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1

Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of lupin seed flour and derivatives ( Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate natural sources of nutritive and non-nutritive antioxidants, the methanol extracts of lupin (Lupinus albus spp. Graecus) flour (with and without alkaloids) and lupin protein isolate were first examined for their antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was determined by a rapid spectrophotometric method based on the coupled oxidation of ?-carotene and linoleic acid and

E Tsaliki; V Lagouri; G Doxastakis

1999-01-01

2

Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet  

PubMed Central

A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7–14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96?h on Heller medium with 60?mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (–S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35?mM asparagine or 35?mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed. PMID:19635747

Borek, S?awomir; Pukacka, Stanis?awa; Michalski, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Lech

2009-01-01

3

Secreting portion of acid phosphatase in roots of Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and a key signal for the secretion from the roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to identify the secreting portion of acid phosphatase (APase) in roots of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and a key signal for the secretion from the roots. When lupin was grown in a nutrient solution without phosphate, the APase activity on the whole root surface increased and it was particularly high on the proteoid roots. When lupin

Jun Wasaki; Masanori Omura; Michiko Ando; Takuro Shinano; Mitsuru Osaki; Toshiaki Tadano

1999-01-01

4

Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant), in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%), followed by protein modification/turnover (9%), redox regulation (8%), cell structural components (6%), stress and defence response (6%) with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT) protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt) 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams) and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level). Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes. PMID:21342527

2011-01-01

5

Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J.; Harper, John D.I.; Ash, Gavin J.; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R.; Phan, Huyen T.T.; Raman, Harsh

2013-01-01

6

Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)  

PubMed Central

Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m–2 s–1 or 600 µmol m–2 s–1 light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P.; White, Philip J.; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

2014-01-01

7

Interactions between the effects of atmospheric CO2 content and P nutrition on photosynthesis in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) is a major factor limiting the response of carbon acquisition of plants and ecosystems to increasing atmospheric CO2 content. An important consideration, however, is the effect of P deficiency at the low atmospheric CO2 content common in recent geological history, because plants adapted to these conditions may also be limited in their ability to respond to further increases in CO2 content. To ascertain the effects of low P on various components of photosynthesis, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown hydroponically at 200, 400 and 750 micromol mol(-1) CO2, under sufficient and deficient P supply (250 and 0.69 microM P, respectively). Increasing growth CO2 content increased photosynthesis only under sufficient growth P. Ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) content and activation state were not reduced to the same degree as the net CO2 assimilation rate (A), and the in vivo rate of electron transport was sufficient to support photosynthesis in all cases. The rate of triose phosphate use did not appear limiting either, because all the treatments continued to respond positively to a drop in oxygen levels. We conclude that, at ambient and elevated CO2 content, photosynthesis in low-P plants appears limited by the rate of ribulose biphosphate (RuBP) regeneration, probably through inhibition of the Calvin cycle. This failure of P-deficient plants to respond to rising CO2 content above 200 micromol mol(-1) indicates that P status already imposes a widespread restriction in plant responses to increases in CO2 content from the pre-industrial level to current values. PMID:17087468

Campbell, Catherine D; Sage, Rowan E

2006-05-01

8

Root-derived auxin contributes to the phosphorus-deficiency-induced cluster-root formation in white lupin (Lupinus albus).  

PubMed

Formation of cluster roots is a typical morphological response to phosphorus (P) deficiency in white lupin (Lupinus albus), but its physiological and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. We investigated the role of auxin in the initiation of cluster roots by distinguishing the sources of auxin, measuring the longitudinal distribution patterns of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) along the root and the related gene expressions responsible for polar auxin transport (PAT) in different developmental stages of cluster roots. We found that removal of shoot apex or primary root apex and application of auxin-influx or -efflux transport inhibitors, 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, to the stem did not affect the number of cluster roots and the free-IAA concentration in the roots of P-deficient plants, but when these inhibitors were applied directly to the growth media, the cluster-root formation was greatly suppressed, suggesting the fundamental role of root-derived IAA in cluster-root formation. The concentration of free IAA in the roots was higher in P-deficient plants than in P-adequate ones, and the highest in the lateral-root apex and the lowest in the mature cluster roots. Meanwhile the expression patterns of LaAUX1, LaPIN1 and LaPIN3 transcripts related to PAT was consistent with concentrations of free IAA along the lateral root, indicating the contribution of IAA redistribution in the cluster-root development. We proposed that root-derived IAA plays a direct and important role in the P-deficiency-induced formation of cluster roots. PMID:23067249

Meng, Zhi Bin; You, Xue Di; Suo, Dong; Chen, Yun Long; Tang, Caixian; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

2013-08-01

9

Quality of Lupinus albus L. (white lupin) seed: extent of genotypic and environmental effects.  

PubMed

White lupin seed can be used for traditional and functional foods or as animal feed. This study aimed to support lupin breeders and production stakeholders by assessing the extent of genotypic, environmental, and genotype × environment (GE) interaction effects on seed contents of oil, tocopherols (TOC), and quinolizidine alkaloids (QA), grain yield, and seed weight of eight elite genotypes grown in two climatically contrasting Italian locations for two cropping years. On average, plants in the subcontinental climate site exhibited higher grain yield and seed size, about 8% lower oil content, and almost 85% higher QA content than those in the Mediterranean climate site. The range of genotype means was 2.97-5.14 t/ha for yield, 92-110 mg/g for oil, and 0.121-0.133 mg/g for TOC. TOC amount was largely unpredictable and featured large GE interactions that hinder its genetic improvement. Oil and alkaloid contents and seed size are more predictable and offer potential for selection. PMID:24934884

Annicchiarico, Paolo; Manunza, Patrizia; Arnoldi, Anna; Boschin, Giovanna

2014-07-16

10

Synthesis, Storage, and Utilization of Amino Compounds in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) 1  

PubMed Central

Changes in total N and in free amino compounds were followed during growth of nodulated white lupin. Leaflets contained the greatest fraction of plant N but had lower proportions (1 to 4%) of their N in soluble amino form than stem + petioles (10 to 27%) and reproductive parts (15 to 33%). Mobilization of free amino compounds from plant parts to fruits contributed at most only 7% of the total N intake of fruits, compared with 50% in mobilization of other forms of N and 43% from fixation during fruiting. Asparagine was usually the most abundant free amino compound in plant parts, followed by glutamine and alanine. Valine, glycine, isoleucine, aspartic acid and ?-aminobutyric acid comprised the bulk of the remaining soluble amino N. Composition of tissue pools of amino-N closely resembled that of xylem and phloem exudates. Data on N flow and utilization were combined with information on composition of transport fluids to quantify syntheses, exchanges, and consumptions of asparagine, glutamine, aspartic acid, and valine by organs of the 51- to 58-day plant. These amino compounds carried 56, 29, 5, and 2%, respectively, of the N exported from nodules and contributed in roughly commensurate proportions to transport exchanges and N increments of plant parts. There were, however, more than expected involvements of glutamine and valine in mobilization of N from lower leaves, of asparagine in xylem to phloem transfer, and of aspartic acid in cycling of N through the root, and there was a less than expected participation of aspartic acid in xylem to phloem transfer and in phloem translocation to the shoot apex. The significance of these differences is discussed. PMID:16661629

Pate, John S.; Atkins, Craig A.; Herridge, David F.; Layzell, David B.

1981-01-01

11

The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.  

PubMed

Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages of bioavailable Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr, which were 5.7±0.7, 5.3±1.7, 1.2±0.1, 12±1.5 and 0.1±0.02%, respectively, before lupin growth, increased to 9.6±1.6, 7±2, 2±0.3, 14±1.5 and 0.1±0.02% after lupin harvest. On the whole, our results indicate that the winter cultivation of white lupin in sequence with a metal-accumulator summer crop can improve the recovery of soil quality during the phytoextraction period. It improves the safety of the area, limiting additional ecological and human health problems, and enhances soil health by avoiding the use of chemical amendments and by increasing the levels of viable microorganisms. PMID:24992047

Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

2014-12-01

12

Changes in root morphology of white lupin ( Lupinus albus L.) and its adaptation to soils with heterogeneous alkaline\\/acid profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Lupinus albus L. to adapt to a heterogeneous soil profile containing acid subsoil below limed topsoil of the same type, and to utilize\\u000a nutrients by significantly altering its root system structure, was investigated using specially constructed soil profile tubes.\\u000a Plants grown in homogeneous acid profiles had the fastest growth while those grown in homogeneous limed-soil profiles showed

Simon J. Kerley

2000-01-01

13

Effect of Lupinus seed diffusates on Bradyrhizobium sp. growth and nodulation of lupine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of three species of lupine (Lupinus termis, L. triticale andL. albus) were tested to determine if the seed contains diffusable substances toxic to bradyrhizobia.L. albus seeds were less toxic to bradyrhizobia, followed byL. triticale. Six strains ofBradyrhizobium were evaluated for their resistance to the toxic substances in lupine seeds. Zones of growth inhibition were determined on\\u000a yeast-mannitol-agar medium surrounding

M. H. Abd-Alla

1998-01-01

14

The Development of Potential Screens Based on Shoot Calcium and Iron Concentrations for the Evaluation of Tolerance in Egyptian Genotypes of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to Limed Soils  

PubMed Central

European cultivars of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grow poorly in limed or calcareous soils. However, Egyptian genotypes are grown successfully in highly calcareous soil and show no stress symptoms. To examine their physiological responses to alkaline soil and develop potential screens for tolerance, three experiments were conducted in limed and non?limed (neutral pH) soil. Measurements included net CO2 uptake, and the partitioning of Fe2+ and Fe3+ and soluble and insoluble Ca in stem and leaf tissue. Intolerant plants showed clear symptoms of stress, whereas stress in the Egyptian genotypes and in L. pilosus Murr. (a tolerant species) was less marked. Only the intolerant plants became chlorotic and this contributed to their reduced net CO2 uptake in the limed soil. In contrast, Egyptian genotypes and L. pilosus showed no change in net CO2 uptake between the soils. The partitioning of Ca and Fe either resulted from the stress responses, or was itself a stress response. L. pilosus and some Egyptian genotypes differed in soluble Ca concentrations compared with the intolerant cultivars, although no significant difference was apparent in the Ca partitioning of the Egyptian genotype Giza1. In a limed soil, Giza1 maintained its stem Fe3+ concentration at a level comparable with that of plants grown in non?limed soil, whereas stem [Fe3+] of an intolerant genotype increased. Giza1 increased the percentage of plant Fe that was Fe2+ in its leaf tissue under these conditions; that of the intolerant genotype was reduced. The potential tolerance of the Egyptian genotypes through these mechanisms and the possibility of nutritional?based screens are discussed. PMID:12096746

KERLEY, SIMON J.; NORGAARD, CLAUS; LEACH, JOHN E.; CHRISTIANSEN, JØERGEN L.; HUYGHE, CHRISTIAN; RÖMER, PETER

2002-01-01

15

Interaction and accumulation of manganese and cadmium in the manganese accumulator Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

The effects of the interaction between Mn and Cd on the growth of the white lupin (Lupinus albus), uptake of these metals, their accumulation, and effects on heavy metal stress indicators were studied under glasshouse conditions. Plants were grown with and without Mn and/or Cd for 4 weeks. The absence of Mn and Cd led to lipid peroxidation-induced loss of flavonoids and anthocyanins in the roots, reduced the size of the plant canopy, and led to the appearance of proteoid roots. Sensitivity to Cd in white lupin was enhanced by a low Mn supply, despite lower Cd uptake and accumulation (leaf Mn:Cd concentration ratio <3), as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation in the leaves and strong inhibition of growth. However, when the Mn supply was adequate, the plants showed few symptoms of Cd toxicity, even though Cd uptake and accumulation increased. A Mn:Cd ratio of up to 20 was enough to minimize Cd stress in the leaf, reflecting the plants' relative tolerance to Cd under such conditions. Irrespective of the Mn supply, the increase in antioxidant compounds observed in the roots of Cd-treated plants might act as a protective mechanism by minimizing the oxidative stress caused by Cd exposure. In summary, high leaf Mn concentrations seem to render white lupins more tolerant to Cd stress. PMID:20399531

Zornoza, Pilar; Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Carpena, Ramón O

2010-09-01

16

Phosphorus deficiency in Lupinus albus. Altered lateral root development and enhanced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.  

PubMed Central

The development of clustered tertiary lateral roots (proteoid roots) and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) in roots were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown with either 1 mM P (+P-treated) or without P (-P-treated). The +P-treated plants initiated fewer clustered tertiary meristems and the emergence of these meristems was delayed compared with - P-treated plants. Proteoid root zones could be identified 9 d after emergence in both P treatments. Amounts of PEPC mRNA, PEPC specific activity, and enzyme protein were greater in proteoid roots than in normal roots beginning at 10, 12, and 14 d after emergence, respectively. The increases in PEPC mRNA, PEPC enzyme, and PEPC specific activity suggest that this enzyme is in part under transcriptional regulation. Recovery of organic acids from root exudates coincided with the increases in PEPC specific activity. The -P-treated plants exuded 40-, 20-, and 5-fold more citrate, malate, and succinate, respectively, than did +P-treated plants. Data presented support the hypothesis that white lupin has concerted regulation of proteoid root development, transcriptional regulation of PEPC, and biosynthesis of organic acids for exudation in response to P deficiency. PMID:8819319

Johnson, J F; Vance, C P; Allan, D L

1996-01-01

17

Characterization of an Isoflavonoid-Specific Prenyltransferase from Lupinus albus1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids possess antimicrobial activity against fungal pathogens of plants. However, only a few plant flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferase genes have been identified to date. In this study, an isoflavonoid prenyltransferase gene, designated as LaPT1, was identified from white lupin (Lupinus albus). The deduced protein sequence of LaPT1 shared high homologies with known flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases. The LaPT1 gene was mainly expressed in roots, a major site for constitutive accumulation of prenylated isoflavones in white lupin. LaPT1 is predicted to be a membrane-bound protein with nine transmembrane regions and conserved functional domains similar to other flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases; it has a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and is plastid localized. A microsomal fraction containing recombinant LaPT1 prenylated the isoflavone genistein at the B-ring 3? position to produce isowighteone. The enzyme is also active with 2?-hydroxygenistein but has no activity with other flavonoid substrates. The apparent Km of recombinant LaPT1 for the dimethylallyl diphosphate prenyl donor is in a similar range to that of other flavonoid prenyltransferases, but the apparent catalytic efficiency with genistein is considerably higher. Removal of the transit peptide increased the apparent overall activity but also increased the Km. Medicago truncatula hairy roots expressing LaPT1 accumulated isowighteone, a compound that is not naturally produced in this species, indicating a strategy for metabolic engineering of novel antimicrobial compounds in legumes. PMID:22430842

Shen, Guoan; Huhman, David; Lei, Zhentian; Snyder, John; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Dixon, Richard A.

2012-01-01

18

Lupinus albus plants acquire mercury tolerance when inoculated with an Hg-resistant Bradyrhizobium strain.  

PubMed

One strain of Bradyrhizobium canariense (L-7AH) was selected for its metal-resistance and ability to nodulate white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants, from a collection of rhizobial strains previously created from soils of the Almadén mining district (Spain) with varying levels of Hg contamination. Plants were inoculated with either strain L-7AH (Hg-tolerant) or L-3 (Hg-sensitive, used as control), and watered with nutrient solutions supplemented with various concentrations (0-200 ?M) of HgCl2 in a growth chamber. L. albus inoculated with L-7AH were able to nodulate even at the highest concentration of Hg while those inoculated with L-3 had virtually no nodules at Hg concentrations above 25 ?M. Plants inoculated with L-7AH, but not those with the control strain, were able to accumulate large amounts of Hg in their roots and nodules. Nodulation with L-7AH allowed plants to maintain constant levels of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in their leaves and a high photosynthetic efficiency, whereas in those inoculated with L-3 both pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency decreased significantly as Hg concentration increased. Nitrogenase activity of plants nodulated with L-7AH remained fairly constant at all concentrations of Hg used. Results suggest that this symbiotic pair may be used for rhizoremediation of Hg-contaminated soils. PMID:24125840

Quiñones, Miguel A; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

2013-12-01

19

Substitution of fixed amounts of soyabean meal for field beans (Vicia faba), sweet lupins (Lupinus albus), cull peas (Pisum sativum) and vetchs (Vicia sativa) in diets for high performance laying leghorn hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. An experiment was conducted to establish the effect of increasing the dietary amounts of field beans, sweet lupins, cull peas and vetchs on the productivity of high performance laying hens.2. There was a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between the dietary concentration of beans and vetchs and food intake, egg production and food to egg ratio.3. The inclusion of peas

J. I. R. Castanon

1990-01-01

20

?-N-Acetylhexosaminidase involvement in ?-conglutin mobilization in Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification involved in the modulation of a wide variety of cellular processes. Because glycosydases are central, the aim of this study was to investigate the glycosyl activity present in the cotyledons of the seeds of an important crop legume, Lupinus albus, as well as potential natural substrates of the detected enzymes. The glycosyl activity detected in the cotyledons beginning at seed imbibition and continuing until 9 days after, was due to a ?-N-acetylhexosaminidase (?-NAHase), which was molecularly and biochemically characterized after purification. Two isoenzymes with molecular masses of 64 and 61 kDa were detected, each having five isoenzymes with pIs 5.3-5.6. The 64 and 61 kDa isoenzymes had the same protein core showing different degrees of glycosylation. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme protein core was determined [VDSEDLI(EN)AFKIYVEDDNEHLQGSVD] and to our knowledge, is the first reported protein sequence from a plant ?-NAHase. L. albus ?-NAHase had Km values of 2.59 mM and 2.94 mM and V values of 18.40 ?M min(-1) and 2.73 ?M min(-1), for pNP-GlcNAc and pNP-GalNAc, an optimum pH of 5.0 and 4.0 and temperature of 50 °C and 60 °C were detected toward pNP-GlcNAc and pNP-GalNAc. In the presence of AgNO3, CoCl2, CuSO4, FeCl3, CdCl2 and ZnCl2 the enzymatic activity decreased more than 50%, and when in the presence of sugars, an activity reduction of no more than 25% was observed. A physiological role for ?-NAHase in L. albus storage protein mobilization was investigated. ?-NAHase has already been implicated in several biological processes, namely in glycoprotein processing during seed germination and seedling growth. However, the natural substrates used by this enzyme are not yet completely clarified. By gathering in vivo and in vitro data for ?-NAHase activity together with globulin degradation, we suggest that L. albus ?-NAHase is involved in the mobilization of storage protein degradation, with ?-conglutin being a potential natural substrate for this enzyme. PMID:23602380

Santos, Cláudia N; Alves, Marta; Oliveira, António; Ferreira, Ricardo B

2013-08-15

21

Lupine induced "crooked calf disease" in Washington and Oregon: identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulfureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus.  

PubMed

Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced "crooked calf disease" occur in northern Oregon and eastern Washington state. Five lupine populations from this area representing three species (L. leucophyllus, L. sulfureus, and L. sericeus) were evaluated taxonomically and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the major alkaloids in each lupine species were identified. The teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine was present in both of the lupine species responsible for the high outbreaks in east-central Washington and northeastern Oregon. However, the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. leucophyllus were dissimilar, as were the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. sulfureus. Botanical classification is not sufficient to determine potential teratogenicity, and it must be followed by chemical characterization to determine risk to livestock. PMID:18038992

Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Ralphs, Michael H; Motteram, Ernie S; Pfister, James A; Gay, Clive C

2007-12-26

22

Phosphorus Stress-Induced Proteoid Roots Show Altered Metabolism in Lupinus albus.  

PubMed Central

Proteoid roots develop in Lupinus albus L. in response to nutrient stress, especially P. Proteoid roots excrete citrate and thus increase the availability of P, Fe, and Mn in the rhizosphere. In an effort to understand citrate synthesis and organic acid metabolism in proteoid roots of lupin, we have evaluated in vitro enzyme activities of citrate synthase (CS), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in proteoid and normal roots of plants grown with or without P. Organic acid concentrations, respiration rates, and dark 14CO2-labeling patterns were also determined. The in vitro specific activities of CS, MDH, and PEPC and in vivo dark 14CO2 fixation were higher in proteoid roots compared to normal roots, particularly under P stress. Western blot analysis showed that PEPC enzyme protein was more highly expressed in -P proteoid roots compared to other tissues. The majority of the fixed 14C was found in organic acids, predominantly malate and citrate. A larger fraction of citrate was labeled in P- stressed proteoid roots compared to other root tissue. Respiration rates of proteoid roots were 31% less than those of normal roots. The data provide evidence for increased synthesis of citrate in proteoid roots compared to normal roots, particularly under P stress. A portion of the carbon for citrate synthesis is derived from nonautotrophic CO2 fixation via PEPC in proteoid roots. PMID:12232116

Johnson, J. F.; Allan, D. L.; Vance, C. P.

1994-01-01

23

Antioxidant activity and phenolic content in three lupin species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total phenolic compounds, phenolic acids and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities were measured in extracts from seeds of Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus and Lupinus angustifolius cultivars. The total phenolic compound contents varied from 491.51 to 731.14mg\\/100g d.m. for cvs. Butan (L. albus) and Parys (L. luteus), respectively. Protocatechuic acid was the most abundant in seeds of yellow lupin (up to

Aleksander Siger; Jaroslaw Czubinski; Piotr Kachlicki; Krzysztof Dwiecki; Eleonora Lampart-Szczapa; Malgorzata Nogala-Kalucka

24

Responses of two genotypes of Lupinus albus L. to zinc application on an alkaline soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupinus albus L. grown on alkaline soils shows symptoms resembling zinc (Zn) deficiency. This study tested whether Zn deficiency is an important cause of poor growth of this species on alkaline soils. We examined the responses of two L. albus genotypes (75B09–02 and Kiev Mutant) to application of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) (0–200 mg Zn per 3 kg soil) on an

A. Liu; C. Tang

1999-01-01

25

THE RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT OF SEEDLINGS OF LUPINUS ALBUS DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF GERMINATION  

PubMed Central

In germinating seedlings of Lupinus albus, the initial respiratory quotient was found to be unity. After a drop to 0.76 at 9 hours, the value rose to 0.90 at 12 hours, and then fell to 0.64 at 60 hours. It is improbable that the fat oxidation system is the first to become activated. PMID:19873001

Craig, F. N.

1937-01-01

26

Root Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Phosphorus-Deficient Lupinus albus (Contribution to Organic Acid Exudation by Proteoid Roots).  

PubMed Central

When white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is subjected to P deficiency lateral root development is altered and densely clustered, tertiary lateral roots (proteoid roots) are initiated. These proteoid roots exude large amounts of citrate, which increases P solubilization. In the current study plants were grown with either 1 mM P (+P-treated) or without P (-P-treated). Shoots or roots of intact plants from both P treatments were labeled independently with 14CO2 to compare the relative contribution of C fixed in each with the C exuded from roots as citrate and other organic acids. About 25-fold more acid-stable 14C, primarily in citrate and malate, was recovered in exudates from the roots of -P-treated plants compared with +P-treated plants. The rate of in vivo C fixation in roots was about 4-fold higher in -P-treated plants than in +P-treated plants. Evidence from labeling intact shoots or roots indicates that synthesis of citrate exuded by -P-treated roots is directly related to nonphotosynthetic C fixation in roots. C fixed in roots of -P-treated plants contributed about 25 and 34% of the C exuded as citrate and malate, respectively. Nonphotosynthetic C fixation in white lupin roots is an integral component in the exudation of large amounts of citrate and malate, thus increasing the P available to the plant. PMID:12226371

Johnson, J. F.; Allan, D. L.; Vance, C. P.; Weiblen, G.

1996-01-01

27

Genotypic and environmental effects on lupin seed composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is gaining importance due to its high nitrogen fixation capability and potential in sustainable crop production systems. Even though research conducted in Australia, Chile, Germany, New Zealand, and Portugal has indicated lupin's positive potential as human and animal food, such information from Virginia and adjoining areas of the United States is not available. In

Harbans L. Bhardwaj; Anwar A. Hamama; Laura C. Merrick

1998-01-01

28

Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration, and Pools in Velvet Lupine ( Lupinus leucophyllus ) Over the Growing Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupinus leucophyllus is one of many lupine species known to contain toxic and\\/or teratogenic alkaloids that can cause congenital birth defects.\\u000a The concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual major alkaloids were measured in three different years from different\\u000a plant parts over the phenological development of the plant. All of the alkaloids were found in the different plant tissues\\u000a throughout

Stephen T. Lee; Michael H. Ralphs; Kip E. Panter; Daniel Cook; Dale R. Gardner

2007-01-01

29

Phenolics and Antioxidative Activities in Narrow-Leafed Lupins ( Lupinus angustifolius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) genotypes grown at four locations in south central Alberta in 2004 were evaluated for variability in phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity measured by a photochemiluminescence assay. Genotype was the main source of variation for content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. Phenolic compounds in genotypes varied minimally from 11.9 to 14.7 mg catechin equivalent and 4.15

B. Dave Oomah; Nathalie Tiger; Mark Olson; Parthiba Balasubramanian

2006-01-01

30

Administration of Lupinus albus gamma conglutin (C?) to n5 STZ rats augmented Ins-1 gene expression and pancreatic insulin content.  

PubMed

Several studies support the health-promoting benefits of lupins, particularly lupin proteins. It has been demonstrated that Lupinus albus gamma conglutin (C?) protein lowered blood glucose levels; thus, C? showed promise as a new anti-diabetic compound for type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of C? on Ins-1 gene expression and on pancreatic insulin content in streptozotocin-mediated diabetic rats. C? was isolated from Lupinus albus seeds. Its identification was confirmed with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under native and denaturing conditions. We used streptozotocin (STZ) to induce T2D on the 5th day of life of newborn male Wistar rats (n5-STZ). After 20 weeks post-induction, these animals (glycemia?>?200 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to three groups that received the following one-week treatments: vehicle, 0.90%?w/v NaCl (n5 STZ-Ctrl); glibenclamide, 10 mg/kg (n5 STZ-Glib); or C?, 120 mg/kg (n5 STZ-C?). Glucose and insulin levels were measured before and after treatment. Ins-1 gene expression was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction and the pancreatic insulin content was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Post-treatment, the n5 STZ-C? and n5 STZ-Glib groups showed reductions in glucose, increments in serum insulin, and increases in Ins-1 gene expression and beta cell insulin content compared to the n5 STZ-Ctrl group. The results showed that C? had beneficial effects on Ins-1 gene expression and pancreatic insulin content. These biological effects of C? strengthen its promising potential as a nutraceutical and/or new agent for controlling hyperglycemia. PMID:24894193

Vargas-Guerrero, Belinda; García-López, Pedro M; Martínez-Ayala, Alma L; Domínguez-Rosales, José A; Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen M

2014-09-01

31

Identification of the metabolites of Indole3-acetic acid in growing hypocotyls of Lupinus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The products of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolism by incubating hypocotyl sections and decapitated seedlings of Lupinus albus were investigated. Single treatments using [1-14C]-IAA, [2-14C]-IAA or [5-3H]-IAA and double treatments using [1-14C]-IAA+[5-3H]-IAA were carried out. Extracts from treated plant material were analyzed by paper chromatography (PC), Thin layer chromatography (TLC), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When hypocotyl sections were incubated

J. Sánchez-Bravo; A. Ortuño; J. M. Botía; J. A. Del Río; M. Caballero; M. Acosta; F. Sabater

1990-01-01

32

The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from lupines (Lupinus species) that cause crooked calf disease1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly crooked calf disease in preg- nant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primarily responsible for crooked calf disease. Lupines also contain teratogenic piperidine alkaloids including

S. T. Lee; K. E. Panter; J. A. Pfister; D. R. Gardner; K. D. Welch

33

Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of high-protein lupin products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to produce high protein lupin products, ?-galactoside extraction from Lupinus angustifolius cv. Troll and cv. Emir and Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa, and protein isolation from L. albus cv. Multolupa were carried out. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), DPPH radical-scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide dismutase-like activity (SOD-like activity), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids were

Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga; Henryk Zieli?ski; Juana Frias; Mariusz K. Pisku?a; Halina Koz?owska; Concepción Vidal-Valverde

2009-01-01

34

Phenolics and antioxidative activities in narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.).  

PubMed

Eight lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) genotypes grown at four locations in south central Alberta in 2004 were evaluated for variability in phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity measured by a photochemiluminescence assay. Genotype was the main source of variation for content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. Phenolic compounds in genotypes varied minimally from 11.9 to 14.7 mg catechin equivalent and 4.15 to 4.95 mg rutin equivalent g(-1) lupin for total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Lupin genotypes exhibited weak antioxidant activity based on water-soluble substances (ACW) of 0.54 to 1.07 micromole Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC)/g with lag time ranging from 70 to 153 s and an antioxidant index of 6.7 to 14.5 and 1.9 to 3.3 micromole TEAC/g based on measurements of lipid-soluble substances (ACL). Antioxidant activity of lupin genotypes was not related to phenolic contents of seeds. PMID:16804740

Oomah, B Dave; Tiger, Nathalie; Olson, Mark; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

2006-06-01

35

Effect of germination and fermentation on the antioxidant vitamin content and antioxidant capacity of Lupinus albus L. var. Multolupa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work studies the antioxidant capacity as well as the vitamin C and E contents of raw, fermented and germinated seeds of Lupinus albus L. var. Multolupa. Vitamin C was quantified by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis and vitamin E isomers by high performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant capacity was determined by spectrophotometry and expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity

Juana Frias; Martha L. Miranda; Rosa Doblado; Concepción Vidal-Valverde

2005-01-01

36

Presence of nitric oxide synthase activity in roots and nodules of Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

NO is a widespread messenger molecule in physiology. We were interested in investigating whether an NO-generating system could be present in plants. NO and L-[14C]citrulline were synthesized by roots and nodules of Lupinus albus in an L-arginine-dependent manner. L-[14C]Citrulline production was inhibited by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase antagonist, in a competitive way. NADPH-diaphorase activity was localized in the vascular bundles in root and nodules, and also in the nodule infected zone. This staining was significantly reduced in the presence of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. These results indicate the presence of a putative nitric oxide synthase in plants. PMID:8977098

Cueto, M; Hernández-Perera, O; Martín, R; Bentura, M L; Rodrigo, J; Lamas, S; Golvano, M P

1996-12-01

37

Spectroscopic studies on the pH-dependent structural dynamics of ?-conglutin, the blood glucose-lowering protein of lupin seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Conglutin is a blood glucose-lowering protein purified from lupin (Lupinus albus, L.) seed. Despite various features of this protein have already been studied, no function in the seed nor any mechanism of action as a hypoglycemic nutraceutical compound have been identified so far. The lupin protein was shown to exist both in monomeric and multimeric forms as a function of

Jessica Capraro; Paolo Spotti; Chiara Magni; Alessio Scarafoni; Marcello Duranti

2010-01-01

38

Germination as a process to increase the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of lupin seeds ( Lupinus angustifolius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the effect of germination of lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius L., c.v. Zapatón) on bioactive phenolic compounds as well as on the antioxidant activity was studied. Phenolic compounds were analysed by HPLC-PAD-ESI\\/MS. The antioxidant activity was determined by spectrophotometry, evaluating the free radical scavenging activity of the samples. Germination produced significant changes in flavonoids and non-flavonoid phenolic compounds.

M. Dueñas; T. Hernández; I. Estrella; D. Fernández

2009-01-01

39

Cohnella lupini sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain designated RLAHU4B(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in León (Spain). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain showed similarities lower than 97?% with respect to species of the genus Cohnella. The strain was a Gram-variable, sporulating rod, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, and facultatively anaerobic. It was positive for oxidase, catalase and ?-galactosidase production but negative for urease, amylase and gelatinase. Strain RLAHU4B(T) grew in the presence of 5?% NaCl. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid was present in the peptidoglycan. anteiso-C15?:?0, iso-C16?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 and C16?:?0 were the major fatty acids. Major polar lipids of strain RLAHU4B(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown phospholipids, two unknown aminophospholipids and one unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Strain RLAHU4B(T) presented phenotypic differences from all recognized species of the genus Cohnella. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data indicated that strain RLAHU4B(T) belongs to a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella lupini sp. nov. is proposed, with strain RLAHU4B(T) (?=?LMG 27416(T)?=?CECT 8236(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24021729

Flores-Félix, José David; Carro, Lorena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, José M; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

2014-01-01

40

Short- and long-term effects of dehydroascorbate in Lupinus albus and Allium cepa roots.  

PubMed

Administration of 1 mM dehydroascorbate (DHA) results in a rapid and large increase in cellular ascorbate (AA) content in both Lupinus albus L. and Allium cepa L. root tips. Uptake of DHA from the medium occurs at a high rate within 10-12 h of incubation, and is slowed down thereafter. In the first few h, DHA reduction to AA is apparently correlated to GSH depletion and slightly higher DHA reductase activity. DHA incubation also seems to induce new GSH synthesis. Longer DHA incubation (24 h) affects root growth by inhibiting cell proliferation. At this stage, an apparently generalised oxidation of SH-containing proteins is observed in DHA-treated roots. Treatment with 1 mM L-galactono-gamma-lactone, the last precursor of AA biosynthesis, results in an increase in AA content similar to that obtained with DHA, but stimulates growth and affects the redox state of SH-containing proteins in the opposite way. A possible multi-step mechanism of DHA reduction/removal is suggested and the hypothesis that DHA inhibits cell cycle progression by affecting the redox state of SH-containing proteins is discussed. PMID:11522912

Paciolla, C; De Tullio, M C; Chiappetta, A; Innocenti, A M; Bitonti, M B; Liso, R; Arrigoni, O

2001-08-01

41

Domestication bottlenecks limit genetic diversity and constrain adaptation in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).  

PubMed

In contrast to most widespread broad-acre crops, the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) was domesticated very recently, in breeding programmes isolated in both space and time. Whereas domestication was initiated in Central Europe in the early twentieth century, the crop was subsequently industrialized in Australia, which now dominates world production. To investigate the ramifications of these bottlenecks, the genetic diversity of wild (n = 1,248) and domesticated populations (n = 95) was characterized using diversity arrays technology, and adaptation studied using G × E trials (n = 31) comprising all Australian cultivars released from 1967 to 2004 (n = 23). Principal coordinates analysis demonstrates extremely limited genetic diversity in European and Australian breeding material compared to wild stocks. AMMI analysis indicates that G × E interaction is a minor, albeit significant effect, dominated by strong responses to local, Western Australian (WA) optima. Over time Australian cultivars have become increasingly responsive to warm, intermediate rainfall environments in the northern WA grainbelt, but much less so to cool vegetative phase eastern environments, which have considerably more yield potential. G × E interaction is well explained by phenology, and its interaction with seasonal climate, as a result of varying vernalization responses. Yield differences are minimized when vegetative phase temperatures fully satisfy the vernalization requirement (typical of eastern Australia), and maximized when they do not (typical of WA). In breeding for WA optima, the vernalization response has been eliminated and there has been strong selection for terminal drought avoidance through early phenology, which limits yield potential in longer season eastern environments. Conversely, vernalization-responsive cultivars are more yield-responsive in the east, where low temperatures moderately extend the vegetative phase. The confounding of phenology and vernalization response limits adaptation in narrow-leafed lupin, isolates breeding programmes, and should be eliminated by widening the flowering time range in a vernalization-unresponsive background. Concomitantly, breeding strategies that will widen the genetic base of the breeding pool in an ongoing manner should be initiated. PMID:22069118

Berger, J D; Buirchell, B J; Luckett, D J; Nelson, M N

2012-03-01

42

Alkaloid profiles, concentration, and pools in velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) over the growing season.  

PubMed

Lupinus leucophyllus is one of many lupine species known to contain toxic and/or teratogenic alkaloids that can cause congenital birth defects. The concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual major alkaloids were measured in three different years from different plant parts over the phenological development of the plant. All of the alkaloids were found in the different plant tissues throughout the growing season, although their levels varied in different tissues. Concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual alkaloids varied on an annual basis and in their distribution in the different tissues. Anagyrine levels were highest in the floral tissue, lupanine and unknown F accumulated to the greatest level in the vegetative tissue, and 5,6-dehydrolupanine accumulated to the highest level in the stem. These alkaloids appear to be in a metabolically active state with the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine accumulating to its highest level in the developing seed. The latter is, thus, the phenological stage posing the greatest danger to grazing livestock. PMID:17146716

Lee, Stephen T; Ralphs, Michael H; Panter, Kip E; Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R

2007-01-01

43

Phosphate deficiency regulates phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase expression in proteoid root clusters of white lupin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteoid roots play a major role in enabling white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to adapt to phosphate (Pi) deficiency. Such roots release citrate from proteoid rootlets, which allows this species to mobilize Pi from sparingly soluble Pi sources. Release of citrate is preceded by a significant accumulation of organic acids, in which a Pi deficiency- inducible phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) ac-

Enrique Penaloza; Haroldo Salvo-Garrido; Herman Silva; Luis J. Corcuera

2005-01-01

44

Fatty acids and oil content in white lupin seed as affected by production practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of the seed oil of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), a potential alternative winter crop in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, are not well established. Replicated\\u000a experiments were conducted during the 1998–1999 and 1999–2000 growing seasons with a determinate and an indeterminate cultivar\\u000a to characterize oil and FA in lupin seed in relation to production practices. The

Harbans L. Bhardwaj; Anwar A. Hamama; Edzard van Santen

2004-01-01

45

Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205?Mb and 530?Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64?L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome sequencing will facilitate the further development of genomic tools and lupin germplasm. Massive sequencing of cDNA libraries will continue to produce raw materials for gene discovery, identification of polymorphisms (SNPs, EST-SSRs, INDELs, etc.) for marker development, anchoring sequences for genome comparisons and putative gene candidates for QTL detection. PMID:22920992

2012-01-01

46

Study of the intercellular fluid of healthy Lupinus albus organs. Presence of a chitinase and a thaumatin-like protein.  

PubMed Central

Proteins in the intercellular fluid (IF) of healthy Lupinus albus leaves were characterized. Silver staining of the proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed more than 30 polypeptides, with the major ones having a molecular mass lower than 36 kD. After amino-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, one of the major polypeptides, IF4, was shown to have no identity with any of the proteins present in the data bases. Two others, IF1 and IF3, showed identity with previously reported pathogenesis-related proteins, IF1 with an antifungal protein from Hordeum vulgare that belongs to the thaumatin family (PR-5 family), and IF3 with class III chitinase-lysozymes. IF3 was also present in the IF of stem and root and it represents the major polypeptide in the medium of L. albus cell-suspension cultures. The ubiquitous presence of this enzyme in healthy, nonstressed tissues of L. albus cannot be explained. PMID:8587984

Regalado, A P; Ricardo, C P

1996-01-01

47

Trypsin inhibitor contents of lupin seeds and other grain legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses for trypsin inhibitor were carried out on a group of legume seed samples previously evaluated nutritionally in rat growth studies. Sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus and L. angustifolius) had no detectable amount of inhibitor (less than 0.1 mg\\/g). Glycine max (soya beans) had 26.2 mg\\/g. Phaseolus lunatus (lima beans) and three varieties of P. vulgaris had 10–20 mg\\/g; the

E. L. Hove; Susan King

1979-01-01

48

Antioxidant defence and damage in senescing lupin nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dark-induced and natural nodule senescence (ageing) were studied in lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Multolupa) plants. Continuous darkness caused loss of nitrogen fixation. After 2 d of treatment the nitrogenase (Nase, EC 1.18.6.1) activity decreased by 90%, and after 4 d it was completely abolished. Elevated catalytic iron content was detected in the nodule cytosol after 2–7 d of dark and after 7–9

María Jesús Hernández-Jiménez; M Mercedes Lucas; María Rosario de Felipe

2002-01-01

49

Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early (2-4 d) effects of slowly imposed soil water deficit on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance in different organs (leaf blade, stem stele, stem cortex, and root) were evaluated on 23-d-old plants (growth chamber assay). Our work shows that several metabolic adjustments occurred prior to alteration of the plant water status, implying that water deficit

Carla Pinheiro; Carla Antonio; Maria Fernanda Ortuno; Petre I. Dobrev; Wolfram Hartung; Jane Thomas-Oates; Candido Pinto Ricardo; Radomira Vankova; M. Manuela Chaves; Julie C. Wilson

2011-01-01

50

Physiological adaptations to phosphorus deficiency during proteoid root development in white lupin  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Release of large amounts of citric acid from specialized root clusters (proteoid roots) of phosphorus (P)-deficient white\\u000a lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is an efficient strategy for chemical mobilization of sparingly available P sources in the rhizosphere. The present study\\u000a demonstrates that increased accumulation and exudation of citric acid and a concomitant release of protons were predominantly\\u000a restricted to mature

Günter Neumann; Agnès Massonneau; Enrico Martinoia; Volker Römheld

1999-01-01

51

The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from lupines (Lupinus species) that cause crooked calf disease.  

PubMed

Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly crooked calf disease in pregnant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primarily responsible for crooked calf disease. Lupines also contain teratogenic piperidine alkaloids including ammodendrine. Previous work in sheep has shown that lupine alkaloid clearance may be influenced by the animal's physiological status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if differences in body condition of cattle would alter the absorption and elimination of anagyrine or ammodendrine given in a single oral dose as Lupinus leucophyllus or Lupinus sulphureus, respectively. Mature non-lactating cows in low body condition (LBC, n = 4) and high body condition (HBC, n = 4) received a single dose of dry ground lupine plant (2.0 g/kg of BW) via oral gavage. Lupinus leucophyllus (anagyrine) was dosed first; then after 21 d the same animals were dosed with L. sulphureus (ammodendrine). Blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture 0 to 60 h after dosing. Serum anagyrine and ammodendrine concentrations were evaluated. The concentration of anagyrine was greater (P = 0.001) in the HBC group and peaked 2 h after dosing versus 12 h in LBC cows. Similarly for ammodendrine, the alkaloid concentration peaked at 3 h after dosing for the HBC group compared with 6 h for the LBC group (P = 0.001). Area under the curve tended to differ (P

Lee, S T; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Welch, K D

2008-10-01

52

The Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition on Cluster Root Formation and Proton Extrusion by Lupinus albus  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen nutrition can influence cluster root formation in many wild species, but the effect of N form on cluster root formation and root exudation by white lupin is not known. In a solution culture study, we examined the effect of N nutrition (ammonium, nitrate, both or N2 fixation) on cluster root formation and H+ extrusion by white lupin plants under deficient and adequate P supply. The number of cluster roots increased greatly when plants were supplied with 1 ?m P compared with 50??m P, the increase being 7·8?fold for plants treated with (NH4)2SO4, 3?fold for plants treated with KNO3 and NH4NO3, and 2·4?fold for N2?fixing plants. Under P deficiency, NH4+?N supply resulted in production of a greater number and biomass of cluster roots than other N sources. Dry weight of cluster roots was 30 % higher than that of non?cluster roots in P?deficient plants treated with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3. In plants treated with sufficient P (50 ?m), the weight of non?cluster roots was approx. 90 % greater than that of cluster roots. Both total (?mol per plant h–1) and specific (?mol g–1 root d. wt h–1) H+ extrusions were greatest from roots of plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4, followed by those supplied with NH4NO3 and N2 fixation, whereas plants receiving KNO3 had negative net H+ extrusion between the third and fifth week of growth (indicating uptake of protons or release of OH– ions). The rate of proton extrusion by NH4+?N?fed plants was similar under P?deficient and P?sufficient conditions. In contrast, proton exudation by N2?fixing plants and KNO3?treated plants was ten?fold greater under P deficiency than under P sufficiency. In comparison with P deficiency, plants treated with 50 ?m P had a significantly higher concentration of P in roots, shoots and youngest expanded leaves (YEL). Compared with the N2 fixation and KNO3 treatments, total N concentration was highest in roots, shoots and YEL of plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, regardless of P supply. Under P deficiency, K concentrations in roots decreased at all N supplies, especially in plants treated with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, which coincided with the greatest H+ extrusion at these P and N supplies. In conclusion, NH4?N nutrition stimulated cluster root formation and H+ extrusion by roots of P?deficient white lupin. PMID:12096804

SAS, LIDIA; RENGEL, ZED; TANG, CAIXIAN

2002-01-01

53

Effect of Copper on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Mineral Nutrition of White Lupin Plants Grown in Nutrient Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the effect of different copper (Cu) concentrations (0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.35 mM) and time (1 day to 9 days) on several growth and biochemical parameters of roots and shoots of white lupin plants (Lupinus albus cv Estoril) grown in nutrient solution. A significant decrease in leaf fresh weight and leaf area was detected. Copper accumulated in the

Miguel P. Mourato; Luisa Louro Martins; Ann Cuypers

2009-01-01

54

Lactic fermentation to improve the aroma of protein extracts of sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).  

PubMed

Lupin protein extracts (LPE) are prone to the emission of a beany off-flavour during storage, which confines its application in foods. Fermentation of LPE using several lactic acid bacteria was conducted to reduce off-flavour formation in stored samples. The aroma profile of untreated LPE was compared to those of fermented protein extracts (LPEF). Hexanal and n-hexanol were used as indicator substances of progressing lipid oxidation. The most powerful odourants were evaluated by GC-olfactometry-flavour dilution analysis and identified according to their mass spectra, odour descriptions, and retention indices. Twenty two volatile substances with dilution factors equal to or higher than 100 were determined in both LPE and LPEF, amongst them n-pentanal, n-hexanal, 1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and ?-damascenone. The aroma profile was significantly modified by the fermentation process and the off-flavours were reduced and/or masked by newly formed compounds. PMID:25212139

Schindler, Sabrina; Wittig, Maximilian; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Bez, Jürgen; Eisner, Peter; Berger, Ralf G

2011-09-15

55

White lupin leads to increased maize yield through a soil fertility-independent mechanism: a new candidate for fighting Striga hermonthica infestation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N)-deficiency and lack of phosphorus (P) availability are major constraints to maize yields in Western Kenya. In\\u000a a two-season field study in the lake Victoria basin, we tested the capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus (L.), cv. Ultra), as a nitrogen-fixing crop with a highly efficient P-acquisition capacity, to increase maize yields when used as\\u000a a companion or cover

Laure Weisskopf; Pollycarp Akello; Roxane Milleret; Zeyaur R. Khan; Fritz Schulthess; Jean-Michel Gobat; Renée-Claire Le Bayon

2009-01-01

56

Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of lupine residues in foods.  

PubMed

Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, lupine provokes allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. The presence of undeclared lupine residues in foods can pose a serious health risk to lupine-allergic individuals. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a sandwich-type ELISA for the detection of lupine residues in foods. Lupine flour derived from Lupinus albus was used to immunize 3 rabbits and a sheep. Pooled lupine-specific antibodies were partially purified from the sera by ammonium sulfate precipitation. A sandwich lupine ELISA with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 ppm was developed by utilizing the rabbit antisera as the capture reagent and the sheep antiserum as the detector reagent. The binding of the antigen-antibody complex was visualized by the addition of commercial rabbit antisheep IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase with subsequent addition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate to produce a colored product for quantification. Minor cross-reactivity was observed with soy (Glycine max) and black bean (Castanospermum australe). The performance of the lupine ELISA was evaluated in reference food standards (beef frankfurter and apple cinnamon muffin) and laboratory-prepared cooked frankfurters and corn muffins. The mean percent recovery for lupine spiked-frankfurters and corn muffins were 108.4%+/- 8.8% and 103.1%+/- 11.5%, respectively. The sandwich-type lupine ELISA developed in this study provides food manufacturers and regulatory agencies with an effective analytical tool to detect and quantify lupine residues in processed foods. PMID:19019135

Kaw, C H; Hefle, S L; Taylor, S L

2008-10-01

57

Preliminary results on the effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed condensed tannins on in vitro intestinal digestibility of the lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seed protein fraction in small ruminants.  

PubMed

Condensed tannins (CT) from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) were added to complex the protein fraction of Lupinus angustifolius seeds. Three CT/protein ratios were used: 96 mg/g (T(1)), 180 mg/g (T(2)) and 0 mg/g (T(0)). The CP losses in the rumen were assessed by the nylon-bag technique and CP intestinal digestibility (CPID) was estimated using an in vitro assay applying a three-step procedure: samples were subject to rumen degradation (in situ, 16 h) and the remaining residues were subject to the digestive enzymes of the abomasum and pancreas in vitro. A positive effect (p < 0.05) of the level of CT on the immediately soluble faction a and the insoluble degradable fraction b was observed between T(0) and T(2) . In the presence of CT the rumen degradation rate was reduced (p < 0.05) from 0.0763/h (T(0)) to 0.0443/h (T(2)). The application of CT showed a reduction (around 10% for T(1)) of effective rumen CP degradability. The CPID did not seem to be affected (p > 0.05) by the presence of CT. These findings suggest that the use of grape seed CT might have the potential to improve the efficiency of utilisation of the protein fraction from lupin seeds. PMID:21039934

Bruno-Soares, A M; Soares-Pereira, A L; Matos, T J S; Ricardo-da-Silva, J M

2011-08-01

58

Performance of chickpea, lentil and lupin nodulated with indigenous or inoculated rhizobia micropartners under nitrogen, boron, cobalt and molybdenum fertilization schedules.  

PubMed

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), lentil (Lens esculenta) and lupin (Lupinus albus) responded to inoculation with their respective symbiotants:Rhizobium loti, Rhizobium leguminosarum biovarviceae andBradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) alone or with (NH4)2SO4 at 30 ppm N. Soil application of Na2MoO4.2H2O at 3 ppm Mo, CoCl2.6H2O at 2 ppm Co(2+) or Na2B4O7.10H2O at 1 ppm B with 0 and 30 ppm N increased nodule weight and plant dry weight and N-content 60 days after sowing and seed yield, seed size and the N and P contents of seed. Nodule numbers slightly decreased with application of such chemicals. Mo enhanced performance of the three plants more than Co and B. Yield, total N and P-contents of lupin were comparable with those of chickpea or lentil and lupin had the highest levels of both N2-fixation and N absorption from the fertilizer. IndigenousR. leguminosarum biovarviceae was more established in the soil compared with the other two, chickpea and lupin, micropartners. PMID:24425609

Yanni, Y G

1992-11-01

59

Effects of phosphorus supply on growth, phosphate concentration and cluster-root formation in three Lupinus species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In some lupin species, phosphate deficiency induces cluster-root formation, which enhances P uptake by increasing root surface area and, more importantly, the release of root exudates which enhances P availability. Methods Three species of Lupinus, L. albus, L. atlanticus and L. micranthus, with inherently different relative growth rates were cultivated under hydroponics in a greenhouse at four phosphate concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 150 µm) to compare the role of internal P in regulating cluster-root formation. Key Results The highest growth rate was observed in L. atlanticus, followed by L. albus and L. micranthus. At 1 µm P, cluster-root formation was markedly induced in all three species. The highest P uptake and accumulation was observed in L. micranthus, followed by L. atlanticus and then L. albus. Inhibition of cluster-root formation was severe at 10 µm P in L. atlanticus, but occurred stepwise with increasing P concentration in the root medium in L. albus. Conclusions In L. atlanticus and L. albus cluster-root formation was suppressed by P treatments above 10 µm, indicating a P-inducible regulating system for cluster-root formation, as expected. By contrast, production of cluster roots in L. micranthus, in spite of a high internal P concentration, indicated a lower sensitivity to P status, which allowed P-toxicity symptoms to develop. PMID:20037142

Abdolzadeh, Ahmad; Wang, Xing; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans

2010-01-01

60

Lupine Colonies (not yet published; shorter version) Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens  

E-print Network

on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens by Roger del Moral & Lara Rozzell Abstract: The nitrogen-fixing legume Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant herb on recently formed volcanic surfaces at Mount St. Helen species on Mount St. Helens. Some patches were established in 1981, others only within the last few years

del Moral, Roger

61

Cadmium in white lupin nodules: impact on nitrogen and carbon metabolism.  

PubMed

The aims of this work were to investigate the microlocalisation of cadmium (Cd) in Lupinus albus L. cv. Multolupa nodules, and to determine its effects on carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Nodulated white lupin plants were grown in a growth chamber with or without Cd (150 ?M). Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the walls of the outer nodule cortex cells to be the main area of Cd retention, helping to reduce the harmful effect Cd might have on the amount of N(2) fixed by the bacteroids. Sucrose synthase activity declined by 33% in the nodules of the Cd-treated plants, and smaller reductions were recorded in glutamine synthetase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline invertase and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activities. The Cd treatment also sharply reduced nodule concentrations of malate, succinate and citrate, while that of starch doubled, but that of sucrose experienced no significant change. In summary, the present results show that white lupins accumulate significant amounts of Cd in their root nodules. However, the activity of some enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation did decline, promoting a reduction in the plant N content. The downregulation of sucrose synthase limits the availability of carbon to the bacteroids, which might interfere with their respiration. Carbon metabolism therefore plays a primary role in the impaired function of the white lupin root nodule caused by Cd, while N metabolism appears to have a more secondary involvement. PMID:23246027

Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Carpena, Ramón O; Zornoza, Pilar

2013-02-15

62

An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Orthophosphate-Deficient White Lupin Reveals Novel Insights into Phosphorus Acclimation in Plants1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (Pi), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in Pi-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to Pi supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ? 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to Pi deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ? 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to Pi deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the Pi status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in Pi deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. PMID:23197803

O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Yang, S. Samuel; Miller, Susan S.; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W.; Vance, Carroll P.

2013-01-01

63

Bradyrhizobium canariense and Bradyrhizobium japonicum are the two dominant rhizobium species in root nodules of lupin and serradella plants growing in Europe.  

PubMed

Forty three Bradyrhizobium strains isolated in Poland from root nodules of lupin species (Lupinus albus, L. angustifolius and L. luteus), and pink serradella (Ornithopus sativus) were examined based on phylogenetic analyses of three housekeeping (atpD, glnII and recA) and nodulation (nodA) gene sequences. Additionally, seven strains originating from root-nodules of yellow serradella (O. compressus) from Asinara Island (Italy) were included in this study. Phylogenetic trees revealed that 15 serradella strains, including all yellow serradella isolates, and six lupin strains grouped in Bradyrhizobium canariense (BC) clade, whereas eight strains from pink serradella and 15 lupin strains were assigned to Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BJ1). Apparently, these species are the two dominant groups in soils of central Europe, in the nodules of lupin and serradella plants. Only three strains belonged to other chromosomal lineages: one formed a cluster that was sister to B. canariense, one strain grouped outside the branch formed by B. japonicum super-group, and one strain occupied a distant position in the genus Bradyrhizobium, clustering with strains of the Rhodopseudomonas genus. All strains in nodulation nodA gene tree grouped in a cluster referred to as Clade II, which is in line with earlier data on this clade dominance among Bradyrhizobium strains in Europe. The nodA tree revealed four well-supported subgroups within Clade II (II.1-II.4). Interestingly, all B. canariense strains clustered in subgroup II.1 whereas B. japonicum strains dominated subgroups II.2-II.4. PMID:21514760

St?pkowski, Tomasz; Zak, Magdalena; Moulin, Lionel; Króliczak, Joanna; Goli?ska, Barbara; Naro?na, Dorota; Safronova, Vera I; M?drzak, Cezary J

2011-07-01

64

Biosynthesis of White Lupin Isoflavonoids from [U-14C]l-Phenylalanine and Their Release into the Culture Medium 1  

PubMed Central

Pulse-labeling experiments of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cell cultures with [U-14C]l-phenylalanine for 72 h resulted in the incorporation of the radioactivity into the isoflavone aglucones, glucosides, and prenylated derivatives. Both the aglucones genistein and 2?-hydroxygenistein and their 7-O-glucosides accounted for 85% of the total isoflavonoids identified in the cultured cells and contained 35% of the radioactivity, whereas the prenylated derivatives comprised 15 and 65%, respectively. Almost 20% of the labeled isoflavones of the cellular pool was recovered from the culture medium, 90% of which were monoprenylated and diprenylated derivatives containing 80% of the radioactivity. These results clearly demonstrate the release into the culture medium of a substantial amount of the endogenously synthesized isoflavonoids, especially the prenylated derivatives. PMID:16653004

Gagnon, Hubert; Seguin, Jacynthe; Bleichert, Ernst; Tahara, Satoshi; Ibrahim, Ragai K.

1992-01-01

65

In situ evaluation of the ruminal and intestinal degradability of extruded whole lupin seed nitrogen.  

PubMed

The effect of whole lupin seeds (Lupinus albus cv Lublanc) at 120, 150 and 195 degrees C on in situ nitrogen degradability (Dg.N) was measured by the nylon bag technique using fistulated non-lactating Holstein cows. The N degradation was evaluated in nylon bags suspended in the rumen; heating the seeds at 120, 150 and 195 degrees C decreased the Dg.N value: 83.9, 72.9 and 53.0 respectively vs 95.3% (rumen outflow rate of 0.06/h). To estimate the total N disappearing in the digestive tract, bags were incubated in the rumen for 16 h, then in a pepsin bath for 2 h and then introduced into the duodenum for subsequently recovery in feces. The whole tract degradability of N was always high, approximately 98.3%. The amounts of N which disappeared in the intestine increased from 3.1 (untreated seeds) to 15.1, 26.3 and 44.7% as the temperature rose to 120, 150 and 195 degrees C respectively. The PDIN and PDIE contents (g/kg of DM) of the raw whole lupin seeds were 224 and 84 respectively; extrusion elevated these values by 10-32% for PDIN and 57-194% for PDIE. The augmentation in the supply of dietary proteins to the postruminal parts as a result of extrusion could rapidly benefit high yielding cows. PMID:1768316

Cros, P; Benchaar, C; Bayourthe, C; Vernay, M; Moncoulon, R

1991-01-01

66

Citrate-Permeable Channels in the Plasma Membrane of Cluster Roots from White Lupin1  

PubMed Central

White lupin (Lupinus albus) is well adapted to phosphorus deficiency by developing cluster roots that release large amounts of citrate into the rhizosphere to mobilize the sparingly soluble phosphorus. To determine the mechanism underlying citrate release from cluster roots, we isolated protoplasts from different types of roots of white lupin plants grown in phosphorus-replete (+P) and phosphorus-deficient (?P) conditions and used the patch-clamp technique to measure the whole-cell currents flowing across plasma membrane of these protoplasts. Two main types of anion conductance were observed in protoplasts prepared from cluster root tissue: (1) an inwardly rectifying anion conductance (IRAC) activated by membrane hyperpolarization, and (2) an outwardly rectifying anion conductance (ORAC) that became more activated with membrane depolarization. Although ORAC was an outward rectifier, it did allow substantial inward current (anion efflux) to occur. Both conductances showed citrate permeability, with IRAC being more selective for citrate3? than Cl? (PCit/PCl = 26.3), while ORAC was selective for Cl? over citrate (PCl/PCit = 3.7). Both IRAC and ORAC were sensitive to the anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. These currents were also detected in protoplasts derived from noncluster roots of ?P plants, as well as from normal (noncluster) roots of plants grown with 25 ?m phosphorus (+P). No differences were observed in the magnitude or frequency of IRAC and ORAC currents between the cluster roots and noncluster roots of ?P plants. However, the IRAC current from +P plants occurred less frequently than in the ?P plants. IRAC was unaffected by external phosphate, but ORAC had reduced inward current (anion efflux) when phosphate was present in the external medium. Our data suggest that IRAC is the main pathway for citrate efflux from white lupin roots, but ORAC may also contribute to citrate efflux. PMID:15516510

Zhang, Wen-Hao; Ryan, Peter R.; Tyerman, Stephen D.

2004-01-01

67

Direct evidence for ribonucleolytic activity of a PR-10-like protein from white lupin roots.  

PubMed

An abundant 17 kDa protein which was isolated and characterized from 10-day old healthy root tissue of white lupin (Lupinus albus) proved to have a high sequence similarity to pathogenesis-related proteins found in other species. Subsequently, a corresponding clone (LaPR-10) was identified in a cDNA library prepared from the same tissue that exhibited a high amino acid sequence similarity to a number of the PR-10 family proteins. The clone contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 158 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 16,905 Da and an isoelectric point of 4.66. Southern blot analysis indicates that LaPR-10 is likely a single-copy gene, or a member of a small gene family. The clone was expressed in Escherichia coli, and its protein product was purified to near homogeneity. Both the native and the recombinant proteins were immunorecognized by antibodies raised against pea PR-10 proteins, and exhibited a ribonucleolytic activity against several RNA preparations, including lupin root total RNA. Characterization of its enzymatic properties indicates that the LaPR-10 protein belongs to the class II ribonucleases. We present evidence that the white lupin 17 kDa protein is constitutively expressed during all stages of root development and, to a lesser extent, in other plant parts. In addition, we demonstrate the presence, in the LaPR-10 amino acid sequence, of a number of motifs that are common to most PR-10 proteins, as well as a RGD motif that is shared only with the alfalfa SRG1 sequence. PMID:10890534

Bantignies, B; Séguin, J; Muzac, I; Dédaldéchamp, F; Gulick, P; Ibrahim, R

2000-04-01

68

Identification of a low digestibility ?-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain ?conglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

2013-01-01

69

Identification of a Low Digestibility ?-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain ?conglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

2013-01-01

70

RNA-seq analysis identifies an intricate regulatory network controlling cluster root development in white lupin  

PubMed Central

Background Highly adapted plant species are able to alter their root architecture to improve nutrient uptake and thrive in environments with limited nutrient supply. Cluster roots (CRs) are specialised structures of dense lateral roots formed by several plant species for the effective mining of nutrient rich soil patches through a combination of increased surface area and exudation of carboxylates. White lupin is becoming a model-species allowing for the discovery of gene networks involved in CR development. A greater understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms driving these developmental processes is important for the generation of smarter plants for a world with diminishing resources to improve food security. Results RNA-seq analyses for three developmental stages of the CR formed under phosphorus-limited conditions and two of non-cluster roots have been performed for white lupin. In total 133,045,174 high-quality paired-end reads were used for a de novo assembly of the root transcriptome and merged with LAGI01 (Lupinus albus gene index) to generate an improved LAGI02 with 65,097 functionally annotated contigs. This was followed by comparative gene expression analysis. We show marked differences in the transcriptional response across the various cluster root stages to adjust to phosphate limitation by increasing uptake capacity and adjusting metabolic pathways. Several transcription factors such as PLT, SCR, PHB, PHV or AUX/IAA with a known role in the control of meristem activity and developmental processes show an increased expression in the tip of the CR. Genes involved in hormonal responses (PIN, LAX, YUC) and cell cycle control (CYCA/B, CDK) are also differentially expressed. In addition, we identify primary transcripts of miRNAs with established function in the root meristem. Conclusions Our gene expression analysis shows an intricate network of transcription factors and plant hormones controlling CR initiation and formation. In addition, functional differences between the different CR developmental stages in the acclimation to phosphorus starvation have been identified. PMID:24666749

2014-01-01

71

Localized application of soil organic matter shifts distribution of cluster roots of white lupin in the soil profile due to localized release of phosphorus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phosphorus (P) is a major factor controlling cluster-root formation. Cluster-root proliferation tends to concentrate in organic matter (OM)-rich surface-soil layers, but the nature of this response of cluster-root formation to OM is not clear. Cluster-root proliferation in response to localized application of OM was characterized in Lupinus albus (white lupin) grown in stratified soil columns to test if the stimulating effect of OM on cluster-root formation was due to (a) P release from breakdown of OM; (b) a decrease in soil density; or (c) effects of micro-organisms other than releasing P from OM. Methods Lupin plants were grown in three-layer stratified soil columns where P was applied at 0 or 330 mg P kg?1 to create a P-deficient or P-sufficient background, and OM, phytate mixed with OM, or perlite was applied to the top or middle layers with or without sterilization. Key Results Non-sterile OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation and root length, and this effect became greater when phytate was supplied in the presence of OM. Both sterile OM and perlite significantly decreased cluster-root formation in the localized layers. The OM position did not change the proportion of total cluster roots to total roots in dry biomass among no-P treatments, but more cluster roots were concentrated in the OM layers with a decreased proportion in other places. Conclusions Localized application of non-sterile OM or phytate plus OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation of L. albus in the localized layers. This effect is predominantly accounted for by P release from breakdown of OM or phytate, but not due to a change in soil density associated with OM. No evidence was found for effects of micro-organisms in OM other than those responsible for P release. PMID:20150198

Li, Hai-Gang; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lambers, Hans

2010-01-01

72

The nutritional role of Lupinus arboreus in coastal sand dune forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the artificial plant succession used to stabilise coastal sand dunes in New Zealand,Lupinus arboreus is sown into plantedAmmophila arenaria stands primarily to provide shelter for youngPinus radiata trees. Recent observations have suggested that the lupin may play a nutritional, as well as a physical part in the stabilisation\\u000a technique. Work elsewhere with otherLupinus spp. and forest crops supports this

Ruth L. Gadgil

1971-01-01

73

Influence of plant secondary metabolites on in vitro oxidation of methyl ferulate with cell wall peroxidases from lupine apoplast.  

PubMed

Ionically bound cell wall peroxidases (POXs) were liberated to intercellular washing fluids (IWFs) and isolated together with other proteins and metabolites present in the apoplast of white lupine (Lupinus albus L. var. Bac) root. After separation of proteins from low molecular weight compounds, activity of peroxidases was monitored in in vitro experiments. Oxidation of methyl ferulate with H2O2 was studied in multi-component mixtures of plant metabolites. Secondary metabolites identified in IWFs or other natural products playing important roles in different physiological processes were applied as modifiers of the dehydrodimerization process during oxidation reactions performed in vitro. These were isoflavones and their conjugates, lupanine representing quinolizidine alkaloids synthesized in lupine, or other natural products such as quercetin, ascorbic, and salicylic acid. The influence of these substances on the oxidation kinetics of methyl ferulate was monitored with liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC/UV), and identification of compounds was confirmed with the liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) system. On the basis of data collected, it was possible to reveal changes in the activities of cell wall POXs. Application of the LC system permitted us to monitor, independently, quantitative changes of two or more reaction products in the mixtures. In multi-component combinations, oxidation yields of methyl ferulate by POXs were modified depending on the actual composition of the reaction mixture. We conclude that various classes of plant secondary metabolites can modify the yield of methyl ferulate oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of POX, due to interactions with the enzyme's active site (genistein) or radical scavenging properties of metabolites present in the reaction mixture. PMID:17928101

Marczak, ?ukasz; Wojtaszek, Przemys?aw; Stobiecki, Maciej

2008-01-01

74

Linking Development and Determinacy with Organic Acid Efflux from Proteoid Roots of White Lupin Grown with Low Phosphorus and Ambient or Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Concentration1  

PubMed Central

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 ?m phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals (proteoid rootlets) emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length (4 mm), citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. We suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated (700 ?L L?1) atmospheric [CO2] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO2]. PMID:10398705

Watt, Michelle; Evans, John R.

1999-01-01

75

Recovering Root System Traits Using Image Analysis Exemplified by Two-Dimensional Neutron Radiography Images of Lupine1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

2014-01-01

76

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LUPIN SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupin seeds have been used as a source of protein for animal feeding and human consumption. Recently, human consumption of lupins has been increased due to their nutritional values and some functional properties. As lupins are used as an ingredient in foods, the health benefits of lupins are being investigated by researchers. It was known that antioxidant phytochemicals in foods

Shaofang Wang; Jon Clements

77

Spatial distribution and expression of intracellular and extracellular acid phosphatases of cluster roots at different developmental stages in white lupin.  

PubMed

Acid phosphatases (APases) play a key role in phosphorus (P) acquisition and recycling in plants. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) forms cluster roots (CRs) and produces large amounts of APases under P deficiency. However, the relationships between the activity of intracellular and extracellular APases (EC 3.1.3.2) and CR development are not fully understood. Here, comparative studies were conducted to examine the spatial variation pattern of APase activity during CR development using the enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) and the p-nitrophenyl phosphate methods. The activity of intracellular and extracellular APases was significantly enhanced under P deficiency in the non-CRs and CRs at different developmental stages. These two APases exhibited different spatial distribution patterns during CR development, and these distribution patterns were highly modified by P deficiency. The activity of extracellular APase increased steadily with CR development from meristematic, juvenile, mature to senescent stages under P deficiency. In comparison, P deficiency-induced increase in the activity of intracellular APase remained relatively constant during CR development. Increased activity of intracellular and extracellular APases was associated with enhanced expression of LaSAP1 encoding intracellular APase and LaSAP2 encoding extracellular APase. The expression levels of these two genes were significantly higher at transcriptional level in both mature and senescent CRs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that both activity and gene expression of intracellular or extracellular APases exhibit a differential response pattern during CR development, depending on root types, CR developmental stages and P supply. Simultaneous in situ determination of intracellular and extracellular APase activity has proved to be an effective approach for studying spatial variation of APases during CR development. PMID:23746995

Tang, Hongliang; Li, Xiaoqing; Zu, Chao; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

2013-09-15

78

Antioxidative defense system in lupin roots exposed to increasing concentrations of lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) cv. Juno seedlings exposed to increasing concentrations of Pb2+ (50–350 mg l?1) were analysed in respect to its effect on the degradation of lipids, the content of antioxidants (ascorbate, ?-tocopherol)\\u000a and the activity of the ascorbate glutathione cycle enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase DAR; EC 1.8.5.1 and glutathione reductase\\u000a GR; EC 1.6.4.2). Lipid peroxidation, expressed as the content

Renata RuciÒska-Sobkowiak; Pawe? M. Pukacki

2006-01-01

79

Germination as a process to improve the antioxidant capacity of Lupinus angustifolius L. var. Zapaton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant capacity, measured by glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase-like activity (SOD-like activity), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been evaluated in raw and germinated lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius L. var. Zapaton) for 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 9 days. The content of antioxidant

Rebeca Fernandez-Orozco; Mariusz K. Piskula; Henryk Zielinski; Halina Kozlowska; Juana Frias; Concepción Vidal-Valverde

2006-01-01

80

Ability of lupine seeds to germinate and to tolerate desiccation as related to changes in free radical level and antioxidants in freshly harvested seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) were collected throughout their development on the mother plant to determine whether the ability to germinate and to tolerate desiccation is related to the level of free radicals and the changes in the redox state of ascorbate and glutathione as well as the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based analyses

Ma?gorzata Garnczarska; Waldemar Bednarski; Mariusz Jancelewicz

2009-01-01

81

Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.  

PubMed

Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring. PMID:2089736

Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Bunch, T D; Callan, R J

1990-01-01

82

Diversification of Lupine Bradyrhizobium Strains: Evidence from Nodulation Gene Trees? †  

PubMed Central

Bradyrhizobium strains isolated in Europe from Genisteae and serradella legumes form a distinct lineage, designated clade II, on nodulation gene trees. Clade II bradyrhizobia appear to prevail also in the soils of Western Australia and South Africa following probably accidental introduction with seeds of their lupine and serradella hosts. Given this potential for dispersal, we investigated Bradyrhizobium isolates originating from a range of native New World lupines, based on phylogenetic analyses of nodulation (nodA, nodZ, noeI) and housekeeping (atpD, dnaK, glnII, recA) genes. The housekeeping gene trees revealed considerable diversity among lupine bradyrhizobia, with most isolates placed in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum lineage, while some European strains were closely related to Bradyrhizobium canariense. The nodA gene tree resolved seven strongly supported groups (clades I to VII) that correlated with strain geographical origins and to some extent with major Lupinus clades. All European strains were placed in clade II, whereas only a minority of New World strains was placed in this clade. This work, as well as our previous studies, suggests that clade II diversified predominately in the Old World, possibly in the Mediterranean. Most New World isolates formed subclade III.2, nested in a large “pantropical” clade III, which appears to be New World in origin, although it also includes strains originating from nonlupine legumes. Trees generated using nodZ and noeI gene sequences accorded well with the nodA tree, but evidence is presented that the noeI gene may not be required for nodulation of lupine and that loss of this gene is occurring. PMID:17400786

Stepkowski, Tomasz; Hughes, Colin E.; Law, Ian J.; Markiewicz, Lukasz; Gurda, Dorota; Chlebicka, Agnieszka; Moulin, Lionel

2007-01-01

83

Antioxidant properties of lupin seed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant properties of lupin flours and hulls were examined. Chemical composition (protein, fat, fatty acids, tocopherols and tannin contents) was determined and radiation effects were estimated (1, 5 and 10 kGy). Antioxidant properties of the ethanol lupin extracts were examined using the Rancimat and Oxidograph tests. Alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols were found in the lupin oil. Lupin tannins contents in

Eleonora Lampart-Szczapa; Jozef Korczak; Malgorzata Nogala-Kalucka; Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak

2003-01-01

84

Ileal digestibility of sunflower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs.  

PubMed

The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and field pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fitted with either a T-cannula or a steered ileocecal valve-cannula. Diets contained 170 to 186 g CP/kg DM. Endogenous losses of CP and AA were estimated by feeding a N-free diet. The SID was calculated using the average of Cr(2)O(3) and TiO(2) as indigestible markers and corrected for type of cannula. The SID of CP was greater (P < 0.05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunflower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P < 0.05) in sunflower meal, and the SID of Met and Val were lowest (P < 0.05) in lupine. These results imply soybean meal and pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunflower meal, rapeseed cake, and especially lupine, although all tested feedstuffs seem appropriate for inclusion in diets for organic pigs. PMID:23365330

Nørgaard, J V; Fernández, J A; Jørgensen, H

2012-12-01

85

Differential response of antioxidative enzymes in embryonic axes and cotyledons of germinating lupine seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds was accompanied by an increase in concentration of free radicals with g\\u000a \\u000a 1\\u000a and g\\u000a \\u000a 2\\u000a values of 2.0056 ± 0.0003 and 2.0033 ± 0.0005, respectively. The highest intensity of free radical signal was observed in\\u000a embryo axes immediately after radicle protruded through the seed coat. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated in embryonic axes and\\u000a cotyledons during imbibition before

Ma?gorzata Garnczarska; ?ukasz Wojtyla

2008-01-01

86

Effect of a short-term hypoxic treatment followed by re-aeration on free radicals level and antioxidative enzymes in lupine roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether re-aeration after a short-term hypoxic pre-treatment (for 2, 12 or 24 h) induces oxidative stress, the temporal sequence of physiological reactions, including the level of free radicals, hydrogen peroxide production, and changes in antioxidative enzymes, was characterized in roots of hydroponically grown lupine (Lupinus luteus L., cv. Juno) seedlings. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we found that the

Ma?gorzata Garnczarska; Waldemar Bednarski

2004-01-01

87

Nitric oxide stimulates seed germination and counteracts the inhibitory effect of heavy metals and salinity on root growth of Lupinus luteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule, which in plants was found to function as prooxidant as well as antioxidant. In the present study, we found that NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) stimulates seed germination and root growth of lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Ventus). Seed germination is promoted at concentrations between 0.1 and 800 ?M SNP in a dose-dependent manner. The

Ma?gorzata Kopyra; Edward A. Gwó?d?

2003-01-01

88

European Origin of Bradyrhizobium Populations Infecting Lupins and Serradella in Soils of Western Australia and South Africa† ‡  

PubMed Central

We applied a multilocus phylogenetic approach to elucidate the origin of serradella and lupin Bradyrhizobium strains that persist in soils of Western Australia and South Africa. The selected strains belonged to different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR clusters that were distinct from RAPD clusters of applied inoculant strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with nodulation genes (nodA, nodZ, nolL, noeI), housekeeping genes (dnaK, recA, glnII, atpD), and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences. Housekeeping gene phylogenies revealed that all serradella and Lupinus cosentinii isolates from Western Australia and three of five South African narrow-leaf lupin strains were intermingled with the strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, forming a well supported branch on each of the trees. All nodA gene sequences of the lupin and serradella bradyrhizobia formed a single branch, referred to as clade II, together with the sequences of other lupin and serradella strains. Similar patterns were detected in nodZ and nolL trees. In contrast, nodA sequences of the strains isolated from native Australian legumes formed either a new branch called clade IV or belonged to clade I or III, whereas their nonsymbiotic genes grouped outside the B. canariense branch. These data suggest that the lupin and serradella strains, including the strains from uncultivated L.?cosentinii plants, are descendants of strains that most likely were brought from Europe accidentally with lupin and serradella seeds. The observed dominance of B. canariense strains may be related to this species' adaptation to acid soils common in Western Australia and South Africa and, presumably, to their intrinsic ability to compete for nodulation of lupins and serradella. PMID:16269740

Stepkowski, Tomasz; Moulin, Lionel; Krzyzanska, Agnieszka; McInnes, Alison; Law, Ian J.; Howieson, John

2005-01-01

89

Cluster-root formation and carboxylate release in three Lupinus species as dependent on phosphorus supply, internal phosphorus concentration and relative growth rate  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Some Lupinus species produce cluster roots in response to low plant phosphorus (P) status. The cause of variation in cluster-root formation among cluster-root-forming Lupinus species is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if cluster-root formation is, in part, dependent on different relative growth rates (RGRs) among Lupinus species when they show similar shoot P status. Methods Three cluster-root-forming Lupinus species, L. albus, L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, were grown in washed river sand at 0, 7·5, 15 or 40 mg P kg?1 dry sand. Plants were harvested at 34, 42 or 62 d after sowing, and fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems, cluster roots and non-cluster roots of different ages were measured. The percentage of cluster roots, tissue P concentrations, root exudates and plant RGR were determined. Key Results Phosphorus treatments had major effects on cluster-root allocation, with a significant but incomplete suppression in L. albus and L. pilosus when P supply exceeded 15 mg P kg?1 sand. Complete suppression was found in L. atlanticus at the highest P supply; this species never invested more than 20 % of its root weight in cluster roots. For L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, cluster-root formation was decreased at high internal P concentration, irrespective of RGR. For L. albus, there was a trend in the same direction, but this was not significant. Conclusions Cluster-root formation in all three Lupinus species was suppressed at high leaf P concentration, irrespective of RGR. Variation in cluster-root formation among the three species cannot be explained by species-specific variation in RGR or leaf P concentration. PMID:24061491

Wang, Xing; Pearse, Stuart J.; Lambers, Hans

2013-01-01

90

Influence of germination with different selenium solutions on nutritional value and cytotoxicity of lupin seeds.  

PubMed

The effect of different selenium solutions during germination of lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius L. cv. Zapaton) on the content of total selenium, protein, amino acids, soluble carbohydrates, total antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity on HL-60 human leukemic cell line has been studied. Seeds were germinated in the presence of selenite (Na2SeO3) or selenate (Na2SeO4) solutions at different concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/L) for 5 days at either 20 or 25 degrees C. The addition of inorganic Se forms significantly increased Se content in lupin sprouts in a dose-dependent manner. The highest Se content in lupin sprouts was observed when germination was carried out with selenate solutions at 20 degrees C (11 microg/g of dw) or 25 degrees C (14 microg/g of dw). The Se-enriched sprouts presented an improvement in antioxidant activity (up to 117.8 and 103.5 micromol of Trolox/g of dw) as well as in essential amino acid content, and no cytotoxicity was observed on HL-60 human leukemic cells. Lupin seeds germinated with 8 mg/L selenate solutions for 5 days at 20 degrees C exhibited a higher germination rate (>90%) and a higher concentration of some essential amino acids than those obtained in selenite solutions in the same germination conditions. Therefore, the employment of selenate solutions at a concentration of 8 mg/L and germination for 5 days at 20 degrees C may be suggested for the production of Se-enriched lupin sprouts. PMID:19166293

Frias, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Pilarski, Rados?aw; Blazquez, Enrique; Jiménez, Begoña; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

2009-02-25

91

Successional Change in Phosphorus Stoichiometry Explains the Inverse Relationship between Herbivory and Lupin Density on Mount St. Helens  

PubMed Central

Background The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (N?P) of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus) colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to lupin density and are known to alter lupin colonization dynamics. We examined larval performance in response to leaf nutritional characteristics using gelechiid and pyralid leaf-tiers, and a noctuid leaf-cutter. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted four studies. First, growth of larvae raised on wild-collected leaves responded positively to leaf %P and negatively to leaf carbon (%C), but there was no effect of %N or quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs). Noctuid survival was also positively related to %P. Second, we raised gelechiid larvae on greenhouse-grown lupins with factorial manipulation of competitors and soil N and P. In the presence of competition, larval mass was highest at intermediate leaf N?P and high %P. Third, survival of gelechiid larvae placed on lupins in high-density patches was greater when plant competitors were removed than on controls. Fourth, surveys of field-collected leaves in 2000, 2002, and 2003 indicated that both %P and %N were generally greater in plants from low-density areas. QAs in plants from low-density areas were equal to or higher than QAs in high-density areas. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that declines in lupin P content under competitive conditions are associated with decreased larval growth and survival sufficient to cause the observed negative relationship between herbivore abundance and host density. The results support the theoretical finding that declines in stoichiometric resource quality (caused here by succession) have the potential to cause a decrease in consumer abundance despite very dense quantities of the resource. PMID:19907662

Apple, Jennifer L.; Wink, Michael; Wills, Shannon E.; Bishop, John G.

2009-01-01

92

Dosage rapide des diffrents alcalodes de Lupinus albus L. et de Lupinus mutabilis Sweet pour la slection  

E-print Network

from I g milled seeds, then separa- ted by silica gel chromatography using modified Dragendorff reagent�riel, rapidit�, pr�cision suffisante. L'analyse est faite sur 1 g de poudre de graines dont les alcalo�des ont �t� extraits par l'�ther. Les extraits sont d�pos�s sur plaque de gel de silice, �lu�s avec un m

Boyer, Edmond

93

78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...cultivated worldwide; for example, in the Mediterranean Basin and also Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Syria, Central and Western Europe, the United States and South America, Tropical and Southern Africa, Russia and the Ukraine. (Ref....

2013-03-22

94

Response of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle to re-aeration following hypoxia in lupine roots.  

PubMed

The response of the enzymes and metabolites of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway to oxidative stress caused by re-aeration following hypoxia was studied in roots of hydroponically grown lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) seedlings. Lupine roots were deprived of oxygen by subjecting them to hypoxia for 48 and 72 h and then re-aerated for up to 4 h. An increased content of total ascorbate was observed in lupine roots immediately after hypoxia, whereas total glutathione level decreased. However, a significant increase in the reduced forms of both metabolites was found directly after hypoxia. Re-admission of oxygen caused the decrease of the ratios of reduced to oxidized forms of ascorbate and glutathione, indicating oxidative stress. While monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, EC 1.6.5.4) activity remained unaltered during re-aeration the increase in activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) was observed 30 min after transfer from hypoxic condition. Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) activity approached the control level during a whole re-aeration period. Native gel electrophoresis combined with specific activity staining revealed seven isoforms of APX, five isoforms of GR and three different proteins with DHA reductase activity in roots extracts. However, immediately after hypoxic treatment APX-5 isoform and GR-1 isoform were not observed in roots. This experimental system was also used to investigate superoxide anion level in roots utilizing the superoxide anion-specific indicator dihydroethidium (DHE). Intense DHE-derived fluorescence was found in re-aerated root tips as compared to control roots, indicating that re-aeration induced superoxide anion production in hypoxically pretreated roots. PMID:15975806

Garnczarska, Ma?gorzata

2005-06-01

95

Phytochemical and pharmacological perspectives of wheat grain and lupin seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat and lupin are important crops grown in Australia with massive production every year. Traditionally, both wheat and lupin have been consumed as human foods for their health benefits, which may be due in part to the biologically active phytochemicals they contain. This thesis describes the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of wheat bran, different wheat bran layers, wheat germ, lupin

Lei Liu

2009-01-01

96

PHYTOEXTRACTION OF METAL POLLUTED SOILS AROUND A Pb-Zn MINE BY CROP PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess their practical capability for the absorption and accumulation of Pb, Zn, and Cu, five common crop plants, i.e. maize (Zea mays), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), canola (Brassica napus), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and White lupine (Lupinus albus) were tested in pot experiments using six soil samples taken from mine tailings, pasture and arable soils around an old Pb-Zn

E. Ruiz; L. Rodríguez; J. Alonso-Azcárate; J. Rincón

2009-01-01

97

Forecasting aphid outbreaks and epidemics of Cucumber mosaic virus in lupin crops in a Mediterranean-type environment.  

PubMed

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes a serious disease of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius). It is seed-borne in lupin and seed-infected plants act as the primary virus source for secondary spread by aphid vectors within crops. Infection with CMV causes yield losses of up to 60% in epidemic years, but has little impact on yield in years when spread is limited. Aphids also cause sporadic yield losses due to direct feeding damage. A simulation model was developed to forecast aphid outbreaks and epidemics of CMV in lupin crops growing in the 'grainbelt' of south-west Australia, which has a Mediterranean-type climate. The model uses rainfall during summer and early autumn to calculate an index of aphid build-up on weeds, crop volunteers and self-regenerating annual pastures in each 'grainbelt' locality before the growing season commences in late autumn. The index is used to forecast the timing of aphid immigration into crops. The subsequent aphid build-up and movement within the crop, spread of CMV from virus-infected source plants within the crop, yield losses and percentage of harvested seed-infected are then calculated. The model evaluates the effects of different sowing dates, percentages of CMV infection in seed sown and plant population densities on virus spread. The model simulations were validated with 14 years' field data from six different sites in the 'grainbelt', representing a wide range of pre-growing season rainfall scenarios, sowing dates, percentages of infection in seed sown and plant population densities. The model was incorporated into a decision support system (DSS) for use by lupin farmers and agricultural consultants in planning CMV management and targeting sprays against aphids to prevent direct feeding damage. The inputs required from the user are lupin cultivar, anticipated emergence date, percentage CMV infection in seed sown, plant density and location. The output consists of a personalised risk forecast for the user and includes predictions for date of first aphid arrival, aphid numbers, CMV spread, final virus incidence, yield loss due to infection and percentage infection in harvested seed. Predictions from the DSS are accessible via an Internet site and from other information sources. The model can serve as a template for modelling similar virus/aphid vector pathosystems in other regions of the world, especially those with Mediterranean-type climates. PMID:15036837

Thackray, Deborah J; Diggle, Art J; Berlandier, Françoise A; Jones, Roger A C

2004-03-01

98

"In situ" phytostabilisation of heavy metal polluted soils using Lupinus luteus inoculated with metal resistant plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is the evaluation of metal phytostabilisation potential of Lupinus luteus inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. 750 and heavy metal resistant PGPRs (plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria), for in situ reclamation of multi-metal contaminated soil after a mine spill. Yellow lupines accumulated heavy metals mainly in roots (Cu, Cd and especially Pb were poorly translocated to shoots). This indicates a potential use of this plant in metal phytostabilisation. Furthermore, As accumulation was undetectable. On the other hand, zinc accumulation was 10-100 times higher than all other metals, both in roots and in shoots. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. 750 increased both biomass and nitrogen content, indicating that nitrogen fixation was effective in soils with moderate levels of contamination. Co-inoculation of lupines with a consortium of metal resistant PGPR (including Bradyrhizobium sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Ochrobactrum cytisi) produced an additional improvement of plant biomass. At the same time, a decrease in metal accumulation was observed, both in shoots and roots, which could be due to a protective effect exerted on plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate the usefulness of L. luteus inoculated with a bacterial consortium of metal resistant PGPRs as a method for in situ reclamation of metal polluted soils. PMID:20056325

Dary, M; Chamber-Pérez, M A; Palomares, A J; Pajuelo, E

2010-05-15

99

Metabolism of steroid acetates by Streptomyces albus.  

PubMed

Fermentation of 16-dehydropregnenolone acetate (1a) with Streptomyces albus yielded 16-dehydropregnenolone (1b) and 16-dehydroprogesterone (IIa). Similar incubation of pregnenolone acetate (Ic) with the strain afforded pregnenolone (Id), progesterone (IIb) and 20 alpha-hydroxy progesterone (IIc) while dehydroepiandrosterone acetate (IIIa) under the conditions was converted to dehydroepiandrosterone (IIIb), androstenedione (IVa) and testosterone (IVc). The strain was also capable of converting testosterone acetate (IVb) having the 17-acetoxy function in the 5-membered D-ring to testosterone (IVc) and androstenedione (IVa). All the products were identified by the application of various chemical and spectrometric techniques. PMID:6708550

Mukherjee, A; Mahato, S B

1984-03-01

100

40 CFR 180.1260 - Muscodor albus QST 20799 and the volatiles produced on rehydration; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Muscodor albus QST 20799 and the volatiles produced on rehydration; exemption... Muscodor albus QST 20799 and the volatiles produced on rehydration; exemption...Muscodor albus QST 20799, and the volatiles produced on its rehydration,...

2010-07-01

101

An epidemiological model for externally sourced vector-borne viruses applied to Bean yellow mosaic virus in lupin crops in a Mediterranean-type environment.  

PubMed

A hybrid mechanistic/statistical model was developed to predict vector activity and epidemics of vector-borne viruses spreading from external virus sources to an adjacent crop. The pathosystem tested was Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) spreading from annually self-regenerating, legume-based pastures to adjacent crops of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) in the winter-spring growing season in a region with a Mediterranean-type environment where the virus persists over summer within dormant seed of annual clovers. The model uses a combination of daily rainfall and mean temperature during late summer and early fall to drive aphid population increase, migration of aphids from pasture to lupin crops, and the spread of BYMV. The model predicted time of arrival of aphid vectors and resulting BYMV spread successfully for seven of eight datasets from 2 years of field observations at four sites representing different rainfall and geographic zones of the southwestern Australian grainbelt. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the relative importance of the main parameters that describe the pathosystem. The hybrid mechanistic/statistical approach used created a flexible analytical tool for vector-mediated plant pathosystems that made useful predictions even when field data were not available for some components of the system. PMID:19000002

Maling, T; Diggle, A J; Thackray, D J; Siddique, K H M; Jones, R A C

2008-12-01

102

Ammonium versus nitrate nutrition of Zea mays and Lupinus albus: Effect on root-derived CO 2 efflux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of the mechanisms contributing to nitrogen (N) fertilizer-induced changes in CO2 efflux from soil under agricultural crops has been extremely challenging because of difficulties in separating root and microbial contribution to total CO2 efflux. In this study we present the evidence that high costs of nitrate reduction result in a strong increase of root-derived respiration and the magnitude of

Olga Gavrichkova; Yakov Kuzyakov

2008-01-01

103

A novel O-tigloyltransferase for alkaloid biosynthesis in plants. Purification, characterization, and distribution in Lupinus plants.  

PubMed

A novel acyltransferase for alkaloid metabolism, tigloyl-CoA: (-)-13 alpha-hydroxymultiflorine/(+)-13 alpha-hydroxylupanine O-tigloyltransferase (HMT/HLTase), a monomeric 50-kDa protein, was purified to homogeneity from 10-day-old Lupinus termis seedlings. There were two isoforms of this acyltransferase with the same molecular mass (50 kDa) but slightly different isoelectric points (pI 7.8 and 7.6). These two isoforms showed the same catalytic activity of tigloyl transfer from tigloyl-CoA to (-)-13 alpha-hydroxymultiflorine and (+)-13 alpha-hydroxylupanine, which belong to the same (7S, 9S) enantiomeric series of tetracyclic quinolizidine alkaloids; whereas no activity was detected toward an antipodal (7R, 9R) alkaloid, (-)-baptifoline, or to bicyclic quinolizidine alkaloids, (+)-epilupinine and (-)-lupinine. The Km values for HMTase activity were determined to be 21 microM and 46 microM for (-)-13 alpha-hydroxymultiflorine and tigloyl-CoA, respectively; and for HLTase activity, 27 microM and 52 microM for (+)-13 alpha-hydroxylupanine and tigloyl-CoA, respectively. The activity was inhibited by CoASH in a competitive manner, and by (+)-lupanine and (+)-epilupinine in a partially noncompetitive manner. The enzyme showed the highest activity around pH 8.0 and was inactivated by heat treatment and by the addition of sulfhydryl blocking reagents. Such tigloyltransferases for quinolizidine alkaloid metabolism are distributed in some Lupinus species and Cytisus scoparius, in which tigloyl alkaloids are accumulated in addition to non-ester-type alkaloids, but not in other lupin plants, in which only non-ester-type alkaloids are present. PMID:8195240

Suzuki, H; Murakoshi, I; Saito, K

1994-06-01

104

Re-aeration-induced oxidative stress and antioxidative defenses in hypoxically pretreated lupine roots.  

PubMed

The level of free radicals and activities of antioxidative enzymes were examined in roots of lupine seedlings (Lupinus luteus L.) that were deprived of oxygen by subjecting them to root hypoxia for 48 and 72 h and then re-aerated for up to 24 h. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we found that the exposure of previously hypoxically grown roots to air caused the increase in free radicals level, irrespective of duration of hypoxic pretreatment. Immediately after re-aeration the level of free radicals was two times higher than in aerated control. The EPR signal with the g-values at the maximum absorption of 2.0057 and 2.0040 implied that the paramagnetic radicals are derived from a quinone. Directly after re-aeration of hypoxically pretreated roots, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) increased to its highest value, followed by a decline below the initial level, whereas activities of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) were diminished or only slightly influenced during re-aeration. The electrophoretic patterns of the soluble extracts show 4 isozymes of SOD, 4 isozymes of POX and 1 isozyme of CAT. The level of H2O2 was enhanced or lowered by re-aeration, depending on the previous duration of hypoxia. At the onset of re-aeration products of lipid peroxidation were present at a three-fourth of the levels found in aerobic control. Their levels increased after prolonged exposure to air but remained lower than those in aerobic control even after 24 h of re-aeration. Re-admission of oxygen resulted in about 20% rise in oxygen uptake by root axes segments immediately after transfer of roots from hypoxia and the high uptake rates were observed over whole re-aeration period. Oxygen consumption by root tips was significantly reduced just after transfer from hypoxic conditions as compared to aerated control but after 24 h of re-aeration even approached the control level. The results are discussed in relation to the ability of lupine roots to cope with oxidative stress caused by re-aeration following hypoxic pretreatment. PMID:15128029

Garnczarska, Ma?gorzata; Bednarski, Waldemar; Morkunas, Iwona

2004-04-01

105

Response of embryo axes of germinating seeds of yellow lupine to Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Defence responses of embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Polo were studied 48-96 h after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. lupini. The infection restricted the growth of embryo axes, the lengths of infected embryo axes 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 11 and 12 mm less in the controls, respectively, while their masses c. 0.03 g less than in the controls. The concentration of H2O2 in embryo axes of inoculated germinating seeds was higher than in the control. This was probably a consequence of oxidative burst as well as H2O2 generation by the invading necrotrophic fungal pathogen. EPR-based analyses detected the presence of free radicals with g1 and g2 values of 2.0052 +/- 0.0004 and 2.0031 +/- 0.0005, respectively. Concentrations of the radicals 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 50% higher than in the control. The values of the spectroscopic splitting coefficients suggest that they are quinone radicals. However, inoculated embryo axes possess a number of adaptive mechanisms protecting them from oxidative damage. A twofold increase in catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity was evidenced in embryo axes infected with F. oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. lupini, as compared to the control 48-96 h after inoculation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity 96 h after inoculation was 80% higher than in the control. Furthermore, EPR-based analyses revealed a higher concentration of Mn2+ ions after 72 h for inoculated embryo axes, as compared to the control. On the other hand, no increase was detected in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (products of lipid peroxidation) in infected embryo axes. The protective mechanisms induced in lupine embryo axes in response to F. oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. lupini were compared with responses to infections with pathogenic fungi elicited in other plant families. PMID:15246062

Morkunas, Iwona; Bednarski, Waldemar; Koz?owska, Monika

2004-06-01

106

Expression of novel cytosolic malate dehydrogenases (cMDH) in Lupinus angustifolius nodules during phosphorus starvation.  

PubMed

During P deficiency, the increased activity of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) can lead to malate accumulation. Cytosolic- and nodule-enhanced MDH (cMDH and neMDH, respectively) are known isoforms, which contribute to MDH activity in root nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the cMDH isoforms in nodule malate supply under P deficiency. Nodulated lupins (Lupinus angustifolius var. Tanjil) were hydroponically grown at adequate P (+P) or low P (-P). Total P concentration in nodules decreased under P deficiency, which coincided with an increase in total MDH activity. A consequence of higher MDH activity was the enhanced accumulation of malate derived from dark CO2 fixation via PEPC and not from pyruvate. Although no measurable neMDH presence could be detected via PCR, gene-specific primers detected two 1kb amplicons of cMDH, designated LangMDH1 (corresponding to +P, HQ690186) and LangMDH2 (corresponding to -P, HQ690187), respectively. Sequencing analyses of these cMDH amplicons showed them to be 96% identical on an amino acid level. There was a high degree of diversification between proteins detected in this study and other known MDH proteins, particularly those from other leguminous plants. Enhanced malate synthesis in P-deficient nodules was achieved via increased anaplerotic CO2 fixation and subsequent higher MDH activities. Novel isoforms of cytosolic MDH may be involved, as shown by gene expression of specific genes under P deficiency. PMID:25151130

Le Roux, Marcellous; Phiri, Ethel; Khan, Wesaal; Sakiro?lu, Muhammet; Valentine, Alex; Khan, Sehaam

2014-11-01

107

Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7  

SciTech Connect

Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

Suen, Garret [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stevenson, David M [USDA-ARS, Madison WI; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Boyum, Julie [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Mead, David [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Weimer, Paul J [USDA-ARS, Madison WI

2011-01-01

108

Application and sensory evaluation of enzymatically texturised vegetable proteins in food models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using simplified model systems, the effects of salts and oil on enzymatic texturisation of protein isolates from soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.; SPI), pea (Pisum sativum L.; PPI) and sweet lupine (Lupinus albus L.; LPI) were evaluated. In aqueous systems, protein cross-linking by microbial transglutaminase (MTG) was significantly\\u000a improved when NaCl (1–2 g hg?1) was added, but respective doses of CaCl2 reduced

Christian Schäfer; Sybille Neidhart; Reinhold Carle

2011-01-01

109

Singular Features of the Bradyrhizobium-Lupinus Symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupinus is a legume with great agronomic potential due to the high protein content of its seeds and its positive effect on soil fertility. It is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen through the establishment of a symbiosis with soil bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium. The process is carried out in a special subclass of indeterminate nodules known as lupinoid nodules.

Mercedes Fernández-Pascual; José J. PueyoMaría; M. Mercedes Lucas

110

Novel Alphaproteobacterial Root Nodule Symbiont Associated with Lupinus texensis?  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA gene, recA, nodA, nifD, and nifH sequences suggested that nitrogen-fixing symbionts from two populations of Lupinus texensis acquired the capacity for nodule symbiosis separately from other rhizobia in the alphaproteobacteria. Their closest 16S rRNA relatives were the nonsymbiotic taxa Chelatococcus, Bosea, and Balneomonas. PMID:17616612

Andam, Cheryl P.; Parker, Matthew A.

2007-01-01

111

Enhanced Phytochrome Sensitivity and Its Reversal in Amaranthus albus Seeds  

PubMed Central

Seed of Amaranthus alus L. develop an enhanced sensitivity to the farred absorbing form of phytochrome after prolonged imbibition at temperatures >32°C. The enhanced sensitivity developed at 40°C could be reversed by subsequent treatment at 20°C and similarly reestablished by repeating a 40°C treatment. It is concluded that relative sensitivity to the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome may be readily manipulated in seeds of A. albus. PMID:16664221

Chadoeuf-Hannel, Regine; Taylorson, Ray B.

1985-01-01

112

Pentose utilization by the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus.  

PubMed Central

Ruminococcus albus is an important fibrolytic ruminal bacteria which degrades hemicellulose and ferments the resulting pentose sugars. However, little information is available on the utilization of pentoses by this organism or the effect of hexose sugars on pentose metabolism. Enzymatic studies indicated that R. albus metabolized pentoses via the pentose phosphate pathway and possessed constitutive transketolase activity. Cellobiose was preferred over xylose and arabinose, and it appeared that the disaccharide decreased pentose metabolism by repression of transport activity and catabolic enzymes (isomerases and kinases). Glucose and xylose were co-utilized, and transport studies suggested that there was a common transport system for both sugars. In contrast, glucose was preferred over arabinose and the hexose noncompetitively inhibited the transport of arabinose. Since R. albus lacks a glucose phosphotransferase system, the inhibition of arabinose uptake could not be explained by previously described models of inducer exclusion involving such a system. Because accumulation of radiolabeled xylose, arabinose, and glucose proceeded in the absence of a proton motive force and since transport was correlated with the intracellular ATP concentration, it appeared that monosaccharide uptake was driven by ATP hydrolysis. PMID:8017905

Thurston, B; Dawson, K A; Strobel, H J

1994-01-01

113

SENSITIVITY OF NESTING GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) AND WHITE IBISES (EUDOCIMUS ALBUS)  

E-print Network

SENSITIVITY OF NESTING GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) AND WHITE IBISES (EUDOCIMUS ALBUS) TO REDUCED PREY las diferencias en la ecología de anidación de dos especies simpátricas de aves vadeadoras (Ardea alba://www.ucpressjournals. com/reprintInfo.asp. DOI: ./auk.. Sensibilidad de Individuos de Ardea alba y Eudocimus albus que se

Gawlik, Dale E.

114

Restriction of a bacteriophage of Streptomyces albus G involving endonuclease SalI.  

PubMed Central

The bacteriophage Pa16, isolated from soil on Streptomyces albus G, was restricted when transferred from an alternative host back to S. albus G. Extracted unmodified Pa16 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at a single site by a cell-free extract of S. albus G. Fractions cleaving Pal6 deoxyribonucleic acid contained the endonuclease SalI first described by J. Arrand, P. Myers, and R. J. Roberts (unpublished data). A mutant of S. albus G was isolated which was defective in both restriction and modification of Pal6. This mutant lacked SalI activity. It is concluded that SalI is the agent of restriction of Pal6 by S. albus G. Images PMID:977549

Chater, K F; Wilde, L C

1976-01-01

115

Acceptability of lupin protein products in healthy competitive athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupin proteins allow the preparation of some innovative protein-rich food products, e.g., steaks chunks, cutlets, gyros. With\\u000a the objective of evaluating the acceptability of these foods in sport nutrition, they were provided to 34 healthy competitive\\u000a track and field athletes (mean age 25±5, 17 males and 17 females), to be taken before training or a competitive event. Athletes\\u000a were asked

Giampietro Alberti; Cesare R. Sirtori; Marcello Iriti; Anna Arnoldi

2008-01-01

116

Effects of endogenous signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the mechanism regulating genistein synthesis and accumulation in yellow lupine and their impact on plant cell cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes. Infection significantly enhanced the synthesis of genistein and other isoflavone aglycones in cells of embryo axes of yellow lupine with high endogenous sugar levels. The activity of ?-glucosidase, the enzyme that releases free aglycones from their glucoside bindings, was higher in the infected tissues than in the control ones. At the same time, a very strong generation of the superoxide anion radical was observed in tissues with high sugar contents already in the initial stage of infection. During later stages after inoculation, a strong generation of semiquinone radicals was observed, which level was relatively higher in tissues deficient in sugars than in those with high sugar levels. Observations of actin and tubulin cytoskeletons in cells of infected embryo axes cultured on the medium with sucrose, as well as the medium without sugar, showed significant differences in their organization. PMID:25178062

Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, S?awomir; Marczak, ?ukasz; Nowak, Witold; Naro?na, Dorota; Bednarski, Waldemar; Kasprowicz-Malu?ki, Anna; Morkunas, Iwona

2014-01-01

117

Diversity of Selected Lupinus angustifolius L. Genotypes at the Phenotypic and DNA Level with Respect to Microscopic Seed Coat Structure and Thickness  

PubMed Central

The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. ‘Emir’, and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars ‘Sonet’ and ‘Emir’. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar ‘Zeus’ (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cieslak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawinski, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

2014-01-01

118

Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lupin allergy remains a significant cause of food-induced allergic reactivity and anaphylaxis. Previous work suggests a strong association with legume allergy and peanut allergy in particular. Both doctors and the public have little awareness of lupin as an allergen. Case presentation Case 1 was a 41-year-old Caucasian woman without previous atopy who developed facial swelling, widespread urticaria with asthma and hypotension within minutes of eating a quiche. Her lupin allergy was confirmed by both blood and skin tests. Her lupin sensitivity was so severe that even the miniscule amount of lupin allergen in the skin testing reagent produced a mild reaction. Case 2 was a 42-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with three episodes of worsening urticaria and asthma symptoms over 6 years occurring after the consumption of foods containing lupin flour. Blood and skin tests were positive for lupin allergy. Case 3 was a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with known oral allergy syndrome who had two reactions associated with urticaria and vomiting after consuming foods containing lupin flour. Skin testing confirmed significant responses to a lupin flour extract and to one of the foods inducing her reaction. Case 4 was a 54-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with a 7 year history of three to four episodes each year of unpredictable oral tingling followed by urticaria after consuming a variety of foods. The most recent episode had been associated with vomiting. She had developed oral tingling with lentil and chickpeas over the previous year. Skin and blood tests confirmed lupin allergy with associated sensitivity to several legumes. Conclusions Lupin allergy can occur for the first time in adults without previous atopy or legume sensitivity. Although asymptomatic sensitisation is frequent, clinical reactivity can vary in severity from severe anaphylaxis to urticaria and vomiting. Lupin allergy may be confirmed by skin and specific immunoglobulin E estimation. Even skin testing can cause symptoms in some highly sensitive individuals. The diagnosis of lupin allergy in adults may be difficult because it is frequently included as an undeclared ingredient. Better food labelling and medical awareness of lupin as a cause of serious allergic reactions is suggested. PMID:24529316

2014-01-01

119

Nitrate Uptake, Nitrate Reductase Distribution and their Relation to Proton Release in Five Nodulated Grain Legumes  

PubMed Central

Nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and net proton release were compared in five grain legumes grown at 0·2 and 2 mm nitrate in nutrient solution. Nitrate treatments, imposed on 22?d?old, fully nodulated plants, lasted for 21 d. Increasing nitrate supply did not significantly influence the growth of any of the species during the treatment, but yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) had a higher growth rate than the other species examined. At 0·2 mm nitrate supply, nitrate uptake rates ranged from 0·6 to 1·5 mg N g–1 d–1 in the order: yellow lupin > field pea (Pisum sativum) > chickpea (Cicer arietinum) > narrow?leafed lupin (L. angustifolius) > white lupin (L. albus). At 2 mm nitrate supply, nitrate uptake ranged from 1·7 to 8·2 mg N g–1 d–1 in the order: field pea > chickpea > white lupin > yellow lupin > narrow?leafed lupin. Nitrate reductase activity increased with increased nitrate supply, with the majority of NRA being present in shoots. Field pea and chickpea had much higher shoot NRA than the three lupin species. When 0·2 mm nitrate was supplied, narrow?leafed lupin released the most H+ per unit root biomass per day, followed by yellow lupin, white lupin, field pea and chickpea. At 2 mm nitrate, narrow?leafed lupin and yellow lupin showed net proton release, whereas the other species, especially field pea, showed net OH– release. Irrespective of legume species and nitrate supply, proton release was negatively correlated with nitrate uptake and NRA in shoots, but not with NRA in roots. PMID:12234143

FAN, X. H.; TANG, C.; RENGEL, Z.

2002-01-01

120

Flavonoids from Lupinus texensis and their free radical scavenging activity.  

PubMed

Seventeen flavonoids including one new compound were isolated from Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis), the state flower of Texas. Their structures were determined by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography analytic method for simultaneous determination of the 17 compounds was established and validated. Eleven isolated flavonoids were first evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay and they showed activity with EC(50) 48.6-172.5 µg mL(-1). PMID:21707249

Zhang, Zhizhen; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Ping; Grant, Greg; Li, Shiyou

2011-10-01

121

Demonstration of the biofumigation activity of Muscodor albus against Rhizoctonia solani in soil and potting mix  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research demonstrates the role of antimicrobial volatiles produced by Muscodor albus in disease control in soil and potting mix. The volatiles controlled damping-off of broccoli seedlings when pots containing\\u000a soil or soilless potting mix infested with Rhizoctonia solani were placed in the presence of active M. albus culture without physical contact in closed containers. Conversely, plugs of R. solani

Julien Mercier; Jorge I. Jiménez

2009-01-01

122

Distribution, biology and hybridization of Scaphirhynchus albus and S. platorynchus in the Missouri and Mississippi rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  \\u000a Scaphirhynchus albus and S. platorynchus were studied in Missouri during 1978–1979 to assess their distribution and abundance, to obtain information on their life\\u000a histories, and to identify existing or potential threats to their survival. S. platorynchus was collected in substantial numbers (4355 specimens) at all 12 sampling stations in the Missouri and Mississippi rivers,\\u000a while only 11 S. albus

Douglas M. Carlson; William L. Pflieger; Linden Trial; Pamela S. Haverland

1985-01-01

123

Cellobiose versus glucose utilization by the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus.  

PubMed Central

Cellulose degradation and metabolism in the rumen can be adversely affected by the presence of soluble sugars, but relatively little information is available on substrate preferences of cellulolytic bacteria. When the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus was incubated with a combination of cellobiose and glucose, the organism preferentially utilized the disaccharide. This preference appeared to be related to repression of glucose uptake systems in cellobiose-grown cells. Glucose transport kinetics exhibited low- and high-affinity uptake, and high-affinity transport was apparently driven by ATP hydrolysis. Bacterial yield in continuous culture was as much as 38% greater when the organism was grown on cellobiose versus glucose, and the increased yield could be partially attributed to constitutive cellobiose phosphorylase activity. The maintenance coefficient of glucose-grown cells was significantly greater than that of cells provided with cellobiose (0.225 g of glucose per g of protein per h versus 0.042 g of cellobiose per g of protein per h), and this result suggested that more energy was devoted to glucose uptake. Substrate affinities were examined in carbon-excess continuous culture, and affinities for glucose and cellobiose were relatively low (0.97 and 3.16 mM, respectively). Although R. albus maintained a proton motive force of approximately 60 mV from pH 6.7 to 5.5, growth ceased below pH 6.0, and this inhibition of growth may have been caused by a depletion of ATP at low pH. PMID:8368849

Thurston, B; Dawson, K A; Strobel, H J

1993-01-01

124

Genome rearrangements of Streptomyces albus J1074 lead to the carotenoid gene cluster activation.  

PubMed

Streptomyces albus J1074 is a derivative of the S. albus G1 strain defective in SalG1 restriction-modification system. Genome sequencing of S. albus J1074 revealed that the size of its chromosome is 6.8 Mb with unusually short terminal arms of only 0.3 and 0.4 Mb. Here we present our attempts to evaluate the dispensability of subtelomeric regions of the S. albus J1074 chromosome. A number of large site-directed genomic deletions led to circularization of the S. albus J1074 chromosome and to the overall genome reduction by 307 kb. Two spontaneous mutants with an activated carotenoid cluster were obtained. Genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis indicated that phenotypes of these mutants resulted from the right terminal 0.42 Mb chromosomal region deletion, followed by the carotenoid cluster amplification. Our results indicate that the right terminal 0.42 Mb fragment is dispensable under laboratory conditions. In contrast, the left terminal arm of the S. albus J1074 chromosome contains essential genes and only 42 kb terminal region is proved to be dispensable. We identified overexpressed carotenoid compounds and determined fitness costs of the large genomic rearrangements. PMID:24337397

Myronovskyi, Maksym; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Brötz, Elke; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

2014-01-01

125

Burkholderia Species Are Major Inhabitants of White Lupin Cluster Roots?†  

PubMed Central

The formation of cluster roots by plants represents a highly efficient strategy for acquisition of sparingly available phosphate. This particular root type is characterized by a densely branched structure and high exudation of organic acids and protons, which are likely to influence the resident bacterial community. Until now, the identity of the bacterial populations living in cluster roots has not been investigated. We applied cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods to characterize the dominant bacterial genera inhabiting the growing cluster roots of white lupin. We observed a high relative abundance of Burkholderia species (up to 58% of all isolated strains and 44% of all retrieved 16S rRNA sequences) and a significant enrichment with increasing cluster root age. Most of the sequences retrieved clustered together with known plant- or fungus-associated Burkholderia species, while only one of 98 sequences was affiliated with the Burkholderia cepacia complex. In vitro assays revealed that Burkholderia strains were much more tolerant to low pH than non-Burkholderia strains. Moreover, many strains produced large amounts of siderophores and were able to utilize citrate and oxalate as carbon sources. These features seem to represent important traits for the successful colonization and maintenance of Burkholderia species in white lupin cluster roots. PMID:21908626

Weisskopf, Laure; Heller, Stefanie; Eberl, Leo

2011-01-01

126

Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the detection of phomopsin A in lupin and lupin-containing retail food samples from the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Phomopsins (PHO) are mycotoxins produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica (also referred to as Phomopsis leptostromiformis). Lupin is the most important host crop for this fungus and PHO are suspected as cause of lupinosis, a deadly liver disease, in sheep. Lupin is currently in use to replace genetically modified soy in many food products available on the European market. However, a validated method for analysis of PHO is not available until now. In this work, a dilute-and-shoot LC-MS/MS-based method was developed for the quantitative determination and identification of phomopsin A (PHO-A) in lupin and lupin-containing food. The method involved extraction by a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/20/1 v/v), dilution of the sample in water, and direct injection of the crude extract after centrifugation. The method was validated at 5 and 25 µg PHO-A kg(-1) product. The average recovery and RSD obtained were 79% and 9%, respectively. The LOQ (the lowest level for which adequate recovery and RSD were demonstrated) was 5 µg PHO-A kg(-1). Identification of PHO-A was based on retention time and two transitions (789 > 226 and 789 > 323). Using the average of solvent standards from the sequence as a reference, retention times were all within ± 0.03 min and ion ratios were within ± 12%, which is compliant with European Union requirements. The LOD (S/N = 3 for the least sensitive transition) was 1 µg PHO-A kg(-1) product. Forty-two samples of lupin and lupin-containing food products were collected in 2011-2012 from grocery stores and internet shops in the Netherlands and analysed. In none of the samples was PHO-A detected. PMID:23895245

de Nijs, Monique; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P K H; van Dam, Ruud C J; de Rijk, Theo C; van Egmond, Hans P; Mol, Hans J G J

2013-01-01

127

LUPIN, a new instrument for pulsed neutron fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of studies focused in the last decades on the development of survey meters to be used in pulsed radiation fields. This is a topic attracting widespread interest for applications such as radiation protection and beam diagnostics in accelerators. This paper describes a new instrument specifically conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fields (PNF). The detector, called LUPIN, is a rem counter type instrument consisting of a 3He proportional counter placed inside a spherical moderator. It works in current mode with a front-end electronics consisting of a current-voltage logarithmic amplifier, whose output signal is acquired with an ADC and processed on a PC. This alternative signal processing allows the instrument to be used in PNF without being affected by saturation effects. Moreover, it has a measurement capability ranging over many orders of burst intensity. Despite the fact that it works in current mode, it can measure a single neutron interaction. The LUPIN was first calibrated in CERN's calibration laboratory with a PuBe source. Measurements were carried out under various experimental conditions at the Helmholtz-Zentrum in Berlin, in the stray field at various locations of the CERN Proton Synchrotron complex and around a radiotherapy linear accelerator at the S. Raffaele hospital in Milan. The detector can withstand single bursts with values of H*(10) up to 16 nSv/burst without showing any saturation effect. It efficiently works in pulsed stray fields, where a conventional rem-counter underestimates by a factor of 2. It is also able to reject the very intense and pulsed photon contribution that often accompanies the neutron field with good reliability.

Caresana, M.; Ferrarini, M.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.; Varoli, V.

2013-06-01

128

Phenylacetic acid stimulation of cellulose digestion by Ruminococcus albus 8  

SciTech Connect

The rate of cellulose digestion by Ruminococcus albus 8 grown on a defined medium could be increased by adding a minimum of 6.6% (vol/vol) rumen fluid. Strain 8 was grown on half this concentration, and the culture medium before and after growth was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine which components of the rumen fluid were used. Phenylacetic acid was identified as the component needed to make the defined medium nutritionally equivalent to one supplemented with rumen fluid. (/sup 14/C)phenylacetic acid fed to cultures of strain 8 was primarily incorporated into protein. Hydrolysis of protein samples and separation of the resulting amino acids showed that only phenylalanine was labeled. The results indicate that cellulose digestion by strain 8 was probably limited by phenylalanine biosynthesis in our previously reported medium. The data obtained on the utilization of other rumen fluid components, as well as on the production of metabolites, illustrate the potential usefulness of this method in formulating defined media to simulate those in nature. 14 references.

Stack, R.J.; Hungate, R.E.; Opsahl, W.P.

1983-09-01

129

The use of extracellular enzymes from Streptomyces albus ATCC 3005 for the bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of culture supernatant from Streptomyces albus ATCC 3005 for use in the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp was investigated. S. albus was found to grow on a minimal salts medium containing oat spelts xylan and yeast extract as the main carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Maximal extracellular xylanase and peroxidase production was detected after 120 h (11.97 U

V. Antonopoulos; M. Hernandez; M. Arias; E. Mavrakos; A. Ball

2001-01-01

130

Effect of a short-term hypoxic treatment followed by re-aeration on free radicals level and antioxidative enzymes in lupine roots.  

PubMed

To investigate whether re-aeration after a short-term hypoxic pre-treatment (for 2, 12 or 24 h) induces oxidative stress, the temporal sequence of physiological reactions, including the level of free radicals, hydrogen peroxide production, and changes in antioxidative enzymes, was characterized in roots of hydroponically grown lupine (Lupinus luteus L., cv. Juno) seedlings. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we found that the exposure of hypoxically grown roots (hypoxic pre-treatment for 12 and 24 h) to air caused an increase in the level of free radicals. The amount of hydrogen peroxide also tended to increase when hypoxically pre-treated roots were re-aerated, which attests to a higher production of reactive oxygen species. Re-aeration caused a higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), whereas the activity of peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) was only slightly influenced. The roots were less tolerant to longer hypoxic pre-treatments, with a significant decrease in viability, associated with death of root tips immediately after hypoxic stress. Roots exposed to hypoxia for 2 h showed less pronounced responses and their viability was not affected by hypoxic stress and re-aeration. These results indicate that re-aeration following short-term hypoxia imposes a mild oxidative stress. This led us to conclude that re-oxygenation stress per se was not the key factor for cell death in root tips. PMID:15051047

Garnczarska, Ma?gorzata; Bednarski, Waldemar

2004-03-01

131

Microscopic anatomy of male tegumental glands and associated cuticular structures in Titanethes albus (Crustacea: Isopoda).  

PubMed

Male glandular organs characterized by porous surfaces with hair-like cuticular elaborations are known from several trichoniscid isopods. In the subterranean species Titanethes albus, males possess paired tubercles with numerous hairs and pores dorsally on the pleon. We analyzed the microscopic anatomy of these structures with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Diverse epicuticular formations and numerous sensilla, which are probably chemoreceptive, are present on the tubercles. We found several secretory surfaces on the pleon in addition to the dorsal tubercles. We also examined the distribution, architecture and ultrastructure of male-specific glands in T. albus with light and transmission electron microscopy. Three distinct types of male-specific rosette glands are present in different parts of the pleon and in the uropods. Glands secreting on the dorsal tubercles contain stellar central cells. The ultrastructure and histochemical staining properties of male-specific glands in T. albus suggest that they produce peptides which might function as contact pheromones. PMID:22075129

Vittori, Miloš; Znidarši?, Nada; Kostanjšek, Rok; Strus, Jasna

2012-03-01

132

THE EFFECTS OF SELF-POLLINATION AND MATERNAL RESOURCES ON REPRODUCTION AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN THE WILD LUPINE, LUPINUS PERENNIS (FABACEAE). (R826596)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

133

The Marr and Albus Theories of the Cerebellum: Two Eary Models of Associative Memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum are compared and contrasted. They are shown to be similar in their analysis of the function of the mossy fibers, granule cells, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cells. They both predict motor learning in the parallel fiber synapses on the Purkinje dendrites mediated by concurrent climbing fiber input. This prediction has been confirmed by experimental evidence. In contrast, Marr predicts these synapses would be facilitated by learning, while Albus predicts they would be weakened. Experimental evidence confirms synaptic weakening.

Albus, James S.

1989-01-01

134

Digestibility of extruded peas, extruded lupin, and rapeseed meal in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) and turbot ( Psetta maxima)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy of extruded peas, extruded lupin and rapeseed meals were determined in juvenile rainbow trout and turbot. Extruded lupin was found to be a promising substitute for fish meal in the diets of trout and turbot, with an acceptable digestibility of its dry matter (70% in trout and 81% in turbot) and a

Christine Burel; Thierry Boujard; Francesca Tulli; Sadasivam J Kaushik

2000-01-01

135

The LUPIN detector supporting least intrusive beam monitoring technique through neutron detection  

E-print Network

The Long interval, Ultra-wide dynamic Pile-up free Neutron rem counter (LUPIN) is a novel detector initially developed for radiation protection purposes, specifically conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fields. The detector has a measurement capability varying over many orders of neutron burst intensity, from a single neutron up to thousands of interactions for each burst, without showing any saturation effect. Whilst LUPIN has been developed for applications in the radiation protection fields, its unique properties make it also well suited to support other beam instrumentation. In this contribution, the design of LUPIN is presented in detail and results from measurements carried out in different facilities summarize its main characteristics. Its potential use as beam loss monitor (BLM) and complementary detector for non-invasive beam monitoring purposes (e.g. to complement a monitor based on proton beam “halo” detection) in medical accelerators is then examined. In the context of its application...

Manessi, G P; Welsch, C; Caresana, M; Ferrarini, M

2013-01-01

136

Intersimple sequence repeat markers for molecular characterization of Crocus cartwrightianus cv. albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Crocus genus, which comprehends approximately 80 species, is known mainly for the triploid sterile plant C. sativus, whose dried stigmas provide us with the spice called saffron. Among the species belonging to the C. sativus L. aggregate, C. cartwrightianus cv. albus shares morphological and cytological characters with both C. sativus and C. cartwrightianus, although its positions seem to be

Angela Rubio Moraga; Almudena Trapero-Mozos; Lourdes Gómez-Gómez; Oussama Ahrazem

2010-01-01

137

Effect of biofumigation with volatiles from Muscodor albus on the viability of Tilletia spp. teliospores.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on dormant and physiologically active teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, Tilletia indica, and Tilletia tritici, which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of wheat, and common bunt of wheat, respectively. Reactivated rye grain culture of M. albus was used to fumigate dormant teliospores in dry Petri dishes and physiologically active teliospores on water agar for up to 5 days at 22 degrees C. Teliospores of all 3 species were incapable of germination when fumigated on agar for 5 days. When T. tritici on agar was fumigated only during the initial 48 h of incubation, viability was reduced by 73%-99%. Fumigation of dry loose teliospores of T. tritici caused a 69%-97% loss in viability, whereas teliospores within intact sori were not affected. Dormant teliospores of T. horrida and T. indica were not affected by M. albus volatiles. It appears that M. albus has potential as a seed or soil treatment for controlling seedling-infecting smuts where infection is initiated by germinating teliospores prior to seedling emergence. The volatiles were not effective for postharvest control of teliospores under conditions used in these experiments. PMID:19295653

Goates, Blair J; Mercier, Julien

2009-02-01

138

The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum-two early models of associative memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum are compared and contrasted. They are shown to be similar in their analysis of the function of the mossy fibers, granule cells, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cells. They both predict motor learning in the parallel fiber synapses on the Purkinje dendrites mediated by concurrent climbing fiber input. This prediction has been confirmed

James S. Albus

1989-01-01

139

Muscodor albus Volatiles Control Toxigenic Fungi under Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage Conditions  

PubMed Central

Muscodor albus, a biofumigant fungus, has the potential to control post-harvest pathogens in storage. It has been shown to produce over 20 volatile compounds with fungicidal, bactericidal and insecticidal properties. However, M. albus is a warm climate endophyte, and its biofumigant activity is significantly inhibited at temperatures below 5 °C. Conidia of seven mycotoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus carbonarius, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum, were killed or prevented from germinating by exposure to volatiles from 2 g M. albus-colonized rye grain per L of headspace in sealed glass jars for 24 h at 20 °C. Two major volatiles of M. albus, isobutyric acid (IBA) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (2MB) at 50 ?L/L and 100 ?L/L, respectively, gave differential control of the seven fungi when applied individually at 20 °C. When the fungi were exposed to both IBA and 2MB together, an average of 94% of the conidia were killed or suppressed. In a factorial experiment with controlled atmosphere storage (CA) at 3 °C and 72 h exposure to four concentrations of IBA and 2MB combinations, 50 ?L/L IBA plus 100 ?L/L 2MB killed or suppressed germination of the conidia of all seven fungi. Controlled atmosphere had no significant effect on conidial viability or volatile efficacy. Major volatiles of M. albus may have significant potential to control plant pathogens in either ambient air or CA storage at temperatures below 5 °C. However, combinations of volatiles may be required to provide a broader spectrum of control than individual volatiles. PMID:23443097

Braun, Gordon; Vailati, Matteo; Prange, Robert; Bevis, Eric

2012-01-01

140

Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese\\u000a subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and\\u000a blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in

Naoya Kitao; Daisuke Fukui; Masaaki Hashimoto; Peter G. Osborne

2009-01-01

141

Use of White Lupin Plant for Phytostabilization of Cd and As Polluted Acid Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium and arsenic are two of the most important and toxic pollutants ubiquitous in the environment. The occurrence of numerous polluted areas as the affected by the accident of Aznalcóllar pyrite mine has promoted the employment of the phytoremediation as a feasible technology able to control and reduce the risk of this contamination at low cost. White lupin plant is

S. Vázquez; R. Agha; A. Granado; M. J. Sarro; E. Esteban; J. M. Peñalosa; R. O. Carpena

2006-01-01

142

Phytoremediation of Aged Aromatic Contaminants in Soil Using White Lupin Principle Investigators  

E-print Network

. Citrate is exuded in large quantities by the roots of white lupin (Gardner et al., 1983; Dinkelaker et al., 1989), and the chelation of iron in iron oxides in soil by citrate may modify the nanopore structure and 10 weeks. However, statistical analyses using a paired t-test indicated that there were

Rhode Island, University of

143

Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount R. del Moral1,  

E-print Network

, Trajectory Abstract The nitrogen-fixing legume Lupinus lepidus is the most abundant herb on new volcanic (Walker et al. 2003). Therefore, species with nitrogen-fixing symbionts may facilitate vegetation. However, the net effects of N-fixers may be positive or negative on partic- ular species (Holmgren et al. 1997

del Moral, Roger

144

Efficiency of white lupin in the removal of mercury from contaminated soils: soil and hydroponic experiments.  

PubMed

This study examined the ability of the white lupin to remove mercury (Hg) from a hydroponic system (Hg concentrations 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 micromol/L) and from soil in pots and lysimeters (total Hg concentration (19.2 +/- 1.9) mg/kg availability 0.07%, and (28.9 +/- 0.4) mg/kg availability 0.09%, respectively), and investigated the accumulation and distribution of Hg in different parts of the plant. White lupin roots efficiently took up Hg, but its translocation to the harvestable parts of the plant was low. The Hg concentration in the seeds posed no risk to human health according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, but the shoots should not be used as fodder for livestock, at least when unmixed with other fodder crops. The accumulation of Hg in the hydroponically-grown plants was linear over the concentration range tested. The amount of Hg retained in the roots, relative to the shoots, was almost constant irrespective of Hg dose (90%). In the soil experiments, Hg accumulation increased with exposure time and was the greater in the lysimeter than in the pot experiments. Although Hg removal was the greater in the hydroponic system, revealing the potential of the white lupin to extract Hg, bioaccumulation was the greatest in the lysimeter-grown plants; the latter system more likely reflects the true behaviour of white lupin in the field when Hg availability is a factor that limits Hg removal. The present results suggest that the white lupin could be used in long-term soil reclamation strategies that include the goal of profitable land use in Hg-polluted areas. PMID:20614785

Zornoza, Pilar; Millán, Rocío; Sierra, M José; Seco, Almudena; Esteban, Elvira

2010-01-01

145

Development of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers for Rapid, Inexpensive, and Standardized Identification of Pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and Shovelnose (S. platorynchus) Sturgeon Larvae.  

E-print Network

??The purpose of this project was to develop inexpensive, standardized, and high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers that discriminate between pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and… (more)

Krampe, Matthew Stephen

2011-01-01

146

Survival of White Ibises ( Eudocimus albus ) in response to chronic experimental methylmercury exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although methylated mercury (MeHg) is known to have neurological, immunological, reproductive, and endocrine effects on vertebrates\\u000a at low environmental exposure levels, effects on survival of exposed birds have not been demonstrated in the wild. Here, we\\u000a report on survival of the same group of White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) during exposure to 4 levels of dietary MeHg in captivity and later

Peter Frederick; Ashley Campbell; Nilmini Jayasena; Rena Borkhataria

2011-01-01

147

Dechlorination of chlorophenols using extracellular peroxidases produced by streptomyces albus ATCC 3005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptomyces albus ATCC 3005 was found to produce higher levels of extracellular peroxidase activity (3.420 U mg?1) than previously reported for any other actinomycete. Maximum peroxidase activity was obtained after 72 h of incubation at a temperature of 30°C in a liquid medium (pH 7.6) containing (in w\\/v) 0.8% to 0.9% oat spelts xylan and 0.6% yeast extract, corresponding to

Vasileios T Antonopoulos; Abdul Rob; Andrew S Ball; Michael T Wilson

2001-01-01

148

Mercury in Eggs and Feathers of Great Egrets ( Ardea albus ) from the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great egret (Ardea albus) eggs and nestling feathers were collected for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) analysis from two colonies in\\u000a the Florida Everglades in 1999 and 2000. THg was present in all eggs at a mean concentration of 0.39 ± 0.19 ?g\\/g fresh weight\\u000a (n = 33, range = 0.08–0.86 ?g\\/g). Egg-THg levels did not differ significantly between

D. G. Rumbold; S. L. Niemczyk; L. E. Fink; T. Chandrasekhar; B. Harkanson; K. A. Laine

2001-01-01

149

Molting and cuticle deposition in the subterranean trichoniscid Titanethes albus (Crustacea, Isopoda).  

PubMed

Terrestrial isopods are a suitable group for the study of cuticle synthesis and calcium dynamics because they molt frequently and have evolved means to store calcium during molt. Little data is currently available on molting in Synocheta and subterranean isopods. We studied the molting dynamics in the subterranean trichoniscid Titanethes albus under laboratory conditions and performed a microscopic investigation of sternal CaCO(3) deposits and the tergal epithelium during molt in this species. In accordance with its lower metabolic rate, molting in the laboratory is roughly 2-3 times less frequent in Titanethes albus than would be expected for an epigean isopod under similar conditions. Animals assumed characteristic postures following the molt of each body half and did not consume the posterior exuviae after posterior molt. The structure of sternal calcium deposits and the ultrastructural characteristics of the epidermis during cuticle formation in Titanethes albus are similar to those described in representatives of Ligiidae. During the deposition of the exocuticle, the apical plasma membrane of epidermal cells forms finger-like extensions and numerous invaginations. In the ecdysial space of individuals in late premolt we observed cellular extensions surrounded by bundles of tubules. PMID:22536097

Vittori, Miloš; Kostanjšek, Rok; Znidarši?, Nada; Strus, Jasna

2012-01-01

150

Functional Analyses of Multiple Lichenin-Degrading Enzymes from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8?†  

PubMed Central

Ruminococcus albus 8 is a fibrolytic ruminal bacterium capable of utilization of various plant cell wall polysaccharides. A bioinformatic analysis of a partial genome sequence of R. albus revealed several putative enzymes likely to hydrolyze glucans, including lichenin, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide of glucose linked together in ?-1,3 and ?-1,4 glycosidic bonds. In the present study, we demonstrate the capacity of four glycoside hydrolases (GHs), derived from R. albus, to hydrolyze lichenin. Two of the genes encoded GH family 5 enzymes (Ra0453 and Ra2830), one gene encoded a GH family 16 enzyme (Ra0505), and the last gene encoded a GH family 3 enzyme (Ra1595). Each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified to near homogeneity. Upon screening on a wide range of substrates, Ra0453, Ra2830, and Ra0505 displayed different hydrolytic properties, as they released unique product profiles. The Ra1595 protein, predicted to function as a ?-glucosidase, preferred cleavage of a nonreducing end glucose when linked by a ?-1,3 glycosidic bond to the next glucose residue. The major product of Ra0505 hydrolysis of lichenin was predicted to be a glucotriose that was degraded only by Ra0453 to glucose and cellobiose. Most importantly, the four enzymes functioned synergistically to hydrolyze lichenin to glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose. This lichenin-degrading enzyme mix should be of utility as an additive to feeds administered to monogastric animals, especially those high in fiber. PMID:21890664

Iakiviak, Michael; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

2011-01-01

151

Skin prick test reactivity to lupin in comparison to peanut, pea, and soybean in atopic and non-atopic German subjects: A preliminary cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

The increasing use of lupin in food processing poses a problem of potential (cross-)allergic reactions. To evaluate the prevalence of sensitization to lupin in comparison to that of other legumes skin prick tests were performed with lupin, pea, peanut, and soybean in atopic (n = 81) and non-atopic (n = 102) German adults. Of these 183 subjects, 20 subjects had to be excluded due to invalid skin prick tests (reaction to histamine <3 mm or to sodium chloride >2 mm). Thus, skin prick tests of 163 subjects were included in final analyses. Of 163 subjects, 18 had a positive reaction to at least one legume tested. Overall skin prick test reactivity was different among non-atopic and atopic subjects (P = 0.005). Altogether, six subjects (4%) were sensitized to lupin, 12 (7%) to pea, 5 (3%) to peanut, and 8 (5%) to soybean. Two (2%) of the 92 non-atopic subjects and 4 (6%) of the 71 atopic subjects had a positive skin prick test to lupin. Of the 6 subjects sensitized to lupin, 3 (50%) were also sensitized to pea, 3 (50%) to peanut, and 5 (83%) to soybean. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of lupin sensitization were comparable to or even lower than those of pea, peanut, and soybean. To date, lupin allergy is suspected to be relatively uncommon in the overall German population since lupin sensitization occurred in only 2% of non-atopic subjects. However, there is a clear risk of a lupin allergy in predisposed subjects, since the frequency of lupin sensitization was 6% in atopic subjects. In particular, subjects with existing sensitization or allergy to other legumes are at higher risk for a sensitization or allergy to lupin due to cross-reactivity.

Bahr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kaatz, Martin; Jahreis, Gerhard

2014-01-01

152

Microencapsulation by spray drying of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with lupin nodules.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) used for crop inoculation have important biotechnological potential as a sustainable fertilization tool. However, the main limitation of this technology is the low inoculum survival rate under field conditions. Microencapsulation of bacterial cells in polymer matrices provides a controlled release and greater protection against environmental conditions. In this context, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative NFB associated with lupin nodules and to evaluate their microencapsulation by spray drying. For this purpose, 21 putative NFB were isolated from lupin nodules and characterized (16S rRNA genes). Microencapsulation of bacterial cells by spray drying was studied using a mixture of sodium alginate:maltodextrin at different ratios (0:15, 1:14, 2:13) and concentrations (15 and 30% solids) as the wall material. The microcapsules were observed under scanning electron microscopy to verify their suitable morphology. Results showed the association between lupin nodules of diverse known NFB and nodule-forming bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In microencapsulation assays, the 1:14 ratio of sodium alginate:maltodextrin (15% solids) showed the highest cell survival rate (79%), with a microcapsule yield of 27% and spherical microcapsules of 5-50 µm in diameter. In conclusion, diverse putative NFB genera and nodule-forming bacteria are associated with the nodules of lupine plants grown in soils in southern Chile, and their microencapsulation by spray drying using sodium alginate:maltodextrin represents a scalable process to generate a biofertilizer as an alternative to traditional nitrogen fertilization. PMID:24806812

Campos, Daniela C; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Aravena, Javiera; Amiard, Véronique; Jorquera, Milko A; Inostroza, Nitza G; Rubilar, Mónica

2014-09-01

153

Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface.\\u000a Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer\\u000a at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na–Ca–Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of

Tullis Onstott; Daniel J. McGown; Corien Bakermans; Timo Ruskeeniemi; Lasse Ahonen; Jon Telling; Bruno Soffientino; Susan M. Pfiffner; Barbara Sherwood-Lollar; Shaun Frape; Randy Stotler; Elizabeth J. Johnson; Tatiana A. Vishnivetskaya; Randi Rothmel; Lisa M. Pratt

2009-01-01

154

Soil solute concentration and water uptake by single lupin and radish plant roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of computer assisted tomography to gamma and X-ray attenuation measurements and Na+-LIX microelectrodes were used to determine the spatial distributions of soil water content and Na+ concentrations respectively near single roots of eighteen day old lupin and radish plants. These quantities were monitored\\u000a at root depths of 3, 6 and 9 cm and at zero, 2, 4, 6, and

M. A. Hamza; L. A. G. Aylmore

1992-01-01

155

Organospecific responses of lupin seedlings to lead Localization of hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier work using tissue printing method, we found that the PR-10 stress protein was observed in leaf petiole of lupin\\u000a seedling where lead was not detected (Przymusi?ski et al. 2001). These results suggested the presence of substance(s) mediating a signal transduction from directly affected cells to distant\\u000a organs. As the hydrogen peroxide was found to be involved in

Roman Przymusi?ski; Renata Ruci?ska-Sobkowiak; Bogna Ilska; Edward A. Gwó?d?

2007-01-01

156

Antioxidative activity of copper in root nodules of yellow lupin plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper nutrition inhibited lipid peroxidation in root nodules of yellow lupin plants at the early growth stages by about 50\\u000a %. The antioxidative activity of copper in the process of lipid peroxidation could be associated with Cu taking part in oxidative\\u000a reaction of nodule catechol-like siderophores and its effect on iron accumulation and reactivity. The obtained results, for\\u000a the first

Henryka Seliga

1999-01-01

157

Free radical formation and activity of antioxidant enzymes in lupin roots exposed to lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of root growth and modification of root morphology are the most sensitive responses of Lupinus luteus cv. Ventus L. to lead ions - Pb(NO3)2. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we found that at the lead concentration of 150 mg.L–1, the level of free radicals remained at control level, whereas at the higher, sublethal concentration of 350 mg.L–1, they markedly increased. The

Renata Ruci?ska; Stefan Waplak; Edward A Gwó?d?

1999-01-01

158

Localization of the Enzymes of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Leaf Chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus1  

PubMed Central

Studies with purified chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus LINDL. leaflets indicate that the first two enzymes of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, lysine decarboxylase and 17-oxosparteine synthase, are localized in the chloroplast stroma. Thus, both enzymes share the same subcellular compartment as the biosynthetic pathway of lysine, the precursor of quinolizidine alkaloids. The activity of diaminopimelate decarboxylase, the final enzyme in lysine biosynthesis, is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the enzymes of alkaloid formation. PMID:16662483

Wink, Michael; Hartmann, Thomas

1982-01-01

159

Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic plant invasions threaten ecological communities world-wide. Some species are limited by a lack of suitable pollinators, but the introduction of exotic pollinators can facilitate rapid spread. In Tasmania, where many non-native plants are naturalised, exotic honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) have become established. We determined how these species affect the pollination of Lupinus arboreus, an invasive, nitrogen-fixing

Jane C. Stout; Andrea R. Kells; Dave Goulson

2002-01-01

160

Effect of fermentation conditions on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of Lupinus angustifolius cv. zapaton  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of Lupinus angustifolious cv. zapaton, two different types of fermentation processes were performed. Solid-state fermentations in cracked seeds carried out by\\u000a Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis and liquid state fermentations in flour and cracked seeds carried out by the microbial population present in the seed

Rebeca Fernandez-Orozco; Juana Frias; Rosario Muñoz; Henryk Zielinski; Mariusz K. Piskula; Halina Kozlowska; Concepción Vidal-Valverde

2008-01-01

161

Reference gene selection for real-time RT-PCR normalization in rice field eel (Monopterus albus) during gonad development.  

PubMed

Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) requires data normalization using an appropriate reference gene in order to obtain more reliable results with biological significance. We cloned a partial sequence of elongation factor-1-? (EF1?) and ribosomal protein L17 (RPL17) from Monopterus albus. We investigated the suitability of five commonly used reference genes [18S ribosomal RNA (18S), cytoskeletal protein (?-actin), glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), EF1? and RPL17] as potential quantitative reference genes for normalizing real-time RT-PCR data generated in gonads of different developmental stages and in other tissues of M. albus. Analysis of the data indicated that 18S, ?-actin and GAPDH are not suitable as reference genes because of their levels of variations of expression. EF1? and RPL17 might be suitable as reference genes in the gonads of different developmental stages as well as in other tissues of M. albus. PMID:25079246

Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

2014-12-01

162

Pupal mortality and adult emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to the fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae).  

PubMed

Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides alone for fly control could be fumigation of the fly's overwintering habitat using the fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel & Hess (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) in conjunction with reduced insecticide use. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are biocidal for a variety of organisms. In this study, the main objectives were to determine the effects of M. albus VOCs on mortality of R. indifferens pupae and on adult emergence under laboratory conditions. In fumigation chamber experiments, a 14-d exposure of pupae in soil to VOCs resulted in 61.9% control, and exposure to VOCs for 7, 10, and 14 d reduced fly emergence by 44.2, 70.0, and 86.3%, respectively, relative to controls. In an experiment using plastic covers to retain VOCs in treated soil, a concentration of 1% M. albus formulation (fungus + rye grain) did not affect pupal mortality and fly emergence, but a concentration of 5% M. albus formulation resulted in 27.4% control and reduced fly emergence by 30.1% relative to the control. Larvae of R. indifferens that were dropped onto soil with 1% M. albus formulation were not affected by the fungus. Results indicate that prolonged exposure and high concentrations of M. albus VOCs can cause significant mortality of R. indifferens pupae in soil and delay adult emergence. PMID:20069829

Yee, Wee L; Lacey, Lawrence A; Bishop, Belinda J B

2009-12-01

163

High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O2 transport system to secure adequate O2 delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O2 binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O2 equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O2 binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O2 carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O2 with an unusually high affinity (P50=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O2 affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ? g wet tissue(-1), respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O2 affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O2 flux from the blood to the muscles. PMID:25139401

Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

2014-12-01

164

Early growth of introduced and native grasses on lupine-enriched soil Taraneh M. Emam1, Peter Alpert2, Don Strong3  

E-print Network

species? Bromus diandrus Lolium multiflorum Vulpia bromoides Biomass, growth rate studied ntroduced pecies. In contrast, L. multiflorum, B. carinatus, H. brachyantherum, and H. lanatus had higher percent germination eafblade(mm) B. diandrus L. multiflorum Lupine Non-Lupine 50 60 70 80 90 100 eafblade(mm) 50 60 70 80 90

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

165

JOURNAL OF THE KANSAS ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 74(3), 2001, pp. 128-135  

E-print Network

Uresiphita reversalis (Guenée) larvae feeding on sky-blue lupine Lupinus cumulicola Small in February soils is minimal. Hence, it is remarkable to observe sky-blue lupines (Lupinus cumulicola Small) growing moth Uresiphita reversalis (Guenée) feed extensively on sky-blue lupines in ridge sandhills of Florida

Carrel, James E.

166

Preliminary evaluation of annually cultivated forage legumes for organic farming in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Finland, the most common legume in organic farming is Trifolium pratense, which cultivation needs to be broken regularly to maintain high productivity. Use of annuals also decreases peaks of field work and increases open field area for manure. In 1998-2001, 19 forage legume species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, Medicago littoralis, Medicago scutellata, Melilotus albus, Melilotus officinalis, Pisum

P. Nykänen-Kurki; P. Leinonen; A. Nykänen

167

Spatial scales of genetic structure and gene flow in Calochortus albus (Liliaceae)  

PubMed Central

Calochortus (Liliaceae) displays high species richness, restriction of many individual taxa to narrow ranges, geographic coherence of individual clades, and parallel adaptive radiations in different regions. Here we test the first part of a hypothesis that all of these patterns may reflect gene flow at small geographic scales. We use amplified fragment length polymorphism variation to quantify the geographic scales of spatial genetic structure and apparent gene flow in Calochortus albus, a widespread member of the genus, at Henry Coe State Park in the Coast Ranges south of San Francisco Bay. Analyses of 254 mapped individuals spaced 0.001–14.4 km apart show a highly significant decline in genetic identity with ln distance, implying a root-mean-square distance of gene flow ? of 5–43 m. STRUCTURE analysis implies the existence of 2–4 clusters over the study area, with frequent reversals among clusters over short distances (<200 m) and a relatively high frequency of admixture within individuals at most sampling sites. While the intensity of spatial genetic structure in C. albus is weak, as measured by the Sp statistic, that appears to reflect low genetic identity of adjacent plants, which might reflect repeated colonizations at small spatial scales or density-dependent mortality of individual genotypes by natural enemies. Small spatial scales of gene flow and spatial genetic structure should permit, under a variety of conditions, genetic differentiation within species at such scales, setting the stage ultimately for speciation and adaptive radiation as such scales as well. PMID:23789059

Henss, Jillian M; Moeller, Jackson R; Theim, Terra J; Givnish, Thomas J

2013-01-01

168

Efficacy of the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in simulated storage conditions.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples (Malus spp.) because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. The need for alternatives to fumigants such as methyl bromide for quarantine security of exported fruit has encouraged the development of effective fumigants with reduced side effects. The endophytic fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel and Hess (Ascomycota: Xylariales) produces volatile compounds that are biocidal for several pest organisms, including plant pathogens and insect pests. The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of M. albus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on codling moth adults, neonate larvae, larvae in infested apples, and diapausing cocooned larvae in simulated storage conditions. Fumigation of adult codling moth with VOCs produced by M. albus for 3 d and incubating in fresh air for 24 h at 25 degrees C resulted in 81% corrected mortality. Four- and 5-d exposures resulted in higher mortality (84 and 100%, respectively), but control mortality was also high due to the short life span of the moths. Exposure of neonate larvae to VOCs for 3 d on apples and incubating for 7 d resulted in 86% corrected mortality. Treated larvae were predominantly first instars, whereas 85% of control larvae developed to second and third instars. Exposure of apples that had been infested for 5 d, fumigated with M. albus VOCs for 3 d, and incubated as described above resulted in 71% corrected larval mortality. Exposure of diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae to VOCs for 7 or 14 d resulted in 31 and 100% mortality, respectively, with negligible control mortality. Our data on treatment of several stages of codling moth with M. albus VOCs indicate that the fungus could provide an alternative to broad spectrum chemical fumigants for codling moth control in storage and contribute to the systems approach to achieve quarantine security of exported apples. PMID:19253616

Lacey, L A; Horton, D R; Jones, D C; Headrick, H L; Neven, L G

2009-02-01

169

Phenotypic variability and modelling of root structure of wild Lupinus angustifolius genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  Root plasticity in response to the edaphic environment represents a challenge in the quantification of phenotypic variation\\u000a in crop germplasm. The aim of this study was to use various growth systems to assess phenotypic variation among wild genotypes\\u000a of Lupinus angustifolius.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Ten wild genotypes of L. angustifolius selected from an earlier phenotyping study were grown in three different

Ying Long Chen; Vanessa M. Dunbabin; Johannes A. Postma; Art J. Diggle; Jairo A. Palta; Jonathan P. Lynch; Kadambot H. M. Siddique; Zed Rengel

170

SOME BROADLEAF HERBICIDES USED IN MIXTURES WITH GLYPHOSATE MAY HINDER THE GROWTH OF NARROW-LEAFED LUPIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In southern Chile, glyphosate is often complemented with broadleaf herbicides to improve the control of weeds like Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg., Hypochaeris radicata L., Plantago lanceolata L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Veronica persica Poiret , and Trifolium repens L. prior to sowing lupin or canola. The broadleaf herbicides may persist in the soil for unpredictable periods, depending on

Nelson Espinoza; Mario Mer

171

Calcium Status of Yellow Lupin Symbiosomes as a Potential Regulator of Their Nitrogenase Activity: The Role of the Peribacteroid Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of symbiosomes from yellow lupin root nodules for active Ca2+uptake and the sensitivity of their nitrogenase activity to a disturbance of the symbiotic Ca partition were investigated. The experiments carried out on the isolated symbiosomes and the peribacteroid membrane (PBM) vesicles, using Ca2+indicators arsenazo III and chlorotetracycline, and the cytochemical Ca visualization with potassium pyroantimonate (PA) provided evidence

I. M. Andreev; I. N. Andreeva; P. N. Dubrovo; V. V. Krylova; G. M. Kozharinova; S. F. Izmailov

2001-01-01

172

DIFFERENTIAL CAPACITY OF WHEAT CULTIVARS AND WHITE LUPIN TO ACQUIRE PHOSPHORUS FROM ROCK PHOSPHATE, PHYTATE AND SOLUBLE PHOSPHORUS SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized varying capacity of two wheat cultivars (‘Brookton’ and ‘Krichauff’) and white lupin to acquire and utilize phosphorus (P) from different P resources [P0, rock phosphate, composted rock phosphate, phytate and soluble P) at 200 mg P kg soil]. In all three genotypes, shoot P concentration and content were highest in the phytate treatment and lowest in P0. Roots

E. Sepehr; Z. Rengel; E. Fateh; M. R. Sadaghiani

2012-01-01

173

THE LYSIS OF GROUP A HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI BY EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES OF STREPTOMYCES ALBUS  

PubMed Central

Cell wall preparations of uniform chemical constitution have been obtained from several strains of group A streptococci. The isolated cell walls are dissolved by the same fractions of the Streptomyces albus enzymes that are effective in the lysis of intact cells, and it is likely that enzymatic lysis of group A streptococci is effected by an attack on the cell wall. The streptococcal cell wall, as prepared in this study, consists of approximately two-thirds carbohydrate and one-third protein. Small amounts of other components may be present. The carbohydrate component, which is composed primarily of N-acetyl-glucosamine and rhamnose, is the group-specific C carbohydrate. The evidence indicates that one of the streptomyces enzymes is directed toward the carbohydrate component of the cell wall. PMID:13022851

McCarty, Maclyn

1952-01-01

174

Isolation and identification of a lethal rhabdovirus from farmed rice field eels Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

We provide the first description of a virus responsible for a systemic hemorrhagic disease causing high mortality in farmed rice field eels Monopterus albus in China. Typical signs exhibited by the diseased fish were extensive hemorrhages in the skin and viscera and some neurological signs, such as loss of equilibrium and disorganized swimming. Histopathological examination revealed various degrees of necrosis within the spleen and liver. Virus isolation was attempted from visceral tissues of diseased fish by inoculation on 6 fish cell lines. Typical cytopathic effects (CPE) were produced in bluegill fry (BF2) cells, so this cell line was chosen for further isolation and propagation of the virus. Electron microscopy observation showed that the negative stained viral particles had the characteristic bullet shape of rhabdoviruses and an estimated size of 60 × 120 nm. We therefore tentatively refer to this virus as Monopterus albus rhabdovirus (MoARV). Molecular characterization of MoARV, including sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and glycoprotein (G) genes, revealed 94.5 to 97.3% amino acid similarity to that of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequences of N and G proteins indicated that MoARV should be a member of the genus Vesiculovirus. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by infecting healthy rice field eels with MoARV, which produced an acute infection. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MoARV RNA could be detected in both naturally and experimentally infected fish. The data suggest that MoARV was the causative pathogen of the disease. PMID:24191997

Ou, Tong; Zhu, Ruo-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Qi-Ya

2013-11-01

175

Acute ammonia toxicity and the protective effects of methionine sulfoximine on the swamp eel, Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine how the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, defended against acute ammonia toxicity derived from the intraperitoneal injection with a sublethal dose (10 micromol g(-1) fish) of ammonium acetate (CH(3)COONH(4)) followed by 24 hr of emersion, and to elucidate the mechanisms of acute ammonia toxicity with respect to glutamine accumulation in the brain using L-methionine S-sulfoximine [MSO; a glutamine synthetase inhibitor]. When confronted with a sublethal dose of CH(3)COONH(4) followed by emersion, only a small fraction of the exogenous ammonia was excreted, and ammonia contents in various organs, especially the brain, increased transiently to high levels. Increased glutamine synthesis and decreased amino acid catabolism in and outside the brain were involved in the defence against acute ammonia toxicity. When injected with a lethal dose (16 micromol g(-1) fish) of CH(3)COONH(4) followed by emersion, ammonia (approximately 30 micromol g(-1) tissue), but not glutamine ( approximately 5 micromol g(-1) tissue), accumulated to extraordinarily high levels in the brain of succumbed fish. Hence, glutamine accumulation in the brain might not be the major mechanism of acute ammonia toxicity in M. albus. MSO (100 microg g(-1) fish) had a partial protective effect in fish injected with a lethal dose of CH(3)COONH(4). However, this effect was unrelated to the suppression of glutamine synthesis and accumulation in the brain. Instead, MSO suppressed the rate of ammonia buildup in the brain, possibly through its effects on glutamate dehydrogenase therein. PMID:19544359

Tng, Yvonne Y M; Chew, Shit F; Wee, Nicklaus L J; Wong, Fung K; Wong, Wai P; Tok, Chia Y; Ip, Yuen K

2009-11-01

176

Litoribrevibacter albus gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from coastal seawater, Fujian province, China.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain negative, short rod-shaped aerobic bacterium with flagella, designated strain Y32(T), was isolated from coastal seawater in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain Y32(T) is a member of the family Oceanospirillaceae, forming a distinct lineage with species of the genus Litoribacillus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain Y32(T) and other strains were all less than 94.0 %. Strain Y32(T) was found to grow optimally at 28 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 4-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids were identified as Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c, 49.4 %), C16:0 (17.7 %), C14:0 (6.9 %) and C18:1 ?9c (5.4 %). The major respiratory quinone was identified as ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain Y32(T) was determined to be 55.6 mol%. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition, polar lipids composition and 16S rRNA gene sequence data, strain Y32(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Oceanospirillaceae, for which the name Litoribrevibacter albus gen. nov. sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Litoribrevibacter albus is Y32(T) (=MCCC 1F01211(T)=NBRC 110071(T)). PMID:25193025

Li, Yi; Zhu, Hong; Lai, Qiliang; Lei, Xueqian; Zhang, Huajun; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

2014-11-01

177

`ORIGINAL ARTICLE'1! The first complete chloroplast genome of the genistoid legume Lupinus luteus: Evidence for a3!  

E-print Network

! 1! `ORIGINAL ARTICLE'1! 2! The first complete chloroplast genome of the genistoid legume Lupinus! Background and Aims To date chloroplast genomes are available only for members of the2! non. Comparative analyses of18! chloroplast gene content of L. luteus versus Fabaceae and extra-Fabales plastomes

178

Aquibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake, and reclassification of Virgibacillus koreensis as Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. and Virgibacillus albus as Aquibacillus albus comb. nov.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain B6B(T), was isolated from the water of an Iranian hypersaline lake, Aran-Bidgol, and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain B6B(T) were rod-shaped, motile and produced ellipsoidal endospores in terminal positions in non-swollen sporangia. Strain B6B(T) was a strictly aerobic bacterium and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-20.0?% (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 10.0?% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain B6B(T) was shown to belong to the phylum Firmicutes and its closest phylogenetic similarities were with the species Virgibacillus koreensis BH30097(T) (97.5?%), Virgibacillus albus YIM 93624(T) (97.4?%), Sediminibacillus halophilus EN8d(T) (96.8?%), Sediminibacillus albus NHBX5(T) (96.6?%), Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964(T) (96.3?%) and Paraliobacillus quinghaiensis YIM-C158(T) (96.0?%), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain B6B(T), along with V. koreensis BH30097(T) and V. albus YIM 93624(T), clustered in a separate clade in the family Bacillaceae. The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was 35.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed low levels of relatedness between strain B6B(T)and V. koreensis BH30097(T) (13?%) and V. albus YIM 93624(T) (33?%). The major cellular fatty acid of strain B6B(T) was anteiso-C15?:?0 (75.1?%) and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown glycolipid. The isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (90?%) and MK-6 (3?%). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. All of these features support the placement of isolate B6B(T) within the phylum Firmicutes. It is closely related to V. koreensis and V. albus, but with features that clearly distinguish it from species of the genus Virgibacillus or of other related genera. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence derived in this study, we propose that strain B6B(T) be placed within a new genus, as Aquibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., with B6B(T) as the type strain (?=?IBRC-M 10775(T)?=?KCTC 13828(T)). We also propose that V. koreensis and V. albus should be transferred to this new genus and be named Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. and Aquibacillus albus comb. nov., respectively. The type strain of Aquibacillus koreensis comb. nov. is BH30097(T) (?=?KCTC 3823(T)?=?IBRC-M 10657(T)?=?JCM 12387(T)) and the type strain of Aquibacillus albus comb. nov. is YIM 93624(T) (?=?DSM 23711(T)?=?IBRC-M 10798(T)?=?JCM 17364(T)). PMID:25062698

Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Bagheri, Maryam; Didari, Maryam; Mehrshad, Maliheh; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

2014-11-01

179

Where do roots take up water? Neutron radiography of water flow into the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil.  

PubMed

Where and how fast does water flow from soil into roots? The answer to this question requires direct and in situ measurement of local flow of water into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. We used neutron radiography to trace the transport of deuterated water (D?O) in lupin (Lupinus albus) roots. Lupins were grown in aluminum containers (30 × 25 × 1 cm) filled with sandy soil. D?O was injected in different soil regions and its transport in soil and roots was monitored by neutron radiography. The transport of water into roots was then quantified using a convection-diffusion model of D?O transport into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the lower ones. Along an individual root, the radial flux was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal segments. In lupins, most of the water uptake occurred in lateral roots. The function of the taproot was to collect water from laterals and transport it to the shoot. This function is ensured by a low radial conductivity and a high axial conductivity. Lupin root architecture seems well designed to take up water from deep soil layers. PMID:23692148

Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kim, Yangmin X; Carminati, Andrea

2013-09-01

180

Overexpression of the LASAP2 gene for secretory acid phosphatase in white lupin improves the phosphorus uptake and growth of tobacco plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of acid phosphatase (APase) from the roots to take up phosphorus (P) is a well-known strategy of plants under P-deficient conditions. White lupin, which shows vigorous growth in low-P soils, is noted for its ability to secrete APase under P-deficient conditions. The APase secreted by white lupin roots is stable in soil solution and shows low substrate specificity, suggesting

Jun Wasaki; Hayato Maruyama; Miho Tanaka; Takuya Yamamura; Hiraki Dateki; Takuro Shinano; Susumu Ito; Mitsuru Osaki

2009-01-01

181

Tachykinins (Substance P and Neuropeptide ?) from the Brains of the Pallid Sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus and the Paddlefish, Polyodon spathula (Acipenseriformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peptide with substance P-like immunoreactivity was isolated from extracts of the brains of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus and the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. The primary structure of the peptide (Lys-Pro-Lys-Pro-His-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met.NH2) is the same in both species and contains 2 amino acid substitutions (Arg1?Lys and Gln5?His) compared with human substance P and 1 substitution (Arg3?Lys) compared with substance

Yuqi Wang; Bruce A. Barton; Per F. Nielsen; J. Michael Conlon

1999-01-01

182

Rhabdometra lygodaptrion n.sp. (Cestoda: Paruterinidae) from willow ptarmigan ( Lagopus Lagopus albus ) in northern Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Rhabdometra lygodaptrion n.sp. from the small intestine of Lagopus lagopus albus (willow ptarmigan) taken at Cape Henrietta Maria, northern Ontario, Canada, is proposed. R. lygodaptrion is most similar to R. alpinensis, R. nullicollis and R. tomica but is shorter than all these three species and the cuticularized vaginal lining is characteristic. R. lygodaptrion differs from R. alpinensis in having

Mary Beverley-Burton; Vernon G. Thomas

1980-01-01

183

Relationships between Population Size, Genetic Diversity and Fitness Components in the Rare Plant Dictamnus albus in Central Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of studies support the hypothesis that smaller populations face a higher risk of extinction, and declining\\u000a population sizes are therefore one of the focal points in plant conservation. In small populations, loss of genetic diversity\\u000a is often related to reduced reproductive fitness. For the rare Dictamnus albus in Central Germany, an earlier study had already confirmed a

Isabell Hensen; Karsten Wesche

2006-01-01

184

Effect of soluble carbohydrates on digestion of cellulose by pure cultures of rumen bacteria. [Ruminococcus flavefaciens, R. albus, Bacteroides succinogenes  

SciTech Connect

The rate of cellulose digestion in the presence of either glucose or cellobiose was studied for the three predominant species of cellulolytic rumen bacteria: Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Bacteroides succinogenes. When a soluble carbohydrate was added to cellulose broth, the lag phase of cellulose digestion was shortened. Presumably, this was due to greater numbers of bacteria, because increasing the size of the inoculum had a similar effect. Cellulose digestion occurred simultaneously with utilization of the soluble carbohydrate. The rate of cellulose digestion slowed markedly for B. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens and slowed less for R. albus after the cellobiose or glucose had been utilized, and was accompanied by a decrease in pH. Both the rate and the extent of cellulose digestion were partially inhibited when the initial pH of the medium was 6.3 or below. R. albus appeared to be less affected by a low-pH medium than were B. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens. When a soluble carbohydrate was added to the fermentation during the maximum-rate phase of cellulose digestion, the rate of cellulose digestion was not affected until after the soluble carbohydrate had been depleted and the pH had decreased markedly. Prolonged exposure of the bacteria to a low pH had little if any effect on their subsequent ability to digest cellulose. Cellulase activity of intact bacterial cells appeared to be constitutive in nature for these three species of rumen bacteria. 30 references.

Hiltner, P.; Dehority, B.A.

1983-09-01

185

Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus. PMID:25363394

Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

2014-01-01

186

Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus  

PubMed Central

We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus. PMID:25363394

Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

2014-01-01

187

Cloning and Characterization of the Polyether Salinomycin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Streptomyces albus XM211  

PubMed Central

Salinomycin is widely used in animal husbandry as a food additive due to its antibacterial and anticoccidial activities. However, its biosynthesis had only been studied by feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors. A strategy with degenerate primers based on the polyether-specific epoxidase sequences was successfully developed to clone the salinomycin gene cluster. Using this strategy, a putative epoxidase gene, slnC, was cloned from the salinomycin producer Streptomyces albus XM211. The targeted replacement of slnC and subsequent trans-complementation proved its involvement in salinomycin biosynthesis. A 127-kb DNA region containing slnC was sequenced, including genes for polyketide assembly and release, oxidative cyclization, modification, export, and regulation. In order to gain insight into the salinomycin biosynthesis mechanism, 13 gene replacements and deletions were conducted. Including slnC, 7 genes were identified as essential for salinomycin biosynthesis and putatively responsible for polyketide chain release, oxidative cyclization, modification, and regulation. Moreover, 6 genes were found to be relevant to salinomycin biosynthesis and possibly involved in precursor supply, removal of aberrant extender units, and regulation. Sequence analysis and a series of gene replacements suggest a proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of salinomycin. The information presented here expands the understanding of polyether biosynthesis mechanisms and paves the way for targeted engineering of salinomycin activity and productivity. PMID:22156425

Jiang, Chunyan; Wang, Hougen; Kang, Qianjin; Liu, Jing

2012-01-01

188

The Pied Crow (Corvus albus) is insensitive to diclofenac at concentrations present in carrion.  

PubMed

Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), kills vultures (Gyps spp.) that consume tainted carcasses. As a result, vulture populations in India, Nepal, and Pakistan have been devastated. Studies on meloxicam and ketoprofen demonstrated that the toxicity of the NSAIDs is unpredictable, thereby necessitating individual testing of all available NSAIDs. Because it is no longer practical to use vultures for toxicity testing, we evaluated the Pied Crow (Corvus albus) as a model. Pied Crows (n=6) were exposed to a dose of 0.8 and 10 mg/kg of diclofenac, with no signs of toxicity, and a rapid half-life of elimination. Using primary renal cell and hepatocyte cultures, a high tolerance was demonstrated at the cellular level. Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic data for the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus) and the African White-backed (Gyps africanus), Cape Griffon (Gyps coprotheres), and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) showed a trend toward toxicity when the half-life of elimination increased. We conclude that the crow is not susceptible to diclofenac and, more important, that toxicity in the Gyps species is probably related to zero-order metabolism. PMID:22102664

Naidoo, Vinny; Mompati, Kefiloe Feliciity; Duncan, Neil; Taggart, Mark Anthony

2011-10-01

189

Development of a PCR assay for detection of the thin, binucleate Rhizoctonia causing Eradu patch disease of lupin and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field symptoms of Eradu patch are distinct, stunted patches in narrow-leaf lupin and ill-thrift patches in barley. The\\u000a pathogen, a thin, binucleate Rhizoctonia (TBR), is difficult to isolate with standard methods. To develop an assay specific to TBR, the ribosomal RNA ITS region was\\u000a amplified and a 610 bp section including the conserved 5.8S region was sequenced. This sequence

G. C. MacNish; P. A. O'Brien

2003-01-01

190

Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius  

PubMed Central

Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

1966-01-01

191

Chloroplast DNA restriction site polymorphism in Genisteae ( Leguminosae ) suggests a common origin for European and American lupines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction site polymorphism in cpDNA of 35 legumes was studied in order to address natural relationships and geographic distribution within the tribeGenisteae. 386 sites were studied, 277 were polymorphic, 207 were informative. Phylogenetic inferences with distance and parsimony methods suggest that the American and MediterraneanLupinus species belong to a monophyletic group which arose from a single center of diversification. The

Abdelfattah Badr; William Martin; Uwe Jensen

1994-01-01

192

Transformation of a grain legume (Lupinus angustifolius L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer to shoot apices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic plants of Lupinus angustifolius L. (cvs. Unicrop and Merrit) were routinely generated using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to shoot apices. The bar gene for resistance to phosphinothricin (PPT, the active ingredient of the herbicide Basta) was used as the selectable marker. After co-cultivation, the shoot apex explants were transferred onto a PPT-free regeneration medium and their tops were thoroughly wetted

Alix Pigeaire; Deborah Abernethy; Penelope M. Smith; Kaylene Simpson; Natalie Fletcher; Chin-Yi Lu; Craig A. Atkins; Edwina Cornish

1997-01-01

193

Quinolizidine alkaloids obtained by Pedicularis semibarbata (Scrophulariaceae) from Lupinus fulcratus (Leguminosae) fail to influence the specialist herbivore Euphydryas editha (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedicularis semibarbata is apparently an obligate hemiparasite of coniferous trees. It is also a facultative parasite ofLupinus fulcratus from which we find that it obtains quinolizidine alkaloids, principally a-isolupanine. As a result, a single population ofP. semibarbata contains both alkaloidrich and alkaloid-free plants. The butterflyEuphydryas editha naturally oviposits on both plant types. This butterfly population, which is the principal herbivore

Frank R. Stermitz; Gilbert N. Belofsky; David Ng; Michael C. Singer

1989-01-01

194

Properties and Expression of Na+/K+-ATPase ?-Subunit Isoforms in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Which Has Unusually High Brain Ammonia Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l?1) and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (?4.5 µmol g?1). Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka) is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4+ can substitute for K+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka ?-subunits, some of which might have high K+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka ?-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities over a range of K+/NH4+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nka? (nka?1, nka?3a and nka?3b) were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nka?2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l?1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nka?1, nka?3a and nka?3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na+/K+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4+/K+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1) lack of nka?2 expression, (2) high K+ specificity of K+ binding sites of Nka?1, Nka?3a and Nka?3b, and (3) down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nka? isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus. PMID:24391932

Chen, Xiu L.; Wee, Nicklaus L. J. E.; Hiong, Kum C.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

2013-01-01

195

Metabolic and ultrastructural responses of lupine embryo axes to sugar starvation.  

PubMed

Embryo axes isolated from germinating lupine seeds were cultivated in vitro for 24-96 h over media containing either 60 mmol/L sucrose or no sucrose. Ultrastructural studies showed that large vacuoles were accumulating in a central region of primary parenchyma cells in sucrose starved lupine embryo axes, whereas cytoplasm along with organelles were forced to a periphery of the cells. We suggest that the autolysis of cytoplasmic proteins contributes to the accumulation of the vacuoles and this suggestion is consistent with the results of the characterisation of protein content. The level of cytosolic proteins was reduced by 50% and the activity of cytosolic marker enzyme, PEP carboxylase, was reduced by 46% in starved embryos as compared to control. The mitochondria from starved tissues were not degraded. The level of mitochondrial proteins was reduced by only 10% and the activity of mitochondrial NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase decreased by 8% as a result of starvation. As demonstrated by the results of Percoll density gradient centrifugation, sucrose starvation caused an increase of 49% in many of the higher density mitochondria fractions, whereas many of the lower density mitochondria fractions were decreased by 33%. The samples of mitochondria from starved embryo axes were determined to have higher respiration activity in the presence of glutamate and malate as compared to control samples. EPR-based analyses of free radicals showed the presence of free radicals with a signal at g = 2.0060 in embryo axes. The level of the radical was two times higher in sucrose-starved embryo axes than in control (the level of this radical increased in senescing plant tissues as well). The results of EPR-based quantitation of Mn2+ ions revealed that the level was a few times higher in starved material than in control. Starved embryo axes, however, do possess a number of adaptive mechanisms protecting them from oxidative damage. Densitometric analyses of gels revealed an increase in the activity of SOD in sugar-starved embryos, whereas CAT and POX activities were lower in axes grown without sucrose as compared to control. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase zymogram analyses showed that synthesis of new isoforms was not induced by sugar starvation. An accumulation of phytoferritin was found in plastids of sucrose starved embryos. These results are discussed in relation to the metabolic changes observed in senescing plant tissues. PMID:12749088

Morkunas, Iwona; Garnczarska, Ma?gorzata; Bednarski, Waldemar; Ratajczak, Wiktoria; Waplak, Stefan

2003-03-01

196

Purification and characterization of pepsinogens and pepsins from the stomach of rice field eel ( Monopterus albus Zuiew)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three pepsinogens (PG1, PG2, and PG3) were highly purified from the stomach of freshwater fish rice field eel (Monopterus\\u000a albus Zuiew) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographies on DEAE-Sephacel, Sephacryl S-200 HR. The molecular masses\\u000a of the three purified PGs were all estimated as 36 kDa using SDS–PAGE. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) showed\\u000a that pI values of the three PGs were

Wu-Yin WengTao; Tao Wu; Wei-Qin Chen; Guang-Ming Liu; Kiyoshi Osatomi; Wen-Jin Su; Min-Jie Cao

2011-01-01

197

Influence of diets to Wistar rats supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine products treated by lactofermentation to improve their gut health.  

PubMed

The present study proposes the contribution of lactic acid bacteria and plants rich in bioactive substances and high-quality proteins as alternative products for human diets in improving the gut environment as potential against pathogenic bacteria. The effect of diets supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine flours fermented with a Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 probiotic strain in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Wistar rats were analyzed. In vivo experiments showed a positive effect of long time lactofermentation of plant material on the body weight of rats. Diets with fermented yellow lupine resulted in enhanced activities of ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidases, as well as high levels of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enterococci in the GIT were determined. Lactofermentation of analyzed plant products had a significantly lowering effect on Escherichia coli compared with the control group. The dominant flora of large intestines like Bifidobacterium and anaerobic cocci were found in high levels after diets with fermented lupine. PMID:23480304

Bartkiene, E; Juodeikiene, G; Vidmantiene, D; Zdunczyk, Z; Zdunczyk, P; Juskiewicz, J; Cizeikiene, D; Matusevicius, P

2013-09-01

198

Aspects of microbiological and chemical quality of turmus, lupin seeds debittered by soaking in water.  

PubMed

Eleven species of spherical lactic acid bacteria (LAB) belonging to the genera Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Enterococcus and Pediococcus were the predominant microorganisms in 40 samples of turmus, ready-to-eat lupin seeds debittered by boiling and soaking in water. The average counts of the LAB in the 20 winter samples and the 20 summer samples were 7.4 and 8.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The averages of the Enterobacteriaceae counts were 5.1 and 6.6 log CFU/g, respectively, and the 11 species isolated belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Escherichia and Klebsiella. The average yeast counts in winter and summer samples were 3 and 3.2 log CFU/g, respectively, and the 5 species isolated were in the genera Saccharomyces, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula and Candida. Although Salmonella was not isolated from any sample and the Staphylococcus aureus count in all samples was < 1 log CFU/g, microbial hazards could be associated with the high Enterobacteriaceae counts and the presence of Escherichia coli. Total alkaloid concentration in 30% of the samples examined was higher than 0.02%, thus making the seeds a potential chemical hazard. Boiling the turmus directly before consumption and discarding the seeds with a bitter taste may help in avoiding some of the microbial and chemical hazards which could be associated with turmus consumption. PMID:9829189

Yamani, M I; Tayeh, S J; Salhab, A S

1998-11-01

199

Total phenolic and phytosterol compounds and the radical scavenging activity of germinated Australian sweet lupin flour.  

PubMed

In addition to their favourable nutritional profile, legumes also contain a range of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds and phytosterols which may protect against chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Germination of some legume seeds has been previously reported to increase the concentration of the bioactive compounds. In this study, the effect of germination of Australian Sweet Lupin (ASL) seeds for 9 days on the concentration of some bioactive compounds and the radical scavenging activity in the resulting flour was determined. The concentration of total phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts of germinated ASL flour was determined using Folin Ciocalteu reagent and phytosterols in oil extracts were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The methanolic and oil extracts were also used to determine radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. In the methanolic extracts of germinated ASL flour, phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity were significantly increased following germination (700 and 1400 %, respectively). Analysis of the oil extracts of germinated ASL flour revealed that the concentration of phytosterols and the antioxidant activity were also increased significantly compared to ungerminated ASL flour (300 and 800 %, respectively). The relative proportion of phytosterols in germinated ASL flour was: ?-sitosterol (60 %), stigmasterol (30 %) and campesterol (10 %). Germination increases the concentration of bioactive compounds and the radical scavenging activity in the germinated ASL flour. PMID:23943234

Rumiyati; Jayasena, Vijay; James, Anthony P

2013-12-01

200

Apparent competition with an invasive plant hastens the extinction of an endangered lupine.  

PubMed

Invasive plants may compete with native plants by increasing the pressure of native consumers, a mechanism known as "apparent competition." Apparent competition can be as strong as or stronger than direct competition, but the role of apparent competition has rarely been examined in biological invasions. We used four years of demographic data and seed-removal experiments to determine if introduced grasses caused elevated levels of seed consumption on native plant species in a coastal dune system in California, USA. We show that the endangered, coastal dune plant Lupinus tidestromii experiences high levels of pre-dispersal seed consumption by the native rodent Peromyscus maniculatus due to its proximity to the invasive grass, Ammophila arenaria. We use stage-structured, stochastic population models to project that two of three study populations will decline toward extinction under ambient levels of consumption. For one of these declining populations, a relatively small decrease in consumption pressure should allow for persistence. We show that apparent competition with an invasive species significantly decreases the population growth rate and persistence of a native species. We expect that apparent competition is an important mechanism in other ecosystems because invasive plants often change habitat structure and plant-consumer interactions. Possible implications of the apparent-competition mechanism include selective extinction of species preferred by seed consumers in the presence of an invasive species and biological homogenization of communities toward non-preferred native plant species. PMID:20836448

Dangremond, Emily M; Pardini, Eleanor A; Knight, Tiffany M

2010-08-01

201

High-resolution structures of complexes of plant S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus).  

PubMed

S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) catalyzes the reversible breakdown of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) to adenosine and homocysteine. SAH is formed in methylation reactions that utilize S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. By removing the SAH byproduct, SAHase serves as a major regulator of SAM-dependent biological methylation reactions. Here, the first crystal structure of SAHase of plant origin, that from the legume yellow lupin (LlSAHase), is presented. Structures have been determined at high resolution for three complexes of the enzyme: those with a reaction byproduct/substrate (adenosine), with its nonoxidizable analog (cordycepin) and with a product of inhibitor cleavage (adenine). In all three cases the enzyme has a closed conformation. A sodium cation is found near the active site, coordinated by residues from a conserved loop that hinges domain movement upon reactant binding. An insertion segment that is present in all plant SAHases is located near a substrate-pocket access channel and participates in its formation. In contrast to mammalian and bacterial SAHases, the channel is open when adenosine or cordycepin is bound and is closed in the adenine complex. In contrast to SAHases from other organisms, which are active as tetramers, the plant enzyme functions as a homodimer in solution. PMID:22349223

Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

2012-03-01

202

Calcium bodies of Titanethes albus (Crustacea: Isopoda): molt-related structural dynamics and calcified matrix-associated bacteria.  

PubMed

Crustaceans form a variety of calcium deposits in which they store calcium necessary for the mineralization of their exoskeletons. Calcium bodies, organs containing large amounts of calcium, have been reported in some terrestrial isopod crustaceans, but have not yet been extensively studied. We analyzed the architecture of these organs during the molt cycle in the isopod Titanethes albus. Two pairs of calcium bodies are positioned ventrolaterally in posterior pereonites of T. albus. Individual organs are epithelial sacs that contain material arranged in concentric layers delimited by thin laminae. As demonstrated by electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization, abundant bacteria are present within the calcium bodies. Regardless of the molt cycle stage, crystalline concretions are present in the central areas of the calcium bodies. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the concretions demonstrated that they are composed predominantly of calcium and phosphorus and selected area electron diffraction indicated the presence of hydroxyapatite. In molting animals, a glassy layer of mineralized matrix is formed between the envelope and the outermost lamina of the calcium body. This layer consists of an amorphous calcium mineral which contains less phosphorus than the central concretions and is resorbed after molt. Since changes in the mineralized matrix are synchronized with the molt cycle, the calcium bodies likely function as a storage compartment that complements sternal deposits as a source of calcium for the mineralization of the exoskeleton. Bacteria associated with the mineralized matrix of calcium bodies are evidently involved in calcium dynamics. PMID:22651964

Vittori, Miloš; Kostanjšek, Rok; Znidarši?, Nada; Zagar, Kristina; Ceh, Miran; Strus, Jasna

2012-10-01

203

Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 ?g/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution. PMID:24575231

Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

2012-01-01

204

Biochemical Analyses of Multiple Endoxylanases from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 and Their Synergistic Activities with Accessory Hemicellulose-Degrading Enzymes ? †  

PubMed Central

Ruminococcus albus 8 is a ruminal bacterium capable of metabolizing hemicellulose and cellulose, the major components of the plant cell wall. The enzymes that allow this bacterium to capture energy from the two polysaccharides, therefore, have potential application in plant cell wall depolymerization, a process critical to biofuel production. For this purpose, a partial genome sequence of R. albus 8 was generated. The genomic data depicted a bacterium endowed with multiple forms of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. The endoxylanases of R. albus 8 exhibited diverse modular architectures, including incorporation of a catalytic module, a carbohydrate binding module, and a carbohydrate esterase module in a single polypeptide. The accessory enzymes of xylan degradation were a ?-xylosidase, an ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, and an ?-glucuronidase. We hypothesized that due to the chemical complexity of the hemicellulose encountered in the rumen, the bacterium uses multiple endoxylanases, with subtle differences in substrate specificities, to attack the substrate, while the accessory enzymes hydrolyze the products to simple sugars for metabolism. To test this hypothesis, the genes encoding the predicted endoxylanases were expressed, and the proteins were biochemically characterized either alone or in combination with accessory enzymes. The different endoxylanase families exhibited different patterns of product release, with the family 11 endoxylanases releasing more products in synergy with the accessory enzymes from the more complex substrates. Aside from the insights into hemicellulose degradation by R. albus 8, this report should enhance our knowledge on designing effective enzyme cocktails for release of fermentable sugars in the biofuel industry. PMID:21666020

Moon, Young Hwan; Iakiviak, Michael; Bauer, Stefan; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

2011-01-01

205

Life cycles and distribution of the aquatic gastropod molluscs Bithynia tentaculata (L.), Gyraulus albus (Muller), Planorbis planorbis (L.) and Lymnaea peregra (Muller) in relation to water chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of the aquatic gastropods Bithynia tentaculata, Gyraulus albus, Planorbis planorbis and Lymnaea peregra in North West England was investigated over 13 months at sites chosen for their wide range of water chemistry. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the significance to the mollusc distributions of a variety of physico-chemical factors. Biotic factors were not considered. The species

G. B. J. Dussart

1979-01-01

206

Does the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus increase pollinator visitation to a native herb through effects on pollinator population sizes?  

PubMed

Invasive plants may compete with native species for abiotic factors as light, space and nutrients, and have also been shown to affect native pollination interactions. Studies have mainly focused on how invasive plants affect pollinator behaviour, i.e. attraction of pollinators to or away from native flowers. However, when an invasive plant provides resources utilized by native pollinators this could increase pollinator population sizes and thereby pollination success in natives. Effects mediated through changes in pollinator population sizes have been largely ignored in previous studies, and the dominance of negative interactions suggested by meta-analyses may therefore be biased. We investigated the impact of the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus on pollination in the native Lotus corniculatus using a study design comparing invaded and uninvaded sites before and after the flowering period of the invasive. We monitored wild bee abundance in transects, and visit rate and seed production of potted Lotus plants. Bumblebee abundance increased 3.9 times in invaded sites during the study period, whereas it was unaltered in uninvaded sites. Total visit rate per Lotus plant increased 2.1 times in invaded sites and decreased 4.4 times in uninvaded sites. No corresponding change in seed production of Lotus was found. The increase in visit rate to Lotus was driven by an increase in solitary bee visitation, whereas mainly bumblebees were observed to visit the invasive Lupinus. The mechanism by which the invasive increases pollinator visit rates to Lotus could be increased availability of other flower resources for solitary bees when bumblebees forage on Lupinus. PMID:24061551

Jakobsson, Anna; Padrón, Benigno

2014-01-01

207

The reallocation of carbon in P deficient lupins affects biological nitrogen fixation.  

PubMed

It is not known how phosphate (P) deficiency affects the allocation of carbon (C) to biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes. The alteration of the respiratory and photosynthetic C costs of BNF was investigated under P deficiency. Although BNF can impose considerable sink stimulation on host respiratory and photosynthetic C, it is not known how the change in the C and energy allocation during P deficiency may affect BNF. Nodulated Lupinus luteus plants were grown in sand culture, using a modified Long Ashton nutrient solution containing no nitrogen (N) for ca. four weeks, after which one set was exposed to a P-deficient nutrient medium, while the other set continued growing on a P-sufficient nutrient medium. Phosphorus stress was measured at 20 days after onset of P-starvation. During P stress the decline in nodular P levels was associated with lower BNF and nodule growth. There was also a shift in the balance of photosynthetic and respiratory C toward a loss of C during P stress. Below-ground respiration declined under limiting P conditions. However, during this decline there was also a shift in the proportion of respiratory energy from maintenance toward growth respiration. Under P stress, there was an increased allocation of C toward root growth, thereby decreasing the amount of C available for maintenance respiration. It is therefore possible that the decline in BNF under P deficiency may be due to this change in resource allocation away from respiration associated with direct nutrient uptake, but rather toward a long term nutrient acquisition strategy of increased root growth. PMID:25155758

Kleinert, Aleysia; Venter, Mauritz; Kossmann, Jens; Valentine, Alexander

2014-11-01

208

Metabolic Mechanism of Mannan in a Ruminal Bacterium, Ruminococcus albus, Involving Two Mannoside Phosphorylases and Cellobiose 2-Epimerase  

PubMed Central

Ruminococcus albus is a typical ruminal bacterium digesting cellulose and hemicellulose. Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE; EC 5.1.3.11), which converts cellobiose to 4-O-?-d-glucosyl-d-mannose, is a particularly unique enzyme in R. albus, but its physiological function is unclear. Recently, a new metabolic pathway of mannan involving CE was postulated for another CE-producing bacterium, Bacteroides fragilis. In this pathway, ?-1,4-mannobiose is epimerized to 4-O-?-d-mannosyl-d-glucose (Man-Glc) by CE, and Man-Glc is phosphorolyzed to ?-d-mannosyl 1-phosphate (Man1P) and d-glucose by Man-Glc phosphorylase (MP; EC 2.4.1.281). Ruminococcus albus NE1 showed intracellular MP activity, and two MP isozymes, RaMP1 and RaMP2, were obtained from the cell-free extract. These enzymes were highly specific for the mannosyl residue at the non-reducing end of the substrate and catalyzed the phosphorolysis and synthesis of Man-Glc through a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In a synthetic reaction, RaMP1 showed high activity only toward d-glucose and 6-deoxy-d-glucose in the presence of Man1P, whereas RaMP2 showed acceptor specificity significantly different from RaMP1. RaMP2 acted on d-glucose derivatives at the C2- and C3-positions, including deoxy- and deoxyfluoro-analogues and epimers, but not on those substituted at the C6-position. Furthermore, RaMP2 had high synthetic activity toward the following oligosaccharides: ?-linked glucobioses, maltose, N,N?-diacetylchitobiose, and ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides. Particularly, ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides served as significantly better acceptor substrates for RaMP2 than d-glucose. In the phosphorolytic reactions, RaMP2 had weak activity toward ?-1,4-mannobiose but efficiently degraded ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose. Consequently, RaMP2 is thought to catalyze the phosphorolysis of ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose to produce Man1P and ?-1,4-mannobiose. PMID:23093406

Kawahara, Ryosuke; Saburi, Wataru; Odaka, Rei; Taguchi, Hidenori; Ito, Shigeaki; Mori, Haruhide; Matsui, Hirokazu

2012-01-01

209

Flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract and evaluation of its neuroprotective effect.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (200±10 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 ?g of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 ?g estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p?0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p?0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p?0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons. PMID:24723146

Uribe-Gómez, José Jesús; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; García-López, Pedro Macedonio

2014-11-01

210

The genus Micromonospora is widespread in legume root nodules: the example of Lupinus angustifolius.  

PubMed

Our current knowledge of plant-microbe interactions indicate that populations inhabiting a host plant are not restricted to a single microbial species but comprise several genera and species. No one knows if communities inside plants interact, and it has been speculated that beneficial effects are the result of their combined activities. During an ecological study of nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities from Lupinus angustifolius collected in Spain, significant numbers of orange-pigmented actinomycete colonies were isolated from surface-sterilized root nodules. The isolates were analysed by BOX-PCR fingerprinting revealing an unexpectedly high genetic variation. Selected strains were chosen for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that all strains isolated belonged to the genus Micromonospora and that some of them may represent new species. To determine the possibility that the isolates fixed atmospheric nitrogen, chosen strains were grown in nitrogen-free media, obtaining in some cases, significant growth when compared with the controls. These strains were further screened for the presence of the nifH gene encoding dinitrogenase reductase, a key enzyme in nitrogen fixation. The partial nifH-like gene sequences obtained showed a 99% similarity with the sequence of the nifH gene from Frankia alni ACN14a, an actinobacterium that induces nodulation and fixes nitrogen in symbiosis with Alnus. In addition, in situ hybridization was performed to determine if these microorganisms inhabit the inside of the nodules. This study strongly suggests that Micromonospora populations are natural inhabitants of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. PMID:20445637

Trujillo, Martha E; Alonso-Vega, Pablo; Rodríguez, Raúl; Carro, Lorena; Cerda, Eugenia; Alonso, Pilar; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

2010-10-01

211

Copper microlocalisation and changes in leaf morphology, chloroplast ultrastructure and antioxidative response in white lupin and soybean grown in copper excess.  

PubMed

The microlocalisation of Cu was examined in the leaves of white lupin and soybean grown hydroponically in the presence of 1.6 (control) or 192 ?M (excess) Cu, along with its effect on leaf morphology, (ultra)structure and the antioxidative response. The 192 ?M dose led to a reduction in the total leaf area and leaf thickness in both species, although more strongly so in white lupin. In the latter species it was also associated with smaller spongy parenchyma cells, and smaller spaces between them, while in the soybean it more strongly reduced the size of the palisade parenchyma and epidermal cells. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed that under Cu excess the metal was mainly localised inside the spongy parenchyma cells of the white lupin leaves, and in the lower epidermis cell walls in those of the soybean. Cu excess also promoted ultrastructural chloroplast alterations, reducing the photosynthetic capacity index and the green area of the leaves, especially in the soybean. Despite this, soybean appeared to be more tolerant to Cu excess than white lupin, because soybean displayed (1) lower accumulation of Cu in the leaves, (2) enhanced microlocalisation of Cu in the cell walls and (3) greater levels of induced total -SH content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities that are expected for better antioxidative responses. PMID:23979008

Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Zornoza, Pilar

2014-01-01

212

Lupinus luteus, Vicia sativa and Lathyrus cicera as protein sources for piglets: ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of amino acids and antigenic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four male piglets, weaned at 28 days of age, were used to measure the total and ileal digestibility and serum immune responses to dietary leguminous seeds. The experimental diets consisted of a control starter (C) and three other diets prepared by replacing 30% of the crude protein content of the C diet by the protein of Lupinus luteus (LL), Vicia

M Seabra; S Carvalho; J Freire; R Ferreira; M Mourato; L Cunha; F Cabral; A Teixeira; A Aumaitre

2001-01-01

213

Modification of the properties of a Ruminococcus albus endo-1,4-beta-glucanase by gene truncation.  

PubMed Central

An endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (EgI) gene isolated from Ruminococcus albus was deleted at the 5'-flanking region by gene truncation or at the 3'-flanking region by insertion of an omega (omega) fragment with a universal stop codon at the EcoRI or BamHI site. These modified genes were integrated into pUC vectors to construct chimera plasmids for Escherichia coli. The truncated EgIs were produced from transformants (E. coli) harboring the chimera plasmids. An EgI with a 15-amino-acid N-terminal deletion exibited higher activity at lower pH and temperature compared with the activity of the original EgI. The EgIs with 59- and 75-amino-acid deletions from the N and C terminals, respectively, had no activity, indicating that both terminal moieties are essential for enzyme activity. Images PMID:1987156

Ohmiya, K; Deguchi, H; Shimizu, S

1991-01-01

214

A native nitrogen-fixing shrub facilitates weed invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions by exotic weedy plants frequently occur in highly disturbed or otherwise anthropogenically altered habitats. Here we present evidence that, within California coastal prairie, invasion also can be facilitated by a native nitrogen-fixing shrub, bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus). Bush lupines fix nitrogen and grow rapidly, fertilizing the sandy soil with nitrogen-rich litter. The dense lupine canopy blocks light, restricting vegetative

John L. Maron; Peter G. Connors

1996-01-01

215

Molecular modeling and MM-PBSA free energy analysis of endo-1,4-?-xylanase from Ruminococcus albus 8.  

PubMed

Endo-1,4-?-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) is the enzyme from Ruminococcus albus 8 (R. albus 8) (Xyn10A), and catalyzes the degradation of arabinoxylan, which is a major cell wall non-starch polysaccharide of cereals. The crystallographic structure of Xyn10A is still unknown. For this reason, we report a computer-assisted homology study conducted to build its three-dimensional structure based on the known sequence of amino acids of this enzyme. In this study, the best similarity was found with the Clostridium thermocellum (C. thermocellum) N-terminal endo-1,4-?-D-xylanase 10 b. Following the 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a reliable model was obtained for further studies. Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) methods were used for the substrate xylotetraose having the reactive sugar, which was bound in the -1 subsite of Xyn10A in the 4C1 (chair) and 2SO (skew boat) ground state conformations. According to the simulations and free energy analysis, Xyn10A binds the substrate with the -1 sugar in the 2SO conformation 39.27 kcal·mol(-1) tighter than the substrate with the sugar in the 4C1 conformation. According to the Xyn10A-2SO Xylotetraose (X4(sb) interaction energies, the most important subsite for the substrate binding is subsite -1. The results of this study indicate that the substrate is bound in a skew boat conformation with Xyn10A and the -1 sugar subsite proceeds from the 4C1 conformation through 2SO to the transition state. MM-PBSA free energy analysis indicates that Asn187 and Trp344 in subsite -1 may an important residue for substrate binding. Our findings provide fundamental knowledge that may contribute to further enhancement of enzyme performance through molecular engineering. PMID:25264743

Zhan, Dongling; Yu, Lei; Jin, Hanyong; Guan, Shanshan; Han, Weiwei

2014-01-01

216

Molecular Modeling and MM-PBSA Free Energy Analysis of Endo-1,4-?-Xylanase from Ruminococcus albus 8  

PubMed Central

Endo-1,4-?-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) is the enzyme from Ruminococcus albus 8 (R. albus 8) (Xyn10A), and catalyzes the degradation of arabinoxylan, which is a major cell wall non-starch polysaccharide of cereals. The crystallographic structure of Xyn10A is still unknown. For this reason, we report a computer-assisted homology study conducted to build its three-dimensional structure based on the known sequence of amino acids of this enzyme. In this study, the best similarity was found with the Clostridium thermocellum (C. thermocellum) N-terminal endo-1,4-?-d-xylanase 10 b. Following the 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a reliable model was obtained for further studies. Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) methods were used for the substrate xylotetraose having the reactive sugar, which was bound in the ?1 subsite of Xyn10A in the 4C1 (chair) and 2SO (skew boat) ground state conformations. According to the simulations and free energy analysis, Xyn10A binds the substrate with the ?1 sugar in the 2SO conformation 39.27 kcal·mol?1 tighter than the substrate with the sugar in the 4C1 conformation. According to the Xyn10A-2SO Xylotetraose (X4(sb) interaction energies, the most important subsite for the substrate binding is subsite ?1. The results of this study indicate that the substrate is bound in a skew boat conformation with Xyn10A and the ?1 sugar subsite proceeds from the 4C1 conformation through 2SO to the transition state. MM-PBSA free energy analysis indicates that Asn187 and Trp344 in subsite ?1 may an important residue for substrate binding. Our findings provide fundamental knowledge that may contribute to further enhancement of enzyme performance through molecular engineering. PMID:25264743

Zhan, Dongling; Yu, Lei; Jin, Hanyong; Guan, Shanshan; Han, Weiwei

2014-01-01

217

Hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters in and below the base of thick permafrost at Lupin, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryShield fluids are commonly understood to evolve through water-rock interaction. However, fluids may also concentrate during ice formation. Very little is currently known about groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost in crystalline environments. This paper evaluates three possible Shield fluid evolution pathways at a crystalline Shield location currently under 500+ meters of permafrost, including surfical cryogenic concentration of seawater, in situ cryogenic concentration and water-rock interaction. A primary goal of this study was to further scientific understanding of permafrost and its role in influencing deep flow system evolution, fluid movement and chemical evolution of waters in crystalline rocks. Precipitation, surface, permafrost and subpermafrost water samples were collected, as well as dissolved and free gas samples, fracture fillings and matrix fluid samples to characterize the site. Investigations of groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost provides valuable information which can be applied to safety assessment of deep, underground nuclear waste repositories, effects of long-term mining in permafrost areas and understanding analogues to potential life-bearing zones on Mars. The study was conducted in the Lupin gold mine in Nunavut, Canada, located within the zone of continuous permafrost. Through-taliks beneath large lakes in the area provided potential hydraulic connections through the permafrost. Na-Cl and Na-Cl-SO 4 type permafrost waters were contaminated by mining activities, affecting the chloride and nitrate concentrations. High nitrate concentrations (423-2630 mg L -1) were attributed to remnants of blasting. High sulfate concentrations in the permafrost (578-5000 mg L -1) were attributed to naturally occurring and mining enhanced sulfide oxidation. Mine dewatering created an artificial hydraulic gradient, resulting in methane hydrate dissociation at depth. Less contaminated basal waters had medium sulfate concentrations and were Ca-Na dominated, similar to deeper subpermafrost waters. Subpermafrost waters had a wide range of salinities (2.6-40 g L -1). It was unclear from this investigation what impact talik waters would have on deep groundwaters in undisturbed environments. In situ cryogenic concentration due to ice and methane hydrate formation may have concentrated the remaining fluids, however there was no evidence that infiltration of cryogenically concentrated seawater occurred since the last glacial maximum. Matrix waters were dilute and unable to affect groundwater salinity. Fracture infillings were scarce, but calcite fluid inclusion microthermometry indicated a large range in salinities, potentially an additional source of salinity to the system.

Stotler, Randy L.; Frape, Shaun K.; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Onstott, Tullis C.; Hobbs, Monique Y.

2009-06-01

218

Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada  

SciTech Connect

We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient created during mine dewatering. Although the absence of methanogens from this subsurface ecosystem is somewhat surprising, it may be attributable to an energy bottleneck that restricts their migration from surface permafrost deposits where they are frequently reported. These results have implications for the biological origin of CH4 on Mars.

Onstott, Tullis [Princeton University; McGown, Daniel [Princeton University; Bakermans, Corien [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ruskeeniemi, T [Geological Survey of Finland; Ahonen, L [Geological Survey of Finland; Telling, J [University of Toronto; Soffientino, B [University of Rhode Island; Pfiffner, Susan M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara [University of Toronto; Frape, S [University of Waterloo, Canada; Stotler, R [University of Waterloo, Canada; Johnson, E [Indiana University; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Rothmel, Randi [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana University

2009-01-01

219

Effects of Mercury on Health and First-Year Survival of Free-Ranging Great Egrets ( Ardea albus ) from Southern Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The objectives of this study were to determine whether elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations have a negative impact on the\\u000a health and survival of nestling and juvenile free-ranging great egrets (Ardea albus) from southern Florida. During 1994, when health and survival was monitored in a cohort of young birds with naturally variable\\u000a concentrations of Hg, packed cell volume was positively

M. S. Sepúlveda; P. C. Frederick; M. G. Spalding

1999-01-01

220

Use of genetic tags to identify captive-bred pallid sturgeon ( Scaphirhynchus albus ) in the wild: improving abundance estimates for an endangered species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to distinguish captive-bred and natural-origin individuals in the wild is critical for evaluating the impact of\\u000a captive breeding programs on natural populations. Continued persistence of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River is largely dependent on captive breeding efforts that spawn natural-origin adults in fish hatcheries\\u000a and release their progeny into the wild. Prior to release,

P. W. DeHaan; G. R. Jordan; W. R. Ardren

2008-01-01

221

Integration of continuous biofumigation with Muscodor albus with pre-cooling fumigation with ozone or sulfur dioxide to control postharvest gray mold of table grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach was evaluated that combined biological and chemical fumigation of table grapes to control postharvest gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. After fumigation of the grapes with ozone or sulfur dioxide during pre-cooling, the fruit were then exposed to continuous biofumigation by the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus during storage. Biofumigation was provided by in-package generators containing a live

Franka Mlikota Gabler; Julien Mercier; J. I. Jiménez; J. L. Smilanick

2010-01-01

222

Genomics of sponge-associated Streptomyces spp. closely related to Streptomyces albus J1074: insights into marine adaptation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis potential.  

PubMed

A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B; Sekurova, Olga N; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Zotchev, Sergey B

2014-01-01

223

Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential  

PubMed Central

A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Ruckert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jorn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

2014-01-01

224

A Comparative Study of Phase States of the Peribacteroid Membrane from Yellow Lupin and Broad Bean Nodules  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of the lipid bilayer phase status and structure of the outer membrane of free-living Bradyrhizobium strain 359a (Nod+Fix+) and 400 (Nod+FixL) or Rhizobium leguminosarum 97 (Nod+Fix+, effective) and 87 (Nod+FixL, ineffective) has been carried out. Also, the effect of the symbiotic pair combination on the lipid bilayer structure of the bacteroid outer membrane and peribacteroid membrane, isolated from the nodules of Lupinus luteus L. or Vicia faba L., has been studied. As a result, it is shown that the lipid bilayer status of the bacteroid outer membrane is mainly determined by microsymbiont, but not the host plant. In the contrast, the lipid bilayer status of the peribacteroid membrane and, as a consequence, its properties depend on interaction of both symbiotic partners. PMID:24804101

Kudryavtseva, Natalia N.; Sof'in, Alexis V.; Bobylev, Georgiy S.; Sorokin, Evgeny M.

2014-01-01

225

A comparative study of phase States of the peribacteroid membrane from yellow lupin and broad bean nodules.  

PubMed

A comparative study of the lipid bilayer phase status and structure of the outer membrane of free-living Bradyrhizobium strain 359a (Nod(+)Fix(+)) and 400 (Nod(+)FixL) or Rhizobium leguminosarum 97 (Nod(+)Fix(+), effective) and 87 (Nod(+)FixL, ineffective) has been carried out. Also, the effect of the symbiotic pair combination on the lipid bilayer structure of the bacteroid outer membrane and peribacteroid membrane, isolated from the nodules of Lupinus luteus L. or Vicia faba L., has been studied. As a result, it is shown that the lipid bilayer status of the bacteroid outer membrane is mainly determined by microsymbiont, but not the host plant. In the contrast, the lipid bilayer status of the peribacteroid membrane and, as a consequence, its properties depend on interaction of both symbiotic partners. PMID:24804101

Kudryavtseva, Natalia N; Sof'in, Alexis V; Bobylev, Georgiy S; Sorokin, Evgeny M

2014-01-01

226

New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. I. Expansion of frog virus 3 host range into Scaphirhynchus albus.  

PubMed

In 2009, juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, reared at the Blind Pony State Fish Hatchery (Missouri, USA) to replenish dwindling wild stocks, experienced mass mortality. Histological examination revealed extensive necrosis of the haematopoietic tissues, and a virus was isolated from affected organs in cell culture and then observed by electron microscopy. Experimental infection studies revealed that the virus is highly pathogenic to juvenile pallid sturgeon, one of several species of sturgeon currently listed as Endangered. The DNA sequence of the full length major capsid protein gene of the virus was identical to that of the species Frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species for the genus Ranavirus, originally isolated from northern leopard frog Lithobates pipiens. Although FV3 infections and epizootics in amphibians and reptiles are well documented, there is only 1 prior report of a natural infection of FV3 in fish. Our results illustrate the broad potential host range for FV3, with the known potential to cause significant mortality in poikilothermic vertebrates across 3 taxonomic classes including bony fishes, anuran and caudate amphibians, and squamate and testudine reptiles. PMID:25320034

Waltzek, Thomas B; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Drecktrah, Bruce; Briggler, Jeffrey T; MacConnell, Beth; Hudson, Crystal; Hopper, Lacey; Friary, John; Yun, Susan C; Malm, Kirsten V; Weber, E Scott; Hedrick, Ronald P

2014-10-16

227

Gastroenteropancreatic hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and multiple forms of PYY) from the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (Acipenseriformes).  

PubMed

Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin-14, and three structurally related molecular forms of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) were isolated from an extract of the combined pancreas and gastrointestinal tract of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. Pallid sturgeon insulin was identical to insulin from the Russian sturgeon, Acipenser guldenstaedti, and to insulin-2 from the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, and was approximately twofold less potent than human insulin in inhibiting the binding of [3-[(125)I] iodotyrosine-A14] human insulin to the soluble human insulin receptor. The sturgeon glucagon (HSQGMFTNDY(10)-SKYLEEKLAQ(20) EFVEWLKNGK(30)S), like the two paddlefish glucagons, contains 31 rather than 29 amino acid residues, indicative of an anomalous pathway of posttranslational processing of proglucagon. Pallid sturgeon somatostatin, identical to human somatostatin-14, was also isolated in a second molecular form containing an oxidized tryptophan residue, but [Pro(2)]somatostatin-14, previously isolated from the pituitary of A. guldenstaedti, was not identified. Sturgeon PYY (FPPKPEHPGD(10)DAPAEDVAKY(20)YTALRHYINL(30) ITRQRY.HN(2)) was also isolated in variant forms containing the substitutions (Phe(1) --> Ala) and (Ala(18) --> Val), indicative of at least two gene duplications occurring within the Acipenseriformes lineage. The amino acid sequences of the pallidsturgeon PYY peptides are appreciably different from the proposed "ancestral" PYY sequence that has otherwise been very strongly conserved among the actinopterygian and elasmobranch fish. PMID:11121300

Kim, J B; Gadsbøll, V; Whittaker, J; Barton, B A; Conlon, J M

2000-12-01

228

Production of sesquiterpene-type phytoalexins by hairy roots of Hyoscyamus albus co-treated with cupper sulfate and methyl jasmonate.  

PubMed

The production of sesquiterpene-type phytoalexins with a vetispyradiene skeleton by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was reported in a previous paper. The production pattern on co-treatment with cupper sulfate and MeJA (CuSO(4)-MeJA) showed a TLC profile differing from that on treatment with MeJA. Thus, we studied the production of phytoalexins on hairy root culture involving co-treatment with CuSO(4)-MeJA. In the experiment, many sesquiterpene-type phytoalexins with a vetispyradiene skeleton were isolated, most of which were different from the products reported in the previous paper. Here, we isolated four new phytoalexins (1-4) along with known compounds 5-10 from the culture medium of H. albus hairy roots co-treated with MeJA-CuSO(4). The structures of the new compounds (1-4) were determined as: (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-acetoxy-9-(2-methylpropionyloxy)solavetivone (1), (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-hydroxy-9-(3-methylbutanoyloxy)solavetivone (2), (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-acetoxy-9-(3-methyl-butanoyloxy)solavetivone (3), and (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-acetoxy-9-(3-methyl-2-butenoyloxy)-solavetivone (4) based on MS and NMR including 2D-NMR data. These findings indicated that the production of phytoalexins in H. albus hairy roots yielded different products based on treatment with different chemicals (CuSO(4), MeJA, and MeJA-CuSO(4)). PMID:20606340

Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Kawauchi, Morihiro; Arima, Toshihide; Shirota, Osamu; Sekita, Setsuko; Nakane, Takahisa; Takase, Yoichi; Kuroyanagi, Masanori

2010-07-01

229

Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling  

PubMed Central

Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different clades, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that iteroparity functioned as an adaptive key innovation, providing a mechanism for range expansion and rapid divergence in upper elevation regions across much of the New World. PMID:22228799

Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

2012-01-01

230

Aromatase (P450arom) and 11?-hydroxylase (P45011?) genes are differentially expressed during the sex change process of the protogynous rice field eel, monopterus albus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroids are known to play a crucial role in gonadal sex differentiation in many non-mammalian vertebrates, but also in the\\u000a gonadal sex change of hermaphroditic teleosts. We investigated the expression of two genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes,\\u000a i.e., cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) and cytochrome P45011?-hydroxylase (P45011?), during the sex change of the protogynous\\u000a rice field eel, Monopterus albus. Using RT-PCR

Ji-Fang Liu; Yann Guiguen; Shao-Jun Liu

2009-01-01

231

Juvenile pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and hybrid pallidxshovelnose (S. albusxplatorynchus) sturgeons exhibit low physiological responses to acute handling and severe confinement.  

PubMed

Following a 7.5-h transport haul, juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) showed a small but significant increase in plasma cortisol to 4.7 ng ml(-1) but similar increases did not occur after fish were handled in a net held in the air for 30 s. Subsequent experiments on yearling pallid sturgeon and hybrid pallidxshovelnose (S. albusxplatorynchus) sturgeon using the same 30-s handling stressor failed to evoke increases in plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose. Plasma cortisol increased significantly from about 2 to 13-14 ng ml(-1) in both pallid and hybrid sturgeon during a 6-h severe confinement stressor with handling. Plasma cortisol in 2-year-old pallid sturgeon subjected to the same stressor demonstrated a linear pattern of increase during the initial 1 h. Plasma lactate increased from 1.11 to about 2.11 mmol l(-1) in hybrid sturgeon during the first hour of severe confinement but did not change throughout the entire confinement period in pallid sturgeon. A significant increase in plasma cortisol to 5.4 ng ml(-1) in 2-year-old pallid sturgeon 1 h after being subjected to 30 s handling at 19:00 h but not at 07:00 or 13:00 h suggests that a small diurnal variation in their stress response may exist. Although both pallid and hybrid sturgeons were responsive to stress, they exhibited very low physiological responses compared with those following equivalent stressors in most teleostean fishes or another chondrostean, the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula). Reasons for the apparent low responses to handling and confinement in scaphirhynchid sturgeons are not known but may relate to their evolutionary history, neuroendocrine mechanisms involved in their corticosteroid responses, or anatomy of their interrenal tissue structure. PMID:10908860

Barton, B A; Bollig, H; Hauskins, B L; Jansen, C R

2000-05-01

232

Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Bettoli, P. W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G. D.; Heist, E. J.

2009-01-01

233

Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of a beta-agarase, agaB34,from Agarivorans albus YKW-34.  

PubMed

A beta-agarase gene, agaB34, was functionally cloned from the genomic DNA of a marine bacterium, Agarivorans albus YKW-34. The open reading frame of agaB34 consisted of 1,362 bp encoding 453 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence, consisting of a typical N-terminal signal peptide followed by a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH-16) and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), showed 37-86% identity to those of agarases belonging to family GH-16. The recombinant enzyme (rAgaB34) with a molecular mass of 49 kDa was produced extracellularly using Escherichia coli DH5alpha as a host. The purified rAgaB34 was a beta-agarase yielding neoagarotetraose (NA4) as the main product. It acted on neoagarohexaose to produce NA4 and neoagarobiose, but it could not further degrade NA4. The maximal activity of rAgaB34 was observed at 30 degrees and pH 7.0. It was stable over pH 5.0-9.0 and at temperatures up to 50 degrees . Its specific activity and kcat/Km value for agarose were 242 U/mg and 1.7x106/sM, respectively. The activity of rAgaB34 was not affected by metal ions commonly existing in seawater. It was resistant to chelating reagents (EDTA, EGTA), reducing reagents (DTT, beta-mercaptoethanol), and denaturing reagents (SDS and urea). The E. coli cell harboring the pUC18-derived agarase expression vector was able to efficiently excrete agarase into the culture medium. Hence, this expression system might be used to express secretory proteins. PMID:19349750

Fu, Xiao Ting; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Lin, Hong; Kim, Sang Moo

2009-03-01

234

PROPOSAL TO DESIGNATE STRAIN ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) AS THE NEOTYPE STRAIN OF STREPTOMYCES ALBUS (ROSSI-DORIA) WAKSMAN AND HENRICI1  

PubMed Central

Lyons, A. J., Jr. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.) and T. G. Pridham. Proposal to designate strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici. J. Bacteriol. 83:370–380. 1962.—It is proposed that strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) be designated henceforth as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici and as the type strain of the genus Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici. The proposal is based not only on the fact that the holotype strain [Streptotrix (sic) alba] of Rossi-Doria is no longer extant, but also on the fact that a study of the literature and a taxonomic study of 55 strains of the organism indicate the species should exhibit these characteristics: catenulate ovoidal spores, white aerial mycelium, coiled sporophores, proteolytic activity, and nonchromogenicity (inability to form brown, deep brown, or black diffusible pigments). Strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) exhibits these characteristics, as do 16 other acquisitions. Study of the 16 additional strains that conform with the general definition of the species shows differences in some physiological characteristics. It is suggested that these differences are of subspecific significance. Images PMID:14467640

Lyons, A. J.; Pridham, T. G.

1962-01-01

235

Bacteria associated with yellow lupine grown on a metal-contaminated soil: in vitro screening and in vivo evaluation for their potential to enhance Cd phytoextraction.  

PubMed

In order to stimulate selection for plant-associated bacteria with the potential to improve Cd phytoextraction, yellow lupine plants were grown on a metal-contaminated field soil. It was hypothesised that growing these plants on this contaminated soil, which is a source of bacteria possessing different traits to cope with Cd, could enhance colonisation of lupine with potential plant-associated bacteria that could then be inoculated in Cd-exposed plants to reduce Cd phytotoxicity and enhance Cd uptake. All cultivable bacteria from rhizosphere, root and stem were isolated and genotypically and phenotypically characterised. Many of the rhizobacteria and root endophytes produce siderophores, organic acids, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, as well as being resistant to Cd and Zn. Most of the stem endophytes could produce organic acids (73.8%) and IAA (74.3%), however, only a minor fraction (up to 0.7%) were Cd or Zn resistant or could produce siderophores or ACC deaminase. A siderophore- and ACC deaminase-producing, highly Cd-resistant Rhizobium sp. from the rhizosphere, a siderophore-, organic acid-, IAA- and ACC deaminase-producing highly Cd-resistant Pseudomonas sp. colonising the roots, a highly Cd- and Zn-resistant organic acid and IAA-producing Clavibacter sp. present in the stem, and a consortium composed of these three strains were inoculated into non-exposed and Cd-exposed yellow lupine plants. Although all selected strains possessed promising in vitro characteristics to improve Cd phytoextraction, inoculation of none of the strains (i) reduced Cd phytotoxicity nor (ii) strongly affected plant Cd uptake. This work highlights that in vitro characterisation of bacteria is not sufficient to predict the in vivo behaviour of bacteria in interaction with their host plants. PMID:24400887

Weyens, N; Gielen, M; Beckers, B; Boulet, J; van der Lelie, D; Taghavi, S; Carleer, R; Vangronsveld, J

2014-09-01

236

A small-scale proteomic approach reveals a survival strategy, including a reduction in alkaloid biosynthesis, in Hyoscyamus albus roots subjected to iron deficiency  

PubMed Central

Hyoscyamus albus is a well-known source of the tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are biosynthesized in the roots. To assess the major biochemical adaptations that occur in the roots of this plant in response to iron deficiency, we used a small-scale proteomic approach in which 100 mg of root tips were treated with and without Fe, respectively, for 5 days. Two-dimensional mini gels showed that 48 spots were differentially accumulated between the two conditions of Fe availability and a further 36 proteins were identified from these spots using MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins that showed elevated levels in the roots lacking Fe were found to be associated variously with carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation, secondary metabolism, and oxidative defense. Most of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were increased in abundance, but mitochondrial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was decreased, possibly resulting in malate secretion. Otherwise, all the proteins showing diminished levels in the roots were identified as either Fe-containing or ATP-requiring. For example, a significant decrease was observed in the levels of hyoscyamine 6?-hydroxylase (H6H), which requires Fe and is involved in the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. To investigate the effects of Fe deficiency on alkaloid biosynthesis, gene expression studies were undertaken both for H6H and for another Fe-dependent protein, Cyp80F1, which is involved in the final stage of hyoscyamine biosynthesis. In addition, tropane alkaloid contents were determined. Reduced gene expression was observed in the case of both of these proteins and was accompanied by a decrease in the content of both hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Finally, we have discussed energetic and Fe-conservation strategies that might be adopted by the roots of H. albus to maintain iron homeostasis under Fe-limiting conditions. PMID:24009619

Khandakar, Jebunnahar; Haraguchi, Izumi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kitamura, Yoshie

2013-01-01

237

Differentiation and morphogenesis of the ovary and expression of gonadal development-related genes in the protogynous hermaphroditic ricefield eel Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

The ovarian differentiation, morphogenesis and expression of some putative gonadal development-related genes were analysed in the ricefield eel Monopterus albus, a protogynous hermaphroditic teleost with a single elongate ovary. At c. 1 day post-hatching (dph), the gonadal ridge was colonized with primordial germ cells (PGCs) at the periphery and transformed into the gonadal primordium, which appeared to contain two germinal epithelia. At c. 7 dph, four ovarian cavities appeared in the gonadal tissue with two in each germinal epithelial compartment, and the indifferent gonad might have begun to differentiate into the ovary. The oocytes at the leptotene stage in meiosis I appeared at c. 14 dph, and oocytes at the diplotene stage at c. 30 dph. As development proceeded, the connective tissue separating the two germinal epithelia disappeared, and two of the four ovarian cavities collapsed into one. At 60 dph, the gonad had already taken the shape as observed in the adults. One outer and two inner ovarian cavities could be easily recognized, with slightly basophilic primary growth oocytes usually residing close to the outer ovarian cavity. The expression of cyp19a1a and erb in the early gonad was detected at 6 dph. The abundant expression of foxl2 coincided with the up-regulation of cyp19a1a at 8 dph onwards. The expression of dmrt1 isoforms was not detectable until 8 dph for dmrt1a and dmrt1b and until 33 dph for dmrt1d. The earlier appearance of cyp19a1a compared to dmrt1 transcripts in the indifferent gonad may contribute to the initial differentiation of the gonad towards the ovary in M. albus. PMID:25123578

He, Z; Li, Y; Wu, Y; Shi, S; Sun, C; Deng, Q; Xie, J; Wang, T; Zhang, W; Zhang, L

2014-11-01

238

Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.  

PubMed

To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids content were significantly greater for bulls fed R diet in relation to those fed L and S diets. PMID:19663972

Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

2010-08-01

239

The formation of short-chain fatty acids is positively associated with the blood lipid-lowering effect of lupin kernel fiber in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.  

PubMed

Lupin kernel fiber beneficially modifies blood lipids because of its bile acid-binding capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of a lupin kernel fiber preparation on cardiovascular diseases and to clarify possible mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 60 moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (plasma total cholesterol: >5.2 mmol/L) passed 3 intervention periods in different orders with a 2-wk washout phase between each. Participants consumed either a high-fiber diet containing 25-g/d lupin kernel fiber (LF) or citrus fiber (CF), or a low-fiber control diet (CD) for 4 wk each. Anthropometric, plasma, and fecal variables were assessed at baseline and after the interventions. Contrary to the CF period, total (9%) and LDL (12%) cholesterol as well as triacylglycerols (10%) were lower after the LF period when compared with the CD period [P ? 0.02, adjusted for baseline, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)]. HDL cholesterol remained unchanged. Moreover, the LF period reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) when compared with baseline. Bile acid binding could not be shown because the excretion of total bile acids remained constant after the high-fiber diets. However, the LF period resulted in an enhanced formation of the main short-chain fatty acids in comparison with the CD period. During the CF period, only acetate increased significantly. Both high-fiber diets led to higher satiety and modified nutritional behavior, resulting in significantly lower body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with the CD period. The blood lipid-lowering effects of LF are apparently not a result of bile acid binding. Rather, we hypothesize for the first time, to our knowledge, that the blood lipid-lowering effects of LF may be mainly attributed to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, specifically propionate and acetate. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01035086. PMID:24572041

Fechner, Anita; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

2014-05-01

240

Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

2014-05-01

241

Gene Cloning and mRNA Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in the Liver, Brain, and Intestine of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), Exposed to Freshwater, Terrestrial Conditions, Environmental Ammonia, or Salinity Stress  

PubMed Central

The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5? UTR, a complete coding sequence region spanning 1629?bp and a 3? UTR of approximately 717?bp, from the liver, intestine, and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence had 542 residues, and it formed a monophyletic clade with Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2, and O. mykiss Gdh1a. One day of exposure to terrestrial conditions or 75?mmol?l?1 NH4Cl, but not to water at salinity 20, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the liver of M. albus. However, exposure to brackish water, but not to terrestrial conditions or 75?mmol?l?1 NH4Cl, led to a significant increase in the mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the intestine. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus, despite a significant decrease in the Gdh amination activity in the brain of fish exposed to 75?mmol?l?1 NH4Cl for 6?days. Our results indicate for the first time that the mRNA expression of gdh1a was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus in response to ammonia toxicity and salinity stress, respectively. The increases in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity would probably lead to an increase in glutamate production in support of increased glutamine synthesis for the purpose of ammonia detoxification or cell volume regulation under these two different environmental conditions. PMID:22319499

Tok, Chia Y.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

2011-01-01

242

Tachykinins (substance P and neuropeptide gamma) from the brains of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus and the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula (Acipenseriformes).  

PubMed

A peptide with substance P-like immunoreactivity was isolated from extracts of the brains of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus and the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. The primary structure of the peptide (Lys-Pro-Lys-Pro-His-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met.NH(2)) is the same in both species and contains 2 amino acid substitutions (Arg(1) --> Lys and Gln(5) --> His) compared with human substance P and 1 substitution (Arg(3) --> Lys) compared with substance P from the trout (Teleostei). Scyliorhinin I, a tachykinin previously isolated from an extract of sturgeon intestine, was not detected in either brain extract. A peptide with neurokinin A-like immunoreactivity (Ser-Ser-Ala-Asn-Arg-Gln-Ile-Thr-Gly-Lys(10)Arg-Gln-Lys-Ile-Asn-Ser-P he-Val-Gly-Leu(20)Met.NH(2)) was isolated from sturgeon brain and contains 10 amino acid substitutions compared with human neuropeptide gamma (a specific product of the posttranslational processing of gamma-preprotachykinin A) but only 4 substitutions compared with trout neuropeptide gamma. It was not possible to obtain the paddlefish neurokinin A-related peptide in pure form. The structural similarity between the sturgeon and the trout tachykinins supports the hypothesis that the Acipenseriformes (sturgeons and paddlefish) represent the sister group of the Neopterygii (gars, bowfin, and teleosts). PMID:10525358

Wang, Y; Barton, B A; Nielsen, P F; Conlon, J M

1999-10-01

243

Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: A comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r2 ??? 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both ??15N and ??13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day-1) using stable ??15N and ??13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue ??15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but ??13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species. ?? 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Andvik, R. T.; VanDeHey, J. A.; Fincel, M. J.; French, W. E.; Bertrand, K. N.; Chipps, S. R.; Klumb, R. A.; Graeb, B. D. S.

2010-01-01

244

Hydrogen Formation and Its Regulation in Ruminococcus albus: Involvement of an Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, of a Non-Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, and of a Putative Hydrogen-Sensing [FeFe]-Hydrogenase.  

PubMed

Ruminococcus albus 7 has played a key role in the development of the concept of interspecies hydrogen transfer. The rumen bacterium ferments glucose to 1.3 acetate, 0.7 ethanol, 2 CO2, and 2.6 H2 when growing in batch culture and to 2 acetate, 2 CO2, and 4 H2 when growing in continuous culture in syntrophic association with H2-consuming microorganisms that keep the H2 partial pressure low. The organism uses NAD(+) and ferredoxin for glucose oxidation to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and CO2, NADH for the reduction of acetyl-CoA to ethanol, and NADH and reduced ferredoxin for the reduction of protons to H2. Of all the enzymes involved, only the enzyme catalyzing the formation of H2 from NADH remained unknown. Here, we report that R. albus 7 grown in batch culture on glucose contained, besides a ferredoxin-dependent [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA2), a ferredoxin- and NAD-dependent electron-bifurcating [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydABC) that couples the endergonic formation of H2 from NADH to the exergonic formation of H2 from reduced ferredoxin. Interestingly, hydA2 is adjacent to the hydS gene, which is predicted to encode an [FeFe]-hydrogenase with a C-terminal PAS domain. We showed that hydS and hydA2 are part of a larger transcriptional unit also harboring putative genes for a bifunctional acetaldehyde/ethanol dehydrogenase (Aad), serine/threonine protein kinase, serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and a redox-sensing transcriptional repressor. Since HydA2 and Aad are required only when R. albus grows at high H2 partial pressures, HydS could be a H2-sensing [FeFe]-hydrogenase involved in the regulation of their biosynthesis. PMID:25157086

Zheng, Yanning; Kahnt, Jörg; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I; Thauer, Rudolf K

2014-11-15

245

Oxalotrophy, a widespread trait of plant-associated Burkholderia species, is involved in successful root colonization of lupin and maize by Burkholderia phytofirmans  

PubMed Central

Plant roots and shoots harbor complex bacterial communities. Early seed and plantlet colonization plays a key role in determining which bacterial populations will successfully invade plant tissues, yet the mechanisms enabling plants to select for beneficial rather than harmful populations are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a role of oxalate as a determinant in this selection process, using members of the genus Burkholderia as model organisms. Oxalotrophy, i.e., the ability to use oxalate as a carbon source, was found to be a property strictly associated with plant-beneficial species of the Burkholderia genus, while plant pathogenic (B. glumae, B. plantarii) or human opportunistic pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia complex strains) were unable to degrade oxalate. We further show that oxalotrophy is required for successful plant colonization by the broad host endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN: an engineered ?oxc mutant, which lost the ability to grow on oxalate, was significantly impaired in early colonization of both lupin and maize compared with the wild-type. This work suggests that in addition to the role of oxalate in heavy metal tolerance of plants and in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi, it is also involved in specifically recruiting plant-beneficial members from complex bacterial communities. PMID:24409174

Kost, Thomas; Stopnisek, Nejc; Agnoli, Kirsty; Eberl, Leo

2014-01-01

246

Cross-talk interactions of exogenous nitric oxide and sucrose modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in yellow lupine embryo axes infected with Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sucrose in the mechanisms of synthesis and accumulation of isoflavonoids in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno. It was verified whether the interaction of these molecules can modulate the defense response of axes to infection and development of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. Sucrose alone strongly stimulated a high level of genistein glucoside in axes pretreated with exogenous nitric oxide (SNP or GSNO) and non-pretreated axes. As a result of amplification of the signal coming from sucrose and GSNO, high isoflavonoids accumulation was observed (+Sn+GSNO). It needs to be stressed that infection in tissues pretreated with SNP/GSNO and cultured on the medium with sucrose (+Si+SNP/+Si+GSNO) very strongly enhances the accumulation of free isoflavone aglycones. In +Si+SNP axes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was high up to 72h. As early as at 12h in +Si+SNP axes an increase was recorded in gene expression level of the specific isoflavonoid synthesis pathway. At 24h in +Si+SNP axes a very high total antioxidant capacity dependent on the pool of fast antioxidants was noted. Post-infection generation of semiquinone radicals was lower in axes with a high level of sucrose than with a deficit. PMID:23987816

Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Marczak, ?ukasz; Naro?na, Dorota; Nowak, Witold; Bednarski, Waldemar

2013-10-01

247

A Novel Image-Analysis Toolbox Enabling Quantitative Analysis of Root System Architecture1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We present in this paper a novel, semiautomated image-analysis software to streamline the quantitative analysis of root growth and architecture of complex root systems. The software combines a vectorial representation of root objects with a powerful tracing algorithm that accommodates a wide range of image sources and quality. The root system is treated as a collection of roots (possibly connected) that are individually represented as parsimonious sets of connected segments. Pixel coordinates and gray level are therefore turned into intuitive biological attributes such as segment diameter and orientation as well as distance to any other segment or topological position. As a consequence, user interaction and data analysis directly operate on biological entities (roots) and are not hampered by the spatially discrete, pixel-based nature of the original image. The software supports a sampling-based analysis of root system images, in which detailed information is collected on a limited number of roots selected by the user according to specific research requirements. The use of the software is illustrated with a time-lapse analysis of cluster root formation in lupin (Lupinus albus) and an architectural analysis of the maize (Zea mays) root system. The software, SmartRoot, is an operating system-independent freeware based on ImageJ and relies on cross-platform standards for communication with data-analysis software. PMID:21771915

Lobet, Guillaume; Pages, Loic; Draye, Xavier

2011-01-01

248

Visualization of root water uptake: quantification of deuterated water transport in roots using neutron radiography and numerical modeling.  

PubMed

Our understanding of soil and plant water relations is limited by the lack of experimental methods to measure water fluxes in soil and plants. Here, we describe a new method to noninvasively quantify water fluxes in roots. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D2O) into roots. The results showed that (1) the radial transport of D2O from soil to the roots depended similarly on diffusive and convective transport and (2) the axial transport of D2O along the root xylem was largely dominated by convection. To quantify the convective fluxes from the radiographs, we introduced a convection-diffusion model to simulate the D2O transport in roots. The model takes into account different pathways of water across the root tissue, the endodermis as a layer with distinct transport properties, and the axial transport of D2O in the xylem. The diffusion coefficients of the root tissues were inversely estimated by simulating the experiments at night under the assumption that the convective fluxes were negligible. Inverse modeling of the experiment at day gave the profile of water fluxes into the roots. For a 24-d-old lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in a soil with uniform water content, root water uptake was higher in the proximal parts of lateral roots and decreased toward the distal parts. The method allows the quantification of the root properties and the regions of root water uptake along the root systems. PMID:25189533

Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

2014-10-01

249

Nutritive evaluation of legume seeds for ruminant feeding.  

PubMed

Chemical composition, rumen degradability and the effect of particle losses, and intestinal digestibility of protein by using in situ-in vitro and in vitro techniques were stated for beans (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus albus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and four diets including those legume seeds. In addition, the apparent digestibility of experimental diets was determined in goats. The legume seeds showed high protein content (206-319 g/kg dry matter). Effective degradability of protein for legumes and diets varied from 0.80 to 0.87 and 0.76 to 0.82, respectively, decreasing to 0.53-0.76 and 0.61-0.67, respectively, when particle loss was taken into account. Different intestinal digestibility values were obtained with both methodologies without significant relationship between them (y = 1.058-0.463x; R(2)=0.068; RSD = 0.140; p = 0.53). There were no differences in the apparent nutrients and energy digestibility among diets (p > 0.05). These legumes can supply rapidly degradable protein for microbial protein synthesis and contribute to the pool of amino acids available for the synthesis of milk protein and for retention in the body. PMID:19138343

Ramos-Morales, E; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Molina-Alcaide, E

2010-02-01

250

Soil to plant transfer of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from southeastern China.  

PubMed

Both soil and plant samples of nine different plant species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed for the plant uptake and translocation of 238U, 226Ra and 232Th. Substantial differences were observed in the soil-plant transfer factor (TF) among these radionuclides and plant species. Lupine (Lupinus albus) exhibited the highest uptake of 238U (TF value of 3.7x10(-2)), while Chinese mustard (Brassica chinensis) had the least (0.5x10(-2)). However, in the case of 226Ra and 232Th, the highest TFs were observed for white clover (Trifolium pratense) (3.4x10(-2)) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) (2.1x10(-3)), respectively. 232Th in the tailings/soil mixture was less available for plant uptake than 226Ra or 238U, and this was especially evident for Chinese mustard and corn (Zea mays). The root/shoot (R/S) ratios obtained for different plants and radionuclides shown that Indian mustard had the smallest R/S ratios for both 226Ra (5.3+/-1.2) and 232Th (5.3+/-1.7), while the smallest R/S ratio for 238U was observed in clover (2.8+/-0.9). PMID:15878419

Chen, S B; Zhu, Y G; Hu, Q H

2005-01-01

251

The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Larvae of the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, feed solely on wild lupine, Lupinus perennis, from the emergence to summer senescence of the plant. Wild lupine is most abundant in open areas but Karner blue females oviposit more frequently on lupines growing in moderate shade. Can differences in lupine quality between open and shaded areas help explain this disparity in resource use? Furthermore, many lupines are senescent before the second larval brood completes development. How does lupine senescence affect larval growth? We addressed these questions by measuring growth rates of larvae fed lupines of different phenological stages and lupines growing under different shade conditions. The habitat conditions under which lupines grew and plant phenological stage did not generally affect final larval or pupal weight but did significantly affect duration of the larval period. Duration was shortest for larvae fed leaves from flowering lupines and was negatively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration. Ovipositing in areas of moderate shade should increase second-brood larval exposure to flowering lupines. In addition, larval growth was significantly faster on shade-grown lupines that were in seed than on similar sun-grown lupines. These are possible advantages of the higher-than-expected oviposition rate on shade-grown lupines. Given the canopy-related trade-off between lupine abundance and quality, maintenance of canopy heterogeneity is an important conservation management goal. Larvae were also fed leaves growing in poor soil conditions and leaves with mildew infection. These and other feeding treatments that we anticipated would inhibit larval growth often did not. In particular, ant-tended larvae exhibited the highest weight gain per amount of lupine eaten and a relatively fast growth rate. This represents an advantage of ant tending to Karner blue larvae.

Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

1998-01-01

252

Follicle development, endocrine profiles and ovulation rate in adult Merino ewes: effects of early nutrition (pre- and post-natal) and supplementation with lupin grain.  

PubMed

In adult ewes, we tested whether ovarian function, including the response to short-term supplementation, was affected by the nutrition of their mothers during the pre-/post-natal period. A 2×2 factorial design was used with nutrition in early life (low or high) and a 6-day supplement (with or without) as factors. All ewes received three prostaglandin (PG) injections 7 days apart, and the supplement (lupin grain) was fed for 6 days from 2 days after the second until the third PG injection. We measured reproductive and metabolic hormones, studied follicle dynamics (ultrasonography), and evaluated granulosa cell numbers, aromatase activity and oestradiol (E2) concentrations in follicular fluid in healthy follicles at days 3 and 7 of supplementation. Ovulation rate was increased by 25% by exposure to high pre-/post-natal nutrition (1.5 vs 1.2; P<0.05), in association with a small decrease in FSH concentrations (P=0.06) and a small increase in insulin concentrations (P=0.07). The number of healthy antral follicles was not affected. Acute supplementation increased the number of granulosa cells (3.7±0.2 vs 3.0±0.2 million; P<0.05) in the largest follicle, and the circulating concentrations of E2 (4.6±0.3 vs 3.9±0.3 pmol/l; P<0.05) and glucose (3.4±0.03 vs 3.3±0.03 mmol/l; P<0.01). Both early life nutrition and acute supplementation appear to affect ovulation rate through changes in glucose-insulin homoeostasis that alter follicular responsiveness to FSH and therefore E2-FSH balance. PMID:24155291

Viñoles, C; Paganoni, B L; McNatty, K P; Heath, D A; Thompson, A N; Glover, K M M; Milton, J T B; Martin, G B

2014-01-01

253

Growth performance, gastrointestinal function and meat quality in growing-finishing turkeys fed diets with different levels of yellow lupine (L. luteus) seeds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a different dietary content of sweet yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on gastrointestinal tract development and function, the growth performance (13-18 weeks of age) and meat quality of growing-finishing turkeys. Control grower and finisher diets contained soybean meal (SBM), and in experimental diets, SBM was replaced with YLM at 6%, 12% and 18% (Groups L6, L12 and L18, respectively). The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic. In the first phase of feeding, YLM tended to decrease feed intake (p = 0.087) and body weight gain (BWG, p = 0.078) linearly due to significant deterioration in feed conversion ratio (FCR, p = 0.030). An opposite trend was noted in the second phase of feeding: BWG increased (p = 0.069) and FCR improved significantly (p = 0.004). Over the entire experiment, inclusion of YLM did not affect feed intake, BWG, FCR or excreta dry matter (DM) content. The highest YLM dietary level had no adverse effects on fermentation processes in the caeca. Positive changes, which were observed in turkeys fed YLM-supplemented diets, included an increased gizzard weight, a decreased pH of gizzard contents and a decreased viscosity of small intestinal digesta. The inclusion of YLM at 18% had no effect on carcass quality, the pH and colour intensity of breast meat. The highest inclusion rate of YLM (18%) in turkey diets significantly (p < 0.05) intensified the fatty flavour of meat and increased its hardness, springiness and chewiness, whereas it had no effect on the appearance, aroma and overall acceptability of breast meat. It can be concluded that YLM at the highest dietary rate used in the present experiment (18% of the diet) had no adverse effects on the growth performance or the analysed physiological parameters of turkeys. PMID:24870269

Zdu?czyk, Zenon; Jankowski, Jan; Mikulski, Dariusz; Mikulska, Marzena; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Slominski, Bogdan A; Ju?kiewicz, Jerzy

2014-01-01

254

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime’s C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J. D.; Ludwig, C.

2014-01-01

255

Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.  

PubMed

Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime's C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

Berger, J D; Ludwig, C

2014-11-01

256

Effect of diets containing whole white lupin seeds on rabbit doe milk yield and milk fatty acid composition as well as the growth and health of their litters.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary inclusion of white lupin seed (WLS) on the milk composition and yield of rabbit does as well as the performance of their litters was studied. Two lactation diets having identical digestible protein (DP):DE ratio and two weaning diets having identical DP:DE ratio were formulated. The first lactation diet (SL) contained soybean meal (SBM; 13.0%) and sunflower meal (5.0%) as the main CP sources, whereas the second lactation diet (LL) was based on WLS (25.0%). As a result, the LL diet had a greater ether extract (EE) content than did the SL diet. The first weaning diet (SW) included SBM (7.0%) as the main CP source, whereas the second weaning diet (LW) diet was based on WLS (12.0%). No additional fat was added to any of the diets. A total of 32 (16 per treatment) Hyplus PS 19 does (4,225 ± 607 g BW, at the second parturition) were fed 1 of the 2 lactation diets. The litters were standardized to 9 kits (564 ± 81 g BW) on the day of birth and were fed 1 of the 2 weaning diets from d 17 to 69 of age. At d 30 of age (weaning), 66 rabbits on each weaning diet (689 ± 71 g BW; 3 per cage) were used to evaluate performance. Feed intake and doe BW were not affected by the dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be higher between d 1 and 30 of lactation in does fed the LL diet (P = 0.094), a finding that is related to the higher dietary EE content and intake in the LL diet. When expressed per kilogram of metabolic weight, milk output (P < 0.05) and fat output (P < 0.05) were greater in these does. Improved G:F (P < 0.05) between d 1 and 21 of lactation and greater ADG (P = 0.072) and milk efficiency (P < 0.05) of litters was observed in does fed the LL diet. The milk of does fed the LL diet contained less linoleic acid (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (C 20:4n-6; P < 0.05) and more oleic acid (P < 0.05), ?-linolenic acid (P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenic acid (P < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the total PUFA n-3:C 20:4n-6 ratio (P < 0.05). The performance of fattening rabbits was not affected by dietary treatment. The number of ill plus dead rabbits caused by digestive disease was lower (P < 0.05) in rabbits fed the LW diet. Therefore, WLS is a suitable dietary CP source for lactating does that can replace traditionally used CP sources without adverse effects on feed intake and milk yield or on the growth and viability of their litters. Due to its fatty acid (FA) composition, the use of WLS in the lactation diet has the potential to improve the milk FA composition of does. PMID:24663193

Volek, Z; Marounek, M; Volková, L; Kudrnová, E

2014-05-01

257

Restoring resources for an endangered butterfly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Recent changes in land use have resulted in dramatic habitat loss for numerous species. More than 99% of the habitat for Fender's blue butterfly Icaricia icarioides fenderi , an endangered butterfly in Oregon, USA, has been lost. 2. Fender's blue butterflies require larval host-plants (Kincaid's lupine Lupinus sul- phureus kincaidii ) and nectar from native wildflowers. 3. An

CHERYL B. SCHULTZ

2001-01-01

258

Traditional antihelmintic, antiparasitic and repellent uses of plants in Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uses of 51 plants of Marche, Abruzzo and Latium, distributed in 28 families, are listed here. Memories and news of continued use of the plants in these sectors were collected from farmers and shepherds in person (mostly old people). The plants most frequently used as antiparasitics and repellents are Juglans regia, Lupinus albus, Ruta graveolens, Fraxinus ornus, Datura stramonium,

Paolo Maria Guarrera

1999-01-01

259

Nutrition of a Developing Legume Fruit  

PubMed Central

The economy of functioning of the developing fruit of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is assessed quantitatively in relation to intake and usage of carbon, nitrogen, and water. Of every 100 units of carbon imported from the parent plant, 52 are incorporated into seeds, 37 into nonmobilizable material of the pod, and the remaining 11 lost as CO2 to the atmosphere. An illuminated fruit can make net gains of CO2 from the atmosphere during the photoperiods of all but the last 2 weeks of its life, suggesting that it is active in assimilation of CO2 respired from pods and seeds. This conservation activity is important to carbon economy. Phloem supplies 98% of the fruit's carbon and 89% of its nitrogen. Most of the xylem's contribution enters early in development. Xylem and phloem supply similar sets of amino compounds, amides predominating. Ninety-six per cent of the fruit's nitrogen becomes incorporated into seeds. Sixteen per cent of the seed's nitrogen is mobilized from the senescing pod. The transpiration ratio of the fruit is 22.5 ml per gram dry matter accumulated. Xylem supplies 60% of a fruit's total water requirement and the equivalent of two-thirds of its transpiration loss. Phloem becomes prominent as a water donor once the seeds start to fill. The fruit exhibits a 31% conversion by weight of organic imports into food reserves of seeds. This entails an intake through vascular channels of 1756 mg sucrose and 384 mg amino compounds and an accumulation in seeds of 412 mg protein, 132 mg oil, and 110 mg perchloric acid-soluble carbohydrate. PMID:16659881

Pate, John S.; Sharkey, Patrick J.; Atkins, Craig A.

1977-01-01

260

Suppression of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Potting Mixes Amended with Uncomposted and Composted Animal Manures.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT We examined the effects of fresh and composted animal manures on the development of root rot, dieback, and plant death caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Fresh chicken manure, or chicken manure composted for 5 weeks before incorporation into the potting mix (25%, vol/vol), significantly reduced pathogen survival and the development of symptoms on Lupinus albus seedlings. Chicken manure composted for 2 weeks was less suppressive. Cow, sheep, and horse manure, whether fresh or composted, did not consistently suppress populations of P. cinnamomi or disease symptoms at the rates used (25%, vol/vol). All composts increased organic matter content, total biological activity, and populations of actinomycetes, fluorescent pseudomonads, and fungi. Only chicken manure stimulated endospore-forming bacteria, a factor that was strongly associated with seedling survival. Fallowing the potting mix for an additional 8 weeks after the first harvest increased the survival of lupin seedlings in a second bioassay, with survival rates in chicken manure compost-amended potting mix exceeding 90%. These data suggest that the ability of composted manure to stimulate sustained biological activity, in particular the activity of endospore-forming bacteria, is the key factor in reducing disease symptoms caused by P. cinnamomi. Supporting these results, the survival of rooted cuttings of Thryptomene calycina was significantly higher in sand-peat potting mix following amendment with commercially available chicken manure (15% vol/vol). However, this protection was reduced if the potting mix was steam pasteurized before amendment, indicating that suppression was due to endogenous as well as introduced microbes. Chicken manure compost incorporated at 5% (vol/vol) or more was strongly phytotoxic to young Banksia spinulosa plants and is not suitable as an amendment for phosphorus-sensitive plants. PMID:18944498

Aryantha, I P; Cross, R; Guest, D I

2000-07-01

261

Glucose transport in fish erythrocytes: variable cytochalasin-B-sensitive hexose transport activity in the common eel (Anguilla japonica) and transport deficiency in the paddyfield eel (Monopterus albus) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).  

PubMed

Erythrocytes from individual common eels (Anguilla japonica Temminck and Schlegel) exhibited widely variable initial rates of cytochalasin-B-sensitive 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) zero-trans influx, in the range of 0-19.5 mmol l-cells-1 h-1 (5 mmol l-1 extracellular concentration at 20 degrees C, 50 animals tested). Storage of cells at 4 degrees C in a glucose-containing medium for up to 72 h had no effect on 3-OMG uptake, and there was no correlation between the sugar permeabilities of erythrocytes from different fish and intracellular ATP levels. Adrenaline and noradrenaline increased cytochalasin-B-sensitive 3-OMG transport activity; half-maximal stimulation occurred at catecholamine concentrations in the region of 1 mumol l-1. This catecholamine-induced stimulation of sugar transport appeared to be independent of the basal cytochalasin-B-sensitive 3-OMG permeability of the cells. Kinetically, catecholamines increased the Vm of transport without changing the apparent Km (approx. 1.4 mmol l-1). Saturable 3-OMG influx was inhibited by phloretin, D-glucose, D-deoxyglucose and D-galactose, but not by D-fructose and L-glucose. Transporter stereoselectivity was confirmed by direct measurements of D- and L-glucose uptake. Erythrocytes from two other fish species, Monopterus albus Richardson (paddyfield eel) and Salmo gairdneri Richardson (rainbow trout), unlike those from the common eel, were uniformly deficient with respect to cytochalasin-B-sensitive 3-OMG and D-glucose transport activity. Catecholamines had no effect on sugar uptake in these species. PMID:2307927

Tse, C M; Young, J D

1990-01-01

262

Roles of Morphology, Anatomy, and Aquaporins in Determining Contrasting Hydraulic Behavior of Roots1[OA  

PubMed Central

The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (Lax) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater Lax than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. Lax and root hydraulic conductance (Lr) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. Lax and Lr were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lpc) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lpc was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lpc by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced Lr. This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics. PMID:19321713

Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C.; Turner, David W.; Tyerman, Stephen D.

2009-01-01

263

Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally larger in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy openings and shade, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N. B.; Sulzman, C. L.

1998-01-01

264

Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally large in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy opening and shades, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

1998-01-01

265

Mischfruchtanbausysteme mit Ölpflanzen im ökologischen Landbau 1. Ertragsstruktur des Mischfruchtanbaus von Leguminosen oder Sommerweizen mit Leindotter (Camelina sativa L. Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic mixed cropping systems of peas (Pisum sativum L.), lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) together with false flax were tested in field trials over three years at two sites. Mixed cropping with peas and false flax yielded between 0.07 and 3.58 t ha?1 (dry matter) pea-seeds and from 0.32 to 1.75 t ha?1 false flax.

Hans Marten Paulsen

266

Plant cell responses to heavy metals: molecular and physiological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lead, cadmium and cooper on protein pattern, free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in root of Lupinus luteus L. were investigated. Heavy metals inhibited growth of lupin roots, which was accompanied by increased synthesis and accumulation\\u000a of a 16 kDa polypeptide (Przymusi?ski et al. 1991 Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen., 187:51–57). This component has been earlier identified as immunologically related

Edward A. Gwó?d?; Roman Przymusitiski; Renata Rucitiska; Joanna Deckert

1997-01-01

267

Spatially structured herbivory and primary succession at Mount St Helens: field surveys and experimental growth studies suggest a role for nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1980 eruption ofMount St Helens (Washington, U.S.A.) created a 60-km2 region ofprimary successional habitat. Since colonising in 1981, the spatial spread ofthe legume Lupinus lepidus at Mount St Helens, Washington, U.S.A., has afforded intriguing opportunities to study the effect of trophic dynamics on primary succession. 2. Insect herbivory on this lupine has exhibited striking spatial structure for over a

WILLIAM F. F AGAN; J OHN

2004-01-01

268

STUDIES ON CAROTENOIDS FROM LUPIN SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Epidemiology studies show that carotenoids can prevent the development of some chronic diseases in humans, including cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Carotenoids have also many,other biological activities, including antioxidant activity, influences on the immune system, control of cell growth and differentiation,and stimulant effects on gap junction communication. Therefore scientists paid much attention to carotenoids from fruits, vegetables and foods. However,

Shaofang Wang; Steve Errington

269

Changes in phosphorus concentrations and pH in the rhizosphere of some agroforestry and crop species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to assess whether agroforestry species have the ability to acquire P from pools unavailable to maize. Tithonia diversifolia(Hemsley) A. Gray, Tephrosia vogelii Hook f., Zea mays and Lupinus albusL. were grown in rhizopots and pH change and depletion of inorganic and organic P pools measured in the rhizosphere. Plants were harvested at the same

T. S. George; P. J. Gregory; J. S. Robinson; R. J. Buresh

2002-01-01

270

Isolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)  

E-print Network

#12;· Mixed pop. of bact. cultured but mort. continued despite repeated antib. Tx · Replicating agent (550 morts/d) · Samples submitted to the Bozeman Fish Health Center & UCD Fish Health Lab #12;BPSFH PS negative (-) against MRSIV specific PCR assay BPSFH PS Epizootic ­ Bacteriology, Cell Culture, SEM, PCR #12

Gray, Matthew

271

Functional Morphology of Prey Capture in the Sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus  

E-print Network

frames from a feeding white stur- geon (Acipenser transmontanus) to illustrate jaw protrusion. Sturgeon sturgeon species, Acipenser medirostris. Acipens- eriformes have a novel jaw protrusion mechanism, which

Wainwright, Peter C.

272

A plant-derived edible vaccine against hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed

The infectious hepatitis B virus represents 42 nm spherical double-shelled particles. However, analysis of blood from hepatitis B virus carriers revealed the presence of smaller 22 nm particles consisting of a viral envelope surface protein. These particles are highly immunogenic and have been used in the design of hepatitis B virus vaccine produced in yeast. Upon expression in yeast, these proteins form virus-like particles that are used for parenteral immunization. Therefore, the DNA fragment encoding hepatitis B virus surface antigen was introduced into Agrobacterium tumerifacience LBA4404 and used to obtain transgenic lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Burpee Bibb expressing envelope surface protein. Mice that were fed the transgenic lupin tissue developed significant levels of hepatitis B virus-specific antibodies. Human volunteers, fed with transgenic lettuce plants expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen, developed specific serum-IgG response to plant produced protein. PMID:10506582

Kapusta, J; Modelska, A; Figlerowicz, M; Pniewski, T; Letellier, M; Lisowa, O; Yusibov, V; Koprowski, H; Plucienniczak, A; Legocki, A B

1999-10-01

273

Elevated CO(2) and nitrogen effects on a dominant N(2)- fixing shrub  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The responses of N2-fixing species to global change are likely to be an important component in predicting the existence and direction of feedbacks between carbon and nitrogen cycles, as both are radically changing at an unprecedented pace. Increased carbon storage may be more likely in ecosystems not limited by available nitrogen, such as those with abundant N2-fixing species. If elevated CO2 affects growth and N2-fixation of dominant N2-fixers, then non-fixers in the system may experience indirect effects through changes in competitive interactions and nitrogen availability. The goal of this research was to investigate these effects on the growth, competitive ability, leaf and litter chemistry, and litter decomposition of Lupinus arboreus, a N2-fixing evergreen shrub, and to test the central hypothesis that an increase in growth and competitive ability would occur at low nitrogen and high CO2. In a growth chamber experiment, three CO2 levels, 350, 500, and 650 ppm were crossed with two nitrogen levels. Lupins were grown alone or in competition with an introduced annual grass, Bromus diandrus. Contrary to findings from previous studies of positive growth and competition responses by N2-fixers, Lupinus seedlings demonstrated no significant responses to CO2. Nitrogen was far more important than CO2 in affecting relative competitive ability. Nitrogen, alkaloids, and C:N ratios in fresh foliage did not change with CO2 or nitrogen. Carbon and biomass increased slightly in lupins at 500 ppm only, suggesting an early but limited growth response. Nitrogen did decrease in lupin litter at elevated CO2, but there were no effects on litter decomposition rates in the field. Simulations by the CENTURY surface litter decomposition model predicted the litter decomposition rates of field-grown litter nearly perfectly, and predicted the general direction but underestimated the rate of litter from the greenhouse grown at different CO2 levels. Very low or high nitrogen decreased growth and competitive ability of lupin seedlings in an additional greenhouse experiment. Slight increases of nitrogen in the field did not affect lupin aboveground biomass. In conclusion, it is unlikely that Lupinus abundance or rate of its nitrogen inputs will be affected by elevated CO2 and/or changes in nitrogen availability.

Wallace, Alison Marie

274

Effect of some environmental factors on Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains.  

PubMed

Effects of different abiotic factors (acidity, salinity, nitrate and temperature) on growth rate of root-nodule bacteria (Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium) strains were investigated in vitro. Strains isolated from Vicia faba L., Coronilla varia L. and Lupinus albus L. exhibited a large variation in tolerance of the above-mentioned factors. These bacteria should be screened under stimulated conditions for enhanced survival before selection to be used for commercial inoculant production. Linear correlation matrix data were useful to find the appropriate concentrations for the selection of the tolerant strains. PMID:7620814

Bayoumi, H E; Bíró, B; Balázsy, S; Kecskés, M

1995-01-01

275

Water distribution at the root-soil interface: is there more water next to roots?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are big water movers and have a significant impact on soil water dynamics as well as on the global water cycle. Despite the relevance of root water uptake in terrestrial ecology, the movement of water from soil to roots still presents important open questions, e.g the following two. Which are the properties of the soil near the roots? And what effect do these properties have on soil plant water relations? Most models are based on brute-force spatial averaging of soil properties and assume that the bulk soil has the same properties as the rhizosphere. However, there is evidence in the literature that the rhizosphere has specific properties that may affect water and nutrient uptake (Young 1995, Gregory 2007). In order to investigate the rhizosphere hydraulic properties and their effect on soil plant water relations, we used neutron radiography and neutron tomography to image the water content distribution in soils during plant transpiration. Rectangular (quasi-2D) and cylindrical containers were filled with sandy soil and planted with lupins (Lupinus albus). Three weeks after planting, the samples were equilibrated at water potentials of -10 and 30 hPa and have been imaged for 5 days at intervals of 6 hours. At day 5 the samples were irrigated again via capillary rise and the water distribution was monitored for 4 more days. During the first day of the drying period, regions of water depletion formed around the central part of the tap root where first order laterals were present. As the soil dried up, the picture changed: instead of less water around the roots, as commonly supposed by models, we observed that more water was present around the lateral roots. Interestingly, these regions during drying were retaining high water content, but after irrigation remained markedly drier than the bulk soil. Our hypothesis is that high water content near roots during drying and lower water content during rewetting are explained by the presence of bio-polymers exuded by roots forming a hydrogel that consists of up to 99% water at very negative water potentials (Read et al. 1999). Thanks to its high water holding capacity, this hydrogel maintains a continuous hydraulic pathway across soil and roots for an extended period of time during drying. During rewetting it adversely affects water redistribution, like a storage that needs time to fill up again. These data show for the first time in situ the potential role of mucilage in controlling water dynamics in the rhizosphere and consequences for plant water extraction. Gregory P J, Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science, 57: 2-12, 2006. Read D P, Gregory P J, and Bell A E. Physical properties of axenic maize root mucilage. Plant and Soil, 211: 87-91, 1999. Young I M. Variation in moisture contents between bulk soil and the rhizosheath of wheat. New Phytologist, 130: 135-139, 1995.

Carminati, A.; Moradi, A.; Oswald, S.; Vetterlein, D.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.

2009-04-01

276

Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.  

PubMed

Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

2004-06-01

277

Investigation of Great Egret ( Casmerodius albus ) breeding success in Hara Biosphere Reserve of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of Great Egret breeding success was carried out for the first time in Hara Biosphere Reserve of Iran. Since Great Egret\\u000a is considered as wading bird as well as wetland-dependent species which is located on top of the food chain in this ecosystem,\\u000a its breeding study is an appropriate means for evaluating food supply fluctuations and environmental threatening factors

Elnaz Neinavaz; Mahmood Karami; Afshin Danehkar

2011-01-01

278

Organic matter and nutrients associated with fine root turnover in a white oak stand. [Quercus albus  

SciTech Connect

Organic matter and nutrients cycled by fine root turnover were quantified in a mature white oak (Quercus alba L.) stand and compared to contributions from litterfall. The budget method, a revised version of the traditional repeated sampling method, was used to measure root turnover. The magnitude of the live and dead pools of three size classes of fine (<5 mm diameter) roots were monitored bimonthly for 14 months. Decomposition rates over these intervals were also measured, while production and mortality were calculated. Litterfall was collected simultaneously, and the nutrient concentrations of the various detritus components determined. Root pools fluctuated less, and total root turnover biomass (220 g m/sup -2/ yr/sup -1/) was also less than previously noted in most other stands studied. Fine root turnover accounted for 30% of the total detritus production and 20-40% of the turnover of the five macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) studied. Differences with previous studies suggest that there may be rather large species and/or site-related differences in the amount of energy various stands allocate for fine root maintenance. For. Sci. 33(2):330-346.

Joslin, J.D.; Henderson, G.S.

1987-06-01

279

Abstract The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), which is protected under the US endangered species  

E-print Network

pallid, shovelnose, and putative hybrid sturgeons from the middle Mississippi River. Bayesian model sturgeon are genetically distinct in the middle Mississippi River (FST = 0.036, P - hynchus, hereafter abbreviated SS) are native to the Mississippi River drainage and are sympatric through

Heist, Edward J.

280

Herbivore defence compounds occur in pollen and reduce bumblebee colony fitness.  

PubMed

Herbivory defence chemicals in plants can affect higher trophic levels such as predators and parasitoids, but the impact on pollinators has been overlooked. We show that defensive plant chemicals can damage pollinator fitness when expressed in pollen. Crop lupins (Lupinus species from Europe and South America) accumulate toxic quinolizidine alkaloids in vegetative tissues, conferring resistance to herbivorous pests such as aphids. We identified the alkaloid lupanine and its derivatives in lupin pollen, and then provided this compound at ecologically-relevant concentrations to queenless microcolonies of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in their pollen to determine how foraging on these crops may impact bee colony health and fitness. Fewer males were produced by microcolonies provided with lupanine-treated pollen and they were significantly smaller than controls. This impact on males was not linked to preference as workers willingly fed lupanine-treated pollen to larvae, even though it was deleterious to colony health. Agricultural systems comprising large monocultures of crops bred for herbivore resistance can expose generalist pollinators to deleterious levels of plant compounds, and the broader environmental impacts of crop resistance must thus be considered. PMID:24952086

Arnold, Sarah E J; Idrovo, M Eduardo Peralta; Arias, Luis J Lomas; Belmain, Steven R; Stevenson, Philip C

2014-08-01

281

Bioactivities of some essential oils against the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal myiasis of camels is caused by the larvae of Cephalopina titillator. We determined the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) of pumpkin, Cucurbita maxima; lupinus, Lupinus luteus; garlic oil, Allium sativum; and peppermint, Mentha piperita, against the third larval stage of C. titillator using larval immersion tests. The positive control group was treated with ivermectin and the negative control one was treated with distilled water and few drops of Tween 80. Larvae were reared until adult emergence. The data indicated that complete larval mortalities were reached 24 h post treatment (PT) with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupinus, and 0.15 % ivermectin. The lethal values, LC50s, were 0.20, 0.44, 0.42, 0.47, and 0.03 %, respectively. Pumpkin and ivermectin were 2 and 17 times, respectively, more effective than the other EOs. Ivermectin was seven times more intoxicating than pumpkin oil. Formation of pupae had been stopped after treatment of larvae with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupines, and 0.04 % ivermectin. Adult emergence had been completely ceased following treatment of larvae with 0.5 % EOs and 0.04 % ivermectin. Morphological abnormalities were pronounced after treatments, and peppermint oil was the foremost cause of deformation in larvae (44 % PT with 7.5 %) and pupae (40 % PT with 2 %). Pumpkin oil (6 %) was selected to be the drug of choice for controlling C. titillator. Besides their insecticidal effects, EOs are much safer than ivermectin regarding health and environmental issues. Consequently, EOs described herein merit further study as potential nasal drench for C. titillator control. PMID:24276644

Khater, Hanem F

2014-02-01

282

Diversity of Transcripts of Nitrite Reductase Genes (nirK and nirS) in Rhizospheres of Grain Legumes  

PubMed Central

Transcription of the nirK and nirS genes coding for dissimilatory bacterial nitrite reductases was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) of mRNA isolated from rhizosphere samples of three economically important grain legumes at maturity: Vicia faba, Lupinus albus, and Pisum sativum. The nirK gene and transcripts could be detected in all the rhizosphere samples. In contrast, nirS could not be detected. Sampling variations were analyzed by comparing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles derived from nirK RT-PCR products. High similarity was observed between the replicates, and so one representative product per legume was cloned. Clones with the correct insert size were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism by using the restriction enzyme MspI. The clones could be distributed into 12 different patterns. Patterns 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7 were common in clone libraries of the three rhizosphere types under study. Patterns 2, 9, 10, and 11 were absent from Pisum rhizospheres, while patterns 6, 8, and 12 were absent from the Vicia library. Pattern 1, which was the most dominant in the Vicia and Lupinus libraries, constituted about 25% of all clones. The Lupinus library had clones representing all 12 patterns, indicating it to be the most diverse among the three. Clones representative of each pattern were sequenced. All patterns grouped together forming a distinct cluster, which was divergent from previously described nirK sequences in the database. The study revealed a hitherto unknown diversity of denitrifiers in legume rhizospheres. A plant-dependent rhizosphere effect on the transcripts of a gene was evident. PMID:15812032

Sharma, Shilpi; Aneja, Manish Kumar; Mayer, Jochen; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

2005-01-01

283

Characterization of the final stage in seed abor-tion in indeterminate soybean, white lupin and  

E-print Network

of this stage, the seeds of 26 samples of aborted plus ripe seeds at har- vest were first measured and weighed cultivars), and 2 of pea, Pisum sativum L. (2 cultivars). The fact that there is no overlap of weight values were then used to determine reference lengths for green seeds corresponding to reference weights

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania  

E-print Network

. There was no effect of bee visitation rates on the proportion of seeds aborted prior to maturity, possibly due to post with negative impacts on the biodiversity of the ecological communities they invade (Weber, 2000

285

Effects of temperature, relative humidity, and scarification method on the germination of Lupinus texensis Hook. seeds  

E-print Network

of Trifolium subterraneum had viability similar to that of fresh permeable seeds was due to the exclusion of air, that prevented the autoxidation of fatty acids (51, 52) known io occur in these and other seeds (182). Further fatty acid analysis of the aged... of Trifolium spp. seeds was reported to be a hydroscopically-activated valve in the impermeable epidermis of the testa. When rela- tive humidity was low, the hilum opened to permit the seed to dry out, whereas, when the relative humidity was high, the hilum...

Kaspar, Michael Joseph

2012-06-07

286

THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION SIZE AND DENSITY ON THE MATING SYSTEM OF LUPINUS PERENNIS. (R826596)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

287

Water-quality requirements, tolerances, and preferences of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Additional research could be used to characterize and quantify the requirements, tolerance, and preferences of pallid sturgeon to these water-quality characteristics, especially during the egg and larval life stages. Enhancements to existing water-sampling programs are needed to quantify the exposure of pallid sturgeon to many of these water-quality stressors.

Blevins, Dale W.

2011-01-01

288

Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P

Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

2004-12-01

289

Island radiation on a continental scale: Exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes  

PubMed Central

Species radiations provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species diversification and patterns of biodiversity. To compare plant diversification over a similar time period to the recent cichlid fish radiations, which are an order of magnitude faster than documented bird, arthropod, and plant radiations, we focus on the high-altitude flora of the Andes, which is the most species-rich of any tropical mountains. Because of the recent uplift of the northern Andes, the upland environments where much of this rich endemic flora is found have been available for colonization only since the late Pliocene or Pleistocene, 2–4 million years (Myr) ago. Using DNA sequence data we identify a monophyletic group within the genus Lupinus representing 81 species endemic to the Andes. The age of this clade is estimated to be 1.18–1.76 Myr, implying a diversification rate of 2.49–3.72 species per Myr. This exceeds previous estimates for plants, providing the most spectacular example of explosive plant species diversification documented to date. Furthermore, it suggests that the high cichlid diversification rates are not unique. Lack of key innovations associated with the Andean Lupinus clade suggests that diversification was driven by ecological opportunities afforded by the emergence of island-like habitats after Andean uplift. Data from other genera indicate that lupines are one of a set of similarly rapid Andean plant radiations, continental in scale and island-like in stimulus, suggesting that the high-elevation Andean flora provides a system that rivals other groups, including cichlids, for understanding rapid species diversification. PMID:16801546

Hughes, Colin; Eastwood, Ruth

2006-01-01

290

EFFECT OF NITRIC OXIDE GENERATING COMPOUNDS ON FLOWER SENESCENCE IN CUT RACEMES OF PINK FLOWERED LUPINUS HAVARDII WATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO?) is viewed as a diffusible multifunctional plant signal molecule. It has been shown to extend the postharvest life of a range of flowers possibly by down- regulating ethylene production. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of two nitric oxide (NO*) generating compounds (sodium nitroprusside, SNP ; N-tert-butyl-?- phenylnitrone, PBN), alone and in combination with sucrose,

N. Sankhla; W. A. Mackay; T. D. Davis

291

Mount St. Helens ash: recreating its effects on the steppe environment and ecophysiology. [Artemisia tridentata; Lupinus sulphureus  

SciTech Connect

The 18 May 1980 ash fall from Mount St. Helens was experimentally reproduced in May 1982 by applying silt-sized ash to a stand of the Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum association in south-central Washington. Compared to the adjacent control site, ash caused an immediate increase in albedo from 13% to 28%, while other parameters of the energy budget were simultaneously lowered: net radiation by approx. = 20%, soil surface temperatures by as much as 10/sup 0/C, and soil heat flux by as much as 50%. The ash's mulching action initially increased water availability and delayed leaf abscission in Artemisia tridentata (Big sagebrush) by 2 wk in summer 1982. But after summer 1982 water availability declined, while water use increased, illustrating the diverse effects of the ash. Increased reflection from the ash-covered surface increased the radiation load on plant canopies. In turn, air temperature at 0.5 m increased, latent heat flux often doubled in summer, and xylem pressure potentials decreased. Available water at the -1 m soil depth eventually decreased as much as 40%. This decrease was the result of the increase in latent heat flux and the decline in infiltration through the stratified layer created by the ash cap. In addition to allowing assessment of the effects of the 18 May 1980 ash fall on arid steppe, application of ash provided an unexpected level of precision in detecting the often subtle effects that occur when some microenvironmental parameters change while the overall macroclimate remains the same.

Black, R.A.; Mack, R.N.

1986-10-01

292

Effect of germination of legume seeds on chemical composition and on protein and energy utilization in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical composition of soybeans, lupin seeds and black beans, and protein utilization and energy digestibility of soybeans and lupin seeds determined in a rat model, were compared before and after a 48-h germination. Black beans had a much higher starch content and lower levels of low-molecular-weight (LMW) sugars than soybeans and lupin seeds. Lupin seeds had about twice as much

C. M. Donangelo; L. C. Trugo; N. M. F. Trugo; B. O. Eggum

1995-01-01

293

Ultrasound studies of the effects of certain poisonous plants on uterine function and fetal development in livestock.  

PubMed

Ingestion of locoweed (Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp.) by pregnant livestock may result in fetal malformations, delayed placentation, reduced placental and uterine vascular development, hydrops amnii, hydrops allantois, abnormal cotyledonary development, interruption of fetal fluid balance, and abortion. Ultrasonography of pregnant sheep fed locoweed demonstrated that abortion was first preceded by changes in fetal heart rate and strength of contraction and structural changes of the cotyledons, followed by increased accumulation of fetal fluid within the placental membranes and death of the fetus. During pregnancy the toxic agent in locoweed (swainsonine) apparently passes through the placental barrier to the fetus and during lactation through the milk to the neonate. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), and lunara lupine (Lupinus formosus) all contain piperidine alkaloids and induce fetal malformations, including multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate in livestock. Ultrasonography studies of pregnant sheep and goats gavaged with these plants during 30 to 60 d of gestation suggests that the primary cause of multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate is the degree and the duration of the alkaloid-induced fetal immobilization. PMID:1526931

Bunch, T D; Panter, K E; James, L F

1992-05-01

294

Effect of succession after fire on species contribution to evapotranspiration in sagebrush steppe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrubland ecosystems play an important role in the hydrology of the often drought stricken inter-mountain basins of the United Sates. Our objective was to investigate the impact of changing environmental conditions on three major plant functional types, shrubs, grasses and forbs. We measured changes in diurnal water flux from Artemisia tridentata var vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush), Elymus smithii (western wheatgrass) and Lupinus argentus (lupine) with changing environmental drivers for a sagebrush ecosystem fire chronosequence near the Sierra Madre Mountains, Wyoming, USA. The measurements were conducted on four stands ranging in age from 2 to 38 years, during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Leaf scale measurements and shrub sapflux were compared with ecosystem scale measurements. We explained the diurnal and monthly variability of water fluxes from June through October using vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, light and temperature. In the year 2005, peak ecosystem level evapotranspiration of 5-7 mmol m-2 s-1 was higher than 2004 with 2-3 mmol m-2 s-1. The interannual difference in evapotranspiration was explained by higher precipitation causing greater biomass, especially in non shrub species, in 2005. Our results show that environmental conditions have impacts on total evapotranspiration that depend on plant functional type.

Naithani, K.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Bayless, M. K.

2005-12-01

295

N abundance of nodules as an indicator of N metabolism in n(2)-fixing plants.  

PubMed

This paper expands upon previous reports of (15)N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N(2)-fixing plants. N(2)-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in (15)N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N(2)-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in (15)N. Thus, (15)N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N(2)-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of (15)N enrichment in N(2)-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N(2) and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit (15)N enrichment. PMID:16662517

Shearer, G; Feldman, L; Bryan, B A; Skeeters, J L; Kohl, D H; Amarger, N; Mariotti, F; Mariotti, A

1982-08-01

296

Phytochemicals: the good, the bad and the ugly?  

PubMed

Phytochemicals are constitutive metabolites that enable plants to overcome temporary or continuous threats integral to their environment, while also controlling essential functions of growth and reproduction. All of these roles are generally advantageous to the producing organisms but the inherent biological activity of such constituents often causes dramatic adverse consequences in other organisms that may be exposed to them. Nevertheless, such effects may be the essential indicator of desirable properties, such as therapeutic potential, especially when the mechanism of bioactivity can be delineated. Careful observation of cause and effect, followed by a coordinated approach to identify the responsible entities, has proved extremely fruitful in discovering roles for phytochemical constituents. The process is illustrated by selected examples of plants poisonous to animals and include the steroidal alkaloid toxin of Veratrum californicum (Western false hellebore), piperidine alkaloids of Lupinus species (lupines), and polyhydroxy indolizidine, pyrrolizidine and nortropane alkaloids of Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds), Castanospermum australe (Moreton Bay chestnut) and Ipomoea species (morning glories). PMID:17950388

Molyneux, Russell J; Lee, Stephen T; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; James, Lynn F

2007-01-01

297

A study on embryonic death in goats due to Nicotiana glauca ingestion.  

PubMed

Numerous plants are known to be teratogenic in livestock. In addition to causing malformations, several plants can also cause embryonic death. These losses decrease the reproductive efficiency of animals exposed to these plants. The aim of this study was to determine if teratogenic plants such as lupines or tobaccos cause embryonic losses. A goat model using the plant Nicotiana glauca was used in this study, as this model has been used to characterize the mechanism of Lupinus, Conium, and Nicotiana-induced terata. Four groups of goats were dosed from gestational day 1-10, 11-20, 21-30, and 31-40. Goats were evaluated via ultrasound imaging for pregnancy after completion of the dosing regimen and kids were evaluated for malformations at the time of parturition. Overall, there was no evidence from this study that N. glauca (anabasine) at this dose (2 g/kg/day) would cause embryonic losses in goats. However, the dose of N. glauca used in this study was at the lower threshold that would be expected to produce terata. Therefore it is possible that higher doses of anabasine could cause embryonic loss. Further work is also needed to characterize the kinetic profile of anabasine, and other teratogenic alkaloids, in the fetal compartments. PMID:25108148

Welch, K D; Lee, S T; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R

2014-11-01

298

Soil CO2 flux in alley-cropping systems composed of black locust and poplar trees, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of soil carbon dynamics after establishment of alley-cropping systems is crucial for mitigation of greenhouse CO2 gas. This study investigates soil CO2 fluxes in alley-cropping systems composed of strips of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and poplar (Max 1) trees and adjacent to them crop strips (Lupinus). Soil CO2 flux was measured monthly over a period from March to November 2012, using a LI-COR LI-8100A automated device. Concurrently with CO2 flux measurements, soil and air temperature and soil moisture were recorded within 10 cm of each collar. Soil samples were collected nearby each soil collar for microbial C and hot water-extractable C analyses. At each study plot, root biomass was measured to a depth of 15 cm. In all vegetation types, soil CO2 flux increased from May to August, showing a significant positive correlation with air and soil temperature, which can be a reflection of increase in photosynthesis over the warm summer months. CO2 flux was the highest in poplar followed by black locust and lupines. The relationships between CO2 flux, microbial biomass and hot water-extractable carbon were not straightforward. Among the measured parameters, root density was found to be the main factor to explain the higher CO2 flux in tree strips.

Medinski, Tetiana; Freese, Dirk; Boehm, Christian

2013-04-01

299

15N Abundance of Nodules as an Indicator of N Metabolism in N2-Fixing Plants 1  

PubMed Central

This paper expands upon previous reports of 15N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N2-fixing plants. N2-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in 15N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N2-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in 15N. Thus, 15N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N2-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of 15N enrichment in N2-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N2 and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit 15N enrichment. PMID:16662517

Shearer, Georgia; Feldman, Lori; Bryan, Barbara A.; Skeeters, Jerri L.; Kohl, Daniel H.; Amarger, Nöelle; Mariotti, Françoise; Mariotti, André

1982-01-01

300

Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island Song Sparrow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island (SMI) Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia micronyx) are described; nests are compared with those of 16 other races of Song Sparrows. Bush lupins (Lupinus albifrons), coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) and golden bush (Haplopappus venetus) were the shrubs used most commonly as nest sites by Song Sparrows on SMI. As a result of its location, the nest was effectively concealed from gray foxes (Urocyon littoralis), the major predator of this sparrow. Nest and nest site also moderated the combined chilling effects of cool air temperatures and strong northwesterly winds on the eggs and nestlings. Even in the absence of these moderating effects of the nest site, the energetic cost of incubation, estimated at 41-53% of the sparrow's resting metabolic rate, was modest. Twenty-nine percent of the canopy above the nest was open and as much as 73% of the nest cup was in the sun at midday, a time when surface temperatures of foliage, nest and nestlings sometimes exceeded 40 C. Whereas this exposure did not apparently reduce fledging success, it may explain why the incidence of addled eggs was so high in this population of Song Sparrows compared to others. Significant differences existed among races of Song Sparrows in the size, porosity and insulation of the nest. In most cases, these differences were not related to the latitude of the races' nesting areas.

Kern, Michael D.; Sogge, Mark K.; Kern, Robert B.; Van Riper, Charles

1993-01-01

301

Root colonization of different plants by plant-growth-promoting Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 studied with monospecific polyclonal antisera.  

PubMed Central

Monospecific polyclonal antisera raised against Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39, a bacterium which was isolated originally from red clover nodules, were used to study the colonization of roots of leguminous and nonleguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Lupinus albus, Triticúm aestivum, and Zea mays) after inoculation. Eight weeks after inoculation of soil-grown plants, between 0.1 and 1% of the total bacterial population in the rhizospheres of all inoculated plants were identified as R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39. To characterize the associative colonization of the nonleguminous plants by R.leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 in more detail, a time course study was performed with inoculated roots of Z. mays. R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 was found almost exclusively in the rhizosphere soil and on the rhizoplane 4 weeks after inoculation. Colonization of inner root tissues was detected only occasionally at this time. During the process of attachment of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 to the rhizoplane, bacterial lipopolysaccharides were overexpressed, and this may be important for plant-microbe interaction. Fourteen weeks after inoculation, microcolonies of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 were detected in lysed cells of the root cortex as well as in intracellular space of central root cylinder cells. At the beginning of flowering (18 weeks after inoculation), the number of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 organisms decreased in the rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and inner root tissue. PMID:9143133

Schloter, M; Wiehe, W; Assmus, B; Steindl, H; Becke, H; Hoflich, G; Hartmann, A

1997-01-01

302

Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).  

PubMed

In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep). PMID:15664457

Guarrera, Paolo Maria

2005-01-01

303

Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

2002-01-01

304

Growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) was localized in the female as well as male germ cells in a protogynous hermaphroditic teleost fish, ricefield eel Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) superfamily. As an oocyte-derived growth factor, GDF9 plays key roles in regulating follicle development. In the present study, we identified a gdf9 homologue from the ovary of ricefield eel, and analyzed its expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. Ricefield eel Gdf9 showed high homologies with those of other teleosts, especially perciformes fish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that ricefield eel gdf9 was expressed exclusively in the ovary and testis. The mRNA levels of gdf9 in the ovary were increased significantly at the pre-vitellogenic (PV) stage and then decreased significantly along with vitellogenesis. During the natural sex change, expression of ricefield eel gdf9 was peaked at the intersexual stages. The immunoreactivity for Gdf9 was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm of the oocytes in the ovary, particularly the oocytes at early stages, but not in the oogonia. Interestingly, strong immunoreactive signals were also detected in the degenerating oocytes in the intersexual gonad. Furthermore, the Gdf9 immunoreactivity was demonstrated for the first time to be localized in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes of ricefield eel, a teleost fish. Taken together, the results of present study suggested that Gdf9 may play important roles in the folliculogenesis as well as spermatogenesis in ricefield eels. PMID:22732078

He, Zhi; Wu, Yangsheng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Taixin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

2012-09-01

305

Ontogeny of immunoreactive Lh and Fsh cells in relation to early ovarian differentiation and development in protogynous hermaphroditic ricefield eel Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

Luteinizing hormone (Lh) and follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) control many aspects of gonadal development and function in teleosts. In the present paper, the specific antisera against ricefield eel Lhb (Lh beta subunit), Fshb (Fsh beta subunit), and Cga (the common pituitary glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit) were generated, and the cellular localization, initial appearance, and subsequent development of gonadotrophs in relation to early ovarian differentiation and development in the ricefield eel, a protogynous sex-changing teleost, were examined with immunochemistry. Lhb- and Fshb-immunoreactive signals were identified in distinct pituitary cells that occupied primarily the peripheral regions of the adenohypophysis. During ontogeny, Lhb-immunoreactive signals were first detected in the pituitary around 40 days after hatching (dah) when the oogonia transitioned into early primary growth oocytes, and the intensity of immunoreactivity increased concomitantly with the growth of primary oocytes from 60 to 140 dah. During overwintering from 170 to 230 dah, Lhb-immunoreactive signals were significantly decreased when a large proportion of perinucleolus oocytes contained intense Balbiani bodies. In contrast, Fshb-immunoreactive signals were not detectable in the pituitary until around 230 dah (in the spring after hatching) and slightly increased from 285 dah when the late perinucleolus oocytes began to enter the secondary growth phase. Both Lhb- and Fshb-immunoreactive cells were increased when the early cortical alveoli oocytes emerged at 300 dah. The mRNA expression of lhb and fshb coincided with their immunoreactive signals. Taken together, these results suggest that only Lh is involved in primary oocyte growth in ricefield eels, but both Fsh and Lh are important for the secondary ooctye growth. PMID:22174021

Wu, Yangsheng; He, Zhi; Zhang, Lihong; Jiang, He; Zhang, Weimin

2012-03-01

306

Epigenetic modifications during sex change repress gonadotropin stimulation of cyp19a1a in a teleost ricefield eel (Monopterus albus).  

PubMed

In vertebrates, cytochrome P450 aromatase, encoded by cyp19a1, converts androgens to estrogens and plays important roles in gonadal differentiation and development. The present study examines whether epigenetic mechanisms are involved in cyp19a1a expression and subsequent gonadal development in the hermaphroditic ricefield eel. The expression of the ricefield eel cyp19a1a was stimulated by gonadotropin via the cAMP pathway in the ovary but not the ovotestis or testis. The CpG within the cAMP response element (CRE) of the cyp19a1a promoter was hypermethylated in the ovotestis and testis compared with the ovary. The methylation levels of CpG sites around CRE in the distal region (region II) and around steroidogenic factor 1/adrenal 4 binding protein sites and TATA box in the proximal region (region I) were inversely correlated with cyp19a1a expression during the natural sex change from female to male. In vitro DNA methylation decreased the basal and forskolin-induced activities of cyp19a1a promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that histone 3 (Lys9) in both regions I and II of the cyp19a1a promoter were deacetylated and trimethylated in the testis, and in contrast to the ovary, phosphorylated CRE-binding protein failed to bind to these regions. Lastly, the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed the natural sex change of ricefield eels. These results suggested that epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation and histone deacetylation and methylation may abrogate the stimulation of cyp19a1a by gonadotropins in a male-specific fashion. This may be a mechanism widely used to drive natural sex change in teleosts as well as gonadal differentiation in other vertebrates. PMID:23744638

Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Zhixin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

2013-08-01

307

Effect of the phytoestrogen, genistein-8-C-glucoside, on Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Genistein-8-C-glucoside (G8CG) belongs to isoflavones, which are a subclass of flavonoids, a large group of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in plants. A number of studies on flavonoids show their cardioprotective and antiosteoporosis properties in in vitro and in vivo models. As a phytoestrogen, genistein has recently generated interest as a potential anticancer and antiatherogenic agent. Several flavonoids are known as antioxidants and scavengers of free oxygen radicals. In the current investigation we used glycosylated genistein (genistein-8-C-glucoside) from flowers of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.). Many authors have found that the action of genistein is not so simple, although many reports conducted in vitro have demonstrated that it is cytotoxic and genotoxic. Therefore, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of this compound in Chinese hamster ovary cells (line CHO) were studied. A colorimetric MTT assay to assess cytotoxicity and a Comet assay for the detection of DNA damage were used. Apoptosis was determined by the Hoechst 33258/propidium iodide staining technique. We have also demonstrated antioxidant properties of G8CG. The level of reactive oxygen species generated by G8CG alone and/or H2O2 was evaluated with fluorescence probes: dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) by flow cytometry. The cells were exposed to various concentrations of genistein-8-C-glucoside (1-290 microM) and hydrogen peroxide (10-130 microM) and the effect of G8CG alone or in combination with H2O2 was determined. The results reveal that G8CG at concentrations higher than 10 microM significantly reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis and DNA damage. However at lower concentrations (5 and 7.5 microM), G8CG showed antioxidant properties, but had no cytotoxic or genotoxic activity. PMID:17601753

Rucinska, Agata; Kirko, Sergej; Gabryelak, Teresa

2007-11-01

308

Sensitivity of yield and grain nitrogen concentration of wheat, lupin and pea to source reduction during grain filling. A comparative survey under high yielding conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the response of crops, especially temperate cereals, to different source–sink ratios during grain filling. However, there is much less information about temperate legumes and even less work comparing the two. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),

Patricio A. Sandaña; Claudia I. Harcha; Daniel F. Calderini

2009-01-01

309

PATTERNS OF GENETIC VARIATION IN LUPINUS PERENNIS REVEALED BY MICROSATELLITE LOCI ISOLATED WITH A NOVEL CHROMOSOME-WALKING APPROACH. (R826596)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

310

The effects of increased CO[sub 2] on the competitive ability of Lupinus arboreus, a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant responses to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] have been shown to be both species-specific and dependent on other environmental factors, potentially changing competitive interactions and altering community structure. The competitive response of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub to an introduced annual (Bromus diandrus) and a native perennial grass (Bromus carinatus) was measured under ambient and high CO[sub 2] and two nitrogen

Wallace

1993-01-01

311

BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.  

E-print Network

-habitat selection by breeding and radiotagged White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) and Great Egrets (Ardea alba generalist Great Egret. Received July , accepted July . Key words: Ardea alba, Eudocimus albus, Florida

Gawlik, Dale E.

312

Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules: presence of nitric oxide-leghemoglobin complexes.  

PubMed

Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic differences, suggesting that there are both qualitative and quantitative changes in the metal ion and radical species present. A major component of the spectra obtained from young nodules is assigned to a complex (Lb-NO) of nitric oxide (NO.) with the heme protein leghemoglobin (Lb). This Lb-NO species, which has not been previously detected in intact root nodules of plants grown in the absence of nitrate, is thought to be formed by reaction of nitric oxide with iron(II) leghemoglobin. The nitric oxide may be generated from arginine via a nitric oxide synthase-like activity present in the nodules of the soybean plants, in a manner analogous to that recently described for Lupinus albus. This Lb-NO complex is present at lower concentrations in older nodules, and is almost completely absent from senescent nodules. Exposure of young and mature nodules to oxidant stress, in the form of hydrogen peroxide, results in changes in the EPR spectra, with the loss of the signals from the Lb-NO complex and appearance of absorptions similar to those from untreated senescent nodules. These results suggest that there are characteristic changes in both the metal ion complexes and radicals present in intact root nodules of different ages, and support the theory that nitric oxide and other radicals play a significant role in determining the nitrogen fixing activity of root nodules; the modulatory activity of NO. may involve regulation of gene activity. PMID:9626580

Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P; Puppo, A; Davies, M J

1998-05-01

313

Nutrition and colostrum production in sheep. 2. Metabolic and hormonal responses to different energy sources in the final stages of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Lupins and maize, with similar concentrations of metabolisable energy, should produce similar responses in colostrum production at parturition when fed during the last week of pregnancy, but, in the present study, we tested the proposal that the physical form of whole lupins would restrict intake and, therefore, the response compared with cracked lupins or maize. Fifty-five twin-bearing ewes were divided into four groups: in the last 15 days of pregnancy, 14 were fed whole lupins, 13 were fed cracked lupins, 14 were fed cracked maize and 14 received no supplement. The cracked supplements were fed in increasing amounts for 6 days to avoid acidosis. The whole lupins were fed only from Day -8. All supplementary grains increased the intake of metabolisable energy by >35%, but only ewes eating maize accumulated significantly more colostrum at parturition: control, 207 g; cracked maize, 452 g; cracked lupins, 206 g; whole lupins, 231 g (P < 0.05). Plasma urea concentrations were extremely high (approximately 10 mmol L(-1)) for both groups eating lupins and approximately double those of control ewes or those receiving maize ( P < 0.05). We conclude that gut distention is not a cause of a poor response to lupins, but the ammonia associated with near-toxic concentrations of plasma urea may be affecting the production of colostrum. PMID:15740687

Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Martin, G B; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R

2004-01-01

314

Androgen rather than estrogen up-regulates brain-type cytochrome P450 aromatase (cyp19a1b) gene via tissue-specific promoters in the hermaphrodite teleost ricefield eel Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

CYP19A1 in the brain and pituitary of vertebrates is important for reproductive and non-reproductive processes. In teleosts, it is broadly accepted that estradiol (E(2)) up-regulates cyp19a1b gene via a positive autoregulatory loop. Our present study, however, showed that E(2) did not up-regulate ricefield eel cyp19a1b in the hypothalamus and pituitary, whereas dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or testosterone (T) stimulated cyp19a1b expression only in the pituitary. Two tissue-specific promoters, namely promoter I and II directing the expression in the brain and pituitary respectively, were identified. Promoter I contained a non-consensus estrogen response element (ERE), and consequently did not respond to E(2). Promoter II contained an androgen response element (ARE) and consequently responded to DHT. Taken together, these results demonstrated a novel steroidal regulation of cyp19a1b gene expression and an alternative usage of tissue-specific cyp19a1b promoters in the brain and pituitary of a teleost species, the ricefield eel. PMID:22178793

Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Shen; Zhou, Wenliang; Ye, Xing; Ge, Wei; Cheng, Christopher H K; Lin, Haoran; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Lihong

2012-03-01

315

Suppression of the auxin response pathway enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi while phosphite-mediated resistance stimulates the auxin signalling pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Phytophthora cinnamomi is a devastating pathogen worldwide and phosphite (Phi), an analogue of phosphate (Pi) is highly effective in the control of this pathogen. Phi also interferes with Pi starvation responses (PSR), of which auxin signalling is an integral component. In the current study, the involvement of Pi and the auxin signalling pathways in host and Phi-mediated resistance to P. cinnamomi was investigated by screening the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 and several mutants defective in PSR and the auxin response pathway for their susceptibility to this pathogen. The response to Phi treatment was also studied by monitoring its effect on Pi- and the auxin response pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that phr1-1 (phosphate starvation response 1), a mutant defective in response to Pi starvation was highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi compared to the parental background Col-0. Furthermore, the analysis of the Arabidopsis tir1-1 (transport inhibitor response 1) mutant, deficient in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skp1???Cullin???F-Box) ubiquitination pathway was also highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi and the susceptibility of the mutants rpn10 and pbe1 further supported a role for the 26S proteasome in resistance to P. cinnamomi. The role of auxin was also supported by a significant (P?lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) to P. cinnamomi following treatment with the inhibitor of auxin transport, TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Given the apparent involvement of auxin and PSR signalling in the resistance to P. cinnamomi, the possible involvement of these pathways in Phi mediated resistance was also investigated. Phi (especially at high concentrations) attenuates the response of some Pi starvation inducible genes such as AT4, AtACP5 and AtPT2 in Pi starved plants. However, Phi enhanced the transcript levels of PHR1 and the auxin responsive genes (AUX1, AXR1and AXR2), suppressed the primary root elongation, and increased root hair formation in plants with sufficient Pi. Conclusions The auxin response pathway, particularly auxin sensitivity and transport, plays an important role in resistance to P. cinnamomi in Arabidopsis, and phosphite-mediated resistance may in some part be through its effect on the stimulation of the PSR and auxin response pathways. PMID:24649892

2014-01-01

316

Ecology, 91(1), 2010, pp. 8592 2010 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), on seedling recruitment and subsequent plant establishment of two; grassland communities; Lithospermum ruderale; Lupinus sericeus; Peromyscus maniculatus; seed predation

317

Soil zymography - A novel technique for mapping enzyme activity in the rhizosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect plant roots on microbial activity in soil at the millimeter scale is poorly understood. One reason for this is that spatially explicit methods for the study of microbial activity in soil are limited. Here we present a quantitative in situ technique for mapping the distribution of exoenzymes in soil along with some results about the effects of roots on exoenzyme activity in soil. In the first study we showed that both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were up to 5.4-times larger in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus than in the bulk soil. While acid phosphatase activity (produced by roots and microorganisms) was closely associated with roots, alkaline phosphatase activity (produced only by microorganisms) was more widely distributed, leading to a 2.5-times larger area of activity of alkaline than of acid phosphatase. These results indicate a spatial differentiation of different ecophysiological groups of organic phosphorus mineralizing organisms in the rhizosphere which might alleviate a potential competition for phosphorus between them. In a second study cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activities were analyzed in the presence of living Lupinus polyphyllus roots and dead/dying roots (in the same soils 10, 20 and 30 days after cutting the L. polyphyllus shoots). The activity of all three enzymes was 9.0 to 13.9-times higher at the living roots compared to the bulk soil. Microhotspots of cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activity in the soil were found up to 60 mm away from the living roots. 10 days after shoot cutting, the areas of high activities of cellulase and phosphatase activity were extend up to 55 mm away from the next root, while the extension of the area of chitinase activity did not change significantly. At the root, cellulase and chitinase activity increased first at the root tips after shoot cutting and showed maximal activity 20 days after shoot cutting. The number and activity of microhotspots of chitinase activity was maximal 10 days after shoot cutting and decreased thereafter. In conclusion, the study showed that fresh root detritus stimulates enzyme activities much stronger than living roots, probably because of the high pulse input of C and N from dying roots compared to slow continuous release of rhizodeposits. Taken together, soil zymography is a very promising novel technique to gain insights the effects of roots on the spatial and temporal dynamic of exoenzyme activity in soil. References Spohn, M., Carminati, A., Kuzyakov, Y. (2013). Zymography - A novel in situ method for mapping distribution of enzyme activity in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 58, 275-280. Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y. (2013): Distribution of microbial- and root- derived phosphatase activities in the rhizosphere depending on P availability and C allocation - Coupling soil zymography with 14C imaging. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 67, 106-113. Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y. (accepted): Spatial and temporal dynamics of hotspots of enzyme activity as affected by living and dead roots - A soil zymography analysis. Plant and Soil

Spohn, Marie

2014-05-01

318

COREGONID FISHES OF THE GREAT LAKES By WALTER KOELZ, Ph. D.  

E-print Network

_ Coregonus clupeaformis _ Lake Michigan _ Lake Huron _ Lake Superior _ Lake Nipigon _ Lake Erie _ Lake Superior _ Lake Nipigon _ artedi and artedi albus of Lake Ontario _ Leucichthys nipigon _ Genus Coregonus

319

78 FR 59051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...turtle (Chelonia mydas), and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for public display and education for the purpose...sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen...

2013-09-25

320

Common and Scientific Names Table D1 Common and scientific names as referred to in document.  

E-print Network

Abies lasiocarpa Western hemlock T. heterophylla Western larch Larix occidentalis Western redcedar Thuja Symphoricarpos albus Douglas spirea Spirea douglasii Fools huckleberry Menziesia ferruginea Glandular Labrador

321

Winter cover crops influence on cotton yield and selected soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter cover crop studies were conducted for 17 years with cotton grown on a Dubbs?Dundee soil complex at the University of Arkansas Delta Branch Experiment Station. This experiment was established in 1972 to investigate the changes induced by winter cover crops of rye, vetch, and lupine. The rye and lupine were later changed to rye + vetch and rye +

T. C. Keisling; H. D. Scott; B. A. Waddle; W. Williams; R. E. Frans

1994-01-01

322

Ecology, 91(2), 2010, pp. 431440 2010 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

species overall. In particular, overlap with the flowering period of Lupinus polyphyllus var. prunophilus of the assemblage of co-flowering plants. In years of early snowmelt, Lathyrus lanszwertii var. leucanthus (Fabaceae; Lupinus; Mertensia; phenology; Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, Colorado, USA; snow; snowmelt

Forrest, Jessica

323

Geoarchaeological investigations at the McNeill-Gonzales site (41VT141), Victoria County, Texas  

E-print Network

), Lupinus (bluebonnet), Urticia (nettle), Solanum (nightshade), Castilleja (paintbrush), Argemone (prickly poppy), and numerous unidentified graminoids (grasses). A surface soil sample analyzed for a study of the potential to recover pollen from...), Lupinus (bluebonnet), Urticia (nettle), Solanum (nightshade), Castilleja (paintbrush), Argemone (prickly poppy), and numerous unidentified graminoids (grasses). A surface soil sample analyzed for a study of the potential to recover pollen from...

Aiuvalasit, Michael John

2009-06-02

324

Genistin and quinolizidine alkaloid induction in L. angustifolius aerial parts in response to mechanical damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupinus species are commonly used as annual forage and for grain production. They are considered alternative crops to soybean due to their adaptation to cool environments and dry soils. The present study is an analysis of the chemical changes coming from biomass removal in a sweet genotype of Lupinus angustifolius. Mechanical damage induced significant increases in antioxidant activity (12.4%), as

Hugo D. Chludil; Silvia R. Leicach; Graciela B. Corbino; Lucía G. Barriga; María del P. Vilariño

2012-01-01

325

Ultrasensitive aptamer based detection of ?-conglutin food allergen.  

PubMed

Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, there has been a response to the increasing number of severe cases of lupine allergies reported during the last decade, and as a result lupine was recently added to the list of substances requiring mandatory advisory labelling on foodstuffs sold in the European Union. In this paper we report the robust and ultrasensitive detection of the anaphylactic ?-conglutin allergen using Apta-PCR achieving a detection limit of 85 pM (25 ng mL(-1)). No cross-reactivity with other conglutins or plant species potentially used in lupine containing foodstuffs was observed. This robust method provides an effective analytical tool for the detection and quantification of the toxic ?-conglutin subunit present in lupine flour. PMID:25038695

Svobodova, Marketa; Mairal, Teresa; Nadal, Pedro; Bermudo, M Carmen; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

2014-12-15

326

A New Functional Role for Cerebellar Long Term Depression  

E-print Network

A New Functional Role for Cerebellar Long Term Depression PROGRESS IN BRAIN RESEARCH 114: 529 of Antwerp - UIA, B2610 Antwerp, Belgium Abstract Long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synaptic-Albus-Ito theories (Schreurs and Alkon, 1993). I will first review and criticize the Marr-Albus-Ito theories

De Schutter, Erik

327

SARCOCYSTIS SP. IN WADING BIRDS (CICONIIFORMES) FROM FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocysts were found in striated muscle of 21 adult wading birds among 145 examined grossly and 70 examined histologically (calculated prevalence = 24%), and in none of 332 immature wading birds examined from Florida (USA). Six of 12 species of ciconiforms were infected (Ardea herodias, Casmerodlus albus, Egretta caerulea, Nyctanassa violacea, Butonides stniatus, Eudo- cimus albus). Cysts were filamentous, usually

Marilyn G. Spalding; Carter T. Atkinson; Renee E. Carleton

1994-01-01

328

Sex Determination for the Great Egret and White Ibis GARTH HERRING, DALE E. GAWLIK AND JAMES M. BEERENS  

E-print Network

morphometric measurements and discriminant function analysis to determine the sex of Great Egrets (Ardea alba. Key words.--Ardea alba, discriminant function analysis, Eudocimus albus, Everglades, Florida, Great, the Great Egret (Ardea alba) and White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), have been the focus of considerable research

Gawlik, Dale E.

329

Effects of legume kernel fibres and citrus fibre on putative risk factors for colorectal cancer: a randomised, double-blind, crossover human intervention trial  

PubMed Central

Background In some studies, high intake of dietary fibre has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to compare physiological effects of three legume kernel fibres and citrus fibre on blood lipids (primary outcome: LDL cholesterol) and colonic health. Methods Ninety-two subjects were recruited for the double-blind, controlled crossover trial. Seventy-eight participants were randomly divided into three groups. Following run-in, half the volunteers from each group consumed 25 g/d of a legume fibre, comprising blue lupin fibre, white lupin fibre, and soya fibre for two weeks. The other half received the same amount of citrus fibre (active comparator). The intervention was crossed within each group after two weeks wash-out. At the end of run-in and intervention, a quantitative faeces collection took place and fasting blood samples were drawn. Repeated measures ANOVA with the general linear model were applied to evaluate changes following interventions. Results Seventy-six subjects completed the study. Dietary fibre intake during all interventions was approximately twice the fibre intake at run-in. The lupin fibre supplementations increased daily faecal dry matter and faecal weight compared to run-in, representing an increase of 1.76 g faeces/g additional dietary fibre contributed by blue lupin and of 1.64 g faeces/g by white lupin, respectively. Both lupin interventions led to a significantly enhanced formation of short-chain fatty acids, and blue lupin fibre to a decrease in faecal pH compared to run-in (0.27 units, P lupin increased primary bile acids-excretion (P?=?0.02). All legume fibres reduced faecal concentrations of total and secondary bile acids (blue lupin: 16%; white lupin: 24%; soya: 16%). Blood lipids were not influenced by any intervention. No serious adverse effects were observed. Conclusions The tested fibre preparations do not affect lipid metabolism through bile acid-binding in normocholesterolaemic subjects. However, particularly blue lupin kernel fibre improve colonic function and have beneficial effects on putative risk factors for colorectal cancer such as faecal mass, transit time, SCFA, faecal pH, and secondary bile acid concentration. Therefore, enhancing dietary fibre intake through blue lupin up to about 50 g/d can be recommended. Trial registration NCT01036308 PMID:24060277

2013-01-01

330

77 FR 61017 - Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and Application for an Incidental Take Permit, Yamhill County, OR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and caterpillar season for the Fender's blue butterfly, and the reproductive period for the Kincaid's lupine. Tractor mower decks will be set at a minimum of 6 inches above the ground to reduce potential effects on butterfly larvae. 3. Managing...

2012-10-05

331

the ratings of flavour intensity and energy content increased or diminished after tasting  

E-print Network

consumption of the biscuits for a 4:00 pm snack was pos- itively associated with palatability and esti- mated intake and nutritional quality of sweet white lupin protein precipitated by alginates-Effect of peeling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bromegrass, hay; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, hay; lespedeza, hay; lupin; oat, grain; orchardgrass, hay; peanut, hay; timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or commodities described as...

2013-07-01

333

Physiologisch - Chemische Grundlagen der Chinolizidin-Alkaloid - Biosynthese (Physiological - Chemical Bases of Quinolizidine Alkaloid - Biosynthesis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Callus cultures were established from 14 alkaloid plants. Cultivation as a suspension culture was possible for 10 of these. Growth conditions were optimized for Lupinus polyphyllus, Sarothamnus scoparius, Baptisia australis, Conium maculatum and Symphytum...

M. Wink

1980-01-01

334

RESEARCH Open Access Composition and hydrothermal pretreatment and  

E-print Network

examined composition and sugar release from the most abundant components of a plot of MPS: a C3 grass (Poa pratensis), a C4 grass (Schizachyrium scoparium), and a legume (Lupinus perennis). Results from this study

California at Riverside, University of

335

Oecologia (2008) 158:141150 DOI 10.1007/s00442-008-1127-6  

E-print Network

to elevated CO2 (eCO2). We collected seeds from Lupinus perennis, Poa pratensis, and Schizachyrium scoparium treatments. Similar trends were observed for P. pratensis and S. scoparium. We detected some evidence

Minnesota, University of

336

Nutrient Limitation of Native and Invasive N2-Fixing Plants in Northwest Prairies  

PubMed Central

Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope ?15N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar ?15N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar ?15N averaged ?0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar ?15N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications. PMID:24386399

Thorpe, Andrea S.; Perakis, Steven; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N.

2013-01-01

337

Vegetational, edaphic and topographic relationships of a 25-year exclosure on the Edwards Plateau, Texas  

E-print Network

sites, Plantago spp. , Erodium spp. , bighead evax (Euaz prolifera), and sweet gaillardia (Gail. lardia suavis) are common. Rosering gaillardia (Gai22az'dia pulchella) and Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus temensis) are examples of forbs that are relatively... sites, Plantago spp. , Erodium spp. , bighead evax (Euaz prolifera), and sweet gaillardia (Gail. lardia suavis) are common. Rosering gaillardia (Gai22az'dia pulchella) and Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus temensis) are examples of forbs that are relatively...

Taylor, Terry Warren

2012-06-07

338

Nutrient limitation of native and invasive N2-fixing plants in northwest prairies.  

PubMed

Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope ?(15)N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar ?(15)N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar ?(15)N averaged -0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar ?(15)N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications. PMID:24386399

Thorpe, Andrea S; Perakis, Steven; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N

2013-01-01

339

Spiders Associated with Lemon Horsemint (Monarda citriodora Cervants) in East Central Texas.  

E-print Network

and ant predators on the cotton fleahopper [Hemiptera: Miridae]. Entomophaga 35: 393-401. Dean, D.A.,andJ. E. Eger,Jr.1986. Spiders associated with Lupinus texensis (Leguminosae) and Castilleja indivisa (Scrophulariaceae) in south central Texas... and ant predators on the cotton fleahopper [Hemiptera: Miridae]. Entomophaga 35: 393-401. Dean, D.A.,andJ. E. Eger,Jr.1986. Spiders associated with Lupinus texensis (Leguminosae) and Castilleja indivisa (Scrophulariaceae) in south central Texas...

Nyfferler, M.; Dean, D.A.; Sterling, W.L.

1992-01-01

340

Nutrient limitation of native and invasive N2-fixing plants in northwest prairies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope ?15N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar ?15N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar ?15N averaged ?0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar ?15N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications.

Thorpe, Andrea S.; Perakis, Steven; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N.

2013-01-01

341

Lake and Reservoir Management 23:469-499, 2007 Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2007  

E-print Network

: Aechmophorus occidentalis, Ardea herodias, Aythya affinis, Casmerodius albus, Christmas Bird Counts, Circus cyaneus, DDT, Egretta alba, Egretta thula, Fulica americana, hydrogen sulfide, Hydroprogne caspia, long, Podiceps nigricollis, Recurvirostra americana, saline lakes, salinity a Current address: National Center

Hurlbert, Allen

342

Research Article Differential Physiological Responses to Prey  

E-print Network

with contrasting foraging strategies (great egret [Ardea alba], an exploiter, and white ibis [Eudocimus albus to manage and restore wetland ecosystems Ã? 2012 The Wildlife Society. KEY WORDS Ardea alba, corticosterone

Gawlik, Dale E.

343

78 FR 61505 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Taylor's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) and marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus...dusky Canada geese (Branta canadensis occidentalis), and the commenter stated that...such as Scot's broom, snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), and Douglas fir; the...

2013-10-03

344

77 FR 13349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and take (capture, hold, tag, and release) black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Permit Application Number: TE-059105 Applicant: Pam Riddle, Bureau of Land Management, Moab Field...

2012-03-06

345

Carrasco et al. 2013 -Supplementary Appendix, p. 1 of 18 Supplementary Appendix to the article: Carrasco, L., Berg, K. S., Litz, J., Cook, A. and J. Karubian. 2013. Avifauna of the Mache-  

E-print Network

(R) Ardea cocoi V (R) Casmerodius albus V (LC) Egretta thula V (C) Egretta caerulea V (R) Bubulcus ibis V (C) Butorides striata 2f V (LC) CATHARTIDAE (3 genera, 3 spp.) Sarcoramphus papa V (R) Coragyps

Karubian, Jordan

346

SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST2005 4(3):435446 Abundance and Community Composition of Waterbirds  

E-print Network

). Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus) were the most abundant wading bird species during the wet season (64 ± 22% of individuals); White Ibis (Eudocimus albus Linnaeus) were most common during the dry

Dugger, Bruce

347

Competition between ruminal cellulolytic bacteria for adhesion to cellulose.  

PubMed

Competition for adhesion to cellulose among the three main ruminal cellulolytic bacterial species was studied using differential radiolabeling (14C/3H) of cells. When added simultaneously to cellulose, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD1 and Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 showed some competition; however, both species were surpassed competitively by Ruminococcus albus 20. When R. flavefaciens FD1 and F. succinogenes S85 were already adherent, R. albus 20 adhesion occurred without inhibition but involved R. flavefaciens FD1 detachment. PMID:9175559

Mosoni, P; Fonty, G; Gouet, P

1997-07-01

348

Promotion ofSeedGermination byNitrate, Nitrite, Hydroxylamine, andAmmoniumSalts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actionanduptakeofazides, nitrates, nitrites, hydroxyla- mines,andammoniumsalts weremeasured ongermination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, Phleumpratense, Barbarea vulgaris, B.verna, andSetaria glauca seeds. Nitrate andnitrite reductase activities weremeasured invivoforeachofthese kindsofseeds. Activities weremeasured invitroforcatalase, peroxidase, glycolate oxidase, andpyridine nucleotide quinone reductase onextracts ofA.albus andL.sativa seeds before and aftergermination. Theenzymicactivities measuredandthe responsiveness ofthehaemproteins toinhibition bytheseveral compoundsindicate thatnitrites, azides, andhydroxylamines promoteseedgermination byinhibition ofH202decomposition bycatalase. Ammnonium salts showedpronounced

S. B. HENDRICKS; R. B. TAYLORSON

349

Genetic engineering of grain and pasture legumes for improved nutritive value  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes work aimed at the improvement of the nutritive value of grain and forage legumes using gene transfer techniques. Two traits which are amenable to manipulation by genetic engineering have been identified. These are plant protein quality and lignin content. In order to increase the quality of protein provided by the legume grains peas and lupins, we are

L. M. Tabe; C. M. Higgins; W. C. McNabb; T. J. V. Higgins

1993-01-01

350

tude des phnomnes d'interaction digestive en Rusitec  

E-print Network

premières choisies pour leur richesse en glu- cides (orge-0 ou maïs-M), ou en protéines (lupin-L ou gluten les mélanges OG et MG, 30 % de gluten meal et 60 % d'orge ou de maïs. Tous les aliments renferment 10

Boyer, Edmond

351

Insecticide bioassays for western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidental is) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassays were tested for their suitability to determine the resistance of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) to insecticides. Adult female greenhouse and lupin strains of western flower thrips were exposed to bean leaf discs treated with insecticide solutions for 24 h at 25°C. The susceptibility of greenhouse strain western flower thrips was further assessed following

N. A. Martin; P. J. Workman; R. C. Butler

2005-01-01

352

The identification of bean mosaic, pea yellow mosaic and pea necrosis strains of bean yellow mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve virus isolates from pea, broad bean, red clover and yellow lupin have been compared with the B25 strain of bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV-B25), the E198 strain of pea mosaic virus (PMV-E198) and the pea necrosis virus (E178), which were described earlier (Bos, 1970).

L. Bos; Cz. Kowalska; D. Z. Maat

1974-01-01

353

36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING AT TWO DIESEL ENGINES, STAIRS LEAD UP TO CREW'S BERTHING. THIS IMAGE IS CLOSER TO THE STERN AND MORE ANGLED TOWARDS THE PORT THAN IMAGE 34. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

354

Replacement of fish meal in diets for Australian silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three digestibility experiments were conducted using juvenile silver perch. The first factorial experiment evaluated four ingredients; field peas (Pisum sativum), faba beans (Vicia faba), chick peas (Cicer arietinum) and vetch (Vicia sativa) with and without hulls. The second and third experiments determined digestibility of field pea, faba bean and lupin protein concentrates. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) were determined using indirect

Mark A Booth; Geoff L Allan; Jane Frances; Scott Parkinson

2001-01-01

355

Improving the Nutritional Value of Cool Season Food Legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool season food legumes such as pea, lentil, chickpea, faba bean, grasspea and lupin have been consumed in animal and human diets since domestication and have been cultivated for over 9000 years. Due to their nutritional value they continue to make up a substantial portion of diets in developing countries worldwide. Seeds are composed of protein, starch, fiber, lipids, vitamins

K. E. McPhee; F. J. Muehlbauer

2002-01-01

356

Administration of fatty acids and gonadotrophin secretion in the mature ram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of lupin grain to a maintenance diet increases circulating concentrations of volatile fatty acids and gonadotrophin secretion in mature rams. The experiments reported in this paper tested whether these responses were linked causally. The first experiment used 24 rams, of which 16 had two intra-ruminal cannulae inserted each, one for infusion of buffer and the other for infusion

Rachid Boukhliq; Graeme B. Martin

1997-01-01

357

Amlioration des plantes (synthse) Les cultures in vitro chez les lgumineuses  

E-print Network

dans l'alimentation humaine. Parmi les principales, les haricots couvrent 25,4 Mha et le pois chiche 10,2 Mha. Puis viennent le pois, la fève, le lupin ainsi que les Vigna. Dans ces régions, les progrès des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Is it possible to counterbalance deficiencies or imbalances in cobalt, copper and\\/or molybdenum in forage based diets by including more and other plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether species other than perennial grasses may contribute to a more balanced trace element supply for livestock, three studies have been conducted in coastal areas of Norway. From two series of field trial samples of green fodder crops were collected. Fodder vetch, broad beans and lupin may improve the supply of Co but do not solve severe deficiencies.

A. Johansen; A. K. Bakken; O. M. Synnes

2009-01-01

359

Bulletin of Mathematical Biology (2000) 01, 135 How predation can slow, stop or reverse a prey  

E-print Network

­prey, Primary succession, Mount St. Helens Observations on Mount St. Helens indicate that the spread of recolonising lupin plants has been slowed due to the presence of insect herbivores and it is possible). In this paper we investigate mechanisms by which herbivory can contain the spatial spread of recolonizing plants

360

Fred H. Rodriguez ('75) Kenneth N. Adatto ('68)  

E-print Network

Elfervig Darryl J. Elias (70) Clyde E. Elliott ('67) Erwin H. Engert, Jr. ('63) Doctors Leo (`43)* and Marc. Hilton, MD ('98) Patrick A. Hymel, Jr. (98) Frank P. Incaprera ('50) Richard C. Jarrell ('80) Myron H. MD ('79) and Cynthia Lifsey Frank N. Low, PhD* Herbert M. Loyd (`59) The Lupin Family Foundation

361

The impact of plant residues on the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of plant residues and plant root exudates, from a range of traditional and nontraditional crop species, to protect soybean (Glycine max (L.)) plants against Heterodera glycines (Ichinohe) was examined in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. Plant residues from nonhosts Lespedeza capitata Michx, Lespedeza intermedia (S. Wats.) Britt, Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem, Lolium multiflorum (Lam.), Lolium perenne (L.), Lupinus

E. Riga; E. Topp; J. Potter; T. Welacky; T. Anderson; A. Tenuta

2001-01-01

362

Responses of Desert Annual Plants to Ozone and Water Stress in an in situ Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desert winter annual plants: Camissonia claviformis, C. hirtella, Caulanthus cooperi, Chaneactis carphoclinia, C. stevioides, Cryptantha angustifolia, C. pterocarya, Erodium cicutarium, Festuca octoflora, Lupinus concinnus, Oenothera californica, Plantago insularis, Platystemon californica, Salvia columbariae, Thelypodium lasiophyllum, and Thysanocarpus curvipes growing on irrigated and non-irrigated plots were exposed in situ to elevated levels of ozone dispensed from an open air exposure system. Plants

A. Bytnerowicz; D. M. Olszyk; C. A. Fox; P. J. Dawson; G. Kats; C. L. Morrison; J. Wolf

1988-01-01

363

Linking community and ecosystem development on Mount St. Helens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the two decades following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State, the N2-fixing colonizer Lupinus lepidus is associated with striking heterogeneity in plant community and soil development. We report on differences in nutrient availability and plant tissue chemistry between older, dense patches (core) of L. lepidus and more recently established low density patches (edge). In addition,

Richard A. Gill; Jennifer A. Boie; John G. Bishop; Lindsay Larsen; Jennifer L. Apple; R. David Evans

2006-01-01

364

ECOSYSTEM E COLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the two decades following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State, the N2-fixing colonizer Lupinus lepidus is associated with striking heterogeneity in plant community and soil development. We report on differences in nutrient availability and plant tissue chemistry between older, dense patches (core) of L. lepidus and more recently established low density patches (edge). In addition,

Richard A. Gill; Jennifer A. Boie; John G. Bishop; Lindsay Larsen; Jennifer L. Apple; R. David Evans

365

Establishment of perennial species useful for soil conservation and as forages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field establishment of 11 potentially useful soil conservation\\/revegetation species comprising three grasses (Dactylis glomerata, Festuca arundinacea, Thinopyrum ponticum), seven legumes (Astragalus cicer, Dorycnium hirsutum, Dorycnium pentaphyllum, Dorycnium rectum, Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus, Medicago sativa), and one herb (Sanguisorba minor) was examined at a low?moderately fertile, seasonally dry site in the lower North Island from spring 1989 to winter 1991. Final

G. B. Douglas; A. G. Foote

1994-01-01

366

Feeding range of Sitona regensteinensis Hbst. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential agent for biological control of Cytisus scoparius (L.) link (Broom) in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weevil Sitona regensteinensis is being considered for biological control of Cytisus scoparius in New Zealand. Adult feeding tests demonstrated that while foliage of C scoparius was preferred, weevils fed also on Chamaecytisus palmensis and Lupinus arboreus. Tests with the root?feeding larval stage have yet to be completed.

P. Syrett

1992-01-01

367

Cellular localization of quinolizidine alkaloids by laser desorption mass spectrometry (LAMMA 1000).  

PubMed

Stem sections of Lupinus polyphyllus and Cytisus scoparius have been analyzed for the distribution of quinolizidine alkaloids by laser desorption mass spectrometry, employing a LAMMA 1000 instrument. Sparteine and lupanine could be recorded and were found to be restricted to the epidermis and probably also to the neighbouring 1 or 2 subepidermal cell layers. PMID:24253573

Wink, M; Heinen, H J; Vogt, H; Schiebel, H M

1984-12-01

368

The Exotic Legume Tree Species Acacia holosericea Alters Microbial Soil Functionalities and the Structure of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of microbial functional diversity as well as its resistance to stress or disturbances caused by the introduction of an exotic tree species, Acacia holosericea, ectomycorrhized or not with Pisolithus albus, was examined. The results show that this ectomycorrhizal fungus promotes drastically the growth of this fast- growing tree species in field conditions after 7 years of plantation. Compared

P. Remigi; A. Faye; A. Kane; M. Deruaz; J. Thioulouse; M. Cissoko; Y. Prin; A. Galiana; B. Dreyfus; R. Duponnois

2008-01-01

369

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis enhanced the efficiency of inoculation with two Bradyrhizobium strains and Acacia holosericea growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., Aust 13C and Aust 11C, were dually or singly inoculated with an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Pisolithus albus to assess the interactions between ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and the nodulation process in glasshouse conditions. Sequencing of strains Aust 13C and Aust 11C confirmed their previous placement in the genus Bradyrhizobium. After 4 months’ culture, the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis promoted plant

S. André; A. Galiana; C. Le Roux; Y Prin; M. Neyra; R. Duponnois

2005-01-01

370

Ecological Monographs, 72(3), 2002, pp. 329346 2002 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

; and Little Blue Heron, Egretta caerulea). The experiment was conducted in a constructed wetland adjacent to- docimus albus; Wood Stork, Mycteria americana; Snowy Egret, Egretta thula; Glossy Ibis, Plegadis falcinellus; Great Egret, Ardea alba; Tricolored Heron, Egretta tricolor; Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias

Gawlik, Dale E.

371

Ontogenetic patterns in prey use by pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) is an endangered species native to the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. To date, recovery efforts have focused on stocking juvenile fish, but little is known about ontogenetic changes in diet composition. Although diet composition for pallid sturgeon is believed to change from macroinvertebrates to fish, it is unclear at what size and ? or

K. L. Grohs; R. A. Klumb; S. R. Chipps; G. A. Wanner

2009-01-01

372

Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon are Piscivorous: A Call for Conserving Native Cyprinids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the diets of age-6 and age-7 hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (mean fork length [FL] = 538 ± 13 mm [90% confidence interval]; mean weight = 518 ± 49 g) and indigenous shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus (mean FL = 525 ± 12 mm; mean weight = 683 ± 41 g) sampled in 2003 and 2004 from the

Paul C. Gerrity; Christopher S. Guy; William M. Gardner

2006-01-01

373

Habitat Use of Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon with Implications for Water-Level Management in a Downstream Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural recruitment of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus has not been observed in the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana, for at least 20 years. To augment the population, age-1 hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon were released in 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate the habitat use of these fish and compare it with that of indigenous shovelnose

Paul C. Gerrity; Christopher S. Guy; William M. Gardner

2008-01-01

374

Delphi Study of Instructional Strategies for English Language Learners with Disabilities: Recommendations from Educators Nationwide. ELLs with Disabilities Report 21  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of national research over the past seven years at the National Center on Educational Outcomes focused on identifying and validating instructional strategies for ELLs with disabilities (Shyyan, Thurlow, & Liu, 2008; Thurlow, Albus, Shyyan, Liu, & Barrera, 2004). In recent work (Barrera, Shyyan, Liu, & Thurlow, 2008), educators…

Thurlow, Martha; Shyyan, Vitaliy; Barrera, Manuel; Liu, Kristi

2008-01-01

375

THE EPIZOOTIOLOGY OF EUSTRONGYLIDOSIS IN WADING BIRDS (CICONIIFORMES) IN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 2,167 individuals representing 15 species of wading birds was examined for infection with the nematode Eustrongylides ignotus in Florida (USA). Ten of the species were infected with the greatest prevalences occurring in great blue herons (Ardea herodius) (33%), great egrets (Casnierodius albus) (22%), and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) (19%). Among nestlings, prevalences increased with age. This parasite

Marilyn G. Spalding; G. Thomas Bancroft; Donald J. Forrestert

1993-01-01

376

Fish-Eating Birds as Potential Vectors of Edwardsiella ictaluri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal and rectal smears from 137 birds (4 snowy egrets Egretta thula, 22 great egrets Casmerodius albus, 30 great blue herons Ardea herodias, and 81 double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus) were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody test for the presence of Edwardsiella ictaluri. Edwardsiella ictaluri was detected in 53% of the birds sampled. Rectal samples from eight birds were placed in

Peter W. Taylor

1992-01-01

377

PREDATION OF A SPAWNING ATHERINID FISH, 'MENIDIA MENIDIA', BY AVIAN AND AQUATIC PREDATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Predation of Atlantic silversides was observed during spawning runs in the intertidal zone of the North Edisto River estuary, South Carolina. Snowy egrets, Egretta thula, and Great egrets, Casmerodius albus, were the dominant avian predators. Snowy egrets often caught M. menidia ...

378

DETERMINATION OF HATCHING DATE FOR EGGS OF BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERONS, SNOWY EGRETS AND GREAT EGRETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flotation of eggs in water and specific gravity of eggs of Black-crowned Night- Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus) were evaluated as methods to determine date of hatching. Length of incubation and duration of hatching period were also documented for each species. Although specific gravity was a better predictor of hatching date than egg

THOMAS W. CUSTER; GREY W. PENDLETON; R. WILL ROACH

379

Estimating Shrub Forage Yield and Utilization Using a Photographic Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed a photographic technique to estimate shrub yield and utilization of common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake), snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Douglas ex Hook.), and firmleaf willow ( Salix rigida Muhl.) found in mixed-conifer rangelands. We determined the correlation between green leaf area size (LA) and forage yield (Y) and compared plant utilization estimated by photographic technique (ULA) to actual

Daalkhaijav Damiran; Timothy DelCurto; Douglas E. Johnson; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

2006-01-01

380

Technical contribution Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile  

E-print Network

of different prey taxa to pallid sturgeon growth. Further, diet research on small (juvenile pallid of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: a comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate

381

Bacterial cell surface structures involved in lucerne cell wall degradation by pure cultures of cellulolytic rumen bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure cultures of the cellulolytic rumen bacterial strains Bacteroides succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD1 and Ruminococcus albus 7 were grown on lucerne cell walls (CW) or on cellobiose as the sole added carbohydrate substrate. Scanning electron microscopy visualization using cationized-feritin pretreatment have shown that cell surface topology of these strains grown on and attached to CW particles was specified by

J. Miron; M. T. Yokoyama; R. Lamed

1989-01-01

382

Invited Review: Adhesion Mechanisms of Rumen Cellulolytic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We divided the adhesion process of the predominant cellulolytic rumen bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Ruminococcus albus into four phases: 1) transport of the nonmotile bacteria to the substrate; 2) initial nonspecific adhesion of bacte- ria to unprotected sites of the substrate that is domi- nated by constitutive elements of bacterial glycocalyx; 3) specific adhesion via adhesins or ligands

J. Miron; D. Ben-Ghedalia; M. Morrison

2001-01-01

383

Machine Intelligence and Robotics Report of the NASA Study Group  

E-print Network

-Mellon University Dr. Ewald Heer (Executive Secretary) Program Manager for Autonomous Systems and Space Mechanics Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. James S. Albus Project Manager for Sensor and Computer Control Stanford Research Institute B. Gentry Lee Manager of Mission Operations and Engineering, Galileo Project

Reddy, Raj

384

Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129:13801388, 2000 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2000  

E-print Network

shovelnose sturgeon, pallid sturgeon S. albus, white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, lake sturgeon A for Scaphirhynchus and Acipenser EVE C. MCQUOWN* Department of Animal Science, Meyer Hall, University of California% were polymorphic. Within the individual Acipenser spe- cies, 65­80% of loci amplified, with 42

May, Bernie

385

Initiation of Irrigation Effects on Temporal Nitrate Leaching F. X. M. Casey,* N. Derby, R. E. Knighton, D. D. Steele, and E. C. Stegman  

E-print Network

Initiation of Irrigation Effects on Temporal Nitrate Leaching F. X. M. Casey,* N. Derby, R. E that was converted from dryland to center- 1980). Albus and Knighton (1998) found that the initia- pivot irrigation in 1989. The vadose zone was monitored with four tion of irrigation caused a flush of NO3­N to the shallow

Steele, Dean D.

386

Feather mercury concentrations and physiological condition of great egret and white ibis nestlings in the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury contamination in the Florida Everglades has reportedly played a role in the recent decline of wading birds, although no studies have identified a mechanism leading to population-level effects. We assessed feather mercury levels in great egret (Ardea alba; n=91) and white ibis (Eudocimus albus; n=46) nestlings at breeding colonies in the Florida Everglades during a year (2006) with excellent

Garth Herring; Dale E. Gawlik; Darren G. Rumbold

2009-01-01

387

The importance of maternal state of mind regarding attachment and infant age at placement to foster mothers' representations of their foster infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found that foster mother state of mind with respect to attachment and infant age at placement into foster care influence the developing foster mother- foster child relationship (Dozier, Albus, Stovall, & Bates, 2000; Stovall & Dozier, 2000). This study extends prior research by assessing factors related to foster mothers' representations of their foster infants. Participants were 48

Brady C. Bates; Mary Dozier

2002-01-01

388

Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XV P.4 ASP Conference Series, Vol. XXX, 2005  

E-print Network

van Langevelde, Cormac Reynolds Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands Bill://www.cv.nrao.edu/~bcotton/Obit.html 4 http://www.radionet-eu.org/jra/albus.php 1 #12;2 Kettenis, van Langevelde, Reynolds & Cotton 2

van Langevelde, Huib Jan

389

PoS(8thEVN)055 Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it  

E-print Network

Huib Jan van Langevelde1 JIVE Dwingeloo & Sterrewacht Leiden Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, the Netherlands E-mail: langevelde@jive.nl In this paper ongoing software projects among the European radio in ALBUS & FABRIC #12;PoS(8thEVN)055 Data processing software for the EVN Huib Jan van Langevelde 2 1

van Langevelde, Huib Jan

390

Growth response of native shrubs to acid mine spoil and to proposed soil amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful reclamation of acid mine sites may be enhanced by revegetating with species that are tolerant to acid mine spoil conditions. This study was conducted to assess the response of four native shrub species, Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt., Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake, Berberis repens Lindl., and Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh, to 1) pyritic acid mine spoil amended with various levels of lime

Pamela J. Voeller; Benjamin A. Zamora; James Harsh

1998-01-01

391

Spatial distribution of four freshwater gastropod species in a ditch near Orsay, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution (both specific and individual) of four pulmonate gastropods was studied in a ditch near Orsay, France, from April 1987 to August 1988. Physa fontinalis L. and Anisus albus (Müller) were restricted to the part of the ditch which never dries up and positively associated with the hydrophytes Ceratophyllum submersum L. and Callitriche hamulata Küntz. On the other hand,

Thierry Caquet

1990-01-01

392

ANIDACIÓN DE AVES ACUÁTICAS EN LA ENSENADA DE LA PAZ, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MÉXICO (1992-1994) NESTING OF WATER BIRDS IN ENSENADA DE LA PAZ, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MEXICO (1992-1994)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water birds nesting in Ensenada de La Paz were recorded from 1992 to 1994. Thirteen nesting species were observed: Ardea herodias, Bubulcus ibis, Egretta rufescens, E. thula, E. tricolor, E. caerulen, Nyctanassa violacea, Nycticorax nycticorax, Eudocimus albus, Butorides striatus, Rallus limicola, Charardius wilsonia and Sterna antillarum. The most important nesting sites were the man- grove forests of El Conchalito and

Roberto Carmona

393

Tactile Responses in the Granule Cell Layer of Cerebellar Folium Crus IIa of Freely Behaving Rats  

E-print Network

Mitra J. Hartmann and James M. Bower California Institute of Technology, Biology Department, Pasadena influenced the in- terpretation of cerebellar physiology and anatomy (Marr, 1969; Albus, 1971; Bloedel, 1992., 1998). Even when the tactile projec- tions to these regions of the cerebellum are specifically consid

Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

394

MODELS OF THE CEREBELLUM AND MOTOR LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews models of the cerebellum and motor learning starting with the landmark papers by Marr and Albus and going through present times. The unique architecture of the cerebellar cortex is ideally suited for pattern recognition, but how is pattern recognition incorporated into motor control and learning systems? The present analysis begins with a discussion of what the cerebellar

James C. Houk; Jay T. Buckingham; Andrew G. Barto

1996-01-01

395

Recurrent cerebellar architecture solves the motor-error problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current views of cerebellar function have been heavily influenced by the models of Marr and Albus, who suggested that the climbing fibre input to the cerebellum acts as a teaching signal for motor learning. It is commonly assumed that this teaching signal must be motor error (the difference between actual and correct motor command), but this approach requires complex neural

John Porrill; Paul Dean; James V. Stone

2004-01-01

396

Ascending Granule Cell Axon: An Important Component of Cerebellar  

E-print Network

GUNDAPPA-SULUR,1 ERIK DE SCHUTTER,2 AND JAMES M. BOWER3* 1Department of Pathology, University of California. 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Indexing terms: cerebellum; Purkinje cells; synapses; electron microscopy influence on theories and models of cerebellar function (Eccles et al., 1967; Marr, 1969; Albus, 1971

De Schutter, Erik

397

Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate Signaling in Cerebellar Purkinje Spines  

E-print Network

-Ann Brown, Frank Morgan, James Watras, and Leslie M. Loew R. D. Berlin Center for Cell Analysis and Modeling important in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, be- cause of its role in neuronal integration and synaptics and 1970s by Marr and Albus (10,11) and shown experimentally in the 1980s by Ito et al. (12

Terasaki, Mark

398

Synaptic Control of Spiking in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells: Dynamic Current Clamp Based on Model Conductances  

E-print Network

Conductances Dieter Jaeger1 and James M. Bower2 1Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia to incorpo- rate single-cell dynamics to a greater degree than is customary. Key words: cerebellum; Purkinje- ations of cerebellar function (Marr, 1969; Albus, 1971). In these theories, single neurons are primarily

Jaeger, Dieter

399

Journal of Heredity 2011:102(6):688696 doi:10.1093/jhered/esr071  

E-print Network

: journals.permissions@oup.com. Genetic Structure of Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) and Its Concordance not differentiate Ondatra zibethicus spatulus (northwest) from O. z. albus (central), but they suggest a distinction of subspecies. Key words: genetic structure, isolation by distance, microsatellite loci, Ondatra zibethicus

Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

400

Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch.,

L. Hajkova; J. Nekovar; M. Novak; D. Richterova

2009-01-01

401

Spring 2014 President's List College of Arts Sciences  

E-print Network

, Kenzie Senior Biology Collins, Katelynn Senior Biochemistry Cordova, Justin Senior Exercise and Sport, Kennady Junior Biochemistry Able, Tiffany Junior Psychology Albus, Ashlen Junior Psychology Alhaj, Sara Sophomore Social Work Arispe, Ryan Senior Biology Arnold, Hannah Senior Exercise and Sport Sciences Asher

Zhang, Yuanlin

402

Floristische Beobachtungen aus dem östlichen oberösterreichischen Alpenvorland II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floristic observations from the eastern Upper Austrian alpine foothills II Abstract: For 26 rare or decreasing species new localities in the eastern Upper Austrian foothills and a few new localities in the western area of Lower Austria are reported. Most of them are species of segetal and ruderal habitats (Amaranlhus albus, Bromus secalinus, Camelina microcarpa, Chenopodium botrys, Ch. bonus-henricus, Ch.

F. ESSL

403

Contrasting Evolutionary Rates in the Duplicate Chaperonin Genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phylogenetic analysis of chaperonin (heat shock protein 60) sequences from prokaryotes and eukaryotes indicated that a single gene duplication event in the common ancestor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 44. leprae, and Streptomyces albus gave rise to the duplicate chaperonin genes found in these species (designated HSP65 and GroEL in the mycobacterial species). Comparison of rates of synon- ymous and nonsynonymous

Austin L. Hughes

404

Prepared for the US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District  

E-print Network

of the Pallid Sturgeon in the Middle Mississippi River Pallid Sturgeon Status 1 #12;Current Status of the Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Middle Mississippi River: Habitat, Movement. Current status of the pallid sturgeon in the Middle Mississippi River: habitat, movement, and demographics

405

Effects of nutrition on testicular growth in mature Merino rams actively immunized against GnRH.  

PubMed

Nutrition-induced changes in testicular size in Merino rams appear to involve both GnRH-dependent and -independent pathways. This hypothesis was tested by feeding mature Merino rams that had been actively immunized against BSA or GnRH conjugated to BSA a diet that maintained initial body weight or the same diet supplemented daily with 1.5 kg of lupin grain. Blood was sampled every 20 min for 24 h on days-1, 19 and 70 relative to the change in diet. The plasma was used to assess the effects of treatments on changes in LH, FSH and testosterone concentrations. In the group immunized against BSA, FSH increased in lupin-supplemented rams compared with maintenance-fed rams, while LH and testosterone were not affected by diet. In comparison, the concentrations of LH, FSH and testosterone were significantly lower in the group immunized against GnRH than in rams immunized against BSA, but none of these endocrine variables was affected by nutrition. With both immunization treatments, the testes were significantly larger in lupin-supplemented than in maintenance-fed rams. In the group immunized against BSA, this difference was caused by testicular growth in lupin-supplemented rams, whereas in the group immunized against GnRH, lupin supplementation effectively maintained testicular mass, rather than allowed the regression observed in maintenance-fed rams. In conclusion, differences in testicular growth that were induced by dietary treatments in rams immunized against GnRH were not associated with changes in gonadotrophin or testosterone secretion. This supports the hypothesis that part of the effect of nutrition on testicular growth is independent of changes in GnRH secretion. The differences in testicular size observed in control rams were of similar magnitude to those observed in treated rams, but associated with large differences in plasma FSH concentrations, suggesting that this hormone plays an important role in this effect. PMID:9306985

Hötzel, M J; Caraty, A; Martin, G B

1997-07-01

406

Comparison of the performance of different instruments in the stray neutron field around the CERN Proton Synchrotron.  

PubMed

This paper discusses an intercomparison campaign carried out in several locations around the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The locations were selected in order to perform the measurements in different stray field conditions. Various neutron detectors were employed: ionisation chambers, conventional and extended range rem counters, both commercial and prototype ones, including a novel instrument called LUPIN, specifically conceived to work in pulsed fields. The attention was focused on the potential differences in the instrument readings due to dead-time losses that are expected to affect most commercial units. The results show that the ionisation chambers and LUPIN agree well with the expected H*(10) values, as derived from FLUKA simulations, showing no relevant underestimations even in strongly pulsed fields. On the contrary, the dead-time losses of the other rem counters induced an underestimation in pulsed fields that was more important for instruments characterised by a higher dead time. PMID:24030144

Aza, Eleni; Caresana, Marco; Cassell, Christopher; Colombo, Valeria; Damjanovic, Sanja; Gilardoni, Simone; Manessi, Giacomo Paolo; Pangallo, Michel; Perrin, Daniel; Silari, Marco

2014-10-01

407

Phytotoxicity of sulfamethazine soil pollutant to six legume plant species.  

PubMed

The effect of traces of sulfamethazine (SMZ) in soil (0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 1, 5, 15, and 20 mM) on cellular distribution of cytochrome c oxidase activity, shoot and root growth, and leachate electroconductivity was analyzed in germinating seeds of yellow lupin, pea, lentil, soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa. Results showed that a high activity of cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria correlated with high seed vigor and viability. The appearance of necroses and root decay was associated with a decrease in the activity of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase but was accompanied by an increase in cytosolic cytochrome c oxidase activity. A short exposure period of seeds (3 and 6 d) to sulfamethazine did not influence germination. Elongation of roots and stems was more sensitive than germination rate as an indicator of soil contamination by sulfamethazine. Among all tested leguminous plants, yellow lupin was the most reliable bioindicator of SMZ contaminated soil. PMID:20706947

Piotrowicz-Cie?lak, Agnieszka I; Adomas, Barbara; Na?ecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Michalczyk, Dariusz J

2010-01-01

408

Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic properties of Genista tinctoria bradyrhizobia.  

PubMed

Pairwise comparisons of Genista tinctoria (dyer's weed) rhizobium nodA, nodC, and nodZ gene sequences to those available in databanks revealed their highest sequence identities to nodulation loci of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) strains and rhizobia from other genistoid legumes. On phylogenetic trees, genistoid microsymbionts were grouped together in monophyletic clusters, which suggested that their nodulation genes evolved from a common ancestor. G. tinctoria nodulators formed symbioses not only with the native host, but also with other plants of Genisteae tribe such as: Lupinus luteus, Sarothamnus scoparius, and Chamaecytisus ratisbonensis, and they were classified as the genistoid cross-inoculation group. The dyer's weed root nodules were designated as indeterminate with apical meristem consisting of infected and uninfected cells. PMID:16802175

Kalita, Micha?; Stepkowski, Tomasz; ?otocka, Barbara; Ma?ek, Wanda

2006-08-01

409

Infiltration in Icelandic Andisols: the Role of Vegetation and Soil Frost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil frost formation, snow distribution, and winter\\/spring\\/summer terminal infiltration rates (TIRs) were quantified in Icelandic Andisols with contrasting vegetation cover types (grassland, spruce and birch woodland, lupine, and sparsely vegetated lava site). TIRs (mm h21; determined with double-ring infiltrometers) were generally higher in unfrozen than in frozen soils (102-369 vs. 9-306, respectively in sandy soils; 28-94 vs. 3-72 in finer-textured

B. Orradottir; S. R. Archer; O. Arnalds; L. P. Wilding; T. L. Thurow

2008-01-01

410

Correlation between total dry weight and nitrogen content of legumes grown in sand culture with their associated Rhizobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Communicated by Prof. L.S. S, Kumar, F.A.SC.) THE effectiveness of strains of Rhizobia in fixing nitrogen in association with their host plants is usually estimated by determining the total nitrogen in the plant samples. This is a time consuming and expensive procedure. Erdman and Means (1952) working on soybeans, clovers, alfalfa and lupines made a statistical study of 398 samples

V. P. Bhide; G. S. Dawkhar; V. R. Kale

1961-01-01

411

Effects of Heating Oil on the Count of Microorganisms and PhysicoChemical Properties of Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our experiment was to determine the effect of heating oil application on the count of mi- croorganisms and some physico-chemical properties of limed and lime-free soil and soil sown with yellow lupine of the Markiz variety and unsown soil. The results obtained indicate that heating oil deteriorated the physico-chemical properties of the ex- perimental soil (acidification, decrease

J. Kucharski; E. Jastrz?bska

2005-01-01

412

Waiting for Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the Rum…

Lamson-Nussbaum, Jorie

2013-01-01

413

Antagonistic potential of certain legumes to Meloidgyne incognita on sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under greenhouse conditions, a pot experiment was conducted to clarify the potential of using some legumes as intercropped plants for reducing the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cv. DS-9004 compared to non-legume plant, garlic and non-intercropped plants. The obtained results revealed that all legumes including chickpea, Egyptian clover, faba bean, fenugreek, lentil and lupin significantly

M. M. A. Youssef; Wafaa M. A. El-Nagdi

2012-01-01

414

Survival of plant growth promoting rhizosphere bacteria in the rhizosphere of different crops and migration to non-inoculated plants under field conditions in north-east Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of two plant-growth-promoting bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens PsIA12 and Rhizobium trifolii R39 (rifampicin-resistant mutants), was studied in the rhizosphere of different crops in field experiments on loamy sand in the years 1993 and 1994 (Müncheberg, Germany). After seed inoculation with a peat formulation the Rhizobium strain colonized the rhizosphere of pea and white lupin as well as that of the

Wolfgang Wiehe; Gisela Höflich

1995-01-01

415

Establishment of plant growth promoting bacteria in the rhizosphere of subsequent plants after harvest of the inoculated precrops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rifampicin-resistant mutants of two plant-growth-promoting rhizosphere bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PsIA12 and the associative, non-symbiotic Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain R39, were inoculated with different crops in field experiments. Soil from these sites was collected after harvest. Non-inoculated maize, pea, lupine and two weeds (Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinochloa crus-galli) were subsequently grown in this soil in the greenhouse and tested for

Wolfgang Wiehe; Gisela Höflich

1995-01-01

416

Positive Effect of Plant-Based Diet on the Performance and Health of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straková E., P. Suchý, M. Šugerková, M. Machá?ek: Positive Effect of Plant-Based Diet on the Performance and Health of Laying Hens. acta v et. Brno 2007, 76: S31-S37. an entirely plant-based feed mixture was prepared to minimize the potential risk of transmitting prion infections through animal feed. It consisted of two protein components (soya extracted meal and lupin seed meal)

E. Straková; P. Suchý; M. Šugerková; O. Machá?ek

2007-01-01

417

Indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids.  

PubMed

This review covers the isolation, structure determination, synthesis, chemical transformations and biological activity of indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids from microbial, plant and animal sources. Included in the review are slaframine; the hydroxylated indolizidines lentiginosine, swainsonine, castanospermine and their analogues; alkaloids from amphibians and marine sources; plumerinine; ipalbidine, phenanthroindolizidines and related alkaloids; lasubine-II: and lupin alkaloids. The literature from July 2001 to June 2002 is reviewed, and 142 references are cited. PMID:14620842

Michael, Joseph P

2003-10-01

418

Indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids.  

PubMed

This review covers the isolation, structure determination, synthesis, chemical transformations and biological activity of indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids. Included in the review are the hydroxylated indolizidines lentiginosine, swainsonine, castanospermine and their analogues; alkaloids from animal sources, including ants, amphibians and beetles; indolizidine alkaloids from the genera Polygonatum, Prosopis and Elaeocarpus; indolizidine and phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids; alkylquinolizidine alkaloids, including myrtine, epimyrtine, plumerinine and Lycopodium metabolites; Lythraceae and Nuphar alkaloids; lupine alkaloids; and alkaloids from marine sources. 150 references are cited. PMID:17268613

Michael, Joseph P

2007-02-01

419

Indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids.  

PubMed

This review covers the isolation, structure determination, synthesis, chemical transformations and biological activity of indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids from microbial, plant and animal sources. Included in the review are the hydroxylated indolizidines lentiginosine, swainsonine, castanospermine and their analogues; alkaloids from animal sources, including ants, amphibians and beetles; ipalbidine, phenanthroindolizidines and related alkaloids; Lycopodium alkaloids; lupine alkaloids; and alkaloids from bacterial and marine sources. The literature from July 2002 to June 2003 is reviewed, and 174 references are cited. PMID:15459758

Michael, Joseph P

2004-10-01

420

Indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids.  

PubMed

This review covers the isolation, structure determination, synthesis, chemical transformations and biological activity of indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids. Included in the review are the hydroxylated indolizidines lentiginosine, swainsonine, castanospermine and their analogues; alkaloids from animal sources, including arthropods and amphibians; alkaloids from the genera Polygonatum, Prosopis and Poranthera; phenanthroindolizidine and phenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids; Nuphar alkaloids; lupine alkaloids; and alkaloids from marine sources. 130 references are cited. PMID:18250900

Michael, Joseph P

2008-02-01

421

Horizontal Gene Transfer to Endogenous Endophytic Bacteria from Poplar Improves Phytoremediation of Toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poplar, a plant species frequently used for phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with organic solvents, was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468. This strain, whose natural host is yellow lupine, contains the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid coding for constitutively expressed toluene degradation. Noninoculated plants or plants inoculated with the soil bacterium B. cepacia Bu61(pTOM-Bu61) were used as controls. Inoculation of poplar had

Safiyh Taghavi; Tanja Barac; Bill Greenberg; Brigitte Borremans; Jaco Vangronsveld; Daniel van der Lelie

2005-01-01

422

Endophytes and Their Potential to Deal with Co-Contamination of Organic Contaminants (Toluene) and Toxic Metals (Nickel) During Phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to investigate if engineered endophytes that are capable of degrading organic contaminants, and deal with or ideally improve uptake and translocation of toxic metals, can improve phytoremediation of mixed organic-metal pollution. As a model system, yellow lupine was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468 possessing (a) the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid, coding for constitutive toluene\\/TCE degradation, and (b)

Nele Weyens; Sascha Truyens; Eline Saenen; Jana Boulet; Joke Dupae; Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Robert Carleer; Jaco Vangronsveld

2011-01-01

423

Studies of two cucumber mosaic virus isolates from spinach in the winter garden area of Texas  

E-print Network

symptom incited by CMV in its hosts is mosaic Table 1. Some synonymously named natural diseases attributed to cucumber mosaic virus. Disease Name Reference Amaryllis mosaic Banana mosaic Blue lupine disease Canna mosaic Celery mosaic Chicory..., a DEP of 10 , and a LIV of 3 to 6 days (56, 87, 132). -4 The stability of CMV in extracted sap is greatly improved when anti- oxidants or reducing agents are added or when the sap is maintained at temperatures near freezing. Two antioxidants...

Wilson, Alphus Dan

2012-06-07

424

Short-term grazing of lucerne and chicory increases ovulation rate in synchronised Merino ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the ability of short-term grazing of live=green pasture to increase ovulation rate during late summer when annual pasture is generally dead and of low quality. Ovulation rates, measured by the number of corpora lutea, were compared between 4 nutritional treatments: senesced phalaris (Phalaris aquatica), phalaris plus 500g lupin grain per day, lucerne (Medicago sativa) or chicory (Chicorum

B. J. King; S. M. Robertson; J. F. Wilkins; M. A. Friend

2010-01-01

425

Distribution and Diversity of Microorganisms of Deep, Subpermafrost Brine in the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline fracture water (0.3 to 3.7% TDS) trapped beneath 500 meters of frozen Archean metasediment was collected from boreholes at 880 and 1130 meters depth at Lupin Au mine. Temperatures range from 4 to 10oC, pH from 8 to 9, Eh from -150 to -190 mV. H2 and CH4 gas concentration range from 20 to 600 nM and 6 to

C. Boettig; D. McGown; M. Davidson; T. C. Onstott; B. Soffentino; A. Spivak; S. D'Hondt; S. Miller; D. Balkwill; L. Pratt; T. Ruskeeniemi; L. Ahonen; J. Telling; B. Sherwood Lollar; S. Frape; R. Stotler

2005-01-01

426

Effects of moldboard plowing, chisel plowing and rotation crops on the Rhizoctonia disease of white potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tillage practices, chisel plowing (30 cm) and deep moldboard plowing (22 cm), and five rotation crops (oats, lupine, buckwheat,\\u000a broccoli and peas) were studied for their effects on the soil population ofRhizoctonia solani AG-3 and on Rhizoctonia disease on potato. All rotation crops were harvested except buckwheat, which was treated as a green\\u000a manure crop. Chisel plowing significantly reduced

S. S. Leach; G. A. Porter; R. V. Rourke; W. M. Clapham

1993-01-01

427

Direct Observation ofCell WallStructure inLiving Plant Tissues bySolid-State 13CNMRSpectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state 13Cnuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)spectra of thefollowing intact plant tissues wererecorded bythecross- polarization magic-angle spinning technique: celery (Apium grav- eolens L.)collenchyma; carobbean(Ceratonia siliqua L.), fenu- greek(Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), andnasturtium (Tropaeo- lummajusL.)endosperm; andlupin (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) seedcotyledons. Allthese tissues hadthickened cell walls which allowed themtowithstand thecentrifugal forces ofmagic angle spinning andwhich, except inthecaseoflupin seeds, dominated theNMRspectra. Thecelery collenchyma cell walls gavespectra

Michael C. Jarvis; C. Apperley

1990-01-01

428

Resource heterogeneity generated by shrubs and topography on coastal sand dunes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early stages of primary succession, colonizing plants can create resource patches that influence the abundance and distribution of other species. To test whether different colonizing shrubs generate contrasting patches on coastal sand dunes, we compared soil characteristics and light availability under the nitrogen-fixing shrub Lupinus arboreus, under the non-nitrogen-fixing shrub Artemisia pycnocephala, and between shrubs on dunes at a

Peter Alpert; Harold A. Mooney

1996-01-01

429

Chromosome numbers of flowering plants from Calabria, S Italy, II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peruzzi, L. & Cesca, G.: Chromosome numbers of flowering plants from Calabria, S Italy. - Willdenowia 32: 33-44. 2002. - ISSN 0511-9618. Chromosome numbers of 11 taxa from nine families of Calabrian angiosperms are reported: Anthyllis hermanniae 2n = 14,Carlina acaulis subsp.caulescens 2n = 20,Gentianella crispata 2n = 56, Lupinus graecus 2n = 50, Plantago albicans 2n = 30, P.

LORENZO PERUZZI; GIULIANO CESCA

2004-01-01

430

ALTERATION IN THE MINERAL NUTRITION OF PURELY SYMBIOTIC AND NITRATE-FED NODULATED LEGUMES EXPOSED TO ELEVATED UV-B RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of elevated UV-B radiation and two nitrogen (N) sources on mineral nutrition of Cyclopia maculata, a UV-B-sensitive species, was assessed together with UV-B-tolerant symbiotic legumes Vigna unguiculata, Glycine max, Lupinus luteus, Vicia atropurpurea, Podalyria calyptrata and Virgilia oroboides. Plants were grown outdoors on tables under moderately or highly elevated UV-B exposures which simulated 15% and 25% ozone depletion

Samson B. M. Chimphango; Charles F. Musil; Felix D. Dakora

2012-01-01

431

Cloning and Characterization of a cDNA Encoding Aspartate Aminotransferase-P1 f rom f upinus angustifoli'us Root Tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

A root tip cDNA library, constructed in the X Zap II expression vector, was immunoscreened with a monoclonal antibody raised against aspartate aminotransferase-P, from Lupinus angustifolius 1. vai Uniharvest. One 1452-base pair clone was isolated. lhe encoded protein sequence had high homology to both plant and animal aspartate aminotransferase sequences. lhe clone was con- verted to the phagemid form and

Christopher S. Winefield; Brett D. Reddington; William T. Jones; Paul H. S. Reynolds; Kevin J. F. Farnden

1994-01-01

432

Altitudinal gradients of generalist and specialist herbivory on three montane Asteraceae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different functional types of herbivory on three montane Asteraceae were investigated in natural populations in central Germany to test the hypothesis that herbivory is decreasing with altitude. Generalist herbivory was assessed as leaf area loss, mainly caused by slugs, and, in Petasites albus, as rhizome mining by oligophagous insect larvae. Capitules were found to be parasitized by oligophagous insects in Centaurea pseudophrygia and by the specialist fly Tephritis arnicae in Arnica montana. Only the damage to leaves of P. albus showed the hypothesized decrease with increasing altitude. No altitudinal gradient could be found in the leaf and capitule damage to C. pseudophrygia. In A. montana, capitule damage increased with increasing elevation. The data suggest that abundance and activity of generalist herbivores are more affected by climatic conditions along altitudinal gradients than specialist herbivores. In all probability, specialist herbivores depend less on abiotic conditions than on their host's population characteristics, such as host population size.

Scheidel, U.; Röhl, S.; Bruelheide, H.

433

Genetic diversity of androdioecious Osmanthus fragrans (Oleaceae) cultivars using microsatellite markers1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: For cultivar classification, identification, and genetic improvement, microsatellite markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity of androdioecious Osmanthus fragrans cultivars. • Methods and Results: Fifteen microsatellite markers were developed from sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, which included two with null alleles. These primers were screened on 62 typical androdioecious O. fragrans cultivars belonging to four groups (Asiaticus, Albus, Luteus, and Aurantiacus). The number of alleles ranged from two to six, with a mean of 3.7 per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1000 to 0.9091 and from 0.1287 to 0.9167, respectively. Results from structure analyses indicated that Asiaticus and Albus were genetically mixed, and Luteus and Aurantiacus were partially genetically differentiated. • Conclusions: These markers will be useful for genetic study of androdioecious O. fragrans cultivars and facilitate cultivar classification, particularly for the cultivar groups Luteus and Aurantiacus.

Duan, Yifan; Wang, Xianrong; Xiang, Qibai; Liang, Lili; Li, Xuexia; Liu, Yulian; Li, Meng

2013-01-01

434

Sarcocystis sp. in wading birds (Ciconiiformes) from Florida.  

PubMed

Sarcocysts were found in striated muscle of 21 adult wading birds among 145 examined grossly and 70 examined histologically (calculated prevalence = 24%), and in none of 332 immature wading birds examined from Florida (USA). Six of 12 species of ciconiforms were infected (Ardea herodias, Casmerodius albus, Egretta caerulea, Nyctanassa violacea, Butorides striatus, Eudocimus albus). Cysts were filamentous, usually extended the entire length of the muscle fiber, and were visible grossly in 33% of the positive cases. We concluded from ultrastructural examination of cysts that the same species of Sarcocystis may occur in all species of wading birds in Florida; however, two cyst diameters were noted that appeared to differ in their distribution by host species. PMID:8151820

Spalding, M G; Atkinson, C T; Carleton, R E

1994-01-01

435

Recurrent cerebellar architecture solves the motor-error problem.  

PubMed Central

Current views of cerebellar function have been heavily influenced by the models of Marr and Albus, who suggested that the climbing fibre input to the cerebellum acts as a teaching signal for motor learning. It is commonly assumed that this teaching signal must be motor error (the difference between actual and correct motor command), but this approach requires complex neural structures to estimate unobservable motor error from its observed sensory consequences. We have proposed elsewhere a recurrent decorrelation control architecture in which Marr-Albus models learn without requiring motor error. Here, we prove convergence for this architecture and demonstrate important advantages for the modular control of systems with multiple degrees of freedom. These results are illustrated by modelling adaptive plant compensation for the three-dimensional vestibular ocular reflex. This provides a functional role for recurrent cerebellar connectivity, which may be a generic anatomical feature of projections between regions of cerebral and cerebellar cortex. PMID:15255096

Porrill, John; Dean, Paul; Stone, James V.

2004-01-01

436

Where do roots take up water? A new technique to measure local flow of water into roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where and how fast do roots take up water from soils? Answer to this question requires direct and in-situ measurements of local flow of water into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. Such a measurement has been a great challenge for plant and soil scientists. Here, we introduced a new in-situ method for direct measurement of water flow in soil and roots. We used neutron radiography to monitor the transport of deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots of transpiring lupins. Using image analysis tools and introducing a model of D2O transport into roots, we measured the local radial and axial fluxes into and within different locations along the root system. The results demonstrated significant variations of water flow into the root system of 18 to 21-day-old lupins. The radial fluxes into roots were higher in the upper zone than in the lower zone. In each root, the radial fluxes were higher in the more proximal segments and decreased towards the root tips. In lupins, most of the water uptake occurred in lateral roots. The function of the taproot was to collect water from laterals and transport it to the shoot. To this end, the taproot was radially isolated but axially very conductive. This root architecture seems favorable to take up water from deep soil layers.

Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kim, Yangmin X.; Carminati, Andrea

2013-04-01

437

Emulsifying Properties of Legume Proteins Compared to ?-Lactoglobulin and Tween 20 and the Volatile Release from Oil-in-Water Emulsions.  

PubMed

The emulsifying properties of plant legume protein isolates (soy, pea, and lupin) were compared to a milk whey protein, ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg), and a nonionic surfactant (Tween 20). The protein fractional composition was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The following emulsion properties were measured