thim; Per F. Nielsen; J. Michael Conlon

    1999-01-01

    The sturgeons (order Acipenseriformes) are extant representatives of a group of ancient Actinopterygian (ray-finned) fish. Galanin and scyliorhinin I (a tachykinin with limited structural similarity to mammalian substance P) have been isolated from an extract of the gastrointestinal tract of a sturgeon (an F1 hybrid between the shovelnose sturgeon,Scaphirhynchus platorynchus,and the pallid sturgeon,Scaphirhynchus albus). The primary structure of sturgeon galanin

  14. Tachykinins (Substance P and Neuropeptide ?) from the Brains of the Pallid Sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus and the Paddlefish, Polyodon spathula (Acipenseriformes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuqi Wang; Bruce A. Barton; Per F. Nielsen; J. Michael Conlon

    1999-01-01

    A peptide with substance P-like immunoreactivity was isolated from extracts of the brains of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus and the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. The primary structure of the peptide (Lys-Pro-Lys-Pro-His-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met.NH2) is the same in both species and contains 2 amino acid substitutions (Arg1?Lys and Gln5?His) compared with human substance P and 1 substitution (Arg3?Lys) compared with substance

  15. Investigation of the biosorption characteristics of lead(II) ions onto Symphoricarpus albus: Batch and dynamic flow studies.

    PubMed

    Akar, Sibel Tunali; Gorgulu, Asli; Anilan, Burcu; Kaynak, Zerrin; Akar, Tamer

    2009-06-15

    This work reports the results of the study for lead(II) binding by the natural and low cost biosorbent Symphoricarpus albus. Batch biosorption experiments demonstrated the high rate of lead(II) biosorption and the kinetic data were successfully described by a pseudo-second-order model. Biosorption of lead(II) onto S. albus biomass showed a pH-dependent profile and lead(II) biosorption was higher when pH or temperature was increased. As much as 88.5% removal of lead(II) is also possible in the multi-metal mixture. The Langmuir isotherm better fits the biosorption data and the monolayer biosorption capacity was 3.00 x 10(-4) mol g(-1) at 45 C. The biomass was characterized with FTIR and SEM analysis. Desorption studies revealed that the natural biomass could be regenerated using 10mM HNO(3) solution with about 99% recovery and reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles. Therefore, S. albus which is cheap, highly selective and easily regenerable seems to be a promising substrate to entrap lead(II) ions in aqueous solutions. PMID:19004546

  16. Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus. PMID:25363394

  17. Proteolytic cleavage at twin arginine residues affects structural and functional transitions of lupin seed 11S storage globulin.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Croy, Ron R D; Duranti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The 11S storage globulin of white lupin seeds binds to a metal affinity chromatography matrix. Two unusual stretches of contiguous histidine residues, reminiscent of the multiple histidines forming metal binding motifs, at the C-terminal end of 11S globulin acidic chains were hypothesized as candidate elements responsible for the binding capacity. To prove this, the protein was incubated with a lupin seed endopeptidase previously shown to cleave at twin arginine motifs, recurrent in the sequence region of interest. Upon incubation with this enzyme, the loss of metal binding capacity paralleled that of the anti-his-tag reactive polypeptides. The recovered small proteolytic fragment was analyzed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing and found to correspond to the 24-mer region cleaved off at twin arginine residues and containing the natural his-tag-like region. Similarly, when lupin seeds were germinated for a few days, the his-tag containing 11S globulin chain was converted to a form devoid of such region, suggesting that this mechanism is a part of the natural degradatory process of the protein. The hypothesis that the ordered and controlled dismantling of storage proteins may generate peptide fragments with potential functional roles in plant ontogenesis is presented and discussed. PMID:25658355

  18. Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of ?-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capraro, Jessica [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Magni, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.magni@unimi.it [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, UNIMI (Italy)] [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, UNIMI (Italy); Scarafoni, Alessio [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy); Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa [Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health, UNIMI (Italy)] [Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health, UNIMI (Italy); Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa [Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, UNIMI (Italy)] [Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, UNIMI (Italy); Duranti, Marcello [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)] [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Section of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano (UNIMI) (Italy)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. •The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. •The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed ?-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether ?-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, ?-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of ?-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, ?-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that ?-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin ?-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity.

  19. Proteolytic Cleavage at Twin Arginine Residues Affects Structural and Functional Transitions of Lupin Seed 11S Storage Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Croy, Ron R. D.; Duranti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The 11S storage globulin of white lupin seeds binds to a metal affinity chromatography matrix. Two unusual stretches of contiguous histidine residues, reminiscent of the multiple histidines forming metal binding motifs, at the C-terminal end of 11S globulin acidic chains were hypothesized as candidate elements responsible for the binding capacity. To prove this, the protein was incubated with a lupin seed endopeptidase previously shown to cleave at twin arginine motifs, recurrent in the sequence region of interest. Upon incubation with this enzyme, the loss of metal binding capacity paralleled that of the anti-his-tag reactive polypeptides. The recovered small proteolytic fragment was analyzed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing and found to correspond to the 24-mer region cleaved off at twin arginine residues and containing the natural his-tag-like region. Similarly, when lupin seeds were germinated for a few days, the his-tag containing 11S globulin chain was converted to a form devoid of such region, suggesting that this mechanism is a part of the natural degradatory process of the protein. The hypothesis that the ordered and controlled dismantling of storage proteins may generate peptide fragments with potential functional roles in plant ontogenesis is presented and discussed. PMID:25658355

  20. Flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract and evaluation of its neuroprotective effect.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Gómez, José de Jesús; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; García-López, Pedro Macedonio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (200±10 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 ?g of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 ?g estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p?0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p?0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p?0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons. PMID:24723146

  1. Seedling population size and microhabitat association in Lupinus oreganos A. Heller var. kincaidii C.P. Sm. (Fabaceae) a threatened plant of western Oregon grasslands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M Severns

    2008-01-01

    Lupinus oreganus A. Heller var. kincaidii C.P. Sm. (Fabaceae) is a federally listed Threatened, endemic, perennial species of western Oregon grasslands and is the primary host plant for the Endangered Fender’s blue butterfly (Plebejus icarioides fenderi Macy [Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae]). For effective conservation and restoration, determining the habitat characteristics that are related to natural seed germination is necessary, yet unknown, for

  2. Lupin protein isolate versus casein modifies cholesterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters in a pig model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lupin proteins exert hypocholesterolemic effects in man and animals, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we investigated whether lupin proteins compared to casein modulate sterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters by use of pigs as an animal model with similar lipid metabolism as humans, and cellular cholesterol-uptake by Caco-2 cells. Methods Two groups of pigs were fed cholesterol-containing diets with either 230 g/kg of lupin protein isolate from L. angustifolius or 230 g/kg casein, for 4 weeks. Faeces were collected quantitatively over a 5 d period for analysis of neutral sterols and bile acids by gas chromatographically methods. The mRNA abundances of intestinal lipid transporters were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol-uptake studies were performed with Caco-2 cells that were incubated with lupin conglutin ?, phytate, ezetimibe or albumin in the presence of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol. Results Pigs fed the lupin protein isolate revealed lower cholesterol concentrations in total plasma, LDL and HDL than pigs fed casein (P?lupin protein isolate compared to pigs that received casein (+57.1%; P?lupin protein isolate than in those who received casein (P?lupin protein isolate is attributable to an increased faecal output of cholesterol and a reduced intestinal uptake of cholesterol. The findings indicate phytate as a possible biofunctional ingredient of lupin protein isolate. PMID:24490902

  3. Adsorption at the air-water interface and emulsification properties of grain legume protein derivatives from pea and broad bean.

    PubMed

    Tsoukala, A; Papalamprou, E; Makri, E; Doxastakis, G; Braudo, E E

    2006-12-01

    Functional properties of native and modified (through induced autolysis) pea (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.) protein derivatives are studied. In specific, protein solubility and behavior at the air-water interface through surface pressure measurements are investigated. Furthermore the ability of the protein products to act as emulsifying agents and to stabilize emulsions is studied through oil droplet size distribution measurements and by the protein adsorbed at the oil-water interface. The data reveal that the ability of the proteins to act as surfactants and build up a rigid film around the oil droplets, mainly depends on their suitable molecular configuration and structure. Hydrolysis did not promote the functionality of the legume proteins. Broad bean exhibited better functionality than pea, before and after hydrolysis. Some comparisons were also made with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) protein isolate. PMID:17049437

  4. Apparent competition with an invasive plant hastens the extinction of an endangered lupine.

    PubMed

    Dangremond, Emily M; Pardini, Eleanor A; Knight, Tiffany M

    2010-08-01

    Invasive plants may compete with native plants by increasing the pressure of native consumers, a mechanism known as "apparent competition." Apparent competition can be as strong as or stronger than direct competition, but the role of apparent competition has rarely been examined in biological invasions. We used four years of demographic data and seed-removal experiments to determine if introduced grasses caused elevated levels of seed consumption on native plant species in a coastal dune system in California, USA. We show that the endangered, coastal dune plant Lupinus tidestromii experiences high levels of pre-dispersal seed consumption by the native rodent Peromyscus maniculatus due to its proximity to the invasive grass, Ammophila arenaria. We use stage-structured, stochastic population models to project that two of three study populations will decline toward extinction under ambient levels of consumption. For one of these declining populations, a relatively small decrease in consumption pressure should allow for persistence. We show that apparent competition with an invasive species significantly decreases the population growth rate and persistence of a native species. We expect that apparent competition is an important mechanism in other ecosystems because invasive plants often change habitat structure and plant-consumer interactions. Possible implications of the apparent-competition mechanism include selective extinction of species preferred by seed consumers in the presence of an invasive species and biological homogenization of communities toward non-preferred native plant species. PMID:20836448

  5. Kinetics of Insoluble Cellulose Fermentation by Continuous Cultures of Ruminococcus albus

    PubMed Central

    Pavlostathis, Spyros G.; Miller, Terry L.; Wolin, Meyer J.

    1988-01-01

    Data from analyses of continuous culture fermentation of insoluble cellulose by Ruminococcus albus 7 were used to derive constants for the rate of cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation, growth yield, and maintenance. Cellulose concentration was 1% in the nutrient reservoir, and hydraulic retention times of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 1.75, and 2.0 days were used. Concentrations of reducing sugars in the cultures were negligible (less than 1%) compared with the amount of hydrolyzed cellulose, indicating that cellulose hydrolysis was the rate-limiting step of the fermentation. The rate of utilization of cellulose depended on the steady-state concentration of cellulose and was first order with a rate constant (k) of 1.18 day?1. The true microbial growth yield (Y) was 0.11 g g?1, the maintenance coefficient (m) was 0.10 g g?1 h?1, and the maximum YATP was 7.7 g of biomass (dry weight) mol of ATP?1. PMID:16347770

  6. Antitumor actinopyranones produced by Streptomyces albus POR-04-15-053 isolated from a marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Schleissner, Carmen; Pérez, Marta; Losada, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Pilar; Crespo, Cristina; Zúñiga, Paz; Fernández, Rogelio; Reyes, Fernando; de la Calle, Fernando

    2011-07-22

    Four new antitumor pyranones, PM050511 (1), PM050463 (2), PM060054 (3), and PM060431 (4), were isolated from the cell extract of the marine-derived Streptomyces albus POR-04-15-053. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. They consist of an ?-methoxy-?-pyrone ring containing a highly substituted tetraene side chain glycosylated at C-10 in the case of 1 and 4. Compounds 1 and 4 displayed strong cytotoxicity against three human tumor cell lines with GI?? values in the submicromolar range, whereas 2 showed subnanomolar activity as an inhibitor of EGFR-MAPK-AP1-mediated mitogenic signaling, causing inhibition of EGF-mediated AP1 trans-activation and EGF-mediated ERK activation and slight inhibition of EGF-mediated JNK activation. Taken together, these results suggest that members of the pyranone family of compounds could be developed as potential antitumor agents. PMID:21718029

  7. The Pied Crow (Corvus albus) is insensitive to diclofenac at concentrations present in carrion.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Mompati, Kefiloe Feliciity; Duncan, Neil; Taggart, Mark Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), kills vultures (Gyps spp.) that consume tainted carcasses. As a result, vulture populations in India, Nepal, and Pakistan have been devastated. Studies on meloxicam and ketoprofen demonstrated that the toxicity of the NSAIDs is unpredictable, thereby necessitating individual testing of all available NSAIDs. Because it is no longer practical to use vultures for toxicity testing, we evaluated the Pied Crow (Corvus albus) as a model. Pied Crows (n=6) were exposed to a dose of 0.8 and 10 mg/kg of diclofenac, with no signs of toxicity, and a rapid half-life of elimination. Using primary renal cell and hepatocyte cultures, a high tolerance was demonstrated at the cellular level. Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic data for the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus) and the African White-backed (Gyps africanus), Cape Griffon (Gyps coprotheres), and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) showed a trend toward toxicity when the half-life of elimination increased. We conclude that the crow is not susceptible to diclofenac and, more important, that toxicity in the Gyps species is probably related to zero-order metabolism. PMID:22102664

  8. Isolation and chromosomal localization of ZFX homologue in genome of rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew).

    PubMed

    Ji, Fu-Yun; Yu, Qi-Xing; Zheng, Cong-Yi

    2004-08-01

    When used as a probe in rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew) genomic Southern blotting hybridization, the giant panda Zfx gene hybridized strongly to a fragment of about 9.5 kb. A 512 bp long DNA fragment has been isolated by polymerase chain reaction from rice field eel genomic DNA using the primers for amplifying zinc finger repeats 7 to 13 of mammalian and reptilian ZFX-related genes. Cloned in pBS, four recombinant plasmids were selected randomly from male and female specimens and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences in these clones were identical and showed 88% and 87% identity to human ZFX and ZFY respectively. But its extent of homology was greater with American alligator Zfc (90%). And the amino acid sequences of the putative protein showed 95.9%, 95.9% and 93.5% identity to human ZFX and ZFY and American alligator Zfc respectively. Thus, the cloned sequence encodes a homologue of mammalian ZFX/ZFY and was named Zfa for rice field eel zinc finger domain gene. It appears that the mammalian and reptilian ZFX-related genes evolved from fish ancestors with a considerable degree of conservation. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, the Zfa has been mapped to rice field eel chromosome 1 and at the position of 60.1 +/- 0.38 from the centromere. Chromosomal mapping of fish genes related to mammalian X-linked genes might lead to further understanding of the evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes. PMID:15481530

  9. Mercury contamination in free-ranging great egret nestlings (Ardea albus) from southern Florida, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Williams, G.E. Jr. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Between March and June of 1994 and 1995, mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined from 393 blood and 164 growing scapular feathers from 252 great egret nestlings (Ardea albus). Nestlings came from eight colonies located in Water Conservation Area 3 in the Everglades region in southern Florida. The ages of these birds ranged from 1 to 44 d (bill length 1.1 to 10.2 cm). Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of first-hatched great egret nestlings sampled during 1994 averaged 1.2 {micro}g/g (range = 0.07--3.9) wet weight and 16 {micro}g/g (4.5--40) dry weight, respectively. During 1995, first-hatched chicks had blood and feather Hg concentrations that averaged 0.8 {micro}g/g (0.2--1.7) and 9.7 {micro}g/g (2.3--26), respectively. In both years, Hg concentrations in blood and feathers were significantly correlated, and a significant correlation also was found between Hg in blood and age of the chicks. Blood and feather Hg concentrations differed significantly between years, with higher concentrations during 1994. Birds from JW1 and L67 colonies had the highest concentrations of Hg in blood and feathers. Mercury concentrations did not differ between chicks of different hatch order Mercury in feathers of great egret nestlings from southern Florida are approximately six times higher than when compared to feather Hg concentrations of nestlings wading birds sampled elsewhere.

  10. Phloem Glutamine and the Regulation of O2 Diffusion in Legume Nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Neo, H. H.; Layzell, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the N content or the composition of the phloem sap that supplies nodulated roots may play a role in the feedback regulation of nitrogenase activity by increasing nodule resistance to O2 diffusion. Treating shoots of lupin (Lupinus albus cv Manitoba) or soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Maple Arrow) with 100 [mu]L L-1 NH3 caused a 1.3-fold (lupin) and 2.6-fold (soybean) increase in the total N content of phloem sap without altering its C content. The increase in phloem N was due primarily to a 4.8-fold (lupin) and 10.5-fold (soybean) increase in the concentration of glutamine N. In addition, there was a decline in both the apparent nitrogenase activity and total nitrogenase activity that began within 4 h and reached about 54% of its initial activity within 6 h of the start of the NH3 treatment. However, the potential nitrogenase activity values in the treated plants were not significantly different from those of the control plants. These results provide evidence that changes in the N composition of the phloem sap, particularly the glutamine content, may increase nodule resistance to O2 diffusion and, thereby, down-regulate nodule metabolism and nitrogenase activity by controlling the supply of O2 to the bacteria-infected cells. PMID:12223605

  11. Muscodor albus E-6, an endophyte of Guazuma ulmifolia making volatile antibiotics: isolation, characterization and experimental establishment in the host plant.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Gary A; Kluck, Katreena; Hess, Wilford M; Sears, Joe; Ezra, David; Vargas, Percy N

    2007-08-01

    Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus, represented by a number of isolates from tropical tree and vine species in several of the world's rainforests, that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antibiotic activity. A new isolate, E-6, of this organism, with unusual biochemical and biological properties, has been obtained from the branches of a mature Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) tree growing in a dry tropical forest in SW Ecuador. This unique organism produces many VOCs not previously observed in other M. albus isolates, including butanoic acid, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-; 2-butenal, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester; 3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl; guaiol; 1-octene, 3-ethyl-; formamide, N-(1-methylpropyl); and certain azulene and naphthalene derivatives. Some compounds usually seen in other M. albus isolates also appeared in the VOCs of isolate E-6, including caryophyllene; phenylethyl alcohol; acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester; bulnesene; and various propanoic acid, 2-methyl- derivatives. The biological activity of the VOCs of E-6 appears different from the original isolate of this fungus, CZ-620, since a Gram-positive bacterium was killed, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani were not. Scanning electron micrographs of the mycelium of isolate E-6 showed substantial intertwining of the hyphal strands. These strands seemed to be held together by an extracellular matrix accounting for the strong mat-like nature of the mycelium, which easily lifts off the agar surface upon transfer, unlike any other isolate of this fungus. The ITS-5.8S rDNA partial sequence data showed 99 % similarity to the original M. albus strain CZ-620. For the first time, successful establishment of M. albus into its natural host, followed by recovery of the fungus, was accomplished in seedlings of G. ulmifolia. Overall, isolates of M. albus, including E-6, have chemical, biological and structural characteristics that make them potentially useful in medicine, agricultural and industrial applications. PMID:17660425

  12. Properties and expression of Na+/K+-ATPase ?-subunit isoforms in the brain of the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, which has unusually high brain ammonia tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu L; Wee, Nicklaus L J E; Hiong, Kum C; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Chng, You R; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2013-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l(-1)) and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (4.5 µmol g(-1)). Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Nka) is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4(+) can substitute for K(+) to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka ?-subunits, some of which might have high K(+) specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka ?-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4(+) to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/NH4(+)-ATPase activities over a range of K(+)/NH4(+) concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nka? (nka?1, nka?3a and nka?3b) were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nka?2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l(-1) NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nka?1, nka?3a and nka?3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na(+)/NH4(+)-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4(+)/K(+) concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4(+) to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1) lack of nka?2 expression, (2) high K(+) specificity of K(+) binding sites of Nka?1, Nka?3a and Nka?3b, and (3) down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nka? isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus. PMID:24391932

  13. Properties and Expression of Na+/K+-ATPase ?-Subunit Isoforms in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Which Has Unusually High Brain Ammonia Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu L.; Wee, Nicklaus L. J. E.; Hiong, Kum C.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2013-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l?1) and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (?4.5 µmol g?1). Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka) is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4+ can substitute for K+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka ?-subunits, some of which might have high K+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka ?-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities over a range of K+/NH4+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nka? (nka?1, nka?3a and nka?3b) were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nka?2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l?1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nka?1, nka?3a and nka?3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na+/K+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4+/K+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1) lack of nka?2 expression, (2) high K+ specificity of K+ binding sites of Nka?1, Nka?3a and Nka?3b, and (3) down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nka? isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus. PMID:24391932

  14. Determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of a lupine potyvirus isolate from the Czech Republic reveals that it belongs to a new member of the genus Potyvirus.

    PubMed

    Sarkisova, Tatiana; Petrzik, Karel

    2011-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the ssRNA genome of a lupine potyvirus (LP) isolate was determined. It comprised 10,113 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail. Phylogenetic analysis of CP protein sequences identified pepper veinal mottle virus, narcissus yellow stripe virus, and chili veinal mottle virus as the closest relatives, sharing coat protein amino acid sequence identities of only about 64% with the LP isolate. Thus, LP can be regarded as a member of a newly described potyvirus species, for which the name Lupine mosaic virus (LuMV) is proposed. PMID:20981559

  15. Molecular cloning of the BLADE-ON-PETIOLE gene and expression analyses during nodule development in Lupinus luteus.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Kamil; Wilmowicz, Emilia; Ku?ko, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) genes have been recently shown to play an essential role in many physiological processes, including embryogenesis, meristem determinacy, leaf patterning and nodule development. In our research we used Lupinus luteus, a plant with great agronomic potential due to its high protein content and nitrogen fixation ability. In this work, LlBOP in L. luteus was identified for the first time and its expression during nodule development was analyzed. The high expression levels of LlBOP and LlLbI (LEGHEMOGLOBIN), essential to nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, were noted in the developing root nodules and were correlated with the occurrence of leghemoglobin. All of these data indicate that LlBOP is an important regulator of root nodule formation and functioning in L. luteus. PMID:25817415

  16. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Williams, G.E.; Nico, L.; Robins, R.

    1999-09-01

    The authors estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish, though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and they found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. The authors estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. They estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish. The authors estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. They estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledgling mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  17. Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-07-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T)?= CCTCC AA 2013003(T)?= NRRL B-59998(T)?= KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T)?= CCTCC AA 2013004(T)?= NRRL B-24927(T)?= KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

  18. Studies of the Extracellular Glycocalyx of the Anaerobic Cellulolytic Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7?

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Paul J.; Price, Neil P. J.; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M.; Van Zyl, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied by the formation of thin cellular extensions that allowed the bacterium to adhere to cellulose, followed by formation of a ramifying network that interconnected individual cells to one another and to the unraveling cellulose microfibrils. Extraction of 48-h-old whole-culture pellets (bacterial cells plus glycocalyx [G] plus residual cellulose [C]) with 0.1 N NaOH released carbohydrate and protein in a ratio of 1:5. Boiling of the cellulose fermentation residue in a neutral detergent solution removed almost all of the adherent cells and protein while retaining a residual network of adhering noncellular material. Trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of this residue (G plus C) released primarily glucose, along with substantial amounts of xylose and mannose, but only traces of galactose, the most abundant sugar in most characterized bacterial exopolysaccharides. Linkage analysis and characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that most of the glucosyl units were not present as partially degraded cellulose. Calculations suggested that the energy demand for synthesis of the nonprotein fraction of EPS by this organism represents only a small fraction (<4%) of the anabolic ATP expenditure of the bacterium. PMID:17028224

  19. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-12-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 ?g/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution. PMID:24575231

  20. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate anchored Symphoricarpus albus biomass for lead(II) removal: batch and column biosorption study.

    PubMed

    Akar, Sibel Tunali; Arslan, Derya; Alp, Tugba

    2012-08-15

    The biosorption properties of APDC modified S. albus were tested in batch and column conditions. Effective experimental parameters such as pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, initial lead(II) ion concentration, flow rate and bed height were investigated. The biosorption capacity of modified biosorbent was at maximum when lead(II) solution pH and biosorbent dosage were 5.5 and 2.0 g L(-1), respectively. The biosorption equilibrium was established in 20 min. Langmuir isotherm fitted well to the equilibrium data and kinetics is found to fit pseudo-second-order model. Increase in ionic strength of lead(II) solutions caused a slight decrease in the biosorption yield of APDC-modified biosorbent. Co-ions affected the biosorption performance of modified biomass up to maximum 20.81% reduction. Column biosorption of lead(II) showed higher biosorption yields at lower flow rates. Required time of breakthrough point was found to be 200 min. The recommended mechanism was found to depend mainly on electrostatic interaction, ion-exchange and complex formation. The ion-exchange mechanism for lead(II) biosorption onto the modified biosorbent is verified from the ionic strength effect and EDX analysis. Carbonyl, phosphate and CN groups on the modified surface of S. albus were found to responsible for complexation with lead(II). PMID:22673058

  1. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-01-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 ?g/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution. PMID:24575231

  2. Life cycles and distribution of the aquatic gastropod molluscs Bithynia tentaculata (L.), Gyraulus albus (Muller), Planorbis planorbis (L.) and Lymnaea peregra (Muller) in relation to water chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. J. Dussart

    1979-01-01

    The ecology of the aquatic gastropods Bithynia tentaculata, Gyraulus albus, Planorbis planorbis and Lymnaea peregra in North West England was investigated over 13 months at sites chosen for their wide range of water chemistry. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the significance to the mollusc distributions of a variety of physico-chemical factors. Biotic factors were not considered. The species

  3. Muscodor albus E-6, an endophyte of Guazuma ulmifolia making volatile antibiotics: isolation, characterization and experimental establishment in the host plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Strobel; Katreena Kluck; Wilford M. Hess; Joe Sears; David Ezra; Percy N. Vargas

    2007-01-01

    Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus, represented by a number of isolates from tropical tree and vine species in several of the world's rainforests, that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antibiotic activity. A new isolate, E-6, of this organism, with unusual biochemical and biological properties, has been obtained from the branches of a mature Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) tree growing

  4. Short communication The potential of the fungus, Muscodor albus, as a microbial control agent of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored potatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Lacey; Lisa G. Neven

    Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella, is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Entomopathogens oVer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. The fungus Muscodor albus, which produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals, was tested for its insecticidal activity against PTM. Adults and neo- nate larvae

  5. The effect of temperature and duration of exposure of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in infested tubers to the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Horton, David R; Jones, Dana C

    2008-02-01

    The endophytic fungus, Muscodor albus produces several volatile compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, acids and lipids) that are biocidal for a range of organisms including plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, nematodes and insects. We studied the effects of these volatiles on 3-day-old potato tuber moth larvae within infested tubers inside sealed chambers. The length of exposure to M. albus significantly affected mortality of larvae, calculated as percentage of larvae failing to survive to the adult stage. Exposure durations of 3, 7, or 14 days at 24 degrees C followed by incubation in fresh air at 27 degrees C until emergence resulted in mortalities of 84.2, 95.5 and 99.6%, respectively. However, the longer exposures also resulted in increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) that are unacceptable for tuber storage. Effects of M. albus on larval survival was also monitored at 10, 15 and 24 degrees C, using an exposure duration of 7 days followed by incubation in clean air at 27 degrees C until emergence. Mortality of larvae was sharply reduced at the lower temperatures resulting in 50.8, 76.8, and 95.4% mortality, respectively. Tuber storage conditions, especially cooling rates, are discussed with respect to using M. albus as a fumigant without simultaneously producing unacceptable (for tuber storage) levels of CO(2). PMID:17897669

  6. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding, organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisbeth Mogensen; Peter Lund; Troels Kristensen; Martin Riis Weisbjerg

    2008-01-01

    The effect of toasted supplement on milk production was examined in three experiments on an organic study farm during the winter 2004\\/2005. Three types of iso-energetic supplement feed, toasted or untreated, were examined in each experiment, with an untreated cereal mixture as control. The supplement under investigation was: lupins in experiment 1, barley in experiment 2 and soybeans in experiment

  7. Biosynthesis and characterization of ¹?N?-labeled phomopsin A, a lupin associated mycotoxin produced by Diaporthe toxica.

    PubMed

    Schloß, Svenja; Wedell, Ines; Koch, Matthias; Rohn, Sascha; Maul, Ronald

    2015-06-15

    The hepatotoxin phomopsin A (PHO-A), a secondary metabolite mainly produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica, occurs predominantly on sweet lupins. Along with the growing interest in sweet lupins for food and feed commodities, concerns have been raised about fungal infestations, and consequently, about the determination of PHO-A. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) represents the most suitable analytical technique for sensitive and selective detection of mycotoxins including PHO-A. However, isotopic labeled substances are needed as internal standards for a reliable and convenient quantification. As no isotope standard for PHO-A is currently available, a biosynthesis of fully (15)N6-labeled PHO-A was established by cultivation of D. toxica on defined media containing Na(15)NO3 and (15)N-labeled yeast extract as the only nitrogen sources. The identity of (15)N6-PHO-A was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry. The new (15)N6-labeled standard will facilitate the method development for PHO-A including a more accurate quantification by LC-MS/MS. PMID:25660858

  8. Effect of yellow lupine (L. luteus) on the egg yolk fatty acid profile, the physicochemical and sensory properties of eggs, and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Magdalena; Przywitowski, Marcin; Mikulski, Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary inclusion of raw yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on laying hen performance, the fatty acid (FA) profile, physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. A total of 224 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 32 wk age were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets for 16 wk. The control diet contained soybean meal (SBM), and in study diets SBM was replaced with YLM at 100, 200, or 300 g/kg. In comparison with soybean, lupine seeds had a higher content of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) (29.5 vs. 14.0 and 8.56 vs. 5.91% DM). The dietary 300 g/kg lupine seeds increased the content of NSP and RFO in the ration, from 9.34 to 13.39 and 1.36 to 2.54%, respectively. The YLM inclusion level had no adverse effect on laying performance, including feed intake, FCR, egg production, and egg weight. The final BW of hens fed lupine-based diets were significantly higher compared with the control (P = 0.039). Throughout the study, dietary treatments had no effect on eggshell and albumen quality. An increase in the inclusion rate of YLM was followed by a linear increase (P < 0.001) in yolk color intensity. Dietary treatments had no influence on the aroma, taste, and texture of eggs evaluated in laying hens at 46 wk age. The inclusion of lupine seeds in experimental diets caused a linear increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content and the n-6/n-3 ratio (all P < 0.001), but it had no influence on the atherogenic and the thrombogenic indices of egg yolk lipids. The results of this study indicate that YLM can be included at 300 g/kg in layer diets as a partial substitute for soybean meal without compromising laying performance, the physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. PMID:25825783

  9. Metabolic Mechanism of Mannan in a Ruminal Bacterium, Ruminococcus albus, Involving Two Mannoside Phosphorylases and Cellobiose 2-Epimerase

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Ryosuke; Saburi, Wataru; Odaka, Rei; Taguchi, Hidenori; Ito, Shigeaki; Mori, Haruhide; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus is a typical ruminal bacterium digesting cellulose and hemicellulose. Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE; EC 5.1.3.11), which converts cellobiose to 4-O-?-d-glucosyl-d-mannose, is a particularly unique enzyme in R. albus, but its physiological function is unclear. Recently, a new metabolic pathway of mannan involving CE was postulated for another CE-producing bacterium, Bacteroides fragilis. In this pathway, ?-1,4-mannobiose is epimerized to 4-O-?-d-mannosyl-d-glucose (Man-Glc) by CE, and Man-Glc is phosphorolyzed to ?-d-mannosyl 1-phosphate (Man1P) and d-glucose by Man-Glc phosphorylase (MP; EC 2.4.1.281). Ruminococcus albus NE1 showed intracellular MP activity, and two MP isozymes, RaMP1 and RaMP2, were obtained from the cell-free extract. These enzymes were highly specific for the mannosyl residue at the non-reducing end of the substrate and catalyzed the phosphorolysis and synthesis of Man-Glc through a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In a synthetic reaction, RaMP1 showed high activity only toward d-glucose and 6-deoxy-d-glucose in the presence of Man1P, whereas RaMP2 showed acceptor specificity significantly different from RaMP1. RaMP2 acted on d-glucose derivatives at the C2- and C3-positions, including deoxy- and deoxyfluoro-analogues and epimers, but not on those substituted at the C6-position. Furthermore, RaMP2 had high synthetic activity toward the following oligosaccharides: ?-linked glucobioses, maltose, N,N?-diacetylchitobiose, and ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides. Particularly, ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides served as significantly better acceptor substrates for RaMP2 than d-glucose. In the phosphorolytic reactions, RaMP2 had weak activity toward ?-1,4-mannobiose but efficiently degraded ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose. Consequently, RaMP2 is thought to catalyze the phosphorolysis of ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose to produce Man1P and ?-1,4-mannobiose. PMID:23093406

  10. A comparative study of phase States of the peribacteroid membrane from yellow lupin and broad bean nodules.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtseva, Natalia N; Sof'in, Alexis V; Bobylev, Georgiy S; Sorokin, Evgeny M

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the lipid bilayer phase status and structure of the outer membrane of free-living Bradyrhizobium strain 359a (Nod(+)Fix(+)) and 400 (Nod(+)FixL) or Rhizobium leguminosarum 97 (Nod(+)Fix(+), effective) and 87 (Nod(+)FixL, ineffective) has been carried out. Also, the effect of the symbiotic pair combination on the lipid bilayer structure of the bacteroid outer membrane and peribacteroid membrane, isolated from the nodules of Lupinus luteus L. or Vicia faba L., has been studied. As a result, it is shown that the lipid bilayer status of the bacteroid outer membrane is mainly determined by microsymbiont, but not the host plant. In the contrast, the lipid bilayer status of the peribacteroid membrane and, as a consequence, its properties depend on interaction of both symbiotic partners. PMID:24804101

  11. Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Onstott, Tullis [Princeton University; McGown, Daniel [Princeton University; Bakermans, Corien [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ruskeeniemi, T [Geological Survey of Finland; Ahonen, L [Geological Survey of Finland; Telling, J [University of Toronto; Soffientino, B [University of Rhode Island; Pfiffner, Susan M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara [University of Toronto; Frape, S [University of Waterloo, Canada; Stotler, R [University of Waterloo, Canada; Johnson, E [Indiana University; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Rothmel, Randi [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana University

    2009-01-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient created during mine dewatering. Although the absence of methanogens from this subsurface ecosystem is somewhat surprising, it may be attributable to an energy bottleneck that restricts their migration from surface permafrost deposits where they are frequently reported. These results have implications for the biological origin of CH4 on Mars.

  12. Dentiphilometra monopteri n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the ricefield eel Monopterus albus in China.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Wang, Gui Tang

    2002-10-01

    A new genus and species of philometrid nematode Dentiphilometra monopteri n. gen., n. sp., are described on the basis of the specimens found in the abdominal cavity of the ricefield eel (swamp-eel) Monopterus albus (Zouiev) from Liangzi Lake (the Yangtze River drainage system), Hubei Province, in central China. Dentiphilometra, assigned to the Philometrinae, differs from other genera of this subfamily mainly in the presence of a sclerotized oral ring armed on its inner surface by numerous small peribuccal teeth in the gravid female. The new species is characterized by minute cephalic papillae, a greatly developed anterior esophageal bulb separated from the cylindrical part of the esophagus, anterior extention of the esophageal gland anterior to the nerve ring, and by large caudal projections in females and equal spicules 0.051-0.096 mm long in males. This is the second philometrid species recorded from fishes of the Synbranchiformes. PMID:12435137

  13. Comparison of extraction methods for secologanin and the quantitative analysis of secologanin from Symphoricarpos albus using 1H-NMR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyong; Choi, Young Hae; Luijendijk, Teus J C; Rocha, Ronald Armando Vera; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop an efficient large-scale extraction of secologanin from Symphoricarpos albus, different methods have been compared. Ultrasonication with organic solvents and water, microwave-assisted extraction and hot water extraction methods were evaluated for their efficiencies. Among the methods tested, ultrasonication with methanol showed the highest yield of secologanin (3.35 +/- 0.24 mg/g fresh weight). For reliable quantification of secologanin a 1H-NMR method was developed. The experiment was performed by the analysis of the integral of the signal of H-9, which was well separated in the range delta 7.4-7.5 in the 1H-NMR spectrum. The quantity of the compound was calculated from the relative ratio of intensity of the target peak to the known amount of internal standard, 200 microg of gallic acid. This method allows rapid and simple quantification of secologanin in 5 min without any pre-purification steps. PMID:15311846

  14. Development of markers for simple sequence repeat-rich regions that discriminate between Pisolithus albus and P. microcarpus.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Catherine J; Chambers, Susan M; Anderson, Ian C; Cairney, John W G

    2003-06-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat PCR (ISSR-PCR) was used to develop markers for simple sequence repeat-rich (SSR) regions for investigation of genetic relatedness of Pisolithus isolates collected from eastern mainland Australia. Primers were designed to amplify ten SSR-rich regions and these were used to screen 14 Pisolithus isolates. Two amplified loci showed size polymorphisms among the isolates (regarded as polymorphic), two were monomorphic for all isolates, while the remainder amplified alleles for only some isolates. UPGMA analysis of the alleles for each isolate at each locus together with ITS-RFLP analysis, separated the isolates into groups. These two groups appear to correspond to isolates that ITS sequence data have previously separated as P. albus and P. microcarpus. PMID:12951796

  15. Molecular Modeling and MM-PBSA Free Energy Analysis of Endo-1,4-?-Xylanase from Ruminococcus albus 8

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Dongling; Yu, Lei; Jin, Hanyong; Guan, Shanshan; Han, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Endo-1,4-?-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) is the enzyme from Ruminococcus albus 8 (R. albus 8) (Xyn10A), and catalyzes the degradation of arabinoxylan, which is a major cell wall non-starch polysaccharide of cereals. The crystallographic structure of Xyn10A is still unknown. For this reason, we report a computer-assisted homology study conducted to build its three-dimensional structure based on the known sequence of amino acids of this enzyme. In this study, the best similarity was found with the Clostridium thermocellum (C. thermocellum) N-terminal endo-1,4-?-d-xylanase 10 b. Following the 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a reliable model was obtained for further studies. Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) methods were used for the substrate xylotetraose having the reactive sugar, which was bound in the ?1 subsite of Xyn10A in the 4C1 (chair) and 2SO (skew boat) ground state conformations. According to the simulations and free energy analysis, Xyn10A binds the substrate with the ?1 sugar in the 2SO conformation 39.27 kcal·mol?1 tighter than the substrate with the sugar in the 4C1 conformation. According to the Xyn10A-2SO Xylotetraose (X4(sb) interaction energies, the most important subsite for the substrate binding is subsite ?1. The results of this study indicate that the substrate is bound in a skew boat conformation with Xyn10A and the ?1 sugar subsite proceeds from the 4C1 conformation through 2SO to the transition state. MM-PBSA free energy analysis indicates that Asn187 and Trp344 in subsite ?1 may an important residue for substrate binding. Our findings provide fundamental knowledge that may contribute to further enhancement of enzyme performance through molecular engineering. PMID:25264743

  16. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, J.M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N=140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N=15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9cm to 12.2cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51days old (N=13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N = 140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N = 15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9 cm to 12.2 cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51 days old (N = 13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2 cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild.

  18. Glutamine accumulation and up-regulation of glutamine synthetase activity in the swamp eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), exposed to brackish water.

    PubMed

    Tok, Chia Y; Chew, Shit F; Peh, Wendy Y X; Loong, Ai M; Wong, Wai P; Ip, Yuen K

    2009-05-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an air-breathing teleost which typically lives in freshwater but can also be found in estuaries, where it has to deal with ambient salinity fluctuations. Unlike other teleosts, its gills are highly degenerate. Hence, it may have uncommon osmoregulatory adaptations, but no information is available on its osmoregulatory capacity and mechanisms at present. In this study M. albus was exposed to a 5 day progressive increase in salinity from freshwater (1 per thousand) to brackish water (25 per thousand) and subsequently kept in 25 per thousand water for a total of 4 days. The results indicate that M. albus switched from hyperosmotic hyperionic regulation in freshwater to a combination of osmoconforming and hypoosmotic hypoionic regulation in 25 per thousand water. Exposure to 25 per thousand water resulted in relatively large increases in plasma osmolality, [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)]. Consequently, fish exposed to 25 per thousand water had to undergo cell volume regulation through accumulation of organic osmolytes and inorganic ions. Increases in tissue free amino acid content were apparently the result of increased protein degradation, decreased amino acid catabolism, and increased synthesis of certain non-essential amino acids. Here we report for the first time that glutamine is the major organic osmolyte in M. albus. Glutamine content increased to a phenomenal level of > 12 micromol g(-1) and > 30 micromol g(-1) in the muscle and liver, respectively, of fish exposed to 25 per thousand water. There were significant increases in glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in muscle and liver of these fish. In addition, exposure to 25 per thousand water for 4 days led to significant increases in GS protein abundance in both muscle and liver, indicating that increases in the expression of GS mRNA could have occurred. PMID:19376945

  19. Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential

    PubMed Central

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  20. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of the perirenal fat of bulls fattened on grass silage and maize silage supplemented with tannins, garlic, maca and lupines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Staerfl; C. R. Soliva; F. Leiber; M. Kreuzer

    2011-01-01

    Carcass fat composition of cattle fed a forage-based diet might be inferior with maize silage compared to grass-silage based systems. This was quantified using complete diets with concentrate. To test whether supplements may influence carcass fat properties as well, the maize-silage diet was additionally supplemented either with Acacia mearnsii tannins, garlic, maca or lupines, feeds rich in secondary metabolites. The

  1. The pivotal role of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in the mobilization of N and C from storage material to asparagine in germinating seeds of yellow lupine.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Ratajczak, Lech

    2008-02-01

    In germinating seeds of legumes, amino acids liberated during mobilization of storage proteins are partially used for synthesis of storage proteins of the developing axis, but some of them are respired. The amino acids are catabolized by both glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and transaminases. Ammonium is reassimilated by glutamine synthetase (GS) and, through the action of asparagine synthetase (AS), is stored in asparagine (Asn). This review presents the ways in which amino acids are converted into Asn and their regulation, mostly in germinating seeds of yellow lupine, where Asn can make up to 30% of dry matter. The energy balance of the synthesis of Asn from glutamate, the most common amino acid in lupine storage proteins, also shows an adaptation of lupine for oxidation of amino acids in early stages of germination. Regulation of the pathway of Asn synthesis is described with regard to the role of GDH and AS, as well as compartmentation of particular metabolites. The regulatory effect of sugar on major links of the pathway (mobilization of storage proteins, induction of genes and activity of GDH and AS) is discussed with respect to recent genetic and molecular studies. Moreover, the effect of glutamate and phytohormones is presented at various stages of Asn biosynthesis. PMID:17566603

  2. Nickel-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus ultramafic ecotype isolated from nickel mines in New Caledonia strongly enhance growth of the host plant Eucalyptus globulus at toxic nickel concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jourand, Philippe; Ducousso, Marc; Reid, Robert; Majorel, Clarisse; Richert, Clément; Riss, Jennifer; Lebrun, Michel

    2010-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Pisolithus albus (Cooke & Massee), belonging to the ultramafic ecotype isolated in nickel-rich serpentine soils from New Caledonia (a tropical hotspot of biodiversity) and showing in vitro adaptive nickel tolerance, were inoculated to Eucalyptus globulus Labill used as a Myrtaceae plant-host model to study ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Plants were then exposed to a nickel (Ni) dose-response experiment with increased Ni treatments up to 60 mg kg(?-?)(1) soil as extractable Ni content in serpentine soils. Results showed that plants inoculated with ultramafic ECM P. albus were able to tolerate high and toxic concentrations of Ni (up to 60 ?g g(?-?)(1)) while uninoculated controls were not. At the highest Ni concentration tested, root growth was more than 20-fold higher and shoot growth more than 30-fold higher in ECM plants compared with control plants. The improved growth in ECM plants was associated with a 2.4-fold reduction in root Ni concentration but a massive 60-fold reduction in transfer of Ni from root to shoots. In vitro, P. albus strains could withstand high Ni concentrations but accumulated very little Ni in its tissue. The lower Ni uptake by mycorrhizal plants could not be explained by increased release of metal-complexing chelates since these were 5- to 12-fold lower in mycorrhizal plants at high Ni concentrations. It is proposed that the fungal sheath covering the plant roots acts as an effective barrier to limit transfer of Ni from soil into the root tissue. The degree of tolerance conferred by the ultramafic P. albus isolates to growth of the host tree species is considerably greater than previously reported for other ECM. The primary mechanisms underlying this improved growth were identified as reduced Ni uptake into the roots and markedly reduced transfer from root to shoot in mycorrhizal plants. The fact that these positive responses were observed at Ni concentrations commonly observed in serpentinic soils suggests that ultramafic ecotypes of P. albus could play an important role in the adaptation of tree species to soils containing high concentrations of heavy metals and aid in strategies for ecological restoration. PMID:20688880

  3. Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus

    SciTech Connect

    Jang Songhun [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhou Fang [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xia Laixin [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhao Wei [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Cheng Hanhua [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: hhcheng@whu.edu.cn; Zhou Rongjia [Department of Genetics and Center for Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: rjzhou@whu.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600 Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8% of the genome of the rice field eel. This is first BAC library constructed from this species. To estimate the possibility of isolating a specific clone, high-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using Dmrt1 cDNA of the rice field eel as a probe. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed three positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig covering the Dmrt1 gene of 195 kb. By sequence comparisons with the Dmrt1 cDNA and sequencing of first four intron-exon junctions, Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel was predicted to contain four introns and five exons. The sizes of first and second intron are 1.5 and 2.6 kb, respectively, and the sizes of last two introns were predicted to be about 20 kb. The Dmrt1 gene structure was conserved in evolution. These results also indicate that the BAC library is a useful resource for BAC contig construction and molecular isolation of functional genes.

  4. Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Lop Nur salt lake in Xinjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Zhou, Yu; Ja, Man; Shi, Rong; Chun-Yu, Wei-Xun; Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 93624(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang province of China and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain YIM 93624(T) grew at 15-45 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), 1-17% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5-10 %, w/v) and pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-7. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, a glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 93624(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus and exhibited the highest similarity of 97.0 % to Virgibacillus koreensis KCTC 3823(T). However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 93624(T) and V. koreensis KCTC 3823(T) was 32.5 %. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analysis data, the isolate is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain of YIM 93624(T) (=DSM 23711(T) = JCM 17364(T)). PMID:22622623

  5. An assessment of heavy metal bioaccumulation in Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, during plowing stages of a paddy cycle.

    PubMed

    Sow, Ai Yin; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2013-07-01

    Livers and muscles of swamp eels (Monopterus albus) were analyzed for bioaccumulation of heavy metals during the plowing stage of a paddy cycle. Results showed heavy metals were bioaccumulated more highly in liver than muscle. Zinc (Zn) was the highest bioaccumulated metal in liver (98.5 ± 8.95 ?g/g) and in muscle (48.8 ± 7.17 ?g/g). The lowest bioaccumulated metals were cadmium (Cd) in liver (3.44 ± 2.42 ?g/g) and copper (Cu) in muscle (0.65 ± 0.20 ?g/g). In sediments, Zn was present at the highest mean concentration (52.7 ± 2.85 ?g/g), while Cd had the lowest mean concentration (1.04 ± 0.24 ?g/g). The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, Cd and nickel (Ni) in liver tissue was greater than the corresponding BSAF for muscle tissue. For the three plowing stages, metal concentrations were significantly correlated between liver and muscle tissues in all cases, and between sediment and either liver or muscle in most cases. Mean measured metal concentrations in muscle tissue were below the maximum permissible limits established by Malaysian and U.S. governmental agencies, and were therefore regarded as safe for human consumption. PMID:23666324

  6. Purification and characterization of galanin and scyliorhinin I from the hybrid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus x Scaphirhynchus albus (Acipenseriformes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Barton, B A; Thim, L; Nielsen, P F; Conlon, J M

    1999-01-01

    The sturgeons (order Acipenseriformes) are extant representatives of a group of ancient Actinopterygian (ray-finned) fish. Galanin and scyliorhinin I (a tachykinin with limited structural similarity to mammalian substance P) have been isolated from an extract of the gastrointestinal tract of a sturgeon (an F1 hybrid between the shovelnose sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus). The primary structure of sturgeon galanin (Gly-Trp-Thr-Leu-Asn-Ser-Ala-Gly-Tyr-Leu10-Leu-Gly-Pro-His-Ala-Val -As p-Gly-His-Arg20-Ser-Leu-Ser-Asp-Lys-His-Gly-Leu-Pro.NH2) contains only two amino acid substitutions (Ser23 --> Asn and Pro29 --> Ala) compared with galanin from the bowfin, Amia calva (Amiiformes), but five amino acid substitutions compared with galanin from the trout (Teleostei). Similarly, the sturgeon tachykinin (Ser-Lys-Tyr-His-Gln-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Met.NH2) contains only one amino acid substitution (Tyr3 --> Ser) compared with scyliorhinin I previously isolated from bowfin stomach but five amino acid substitutions compared with trout substance P. The data support the hypothesis that the Acipenseriformes and the basal Neopterygians (gars and bowfin) share a close phylogenetic relationship. PMID:9882542

  7. Gastroenteropancreatic hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and multiple forms of PYY) from the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (Acipenseriformes).

    PubMed

    Kim, J B; Gadsbøll, V; Whittaker, J; Barton, B A; Conlon, J M

    2000-12-01

    Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin-14, and three structurally related molecular forms of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) were isolated from an extract of the combined pancreas and gastrointestinal tract of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. Pallid sturgeon insulin was identical to insulin from the Russian sturgeon, Acipenser guldenstaedti, and to insulin-2 from the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, and was approximately twofold less potent than human insulin in inhibiting the binding of [3-[(125)I] iodotyrosine-A14] human insulin to the soluble human insulin receptor. The sturgeon glucagon (HSQGMFTNDY(10)-SKYLEEKLAQ(20) EFVEWLKNGK(30)S), like the two paddlefish glucagons, contains 31 rather than 29 amino acid residues, indicative of an anomalous pathway of posttranslational processing of proglucagon. Pallid sturgeon somatostatin, identical to human somatostatin-14, was also isolated in a second molecular form containing an oxidized tryptophan residue, but [Pro(2)]somatostatin-14, previously isolated from the pituitary of A. guldenstaedti, was not identified. Sturgeon PYY (FPPKPEHPGD(10)DAPAEDVAKY(20)YTALRHYINL(30) ITRQRY.HN(2)) was also isolated in variant forms containing the substitutions (Phe(1) --> Ala) and (Ala(18) --> Val), indicative of at least two gene duplications occurring within the Acipenseriformes lineage. The amino acid sequences of the pallidsturgeon PYY peptides are appreciably different from the proposed "ancestral" PYY sequence that has otherwise been very strongly conserved among the actinopterygian and elasmobranch fish. PMID:11121300

  8. Effects of peritoneal injection of NH4HCO3 on nitrogen excretion and metabolism in the swamp eel Monopterus albus-- increased ammonia excretion with an induction of glutamine synthetase activity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chiat Koo; Chew, Shit Fun; Tay, Angeline Su Ling; Ip, Yuen Kwong

    2004-04-01

    Monopterus albus has to deal with high environmental ammonia concentrations during dry seasons and agricultural fertilization in rice fields. In this study, NH4HCO3 (10 micromol per g fish) was injected into the peritoneal cavity of M. albus, raising the level of ammonia in the body, in order to elucidate the strategies involved in defense against the toxicity of exogenous ammonia. During the subsequent 24 h after NH4HCO3 injection, there was a significant increase in the ammonia excretion rate, which indicates that the main strategy adopted by M. albus was to remove the majority of the exogenous ammonia through enhanced ammonia excretion. Exogenous ammonia was not detoxified into urea for excretion or accumulation. Six hours post-injection of NH4HCO3, ammonia content in the tissues built up significantly, especially in the brain, which suggests that M. albus had high tolerance of ammonia toxicity at the cellular and sub-cellular levels. By hour 12 post-injection, there were significant increases in the activities of glutamine synthetase in the muscle, liver, and gut, accompanied by significant increases in glutamine contents in the muscle and the liver. There was also a significant increase in the glutamine content in the brain at hour 6 post-injection of NH4HCO3. These results confirm the capability of M. albus to detoxify ammonia through glutamine synthesis. Overall, injection of NH4HCO3 had only minor effects on the contents of FAAs, other than glutamine, in tissues of M. albus because the majority (70%) of the injected ammonia was excreted within the 24-h period. PMID:15039991

  9. Utilization of the Methoxymalonyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Biosynthesis Locus for Cloning the Oxazolomycin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster from Streptomyces albus JA3453

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunhua; Ju, Jianhua; Christenson, Steven D.; Smith, Wyatt C.; Song, Danfeng; Zhou, Xiufen; Shen, Ben; Deng, Zixin

    2006-01-01

    Oxazolomycin (OZM), a hybrid peptide-polyketide antibiotic, exhibits potent antitumor and antiviral activities. Using degenerate primers to clone genes encoding methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) biosynthesis as probes, a 135-kb DNA region from Streptomyces albus JA3453 was cloned and found to cover the entire OZM biosynthetic gene cluster. The involvement of the cloned genes in OZM biosynthesis was confirmed by deletion of a 12-kb DNA fragment containing six genes for methoxymalonyl-ACP biosynthesis from the specific region of the chromosome, as well as deletion of the ozmC gene within this region, to generate OZM-nonproducing mutants. PMID:16707707

  10. Bacteria associated with yellow lupine grown on a metal-contaminated soil: in vitro screening and in vivo evaluation for their potential to enhance Cd phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Weyens, N; Gielen, M; Beckers, B; Boulet, J; van der Lelie, D; Taghavi, S; Carleer, R; Vangronsveld, J

    2014-09-01

    In order to stimulate selection for plant-associated bacteria with the potential to improve Cd phytoextraction, yellow lupine plants were grown on a metal-contaminated field soil. It was hypothesised that growing these plants on this contaminated soil, which is a source of bacteria possessing different traits to cope with Cd, could enhance colonisation of lupine with potential plant-associated bacteria that could then be inoculated in Cd-exposed plants to reduce Cd phytotoxicity and enhance Cd uptake. All cultivable bacteria from rhizosphere, root and stem were isolated and genotypically and phenotypically characterised. Many of the rhizobacteria and root endophytes produce siderophores, organic acids, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, as well as being resistant to Cd and Zn. Most of the stem endophytes could produce organic acids (73.8%) and IAA (74.3%), however, only a minor fraction (up to 0.7%) were Cd or Zn resistant or could produce siderophores or ACC deaminase. A siderophore- and ACC deaminase-producing, highly Cd-resistant Rhizobium sp. from the rhizosphere, a siderophore-, organic acid-, IAA- and ACC deaminase-producing highly Cd-resistant Pseudomonas sp. colonising the roots, a highly Cd- and Zn-resistant organic acid and IAA-producing Clavibacter sp. present in the stem, and a consortium composed of these three strains were inoculated into non-exposed and Cd-exposed yellow lupine plants. Although all selected strains possessed promising in vitro characteristics to improve Cd phytoextraction, inoculation of none of the strains (i) reduced Cd phytotoxicity nor (ii) strongly affected plant Cd uptake. This work highlights that in vitro characterisation of bacteria is not sufficient to predict the in vivo behaviour of bacteria in interaction with their host plants. PMID:24400887

  11. Purification and characterization of a novel beta-agarase, AgaA34, from Agarivorans albus YKW-34.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao Ting; Lin, Hong; Kim, Sang Moo

    2008-02-01

    An extracellular beta-agarase (AgaA34) was purified from a newly isolated marine bacterium, Agarivorans albus YKW-34 from the gut of a turban shell. AgaA34 was purified to homogeneity by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatographies with a recovery of 30% and a fold of ten. AgaA34 was composed of a single polypeptide chain with the molecular mass of 50 kDa. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed a sequence of ASLVTSFEEA, which exhibited a high similarity (90%) with those of agarases from glycoside hydrolase family 50. The pH and temperature optima of AgaA34 were pH 8.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively. It was stable over pH 6.0-11.0 and at temperature up to 50 degrees C. Hydrolysis of agarose by AgaA34 produced neoagarobiose (75 mol%) and neoagarotetraose (25 mol%), whose structures were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy and (13)C NMR. AgaA34 cleaved both neoagarohexaose and neoagarotetraose into neoagarobiose. The k (cat)/K (m) values for hydrolysis agarose and neoagarotetraose were 4.04 x 10(3) and 8.1 x 10(2) s(-1) M(-1), respectively. AgaA34 was resistant to denaturing reagents (sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea). Metal ions were not required for its activity, while reducing reagents (beta-Me and dithiothreitol, DTT) increased its activity by 30%. PMID:18071641

  12. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, Patrick J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, David B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  13. Juvenile pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and hybrid pallidxshovelnose (S. albusxplatorynchus) sturgeons exhibit low physiological responses to acute handling and severe confinement.

    PubMed

    Barton, B A; Bollig, H; Hauskins, B L; Jansen, C R

    2000-05-01

    Following a 7.5-h transport haul, juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) showed a small but significant increase in plasma cortisol to 4.7 ng ml(-1) but similar increases did not occur after fish were handled in a net held in the air for 30 s. Subsequent experiments on yearling pallid sturgeon and hybrid pallidxshovelnose (S. albusxplatorynchus) sturgeon using the same 30-s handling stressor failed to evoke increases in plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose. Plasma cortisol increased significantly from about 2 to 13-14 ng ml(-1) in both pallid and hybrid sturgeon during a 6-h severe confinement stressor with handling. Plasma cortisol in 2-year-old pallid sturgeon subjected to the same stressor demonstrated a linear pattern of increase during the initial 1 h. Plasma lactate increased from 1.11 to about 2.11 mmol l(-1) in hybrid sturgeon during the first hour of severe confinement but did not change throughout the entire confinement period in pallid sturgeon. A significant increase in plasma cortisol to 5.4 ng ml(-1) in 2-year-old pallid sturgeon 1 h after being subjected to 30 s handling at 19:00 h but not at 07:00 or 13:00 h suggests that a small diurnal variation in their stress response may exist. Although both pallid and hybrid sturgeons were responsive to stress, they exhibited very low physiological responses compared with those following equivalent stressors in most teleostean fishes or another chondrostean, the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula). Reasons for the apparent low responses to handling and confinement in scaphirhynchid sturgeons are not known but may relate to their evolutionary history, neuroendocrine mechanisms involved in their corticosteroid responses, or anatomy of their interrenal tissue structure. PMID:10908860

  14. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  15. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  16. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon.

  17. Plant responses to phosphorus-deficiency stress: the role of organic acids in P mobilization from iron oxide and P acquisition by sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Sarah Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    activity are lupin (Bupinus albus L. cv. Kievskij Mutant) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculenrum Mill. cv. Fukuju 2) (Li et al. , 1997), with rape (Brassica nigna) (Duff et al. , 1991), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), sugar beet (Bern vulgnris L. ), rice (Oryza...

  18. Plant responses to phosphorus-deficiency stress: the role of organic acids in P mobilization from iron oxide and P acquisition by sorghum

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Sarah Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    activity are lupin (Bupinus albus L. cv. Kievskij Mutant) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculenrum Mill. cv. Fukuju 2) (Li et al. , 1997), with rape (Brassica nigna) (Duff et al. , 1991), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), sugar beet (Bern vulgnris L. ), rice (Oryza...

  19. Mg2+ dependence of the structure and thermodynamics of wheat germ and lupin seeds 5S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Kuli?ski, T; Bratek-Wiewiórowska, M D; Zielenkiewicz, A; Zielenkiewicz, W

    1997-02-01

    The formation and stability of structural elements in two 5S rRNA molecules from wheat germ (WG) and lupin seeds (LS) as a function of Mg2+ concentration in solution was determined using the adiabatic differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC). The experimentally determined thermodynamic parameters are compared with calculations using thermodynamic databases used for prediction of RNA structure. The 5S rRNA molecules which show minor differences in the nucleotide sequence display very different thermal unfolding profiles (DSC profiles). Numerical deconvolution of DSC profiles provided information about structural transformations that take place in both 5S rRNA molecules. A comparative analysis of DSC data and the theoretical thermodynamic models of the structure was used to establish a relationship between the constituting transitions found in the melting profiles and the unfolding of structural domains of the 5S rRNA and stability of its particular helical elements. Increased concentrations of Mg2+ ions induces additional internal interactions stabilising 5S rRNA structures found at low Na+ concentrations. Observed conformational transitions suggest a structural model in which the extension of helical region E dominates over the postulated tertiary interaction between hairpin loops. We propose that helix E is stabilised by a sequence of non-standard pairings extending this helix by the formation of tetra loop e and an almost total reduction of loop d between helices E and D. Two hairpin structures in both 5S rRNA molecules: the extended C-C' and the extended E-E'-E" hairpins appear as the most stable elements of the structure. The cooperativity of the unfolding of helixes in these 5S rRNA molecules changes already at 2 mM Mg2+. PMID:9172649

  20. The effects of increased CO[sub 2] on the competitive ability of Lupinus arboreus, a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.M. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brooks (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Plant responses to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] have been shown to be both species-specific and dependent on other environmental factors, potentially changing competitive interactions and altering community structure. The competitive response of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub to an introduced annual (Bromus diandrus) and a native perennial grass (Bromus carinatus) was measured under ambient and high CO[sub 2] and two nitrogen levels. These species coexist in a generally nitrogen-limited coastal grassland reserve besieged with alien species. The relative competitive ability of the lupin increased with CO[sub 2] for all treatments, with the largest difference occurring at low nitrogen in competition with the introduced annual. This study provides a global change perspective for those interested in conserving native Californian grassland species, as well as the first data on the competitive response of nitrogen-fixers to high CO[sub 2].

  1. Lupinus argenteus (native) 2 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    robust. The second project goal was completed by introducing more subsystems into the robotics lab including a webcam with image recognition software, battery information functions, path planning algorithms, and trajectory tracking control laws. A...

  2. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  3. Incorporation of [15N]Ammonia by the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes BL2, Ruminococcus albus SY3, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17

    PubMed Central

    Atasoglu, Cengiz; Newbold, C. James; Wallace, R. John

    2001-01-01

    The origin of cell nitrogen and amino acid nitrogen during growth of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in different growth media was investigated by using 15NH3. At high concentrations of peptides (Trypticase, 10 g/liter) and amino acids (15.5 g/liter), significant amounts of cell nitrogen of Fibrobacter succinogenes BL2 (51%), Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 (43%), and Ruminococcus albus SY3 (46%) were derived from non-NH3-N. With peptides at 1 g/liter, a mean of 80% of cell nitrogen was from NH3. More cell nitrogen was formed from NH3 during growth on cellobiose compared with growth on cellulose in all media. Phenylalanine was essential for F. succinogenes, and its 15N enrichment declined more than that of other amino acids in all species when amino acids were added to the medium. PMID:11375199

  4. High brain ammonia tolerance and down-regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl(-) Cotransporter 1b mRNA and protein expression in the brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, exposed to environmental ammonia or terrestrial conditions.

    PubMed

    Ip, Yuen K; Hou, Zhisheng; Chen, Xiu L; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Chng, You R; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C; Chew, Shit F

    2013-01-01

    Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g(-1) and 2.7 µmol g(-1) after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l(-1) NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance. PMID:24069137

  5. High Brain Ammonia Tolerance and Down-Regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl- Cotransporter 1b mRNA and Protein Expression in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Exposed to Environmental Ammonia or Terrestrial Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Yuen K.; Hou, Zhisheng; Chen, Xiu L.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C.; Chew, Shit F.

    2013-01-01

    Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g-1 and 2.7 µmol g-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance. PMID:24069137

  6. [South America's genetic reserves for the breeding of cultivated plants].

    PubMed

    Brücher, H

    1968-01-01

    The genetic reserves of South America, a continent that has contributed more than 100 crop plants to the world, are by no means exhausted. On the contrary; among the native wild varieties are many potentially useful plants whose improvement through breeding is worth undertaking. Among the Solanaceae are especiallyS. muricatum, S. topiro, andS. quitoense, furthermoreCyphomandra betacea and certain species ofPhysalis, some of which are being subjected to mutation experiments, hybridization and selection in order to create new crop varieties for tropical latitudes (including the "cool tropical mountains"). Contrary to other Solanaceae like tomato and potato (not discussed in this paper) they are immune to viruses and other pathogens. The ancient Andean grains from populations ofAmaranthaceae andChenopodiaceae with their hundreds of different "landrassen" and types are in danger of losing their wealth of genes, because grain import to the Andean states has greatly decreased the extent of their cultivation. From both families, on which no genetic or breeding experiments have yet been undertaken, frost- and droughtresistant fodder plants could be developed for marginal areas. Some of the numerous South American indigenous rootcrops have already been extended to all continents, others, like the umbelliferousArracacia, are hardly known outside of their local areas of growth. Among the South AmericanLeguminosae, protein-rich green fodder plants can be developed fromPhaseolus candidus andCanavalia ensiformis, similarly from some drought-resistant perennialArachis species. Among the numerous South American species of lupines are some semi-domesticated ones, likeLupinus perennis andLupinus mutabilis, with softshell seeds and non-opening pods but with high alkaloid content. Mutation experiments have been initiated successfully at Caracas for obtaining nonpoisonous biotypes. There is hope that the protein shortage of the South American Andes region can be alleviated by "autochthonous sweet lupines", since the sweet lupine strainsL. luteus andL. albus developed byV. SENGBUSCH are not suited to the photoperiodic conditions of South America. Finally, it must seriously be pointed out that the rich potencies of the South American gene pool are quickly decreasing. In some cases the extermination of valuable gene carriers is in full course. No more time should therefore be lost in carrying out a practical, feasible program to save the gene pools of cultivated plants in South America. PMID:24442061

  7. A small-scale proteomic approach reveals a survival strategy, including a reduction in alkaloid biosynthesis, in Hyoscyamus albus roots subjected to iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Khandakar, Jebunnahar; Haraguchi, Izumi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2013-01-01

    Hyoscyamus albus is a well-known source of the tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are biosynthesized in the roots. To assess the major biochemical adaptations that occur in the roots of this plant in response to iron deficiency, we used a small-scale proteomic approach in which 100 mg of root tips were treated with and without Fe, respectively, for 5 days. Two-dimensional mini gels showed that 48 spots were differentially accumulated between the two conditions of Fe availability and a further 36 proteins were identified from these spots using MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins that showed elevated levels in the roots lacking Fe were found to be associated variously with carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation, secondary metabolism, and oxidative defense. Most of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were increased in abundance, but mitochondrial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was decreased, possibly resulting in malate secretion. Otherwise, all the proteins showing diminished levels in the roots were identified as either Fe-containing or ATP-requiring. For example, a significant decrease was observed in the levels of hyoscyamine 6?-hydroxylase (H6H), which requires Fe and is involved in the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. To investigate the effects of Fe deficiency on alkaloid biosynthesis, gene expression studies were undertaken both for H6H and for another Fe-dependent protein, Cyp80F1, which is involved in the final stage of hyoscyamine biosynthesis. In addition, tropane alkaloid contents were determined. Reduced gene expression was observed in the case of both of these proteins and was accompanied by a decrease in the content of both hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Finally, we have discussed energetic and Fe-conservation strategies that might be adopted by the roots of H. albus to maintain iron homeostasis under Fe-limiting conditions. PMID:24009619

  8. Effects of pressure toasting, expander treatment and pelleting on in vitro and in situ parameters of protein and starch in a mixture of broken peas, lupins and faba beans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Goelema; A. Smits; L. M. Vaessen; A. Wemmers

    1999-01-01

    The effects of several technological treatments on the rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of a mixture of broken peas, lupins and faba beans were studied. The treatments included pressure toasting (132°C, 3min), expander treatment (115°C, 8s) and pelleting (80°C, 10s). Toasting was the most effective treatment in altering rumen protein degradability, as it decreased rumen protein degradability, mainly by reducing

  9. Gene Cloning and mRNA Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in the Liver, Brain, and Intestine of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), Exposed to Freshwater, Terrestrial Conditions, Environmental Ammonia, or Salinity Stress.

    PubMed

    Tok, Chia Y; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2011-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5' UTR, a complete coding sequence region spanning 1629?bp and a 3' UTR of approximately 717?bp, from the liver, intestine, and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence had 542 residues, and it formed a monophyletic clade with Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2, and O. mykiss Gdh1a. One day of exposure to terrestrial conditions or 75?mmol?l(-1) NH(4)Cl, but not to water at salinity 20, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the liver of M. albus. However, exposure to brackish water, but not to terrestrial conditions or 75?mmol?l(-1) NH(4)Cl, led to a significant increase in the mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the intestine. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus, despite a significant decrease in the Gdh amination activity in the brain of fish exposed to 75?mmol?l(-1) NH(4)Cl for 6?days. Our results indicate for the first time that the mRNA expression of gdh1a was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus in response to ammonia toxicity and salinity stress, respectively. The increases in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity would probably lead to an increase in glutamate production in support of increased glutamine synthesis for the purpose of ammonia detoxification or cell volume regulation under these two different environmental conditions. PMID:22319499

  10. Gene Cloning and mRNA Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in the Liver, Brain, and Intestine of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), Exposed to Freshwater, Terrestrial Conditions, Environmental Ammonia, or Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tok, Chia Y.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2011-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5? UTR, a complete coding sequence region spanning 1629?bp and a 3? UTR of approximately 717?bp, from the liver, intestine, and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence had 542 residues, and it formed a monophyletic clade with Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2, and O. mykiss Gdh1a. One day of exposure to terrestrial conditions or 75?mmol?l?1 NH4Cl, but not to water at salinity 20, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the liver of M. albus. However, exposure to brackish water, but not to terrestrial conditions or 75?mmol?l?1 NH4Cl, led to a significant increase in the mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the intestine. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus, despite a significant decrease in the Gdh amination activity in the brain of fish exposed to 75?mmol?l?1 NH4Cl for 6?days. Our results indicate for the first time that the mRNA expression of gdh1a was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus in response to ammonia toxicity and salinity stress, respectively. The increases in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity would probably lead to an increase in glutamate production in support of increased glutamine synthesis for the purpose of ammonia detoxification or cell volume regulation under these two different environmental conditions. PMID:22319499

  11. A Novel Image-Analysis Toolbox Enabling Quantitative Analysis of Root System Architecture1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pagès, Loïc; Draye, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We present in this paper a novel, semiautomated image-analysis software to streamline the quantitative analysis of root growth and architecture of complex root systems. The software combines a vectorial representation of root objects with a powerful tracing algorithm that accommodates a wide range of image sources and quality. The root system is treated as a collection of roots (possibly connected) that are individually represented as parsimonious sets of connected segments. Pixel coordinates and gray level are therefore turned into intuitive biological attributes such as segment diameter and orientation as well as distance to any other segment or topological position. As a consequence, user interaction and data analysis directly operate on biological entities (roots) and are not hampered by the spatially discrete, pixel-based nature of the original image. The software supports a sampling-based analysis of root system images, in which detailed information is collected on a limited number of roots selected by the user according to specific research requirements. The use of the software is illustrated with a time-lapse analysis of cluster root formation in lupin (Lupinus albus) and an architectural analysis of the maize (Zea mays) root system. The software, SmartRoot, is an operating system-independent freeware based on ImageJ and relies on cross-platform standards for communication with data-analysis software. PMID:21771915

  12. Asparagine Metabolism—Key to the Nitrogen Nutrition of Developing Legume Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.; Sharkey, Patrick J.

    1975-01-01

    Asparagine accounted for 50 to 70% of the nitrogen carried in translocatory channels serving fruit and seed of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). Rates of supply of the amide always greatly exceeded its incorporation as such into protein. An asparaginase (l-asparagine amido hydrolase EC 3.5.1.1) was demonstrated in crude extracts of seeds. In vitro activity was up to 5 ?moles of aspartate formed per hour per gram fresh weight at the apparent KmAsn value of 10 mM, and this more than accounted for the estimated rates of asparagine utilization in vivo. Asparaginase activity per seed increased 10-fold in the period 5 to 7 weeks after anthesis, coinciding with early stages of storage protein synthesis in the cotyledons. Double labeled (14C (U), 15N (amide)) asparagine was fed to fruiting shoots through the transpiration steram. Fruit phloem sap analysis indicated that virtually all of the label was translocated to seeds in the form of asparagine. In young seeds 15N from asparagine breakdown was traced to the ammonia, glutamine, and alanine of endospermic fluid, the 14C appearing mainly in nonamino compounds. In the cotyledon-filling stage the C and N of asparagine was contributed to a variety of amino acid residues of protein. PMID:16659399

  13. Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J. D.; Ludwig, C.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime’s C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

  14. Effects of the aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis seeds on the growth and development of Hypothenemus hampei: an inhibitor showing high homology with storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Molina, Diana; Patiño, Luisa; Quintero, Mónica; Cortes, José; Bastos, Sara

    2014-02-01

    The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei is a pest that causes great economic damage to coffee grains worldwide. Because the proteins consumed are digested by aspartic proteases in the insect's midgut, the inhibition of these proteases by transferring a gene encoding an aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis Benth. to coffee plants could provide a promising strategy to control this pest. Five aspartic protease inhibitors from L. bogotensis (LbAPI) were accordingly purified and characterized. The gene encoding the L. bogotensis aspartic protease inhibitor (LbAPI), with the highest inhibitory activity against H. hampei, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant protein (rLbAPI), with a molecular mass of 15 kDa, was subsequently assessed for its ability to inhibit the aspartic protease activity present in the H. hampei midgut in vitro, as well as its effects on the growth and development of H. hampei in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that rLbAPI was highly effective against aspartic proteases from H. hampei guts, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.9 ?g. The in vivo experiments showed that the concentration of rLbAPI (w/w) in the artificial diet necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of the larvae was 0.91%. The amino acid sequence of LbAPI had high homology (52-80%) to the seed storage proteins, vicilin and ?-conglutin, suggesting that this protein was generated by evolutionary events from a ?-conglutin precursor. Based on these results, LbAPI may have a dual function as storage protein, and as defense protein against H. hampei. These results provide a promising alternative to obtain a coffee plant resistant to H. hampei. PMID:24314849

  15. Legume genomics: understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approx. 17 000 species. A few of these species, including, but not limited to, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing protein for approx. 300 million people worldwide. Additional species, including soybean (Glycine max) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), are important crops utilized mainly in animal feed. In addition, legumes are important contributors to biological nitrogen, forming symbiotic relationships with rhizobia to fix atmospheric N2 and providing up to 30 % of available nitrogen for the next season of crops. The application of high-throughput genomic technologies including genome sequencing projects, genome re-sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) by the legume research community has provided major insights into genome evolution, genomic architecture and domestication. Scope and Conclusions This review presents an overview of the current state of legume genomics and explores the role that next-generation sequencing technologies play in advancing legume genomics. The adoption of next-generation sequencing and implementation of associated bioinformatic tools has allowed researchers to turn each species of interest into their own model organism. To illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing, an in-depth overview of the transcriptomes of both soybean and white lupin (Lupinus albus) is provided. The soybean transcriptome focuses on analysing seed development in two near-isogenic lines, examining the role of transporters, oil biosynthesis and nitrogen utilization. The white lupin transcriptome analysis examines how phosphate deficiency alters gene expression patterns, inducing the formation of cluster roots. Such studies illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in elucidating the gene networks underlying biological processes. PMID:24769535

  16. An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Ruggles, M.P.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.; Holm, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean?=?0.66–0.70 m?s?1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m?s?1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day?1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

  17. Performance assessment for determining malachite green and leucomalachite green in swamp eel (Monopterus albus) muscle using assigned reference values in a proficiency test.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y C; Cheung, T C

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a proficiency test (APLAC T058) for malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG) in swamp eel (Monopterus albus). The programme was organized by the Hong Kong Government Laboratory and Hong Kong Accreditation Service (HKAS), under the auspices of the Asia-Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Co-operation (APLAC) in 2007. Results submitted by participants were compared with the assigned reference values, which were determined by an accurate liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) technique, and their performance was evaluated on the basis of z-score index. The distribution of data was very wide and discrepancy from the assigned reference values was found to be method dependent. Only 48% and 62% of participants achieved satisfactory z-scores (i.e. |z|

  18. Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), eel (Monopterus albus) and cockle (Anadara granosa).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Zamri, M; Fadilla, N

    2012-06-15

    This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish. PMID:24191621

  19. Tachykinins (substance P and neuropeptide gamma) from the brains of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus and the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula (Acipenseriformes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Barton, B A; Nielsen, P F; Conlon, J M

    1999-10-01

    A peptide with substance P-like immunoreactivity was isolated from extracts of the brains of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus and the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. The primary structure of the peptide (Lys-Pro-Lys-Pro-His-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met.NH(2)) is the same in both species and contains 2 amino acid substitutions (Arg(1) --> Lys and Gln(5) --> His) compared with human substance P and 1 substitution (Arg(3) --> Lys) compared with substance P from the trout (Teleostei). Scyliorhinin I, a tachykinin previously isolated from an extract of sturgeon intestine, was not detected in either brain extract. A peptide with neurokinin A-like immunoreactivity (Ser-Ser-Ala-Asn-Arg-Gln-Ile-Thr-Gly-Lys(10)Arg-Gln-Lys-Ile-Asn-Ser-P he-Val-Gly-Leu(20)Met.NH(2)) was isolated from sturgeon brain and contains 10 amino acid substitutions compared with human neuropeptide gamma (a specific product of the posttranslational processing of gamma-preprotachykinin A) but only 4 substitutions compared with trout neuropeptide gamma. It was not possible to obtain the paddlefish neurokinin A-related peptide in pure form. The structural similarity between the sturgeon and the trout tachykinins supports the hypothesis that the Acipenseriformes (sturgeons and paddlefish) represent the sister group of the Neopterygii (gars, bowfin, and teleosts). PMID:10525358

  20. Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: A comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andvik, R.T.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.; French, W.E.; Bertrand, K.N.; Chipps, S.R.; Klumb, R.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r2 ??? 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both ??15N and ??13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day-1) using stable ??15N and ??13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue ??15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but ??13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species. ?? 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  1. Genetic organization of the putative salbostatin biosynthetic gene cluster including the 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase gene in Streptomyces albus ATCC 21838.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Sik; Wu, Xiumei; Choeng, Yong-Hoon; Mahmud, Taifo; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee; Chang, Yong Keun; Kim, Chang-Joon; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2008-09-01

    The cyclization of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone, catalyzed by the 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthases, is the first committed step in the biosynthesis of C( 7 )N-aminocyclitol-containing natural products, such as validamycin and acarbose. These natural products contain in their structures a valienamine unit, which is important for their biological activity. The same core unit is also found in salbostatin, a related pseudodisaccharide that has strong trehalase inhibitory activity. In silico analysis of the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of salbostatin from Streptomyces albus ATCC 21838 revealed 20 open reading frames, including an acbC homolog gene (salQ), which is believed to be involved in the biosynthesis of salbostatin. The salQ gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the catalytic function of the recombinant protein was confirmed to be a 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase. In addition, SalF, SalL, SalM, SalN, SalO, and SalR were found to be homologous to AcbR, AcbM, AcbL, AcbN, AcbO, and AcbP from the acarbose pathway, respectively, which suggests that the biosynthesis of C(7)N-aminocyclitol moiety of salbostatin may be very similar to that of acarbose. PMID:18648803

  2. Apple polygalacturonase inhibiting protein1 expressed in transgenic tobacco inhibits polygalacturonases from fungal pathogens of apple and the anthracnose pathogen of lupins.

    PubMed

    Oelofse, Dean; Dubery, Ian A; Meyer, Riaan; Arendse, Melanie S; Gazendam, Inge; Berger, Dave K

    2006-02-01

    Extracts from apple fruit (cultivar "Granny Smith") inhibited the cell-wall degrading polygalacturonase (PG) activity of Colletotrichum lupini, the causal agent of anthracnose on lupins, as well as Aspergillus niger PG. Southern blot analysis indicated that this cultivar of apple has a small gene family of polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (pgips), and therefore heterologous expression in transgenic tobacco was used to identify the specific gene product responsible for the inhibitory activity. A previously isolated pgip gene, termed Mdpgip1, was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The mature MdPGIP1 protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from tobacco leaves by high salt extraction, clarification by DEAE-Sepharose and cation exchange HPLC. Purified MdPGIP1 inhibited PGs from C. lupini and PGs from two economically important pathogens of apple trees, Botryosphaeria obtusa and Diaporthe ambigua. It did not inhibit the A. niger PG, which was in contrast to the apple fruit extract used in this study. We conclude that there are at least two active PGIPs expressed in apple, which differ in their charge properties and ability to inhibit A. niger PG. PMID:16364381

  3. Hydrogen Formation and Its Regulation in Ruminococcus albus: Involvement of an Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, of a Non-Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, and of a Putative Hydrogen-Sensing [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanning; Kahnt, Jörg; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 has played a key role in the development of the concept of interspecies hydrogen transfer. The rumen bacterium ferments glucose to 1.3 acetate, 0.7 ethanol, 2 CO2, and 2.6 H2 when growing in batch culture and to 2 acetate, 2 CO2, and 4 H2 when growing in continuous culture in syntrophic association with H2-consuming microorganisms that keep the H2 partial pressure low. The organism uses NAD+ and ferredoxin for glucose oxidation to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and CO2, NADH for the reduction of acetyl-CoA to ethanol, and NADH and reduced ferredoxin for the reduction of protons to H2. Of all the enzymes involved, only the enzyme catalyzing the formation of H2 from NADH remained unknown. Here, we report that R. albus 7 grown in batch culture on glucose contained, besides a ferredoxin-dependent [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA2), a ferredoxin- and NAD-dependent electron-bifurcating [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydABC) that couples the endergonic formation of H2 from NADH to the exergonic formation of H2 from reduced ferredoxin. Interestingly, hydA2 is adjacent to the hydS gene, which is predicted to encode an [FeFe]-hydrogenase with a C-terminal PAS domain. We showed that hydS and hydA2 are part of a larger transcriptional unit also harboring putative genes for a bifunctional acetaldehyde/ethanol dehydrogenase (Aad), serine/threonine protein kinase, serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and a redox-sensing transcriptional repressor. Since HydA2 and Aad are required only when R. albus grows at high H2 partial pressures, HydS could be a H2-sensing [FeFe]-hydrogenase involved in the regulation of their biosynthesis. PMID:25157086

  4. The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

    1998-01-01

    Larvae of the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, feed solely on wild lupine, Lupinus perennis, from the emergence to summer senescence of the plant. Wild lupine is most abundant in open areas but Karner blue females oviposit more frequently on lupines growing in moderate shade. Can differences in lupine quality between open and shaded areas help explain this disparity in resource use? Furthermore, many lupines are senescent before the second larval brood completes development. How does lupine senescence affect larval growth? We addressed these questions by measuring growth rates of larvae fed lupines of different phenological stages and lupines growing under different shade conditions. The habitat conditions under which lupines grew and plant phenological stage did not generally affect final larval or pupal weight but did significantly affect duration of the larval period. Duration was shortest for larvae fed leaves from flowering lupines and was negatively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration. Ovipositing in areas of moderate shade should increase second-brood larval exposure to flowering lupines. In addition, larval growth was significantly faster on shade-grown lupines that were in seed than on similar sun-grown lupines. These are possible advantages of the higher-than-expected oviposition rate on shade-grown lupines. Given the canopy-related trade-off between lupine abundance and quality, maintenance of canopy heterogeneity is an important conservation management goal. Larvae were also fed leaves growing in poor soil conditions and leaves with mildew infection. These and other feeding treatments that we anticipated would inhibit larval growth often did not. In particular, ant-tended larvae exhibited the highest weight gain per amount of lupine eaten and a relatively fast growth rate. This represents an advantage of ant tending to Karner blue larvae.

  5. Isotherms and kinetic study of dihydrogen and hydrogen phosphate ions (H{2}PO{4}- and HPO{4}2-) adsorption onto crushed plant matter of the semi-arid zones of Morocco: Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus and Senecio anthophorbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiban, M.; Benhima, H.; Saadi, B.; Nounah, A.; Sinan, F.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work H{2}PO4- and HPO42- ions adsorption onto organic matter (OM) obtained from ground dried three plants growing in arid zones of Morocco has been studied. The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, particle size and initial concentration of phosphate solution (Ci ? 30 mg/l). The uptake of both ions is increased by increasing the concentration of them selves. The retention of phosphate ions by Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus are well defined by several isotherms such as the Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich.

  6. Oxazolomycin Biosynthesis in Streptomyces albus JA3453 Featuring an “Acyltransferase-less” Type I Polyketide Synthase That Incorporates Two Distinct Extender Units*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunhua; Coughlin, Jane M.; Ju, Jianhua; Zhu, Dongqing; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Zhou, Xiufen; Wang, Zhijun; Shen, Ben; Deng, Zixin

    2010-01-01

    The oxazolomycins (OZMs) are a growing family of antibiotics produced by several Streptomyces species that show diverse and important antibacterial, antitumor, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity. Oxazolomycin A is a peptide-polyketide hybrid compound containing a unique spiro-linked ?-lactone/?-lactam, a 5-substituted oxazole ring. The oxazolomycin biosynthetic gene cluster (ozm) was identified from Streptomyces albus JA3453 and localized to 79.5-kb DNA, consisting of 20 open reading frames that encode non-ribosomal peptide synthases, polyketide synthases (PKSs), hybrid non-ribosomal peptide synthase-PKS, trans-acyltransferases (trans-ATs), enzymes for methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthesis, putative resistance genes, and hypothetical regulation genes. In contrast to classical type I polyketide or fatty acid biosynthases, all 10 PKS modules in the gene cluster lack cognate ATs. Instead, discrete ATs OzmM (with tandem domains OzmM-AT1 and OzmM-AT2) and OzmC were equipped to carry out all of the loading functions of both malonyl-CoA and methoxymalonyl-ACP extender units. Strikingly, only OzmM-AT2 is required for OzmM activity for OZM biosynthesis, whereas OzmM-AT1 seemed to be a cryptic AT domain. The above findings, together with previous results using isotope-labeled precursor feeding assays, are assembled for the OZM biosynthesis model to be proposed. The incorporation of both malonyl-CoA (by OzmM-AT2) and methoxymalonyl-ACP (by OzmC) extender units seemed to be unprecedented for this class of trans-AT type I PKSs, which might be fruitfully manipulated to create structurally diverse novel compounds. PMID:20406823

  7. Ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus inoculation of Acacia spirorbis and Eucalyptus globulus grown in ultramafic topsoil enhances plant growth and mineral nutrition while limits metal uptake.

    PubMed

    Jourand, Philippe; Hannibal, Laure; Majorel, Clarisse; Mengant, Stéphane; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel

    2014-01-15

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) isolates of Pisolithus albus (Cooke and Massee) from nickel-rich ultramafic topsoils in New Caledonia were inoculated onto Acacia spirorbis Labill. (an endemic Fabaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (used as a Myrtaceae plant host model). The aim of the study was to analyze the growth of symbiotic ECM plants growing on the ultramafic substrate that is characterized by high and toxic metal concentrations i.e. Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni, deficient concentrations of plant essential nutrients such as N, P, K, and that presents an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio (1/19). ECM inoculation was successful with a plant level of root mycorrhization up to 6.7%. ECM symbiosis enhanced plant growth as indicated by significant increases in shoot and root biomass. Presence of ECM enhanced uptake of major elements that are deficient in ultramafic substrates; in particular P, K and Ca. On the contrary, the ECM symbioses strongly reduced transfer to plants of element in excess in soils; in particular all metals. ECM-inoculated plants released metal complexing molecules as free thiols and oxalic acid mostly at lower concentrations than in controls. Data showed that ECM symbiosis helped plant growth by supplying uptake of deficient elements while acting as a protective barrier to toxic metals, in particular for plants growing on ultramafic substrate with extreme soil conditions. Isolation of indigenous and stress-adapted beneficial ECM fungi could serve as a potential tool for inoculation of ECM endemic plants for the successful restoration of ultramafic ecosystems degraded by mining activities. PMID:24331432

  8. Metabolic mechanism of mannan in a ruminal bacterium, Ruminococcus albus, involving two mannoside phosphorylases and cellobiose 2-epimerase: discovery of a new carbohydrate phosphorylase, ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharide phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ryosuke; Saburi, Wataru; Odaka, Rei; Taguchi, Hidenori; Ito, Shigeaki; Mori, Haruhide; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2012-12-01

    Ruminococcus albus is a typical ruminal bacterium digesting cellulose and hemicellulose. Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE; EC 5.1.3.11), which converts cellobiose to 4-O-?-D-glucosyl-D-mannose, is a particularly unique enzyme in R. albus, but its physiological function is unclear. Recently, a new metabolic pathway of mannan involving CE was postulated for another CE-producing bacterium, Bacteroides fragilis. In this pathway, ?-1,4-mannobiose is epimerized to 4-O-?-D-mannosyl-D-glucose (Man-Glc) by CE, and Man-Glc is phosphorolyzed to ?-D-mannosyl 1-phosphate (Man1P) and D-glucose by Man-Glc phosphorylase (MP; EC 2.4.1.281). Ruminococcus albus NE1 showed intracellular MP activity, and two MP isozymes, RaMP1 and RaMP2, were obtained from the cell-free extract. These enzymes were highly specific for the mannosyl residue at the non-reducing end of the substrate and catalyzed the phosphorolysis and synthesis of Man-Glc through a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In a synthetic reaction, RaMP1 showed high activity only toward D-glucose and 6-deoxy-D-glucose in the presence of Man1P, whereas RaMP2 showed acceptor specificity significantly different from RaMP1. RaMP2 acted on D-glucose derivatives at the C2- and C3-positions, including deoxy- and deoxyfluoro-analogues and epimers, but not on those substituted at the C6-position. Furthermore, RaMP2 had high synthetic activity toward the following oligosaccharides: ?-linked glucobioses, maltose, N,N'-diacetylchitobiose, and ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides. Particularly, ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides served as significantly better acceptor substrates for RaMP2 than D-glucose. In the phosphorolytic reactions, RaMP2 had weak activity toward ?-1,4-mannobiose but efficiently degraded ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose. Consequently, RaMP2 is thought to catalyze the phosphorolysis of ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose to produce Man1P and ?-1,4-mannobiose. PMID:23093406

  9. Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores Slow a Plant Reinvasion at Mount St. Helens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Fagan; John G. Bishop

    2000-01-01

    Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, were expected to strongly affect successional trajectories through facili- tative effects. However, their effects remain localized because initially high rates of reinvasive spread were short lived, despite widespread habitat availability. We experimentally tested whether insect herbi- vores, by reducing plant growth and fecundity

  10. Toward Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. PART I. Analysis of the Primary Links of the Production Chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita R. Linnemann; Dolf Swaving Dijkstra

    2002-01-01

    Referee: Dr. R. Owusu Apenten, Department of Food Science, The Leeds University, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods that can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum),

  11. A Systemic Small RNA Signaling System in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Chun; Kragler, Friedrich; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Haywood, Valerie; Archer-Evans, Sarah; Lee, Young Moo; Lough, Tony J.; Lucas, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Systemic translocation of RNA exerts non-cell-autonomous control over plant development and defense. Long-distance delivery of mRNA has been proven, but transport of small interfering RNA and microRNA remains to be demonstrated. Analyses performed on phloem sap collected from a range of plants identified populations of small RNA species. The dynamic nature of this population was reflected in its response to growth conditions and viral infection. The authenticity of these phloem small RNA molecules was confirmed by bioinformatic analysis; potential targets for a set of phloem small RNA species were identified. Heterografting studies, using spontaneously silencing coat protein (CP) plant lines, also established that transgene-derived siRNA move in the long-distance phloem and initiate CP gene silencing in the scion. Biochemical analysis of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem sap led to the characterization of C. maxima Phloem SMALL RNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (CmPSRP1), a unique component of the protein machinery probably involved in small RNA trafficking. Equivalently sized small RNA binding proteins were detected in phloem sap from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and lupin (Lupinus albus). PSRP1 binds selectively to 25-nucleotide single-stranded RNA species. Microinjection studies provided direct evidence that PSRP1 could mediate the cell-to-cell trafficking of 25-nucleotide single-stranded, but not double-stranded, RNA molecules. The potential role played by PSRP1 in long-distance transmission of silencing signals is discussed with respect to the pathways and mechanisms used by plants to exert systemic control over developmental and physiological processes. PMID:15258266

  12. Adherence of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Ruminococcus albus to Cellulose and Identification of a Novel Form of Cellulose-Binding Protein Which Belongs to the Pil Family of Proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Pegden, Randall S.; Larson, Marilynn A.; Grant, Richard J.; Morrison, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The adherence of Ruminococcus albus 8 to crystalline cellulose was studied, and an affinity-based assay was also used to identify candidate cellulose-binding protein(s). Bacterial adherence in cellulose-binding assays was significantly increased by the inclusion of either ruminal fluid or micromolar concentrations of both phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids in the growth medium, and the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to assays decreased the adherence of the bacterium to cellulose. A cellulose-binding protein with an estimated molecular mass following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ?21 kDa, designated CbpC, was present in both cellobiose- and cellulose-grown cultures, and the relative abundance of this protein increased in response to growth on cellulose. Addition of 0.1% (wt/vol) CMC to the binding assays had an inhibitory effect on CbpC binding to cellulose, consistent with the notion that CbpC plays a role in bacterial attachment to cellulose. The nucleotide sequence of the cbpC gene was determined by a combination of reverse genetics and genomic walking procedures. The cbpC gene encodes a protein of 169 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 17,655 Da. The amino-terminal third of the CbpC protein possesses the motif characteristic of the Pil family of proteins, which are most commonly involved with the formation of type 4 fimbriae and other surface-associated protein complexes in gram-negative, pathogenic bacteria. The remainder of the predicted CbpC sequence was found to have significant identity with 72- and 75-amino-acid motifs tandemly repeated in the 190-kDa surface antigen protein of Rickettsia spp., as well as one of the major capsid glycoproteins of the Chlorella virus PBCV-1. Northern blot analysis showed that phenylpropionic acid and ruminal fluid increase cbpC mRNA abundance in cellobiose-grown cells. These results suggest that CbpC is a novel cellulose-binding protein that may be involved in adherence of R. albus to substrate and extends understanding of the distribution of the Pil family of proteins in gram-positive bacteria. PMID:9811650

  13. Aromatase (P450arom) and 11beta-hydroxylase (P45011beta) genes are differentially expressed during the sex change process of the protogynous rice field eel, Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Fang; Guiguen, Yann; Liu, Shao-Jun

    2009-08-01

    Steroids are known to play a crucial role in gonadal sex differentiation in many non-mammalian vertebrates, but also in the gonadal sex change of hermaphroditic teleosts. We investigated the expression of two genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes, i.e., cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) and cytochrome P45011beta-hydroxylase (P45011beta), during the sex change of the protogynous rice field eel, Monopterus albus. Using RT-PCR with degenerate primers, we cloned rice field eel homologous fragments for both genes (rcP450arom and rcP45011beta) as indicated by the high level of homology with P450arom and P45011beta sequences from various vertebrates. Gonadal expression of rcP450arom and rcP45011beta mRNA levels were then assessed during the sex change by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and a real-time RT-PCR. rcP450arom was predominantly expressed in ovary, much less in ovotestis, and barely in testis. Conversely, P45011beta was markedly up-regulated at the onset of testicular development. These findings underline that regulation of steroidogenesis is an important process in the sex change of protogynous rice field eel, and they clearly indicate that the concomitant down-regulation of P450arom and up-regulation of P45011beta are of pivotal importance to the sex change of this species. PMID:18807204

  14. Zimmermannella helvola gen. nov., sp. nov., Zimmermannella alba sp. nov., Zimmermannella bifida sp. nov., Zimmermannella faecalis sp. nov. and Leucobacter albus sp. nov., novel members of the family Microbacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chueh; Uemori, Kazunori; de Briel, Dominique A; Arunpairojana, Vallapa; Yokota, Akira

    2004-09-01

    Seven strains of actinobacteria, isolated from soil, wounds, urine, cow faeces, human blood and butter, were characterized by a polyphasic approach to clarify their taxonomic position. On the basis of chemotaxonomy, 16S rRNA gene analysis and DNA relatedness, strain IAM 14851T can be classified within the cluster of the genus Leucobacter and is proposed as a novel species, Leucobacter albus sp. nov., with strain IAM 14851T (=TISTR 1515T) as the type strain. The other six strains formed a phylogenetically separate branch in the family Microbacteriaceae, having the following characteristics: the major menaquinones are MK-8 to MK-10, the DNA G + C content ranges from 62 to 68 mol%, the diamino acid in the cell wall is diaminobutyric acid and the muramic acid in the peptidoglycan is of the acetyl type. The major fatty acids are 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (anteiso-C(15 : 0)), hexadecanoic acid (C(16 : 0)), 14-methyl-pentadecanoic acid (iso-C(16 : 0)) and 14-methyl-hexadecanoic acid (anteiso-C(17 : 0)). On the basis of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, the novel genus Zimmermannella gen. nov. is proposed for these six strains. Four novel species are proposed: Zimmermannella helvola sp. nov. (type species; type strain IAM 14726T = NBRC 15775T = DSM 20419T = TISTR 1509T), Zimmermannella alba sp. nov. (type strain IAM 14724T = NBRC 15616T = TISTR 1510T), Zimmermannella bifida sp. nov. (type strain IAM 14848T = TISTR 1511T) and Zimmermannella faecalis sp. nov. (type strain IAM 15030T = NBRC 15706T = ATCC 13722T = TISTR 1514T). PMID:15388726

  15. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S; McKee, Michael J; Papoulias, Diana M; Tillitt, Donald E; Galat, David L

    2015-06-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196?ng/g egg (188-203?ng/g) for shovelnose and 159?ng/g egg (122-199?ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13?ng/g egg (11-15?ng/g) for shovelnose and 12?ng/g egg (10-14?ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1417-1424. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25703836

  16. Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

    1998-01-01

    The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally large in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy opening and shades, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

  17. Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.; Sulzman, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally larger in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy openings and shade, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

  18. Pelagicoccus mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov., Pelagicoccus albus sp. nov. and Pelagicoccus litoralis sp. nov., three novel members of subdivision 4 within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia', isolated from seawater by in situ cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Yasumoto-Hirose, Mina; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Nozawa, Midori; Matsuda, Satoru; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2007-07-01

    Five Gram-negative, white-pigmented, spherical, chemoheterotrophic bacteria were isolated from seawater from Japan and the Republic of Palau by use of an in situ cultivation technique. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the five novel isolates, 02PA-Ca-133(T), YM14-201(T), H-MN57(T), H-MN48 and MN1-156, were closely affiliated to members of subdivision 4 within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. The novel isolates shared 96-100 % sequence similarity with each other and showed less than 90 % similarity with the cultivated strains of subdivision 4. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strains 02PA-Ca-133(T), YM14-201(T) and H-MN57(T) were less than 70 %; the value commonly accepted as the threshold for the phylogenetic definition of a species. Antibiotic susceptibility tests and amino acid analysis of cell-wall hydrolysates indicated that the novel isolates did not contain muramic acid or diaminopimelic acid in their cell walls, suggesting that these strains lack peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C contents of the five strains were 51-57 mol%. The major menaquinone was MK-7 and C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega 7c and anteiso-C(15 : 0) were the major fatty acids. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence, it is concluded that these strains should be classified as representing a new genus and three novel species in subdivision 4 of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia', for which the names Pelagicoccus mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov. [type strain 02PA-Ca-133(T) (=MBIC08004(T)=IAM 15422(T)=KCTC 13126(T))], Pelagicoccus albus sp. nov. [type strain YM14-201(T) (=MBIC08272(T)=IAM 15421(T)=KCTC 13124(T))] and Pelagicoccus litoralis sp. nov. [type strain H-MN57(T) (=MBIC08273(T)=IAM 15423(T)=KCTC 13125(T))] are proposed. PMID:17625161

  19. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation and microbial activity in Mount St. Helens pyroclastic substrates after 25 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan J. Halvorson; Jeffrey L. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii) are important integrators of above and belowground development of Mount St. Helens (1980) pyroclastic substrates because\\u000a they increase soil organic matter formation and microbial activity and influence other biotic processes. However, basic information\\u000a is required to understand the unfolding pattern of soil development and to corroborate evidence for increasing rates of organic\\u000a matter accumulation suggested

  20. Spatially structured herbivory and primary succession at Mount St Helens: field surveys and experimental growth studies suggest a role for nutrients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM F. F AGAN; J OHN

    2004-01-01

    The 1980 eruption ofMount St Helens (Washington, U.S.A.) created a 60-km2 region ofprimary successional habitat. Since colonising in 1981, the spatial spread ofthe legume Lupinus lepidus at Mount St Helens, Washington, U.S.A., has afforded intriguing opportunities to study the effect of trophic dynamics on primary succession. 2. Insect herbivory on this lupine has exhibited striking spatial structure for over a

  1. Effect and Aftereffect of Temperature on Respiration of Intact Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Kurets; S. N. Drozdov; E. G. Popov; E. D. Dembo; N. I. Khilkov; S. A. Trofimova

    2003-01-01

    Effects and aftereffects of typical temperatures of cultivar habitat (background temperature), heat-hardening, and cold-hardening temperatures on dark respiration of leaf segments and intact plants were investigated on plant species differing in cold tolerance—cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer L.), and narrow-leaved lupine (Lupinus angustifolium L.). At cold-hardening temperatures, the respiratory metabolism underwent rearrangements serving

  2. Mischfruchtanbausysteme mit Ölpflanzen im ökologischen Landbau 1. Ertragsstruktur des Mischfruchtanbaus von Leguminosen oder Sommerweizen mit Leindotter (Camelina sativa L. Crantz)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Marten Paulsen

    Organic mixed cropping systems of peas (Pisum sativum L.), lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) together with false flax were tested in field trials over three years at two sites. Mixed cropping with peas and false flax yielded between 0.07 and 3.58 t ha?1 (dry matter) pea-seeds and from 0.32 to 1.75 t ha?1 false flax.

  3. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system on corn straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Muraoka, Takashi; Tavares, Silvio; Ambrosano, Glaucia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of green manure in on soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, conducted in a randomized block with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were as green manures intercropping or not on cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), dwarf mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek ), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one without corn straw and another with corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part during the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in an oven of forced air and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a knife mill type Willy and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for the analysis of ?N-15. It measured the percentage of transfer of N green manure for tomato, the tomato plants grown as monocropped were considered a control and came to the result that 27 % N found in the fruit came from the green manure and the aerial part this figure was 23%. These results show that dur¬ing the fruit set of tomato can occur greater translocation and consequent higher utilization of N from green manure than in the aerial part. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in treatments not intercropped caused some soil alterations that could be detected in samples collected in the harvesting season. There was an increase in organic matter, Ca, Mg and Zn availability, and consequently in base saturation and pH. The presence of green manure caused a significant sum of bases increase, due to increases in calcium and magnesium; consequently, treatments involving jack bean, sunn hemp and mung bean showed higher CEC values and low acidity potential. The presence of organic acids in the plant mass could be the reason for this change. The use of green manure also works on carbon sequestration, helping in the reduction of the greenhouse gas effect.

  4. Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores Slow a Plant Reinvasion at Mount St. Helens.

    PubMed

    Fagan; Bishop

    2000-02-01

    Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, were expected to strongly affect successional trajectories through facilitative effects. However, their effects remain localized because initially high rates of reinvasive spread were short lived, despite widespread habitat availability. We experimentally tested whether insect herbivores, by reducing plant growth and fecundity at the edge of the expanding lupine population, could curtail the rate of reinvasion and whether those herbivores had comparable impacts in the older, more successionally advanced core region. We found that removing insect herbivores increased both the areal growth of individual lupine plants and the production of new plants in the edge region, thereby accelerating the lupine's intrinsic rate of increase at the front of the lupine reinvasion. We found no such impacts of herbivory in the core region, where low plant quality or a complex of recently arrived natural enemies may hold herbivores in check. In the context of invasion theory, herbivore-mediated decreases in lupine population growth rate in the edge region translate into decreased rates of lupine spread, which we quantify here using diffusion models. In the Mount St. Helens system, decreased rate of lupine reinvasion will result in reductions in rates of soil formation, nitrogen input, and entrapment of seeds and detritus that are likely to postpone or alter trajectories of primary succession. If the type of spatial subtleties in herbivore effects we found here are common, with herbivory focused on the edge of an expanding plant population and suppressed or ineffective in the larger, denser central region (where the plants might be more readily noticed and studied), then insect herbivores may have stronger impacts on the dynamics of primary succession and plant invasions than previously recognized. PMID:10686163

  5. Sporocarps of Pisolithus albus as an ecological niche for fluorescent pseudomonads involved in Acacia mangium Wild - Pisolithus albus ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Duponnois, Robin; Lesueur, Didier

    2004-09-01

    Fresh sporocarps and root and soil samples were collected under a monospecific forest plantation of Acacia mangium in Dagana in Northern Senegal and checked for the presence of fluorescent pseudomonads. No bacteria were detected except from sporocarps collected with adhering soil and hyphal strands. Pisolithus sporocarps were dried at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks, ground, passed through a 2-mm sieve and mixed together. This dry sporocarp powder (DSP) was used to inoculate and form mycorrhizas on A. mangium seedlings in a glasshouse experiment. After 3 months culture, plant growth was increased in the DSP treatment but no ectomycorrhizas were present on the A. mangium root systems; however fluorescent pseudomonads were recorded in the cultural soil. The stimulatory effects on the plant growth were maintained for 6 months. However, fluorescent pseudomonads were no longer detected and 35% of the short roots were ectomycorrhizal. Some of the fluorescent pseudomonad isolates detected after 3 months stimulated the radial fungal growth in axenic conditions. These observations suggest that these bacteria are closely associated with the Pisolithus fructifications and could interact with the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment. PMID:15644922

  6. Update on white lupin cluster roots acclimation to phosphorus deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of 17 essential elements required for plant growth. Although bound P is quite abundant in many soils, it is largely unavailable for uptake. As such, P is frequently the most limiting element for plant growth and development. Crop yield on 40% to 60% of the world's arable land i...

  7. Purine Catabolism in Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Guranowski, Andrzej

    1982-01-01

    Inosine nucleosidase (EC 3.2.2.2), the enzyme which hydrolyzes inosine to hypoxanthine and ribose, has been partially purified from Lupinus luteus L. cv. Topaz seeds by extraction of the seed meal with low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and chromatography on aminohexyl-Sepharose, Sephadex G-100, and hydroxyapatite. Molecular weight of the native enzyme is 62,000 as judged by gel filtration. The inosine nucleosidase exhibits optimum activity around pH 8. Energy of activation for inosine hydrolysis estimated from Arrhenius plot is 14.2 kilocalories per mole. The Km value computed for inosine is 65 micromolar. Among the inosine analogs tested, the following nucleosides are substrates for the lupin inosine nucleosidase: xanthosine, purine riboside (nebularine), 6-mercaptopurine riboside, 8-azainosine, adenosine, and guanosine. The ratio of the velocities measured at 500 micromolar concentration of inosine, adenosine, and guanosine was 100:11:1, respectively. Specificity (Vmax/Km) towards adenosine is 48 times lower than that towards inosine. In contrast to the adenosine nucleosidase activity which is absent from lupin seeds and appears in the cotyledons during germination (Guranowski, Pawe?kiewicz 1978 Planta 139: 245-247), the inosine nucleosidase is present in both lupin seeds and seedlings. PMID:16662492

  8. Plant 5-Methylthioribose Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Guranowski, Andrzej

    1983-01-01

    Activity of 5-methylthioribose kinase, the enzyme which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose, has been revealed in the extracts from various higher plant species. Almost 2,000-fold-purified enzyme has been obtained from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv Topaz) seed extract. Molecular weight of the native enzyme is 70,000 as judged by gel filtration. The lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase exhibits a strict requirement for divalent metal ions. Among the ions tested, only Mg2+ and Mn2+ acted as cofactors. The curve of kinase initial velocity versus pH reaches plateau at pH 10 to 10.5. The Km values calculated for 5-methylthioribose and ATP are 4.3 and 8.3 micromolar, respectively. Among nucleoside triphosphates tested as potential phosphate donors, only dATP could substitute in the reaction for ATP. 5-Isobutylthioribose, an analog of 5-methylthioribose, proved to be the ?-ATP-phosphate acceptor, too. The compound inhibits competitively synthesis of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose (Ki = 1.4 micromolar). Lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase is completely and irreversibly inhibited by the antisulfhydryl reagent, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. As in bacteria (Ferro, Barrett, Shapiro 1978 J Biol Chem 253: 6021-6025), the enzyme may be involved in a new, alternative pathway of methionine synthesis in plant tissues. PMID:16662931

  9. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.

    PubMed

    James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

    2004-06-01

    Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

  10. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. PMID:22449544

  11. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Forti, Gianluca; Marignoli, Silvia

    2005-01-15

    In the years 2002-2003 research was carried out concerning ethnomedicine in the Acquapendente district (Viterbo, Latium, central Italy), an area so far less frequently studied from the perspective of plant folk traditions. The district, from the ethnobotanical point of view, shows traces of the influences of the neighbouring regions. In this study 96 plant entities are described, belonging to 45 families, of which 64 are employed in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 22 in the feeding of domestic animals, 5 as antiparasitics and 5 for other uses. Some medicinal uses are linked to beliefs or residual forms of magic prescriptions (11 plants). Amongst the more notable uses the most interesting are those of: Verbena officinalis (rheumatic pains, wounds), Juglans regia (antiparasitic use for cheeses), Santolina etrusca (antimoth use), Stellaria media and Lupinus albus (birdseed for poultry and fodder for lambs), and Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis (used to curdle milk). PMID:15619562

  12. Selective splitting of 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates by specific enzymes degrading dinucleoside polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Sillero, Antonio; Günther Sillero, María Antonia

    2003-01-01

    Several 3'-[(32)P]adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates (Np(n)N'p*As) were synthesized by the use of poly(A) polymerase (Sillero MAG et al., 2001, Eur J Biochem.; 268: 3605-11) and three of them, ApppA[(32)P]A or ApppAp*A, AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A, were tested as potential substrates of different dinucleoside polyphosphate degrading enzymes. Human (asymmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17) acted almost randomly on both AppppAp*A, yielding approximately equal amounts of pppA + pAp*A and pA + pppAp*A, and GppppGp*, yielding pppG + pGp*A and pG + pppGp*A. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) tetraphosphatase acted preferentially on the dinucleotide unmodified end of both AppppAp*A (yielding 90% of pppA + pAp*A and 10 % of pA + pppAp*A) and GppppGp*A (yielding 89% pppG + pGp*A and 11% of pG + pppGp*A). (Symmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.41) from Escherichia coli hydrolyzed AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A producing equal amounts of ppA + ppAp*A and ppG + ppGp*A, respectively, and, to a lesser extent, ApppAp*A producing pA + ppAp*A. Two dinucleoside triphosphatases (EC 3.6.1.29) (the human Fhit protein and the enzyme from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)) and dinucleoside tetraphosphate phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.53) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not degrade the three 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates tested. PMID:12673352

  13. Resource availability, matrix quality, microclimate, and spatial pattern as predictors of patch use by the Karner blue butterfly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of which aspects of habitat quality and habitat spatial arrangement best account for variation in a species' distribution can guide management for organisms such as the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), a federally endangered subspecies inhabiting savannas of Midwest and Eastern United States. We examined the extent to which three sets of predictors, (1) larval host plant (Lupinus perennis, wild lupine) availability, (2) characteristics of the matrix surrounding host plant patches, and (3) factors affecting a patch's thermal environment, accounted for variation in lupine patch use by Karner blues at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana and Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA. Each predictor set accounted for 7-13% of variation in patch occupancy by Karner blues at both sites and in larval feeding activity among patches at Indiana Dunes. Patch area, an indicator of host plant availability, was an exception, accounting for 30% of variation in patch occupancy at Indiana Dunes. Spatially structured patterns of patch use across the landscape accounted for 9-16% of variation in patch use and explained more variation in larval feeding activity than did spatial autocorrelation between neighboring patches. Because of this broader spatial trend across sites, a given management action may be more effective in promoting patch use in some portions of the landscape than in others. Spatial trend, resource availability, matrix quality, and microclimate, in general, accounted for similar amounts of variation in patch use and each should be incorporated into habitat management planning for the Karner blue butterfly.

  14. Diversity of Transcripts of Nitrite Reductase Genes (nirK and nirS) in Rhizospheres of Grain Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shilpi; Aneja, Manish Kumar; Mayer, Jochen; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Transcription of the nirK and nirS genes coding for dissimilatory bacterial nitrite reductases was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) of mRNA isolated from rhizosphere samples of three economically important grain legumes at maturity: Vicia faba, Lupinus albus, and Pisum sativum. The nirK gene and transcripts could be detected in all the rhizosphere samples. In contrast, nirS could not be detected. Sampling variations were analyzed by comparing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles derived from nirK RT-PCR products. High similarity was observed between the replicates, and so one representative product per legume was cloned. Clones with the correct insert size were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism by using the restriction enzyme MspI. The clones could be distributed into 12 different patterns. Patterns 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7 were common in clone libraries of the three rhizosphere types under study. Patterns 2, 9, 10, and 11 were absent from Pisum rhizospheres, while patterns 6, 8, and 12 were absent from the Vicia library. Pattern 1, which was the most dominant in the Vicia and Lupinus libraries, constituted about 25% of all clones. The Lupinus library had clones representing all 12 patterns, indicating it to be the most diverse among the three. Clones representative of each pattern were sequenced. All patterns grouped together forming a distinct cluster, which was divergent from previously described nirK sequences in the database. The study revealed a hitherto unknown diversity of denitrifiers in legume rhizospheres. A plant-dependent rhizosphere effect on the transcripts of a gene was evident. PMID:15812032

  15. Effects of temperature, relative humidity, and scarification method on the germination of Lupinus texensis Hook. seeds

    E-print Network

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    1987-01-01

    , 142). However, another study reported that early- matured Astragalus sinirus seeds were mostly impermeable. But, the storage period of the seeds was too iong, was uncontrolled, and the seeds had reached a relatively low 20 moisture content before...

  16. Effects of temperature, relative humidity, and scarification method on the germination of Lupinus texensis Hook. seeds 

    E-print Network

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    1987-01-01

    EFFECTS OF TEI'IPERA' URE, RELATIVE HUMIDI'I'Y, AND SCARIFI. ATION IV&THOD ON THE GERMINATION OI' Lf;PINUS TEXE1VSIS HOOK. SEEDS A Thesis by MICHAEL JOSEPH KASPAR Submitted to the Graduate College of' Texas Ag:M University in partial... JOSEPH KASPAR Approved as to style and content by: Edward L. cWilliams (Chairman) David Wm. Reed (Member) Dairid L. Morga (Member) David . 'ris e (Member) . Grant Vest. (Head of Department) August 1987 ABSTRACT Effects of Temperature...

  17. THE EXTRACELLULAR CELLULASES OF RUMINOCOCCUS ALBUS I. YU R.E. HUNGATE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    constitute most of the extra- cellular protein in actively growing cultures. At least four different inorganic salt solution in which 0.5% sodium bicarbonate was the buffer. Oxygen-free carbon dioxide was used to fill all containers. Gel filtration. The enzymes in the culture supernatant were precipitated

  18. White Sweetclover (Melilotus albus) and Narrowleaf Hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum) Seed Germination after Passing Through Moose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are non-indigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of non-indigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing viable seed from these plants after ingestio...

  19. Island radiation on a continental scale: Exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Colin; Eastwood, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Species radiations provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species diversification and patterns of biodiversity. To compare plant diversification over a similar time period to the recent cichlid fish radiations, which are an order of magnitude faster than documented bird, arthropod, and plant radiations, we focus on the high-altitude flora of the Andes, which is the most species-rich of any tropical mountains. Because of the recent uplift of the northern Andes, the upland environments where much of this rich endemic flora is found have been available for colonization only since the late Pliocene or Pleistocene, 2–4 million years (Myr) ago. Using DNA sequence data we identify a monophyletic group within the genus Lupinus representing 81 species endemic to the Andes. The age of this clade is estimated to be 1.18–1.76 Myr, implying a diversification rate of 2.49–3.72 species per Myr. This exceeds previous estimates for plants, providing the most spectacular example of explosive plant species diversification documented to date. Furthermore, it suggests that the high cichlid diversification rates are not unique. Lack of key innovations associated with the Andean Lupinus clade suggests that diversification was driven by ecological opportunities afforded by the emergence of island-like habitats after Andean uplift. Data from other genera indicate that lupines are one of a set of similarly rapid Andean plant radiations, continental in scale and island-like in stimulus, suggesting that the high-elevation Andean flora provides a system that rivals other groups, including cichlids, for understanding rapid species diversification. PMID:16801546

  20. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    PubMed

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P

  1. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Nematode Population Levels in North Florida

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P ? 0.05), but no treatment differences were observed in year 2. Wheat was a good host to Paratrichodorus minor, whereas vetch was a poor host, but numbers of P. minor were not lower in vetch-planted plots after corn was grown. The second experiment used a split-plot design in which rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P ? 0.05) but not by the winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida. PMID:19262833

  2. Mount St. Helens ash: recreating its effects on the steppe environment and ecophysiology. [Artemisia tridentata; Lupinus sulphureus

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.A.; Mack, R.N.

    1986-10-01

    The 18 May 1980 ash fall from Mount St. Helens was experimentally reproduced in May 1982 by applying silt-sized ash to a stand of the Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum association in south-central Washington. Compared to the adjacent control site, ash caused an immediate increase in albedo from 13% to 28%, while other parameters of the energy budget were simultaneously lowered: net radiation by approx. = 20%, soil surface temperatures by as much as 10/sup 0/C, and soil heat flux by as much as 50%. The ash's mulching action initially increased water availability and delayed leaf abscission in Artemisia tridentata (Big sagebrush) by 2 wk in summer 1982. But after summer 1982 water availability declined, while water use increased, illustrating the diverse effects of the ash. Increased reflection from the ash-covered surface increased the radiation load on plant canopies. In turn, air temperature at 0.5 m increased, latent heat flux often doubled in summer, and xylem pressure potentials decreased. Available water at the -1 m soil depth eventually decreased as much as 40%. This decrease was the result of the increase in latent heat flux and the decline in infiltration through the stratified layer created by the ash cap. In addition to allowing assessment of the effects of the 18 May 1980 ash fall on arid steppe, application of ash provided an unexpected level of precision in detecting the often subtle effects that occur when some microenvironmental parameters change while the overall macroclimate remains the same.

  3. Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiffany L. Weir; Harsh Pal Bais; Valerie J. Stull; Ragan M. Callaway; Giles C. Thelen; Wendy M. Ridenour; Suresh Bhamidi; Frank R. Stermitz; Jorge M. Vivanco

    2006-01-01

    Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, (±)-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of

  4. 15N Abundance of Nodules as an Indicator of N Metabolism in N2-Fixing Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Georgia; Feldman, Lori; Bryan, Barbara A.; Skeeters, Jerri L.; Kohl, Daniel H.; Amarger, Nöelle; Mariotti, Françoise; Mariotti, André

    1982-01-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of 15N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N2-fixing plants. N2-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in 15N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N2-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in 15N. Thus, 15N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N2-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of 15N enrichment in N2-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N2 and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit 15N enrichment. PMID:16662517

  5. Effect of succession after fire on species contribution to evapotranspiration in sagebrush steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naithani, K.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Bayless, M. K.

    2005-12-01

    Shrubland ecosystems play an important role in the hydrology of the often drought stricken inter-mountain basins of the United Sates. Our objective was to investigate the impact of changing environmental conditions on three major plant functional types, shrubs, grasses and forbs. We measured changes in diurnal water flux from Artemisia tridentata var vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush), Elymus smithii (western wheatgrass) and Lupinus argentus (lupine) with changing environmental drivers for a sagebrush ecosystem fire chronosequence near the Sierra Madre Mountains, Wyoming, USA. The measurements were conducted on four stands ranging in age from 2 to 38 years, during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Leaf scale measurements and shrub sapflux were compared with ecosystem scale measurements. We explained the diurnal and monthly variability of water fluxes from June through October using vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, light and temperature. In the year 2005, peak ecosystem level evapotranspiration of 5-7 mmol m-2 s-1 was higher than 2004 with 2-3 mmol m-2 s-1. The interannual difference in evapotranspiration was explained by higher precipitation causing greater biomass, especially in non shrub species, in 2005. Our results show that environmental conditions have impacts on total evapotranspiration that depend on plant functional type.

  6. Consumers limit the abundance and dynamics of a perennial shrub with a seed bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauffman, M.J.; Maron, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, ecologists have argued that predators of seeds and seedlings seldom have population-level effects on plants with persistent seed banks and density-dependent seedling survival. We parameterized stage-based population models that incorporated density dependence and seed dormancy with data from a 5.5-year experiment that quantified how granivorous mice and herbivorous voles influence bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus) demography. We asked how seed dormancy and density-dependent seedling survival mediate the impacts of these consumers in dune and grassland habitats. In dune habitat, mice reduced analytical ?? (the intrinsic rate of population growth) by 39%, the equilibrium number of above-ground plants by 90%, and the seed bank by 98%; voles had minimal effects. In adjacent grasslands, mice had minimal effects, but seedling herbivory by voles reduced analytical ?? by 15% and reduced both the equilibrium number of aboveground plants and dormant seeds by 63%. A bootstrap analysis demonstrated that these consumer effects were robust to parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that the quantitative strengths of seed dormancy and density-dependent seedling survival-not their mere existence-critically mediate consumer effects. This study suggests that plant population dynamics and distribution may be more strongly influenced by consumers of seeds and seedlings than is currently recognized. ?? 2006 by The University of Chicago.

  7. Soil CO2 flux in alley-cropping systems composed of black locust and poplar trees, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medinski, Tetiana; Freese, Dirk; Boehm, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of soil carbon dynamics after establishment of alley-cropping systems is crucial for mitigation of greenhouse CO2 gas. This study investigates soil CO2 fluxes in alley-cropping systems composed of strips of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and poplar (Max 1) trees and adjacent to them crop strips (Lupinus). Soil CO2 flux was measured monthly over a period from March to November 2012, using a LI-COR LI-8100A automated device. Concurrently with CO2 flux measurements, soil and air temperature and soil moisture were recorded within 10 cm of each collar. Soil samples were collected nearby each soil collar for microbial C and hot water-extractable C analyses. At each study plot, root biomass was measured to a depth of 15 cm. In all vegetation types, soil CO2 flux increased from May to August, showing a significant positive correlation with air and soil temperature, which can be a reflection of increase in photosynthesis over the warm summer months. CO2 flux was the highest in poplar followed by black locust and lupines. The relationships between CO2 flux, microbial biomass and hot water-extractable carbon were not straightforward. Among the measured parameters, root density was found to be the main factor to explain the higher CO2 flux in tree strips.

  8. Phytochemicals: the good, the bad and the ugly?

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Russell J; Lee, Stephen T; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; James, Lynn F

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemicals are constitutive metabolites that enable plants to overcome temporary or continuous threats integral to their environment, while also controlling essential functions of growth and reproduction. All of these roles are generally advantageous to the producing organisms but the inherent biological activity of such constituents often causes dramatic adverse consequences in other organisms that may be exposed to them. Nevertheless, such effects may be the essential indicator of desirable properties, such as therapeutic potential, especially when the mechanism of bioactivity can be delineated. Careful observation of cause and effect, followed by a coordinated approach to identify the responsible entities, has proved extremely fruitful in discovering roles for phytochemical constituents. The process is illustrated by selected examples of plants poisonous to animals and include the steroidal alkaloid toxin of Veratrum californicum (Western false hellebore), piperidine alkaloids of Lupinus species (lupines), and polyhydroxy indolizidine, pyrrolizidine and nortropane alkaloids of Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds), Castanospermum australe (Moreton Bay chestnut) and Ipomoea species (morning glories). PMID:17950388

  9. Ultrasound studies of the effects of certain poisonous plants on uterine function and fetal development in livestock.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T D; Panter, K E; James, L F

    1992-05-01

    Ingestion of locoweed (Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp.) by pregnant livestock may result in fetal malformations, delayed placentation, reduced placental and uterine vascular development, hydrops amnii, hydrops allantois, abnormal cotyledonary development, interruption of fetal fluid balance, and abortion. Ultrasonography of pregnant sheep fed locoweed demonstrated that abortion was first preceded by changes in fetal heart rate and strength of contraction and structural changes of the cotyledons, followed by increased accumulation of fetal fluid within the placental membranes and death of the fetus. During pregnancy the toxic agent in locoweed (swainsonine) apparently passes through the placental barrier to the fetus and during lactation through the milk to the neonate. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), and lunara lupine (Lupinus formosus) all contain piperidine alkaloids and induce fetal malformations, including multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate in livestock. Ultrasonography studies of pregnant sheep and goats gavaged with these plants during 30 to 60 d of gestation suggests that the primary cause of multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate is the degree and the duration of the alkaloid-induced fetal immobilization. PMID:1526931

  10. The importance of host plant limitation for caterpillars of an arctiid moth (Platyprepia virginalis) varies spatially.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard; Grof-Tisza, Patrick; Maron, John L; Holyoak, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Spatial dynamic theories such as source-sink models frequently describe habitat-specific demographies, yet there are surprisingly few field studies that have examined how and why interacting species vary in their dynamics across multiple habitat types. We studied the spatial pattern of interaction between a chewing herbivore and its primary larval host plant in two habitat types. We found that the interaction between an arctiid caterpillar (Platyprepia virginalis) and its host (Lupinus arboreus) differed in wet vs. upland dry habitats, as did yearly population dynamics for the caterpillar. In upland sites, there was a strong positive relationship between lupine cover and the abundance of caterpillars although this relationship was not apparent in wet sites. Additionally, in wet sites, caterpillar populations were larger and less variable across years. Caterpillars appeared to exhibit source-sink dynamics, with the time-averaged finite growth rate lamda > 1 in wet sites (sources), lamda < 1 in upland dry sites (sinks), and predominant source-to-sink movement of late-instar caterpillars. Populations in upland dry sites also went locally extinct in years of low regional abundance. Emigration from wet sites could potentially explain the lack of coupling of herbivore and host plant dynamics in these sites. These results indicate that movement and other factors affecting demography are habitat-specific and have important implications for trophic control. Acknowledging such complexity makes simple models of trophic control seem overly general but may allow us to formulate more broadly applicable ecological models. PMID:23185883

  11. Identification of Dmrt genes and their up-regulation during gonad transformation in the swamp eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yue; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Liao; Luo, Majing; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2014-03-01

    The swamp eel is a teleost fish with a characteristic of natural sex reversal and an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the identification of five DM (doublesex and mab-3) domain genes in the swamp eel that include Dmrt2, Dmrt2b, Dmrt3, Dmrt4 and Dmrt5, which encode putative proteins of 527, 373, 471, 420 and 448 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic tree showed that these genes are clustered into corresponding branches of the DM genes in vertebrates. Southern blot analysis indicated that the Dmrt1-Dmrt3-Dmrt2 genes are tightly linked in a conserved gene cluster. Notably, these Dmrt genes are up-regulated during gonad transformation. Furthermore, mRNA in situ hybridisation showed that Dmrt2, Dmrt3, Dmrt4 and Dmrt5 are expressed in developing germ cells. These results are evidence that the DM genes are involved in sexual differentiation in the swamp eel. PMID:24390316

  12. Efficacy of the Biofumigant Fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for Control of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Simulated Storage Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth CM, Cydia pomonella, (L.), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. Broad spectrum fumigants have been used as the principle method for the protection of exported fruit from insect infestations. Some of th...

  13. Boron accumulation and toxicity in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × euramericana).

    PubMed

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations <900 mg kg(-1) only <10% of the poplar leaf area showed signs of toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue. PMID:22050628

  14. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality. PMID:21519743

  15. Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep). PMID:15664457

  16. Biogeosciences, 11, 20992111, 2014 www.biogeosciences.net/11/2099/2014/

    E-print Network

    del Moral, Roger

    - veloped. The succession rates of open meadows declined as follows: Lupinus-dominated pumice > protected ridge with Lupinus > other pumice and blasted sites > isolated lahar meadows > barren plain. Despite

  17. The effects of increased CO[sub 2] on the competitive ability of Lupinus arboreus, a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wallace

    1993-01-01

    Plant responses to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] have been shown to be both species-specific and dependent on other environmental factors, potentially changing competitive interactions and altering community structure. The competitive response of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub to an introduced annual (Bromus diandrus) and a native perennial grass (Bromus carinatus) was measured under ambient and high CO[sub 2] and two nitrogen

  18. PATTERNS OF GENETIC VARIATION IN LUPINUS PERENNIS REVEALED BY MICROSATELLITE LOCI ISOLATED WITH A NOVEL CHROMOSOME-WALKING APPROACH. (R826596)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. 75 FR 50884 - 2-(2'-hydroxy-3', 5'-di-tert-amylphenyl) benzotriazole and Phenol, 2-(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl)-6...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...lupins, mung beans, navy beans, pigeon peas...under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...lupins, mung beans, navy beans, pigeon peas...Solvents such as alcohols and hydrocarbons...were not affected by treatment. No...

  20. 40 CFR 180.920 - Inert ingredients used pre-harvest; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...beans, canola, chickpeas, cotton, faba beans, field peas, lentils, linola, linseed, lucerne, lupins, mung beans, navy...beans, canola, chickpeas, cotton, faba beans, field peas, lentils, linola, linseed, lucerne, lupins, mung beans,...

  1. 40 CFR 180.920 - Inert ingredients used pre-harvest; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...beans, canola, chickpeas, cotton, faba beans, field peas, lentils, linola, linseed, lucerne, lupins, mung beans, navy...beans, canola, chickpeas, cotton, faba beans, field peas, lentils, linola, linseed, lucerne, lupins, mung beans,...

  2. 40 CFR 180.920 - Inert ingredients used pre-harvest; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...beans, canola, chickpeas, cotton, faba beans, field peas, lentils, linola, linseed, lucerne, lupins, mung beans, navy...beans, canola, chickpeas, cotton, faba beans, field peas, lentils, linola, linseed, lucerne, lupins, mung beans,...

  3. 40 CFR 180.920 - Inert ingredients used pre-harvest; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...beans, canola, chickpeas, cotton, faba beans, field peas, lentils, linola, linseed, lucerne, lupins, mung beans, navy...beans, canola, chickpeas, cotton, faba beans, field peas, lentils, linola, linseed, lucerne, lupins, mung beans,...

  4. Identification of a gonad-expression differential gene insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) in the swamp eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Mei, Jie; Yan, Wei; Fang, Jie; Yuan, Gailing; Chen, Nan; He, Yan

    2014-08-01

    In vertebrate species, the biopotential embryonic gonad differentiation is affected by many key genes and key steroidogenic enzymes. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) has been considered as an important sex-differentiation gene in mammals and could mediate the biological action of Igf1, an important regulator of key steroidogenic enzymes. However, Igf1r gene is still unknown in the swamp eel, an economically important fish. In our study, we identified Igf1r gene in the swamp eel, which was a 2,148-bp open-reading frame encoding a protein of 716 amino acids. The alignment and the phylogenetic tree showed that Igf1r of the swamp eel had a conservative sequence with other vertebrates, especial fishes. Western blotting of Igf1r showed that Igf1r expressed much more in ovotestis and testis than in ovary, indicating an important role of Igf1r during gonad differentiation. We analyzed ubiquitination of Igf1r by co-immunoprecipitation and found the amount of ubiquitinated Igf1r was increased from ovary, ovotestis to testis, which was reversely to the trend of Hsp10 expression during gonadal transformation. It was possible that Hsp10 could suppress Igf1r ubiquitination during gonadal development of the swamp eel. PMID:24488410

  5. Epigenetic modifications during sex change repress gonadotropin stimulation of cyp19a1a in a teleost ricefield eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Zhixin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2013-08-01

    In vertebrates, cytochrome P450 aromatase, encoded by cyp19a1, converts androgens to estrogens and plays important roles in gonadal differentiation and development. The present study examines whether epigenetic mechanisms are involved in cyp19a1a expression and subsequent gonadal development in the hermaphroditic ricefield eel. The expression of the ricefield eel cyp19a1a was stimulated by gonadotropin via the cAMP pathway in the ovary but not the ovotestis or testis. The CpG within the cAMP response element (CRE) of the cyp19a1a promoter was hypermethylated in the ovotestis and testis compared with the ovary. The methylation levels of CpG sites around CRE in the distal region (region II) and around steroidogenic factor 1/adrenal 4 binding protein sites and TATA box in the proximal region (region I) were inversely correlated with cyp19a1a expression during the natural sex change from female to male. In vitro DNA methylation decreased the basal and forskolin-induced activities of cyp19a1a promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that histone 3 (Lys9) in both regions I and II of the cyp19a1a promoter were deacetylated and trimethylated in the testis, and in contrast to the ovary, phosphorylated CRE-binding protein failed to bind to these regions. Lastly, the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed the natural sex change of ricefield eels. These results suggested that epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation and histone deacetylation and methylation may abrogate the stimulation of cyp19a1a by gonadotropins in a male-specific fashion. This may be a mechanism widely used to drive natural sex change in teleosts as well as gonadal differentiation in other vertebrates. PMID:23744638

  6. Ontogenetic Behavior, Migration, and Social Behavior of Pallid Sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus , and Shovelnose Sturgeon, S. platorynchus , with Notes on the Adaptive Significance of Body Color

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boyd Kynard; Erika Henyey; Martin Horgan

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12–13 at 236–243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance

  7. Photoreceptors and visual pigments in the retina of the fully anadromous green sturgeon ( Acipenser medirostrus ) and the potamodromous pallid sturgeon ( Scaphirhynchus albus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold J. Sillman; Allicia K. Beach; David A. Dahlin; Ellis R. Loew

    2005-01-01

    Green sturgeon and pallid sturgeon photoreceptors were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microspectrophotometry\\u000a and, in the case of the green sturgeon, retinal whole-mounts. The retinas of both species contain both rods and cones: cones\\u000a comprise between 23% (whole-mount) and 36% (SEM) of the photoreceptors. The cone population of both species is dominated by\\u000a large single cones, but a rare

  8. Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

  9. Genetic organization of the putative salbostatin biosynthetic gene cluster including the 2- epi -5- epi -valiolone synthase gene in Streptomyces albus ATCC 21838

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo Sik Choi; Xiumei Wu; Yong-Hoon Choeng; Taifo Mahmud; Byeong Chul Jeong; Sang Hee Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Chang-Joon Kim; Soon-Kwang Hong

    2008-01-01

    The cyclization of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone, catalyzed by the 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthases, is the first committed step in the biosynthesis of C\\u000a 7\\u000a N-aminocyclitol-containing natural products, such as validamycin and acarbose. These natural products contain in their structures\\u000a a valienamine unit, which is important for their biological activity. The same core unit is also found in salbostatin, a related\\u000a pseudodisaccharide

  10. The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly ( Lycaeidesmelissasamuelis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Grundel; Noel B. Pavlovic; Christina L. Sulzman

    1998-01-01

    Larvae of the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeidesmelissasamuelis, feed solely on wild lupine, Lupinusperennis, from the emergence to summer senescence of the plant. Wild lupine is most abundant in open areas but Karner blue females\\u000a oviposit more frequently on lupines growing in moderate shade. Can differences in lupine quality between open and shaded areas\\u000a help explain this disparity in resource use?

  11. A comparison of bird use and species diversity of created and natural salt marshes in the Galveston Bay complex, Texas

    E-print Network

    Melvin, Stefani Lynn

    1996-01-01

    . These species included clapper rail, great egret (Casmerodius albus), marsh wren (Cistorhorus palustris), tricolored heron (Egrerra tricolor), seaside sparrow and white ibis (Eudocimus albus). Means of these six species were used in all of the same...

  12. Eremophila glabra reduces methane production and methanogen populations when fermented in a Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Li, XiXi; Durmic, Zoey; Liu, ShiMin; McSweeney, Chris S; Vercoe, Philip E

    2014-10-01

    Eremophila glabra Juss. (Scrophulariaceae), a native Australian shrub, has been demonstrated to have low methanogenic potential in a batch in vitro fermentation system. The present study aimed to test longer-term effects of E. glabra on rumen fermentation characteristics, particularly methane production and the methanogen population, when included as a component of a fermentation substrate in an in vitro continuous culture system (Rusitec). E. glabra was included at 150, 250, 400 g/kg DM (EG15, EG25, and EG40) with an oaten chaff and lupin-based substrate (control). Overall, the experiment lasted 33 days, with 12 days of acclimatization, followed by two periods during which fermentation characteristics (total gas, methane and VFA productions, dry matter disappearance, pH) were measured. The number of copies of genes specifically associated with total bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria (16S rRNA gene) and total ruminal methanogenic archaeal organisms (the methyl coenzyme M reductase A gene (mcrA)) was also measured during this time using quantitative real-time PCR. Total gas production, methane and volatile fatty acid concentrations were significantly reduced with addition of E. glabra. At the end of the experiment, the overall methane reduction was 32% and 45% for EG15 and EG25 respectively, compared to the control, and the reduction was in a dose-dependent manner. Total bacterial numbers did not change, but the total methanogen population decreased by up to 42.1% (EG40) when compared to the control substrate. The Fibrobacter succinogenes population was reduced at all levels of E. glabra, while Ruminococcus albus was reduced only by EG40. Our results indicate that replacing a portion of a fibrous substrate with E. glabra maintained a significant reduction in methane production and methanogen populations over three weeks in vitro, with some minor inhibition on overall fermentation at the lower inclusion levels. PMID:24225531

  13. Article original Effets des traitements (chauffage et fermentation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article original Effets des traitements (chauffage et fermentation par Rhizopus oligosporus sp-T3 nutritionnelle et les propriétés fonctionnelles du lupin blanc doux (LBD), un procédé de fermentation à l'aide de fermentation a été faite à partir de 3 produits : les graines de lupin non traitées (LBDnt), le lupin chauffé à

  14. INTER-MOUNTAIN BASINS MONTANE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE R.Rondeau extent exaggerated for display

    E-print Network

    . trachycaulus Shrubland Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Balsamorhiza sagittata Shrubland Artemisia, Geum, Lupinus, and Eriogonum species, Balsamorhiza sagittata, Achillea millefolium, Antennaria rosea

  15. Ecology, 91(1), 2010, pp. 8592 2010 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-print Network

    mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), on seedling recruitment and subsequent plant establishment of two; grassland communities; Lithospermum ruderale; Lupinus sericeus; Peromyscus maniculatus; seed predation

  16. Alaska Park Science, Volume 8, Issue 2 Recent Notable Floristic Records from Northwestern Alaska

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    ), and with endemic-rich interior East Beringia (Oxytropis tanan- ensis, Lupinus kuschei, Symphyotrichum yukonense, Carex deflexa, Eriophorum viridicarinatum, and Schizachne pur- purascens). Future botanical inventories

  17. Suppression of the auxin response pathway enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi while phosphite-mediated resistance stimulates the auxin signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora cinnamomi is a devastating pathogen worldwide and phosphite (Phi), an analogue of phosphate (Pi) is highly effective in the control of this pathogen. Phi also interferes with Pi starvation responses (PSR), of which auxin signalling is an integral component. In the current study, the involvement of Pi and the auxin signalling pathways in host and Phi-mediated resistance to P. cinnamomi was investigated by screening the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 and several mutants defective in PSR and the auxin response pathway for their susceptibility to this pathogen. The response to Phi treatment was also studied by monitoring its effect on Pi- and the auxin response pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that phr1-1 (phosphate starvation response 1), a mutant defective in response to Pi starvation was highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi compared to the parental background Col-0. Furthermore, the analysis of the Arabidopsis tir1-1 (transport inhibitor response 1) mutant, deficient in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skp1???Cullin???F-Box) ubiquitination pathway was also highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi and the susceptibility of the mutants rpn10 and pbe1 further supported a role for the 26S proteasome in resistance to P. cinnamomi. The role of auxin was also supported by a significant (P?lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) to P. cinnamomi following treatment with the inhibitor of auxin transport, TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Given the apparent involvement of auxin and PSR signalling in the resistance to P. cinnamomi, the possible involvement of these pathways in Phi mediated resistance was also investigated. Phi (especially at high concentrations) attenuates the response of some Pi starvation inducible genes such as AT4, AtACP5 and AtPT2 in Pi starved plants. However, Phi enhanced the transcript levels of PHR1 and the auxin responsive genes (AUX1, AXR1and AXR2), suppressed the primary root elongation, and increased root hair formation in plants with sufficient Pi. Conclusions The auxin response pathway, particularly auxin sensitivity and transport, plays an important role in resistance to P. cinnamomi in Arabidopsis, and phosphite-mediated resistance may in some part be through its effect on the stimulation of the PSR and auxin response pathways. PMID:24649892

  18. Increasing deterministic control of primary succession on Mount St. Helens, Washington

    E-print Network

    del Moral, Roger

    and elevation (spatial factors), soil factors and Lupinus lepidus cover from prior years (a fertility surro. Keywords: Biological filters; Community assembly; Con- vergence; Lupinus lepidus; Redundancy analysis to changes in L. lepidus cover. Rich- ness peaked in 2005, after which pioneer species began to decline

  19. A Reference Model, Design Approach, and Development Illustration toward Hierarchical Real-

    E-print Network

    System Control for Coal Mining Operations Hui-Min Huang Richard Quintero James S. Albus Robot Systems.2.7 The Coal Mining Environment.....................................................................22 3

  20. A Reference Model, Design Approach, and Development Illustration toward Hierarchical Real

    E-print Network

    System Control for Coal Mining Operations Hui­Min Huang Richard Quintero James S. Albus Robot Systems.2.7 The Coal Mining Environment.....................................................................22 3

  1. Prepared for the US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District

    E-print Network

    of the Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Middle Mississippi River: Habitat, Movement, shovelnose or hackleback sturgeon (S. platorynchus), with ratios of pallid sturgeon in the samples declining

  2. Effect of feeding fermentable fibre-rich feedstuffs lupine and chicory prior to slaughter with special emphasis on the effect on chemical boar taint in organic entire male and female pigs and technological meat quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurits Lydehøj Hansen; Jens Askov Jensen; Poul Henckel; Jens Hansen-Møller

    Boar taint is an off-flavour of pork caused primarily by skatole and, androstenone. Pig off- odour and flavour mostly caused by higher skatole concentrations in backfat. It is a problem in all types of pork production and is not restricted to entire male pigs. If uncastrated, 5-10% of Danish entire male pigs (100 kg liveweight) have > 0.25 ppm skatole

  3. Processing of legume seeds : effects on digestive behaviour in dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Goelema

    1999-01-01

    In this study, effects of toasting, expander treatment and pelleting on in situ rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of legume seeds are described. Toasting decreases protein degradability of peas, lupins, faba beans and soybeans and starch degradability of peas and faba beans, especially when broken instead of whole seeds are processed. Toasting of a mixture of peas, lupins and faba

  4. Distribution of Wading Birds Relative to Vegetation and Water Depths in the Northern Everglades of Florida, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T HOMAS; D ALE E. G AWLIK; K EN R UTCHEY

    The response of Great Blue Herons ( Ardea herodias ), Great Egrets ( Casmerodius albus ), Wood Storks ( Mycteria americana ), and White Ibises ( Eudocimus albus ) to water level (index of depth) and vegetation in the north- ern Everglades of Florida was studied in two years, each with dissimilar water levels. A regression model was con- structed

  5. SARCOCYSTIS SP. IN WADING BIRDS (CICONIIFORMES) FROM FLORIDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn G. Spalding; Carter T. Atkinson; Renee E. Carleton

    1994-01-01

    Sarcocysts were found in striated muscle of 21 adult wading birds among 145 examined grossly and 70 examined histologically (calculated prevalence = 24%), and in none of 332 immature wading birds examined from Florida (USA). Six of 12 species of ciconiforms were infected (Ardea herodias, Casmerodlus albus, Egretta caerulea, Nyctanassa violacea, Butonides stniatus, Eudo- cimus albus). Cysts were filamentous, usually

  6. What is the effect of 4-H involvement on levels of empathy, self-esteem, community involvement and positive view of the future on urban youth?

    E-print Network

    Bonnett, Erika Dawn

    2007-04-25

    with youth, amount of time youth spend alone, and the amount of structured time youth face. Youth in an urban setting have increased exposure to violence (Albus, Perez-Smith, & Weist, 2001). This is particularly significant for male youth. Urban youth... within the ecological model. In reference to the microsystem of the youth, Albus...

  7. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 21:367373, 2001 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2001

    E-print Network

    May, Bernie

    , University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA Abstract.--Pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus are recognized morphologically as separate species. A previous genetic. Based on morphological characteristics, the pal- lid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus was first de- scribed

  8. Providing sufficient food for a growing global population in the face of climate change and increased urbanization is

    E-print Network

    Reece, Sarah

    (Chenopodium quinoa) ­ will open the way for improved management, utilization and conservation of the wider diversity of lesser known crops ­ such as the Andean root crops tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) and quinoa

  9. Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and clef...

  10. Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities and ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Cushman, J. Hall

    and nitrate. Rates of nitrate mineralization were higher under Lupinus, followed by Ericameria and then open dune. At landscape level, the two shrubs ­ and their distinctive vegetation and soils ­ frequently had

  11. Phenology of Agromyzid (Diptera) leafminers and their natural enemies on selected Texas native plants

    E-print Network

    Praetorius, Richard Leonhardt

    1990-01-01

    Enemies on Selected Texas Native Plants. (December 1990) Richard Leonhardt Praetorius, B. S. , Central Missouri State University; Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert Wharton The two annual bluebonnet species, Lupinus texensis and L. subcarnosus... germinate in October with secondary leaves being available for agromyzid oviposition by January. Both species begin their reproductive stage in mid March. Lupinus subcarnosus plants had died by April while L. texensis continued through June. Activity...

  12. Effects of legume kernel fibres and citrus fibre on putative risk factors for colorectal cancer: a randomised, double-blind, crossover human intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In some studies, high intake of dietary fibre has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to compare physiological effects of three legume kernel fibres and citrus fibre on blood lipids (primary outcome: LDL cholesterol) and colonic health. Methods Ninety-two subjects were recruited for the double-blind, controlled crossover trial. Seventy-eight participants were randomly divided into three groups. Following run-in, half the volunteers from each group consumed 25 g/d of a legume fibre, comprising blue lupin fibre, white lupin fibre, and soya fibre for two weeks. The other half received the same amount of citrus fibre (active comparator). The intervention was crossed within each group after two weeks wash-out. At the end of run-in and intervention, a quantitative faeces collection took place and fasting blood samples were drawn. Repeated measures ANOVA with the general linear model were applied to evaluate changes following interventions. Results Seventy-six subjects completed the study. Dietary fibre intake during all interventions was approximately twice the fibre intake at run-in. The lupin fibre supplementations increased daily faecal dry matter and faecal weight compared to run-in, representing an increase of 1.76 g faeces/g additional dietary fibre contributed by blue lupin and of 1.64 g faeces/g by white lupin, respectively. Both lupin interventions led to a significantly enhanced formation of short-chain fatty acids, and blue lupin fibre to a decrease in faecal pH compared to run-in (0.27 units, P lupin increased primary bile acids-excretion (P?=?0.02). All legume fibres reduced faecal concentrations of total and secondary bile acids (blue lupin: 16%; white lupin: 24%; soya: 16%). Blood lipids were not influenced by any intervention. No serious adverse effects were observed. Conclusions The tested fibre preparations do not affect lipid metabolism through bile acid-binding in normocholesterolaemic subjects. However, particularly blue lupin kernel fibre improve colonic function and have beneficial effects on putative risk factors for colorectal cancer such as faecal mass, transit time, SCFA, faecal pH, and secondary bile acid concentration. Therefore, enhancing dietary fibre intake through blue lupin up to about 50 g/d can be recommended. Trial registration NCT01036308 PMID:24060277

  13. CARBON AND NITROGEN ACCUMULATION AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN MOUNT ST. HELENS PYROCLASTIC SUBSTRATES AFTER 25 YEARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines are important ecosystem engineers, linking above and belowground recovery of Mount St. Helens pyroclastic substrates by increasing soil organic matter and microbial activity and by influencing other biotic processes. Various soil properties were measured in samples collected from locations ...

  14. 30. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, WOODEN COMPASS CASE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, WOODEN COMPASS CASE AND HELM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  15. Ubungen zur Vorlesung Algorithmische Bioinformatik Freie Universitat Berlin, WS 2004/05

    E-print Network

    Spang, Rainer

    Alignments. 1. Laden Sie folgende Sequenzen aus dem Internet herunter: · Human alpha H¨amoglobin · Human beta H¨amoglobin · Sperm whale Myoglobin · Aplysia Myoglobin · Lupin Leghemoglobin 2. Erstellen Sie mit

  16. 26. WARDROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, AT TABLE, WEAPONS CLOSET, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. WARDROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, AT TABLE, WEAPONS CLOSET, AND DESK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  17. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...bromegrass, hay; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, hay; lespedeza, hay; lupin; oat, grain; orchardgrass, hay; peanut, hay; timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or commodities described as...

  18. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...cowpea, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, kudzu, lentil, lespedezas, lupines, northern sweetvetch, peas, peanut...Albino. (b) Adzuki bean, broadbean, chickpea, field pea, lentil, pea, roughpea, runner bean, velvetbean, and...

  19. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...cowpea, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, kudzu, lentil, lespedezas, lupines, northern sweetvetch, peas, peanut...Albino. (b) Adzuki bean, broadbean, chickpea, field pea, lentil, pea, roughpea, runner bean, velvetbean, and...

  20. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...cowpea, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, kudzu, lentil, lespedezas, lupines, northern sweetvetch, peas, peanut...Albino. (b) Adzuki bean, broadbean, chickpea, field pea, lentil, pea, roughpea, runner bean, velvetbean, and...

  1. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...cowpea, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, kudzu, lentil, lespedezas, lupines, northern sweetvetch, peas, peanut...Albino. (b) Adzuki bean, broadbean, chickpea, field pea, lentil, pea, roughpea, runner bean, velvetbean, and...

  2. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...cowpea, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, kudzu, lentil, lespedezas, lupines, northern sweetvetch, peas, peanut...Albino. (b) Adzuki bean, broadbean, chickpea, field pea, lentil, pea, roughpea, runner bean, velvetbean, and...

  3. ROCKY MOUNTAIN LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST extent exaggerated for display

    E-print Network

    , Vaccinium caespitosum, Vaccinium scoparium, Vaccinium myrtillus, Symphoricarpos albus, and Ribes spp. Shrub contorta / Carex rossii Forest Pinus contorta / Shepherdia canadensis Forest Pinus contorta / Vaccinium scoparium Forest PINUS CONTORTA WOODLAND ALLIANCE Pinus contorta / Juniperus communis Woodland Overview

  4. Common Name Scientific Name Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Kim

    Common Name Scientific Name Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias Great Egret Casmerodius albus Snowy Egret Egretta thula Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea Green

  5. Avian Response to Nutrient Enrichment in an Oligotrophic Wetland, the Florida Everglades

    E-print Network

    Gawlik, Dale E.

    . Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) and White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) did not differ in abundance and unenriched sites. Among wading birds, Wood Storks (Mycteria americana) and Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were

  6. April 10, 2010 Briones Overlook Dean G. Kelch & Dick Beidleman Adoxaceae Sambucus (Greek musical instrument) mexicana Blue Elderberry C. PresI

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Symphoricarpos (to bear fruit together) albus (white) Snowberry (L.) S.F. Blake Caryophyllaceae Cerastium (horn) glomeratum Mouse-ear Chickweed Thuill. Caryophyllaceae Spergularia (to scatter) rubra (red) Ruby Sand

  7. Neurocomputing 70 (2007) 23032323 On developmental mental architectures

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    intelligence and psychology. Major remarkable ones include Soar proposed by Laird et al. [17], ACT-R by Anderson [3], the architecture by Albus [1], and the subsumption architecture by Brooks [6]. Soar and ACT-R

  8. A validated, minimally deleterious method for aging sturgeon

    E-print Network

    ), Gulf (A. oxyrinchus desotoi), white (A. trans- montanus), pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus), shovelnose (S. platorynchus), 1 NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Ser- vice). 2013. Endangered and threat- ened marine and ana

  9. Machine Intelligence and Robotics Report of the NASA Study Group

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Raj

    1979 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. James S. Albus Project Manager for Sensor and Computer Control, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. Elliott C. Levinthal Adjunct Professor of Genetics Stanford University

  10. Interactions between proteolytic and cellulolytic rumen bacteria during hydrolysis of plant cell wall protein.

    PubMed

    Debroas, D; Blanchart, G

    1993-01-01

    During the degradation of the plant cell wall protein of dried alfalfa, interactions may occur between hydrolytic activities of cellulolytic (Ruminococcus albus or Fibrobacter succinogenes) and proteolytic (Prevotella ruminicola or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens) bacteria. In vitro the hydrolysis of these protein compounds begins after the depolymerization of the cell wall polysaccharides has started. Maximal degradation of cell wall protein of dried alfalfa (37.2%) was obtained with cocultures of Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminococcus albus. PMID:8216756

  11. Promotion ofSeedGermination byNitrate, Nitrite, Hydroxylamine, andAmmoniumSalts1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. HENDRICKS; R. B. TAYLORSON

    Actionanduptakeofazides, nitrates, nitrites, hydroxyla- mines,andammoniumsalts weremeasured ongermination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, Phleumpratense, Barbarea vulgaris, B.verna, andSetaria glauca seeds. Nitrate andnitrite reductase activities weremeasured invivoforeachofthese kindsofseeds. Activities weremeasured invitroforcatalase, peroxidase, glycolate oxidase, andpyridine nucleotide quinone reductase onextracts ofA.albus andL.sativa seeds before and aftergermination. Theenzymicactivities measuredandthe responsiveness ofthehaemproteins toinhibition bytheseveral compoundsindicate thatnitrites, azides, andhydroxylamines promoteseedgermination byinhibition ofH202decomposition bycatalase. Ammnonium salts showedpronounced

  12. The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperidine alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum, Nicotiana spp., and Lupinus spp. A pharmacodynamic comparison was made of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, and coniine in; SH-SY5Y cells which express autonomic-type nicotinic acetylcholine recept...

  13. PINGREE PARK HERBACEOUS SPECIES LIST GRASSES & GRASSLIKES FORBS

    E-print Network

    . Anisantha tectorum 3. Bromopsis inermis 4. Carex spp. 5. Chondrosum gracile 6. Danthonia parryi 7. Elymus. Helianthus pumilus 39. Lupinus argenteus 40. Mertensia spp. 41. Opuntia polyacantha 42. Oxytropis lambertii. Solidago spp. 49. Thermopsis divaricarpa 50. Trifolium parryi western yarrow alpine avens Rocky Mountain

  14. Primary succession on Mount St. Helens, with reference to Surtsey

    E-print Network

    del Moral, Roger

    in transects of permanent plots: 12 on Pumice (from 1989), 10 on a lower Ridge (from 1984) and 10 from upper was slow. Pumice richness sta- bilized by 1998, and after 2003 it declined due to an explosion of Lupinus where cover was lower. After a lag, cover on Pumice began to accrue (Fig. 3). Cover in lower plots

  15. Is the frosted elfin a fire evader? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of the Southern Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The imperiled frosted elfin butterfly, Callophrys irus Godart, is restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where its larval host plants, Lupinus perennis L. and Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. occur. C. irus pupae are noted to reside in both leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape dir...

  16. The impact of plant residues on the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Riga; E. Topp; J. Potter; T. Welacky; T. Anderson; A. Tenuta

    2001-01-01

    The potential of plant residues and plant root exudates, from a range of traditional and nontraditional crop species, to protect soybean (Glycine max (L.)) plants against Heterodera glycines (Ichinohe) was examined in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. Plant residues from nonhosts Lespedeza capitata Michx, Lespedeza intermedia (S. Wats.) Britt, Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem, Lolium multiflorum (Lam.), Lolium perenne (L.), Lupinus

  17. Colonial-nesting waterbird utilization of a dredged material island in Sabine Lake, Texas

    E-print Network

    Shanley, Edwin

    1982-01-01

    ), Louisiana Herons (~Eretta tricolor), Cattle Egrets (Bulbulcus ibis), Black-crowned Night Herons (~Hctico a ~ct(corns), iihite-faced This (~p)e dis chihi), unite Ibis (Eudocimus albus), Roseate Spoonbills (Ajaia ~a'a'a), and Little Blue Herons (~E retta...-51, with a few night herons until an increase in 1974-1975; White Ibis (Eudocimus albus) and Roseate Spoonbills, 1952; White- faced lais (~Ple adis ch1hi), early 1960' s; Cattle Eg ets (g 6 leos ibis), early 1960's; Little Blue Herons (~Eretta caerulea...

  18. A memory based method for computing robot-arm configuration

    E-print Network

    Karimjee, Saleem

    1985-01-01

    TO CMAC AND PRELIMINARY WORK 2. 1 The Basic Structure of CMAC 2. 2 CMAC and Learning 2. 3 Memory, Input Resolution and Quantizing Levels 2. 4 Implementation of Albus' Algorithm 2. 5 Tests and Results ' 2. 6 Conclusions 13 15 16 20 26 III A... of computation time, and can sometimes experience numerical instabilities. As a result, there is a lot of interest in techniques that offer a way to quickly and accurately approximate the inverse solution. In 1975, Albus [7, 8, 9] proposed an algorithm...

  19. Organochlorine and organophosphorus residues in the fat of domestic farm animal species, Ontario, Canada 1986–1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Frank; H. E. Braun; K. I. Stonefield; J. Rasper; H. Luyken

    1990-01-01

    During the period 1986–1988 a total of 602 samples of animal products were analysed for organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and industrial organic pollutants. Samples of abdominal fat were collected from avian, bovine, caprine, lupine, ovine and porcine species together with hen eggs. The following six compounds were identified in animal tissues: DDE, dieldrin, lindane, PCB, pentachlorophenol and tetrachlorophenol. Pentachlorophenol was

  20. SCREENING TECHNIQUES AND SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO FOLIAR DISEASES CAUSED BY MAJOR NECROTROPHIC FUNGI IN GRAIN LEGUMES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotrophic pathogens of the cool season food legumes (pea, lentil, chickpea, faba bean, and lupin) cause wide spread disease and severe crop losses throughout the world. Environmental conditions play an important role in the development and spread of these diseases. Form of inoculum, inoculum conc...

  1. 4. DETAIL OF NAME AND RIBBON BOARDS ON PORT SIDE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF NAME AND RIBBON BOARDS ON PORT SIDE. NAME BOARD WAS REMOVED AT TIME OF DECOMMISSIONING. PHOTOGRAPHER TEMPORARILY REATTACHED THE NAME BOARD. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  2. Sequence variation of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region among isolates of Rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is a common and highly heterogeneous fungal species. Sub-specific groups have been created based on hyphal anastomosis (AGs). One of the newer AGs described is AG-11 from soybean and rice seedlings or soil in Arkansas and lupine in Australia (Carling et al. Phytopathology 84:1378-...

  3. 48. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by Tony Cammarata, Boston Photographers. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE OF DECK FROM BRIDGE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  4. 49. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by Tony Cammarata, Boston Photographers. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. AERIAL VIEW OF PORT SIDE WHILE UNDERWAY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  5. vol. 155, no. 2 the american naturalist february 2000 Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores

    E-print Network

    Fagan, William

    Succession: Herbivores Slow a Plant Reinvasion at Mount St. Helens William F. Fagan1,2,* and John G. Bishop3 lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens. In the Mount St. Helens system, decreased rate of lupine reinvasion will result in reductions in rates of soil

  6. Section III, Natural History SECTION III

    E-print Network

    del Moral, Roger

    a species from similar ones found on Mount St. Helens. I have kept technical terms to a minimum, but some in this book can Lupines are the most prominent plant on Mount St. Helens , and they often facilitate and the habitats within which it occurs on Mount St. Helens. #12;

  7. What do membrane lipids tell us about the microorganisms living in extreme environments?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Pfiffner; Sarah DiFurio; Ying-Dong Gan; Richard B. Hoover

    2008-01-01

    To search for extraterrestrial life surrogate extreme environments on Earth have been chosen for investigation. An example of a surrogate site is the Canadian subpermafrost. Investigations into microbial communities occurred by access fracture borehole water in the Lupin gold mine, and drill rock cores and drilling waters in the High Lake region of Nunavut, Canada. Membrane lipid analyses uses GC\\/MS

  8. The Fetal Cleft Palate: IV. Midfacial Growth and Bony Palatal Development following In Utero and Neonatal Repair of the Congenital Caprine Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Spanish goat model was developed to ascertain the mechanism of action of lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”. This goat model is now being used to study new treatments and improved intervention in the treatment of cleft palate in children. We previously demonstrated that in utero palatoplasty...

  9. 37. DETAIL OF REAR OF STARBOARD ENGINE. AT LOWER LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF REAR OF STARBOARD ENGINE. AT LOWER LEFT OF ENGINE IS THE CASING FOR THE SHAFT GOING INTO THE ADJACENT AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  10. Fish meal replacement by plant meals in extruded feeds for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Carter; R. C. Hauler

    2000-01-01

    The replacement of fish meal protein with soybean meal (SB) or protein concentrates made from narrow-leafed lupin (LP) or field peas (PP) was investigated in extruded feeds for Atlantic salmon. Salmon (47 g) were fed for 63 days on extruded feeds containing each of the plant meals to replace 25% and 33% of the fish meal protein and performance compared

  11. Improving the Nutritional Value of Cool Season Food Legumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. McPhee; F. J. Muehlbauer

    2002-01-01

    Cool season food legumes such as pea, lentil, chickpea, faba bean, grasspea and lupin have been consumed in animal and human diets since domestication and have been cultivated for over 9000 years. Due to their nutritional value they continue to make up a substantial portion of diets in developing countries worldwide. Seeds are composed of protein, starch, fiber, lipids, vitamins

  12. The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats.

    PubMed

    Welch, K D; Panter, K E; Lee, S T; Gardner, D R

    2015-01-01

    Sustained inhibition of fetal movement in livestock species, induced by several poisonous plants, can result in numerous skeletal-contracture malformations. Lupines are responsible for a condition in cattle referred to as "crooked calf syndrome" that occurs when pregnant cattle graze teratogenic lupines. Similar malformations are also seen in animals poisoned by Conium maculatum (coniine) and Nicotiana glauca (anabasine). A proposed management strategy to limit these types of birth defects includes utilizing an intermittent grazing schedule to allow short durations of grazing lupine-infested areas interrupted by movement to a lupine-free pasture. The objective of this study was to use a goat model to determine if an intermittent schedule of five continuous days on treatment followed by two days off treatment would be sufficient to decrease, or prevent, the incidence of anabasine-induced malformations. The data from this study suggest that, for N. glauca in goats, the intermittent grazing program of five days exposure with two days of non-exposure is insufficient to prevent significant skeletal malformations from occurring. However, this study did demonstrate an inverse relationship between the amount of serum anabasine in the dam and the extent of fetal movement. PMID:25451537

  13. ESTRATEGIAS DE PRODUCCIÓN PARA MAXIMIZAR EL MARGEN BRUTO EN UN SISTEMA TRADICIONAL GANADO-CULTIVO DEL SECANO DE LA IX REGIÓN 1 Production strategies to maximize the gross margin on a traditional crop-livestock system of the dryland of the IX Region 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    A B S T R A C T Based on a real crop-livestock production system, a linear programming model was developed to evaluate and maximize gross margins of the system. The real system evaluated over 4 seasons at the Carillanca Research Center, IX Region, considered a total surface of 15 ha, and a crop rotation with oats (Avena sativa), lupines

  14. Original article Digestibility, blood levels of nutrients

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Digestibility, blood levels of nutrients and skin responses of calves fed soyabean 24 August 1994) Summary ― Three milk substitute diets in which the protein was provided either by skim milk only (con- trol diet) or mainly (71%) by a commercial soyabean or lupin concentrate (soyabean

  15. Fermentation of the endosperm cell walls of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plant species by faecal microbes from pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harmen van Laar; Seerp Tamminga; Barbara A Williams; Martin W. A Verstegen

    2000-01-01

    Cell walls from the endosperm of four monocotyledons (maize, wheat, rye, and rice) and four dicotyledons (soya bean, lupin, faba bean, and pea) seeds were studied to relate cell wall composition and structure with fermentation characteristics. Cell wall material was isolated from the endosperm of the mono- and dicotyledons. The fermentation characteristics of isolated cell walls from mono- and dicotyledons

  16. Fermentation of the endosperm cell walls of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plant species: The relationship between cell wall characteristics and fermentability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laar van H; S. Tamminga; B. A. Williams; M. W. A. Verstegen

    2000-01-01

    Cell walls from the endosperm of four monocotyledons (maize, wheat, rye, and rice) and four dicotyledons (soya bean, lupin, faba bean, and pea) seeds were studied to relate cell wall composition and structure with fermentation characteristics. Cell wall material was isolated from the endosperm of the mono- and dicotyledons. The fermentation characteristics of isolated cell walls from mono- and dicotyledons

  17. Effects of salinity stress and calcium on hydraulic conductivity and growth in maize seedling roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Evlagon; Israela Ravina; Peter M. Neumann

    1992-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms by which excessive salinity reduces plant growth are not well understood. A few reports indicate that salinity reduces the hydraulic conductivity of the roots in salt sensitive legumes such as bean and lupin: However salinity had little effect on root conductivity in barley, a cereal plant which is relatively salt tolerant. In order to determine whether roots

  18. Dave Kaminsky Herbert Derman

    E-print Network

    . Lupin A. Mark Parker Joseph B. Pecot Carl J. Poche Charles R. Reinninger N. Brannon Riddle Frank L. Aiken Walter B. Comeaux 1947 $710.00 Richard L. Bagnetto Lawrence G. Bole Phillip F. Purpera Clay A Robert N. Helm Andrew J. Sanchez Oscar M. Thompson 1950 $1,850.00 Mike E. Bozeman Emmett L. Hebert Frank

  19. The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained inhibition of fetal movement in livestock species, induced by several poisonous plants, can result in numerous skeletal-contracture malformations. Lupines are responsible for a condition in cattle referred to as “crooked calf syndrome” that occurs when pregnant cattle graze teratogenic lup...

  20. Philopatry and Nomadism: Contrasting Long-term Movement Behavior and Population Dynamics of White Ibises and Wood Storks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER C. FREDERICK; JOHN C. OGDEN

    We compare long-term movement behavior, breeding site philopatry, population dynamics and prey choice of White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) and Wood Storks (Mycteria americana) in order to illustrate (1) differences in strategies for exploiting spatially and temporally unpredictable food resources in wetlands of the southeastern U.S., and (2) the temporal and geographic scale at which conservation strategies for these species must

  1. Characteristics of Airborne Actinomycete Spores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. REPONEN; S. V. GAZENKO; S. A. GRINSHPUN; K. WILLEKE; E. C. COLE

    1998-01-01

    Airborne actinomycete spores, important contaminants in occupational and residential environments, were studied with respect to their (i) release into the air, (ii) aerodynamic and physical size while airborne, and (iii) survival after collection onto agar with an impactor. Three actinomycete species were selected for the tests to exemplify the three main spore types: Streptomyces albus for arthrospores, Micromonospora halophytica for

  2. Floristische Beobachtungen aus dem östlichen oberösterreichischen Alpenvorland II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. ESSL

    Floristic observations from the eastern Upper Austrian alpine foothills II Abstract: For 26 rare or decreasing species new localities in the eastern Upper Austrian foothills and a few new localities in the western area of Lower Austria are reported. Most of them are species of segetal and ruderal habitats (Amaranlhus albus, Bromus secalinus, Camelina microcarpa, Chenopodium botrys, Ch. bonus-henricus, Ch.

  3. Das Drehbuchhandwerk Gastvortrag im Rahmen der Vorlesung "Digitales Video", Prof. Dr.-Ing. Diepold

    E-print Network

    sein Harry Potter Ron Weasley, Hermine Granger Voldemort DIE ARCHETYPEN (I/III) Archetyp Beschreibung Entsprechung in Harry Potter, Teil 1 Quelle: Christopher Vogler ,,Die Reise des Helden" #12;Albus Dumbledore, ermutigt zur Reise Onkel und Tante, Fluffy der Hund Hagrid Archetyp Beschreibung Entsprechung in Harry

  4. Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XV P.4 ASP Conference Series, Vol. XXX, 2005

    E-print Network

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    as a scripting inter- face for doing complicated data reduction on large data sets. It is also used as a coding to automate things like collecting calibration data. 1. ParselTongue ParselTongue1 provides a Python interfaceNet's Advance Long Baseline User Software (ALBUS)4 project, but is useful in its own right for things like

  5. Ultrastructure of the pericardium in chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora), in relation to filtration and contraction mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steinar Økland

    1981-01-01

    The pericardium in Lepidopleurus asellus (Spengler), Tonicella marmorea (Fabricius), T. rubra L., Ischnochiton albus L., and Calleochiton laevis (Montagu), species taxonomically far apart, is described. It consists of a flat, simple epithelium facing the pericardial cavity, a basement membrane, a muscle layer with two types of muscle fibres, nerve processes, glio-interstitial cells, and fibrocytes, embedded in a loose collagen matrix.

  6. PREDATION OF A SPAWNING ATHERINID FISH, 'MENIDIA MENIDIA', BY AVIAN AND AQUATIC PREDATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predation of Atlantic silversides was observed during spawning runs in the intertidal zone of the North Edisto River estuary, South Carolina. Snowy egrets, Egretta thula, and Great egrets, Casmerodius albus, were the dominant avian predators. Snowy egrets often caught M. menidia ...

  7. Nesting Populations of Double-Crested Cormorants, Great Blue Herons, and Great Egrets in the United States and Canada: Implications for Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerrold L. Belant; Laura A. Tyson

    1997-01-01

    Populations of piscivorous birds in North America are receiving increasing attention in the southeast United States because of depredations at aquaculture facilities. We obtained recent (most since 1994) estimates for the number of nesting double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), great blue herons (Ardea herodias), and great egrets (Casmerodius albus) in the United States (US) and Canada from published references and by

  8. Evaluation of an Electric Fence System for excluding Wading Birds at Catfish Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald E. Mott; Richard D. Flynt

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated a two-strand electric fence barrier to determine its utility in excluding great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and great egrets (Casmerodius albus) from ponds containing channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fencing at five ponds resulted in at least a 91% reduction in pond use by herons and egrets. Labor to install the fences ranged from 2 to 6 person-hours per

  9. Mercury in herons, egrets, and their foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Hoffman; R. D. Curnow

    1979-01-01

    Mercury concentration levels were measured in herons and egrets and their foods collected in the southwestern Lake Erie region. Primary wing feathers, breast muscle, liver, and brain tissues were analyzed from 432 great blue herons (Ardea herodias), 44 black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and 43 great egrets (Casmerodius albus). Concentrations were higher in island nesting birds than birds collected at

  10. A vegetational analysis of an East Texas bottomland hardwood area with special emphasis on wood duck habitat

    E-print Network

    Morrill, William Irl

    1976-01-01

    as nesting trees for great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and American egrets (Casmerodius albus). There were 250-500 heron egret nests in the taller portions of the trees during the summer of 1974. This slough had the thickest stand of duckweed in the A...

  11. Siblicidal Aggression and Resource Monopolization in Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Mock

    1984-01-01

    In Texas, great egret Casmerodius albus chicks attack younger nestmates, often fatally (siblicide). By contrast, the young of neighboring great blue herons Ardea herodias seldom strike or kill siblings. These interspecific differences seem related to prey size: only fish provided by egret parents are small enough for chicks to monopolize (a process facilitated by aggression). Experimentally cross-fostered heron chicks raised

  12. Fish-Eating Birds as Potential Vectors of Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W. Taylor

    1992-01-01

    Intestinal and rectal smears from 137 birds (4 snowy egrets Egretta thula, 22 great egrets Casmerodius albus, 30 great blue herons Ardea herodias, and 81 double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus) were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody test for the presence of Edwardsiella ictaluri. Edwardsiella ictaluri was detected in 53% of the birds sampled. Rectal samples from eight birds were placed in

  13. DEGRADATION OF ALFALFA CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDES BY PURE CULTURES OF FIVE RUMEN BACTERIAL SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rumen bacterial strains Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 (Fs), Ruminococcus albus 7 (Ra), R. flavefaciens FD-1 (Rf), Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c (Bf), and Lachnospira multipara 40 (Lm) were compared for their ability to degrade alfalfa stem cell wall polysaccharides in pure culture, as a five-spe...

  14. The uses of penicillin and streptomycin

    E-print Network

    Keefer, Chester S.

    1949-01-01

    albus 1-256 1-4 Staphylococcus aureus o-5->i28 1-8 Streptococcus faecalis 12.5-60 Streptococcus hemolyticus 1->128 2-32 Streptococcus, nonhemolytic 1->128 1-32 Streptococcus viridans 0.1->128 1-32 Streptomyces (various species) 0...

  15. Initiation of Irrigation Effects on Temporal Nitrate Leaching F. X. M. Casey,* N. Derby, R. E. Knighton, D. D. Steele, and E. C. Stegman

    E-print Network

    Steele, Dean D.

    Initiation of Irrigation Effects on Temporal Nitrate Leaching F. X. M. Casey,* N. Derby, R. E that was converted from dryland to center- 1980). Albus and Knighton (1998) found that the initia- pivot irrigation in 1989. The vadose zone was monitored with four tion of irrigation caused a flush of NO3­N to the shallow

  16. Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West-Central Florida

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West.--The nonindigenous Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus is established in west-central Florida, where it invades tropical. Although introduced Asian swamp eels have been described as voracious predators of fish, to date there have

  17. Coding in the Granular Layer of the Cerebellum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. De Schutter; J. G. Bjaalie

    Abstract In this paper we formulate a new theory of how information is coded along the parallel fibers in the cerebellar cortex. A question which may,arise is why such a new theory is needed at all. Previously we have argued that the dominant theory of cerebellar coding, i.e. the perceptron learning theory formulated by Marr (1969) and Albus (1971) that

  18. Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. Isolated From Seaweed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel agarase-producing, non-endospore-forming marine bacterium WH0801T was isolated from a fresh seaweed sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. Preliminary characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that WH0801T shared 96.1% identity with Agarivorans albus MKT 10...

  19. Fish and chips? Implanted transmitters help map the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chojnacki, Kimberly; DeLonay, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    With a flattened snout, long slender tail and rows of bony plates lining its body, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has a unique, almost pre-historic, appearance. This endangered fish is native to the muddy, free-flowing waters of the Missouri River.

  20. THE ROLE OF COMPETITION AND AMENSALISM IN DETERMINING RUMINAL FIBROLYTIC BACTERIAL POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminococcus albus, R. flavefaciens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes are major cellulolytic bacterial species in the rumen. All three have a specialist nutrition based on the degradation of cellulose (and, to a lesser extent, xylan). A common strategy for cellulose degradation based on adherence to f...

  1. Fish Fingers and Custard Issue 4

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    copying him Making your own Fez Buying a Fez for treble it’s normal price, because it was featured in Doctor Who Kazran Sardick Albus Dumbledore Katherine Jenkins Billie Piper Staying at home during Christmas Staying at the Airport during Christmas...

  2. Reducing Air-Conditioning System Energy Using a PMV Index

    E-print Network

    Li, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Trans, 1986, 92(2B):709-731 [3]Albus, J S. Data storage in the cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC)[J]. Transaction of ASME, J.Dynam. Syst.Meas.control, 1975b, 97 (3): 228 -233 + - controller CMAC softsensor air- conditioning room...

  3. A revision of Physotarsus Townes, with a preliminary phylogenetic analysis of Scolobatini (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae).

    E-print Network

    Zhaurova, Kira

    2009-06-02

    A species-level revision and a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Physotarsus Townes are performed. Physotarsus is expanded to include 17 new species: P. albus sp. nov., P. claviger sp. nov., P. concavus sp. nov., P. cordatus sp. nov., P...

  4. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) development as influenced by Palmer amaranth competition

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon DeWayne

    1998-01-01

    (Amaranthus albus L. ) exceeded 32 plants per 10-m of row (Rushing et al. 1985b). However, tumble pigweed has a canopy morphology unlike that of the species studied in this research or by Buchanan and Burns. 24 Palmer Amaranth Canopy In 1996, Palmer...

  5. The effect of sugars on turion germination and growth of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid

    E-print Network

    Shelton, Donald Ross

    1979-01-01

    to occur in Amaranthus albus and Lactuca sativa by Hendricks and Taylorson (1972). Respiratory inh1 b1 tors, those which 1nhi bit cytochrome oxi dase and others stimulate germinat1on 1n some species (Roberts, 1973). The common property of all successful...

  6. Estimating Shrub Forage Yield and Utilization Using a Photographic Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daalkhaijav Damiran; Timothy DelCurto; Douglas E. Johnson; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    We assessed a photographic technique to estimate shrub yield and utilization of common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake), snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Douglas ex Hook.), and firmleaf willow ( Salix rigida Muhl.) found in mixed-conifer rangelands. We determined the correlation between green leaf area size (LA) and forage yield (Y) and compared plant utilization estimated by photographic technique (ULA) to actual

  7. The effect of a helium-oxygen atmosphere on chick embryo development and subsequent chick performance

    E-print Network

    Valera, Juan

    1969-01-01

    , since some hcliura-o: ygen embryos mana;led to use . . 11 their albus!cn. toe~parison of saf ittal sections throu, :h the trunk reunions of- 7-dav embryos incubated in a ir (pi:ure 6) or hei iun-oxy::en (! '!ure 5) in: icat c no ifn if icant...

  8. Growth response of native shrubs to acid mine spoil and to proposed soil amendments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela J. Voeller; Benjamin A. Zamora; James Harsh

    1998-01-01

    Successful reclamation of acid mine sites may be enhanced by revegetating with species that are tolerant to acid mine spoil conditions. This study was conducted to assess the response of four native shrub species, Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt., Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake, Berberis repens Lindl., and Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh, to 1) pyritic acid mine spoil amended with various levels of lime

  9. DETERMINATION OF HATCHING DATE FOR EGGS OF BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERONS, SNOWY EGRETS AND GREAT EGRETS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS W. CUSTER; GREY W. PENDLETON; R. WILL ROACH

    Flotation of eggs in water and specific gravity of eggs of Black-crowned Night- Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus) were evaluated as methods to determine date of hatching. Length of incubation and duration of hatching period were also documented for each species. Although specific gravity was a better predictor of hatching date than egg

  10. ANIDACIÓN DE AVES ACUÁTICAS EN LA ENSENADA DE LA PAZ, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MÉXICO (1992-1994) NESTING OF WATER BIRDS IN ENSENADA DE LA PAZ, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MEXICO (1992-1994)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Carmona

    Water birds nesting in Ensenada de La Paz were recorded from 1992 to 1994. Thirteen nesting species were observed: Ardea herodias, Bubulcus ibis, Egretta rufescens, E. thula, E. tricolor, E. caerulen, Nyctanassa violacea, Nycticorax nycticorax, Eudocimus albus, Butorides striatus, Rallus limicola, Charardius wilsonia and Sterna antillarum. The most important nesting sites were the man- grove forests of El Conchalito and

  11. Biological Control 38 (2006) 356362 www.elsevier.com/locate/ybcon

    E-print Network

    Sims, Gerald K.

    2006-01-01

    . Weeds included Amaranthus rudis, A. palmeri, A. powellii, A. retroXexus, A. spinosus, A. hybridus, and A amaranthicola; Amaranthus rudis; A. palmeri; A. powellii; A. retroXexus; A. spinosus; A. hybridus; A. albus of seven Amaranthus species: Implications for biological control Loretta Ortiz-Ribbing, Martin M. Williams

  12. Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3693 AeroSense Session on Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology

    E-print Network

    -8, 1999 4-D/RCS Reference Model Architecture for Unmanned Ground Vehicles James S. Albus Intelligent Gaithersburg, MD 20899 [3693-02] ABSTRACT 4-D/RCS is the reference model architecture currently being developed for the Demo III Experimental Unmanned Vehicle program. 4-D/RCS integrates the NIST (National Institute

  13. 4D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III *

    E-print Network

    4­D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III * James S. Albus Intelligent Systems Division * This paper is a condensation of 4­D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III, NISTIR 5994, March 1997 ABSTRACT 4­D/RCS is a reference model architecture that integrates the NIST (National Institute

  14. Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3693 AeroSense Session on Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology

    E-print Network

    ­8, 1999 4­D/RCS Reference Model Architecture for Unmanned Ground Vehicles James S. Albus Intelligent Gaithersburg, MD 20899 [3693­02] ABSTRACT 4­D/RCS is the reference model architecture currently being developed for the Demo III Experimental Unmanned Vehicle program. 4­D/RCS integrates the NIST (National Institute

  15. 4-D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III*

    E-print Network

    4-D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III* James S. Albus Intelligent Systems Division * This paper is a condensation of 4-D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III, NISTIR 5994, March 1997 ABSTRACT 4-D/RCS is a reference model architecture that integrates the NIST (National Institute

  16. 1142 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1989, 111, 1142-1144 Scheme I. Potential Metabolic Pathways between Ornithine and

    E-print Network

    nucleus in hyoscyamine derived from [2-14C]ornithi~ie.In support of this pathway N- methylputrescine (9-methylputrescine. This amino acid was indeed in- corporated unsymmetrically into hyo~cyamine.'~It was also detected (by. However, we have been unable to detect this amino acid in Datura species. In H. albus, insignificant

  17. Genetic Evidence for Hybridization of Pallid and Shovelnose Sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Tranah; D. E. CAMPTON; B. MAY

    2004-01-01

    To determine the genetic origin of individual sturgeon that are morphologically intermediate to pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) sturgeon, we combined previously published mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite data with additional microsatellite data. Two sympatric populations of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon from the upper Missouri River and a sympatric population containing pallid, shovelnose, and putative pallid-shovelnose hybrids from

  18. Habitat Use and Movements of Pallid and Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers in Montana and North Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Bramblett; Robert G. White

    2001-01-01

    We observed the habitat use and movements of 24 pallid Scaphirhynchus albus and 27 shovelnose S. platorynchus sturgeon in the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers in Montana and North Dakota. Pallid sturgeon used sandy substrate more often than shovelnose sturgeon, as well as greater depths; both species used similar current velocities. Pallid sturgeon used river channels with greater widths, midchannel bars,

  19. Seasonal Comparison of Catch Rates and Size Structure Using Three Gear Types to Sample Sturgeon in the Middle Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quinton E. Phelps; David P. Herzog; Ronald C. Brooks; Valerie A. Barko; David E. Ostendorf; Joseph W. Ridings; Sara J. Tripp; Robert E. Colombo; James E. Garvey; Robert A. Hrabik

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of three gears commonly used to sample shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, pallid sturgeon S. albus, and lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in large rivers. We stratified habitats and randomly sampled sites with trawls, gill nets, and trotlines in the middle Mississippi River from June 2003 through May 2005 (N = 3,476 samples). A total of 3,523 shovelnose

  20. Drift Dynamics of Larval Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon in a Natural Side Channel of the Upper Missouri River, Montana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Braaten; David B. Fuller; Landon D. Holte; Ryan D. Lott; William Viste; Tyrel F. Brandt; Robert G. Legare

    2008-01-01

    The drift dynamics of larval shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (1, 2, 6, and 10 d posthatch (dph)) and pallid sturgeon S. albus (1, 2, 5, 9, 11, and 17 dph) were examined in a natural side channel of the Missouri River to quantify the vertical drift location of larvae in the water column, determine the drift velocity of larvae relative

  1. Water Temperature and River Stage Influence Mortality and Abundance of Naturally Occurring Mississippi River Scaphirhynchus Sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quinton E. Phelps; Sara J. Tripp; William D. Hintz; James E. Garvey; David P. Herzog; David E. Ostendorf; Joseph W. Ridings; Jason W. Crites; Robert A. Hrabik

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the demographics of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and pallid sturgeon S. albus in the Mississippi River through assessment of adult populations; however, comparatively few studies have examined the early life history of these species. Here, we describe a comprehensive 4-year study that examined the effects of water temperature and river stage on the mortality, abundance, hatch

  2. Food Habits of Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon and Adult Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River Downstream of Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg A. Wanner; Dane A. Shuman; David W. Willis

    2007-01-01

    We examined the seasonal food habits and diet overlap of juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and adult shovelnose sturgeon (S. platorynchus) in the Missouri River downstream of Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota. Seasonal trends were found for both sturgeon species as chironomids were consumed in the greatest numbers and dry weights during early summer, ephemeropterans dominated during late summer, and

  3. Morphometric Comparisons of Upper Missouri River Sturgeons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Keenlyne; C. J. Henry; A. Tews; P. Clancey

    1994-01-01

    Morphometric comparisons were made among three isolated populations of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus from the upper Missouri River. Six measurements were made on 89 pallid and 204 shovelnose sturgeons. Means of several morphometric characteristics were statistically different between populations of both species. Pallid sturgeon means showed proportional trends relative to location on the river. Toward

  4. Conditional Capture Probability of Scaphirhynchus spp. in Drifting Trammel Nets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Guy; Eric W. Oldenburg; Paul C. Gerrity

    2009-01-01

    Pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus are commonly sampled using drifting trammel nets in the Missouri and Mississippi river basins. Despite the fact that drifting trammel nets have been used for decades to sample these species, little is known about the capture efficiency of this gear. We estimated conditional capture probability for drifting trammel nets over known

  5. Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon are Piscivorous: A Call for Conserving Native Cyprinids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul C. Gerrity; Christopher S. Guy; William M. Gardner

    2006-01-01

    We examined the diets of age-6 and age-7 hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (mean fork length [FL] = 538 ± 13 mm [90% confidence interval]; mean weight = 518 ± 49 g) and indigenous shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus (mean FL = 525 ± 12 mm; mean weight = 683 ± 41 g) sampled in 2003 and 2004 from the

  6. Reproductive Isolation in Sympatric Populations of Pallid and Shovelnose Sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Tranah; Harold L. Kincaid; Charles C. Krueger; Donald E. Campton; Bernie May

    2001-01-01

    Pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus are recognized morphologically as separate species. A previous genetic study with allozymes was unable to distinguish between the two species or demonstrate their reproductive isolation in regions of sympatry. Our main objective was to measure the genetic variability within and among populations of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon at the northern and

  7. Habitat Use of Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon with Implications for Water-Level Management in a Downstream Reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul C. Gerrity; Christopher S. Guy; William M. Gardner

    2008-01-01

    Natural recruitment of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus has not been observed in the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana, for at least 20 years. To augment the population, age-1 hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon were released in 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate the habitat use of these fish and compare it with that of indigenous shovelnose

  8. Larval Surveys Indicate Low Levels of Endangered Pallid Sturgeon Reproduction in the Middle Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan M. Boley; Edward J. Heist

    2011-01-01

    The pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is an endangered riverine species that is less abundant than the sympatric shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus with which it hybridizes. The two species are morphologically similar, and due to morphological variation within species, allometry, and the occurrence of morphological intermediates, morphological identification of specimens can be problematic. When the pallid sturgeon was listed under the

  9. Evaluation of a Gastric Lavage Method on Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg A. Wanner

    2006-01-01

    Because of the endangered status and limited knowledge of the early life history of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, I tested the safety and efficiency of a nonlethal method for investigating the food habits of age-2 juvenile pallid sturgeon. Pallid sturgeon were fed a mixture of live prey items, including earthworms Lumbricus terrestris, red worms Alloloborpha calliginosa, meal worms Tenebrio

  10. Phylogenetics of Scaphirhynchus Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Simons; Robert M. Wood; Lucie S. Heath; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden

    2001-01-01

    Species delineation and taxonomy within the sturgeon genus Scaphirhynchus is controversial. This issue is made more complex by political issues regarding the Alabama sturgeon S. suttkusi and potential hybridization between sympatric shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus and pallid sturgeon S. albus. We investigated phylogenetic relationships among species of Scaphirhynchus based on nucleotide sequences for two mitochondrial loci, cytochrome b and the

  11. Delphi Study of Instructional Strategies for English Language Learners with Disabilities: Recommendations from Educators Nationwide. ELLs with Disabilities Report 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Shyyan, Vitaliy; Barrera, Manuel; Liu, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    This study is part of national research over the past seven years at the National Center on Educational Outcomes focused on identifying and validating instructional strategies for ELLs with disabilities (Shyyan, Thurlow, & Liu, 2008; Thurlow, Albus, Shyyan, Liu, & Barrera, 2004). In recent work (Barrera, Shyyan, Liu, & Thurlow, 2008), educators…

  12. Crop Protection 25 (2006) 3946 Potential of Phomopsis amaranthicola and Microsphaeropsis

    E-print Network

    Sims, Gerald K.

    2006-01-01

    . albus L., (tumble pigweed); and A. blitoides S.Wats., (prostrate pigweed) (Heap, 2000). Some Amaranthus, as bioherbicides for several weedy Amaranthus species Loretta Ortiz-RibbingÃ, Martin M. Williams, II USDA in the genus Amaranthus are weeds in cropping systems throughout the world, and some biotypes have developed

  13. Heterogeneous detection probabilities for imperiled Missouri River fishes: implications for large-river monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, J.T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Doyle, W.J.; Hill, Tracy D.; Steffensen, K.D.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2012-01-01

    Occupancy modeling was used to determine (1) if detection probabilities (p) for 7 regionally imperiled Missouri River fishes (Scaphirhynchus albus, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, Cycleptus elongatus, Sander canadensis, Macrhybopsis aestivalis, Macrhybopsis gelida, and Macrhybopsis meeki) differed among gear types (i.e. stationary gill nets, drifted trammel nets, and otter trawls), and (2) how detection probabilities were affected by habitat (i.e. pool, bar, and open water), longitudinal position (five 189 to 367 rkm long segments), sampling year (2003 to 2006), and season (July 1 to October 30 and October 31 to June 30). Adult, large-bodied fishes were best detected with gill nets (p: 0.02–0.74), but most juvenile large-bodied and all small-bodied species were best detected with otter trawls (p: 0.02–0.58). Trammel nets may be a redundant sampling gear for imperiled fishes in the lower Missouri River because most species had greater detection probabilities with gill nets or otter trawls. Detection probabilities varied with river segment for S. platorynchus, C. elongatus, and all small-bodied fishes, suggesting that changes in habitat influenced gear efficiency or abundance changes among river segments. Detection probabilities varied by habitat for adult S. albus and S. canadensis, year for juvenile S. albus, C. elongatus, and S. canadensis, and season for adult S. albus. Concentrating sampling effort on gears with the greatest detection probabilities may increase species detections to better monitor a population's response to environmental change and the effects of management actions on large-river fishes.

  14. The Hydrogenation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids by Five Bacterial Isolates from the Sheep Rumen, Including a New Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. KEMP; R. W. WHITE; D. J. LANDER

    1975-01-01

    SUMMARY Five strictly anaerobic bacteria able to hydrogenate unsaturated fatty acids were isolated from sheep rumen. One was characterized as Ruminococcus albus, two as Eubacterium spp. and two as Fusocillus spp., one of which is named as a new species. The Fusocillus organisms were able to hydrogenate oleic acid and linoleic acid to stearic acid, and linolenic acid to cis-octadec-15-enoic

  15. Recurrent cerebellar architecture solves the motor-error problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Porrill; Paul Dean; James V. Stone

    2004-01-01

    Current views of cerebellar function have been heavily influenced by the models of Marr and Albus, who suggested that the climbing fibre input to the cerebellum acts as a teaching signal for motor learning. It is commonly assumed that this teaching signal must be motor error (the difference between actual and correct motor command), but this approach requires complex neural

  16. Might Flowers of Invasive Plants Increase Native Bees Carrying Capacity? Intimations from Capitol Reef National Park, Utah

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the native bees visiting the flowers of three species of invasive plants (Tamarix spp., Melilotus albus, M. officinalis) with those visiting seven native plant species in mid-summer at three sites in Capitol Reef National Park, UT, USA. Overall, as many species of bees visited the flowe...

  17. Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hajkova; J. Nekovar; M. Novak; D. Richterova

    2009-01-01

    The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch.,

  18. Waterfowl utilization characteristics of floodwater retarding structures in north-central Texas

    E-print Network

    Hobaugh, William Carl

    1977-01-01

    Number of Lakes Amaranthus albus Ambrosia spp, Arundo donax ~Baco a rotundifolia Bo hio ~dact 1 ide Carex unknown Carex brittoniana Carex crus-corvi Carex frankii ~Cat h 11 de e Chara spp. ~cd ~dact 1 ~Cerus unknown ~C erus acuminatus ~C...

  19. Food intake, postprandial glucose, insulin and subjective satiety responses to three different bread-based test meals.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Jennifer; Atkinson, Fiona; Eisenhauer, Bronwyn; Inamdar, Amar; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-12-01

    The effect of bread consumption on overall food intake is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure postprandial food intake after a set breakfast containing three different breads. Ten males and 10 females aged 20.1-44.8 years, BMI 18.4-24.8 kg/m(2), consumed two slices of White Bread, Bürgen Wholemeal and Seeds Bread or Lupin Bread (all 1300 kJ) with 10 g margarine and 30 g strawberry jam. Fullness and hunger responses and were measured before and during the test breakfasts. Glucose and insulin responses (incremental area under each two-hour curve (iAUC)) were calculated. Food intake was measured and energy and nutrient intake determined at a buffet meal two hours later. Subjects consumed significantly less energy after the Bürgen Bread meal compared to the White Bread meal (2548 ± 218 vs. 3040±328kJ, Bürgen Bread vs. White Bread, P<0.05). There were higher fullness responses for the Lupin Bread (P<0.01), and the Bürgen Bread (P<0.05) compared with the White Bread. Lupin Bread and Bürgen Bread produced smaller postprandial glucose responses (79 ± 7, 74 ± 4, 120 ± 10 mmol/L min iAUC, Lupin, Bürgen and White Bread respectively, P<0.01). Differences in insulin responses were also observed (6145 ± 1048, 6471 ± 976, 9674 ± 1431 pmol/L min iAUC, Lupin, Bürgen and White Bread respectively, P<0.01). Equal-energy portions of three different commercially available breads differed in their short-term satiation capacity. Further studies are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit for weight management. PMID:21907743

  20. Ecophysiology of two solar tracking desert winter annuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. N. Forseth; J. R. Ehleringer

    1983-01-01

    The gas exchange responses of potted, outdoor and greenhouse grown plants of the Sonoran Desert annuals Lupinus arizonicus (Wats.) and Malvastrum rotundifolium (Gray) were examined. Light saturation of leaf photosynthetic rates did not occur in either species at quantum flux densities exceeding 2.0 mmol m-2 s-1. Decreasing water potentials due to long-term drought did not alter this pattern of light