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Sample records for lupin lupinus albus

  1. Organic Weed Control in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes such as white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) provide a valuable nitrogen source in organic agriculture. With organic farming becoming an increasing sector of US agriculture and white lupin interest increasing in the southeastern USA because winter hardy cultivars are available, non-chemical weed c...

  2. Chemical, nutritional and sensory properties of bread supplemented with lupin seed (Lupinus albus) products.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, A E

    2001-08-01

    Sweet lupin Lupinus albus seed flour (SLSF), two sweet lupin protein isolates (SLPI-I and SLPI-II) and sweet lupin seed protein concentrate (SLSPC) were added to wheat flour (WF) in an amount of 3, 6, 9 and 12% of wheat flour. The effects of lupin products supplementation on physical dough properties were studied using a Brabender farinograph. Loaves were prepared from the various blends using the straight dough procedure and then evaluated for volume, crust and crumb colour, crumb texture, flavour and overall quality. Water absorption, development time and dough weakening were significantly (P < 0.05) increased as the lupin product levels increased in all doughs; however, dough stability decreased. Lupin products could be added to WF up to 9% level (SLPI-I and SLPI-II) and 6% level (for other lupin products), without any observed detrimental effect on bread sensory properties. No significant (P > 0.05) differences were recorded in loaf volume between control and breads containing SLPI-I and II (up to 9% level) and SLSPC (up to 3% level). Addition of lupin products increased the content of protein and total essential amino acids, especially lysine. The addition also improved in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:11534461

  3. White Lupin (Lupinus albus) Response to Phosphorus Stress: Evidence for Complex Regulation of LaSAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) has a unique adaptation to phosphorus deficiency stress, such that a set of tightly coordinated physiological and morphological responses gives rise to the formation of cluster, or proteoid roots, structures that allow the plant to live in extremely infertile soils. The c...

  4. Transcript and proteomic analysis of developing white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Peel, Gregory J; Lei, Zhentian; Aziz, Naveed; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; Watson, Bonnie; Zhao, Patrick X; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    Background White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots efficiently take up and accumulate (heavy) metals, adapt to phosphate deficiency by forming cluster roots, and secrete antimicrobial prenylated isoflavones during development. Genomic and proteomic approaches were applied to identify candidate genes and proteins involved in antimicrobial defense and (heavy) metal uptake and translocation. Results A cDNA library was constructed from roots of white lupin seedlings. Eight thousand clones were randomly sequenced and assembled into 2,455 unigenes, which were annotated based on homologous matches in the NCBInr protein database. A reference map of developing white lupin root proteins was established through 2-D gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. High quality peptide mass spectra were obtained for 170 proteins. Microsomal membrane proteins were separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 74 proteins were putatively identified by the peptide mass fingerprinting and the LC-MS/MS methods. Genomic and proteomic analyses identified candidate genes and proteins encoding metal binding and/or transport proteins, transcription factors, ABC transporters and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes. Conclusion The combined EST and protein datasets will facilitate the understanding of white lupin's response to biotic and abiotic stresses and its utility for phytoremediation. The root ESTs provided 82 perfect simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with potential utility in breeding white lupin for enhanced agronomic traits. PMID:19123941

  5. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies root-soil interactions of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) have drawn special attention to researchers due to its particularly high potential to increase bioavailability of phosphorous (P) and trace nutrients in soils. In mixed cultures, white lupine has the ability to mobilize P and trace nutrients in soil in excess of its own need and make this excess available for other intercropped companion species. While improved acquisition of P and improved yield parameters have mostly been documented in cereal-lupine intercrops, compared to sole crops, only a few recent studies have evidenced similar effects for trace elements e.g. Fe, Zn and Mn. In this preliminary study we tried to obtain more information about the mobilization of trace elements due to intercropping under field conditions. We hypothesize, that processes that lead to a better acquisition of trace nutrients might also affect other trace elements what could be useful for phytoremediation and phytomining research. Here we report the results of a semi-field experiment were we investigated the effects of an intercropping of white lupine with oat (Avena sativa L.) on the concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat. We investigated the effects on 12 trace elements, including 4 elements with relevance for plant nutrition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) and 8 trace elements, belonging to the group of metalloids, lanthanides and actinides with high relevance in phytoremediation (Cd, Pb Th, U) and phytomining research (Sc, La, Nd, Ge). The experiment was carried out on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the intercropping-dependent mobilization of trace metals in soil and enhanced uptake of elements by oat, white lupine and oat were cultivated on 20 plots (4 m² each) in monocultures and mixed cultures and two different white lupin /oat-ratios (11% and 33%, respectively) applying various treatments. The geometrical arrangement of plots was randomized and every treatment was fivefold replicated. Soil solution was collected weekly with plastic suction cups. Concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat and soil solution were measured with ICP-MS. As a result, we found that both, concentrations of trace elements in oat plants, as well as the mobility of P and trace metals in soil solution was increased by an intercropping with white lupine. Mixed culture of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of the trace nutrients Fe, Mn and Zn, as well as the concentrations of the trace metals Pb, La, Nd, Sc, Th and U in tissues of oat. Surprisingly, mixed cultures with 33 % white lupin did not significantly affect trace metal concentrations in oat, what might be the consequence of an increasing competition of roots of white lupin and oat for nutrients and trace metals. In conclusion we found that mixed cultures of white lupin with cereals might be a powerful tool for enhanced phytoremediation and phytomining. However, processes involved in the physiochemical mechanism of element uptake as affected by the oat/white lupin co-cultivation remain unknown and further studies on this topic are planned. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  6. Effects of extracts of lupine seed on blood glucose levels in glucose resistant mice: antihyperglycemic effects of Lupinus albus (white lupine, Egypt) and Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine, Mesa Verde National Park).

    PubMed

    Knecht, Kathryn T; Nguyen, Hoa; Auker, Adrienne D; Kinder, David H

    2006-01-01

    Lupine is a medicinal food plant with potential value in the management of diabetes. In white mice, extracts of seeds of the white lupine [Lupinus albus (L. termis L.)] were associated with increased tolerance to an oral glucose bolus. Antihyperglycemic activity was present in extracts of the whole seed but not extracts of the seed coat, and was not detected when glucose was administered intraperitoneally rather than orally. However, in contrast to results seen with the prescription drug, acarbose, lupine extract did not appear to increase the bulk or carbohydrate content of the feces. Antihyperglycemic activity was also seen in extracts of the tailcup lupine (L. caudatus) found in the Four Corners Region of the United States. PMID:17317651

  7. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant), in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%), followed by protein modification/turnover (9%), redox regulation (8%), cell structural components (6%), stress and defence response (6%) with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT) protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt) 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams) and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level). Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes. PMID:21342527

  8. Interactive effects of phosphorus deficiency and exogenous auxin on root morphological and physiological traits in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongliang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed

    2013-04-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) exhibits strong root morphological and physiological responses to phosphorus (P) deficiency and auxin treatments, but the interactive effects of P and auxin in regulating root morphological and physiological traits are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess white lupin root traits as influenced by P (0 or 250 μmol L(-1)) and auxin (10(-8) mol L(-1) NAA) in nutrient solution. Both P deficiency and auxin treatments significantly altered root morphological traits, as evidenced by reduced taproot length, increased number and density of first-order lateral roots, and enhanced cluster-root formation. Changes in root physiological traits were also observed, i.e., increased proton, citrate, and acid phosphatase exudation. Exogenous auxin enhanced root responses and sensitivity to P deficiency. A significant interplay exists between P and auxin in the regulation of root morphological and physiological traits. Principal component analysis showed that P availability explained 64.8% and auxin addition 21.3% of the total variation in root trait parameters, indicating that P availability is much more important than auxin in modifying root responses of white lupin. This suggests that white lupin can coordinate root morphological and physiological responses to enhance acquisition of P resources, with an optimal trade-off between root morphological and physiological traits regulated by external stimuli such as P availability and auxin. PMID:23504274

  9. Comparison of the response to phosphorus deficiency in two lupin species, Lupinus albus and L. angustifolius, with contrasting root morphology.

    PubMed

    Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) produces cluster roots, an adaptation to low soil phosphorus (P). Cluster roots exude large levels of P-solubilizing compounds such as citrate and malate. In contrast, narrow leaf lupin (L. angustifolius) is closely related to L. albus, but does not produce cluster roots. To examine the different strategies for P acquisition, we compared the growth, biomass allocation, respiratory properties and construction cost between L. albus and L. angustifolius under P-deficient conditions. Both Lupinus species were grown in hydroponic culture with 1 or 100 μM P. Under the P-deficient regime, L. albus produced cluster roots with little change in biomass allocation, while L. angustifolius significantly increased biomass allocation to roots. The rate of cyanide-resistant SHAM (salicylhydroxamic acid)-sensitive respiration was high in cluster roots and very low in roots of L. angustifolius. These results suggest a low alternative oxidase (AOX) activity in L. angustifolius roots, and thus, ATP would be produced efficiently in L. angustifolius roots. The construction cost was highest in cluster roots and lowest in L. angustifolius roots. This study shows that under P deficiency, L. albus produces high-cost cluster roots to increase the P availability, while L. angustifolius produces large quantities of low-cost roots to enhance P uptake. PMID:24941862

  10. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil. PMID:26940160

  11. Evaluation of herbicide efficacy, injury and yield in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin is of increasing interest in the southeastern USA as a winter legume cover crop or as mid-winter forage for ruminants. White lupins are poor weed competitors during early establishment which makes effective weed control necessary, however, only three herbicides are currently registered f...

  12. Dietary micronized-dehulled white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) in meat-type guinea fowls and its influence on growth performance, carcass traits and meat lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Demauro, R; Laudadio, V

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with micronized-dehulled white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Multitalia) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth performance, carcass traits, and meat fatty acids composition. A total of 120 one-day-old guinea fowl females were randomly assigned to 2 treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 wk of age. Birds were fed 2 wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (195 g/kg) and a test diet containing micronized-dehulled lupin (240 g/kg) as the main protein source. Replacing SBM with treated lupin had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative to the weight of guinea fowls. A decrease (P < 0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed lupin-diet. Breast muscle from birds fed lupin had higher lightness (L*) (P < 0.01) and redness (a*) (P < 0.05) scores and water-holding capacity (P < 0.05) than the SBM-control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed lupin had less total lipids (P < 0.05) and cholesterol (P < 0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (P < 0.01). Feeding treated lupin increased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in breast meat and decreased saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentrations. Our findings suggest that replacing SBM as protein source with micronized-dehulled lupin in meat-type guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative characteristics, enhancing also meat lipid profile with no effect on growth traits. PMID:26240394

  13. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion. PMID:26252418

  14. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages of bioavailable Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr, which were 5.7±0.7, 5.3±1.7, 1.2±0.1, 12±1.5 and 0.1±0.02%, respectively, before lupin growth, increased to 9.6±1.6, 7±2, 2±0.3, 14±1.5 and 0.1±0.02% after lupin harvest. On the whole, our results indicate that the winter cultivation of white lupin in sequence with a metal-accumulator summer crop can improve the recovery of soil quality during the phytoextraction period. It improves the safety of the area, limiting additional ecological and human health problems, and enhances soil health by avoiding the use of chemical amendments and by increasing the levels of viable microorganisms. PMID:24992047

  15. Effect of different debittering processes on mineral and phytic acid content of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Nilgün; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-11-01

    Lupin is a valuable ancient legume which contains high amount of protein, dietary fiber, oil, minerals and different functional components. Bitter lupin seeds cannot be consumed directly since its high toxic alkaloid content. Cooking and soaking are effective processes for removing these toxic substances and antinutrients as phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. In this study, debittering process containing cooking and soaking up to 144 h was applied to lupin seeds. Raw lupin seeds had 3.3 % ash and 41.3 % protein content. Ash and protein content of debittered seeds changed between 2.1 and 2.5 %, 39.5 and 40.9 % respectively. After debittering process, significant (p < 0.05) decreases (between % 5.7 and 75.7) were observed in calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, magnesium and manganese contents of the lupin seeds. Phytic acid was removed from raw lupin seeds up to 71.4 % ratio by debittering processes, and soaking in distilled water at 55 °C and long soaking time (144 h) was found the most effective methods on phytic acid loss. While more lighter (L*) seeds were obtained with soaking in distilled water at 25 °C, soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution gave more yellowish (b*) seed properties compared to other soaking methods. Soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution at 144 h gave the most liked products in terms of sensorial evaluation. PMID:26396330

  16. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this element. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  17. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26??1.41kg (mean??SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P??0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants. PMID:26250152

  18. Auxin mediates patterning of cluster root development induced by phosphorus deficiency in Lupinus albus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) develops cluster roots under phosphorus (P) deficiency. This species is widely used as a model system to study the morphology and physiology of cluster roots. However, the mechanism of P deficiency-induced cluster root formation is not fully understood. To evaluate the...

  19. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Lupinus albus L. germplasm and its implication for association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and applications as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47%) and oil (6-13%). It also has many secondary metabolites that are pote...

  20. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W. PMID:25708530

  1. A re-assessment of sucrose signaling involved in cluster-root formation and function in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengrui; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2015-07-01

    Apart from substrate functions, a signaling role of sucrose in root growth regulation is well established. This raised the question whether sucrose signals might also be involved in formation of cluster-roots (CRs) under phosphate (Pi) limitation, mediating exudation of phosphorus (P)-mobilizing root exudates, e.g. in Lupinus albus and members of the Proteaceae. Earlier studies demonstrated that CR formation in L. albus was mimicked to some extent by external application of high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) in the presence of extremely high P supply (1-10 mM), usually suppressing CR formation. In this study, we re-addressed this question using an axenic hydroponic culture system with normal P supply (0.1 mM) and a range of sucrose applications (0.25-25 mM). The 2.5 mM sucrose concentration was comparable with internal sucrose levels in the zone of CR initiation in first-order laterals of P-deficient plants (3.4 mM) and induced the same CR morphology. Similar to earlier studies, high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) resulted in root thickening and inhibition of root elongation, associated with a 10-fold increase of the internal sucrose level. The sucrose analog palatinose and a combination of glucose/fructose failed to stimulate CR formation under P-sufficient conditions, demonstrating a signal function of sucrose and excluding osmotic or carbon source effects. In contrast to earlier findings, sucrose was able to induce CR formation but had no effect on CR functioning with respect to citrate exudation, in vitro activity and expression of genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, secretory acid phosphatase and MATE transporters, mediating P-mobilizing functions of CRs. PMID:25412792

  2. Growth conditions determine different melatonin levels in Lupinus albus L.

    PubMed

    Arnao, Marino B; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa

    2013-09-01

    Melatonin, an indoleamine, which has recently been assigned several roles in plant physiology as a growth promoter, as rooting agent, and as antioxidant in senescence delay and cytoprotection, seems to have a relevant function in plant stress situations. The presence of melatonin increases the resistance of lupin plant tissues (Lupinus albus L.) against natural or artificially induced adverse situations. In this work, we studied the response of lupin plants in controlled stress situations (drought-, anaerobic-, pH-, and cold stress and using ZnSO4 , NaCl, and H2 O2 as chemical stressors) and measured the changes in endogenous melatonin levels in lupin plants. Also, the effect of abscisic acid, ethylene, and natural environmental conditions were evaluated. In general, nearly all stressful factors caused an increase in melatonin in the investigated organs. The chemical stress provoked by ZnSO4 or NaCl caused the most pronounced changes in the endogenous level of melatonin, followed by cold and drought stressors. In some cases, the level of melatonin increased 12-fold with respect to the levels in control plants, indicating that melatonin biosynthesis is upregulated in common stress situations, in which it may serve as a signal molecule and/or as a direct antistress agent due to its well-known antioxidative properties. PMID:23600673

  3. Rapid shotgun proteomic liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-based method for the lupin ( Lupinus albus L.) multi-allergen determination in foods.

    PubMed

    Mattarozzi, Monica; Bignardi, Chiara; Elviri, Lisa; Careri, Maria

    2012-06-13

    Allergy to lupin is a growing food safety problem because this legume, increasingly exploited in the food industry, is one of the allergens that, according to law, must be declared on the labels of food products in the European Union. In this context, a rapid targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis was proposed and aimed to unequivocal confirmation and reliable determination of the major lupin allergens, i.e., conglutins, in pasta and biscuits. Detected concentrations were around 1 mg of lupin/kg of pasta and biscuits, proving the capabilities of the MS-based method in terms of the sensitive allergen screening method. Good precision was observed in terms of both intra- and interday repeatability, with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 23%. Recoveries from 95 ± 10 to 118 ± 12% and from 103 ± 1 to 110 ± 12% ranges were calculated for biscuits and pasta, respectively. Finally, the applicability of the devised method was investigated by analyzing market samples containing lupin and samples that may possibly contain traces of lupin deriving from cross-contamination between products and production lines. PMID:22612429

  4. Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis) population cycles with climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) contains the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine that causes a crooked calf syndrome when a cow ingests lupine between the 40-100 day of gestation. An outbreak of crooked calves occurred in the Scabland region of eastern Washington in 1997 following t...

  5. Mycobiota of Lupinus albus seed from a public germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedborne mycobiota of Lupinus albus was assessed using blotter paper and agar media with Rose Bengal or semi-selective for Pythium or Fusarium. Samples of 200 seeds were taken from each of 16 inventories, comprising 14 accessions originating from Germany, France, Ukraine, Syria, Hungary or Spain, a...

  6. Accumulating behaviour of Lupinus albus L. growing in a normal and a decalcified calcic luvisol polluted with Zn.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Jesús; Hernández, Ana Jesus; Prieto, Nuria; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2003-12-01

    Lupinus albus L. is a leguminous plant that is starting to generate interest for the phytoremediation soils showing intermediate metal pollution. Among these metals, Zn causes major phytotoxicity problems and is common in polluted soils of central Spain. The purpose of this study was to explore the nutritional behaviour of this plant species towards increasing Zn concentrations in two calcic luvisol soils: a normal basic soil and a decalcified acid soil. For this purpose the effects of different Zn concentrations on mineral nutrition, growth, nodulation and nitrogenase activity of nodulated Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa plants has been investigated. A 12-week trial was performed in pots under greenhouse conditions. In each soil, four replicate pots were set up per treatment (100, 150, 300, 500 and 700 ppm Zn). Seeds were inoculated with a Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) strain ISLU-16. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant effects of soil Zn on grown, plant mineral composition and nodulation. Lupin growth was better in acid soil than in basic soil with the low dose of Zn applied, although plant growth in acid soil was severely affected from 300 ppm Zn, where the pH of the soil was 4.7. Zn application produce nutritional imbalances, especially with the higher dose added. Most of Zn accumulation occurred in the roots in both types of soils. In acid soil, lupin absorbs high amounts of Zn in both root (4650 ppm) and aerial part (3605 ppm), when the doses of Zn applied was 300 ppm. This feature permits Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa to be considered as potential phytoremediator and also for the revegetation of degraded landfill areas with slightly acid or neutral soils polluted with Zn. PMID:14717438

  7. Possibilities of chemical weed control in Lupinus albus and Lupinus luteus-screening of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Dewitte, K; Latr, J; Haesaert, G

    2006-01-01

    Weed control in sweet lupins is still a problem. Especially the phytotoxicity of herbicides in sweet lupins is not enough studied. Therefore a screening with 16 selected herbicides and 4 lupin varieties has been set up. During the growing season 2005, 10 of the tested herbicides were applied in pre-emergence, 6 in post-emergence. Pre-emergence: Most of the active matters tested in pre-emergence were not phytotoxic for lupins. Pendimethalin (1000 g/ha), linuron (500 g/ha), chlorotoluron (1500 g/ha), prosulfocarb (2400 g/ha), clomazone (72 g/ha), isoxaben (100 g/ha), metamitron (1050 g/ha) and dimethenamid-P (720 g/ha) were applied without causing any significant phytotoxic symptoms. Only the lupins treated with aclonifen (1200 g/ha) showed a significant growth inhibition, 3 weeks after treatment. Significantly more chlorosis was noticed when the lupins were treated with aclonifen or with diflufenican, in preemergence. Post-emergence: In post-emergence, diflufenican (50 g/ha) did not cause any crop damage. Florasulam (5 g/ha) caused almost 100% necrosis in L. albus as well as in L. luteus. Bentazon (652 g/ha), thifensulfuron-methyl (15 g/ha) and metribuzin (175 g/ha) caused obvious necrosis and growth inhibition of the crop. The growth inhibition was significantly more severe for lupins treated with bentazon than if they were treated with thifensulfuron-methyl or metribuzin. Three weeks after treatment, clomazone (90 g/ha) and diflufenican (50 g/ha), did not cause any crop injury at all. The results indicated an interesting range of active matters which can be applied in pre-emergence, but weed control in post-emergence stays difficult. PMID:17390816

  8. Lupinus albus plants acquire mercury tolerance when inoculated with an Hg-resistant Bradyrhizobium strain.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Miguel A; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    One strain of Bradyrhizobium canariense (L-7AH) was selected for its metal-resistance and ability to nodulate white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants, from a collection of rhizobial strains previously created from soils of the Almadén mining district (Spain) with varying levels of Hg contamination. Plants were inoculated with either strain L-7AH (Hg-tolerant) or L-3 (Hg-sensitive, used as control), and watered with nutrient solutions supplemented with various concentrations (0-200 μM) of HgCl2 in a growth chamber. L. albus inoculated with L-7AH were able to nodulate even at the highest concentration of Hg while those inoculated with L-3 had virtually no nodules at Hg concentrations above 25 μM. Plants inoculated with L-7AH, but not those with the control strain, were able to accumulate large amounts of Hg in their roots and nodules. Nodulation with L-7AH allowed plants to maintain constant levels of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in their leaves and a high photosynthetic efficiency, whereas in those inoculated with L-3 both pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency decreased significantly as Hg concentration increased. Nitrogenase activity of plants nodulated with L-7AH remained fairly constant at all concentrations of Hg used. Results suggest that this symbiotic pair may be used for rhizoremediation of Hg-contaminated soils. PMID:24125840

  9. Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced “crooked calf disease” occur in northern Oregon and e...

  10. CATTLE GRAZEing VELVET LUPINE (Lupinus leucophyllus): INFLUENCE OF ASSOCIATED FORAGES, ALKALOID LEVELS AND POPULATION CYCLEs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain lupines (Lupinus spp.) contain alkaloids that cause contracture-type skeletal birth defects and cleft palate (Crooked calf syndrome) if the pregnant cow consumes them during the 40 70th day of gestation. The objective of this study was to determine when cattle graze velvet lupine (Lupi...

  11. EVALUATION OF WHITE LUPIN (LUPINUS ALBUS L.), TEMPERATE CORN (ZEA MAYS L.), TROPICAL CORN (ZEA MAYS L.), OR HYBRID PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM GLAUCUM [L] R. BR.) SILAGE FOR LACTATING COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate corn (TC) silage is unexcelled as a forage but ensiling unconventional crops may be profitable in specific situations. White lupin (L), tropical corn (TrC), hybrid pearl millet (PM) and three TC silages were evaluated with 54 Holsteins in a 91-d lactation-digestion study and with six rumi...

  12. Lupine induced "crooked calf disease" in Washington and Oregon: identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulfureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Ralphs, Michael H; Motteram, Ernie S; Pfister, James A; Gay, Clive C

    2007-12-26

    Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced "crooked calf disease" occur in northern Oregon and eastern Washington state. Five lupine populations from this area representing three species (L. leucophyllus, L. sulfureus, and L. sericeus) were evaluated taxonomically and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the major alkaloids in each lupine species were identified. The teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine was present in both of the lupine species responsible for the high outbreaks in east-central Washington and northeastern Oregon. However, the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. leucophyllus were dissimilar, as were the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. sulfureus. Botanical classification is not sufficient to determine potential teratogenicity, and it must be followed by chemical characterization to determine risk to livestock. PMID:18038992

  13. Changes in Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius alkaloid profiles in response to mechanical damage.

    PubMed

    Chludil, Hugo Daniel; Vilariño, María Del Pilar; Franco, María Luz; Leicach, Silvia Rosa

    2009-07-22

    The aim of this work was to evaluate chemical responses to biomass removal mimicking large herbivore action in Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius aerial parts. GC and GC-MS were used to determine total alkaloid content (TAC) and alkaloid relative abundances in bitter and sweet varieties of each species. Bitter genotypes Vila vehla (Vv; 3.95 +/- 0.26 mg/g of DM) and El Harrach (EH; 3.99 +/- 0.19 mg/g of DM) showed after damage 22 and 32.8% TAC increases, respectively. Even sweet varieties, with very low alkaloid contents, Gungurru (Gu; 0.51 +/- 0.09 mg/g of DM) and Rumbo (Ru; 0.53 +/- 0.09 mg/g of DM) exhibited higher induced responses of 58.8 and 67.9%, respectively, and their final TAC values remained low, distinctly apart from those corresponding to bitter species. Moreover, minor components such as ammodendrine, reported to exhibit teratogenic potential, showed no significant changes in their relative abundances in response to biomass removal in these genotypes. PMID:19537792

  14. THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein is limited. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins' thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties of lupin meal was studi...

  15. Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov., isolated from nodules of Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Flores-Félix, José David; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Igual, José M; Tejedor, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-09-01

    A bacterial strain designated RLAHU15(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus, with its closest relatives being Paenibacillus catalpae D75(T), Paenibacillus glycanilyticus DS-1(T), Paenibacillus endophyticus PECAE04(T) and Paenibacillus xinjiangensis B538(T) with 98.8 %, 98.9 %, 97.4 % and 97.4 % similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed values lower than 45 % between the strain RLAHU15(T) and any of these species. The isolate was a Gram-stain positive, motile and sporulating rod. Catalase activity was weak and oxidase activity was positive. Casein and starch were hydrolysed but gelatin was not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 54.4 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain RLAHU15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RLAHU15(T) ( = LMG 27296(T) = CECT 8235(T)). PMID:24928428

  16. THE THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thermal and rheological properties of lupin flour meal were investigated by DSC and rheometry. DSC study exhibited that non-de-fatted and de-fatted lupin meal had the identical thermal properties, and lupin had the same glass transition as the wheat protein gluten. By measuring the linear rheo...

  17. THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is very little research done in the area of structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties o...

  18. Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupinus leucophyllus is one of many lupine species known to contain toxic and/or teratogenic alkaloids that can cause congenital birth defects. The concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual major alkaloids were measured in three different years from different plant parts over the phenolog...

  19. Supplementation to reduce consumption of lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on Scabland rangelands of eastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine) is prevalent in eastern Washington, and when consumed by pregnant cows, can cause “crooked calf disease.” Rangelands in this region are dominated by poor quality annual grasses. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding supplemental crude protein...

  20. The nutritional value of narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) for fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Kasprowicz-Potocka, Małgorzata; Zaworska, Anita; Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutrient digestibility of seeds of four varieties of narrow-leafed lupines (Lupinus angustifolius) and the possibility of soya bean meal (SBM) substitution by lupine seeds alone and in combination with rapeseed meal (RSM) in the diets of pigs. The seeds of the lupine varieties Kalif, Sonet, Zeus and Boruta were analysed. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) was determined on 50 cross-bred pigs using the difference method with titanium dioxide as a marker. The substitution of SBM by lupine seeds alone (at 0 - 100%) was tested on 60 pigs (20-105 kg body weight (BW)) and by a combination of lupine seeds and RSM on 180 fattening pigs (35-80 kg BW). The chemical composition of lupine seeds differed considerably, especially in terms of crude protein and mineral content. All seeds contained less than 0.05% alkaloids and 9.3% oligosaccharides in dry matter. The ATTD of protein ranged from 70% to 74%, those of ether extract from 36% to 55% and those of gross energy from 77% to 84%. The entire replacement of SBM by lupine seeds (var. Sonet) did not have a negative effect on the performance of grower and fattener pigs. The substitution of SBM by a combination of lupines and RSM reduced the performance of growing and finishing pigs significantly. PMID:26967104

  1. Flow Cytometric Fluorescence Anisotropy of Lipophilic Probes in Epidermal and Mesophyll Protoplasts from Water-Stressed Lupinus albus L

    PubMed Central

    Gantet, Pascal; Hubac, Camille; Brown, Spencer C.

    1990-01-01

    The blue emission anisotropy, r, of two lipophilic probes, diphenylhexatriene (DPH) and its trimethyl-ammonium derivative (TMA-DPH), has been measured in foliar Lupinus albus L. protoplasts for the first time by flow cytometry. Distinctive values have been obtained for protoplasts of epidermal and mesophyll origin, identified by their intensities of chlorophyll fluorescence. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed that TMA-DPH remained in the plasma membrane while DPH penetrated into intracellular lipid domains. Typical emission anisotropy values at 22°C for mesophyll and epidermal protoplasts, respectively, were 0.225 and 0.312 with TMA-DPH, and 0.083 and 0.104 with DPH. This indicates that epidermal cells—and notably their plasma membranes (TMA-DPH)—have higher lipid microviscosity and/or more ordered lipid structure. Two lupin genotypes characterized as resistant or susceptible to drought were analyzed with or without 9 days of water stress shown to increase ion leakage from foliar discs. Water stress greatly increased the apparent fluidity, and more so in the susceptible genotype; the effect was more pronounced in the chlorophyll-containing mesophyll cells than in the epidermal cells. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667772

  2. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases play an important role in phosphate recycling and phosphate sensing in white lupin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.), a well adapted species to phosphate (Pi) impoverished soils, develops short, densely clustered lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) to increase Pi uptake. Here, we report two white lupin glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes which share strong homo...

  3. Nitric oxide is involved in phosphorus deficiency-induced cluster root development and citrate exudation in white lupin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) forms specialized cluster roots characterized by exudation of organic anions under phosphorus (P) deficiency. Here, we evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in P deficiency-induced cluster-root formation and citrate exudation in white lupin. Plants were treated with NO ...

  4. Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J.; Ash, Gavin J.; Harper, John D.I.; Vipin, Cina A.; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively. PMID:24987293

  5. Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J; Ash, Gavin J; Harper, John D I; Vipin, Cina A; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively. PMID:24987293

  6. The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from Lupines (Lupinus spp.) that cause crooked calf disease.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly “crooked calf disease” in pregnant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primari...

  7. Protein distribution in lupin protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. prepared by various isolation techniques.

    PubMed

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Volke, Daniela; Hoffmann, Ralf; Eisner, Peter; Herfellner, Thomas; Brunnbauer, Markus; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-09-15

    Differences in the protein distribution of various protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor were identified as affected by the isolation procedure (alkaline and/or salt-induced extraction followed by isoelectric and/or dilutive precipitation). Protein isolates extracted in alkaline solution showed higher protein yields (26.4-31.7%) compared to salt-induced extraction (19.8-30.0%) or combined alkaline and salt-induced extraction (23.3-25.6%). Chemical variations among the protein isolates especially occurred within the albumins. Protein isolates precipitated isoelectrically showed the highest contents, whereas protein isolates precipitated by dilutive showed the lowest contents of conglutin δ. Furthermore, the alkaline subunits of conglutin α and conglutin γ decreased during alkaline extraction compared to salt-induced extraction. A decrease in protein-bound polar and basic amino acids was shown after protein isolation. In contrast, the amounts of nonpolar, aliphatic, aromatic, hydroxylated and sulfur-rich amino acids were higher in the lupin protein isolates compared to the lupin flakes. However, the functional side chains could not be related to the specific molecular arrangements of the protein isolates, as a similar amino acid composition was found among the protein isolates. PMID:27080873

  8. Real-time RT-PCR profiling of transcription factors including 34 MYBs and signaling components in white lupin reveals their P status dependent and organ-specific expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting macronutrient because of its low availability in soils. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants are well adapted to growth under P-deficient conditions. White lupin acclimation to P-deficiency includes changes in root architecture and enhanced expression of numerous ...

  9. Alkaloid profiles, concentration, and pools in velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) over the growing season.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen T; Ralphs, Michael H; Panter, Kip E; Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R

    2007-01-01

    Lupinus leucophyllus is one of many lupine species known to contain toxic and/or teratogenic alkaloids that can cause congenital birth defects. The concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual major alkaloids were measured in three different years from different plant parts over the phenological development of the plant. All of the alkaloids were found in the different plant tissues throughout the growing season, although their levels varied in different tissues. Concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual alkaloids varied on an annual basis and in their distribution in the different tissues. Anagyrine levels were highest in the floral tissue, lupanine and unknown F accumulated to the greatest level in the vegetative tissue, and 5,6-dehydrolupanine accumulated to the highest level in the stem. These alkaloids appear to be in a metabolically active state with the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine accumulating to its highest level in the developing seed. The latter is, thus, the phenological stage posing the greatest danger to grazing livestock. PMID:17146716

  10. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

  11. Cohnella lupini sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Flores-Félix, José David; Carro, Lorena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, José M; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain designated RLAHU4B(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in León (Spain). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain showed similarities lower than 97 % with respect to species of the genus Cohnella. The strain was a Gram-variable, sporulating rod, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, and facultatively anaerobic. It was positive for oxidase, catalase and β-galactosidase production but negative for urease, amylase and gelatinase. Strain RLAHU4B(T) grew in the presence of 5 % NaCl. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid was present in the peptidoglycan. anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. Major polar lipids of strain RLAHU4B(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown phospholipids, two unknown aminophospholipids and one unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Strain RLAHU4B(T) presented phenotypic differences from all recognized species of the genus Cohnella. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data indicated that strain RLAHU4B(T) belongs to a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella lupini sp. nov. is proposed, with strain RLAHU4B(T) ( = LMG 27416(T) = CECT 8236(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24021729

  12. White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a phosphate (Pi) deficiency tolerant legume which develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and...

  13. TILLAGE AND ROTATION EFFECTS ON LUPIN IN DOUBLE-CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful introduction of a new crop into a region requires that basic crop management parameters be determined and provided to producers through an information extension system. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was cultivated in the southeastern USA from 1930-1950 on up to 1 million ha, primarily a...

  14. Molecular Analysis of SCARECROW Genes Expressed in White Lupin Cluster Roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Scarecrow (SCR) transcription factor plays a crucial role in root cell radial patterning and is required for maintenance of the quiescent center and differentiation of the endodermis. In response to phosphorus (P) deficiency, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) root surface area increases some 50- to...

  15. Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205 Mb and 530 Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64 L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome sequencing will facilitate the further development of genomic tools and lupin germplasm. Massive sequencing of cDNA libraries will continue to produce raw materials for gene discovery, identification of polymorphisms (SNPs, EST-SSRs, INDELs, etc.) for marker development, anchoring sequences for genome comparisons and putative gene candidates for QTL detection. PMID:22920992

  16. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation.

    PubMed

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-02-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS(n). The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon germination, with the total content and composition of isoflavonoids more affected than those of flavonoids. Glycosylated isoflavones were the most predominant compounds found in lupine seedlings. Lesser amounts of isoflavone aglycones, including prenylated ones, were also accumulated. Elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae, in addition to germination, raised the content of isoflavonoids further: the total content of 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives was increased considerably, without increasing that of genistein derivatives. Elicitation by fungus triggered prenylation of isoflavonoids, especially of the 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives. The preferred positions of prenylation differed among the three lupine species. The change in isoflavone composition increased the agonistic activity of the extracts towards the human estrogen receptors, whereas no antagonistic activity was observed. PMID:26749476

  17. An RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of orthophosphate-deficient white lupin reveals novel insights into phosphorus acclimation in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi-deficiency remains largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has evolved unique adaptation systems for gro...

  18. NYLON FILTER ARRAYS REVEAL DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION IN PROTEOID ROOTS OF WHITE LUPIN IN RESPONSE TO P DEFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) adapts to phosphorus deficiency (-P) by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots. In an effort to better understand the molecular events mediating these adaptive responses, we have isolated and sequenced 2,102 express...

  19. RNA-Seq atlas of white lupin: a guide to the phosphorus deficiency response pathway in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptation systems for growth in P-deficient conditions (-P) in soils including: 1) development of densely clustered determinant lateral roots called pr...

  20. Scarecrow (SCR) mediates root development in Lupinus albus and Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin is considered an ideal crop in which to study plant response to phosphate (P) deficiency. Phosphorus is a major element limiting plant growth. White lupin has evolved several strategies to acquire scarce P including: modified root growth resulting in massive root proliferation and root e...

  1. Functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, and health aspects of Lupinus albus protein isolates.

    PubMed

    Yoshie-Stark, Yumiko; Bez, Jürgen; Wada, Yoshiko; Wäsche, Andreas

    2004-12-15

    To utilize lupin seeds for food and pharmaceutical applications, lupin seeds were pretreated to remove oil using hexane or carbon dioxide. Two types of lupin protein isolate were prepared. Both types of protein isolate showed good foaming activity, comparable to egg white. Protein isolate extracted under acid conditions showed higher foaming activity than protein isolate extracted at neutral pH. The lipoxygenase activity was much reduced in both of the protein isolates. The protein isolate extracted at neutral pH showed a stronger angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition than the protein isolate extracted under acidic pH. In contrast, the protein isolate extracted under acid conditions had a greater sodium cholate binding capacity, comparable to that of cholestyramine. Lupin samples showed less DPPH radical scavenging activity than deoiled soybean. The deoiling method did not affect the functional properties, lipoxygenase activity, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, sodium cholate binding, and radical scavenging activity. PMID:15675820

  2. Impact of biochar and root-induced changes on metal dynamics in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris and Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Houben, David; Sonnet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Rhizosphere interactions are deemed to play a key role in the success of phytoremediation technologies. Here, the effects of biochar and root-induced changes in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris L. and Lupinus albus L. on metal (Cd, Pb and Zn) dynamics were investigated using a biotest on a 2mm soil layer and a sequential extraction procedure (Tessier's scheme). In the bulk soil, the application of 5% biochar significantly reduced the exchangeable pool of metals primarily due to a liming effect which subsequently promoted the metal shift into the carbonate-bound pool. However, metals were re-mobilized in the rhizosphere of both A. capillaris and L. albus due to root-induced acidification which counteracted the liming effect of biochar. As a result, the concentrations of metals in roots and shoots of both plants were not significantly reduced by the application of biochar. Although the study should be considered a worst-case scenario because experimental conditions induced the intensification of rhizosphere processes, the results highlight that changes in rhizosphere pH can impact the effectiveness of biochar to immobilize metals in soil. Biochar has thus a potential as amendment for reducing metal uptake by plants, provided the acidification of the rhizosphere is minimized. PMID:25559173

  3. Identification of genes induced in proteoid roots of white lupin under nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with functional characterization of a formamidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is considered a model system for understanding plant acclimation to nutrient deficiency. It acclimates to phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots; proteoid-root development ...

  4. THE VALUE OF LUPINUS ALBUS L. CV. AU HOMER AS A WINTER COVER CROP FOR COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) management in the southeastern USA with conservation tillage requires the utilization of winter cover crops to increase organic matter in the top 5 cm of the soil. The objective of our research was to test the newly-developed bitter white lupin cv. `AU Home...

  5. Lipoxygenase activity in different species of sweet lupin (Lupinus L.) seeds and flakes.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Michael; Bader-Mittermaier, Stephanie; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-05-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalysed degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids is supposed to be a major cause of undesirable off-flavour development in legumes. In the present study, a photometric LOX assay including adequate sample workup was adapted to lupin seeds, kernels and flakes, respectively. Optimum reaction conditions were at pH 7.5 using a phosphate buffer concentration of 150 mmol l(-1) without the addition of sodium chloride. The LOX activities of different lupin species and varieties were compared. Significant variations among the species and varieties ranging from 50 to 1004 units mg(-1) protein were determined, being significantly lower than soybean LOX activity. Hulling and flaking of the seeds resulted in a 15% increase of LOX activity. In contrast to soy and other legumes, LOX from lupin only converted free fatty acids, whereas trilinolein and β-carotene were not oxidised. Consequently, according to the established classification, lupin LOX activity may be assigned to the LOX type-1, which, to the best of our knowledge, was demonstrated for the first time. PMID:25529698

  6. [Quality evaluation of a dehydrated product based on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) and eggs].

    PubMed

    Glorio Paulet, P; Reynoso Zárate, Z

    1993-03-01

    After a mathematical evaluation of 20 mixtures containing different proportions of potato (P), lupin (L) and whole egg (E) on dry basis and kept the latter component in a constant amount of 6 per cent, a mixture of 60:34:6 (P:L:E) was chosen for a further experimental work at a lab level because of his better nutritional value for the pre-school children feeding. When an eighteen percent suspension of the mixture mentioned above was dehydrated in a drum drier an adecuate yield of flakes was obtained with an appropriate water absorption. The sensory evaluation test of the dehydrated product as a sauce indicated a higher acceptance than purées. On the other hand, during a 90 days period storage test of the product as flakes, it did not show microbiological problems, although after 45 days rancidity appeared in the dehydrated product. PMID:8002704

  7. Lupine inhalation induced asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; Gil-Adrados, Ana C; Domínguez-Noche, Carmen; Cosmes, Pedro M

    2005-09-01

    The ingestion of lupine seed flour has been reported as a cause of allergic reactions. There is some evidence of its allergenic potential after inhalation. An 8-year-old asthmatic child, who was allergic to peanut, was studied in our clinic with the suspicion of an adverse drug reaction due to salbutamol. He suffered an asthma attack while playing with his brother, who had been eating lupine seed as snack; surprisingly, the asthma attack worsened with salbutamol. The skin tests showed a positive result with Lupinus albus extract, peanut, garbanzo bean, navy bean, pea, green bean, lentil, soy, Olea europea pollen, grass pollen and Plantago lanceolata pollen. The prick-by-prick tests both from dried seeds and those preserved in salt and water were strongly positive. Serum specific IgE antibodies were positive to Lupine albus (1.43 kU/l), peanut (4.32 kU/l), soy (2.15 kU/l), lentil (3.12 kU/l) and garbanzo (0.7 kU/l). After informed consent salbutamol was well tolerated but the patient had asthma in 5 min of manipulation of the lupine seeds. In our case, reactivity with other legumes was also demonstrated, but only peanut allergy was relevant because boiled legumes were tolerated. It is also notorious that anamnesis is so important to assess the true etiological agents of asthma. PMID:16176404

  8. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) genome.

    PubMed

    Przysiecka, Łucja; Książkiewicz, Michał; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI), a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL), and fatty acid-binding (FAP) proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1) main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis, and Glycine. PMID:25954293

  9. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    Przysiecka, Łucja; Książkiewicz, Michał; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI), a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL), and fatty acid-binding (FAP) proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1) main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis, and Glycine. PMID:25954293

  10. Equilibrium between basic nitrogen compounds in lupin seeds with differentiated alkaloid content.

    PubMed

    Aniszewski, T; Ciesiołka, D; Gulewicz, K

    2001-05-01

    The results of studies on the content of the nitrogen basic compounds, viz. quinolizidine alkaloids, biogenic polyamines and basic amino acids in lupin seeds are presented. The investigations concerned three lupin species (Lupinus angustifolius L., Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus luteus L.) and 10 bitter and sweet cultivated varieties. Content of quinolizidine alkaloids in L. angustifolus ranged from 11.4 to 19.6 microg mg(-1) dw (bitter cultivars), from 0.18 to 0.47 microg mg(-1) dw (sweet), in L. albus from 0.58 microg mg(-1) dw (sweet) to 29.6 microg mg(-1) dw (bitter) and in L. luteus from 0.59 (sweet) to 14.7 microg mg(-1) dw (bitter). Total biogenic polyamine content ranged in L. angustifolius from 2,773.9 to 3,180.2 pmol mg(-1) dw (bitter) and from 315.0 to 599.0 pmol mg(-1) dw (sweet), in L. albus from 432.6 pmol mg(-1) dw (sweet) to 1,832.0 pmol mg(-1) dw (bitter) and in L. luteus from 506.9 pmol mg(-1) dw (sweet) to 2,091.8 pmol mg(-1) dw (bitter). Total basic amino acids varied in L. angustifolus from 1,034.3 to 1,704.6 pmol mg(-1) dw (bitter) and from 1,761.9 to 2,101.9 pmol mg(-1) dw (sweet), in L. albus from 696.9 pmol mg(-1) dw (bitter) to 1,269.2 pmol mg(-1) dw (sweet) and in L. luteus from 927.6 pmol mg(-1) dw (bitter) to 1,598.3 pmol mg(-1) dw (sweet). We found a close dependence between alkaloid content and level of biogenic polyamines and basic amino acids in all three lupin species tested. All bitter lupin seeds also contain high level of biogenic polyamines but a low content of basic amino acids. The reverse relationship in sweet lupin seeds was found. The findings demonstrate that lupin nitrogen basic compounds are in steady equilibrium and that change of content in one compound leads to corresponding change in the content of another. PMID:11336259

  11. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Candy M; Jost, Ricarda; Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop) using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC), Helicase (HEL), and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots) encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other potentially more suitable reference genes will be identified for this species in future. PMID:26872362

  12. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop) using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC), Helicase (HEL), and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots) encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other potentially more suitable reference genes will be identified for this species in future. PMID:26872362

  13. Phylogenetic examination of two chemotypes of Lupinus leucophyllus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines (Lupinus spp.) are a common legume found on western U.S. rangelands. Lupinus spp. may contain quinolizidine and or piperidine alkaloids that could be toxic and or teratogenic to grazing livestock. Lupinus leucohyllus and Lupinus polyphyllus represent important species in the rangelands of ...

  14. Enhanced methionine levels and increased nutritive value of seeds of transgenic lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) expressing a sunflower seed albumin?gene

    PubMed Central

    Molvig, Lisa; Tabe, Linda M.; Eggum, Bjorn O.; Moore, Andrew E.; Craig, Stuart; Spencer, Donald; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of improving the nutritive value of an important grain legume crop, a chimeric gene specifying seed-specific expression of a sulfur-rich, sunflower seed albumin was stably transformed into narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Sunflower seed albumin accounted for 5% of extractable seed protein in a line containing a single tandem insertion of the transferred DNA. The transgenic seeds contained less sulfate and more total amino acid sulfur than the nontransgenic parent line. This was associated with a 94% increase in methionine content and a 12% reduction in cysteine content. There was no statistically significant change in other amino acids or in total nitrogen or total sulfur contents of the seeds. In feeding trials with rats, the transgenic seeds gave statistically significant increases in live weight gain, true protein digestibility, biological value, and net protein utilization, compared with wild-type seeds. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using genetic engineering to improve the nutritive value of grain crops. PMID:9237987

  15. Occurrence of H2-Uptake Hydrogenases in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) and Their Expression in Nodules of Lupinus spp. and Ornithopus compressus1

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Jesús; Villa, Ana; Chamber, Manuel; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-four strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) from worldwide collections were screened by a colony hybridization method for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the structural genes of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase. Twelve strains exhibited strong colony hybridization signals, and subsequent Southern blot hybridization experiments showed that they fell into two different groups on the basis of the pattern of EcoRI fragments containing the homology to the hup probe. All strains in the first group (UPM860, UPM861, and 750) expressed uptake hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, and Ornithopus compressus, but both the rate of H2 uptake by bacteroids and the relative efficiency of N2 fixation (RE = 1 - [H2 evolved in air/acetylene reduced]) by nodules were markedly affected by the legume host. L. angustifolius was the less permissive host for hydrogenase expression in symbiosis with the three strains (average RE = 0.76), and O. compressus was the more permissive (average RE = 1.0). None of the strains in the second group expressed hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules, and only one exhibited low H2-uptake activity in symbiosis with O. compressus. The inability of these putative Hup+ strains to induce hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules is discussed on the basis of the legume host effect. Among the 42 strains showing no homology to the B. japonicum hup-specific probe in the colony hybridization assay, 10 were examined in symbiosis with L. angustifolius. The average RE for these strains was 0.51. However, one strain, IM43B, exhibited high RE values (higher than 0.80) and high levels of hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with L. angustifolius, L. albus, and L. luteus. In Southern blot hybridization experiments, no homology was detected between the B. japonicum hup-specific DNA probe and total DNA from vegetative cells or bacteroids from strain IM43B even under low stringency hybridization conditions. We conclude from these results that strain IM43B contains hup DNA sequences different from those in B. japonicum and in other lupine rhizobia strains. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666550

  16. Effects of Experience and Lactation on Lupine Consumption by Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines (Lupinus spp.) containing certain alkaloids are either acutely toxic or cause birth defects in livestock. Lupine toxicity has been especially troublesome in portions of eastern Washington state. Some reports suggest that naïve, younger animals may consume more lupine than more experienced, o...

  17. Metabolic Adaptations of White Lupin Roots and Shoots under Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Julia; Gödde, Victoria; Niehaus, Karsten; Zörb, Christian

    2015-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is highly adapted to phosphorus-diminished soils. P-deficient white lupin plants modify their root architecture and physiology to acquire sparingly available soil phosphorus. We employed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling of P-deficient white lupins, to investigate biochemical pathways involved in the P-acquiring strategy. After 14 days of P-deficiency, plants showed reduced levels of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in shoots. Phosphorylated metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, myo-inositol-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate were reduced in both shoots and roots. After 22 days of P-deficiency, no effect on shoot or root sugar metabolite levels was found, but the levels of phosphorylated metabolites were further reduced. Organic acids, amino acids and several shikimate pathway products showed enhanced levels in 22-day-old P-deficient roots and shoots. These results indicate that P-deficient white lupins adapt their carbohydrate partitioning between shoot and root in order to supply their growing root system as an early response to P-deficiency. Organic acids are released into the rhizosphere to mobilize phosphorus from soil particles. A longer period of P-deficiency leads to scavenging of Pi from P-containing metabolites and reduced protein anabolism, but enhanced formation of secondary metabolites. The latter can serve as stress protection molecules or actively acquire phosphorus from the soil. PMID:26635840

  18. Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction – Many species in the Lupinus genus are poorly defined resulting in improper taxonomic identification. Lupine species may contain quinolizidine and/or piperidine alkaloids that can be acutely toxic and/or teratogenic resulting in crooked calf disease. Objective – To identify any char...

  19. Evaluation of USDA Lupinus sp. collection for seed-borne potyviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant viruses pose a threat to the acquisition, maintenance, and distribution of lupin germplasm (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). The availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from maintained lupin collections is mandatory for conducting lupin research. The objective of t...

  20. An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Orthophosphate-Deficient White Lupin Reveals Novel Insights into Phosphorus Acclimation in Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Jamie A.; Yang, S. Samuel; Miller, Susan S.; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W.; Vance, Carroll P.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (Pi), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in Pi-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to Pi supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ≥ 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to Pi deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ≤ 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to Pi deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the Pi status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in Pi deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. PMID:23197803

  1. The alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sulphureus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel; Lee, Stephen T; Gardner, Dale R; Pfister, James A; Welch, Kevin D; Green, Benedict T; Davis, T Zane; Panter, Kip E

    2009-02-25

    Lupines are common plants on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). One such lupine, Lupinus sulphureus, occurs in parts of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Specimens of L. sulphureus from field collections and herbaria were evaluated taxonomically and by chemical means. A total of seven distinct alkaloid profiles and the individual alkaloids associated with each profile were identified. Each alkaloid profile was unique in its geographical distribution and its potential risk to livestock. In conclusion, taxonomic classification is not sufficient to determine risk, as chemical characterization of the alkaloids must also be performed. PMID:19182952

  2. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    PubMed

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming. PMID:23279626

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes during Infection of Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) by Phytophthora parasitica.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Leila M; Cullerne, Darren P; Torreña, Pernelyn; Taylor, Jen; Hardham, Adrienne R

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq analysis has shown that over 60% (12,962) of the predicted transcripts in the Phytophthora parasitica genome are expressed during the first 60 h of lupin root infection. The infection transcriptomes included 278 of the 431 genes encoding P. parasitica cell wall degrading enzymes. The transcriptome data provide strong evidence of global transcriptional cascades of genes whose encoded proteins target the main categories of plant cell wall components. A major cohort of pectinases is predominantly expressed early but as infection progresses, the transcriptome becomes increasingly dominated by transcripts encoding cellulases, hemicellulases, β-1,3-glucanases and glycoproteins. The most highly expressed P. parasitica carbohydrate active enzyme gene contains two CBM1 cellulose binding modules and no catalytic domains. The top 200 differentially expressed genes include β-1,4-glucosidases, β-1,4-glucanases, β-1,4-galactanases, a β-1,3-glucanase, an α-1,4-polygalacturonase, a pectin deacetylase and a pectin methylesterase. Detailed analysis of gene expression profiles provides clues as to the order in which linkages within the complex carbohydrates may come under attack. The gene expression profiles suggest that (i) demethylation of pectic homogalacturonan occurs before its deacetylation; (ii) cleavage of the backbone of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I precedes digestion of its side chains; (iii) early attack on cellulose microfibrils by non-catalytic cellulose-binding proteins and enzymes with auxiliary activities may facilitate subsequent attack by glycosyl hydrolases and enzymes containing CBM1 cellulose-binding modules; (iv) terminal hemicellulose backbone residues are targeted after extensive internal backbone cleavage has occurred; and (v) the carbohydrate chains on glycoproteins are degraded late in infection. A notable feature of the P. parasitica infection transcriptome is the high level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes that degrade β-1,3-glucanases during middle and late stages of infection. The results suggest that high levels of β-1,3-glucanases may effectively degrade callose as it is produced by the plant during the defence response. PMID:26332397

  4. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes during Infection of Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) by Phytophthora parasitica

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Leila M.; Cullerne, Darren P.; Torreña, Pernelyn; Taylor, Jen; Hardham, Adrienne R.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq analysis has shown that over 60% (12,962) of the predicted transcripts in the Phytophthora parasitica genome are expressed during the first 60 h of lupin root infection. The infection transcriptomes included 278 of the 431 genes encoding P. parasitica cell wall degrading enzymes. The transcriptome data provide strong evidence of global transcriptional cascades of genes whose encoded proteins target the main categories of plant cell wall components. A major cohort of pectinases is predominantly expressed early but as infection progresses, the transcriptome becomes increasingly dominated by transcripts encoding cellulases, hemicellulases, β-1,3-glucanases and glycoproteins. The most highly expressed P. parasitica carbohydrate active enzyme gene contains two CBM1 cellulose binding modules and no catalytic domains. The top 200 differentially expressed genes include β-1,4-glucosidases, β-1,4-glucanases, β-1,4-galactanases, a β-1,3-glucanase, an α-1,4-polygalacturonase, a pectin deacetylase and a pectin methylesterase. Detailed analysis of gene expression profiles provides clues as to the order in which linkages within the complex carbohydrates may come under attack. The gene expression profiles suggest that (i) demethylation of pectic homogalacturonan occurs before its deacetylation; (ii) cleavage of the backbone of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I precedes digestion of its side chains; (iii) early attack on cellulose microfibrils by non-catalytic cellulose-binding proteins and enzymes with auxiliary activities may facilitate subsequent attack by glycosyl hydrolases and enzymes containing CBM1 cellulose-binding modules; (iv) terminal hemicellulose backbone residues are targeted after extensive internal backbone cleavage has occurred; and (v) the carbohydrate chains on glycoproteins are degraded late in infection. A notable feature of the P. parasitica infection transcriptome is the high level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes that degrade β-1,3-glucanases during middle and late stages of infection. The results suggest that high levels of β-1,3-glucanases may effectively degrade callose as it is produced by the plant during the defence response. PMID:26332397

  5. The alternative respiratory pathway mediates carboxylate synthesis in white lupin cluster roots under phosphorus deprivation.

    PubMed

    Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Lambers, Hans; Wang, Xing; Finnegan, Patrick M; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel

    2014-04-01

    Plant adaptations associated with a high efficiency of phosphorus (P) acquisition can be used to increase productivity and sustainability in a world with a growing population and decreasing rock phosphate reserves. White lupin (Lupinus albus) produces cluster roots that release carboxylates to efficiently mobilize P from P-sorbing soils. It has been hypothesized that an increase in the activity of the alternative oxidase (AOX) would allow for the mitochondrial oxidation of NAD(P)H produced during citrate synthesis in cluster roots at a developmental stage when there is a low demand for ATP. We used the oxygen-isotope fractionation technique to study the in vivo respiratory activities of the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) and the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) in different root sections of white lupins grown hydroponically with and without P. In parallel, AOX protein levels and internal carboxylate concentrations were determined in cluster and non-cluster roots. Higher in vivo AOP activity was measured in cluster roots when malate and citrate concentrations were also high, thus confirming our hypothesis. AOX protein levels were not always correlated with in vivo AOP activity, suggesting post-translational regulation of AOX. PMID:24118034

  6. Whole-Plant Gas Exchange and Reductive Biosynthesis in White Lupin1

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Yan-Ping; Turpin, David H.; Layzell, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of CO2 (CER) and O2 (OER) exchange in roots and shoots of vegetative white lupin (Lupinus albus) were used to calculate the flow of reducing power to the synthesis of biomass that was more reduced per unit of carbon than carbohydrate. On a whole-plant basis, the diverted reductant utilization rate (DRUR which is: 4 × [CER + OER]) of shoot tissue was consistently higher than that of roots, and values obtained in the light were greater than those in the dark. An analysis of the biomass being synthesized over a 24-h period provided an estimate of whole-plant DRUR (3.5 mmol e− plant−1 d−1), which was similar to that measured by gas exchange (3.2 mmol e− plant−1 d−1). Given that nitrate reduction to ammonia makes up about 74% of whole-plant DRUR, root nitrate reduction in white lupin was estimated to account for less than 43% of whole-plant nitrate reduction. The approach developed here should offer a powerful tool for the noninvasive study of metabolic regulation in intact plants or plant organs. PMID:11500554

  7. Raffinose family of oligosaccharides from lupin seeds as prebiotics: application in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción; Gómez, Rosario

    2005-06-01

    The raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) isolated from lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. Multolupa) was evaluated for bifidogenic effects during the manufacture of probiotic fermented milk. A mixed starter inoculum was composed of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (1:1). Lupins are a rich source of RFOs that can be used as functional food ingredients. The addition of RFOs to milk increased B. lactis Bb-12 and L. acidophilus populations at the final fermentation time compared with controls. Final fermentation products are positively affected by addition of RFOs, and time of fermentation was reduced from 12 to 10 h. When RFOs were added to milk, they were preferentially used as a carbon source (57.7%) compared with lactose (23.7%) at the end of fermentation. These results suggest that the eventual choice of B. lactis Bb-12 and L. acidophilus in a mixed culture at a 1:1 ratio and addition of RFOs to produce a fermented milk product would have the advantages of rapid growth and acidificationrate and would likely increase the probiotic effect of the final functional product. PMID:15954717

  8. Prick by Prick Induced Anaphylaxis in a Patient with Peanuts and Lupine Allergy: Awareness of Risks and Role of Component Resolved Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarelli, Anna; Calabrò, Claudia; Imperatore, Clara; Scala, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    A case of anaphylaxis is reported in the course of a prick by prick with Lupinus albus and roasted peanut in a 20-year-old woman. We focused on some main topics. First of all it seems important to underscore the potential risks connected to the practice of the prick-by-prick with fresh foods in allergic patients, especially when testing cross-reactive substances, such as White Lupine, peanuts, or soy. It is important that clinicians who perform prick tests be aware of the risk related with in vivo tests in allergic patients. Second, we discuss the problem of the hidden allergens, such as White Lupine flour, or soy flour which are utilized to improve wheat flour because of their lower cost. Patients with a demonstrated allergy to peanuts should be assessed for lupine allergy and informed about the “hidden allergens” issue. Finally, we believe that component resolved diagnosis, the serum specific IgE against molecular components, that is normally considered a second-level diagnostic step has an important role even as a first line approach at least in some selected cases. PMID:25477973

  9. Biodiversity of bradyrhizobia nodulating Lupinus spp.

    PubMed

    Barrera, L L; Trujillo, M E; Goodfellow, M; García, F J; Hernández-Lucas, I; Dávila, G; van Berkum, P; Martínez-Romero, E

    1997-10-01

    The genetic structure of Bradyrhizobium isolates recovered from three Lupinus species (Lupinus campestris, Lupinus montanus, and Lupinus exaltatus) grown in Mexico was examined. Among 41 Bradyrhizobium isolates, 18 electrophoretic types (ETs) were distinguished by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis of five metabolic enzymes. The mean genetic diversity, 0.64, indicated that there was great genetic diversity in the population sampled. Most isolates (63%) fell into two closely related clusters (clusters I and II) and were the types most frequently isolated from the root nodules of L. montanus and L. campestris. ET cluster III isolates were frequent nodule occupants of L. exaltatus. The isolates also were assigned to three main groups by using Curie point pyrolysis mass spectrometry. In general, the multilocus enzyme electrophoretic data and pyrolysis mass spectrometric data agreed. We determined the 16S rRNA sequences of representative Lupinus isolates and of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 6T and found that the lupine isolates were highly related to the B. japonicum type strain, although not all B. japonicum type strains (subcultures maintained in different bacterial collections) had identical small-subunit rRNA. PMID:9336911

  10. Cattle preference for forage kochia, crested wheatgrass, and velvet lupine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkaloids in velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) cause a crooked calf syndrome if the dam consumes the plant between day 40 to 100 of gestation. In spring calving operations, this coincides with late summer when annual grasses are mature and senescent in the Scabland Region of east...

  11. The Forms and Sources of Cytokinins in Developing White Lupine Seeds and Fruits1

    PubMed Central

    Emery, R.J. Neil; Ma, Qifu; Atkins, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive range of cytokinins (CK) was identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tissues of and in xylem and phloem serving developing white lupine (Lupinus albus) fruits. Analyses were initiated at anthesis and included stages of podset, embryogenesis, and seed filling up to physiological maturation 77 d post anthesis (DPA). In the first 10 DPA, fertilized ovaries destined to set pods accumulated CK. The proportion of cis-CK:trans-CK isomers was initially 10:1 but declined to less than 1:1. In ovaries destined to abort, the ratio of cis-isomers to trans-isomers remained high. During early podset, accumulation of CK (30–40 pmol ovary−1) was accounted for by xylem and phloem translocation, both containing more than 90% cis-isomers. During embryogenesis and early seed filling (40–46 DPA), translocation accounted for 1% to 14% of the increases of CK in endosperm (20 nmol fruit−1) and seed coat (15 nmol fruit−1), indicating synthesis in situ. High CK concentrations in seeds (0.6 μmol g−1 fresh weight) were transient, declining rapidly to less than 1% of maximum levels by physiological maturity. These data pose new questions about the localization and timing of CK synthesis, the significance of translocation, and the role(s) of CK forms in reproductive development. PMID:10938375

  12. The forms and sources of cytokinins in developing white lupine seeds and fruits.

    PubMed

    Emery, R J; Ma, Q; Atkins, C A

    2000-08-01

    A comprehensive range of cytokinins (CK) was identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tissues of and in xylem and phloem serving developing white lupine (Lupinus albus) fruits. Analyses were initiated at anthesis and included stages of podset, embryogenesis, and seed filling up to physiological maturation 77 d post anthesis (DPA). In the first 10 DPA, fertilized ovaries destined to set pods accumulated CK. The proportion of cis-CK:trans-CK isomers was initially 10:1 but declined to less than 1:1. In ovaries destined to abort, the ratio of cis-isomers to trans-isomers remained high. During early podset, accumulation of CK (30-40 pmol ovary(-1)) was accounted for by xylem and phloem translocation, both containing more than 90% cis-isomers. During embryogenesis and early seed filling (40-46 DPA), translocation accounted for 1% to 14% of the increases of CK in endosperm (20 nmol fruit(-1)) and seed coat (15 nmol fruit(-1)), indicating synthesis in situ. High CK concentrations in seeds (0.6 micromol g(-1) fresh weight) were transient, declining rapidly to less than 1% of maximum levels by physiological maturity. These data pose new questions about the localization and timing of CK synthesis, the significance of translocation, and the role(s) of CK forms in reproductive development. PMID:10938375

  13. RNA-seq analysis identifies an intricate regulatory network controlling cluster root development in white lupin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Highly adapted plant species are able to alter their root architecture to improve nutrient uptake and thrive in environments with limited nutrient supply. Cluster roots (CRs) are specialised structures of dense lateral roots formed by several plant species for the effective mining of nutrient rich soil patches through a combination of increased surface area and exudation of carboxylates. White lupin is becoming a model-species allowing for the discovery of gene networks involved in CR development. A greater understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms driving these developmental processes is important for the generation of smarter plants for a world with diminishing resources to improve food security. Results RNA-seq analyses for three developmental stages of the CR formed under phosphorus-limited conditions and two of non-cluster roots have been performed for white lupin. In total 133,045,174 high-quality paired-end reads were used for a de novo assembly of the root transcriptome and merged with LAGI01 (Lupinus albus gene index) to generate an improved LAGI02 with 65,097 functionally annotated contigs. This was followed by comparative gene expression analysis. We show marked differences in the transcriptional response across the various cluster root stages to adjust to phosphate limitation by increasing uptake capacity and adjusting metabolic pathways. Several transcription factors such as PLT, SCR, PHB, PHV or AUX/IAA with a known role in the control of meristem activity and developmental processes show an increased expression in the tip of the CR. Genes involved in hormonal responses (PIN, LAX, YUC) and cell cycle control (CYCA/B, CDK) are also differentially expressed. In addition, we identify primary transcripts of miRNAs with established function in the root meristem. Conclusions Our gene expression analysis shows an intricate network of transcription factors and plant hormones controlling CR initiation and formation. In addition, functional differences between the different CR developmental stages in the acclimation to phosphorus starvation have been identified. PMID:24666749

  14. Identification of a Low Digestibility δ-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  15. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins. PMID:23763660

  16. [Allergenicity of lupin flour].

    PubMed

    Leduc, V; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guérin, L

    2002-06-01

    Lupin flour is used in human food for its high quality nutritional and functional qualities. The frequency of crossed allergy between lupin flour and peanuts, both members of the family of Leguminosae, is strong, since 68% of patients who are allergic to peanut have shown positive reactions to lupin flour when tested by TPO-DA. Cases of isolated allergy to lupin flour without pre-existence of peanut allergy as well as workplace asthma by inhalation are also rarely seen. The specific allergens of lupin and those that participate in crosses with peanut have been studied by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. The diversity of allergens contained in different lupin flour has also been studied. Further, the detection of lupin flour in a "pizza" flour which induced a strong allergic reaction exposed its eventual implication as a masked allergen. PMID:12134645

  17. Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, M.; Evans, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 {micro}M phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. The authors suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}].

  18. Recovering Root System Traits Using Image Analysis Exemplified by Two-Dimensional Neutron Radiography Images of Lupine1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

  19. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  20. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-06-01

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause congenital defects known as crooked calf disease that is periodically economically devastating for the cattle industry. Previous research indicates that cattle breeds may eliminate plant toxins differently, potentially altering their susceptibility. The objective of this study was to describe the toxicokinetics in Holsteins of anagyrine, the teratogenic lupine alkaloid that produces crooked calf disease. Other alkaloids including lupanine, an unidentified alkaloid and 5,6-dehydrolupanine were also evaluated. Dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus was orally dosed to four Holstein steers and blood samples were collected for 96 h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated. The serum elimination of anagyrine in Holstein steers was faster than those reported for beef breeds. This suggests that Holsteins may be less susceptible to lupine-induced crooked calf disease. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings and to verify if there is a breed difference in disease incidence or severity. PMID:25912242

  1. The effect of military training activity on eastern lupine and the Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Turner, Monica G; Rusch, Donald H

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training. PMID:11740627

  2. Chemical composition, nutritive value, and toxicology evaluation of Mexican wild lupins.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, M A; Sotelo, A

    2001-11-01

    The nutrient composition, toxic factors content, and nutritional and toxicological value of Lupinus splendens, L. rotundiflorus, L. elegans, L. simulans, L. exaltatus, L. reflexus, and L. madrensis species from Mexico were analyzed. The seeds of these species were a good source of protein. All the species showed a high lysine and tryptophan content, though sulfur amino acids were limiting. Cyanogenic glycosides were absent, and lectins, trypsin inhibitors, and tannins were present in low concentrations. Lupanine was the major alkaloid in almost all the samples, although sparteine was the major alkaloid in Lupinus reflexus (26.63 mg/g of sample). Cytisine was not found in any of the studied lupins. L. reflexus showed the highest acute toxicity, and L. elegans exhibited no toxicity as evaluated using a mice model. The alkaloid was reduced by hot-water extraction. The protein efficiency ratio in water-debittered seeds was relatively poor (1.1-1.5). These results suggest that the wild lupins studied represent a potential protein supply, and they could be domesticated and used for animal feed if the alkaloids were eliminated and the protein was supplemented with methionine, or if the lupins were used in mixture with cereals. PMID:11714325

  3. Limits to Sulfur Accumulation in Transgenic Lupin Seeds Expressing a Foreign Sulfur-Rich Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tabe, Linda M.; Droux, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The low sulfur amino acid content of legume seeds restricts their nutritive value for animals. We have investigated the limitations to the accumulation of sulfur amino acids in the storage proteins of narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seeds. Variation in sulfur supply to lupin plants affected the sulfur amino acid accumulation in the mature seed. However, when sulfur was in abundant supply, it accumulated to a large extent in oxidized form, rather than reduced form, in the seeds. At all but severely limiting sulfur supply, addition of a transgenic (Tg) sink for organic sulfur resulted in an increase in seed sulfur amino acid content. We hypothesize that demand, or sink strength for organic sulfur, which is itself responsive to environmental sulfur supply, was the first limit to the methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) content of wild-type lupin seed protein under most growing conditions. In Tg, soil-grown seeds expressing a foreign Met- and Cys-rich protein, decreased pools of free Met, free Cys, and glutathione indicated that the rate of synthesis of sulfur amino acids in the cotyledon had become limiting. Homeostatic mechanisms similar to those mediating the responses of plants to environmental sulfur stress resulted in an adjustment of endogenous protein composition in Tg seeds, even when grown at adequate sulfur supply. Uptake of sulfur by lupin cotyledons, as indicated by total seed sulfur at maturity, responded positively to increased sulfur supply, but not to increased demand in the Tg seeds. PMID:11891268

  4. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. PMID:26341422

  5. Sulfur Assimilation in Developing Lupin Cotyledons Could Contribute Significantly to the Accumulation of Organic Sulfur Reserves in the Seed

    PubMed Central

    Tabe, Linda Marie; Droux, Michel

    2001-01-01

    It is currently assumed that the assimilation of sulfur into reduced forms occurs predominantly in the leaves of plants. However, developing seeds have a strong requirement for sulfur amino acids for storage protein synthesis. We have assessed the capacity of developing seeds of narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) for sulfur assimilation. Cotyledons of developing lupin seeds were able to transfer the sulfur atom from 35S-labeled sulfate into seed proteins in vitro, demonstrating the ability of the developing cotyledons to perform all the steps of sulfur reduction and sulfur amino acid biosynthesis. Oxidized sulfur constituted approximately 30% of the sulfur in mature seeds of lupins grown in the field and almost all of the sulfur detected in phloem exuded from developing pods. The activities of three enzymes of the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway were found in developing cotyledons in quantities theoretically sufficient to account for all of the sulfur amino acids that accumulate in the protein of mature lupin seeds. We conclude that sulfur assimilation by developing cotyledons is likely to be an important source of sulfur amino acids for the synthesis of storage proteins during lupin seed maturation. PMID:11351081

  6. IN VITRO RUMINAL PROTEIN DEGRADATION AND MICROBIAL PROTEIN FORMATION OF SEED LEGUMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed legumes such as peas, lupins, and faba beans are important feeds for dairy cows in Europe and other regions. Ruminal protein degradability was quantified using the inhibitor in vitro (IIV) system for samples of 5 seed legumes: 2 peas (cv. Alembo and Helena), 1 white lupin (Lupinus albus, cv. Mu...

  7. Successional Change in Phosphorus Stoichiometry Explains the Inverse Relationship between Herbivory and Lupin Density on Mount St. Helens

    PubMed Central

    Apple, Jennifer L.; Wink, Michael; Wills, Shannon E.; Bishop, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Background The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (N?P) of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus) colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to lupin density and are known to alter lupin colonization dynamics. We examined larval performance in response to leaf nutritional characteristics using gelechiid and pyralid leaf-tiers, and a noctuid leaf-cutter. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted four studies. First, growth of larvae raised on wild-collected leaves responded positively to leaf %P and negatively to leaf carbon (%C), but there was no effect of %N or quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs). Noctuid survival was also positively related to %P. Second, we raised gelechiid larvae on greenhouse-grown lupins with factorial manipulation of competitors and soil N and P. In the presence of competition, larval mass was highest at intermediate leaf N?P and high %P. Third, survival of gelechiid larvae placed on lupins in high-density patches was greater when plant competitors were removed than on controls. Fourth, surveys of field-collected leaves in 2000, 2002, and 2003 indicated that both %P and %N were generally greater in plants from low-density areas. QAs in plants from low-density areas were equal to or higher than QAs in high-density areas. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that declines in lupin P content under competitive conditions are associated with decreased larval growth and survival sufficient to cause the observed negative relationship between herbivore abundance and host density. The results support the theoretical finding that declines in stoichiometric resource quality (caused here by succession) have the potential to cause a decrease in consumer abundance despite very dense quantities of the resource. PMID:19907662

  8. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-α- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-α-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence, and a Sequence-Defined Genetic Linkage Map of the Legume Crop Species Lupinus angustifolius L

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zequn; Zhang, Qisen; Zhou, Gaofeng; Sweetingham, Mark W.; Howieson, John G.; Li, Chengdao

    2013-01-01

    Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the most recently domesticated crop in major agricultural cultivation. Its seeds are high in protein and dietary fibre, but low in oil and starch. Medical and dietetic studies have shown that consuming lupin-enriched food has significant health benefits. We report the draft assembly from a whole genome shotgun sequencing dataset for this legume species with 26.9x coverage of the genome, which is predicted to contain 57,807 genes. Analysis of the annotated genes with metabolic pathways provided a partial understanding of some key features of lupin, such as the amino acid profile of storage proteins in seeds. Furthermore, we applied the NGS-based RAD-sequencing technology to obtain 8,244 sequence-defined markers for anchoring the genomic sequences. A total of 4,214 scaffolds from the genome sequence assembly were aligned into the genetic map. The combination of the draft assembly and a sequence-defined genetic map made it possible to locate and study functional genes of agronomic interest. The identification of co-segregating SNP markers, scaffold sequences and gene annotation facilitated the identification of a candidate R gene associated with resistance to the major lupin disease anthracnose. We demonstrated that the combination of medium-depth genome sequencing and a high-density genetic linkage map by application of NGS technology is a cost-effective approach to generating genome sequence data and a large number of molecular markers to study the genomics, genetics and functional genes of lupin, and to apply them to molecular plant breeding. This strategy does not require prior genome knowledge, which potentiates its application to a wide range of non-model species. PMID:23734219

  10. WHITE LUPIN NITROGEN FIXATION UNDER PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin is highly adapted to growth in a low P environment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether white lupin grown under P-stress has adaptations in nodulation and N2 fixation that facilitate continued functioning. Nodulated plants were grown in silica sand supplied with N-...

  11. 78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Findings In the Federal Register of March 14, 2012 (77 FR 15012) (FRL-9335- 9), EPA issued a document... Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has been exempted from review under... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May...

  12. Bradyrhizobium-Lupinus mariae-josephae: a unique symbiosis endemic of a basic soil in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, D.; Sánchez-Cañizares, C.; Navarro, A.; Rey, L.; Imperial, J.; Ruiz-Argüeso, T.

    2012-04-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is an intriguing lupine species recently discovered in the Mediterranean region and constitutes an endemism of a small area of Eastern Spain (Valencia province; Pascual, 2004; Mahé et al. 2011). It opens new perspectives for ecological and agronomic interests, as it represents the sole lupine species that preferentially grows in basic soils, while almost all other lupine species occur in acid to neutral soils. The L. mariae-josephae symbionts isolated from soils of calcareous areas of Valencia are extremely slow-growing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhrizobium genus and showing symbiotic specificity that prevents nodulation of other Lupinus spp. such as L. angustifolius or L. luteus typically thriving in acid soils (Sanchez-Cañizares et al, 2011). Their phylogenetic analysis based on housekeeping and symbiotic genes showed that L. mariae-josephae symbionts belong to an evolutionary lineage that also includes endosymbiotic bacteria from Retama spp. of Northern Algeria basic soils (Boulila et al. 2009). Conversely, this new lineage is phylogenetically distinct from that of endosymbiotic bacteria from other Lupinus spp. native of the Iberian Peninsula, which were nested mainly within B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages. A genomic diversity study of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population of the calcareous areas in Valencia, based on fingerprint and phylogenetic analysis, showed the existence of a large diversity of genotypes, some of which are related to bacteria from the Retama spp. symbiosis in Algeria. This singular genomic divergence of L. mariae-josephae symbiotic bacteria in such a small geographical area fosters attractive studies on the origin, ecology and evolution of both partners of the symbiosis. Furthermore, it is expected that ongoing seed inoculation experiments with selected strains will allow us to extend the extant distribution spots of L. mariae-josephae plants in Valencia area, and also to determine whether the observed edaphic restrictions represent a limitation to the expansion of L. mariae-josephae crops to wide areas of poor calcareous soils in the Mediterranean region. Work supported by FBBVA Contract BIOCON08-078 to TRA and MICINN Project CGL2011-26932 to JI. Mahé et al. 2010 Genet Resour Crop Evol 58, 101-114. Pascual, H. 2004 Anal Jardín Botán Madrid 61(1): 69-72. Sánchez-Cañizares et al 2011 Syst Appl Microbiol 34 207-215 Boulila et al 2009 Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 32, 245-255.

  13. Effect of aqueous, acid, and alkaline thermal treatments on antinutritional factors content and protein quality in Lupinus campestris seed flour.

    PubMed

    Cristian, Jiménez-Martínez; Rosalva, Mora-Escobedo; Anaberta, Cardador Martínez; Mercedes, Muzquiz; Mercedes, Martin Pedrosa; Gloria, Dávila-Ortiz

    2010-02-10

    Lupinus campestris seeds grown in Mexico have a similar composition to soybean (44% protein, 13% lipids). Use of lupin seed in human and animal diets is limited by its quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) and other antinutritional factor contents. The effect of aqueous, acid, and alkaline thermal debittering treatments with L. campestris seeds flour was evaluated on QAs, oligosaccharides (RFOs), and phenolic compounds (PCs) contents, as well as protein quality. The alkaline treatment most effectively eliminated QAs. Protein content increased from 430 g/kg in untreated seeds to 543 in the aqueous treatment, 567 in the alkaline treatment, and 563 g/kg in the acid treatment. RFOs were eliminated in all treatments. The obtained sample with alkaline treatment had the best protein quality (2.04); this value was 17% lower than that of casein (2.45). The apparent digestibility was over 90% in all treatments, with the aqueous treatment exhibiting the best value (93%). PMID:20058925

  14. Cytokinin stimulates and abscisic acid inhibits greening of etiolated Lupinus luteus cotyledons by affecting the expression of the light-sensitive protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Kusnetsov, V; Herrmann, R G; Kulaeva, O N; Oelmüller, R

    1998-07-01

    Plastid biogenesis in etiolated lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) cotyledons is highly sensitive to cytokinins and abscisic acid. In the presence of the synthetic cytokinin N6-benzylaminopurine, greening and plastid biogenesis is substantially promoted as compared to untreated controls, whereas abscisic acid has an inhibitory effect. Faster greening in cytokinin-treated cotyledons is accompanied by a higher level and slower degradation of the light-sensitive protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase (POR); while ABA has the opposite effect. The phytohormones appear to modulate POR gene expression, since the steady-state levels of POR mRNA, as well as transcripts of other nuclear genes for plastid proteins, are strongly increased by cytokinin and reduced by abscisic acid treatment. When etiolated lupine cotyledons were illuminated with far-red light prior to phytohormone application, the POR level substantially decreased; this was accompanied by the loss of the phytohormone's effect on greening. Based on these findings it is concluded that the level of POR and the integrity of the prolamellar body is crucial for cytokinin- and abscisic acid-controlled greening following transfer of etiolated lupine cotyledons into the light. PMID:9738876

  15. Phenylpropanoic Acid: Growth Factor for Ruminococcus albus

    PubMed Central

    Hungate, R. E.; Stack, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    Phenylpropanoic acid accounted for part of the stimulatory effect of rumen fluid on the rate of growth and of cellulose digestion by cultures of Ruminococcus albus strain 8 grown on a chemically defined medium. As little as 3 ?M concentration gave maximum response. PMID:16346069

  16. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE DEFICIENCY INDUCED PROMOTERS IN TRANSGENIC ALFALFA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphate transporter and acid phosphatase genes are among the major phosphate (P) deficiency induced genes in higher plants. We have previously reported the cloning and characterization of a phosphate transporter gene LaPT1 and acid phosphatase gene LaSAP1 from white lupin Lupinus albus and demonst...

  17. Decomposition and Nutrient Release of Cover Crops on Different Landscape Positions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decomposition patterns of cover crops determine availability of nutrients to subsequent crops. Decomposition and mineralization patterns of Lupinus albus L. (white lupin), Avena strigosa Shreb (black oat), Trifolium incarnatum L. (crimson clover) and Brassica napus L. (rape) were studied under fiel...

  18. Comparative genomics of Lupinus angustifolius gene-rich regions: BAC library exploration, genetic mapping and cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The narrow-leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., is a grain legume species with a relatively compact genome. The species has 2n = 40 chromosomes and its genome size is 960 Mbp/1C. During the last decade, L. angustifolius genomic studies have achieved several milestones, such as molecular-marker development, linkage maps, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Here, these resources were integratively used to identify and sequence two gene-rich regions (GRRs) of the genome. Results The genome was screened with a probe representing the sequence of a microsatellite fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) marker linked to Phomopsis stem blight resistance. BAC clones selected by hybridization were subjected to restriction fingerprinting and contig assembly, and 232 BAC-ends were sequenced and annotated. BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) identified eight single-locus clones. Based on physical mapping, cytogenetic localization, and BAC-end annotation, five clones were chosen for sequencing. Within the sequences of clones that hybridized in FISH to a single-locus, two large GRRs were identified. The GRRs showed strong and conserved synteny to Glycine max duplicated genome regions, illustrated by both identical gene order and parallel orientation. In contrast, in the clones with dispersed FISH signals, more than one-third of sequences were transposable elements. Sequenced, single-locus clones were used to develop 12 genetic markers, increasing the number of L. angustifolius chromosomes linked to appropriate linkage groups by five pairs. Conclusions In general, probes originating from MFLP sequences can assist genome screening and gene discovery. However, such probes are not useful for positional cloning, because they tend to hybridize to numerous loci. GRRs identified in L. angustifolius contained a low number of interspersed repeats and had a high level of synteny to the genome of the model legume G. max. Our results showed that not only was the gene nucleotide sequence conserved between soybean and lupin GRRs, but the order and orientation of particular genes in syntenic blocks was homologous, as well. These findings will be valuable to the forthcoming sequencing of the lupin genome. PMID:23379841

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Bujacz, Grzegorz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2008-07-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.

  20. Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate phosphohydrolase from yellow lupin seeds: purification to homogeneity and some properties.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, A; Starzyńska, E; Brown, P; Blackburn, G M

    1997-11-15

    Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate phosphohydrolase (EC 3.6.1.14) has been purified to homogeneity from the meal of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain of 25+/-1 kDa. It catalyses the hydrolysis of a nucleoside 5'-tetraphosphate to a nucleoside triphosphate and orthophosphate, and hydrolysis of tripolyphosphate but neither pyrophosphate nor tetraphosphate. A divalent cation, Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Mn2+, is required for these reactions. The pH optimum for hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (p4A) is 8.2, Vmax is 21+/-1.7 micromol/min per mg of protein and the Km for p4A is 3+/-0.6 microM. At saturating p4A concentrations, the rate constant for the reaction is 8.5+/-0.7 s-1 [at 30 degrees C, in 50 mM Hepes/KOH (pH8.2)/5 mM MgCl2/0.1 mM dithiothreitol]. p4A and guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate are hydrolysed at the same rate. Adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate (p5A) is degraded 1/200 as fast and is converted into ATP and two molecules of orthophosphate, which are liberated sequentially. This contrasts with the cleavage of p5A by the lupin diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.17), which gives ATP and pyrophosphate. Zn2+, F- and Ca2+ ions inhibit the hydrolysis of p4A with I50 values of 0.1, 0.12 and 0.2 mM respectively. PMID:9359862

  1. Ultrastructure and adhesion properties of Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, H; Irvin, R; Costerton, J W; Cheng, K J

    1975-01-01

    Morphological studies have shown that cells of the anaerobic rumen bacterium Ruminococcus albus have electron-translucent granules of reserve carbohydrate in their cytoplasm, and that they have a polysaccharide "coat" layer external to their gram-negative cell wall. This coat layer, which stains specifically with ruthenium red, forms a compact mat of fibers adjacent to the cell, and fibrous elements also project as much as 0.6 mum from the cells. These radial fibers are clearly visualized by freeze-etching, and can be seen to extend throughout the extensive intercullular space in centrifuged pellets of these bacteria. Cells of R. albus adhere to cellulose fibers added to the culture medium, and the coat material is seen to mediate this adhesion in addition to its function in the general protection of these cells. Images PMID:47323

  2. Ecology of invasive melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, J.; Werdin-Pfisterer, N.; Beattie, K.; Densmore, R.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific. Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorum and Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  3. Effects of experience and lactation on lupine consumption by cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two grazing studies using non-pregnant cows were conducted in the Channel Scablands of eastern Washington during 2003-2004. Six cows naïve to lupine and 6 cows with several years experience grazing lupine-infested rangelands were grazed together for 25 days. Diets were determined by bite counts. ...

  4. Conservation of endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in its natural habitat by inoculation with selected, native Bradyrhizobium strains.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simn; Laguna, Emilio; Durn, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argeso, Toms

    2014-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in "terra rossa" soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other "terra rossa" or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive. PMID:25019379

  5. Conservation of Endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in Its Natural Habitat by Inoculation with Selected, Native Bradyrhizobium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simón; Laguna, Emilio; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in “terra rossa” soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other “terra rossa” or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive. PMID:25019379

  6. Expression of novel cytosolic malate dehydrogenases (cMDH) in Lupinus angustifolius nodules during phosphorus starvation.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Marcellous; Phiri, Ethel; Khan, Wesaal; Sakiroğlu, Muhammet; Valentine, Alex; Khan, Sehaam

    2014-11-01

    During P deficiency, the increased activity of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) can lead to malate accumulation. Cytosolic- and nodule-enhanced MDH (cMDH and neMDH, respectively) are known isoforms, which contribute to MDH activity in root nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the cMDH isoforms in nodule malate supply under P deficiency. Nodulated lupins (Lupinus angustifolius var. Tanjil) were hydroponically grown at adequate P (+P) or low P (-P). Total P concentration in nodules decreased under P deficiency, which coincided with an increase in total MDH activity. A consequence of higher MDH activity was the enhanced accumulation of malate derived from dark CO2 fixation via PEPC and not from pyruvate. Although no measurable neMDH presence could be detected via PCR, gene-specific primers detected two 1kb amplicons of cMDH, designated LangMDH1 (corresponding to +P, HQ690186) and LangMDH2 (corresponding to -P, HQ690187), respectively. Sequencing analyses of these cMDH amplicons showed them to be 96% identical on an amino acid level. There was a high degree of diversification between proteins detected in this study and other known MDH proteins, particularly those from other leguminous plants. Enhanced malate synthesis in P-deficient nodules was achieved via increased anaplerotic CO2 fixation and subsequent higher MDH activities. Novel isoforms of cytosolic MDH may be involved, as shown by gene expression of specific genes under P deficiency. PMID:25151130

  7. The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, M. Mercedes; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Annicchiarico, Paolo; Frías, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Sussmann, Daniela; Duranti, Marcello; Seger, Alice; Zander, Peter M.; Pueyo, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Europe has become heavily dependent on soya bean imports, entailing trade agreements and quality standards that do not satisfy the European citizen’s expectations. White, yellow, and narrow-leafed lupins are native European legumes that can become true alternatives to soya bean, given their elevated and high-quality protein content, potential health benefits, suitability for sustainable production, and acceptability to consumers. Nevertheless, lupin cultivation in Europe remains largely insufficient to guarantee a steady supply to the food industry, which in turn must innovate to produce attractive lupin-based protein-rich foods. Here, we address different aspects of the food supply chain that should be considered for lupin exploitation as a high-value protein source. Advanced breeding techniques are needed to provide new lupin varieties for socio-economically and environmentally sustainable cultivation. Novel processes should be optimized to obtain high-quality, safe lupin protein ingredients, and marketable foods need to be developed and offered to consumers. With such an integrated strategy, lupins can be established as an alternative protein crop, capable of promoting socio-economic growth and environmental benefits in Europe. PMID:26442020

  8. An epidemiological model for externally sourced vector-borne viruses applied to Bean yellow mosaic virus in lupin crops in a Mediterranean-type environment.

    PubMed

    Maling, T; Diggle, A J; Thackray, D J; Siddique, K H M; Jones, R A C

    2008-12-01

    A hybrid mechanistic/statistical model was developed to predict vector activity and epidemics of vector-borne viruses spreading from external virus sources to an adjacent crop. The pathosystem tested was Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) spreading from annually self-regenerating, legume-based pastures to adjacent crops of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) in the winter-spring growing season in a region with a Mediterranean-type environment where the virus persists over summer within dormant seed of annual clovers. The model uses a combination of daily rainfall and mean temperature during late summer and early fall to drive aphid population increase, migration of aphids from pasture to lupin crops, and the spread of BYMV. The model predicted time of arrival of aphid vectors and resulting BYMV spread successfully for seven of eight datasets from 2 years of field observations at four sites representing different rainfall and geographic zones of the southwestern Australian grainbelt. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the relative importance of the main parameters that describe the pathosystem. The hybrid mechanistic/statistical approach used created a flexible analytical tool for vector-mediated plant pathosystems that made useful predictions even when field data were not available for some components of the system. PMID:19000002

  9. Factors Affecting Cellulolysis by Ruminococcus albus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, W. R.; Yu, Ida; Hungate, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The factors influencing the digestion of pebble-milled cellulose by enzymes were studied by using several strains of Ruminococcus albus including a mutant characterized by a more eccentric location of its colony in the clearing produced by digestion of the cellulose in the thin layer lining the wall of a culture tube. Most of the cellulase is extracellular. As much as 65% of the cellulose could be digested by the cell-free enzymes provided the quantity of cellulose was small. Fresh enzyme was repeatedly administered or the digestion experiment was arranged in a dialysis bag through which digestion products could diffuse. Cellobiose and, to a lesser extent, glucose inhibited digestion. Pebble-milled filter paper, moist crystalline cellulose from cotton, and dry crystalline cellulose (Sigmacel) were digested, but in decreasing rapidity, respectively. Carboxymethylcellulose was digested more rapidly than pebble-milled cellulose but to approximately the same final extent as judged by Cu reduction values. Cell walls from alfalfa were digested. The enzyme preparation was active over the pH range 6.0 to 6.8 and showed most rapid cellulose digestion at 45 C. Part of the cellulolytic activity was irreversibly destroyed by exposure to oxygen. Much of the enzyme was absorbed on cellulose. The absorption and desorption characteristics, as well as the partial inhibition by oxygen, indicate that multiple enzymes are involved. Images PMID:4735890

  10. Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K

    2010-10-01

    Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability. PMID:20542068

  11. Nitrogen Utilization and Metabolism in Ruminococcus albus 8

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Nam; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2014-01-01

    The model rumen Firmicutes organism Ruminococcus albus 8 was grown using ammonia, urea, or peptides as the sole nitrogen source; growth was not observed with amino acids as the sole nitrogen source. Growth of R. albus 8 on ammonia and urea showed the same growth rate (0.08 h−1) and similar maximum cell densities (for ammonia, the optical density at 600 nm [OD600] was 1.01; and for urea, the OD600 was 0.99); however, growth on peptides resulted in a nearly identical growth rate (0.09 h−1) and a lower maximum cell density (OD600 = 0.58). To identify differences in gene expression and enzyme activities, the transcript abundances of 10 different genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and specific enzyme activities were analyzed by harvesting mRNA and crude protein from cells at the mid- and late exponential phases of growth on the different N sources. Transcript abundances and enzyme activities varied according to nitrogen source, ammonia concentration, and growth phase. Growth of R. albus 8 on ammonia and urea was similar, with the only observed difference being an increase in urease transcript abundance and enzyme activity in urea-grown cultures. Growth of R. albus 8 on peptides showed a different nitrogen metabolism pattern, with higher gene transcript abundance levels of gdhA, glnA, gltB, amtB, glnK, and ureC, as well as higher activities of glutamate dehydrogenase and urease. These results demonstrate that ammonia, urea, and peptides can all serve as nitrogen sources for R. albus and that nitrogen metabolism genes and enzyme activities of R. albus 8 are regulated by nitrogen source and the level of ammonia in the growth medium. PMID:24610852

  12. EFFECT OF SHADE ON ALKALOID CONTENT OF LUPINUS LEUCOPHYLLUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupine-induced "crooked calf" syndrom is a significant problem for ranches in the semi-arid region of the channeled scablands of eastern Washington State. Rainfall and soil moisture has been proposed to affect the alkaloid content and/or palatability of L. leucophyllus. It is also possible that shad...

  13. Lupin allergy: a hidden killer at home, a menace at work; occupational disease due to lupin allergy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C P; Yates, D H

    2010-10-01

    The products of the flowering plant, lupin, are increasingly used as a human food product, particularly in baking. Occupational sensitization to lupin with occupational rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma was first described in 2001, and confirmed in a larger cross-sectional study in a food processing company in 2006. Sensitization by inhalation may result in occupational asthma, work-exacerbated asthma, occupational rhinitis and conjunctivitis. The incidence of occupational sensitization may be as high as 29%. The relationship with exposure intensity is as yet unclear, and requires further clarification. Although there is little information from long-term studies, these diseases are likely to improve after cessation of exposure. Cross-sensitization to other legumes, particularly peanuts, has been shown by skin prick testing, with potential for serious anaphylactic reactions. This review summarizes the available literature on occupational sensitization to lupin products. It is one of two reviews, one covering the problem of lupin allergy in the home, while the present article deals with lupin sensitization in the workplace. Increased awareness is needed of this occupational hazard to avoid future cases of occupational disease and their accompanying morbidity and potential mortality. PMID:20937061

  14. Insights into naturally minimised Streptomyces albus J1074 genome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Streptomyces albus J1074 strain is one of the most widely used chassis for the heterologous production of bioactive natural products. The fast growth and an efficient genetic system make this strain an attractive model for expressing cryptic biosynthetic pathways to aid drug discovery. Results To improve its capabilities for the heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters, the complete genomic sequence of S. albus J1074 was obtained. With a size of 6,841,649 bp, coding for 5,832 genes, its genome is the smallest within the genus streptomycetes. Genome analysis revealed a strong tendency to reduce the number of genetic duplicates. The whole transcriptomes were sequenced at different time points to identify the early metabolic switch from the exponential to the stationary phase in S. albus J1074. Conclusions S. albus J1074 carries the smallest genome among the completely sequenced species of the genus Streptomyces. The detailed genome and transcriptome analysis discloses its capability to serve as a premium host for the heterologous production of natural products. Moreover, the genome revealed 22 additional putative secondary metabolite gene clusters that reinforce the strain’s potential for natural product synthesis. PMID:24495463

  15. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

  16. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Detter, J. Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  17. Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.

    PubMed

    Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora

    2014-01-15

    This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, γ-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for γ-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that γ-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements. PMID:24054261

  18. Hypoglycemic effect of Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and subjects with dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Fornasini, M; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Villamar, M P; Baldeón, M E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are increasing health problems that negatively affect health care systems worldwide. There is a constant urge to develop new therapies with better effects, lower side effects at lower prices to treat these diseases. Lupinus species and their derivates are good candidates to be used as hypoglycaemic agents. A phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the role of raw Lupinus mutabilis on blood glucose and insulin in normoglycemic and dysglycemic subjects. Results show that consumption of L. mutabilis by normal weight healthy young individuals did not change importantly blood glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, consumption of similar doses of lupinus by dysglycemic individuals (fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL) decreased significantly blood glucose. Lupinus effects were greater in those subjects with higher basal glucose levels. Glucose lowering effects of lupinus were not observed after soy intake that was used as control. A statistically significant reduction in insulin levels was also observed in the lupinus group compared with the soy group after 60 minutes of treatment. Furthermore, only treatment with lupinus improved insulin resistance in dysglycemic subjects. These data demonstrate that lupinus consumption could be a feasible and low cost alternative to treat chronic hyperglycemic diseases. PMID:22732964

  19. SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF TERATOGENIC PIPERIDINE ENANTIOMERS FROM NICOTIANA AND LUPINUS SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingestion of Lupinus and Nicotiana species by pregnant livestock at specific gestational periods can result in calves, piglets, lambs and kids with cleft palate and front limb contractures. Ammodendrine and anabasine are teratogens and are found in Lupinus and Nicotiana species, respectively. Both...

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames ORFs with a similar genetic organization and conceptual translations of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The orde...

  1. Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf disease” is used to describe a number of skeletal malformations in newborn calves, including a twisted spine, neck, and one or both forelimbs. These malformations develop when the pregnant cow eats toxic lupines containing the alkaloids anagyrine, ammodendrine, and N-methyl ammodendri...

  2. Diversity of selected Lupinus angustifolius L. genotypes at the phenotypic and DNA level with respect to microscopic seed coat structure and thickness.

    PubMed

    Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawiński, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. 'Emir', and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars 'Sonet' and 'Emir'. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar 'Zeus' (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

  3. Diversity of Selected Lupinus angustifolius L. Genotypes at the Phenotypic and DNA Level with Respect to Microscopic Seed Coat Structure and Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawiński, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. ‘Emir’, and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars ‘Sonet’ and ‘Emir’. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar ‘Zeus’ (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

  4. Eustrongylides sp. epizootic in young common egrets (Casmerodius albus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    In May 1985, epizootic mortality was reported in common egrets (Casmerodius albus) on Avery Island, Louisiana. Subsequent investigation revealed that more than 400 birds died. Severe peritoneal nematodiasis (Eustrongylides sp.) was found on postmortem examination. A nearby breeding rookery on the same island was apparently unaffected. Reasons for this selective mortality are presented. Three other reports of epizootic mortality due to Eustrongylides sp. have been reported. This is the first report of this type of epizootic in gulf-coast birds.

  5. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  6. Lupin kernel fibre foods improve bowel function and beneficially modify some putative faecal risk factors for colon cancer in men.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stuart K; Chua, Veronica; Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L

    2006-02-01

    Consumption of some dietary fibres may benefit bowel health; however, the effect of Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) is unknown. The present study examined the effect of a high-fibre diet containing LKFibre on bowel function and faecal putative risk factors for colon cancer compared to a control diet without LKFibre. Thirty-eight free-living, healthy men consumed an LKFibre and a control diet for 1 month each in a single-blind, randomized, crossover study. Depending on subject energy intake, the LKFibre diet was designed to provide 17-30 g/d fibre (in experimental foods) above that of the control diet. Bowel function self-perception, frequency of defecation, transit time, faecal output, pH and moisture, faecal levels of SCFA and ammonia, and faecal bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity were assessed. In comparison to the control diet, the LKFibre diet increased frequency of defecation by 0.13 events/d (P=0.047), increased faecal output by 21 % (P=0.020) and increased faecal moisture content by 1.6 % units (P=0.027), whilst decreasing transit time by 17 % (P=0.012) and decreasing faecal pH by 0.26 units (P<0.001). Faecal butyrate concentration was increased by 16 % (P=0.006), butyrate output was increased by 40 % (P=0.002) and beta-glucuronidase activity was lowered by 1.4 micromol/h per g wet faeces compared to the control diet (P<0.001). Addition of LKFibre to the diet incorporated into food products improved some markers of healthy bowel function and colon cancer risk in men. PMID:16469156

  7. Composition and functional properties of Lupinus campestris protein isolates.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Martínez-Ayala, A L; Millán, F; Dávila-Ortíz, G

    2005-09-01

    Protein isolates from L. campestris and soybean seeds were prepared using isoelectric precipitation (PI) and micellization (MI) procedures. The amount of protein recovered was considerably higher with the isoelectric precipitation than with the micellization procedure (60% and 30%, respectively). Protein contents were higher than 90% in protein isolates. Antinutritional factors content (alkaloids, lectins, and tannins) were reduced to innocuous levels after protein isolate preparation. Minimum protein solubility for the precipitated lupin protein isolate (LPI) was at pH 4.0, and between pH 4 and 6 for the micellized lupin protein isolate (LMI), increasing at both extremes of the pH scale. Water absorption for the LMI was 1.3 ml/g of protein and its oil absorption 2.2 ml/g of protein. The LPI had 1.7 ml/g of protein in both water and oil absorption. Foaming capacity and stability was pH-dependent. Foaming capacity was higher at pH 2 and lower near the protein isoelectric points. Minimum protein concentration for gelation in LMI was 8% w/v at pH 4, while for LPI was 6% at pH 4 and 6. Amino acid composition in L. campestris flour and protein isolates was high in lysine and low in methionine. Most of the essential amino acids in lupin protein isolates were at acceptable levels compared to a reference pattern for infants and adults. The electrophoretic pattern of both protein isolates showed three bands with different mobilities, suggesting that the protein fractions belong to alpha-conglutin (11S-like protein), beta-conglutin (7S-like protein) and gamma-conglutin. It is proven that some of the functional properties of L. campestris protein isolates are similar to those soybean protein isolates recovered under equal conditions. PMID:16187011

  8. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

  9. Water-binding capacity and viscosity of Australian sweet lupin kernel fibre under in vitro conditions simulating the human upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Cathryn M; Baxter, Amynta L; Johnson, Stuart K

    2005-03-01

    There is currently little understanding of the physicochemical properties in the human gastrointestinal tract of Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKF), a novel food ingredient with potential for the fibre enrichment of foods such as baked goods. Since physicochemical properties of dietary fibres have been related to beneficial physiological effects in vivo, this study compared water-binding capacity and viscosity of LKF with that of other fibres currently used for fibre-enrichment of baked goods, under in vitro conditions simulating the human upper gastrointestinal tract. At between 8.47 and 11.07 g water/g dry solids, LKF exhibited water-binding capacities that were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than soy fibre, pea hull fibre, cellulose and wheat fibre at all of the simulated gastrointestinal stages examined. Similarly, viscosity of LKF was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the other fibres at all simulated gastrointestinal stages. The relatively high water-binding capacity and viscosity of LKF identified in this study suggests that this novel fibre ingredient may elicit different and possibly more beneficial physiological effects in the upper human gastrointestinal tract than the conventional fibre ingredients currently used in fibre-enriched baked goods manufacture. We are now performing human studies to investigate the effect of LKF in the diet on health-related gastrointestinal events. PMID:16019318

  10. Control of common bunt of wheat under field conditions with the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the biological control potential of the fungus Muscodor albus, when applied as a seed treatment or an in furrow soil treatment, for control of common bunt (CB) of wheat caused by Tilletia caries. For seed treatments, dry rye grain culture of M. albus wa...

  11. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T formed a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these ot...

  12. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  13. LUPINE EFFECTS ON SOIL QUALITY AND FUNCTION DURING PRIMARY SUCCESSION AT MOUNT ST. HELENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines, early legume colonists of Mount St. Helens pyroclastic flows, are important mediators of above and belowground succession because they are sources of C and N that impact soil genesis, establishment of other plant species and soil microbial communities. Rates of N2 fixation by lupines can va...

  14. Influence of grazing pressure on cattle consumption of the teratogenic plant velvet lupine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupine species may contain teratogenic alkaloids that cause birth defects called crooked calf syndrome. If pregnant cows ingest toxic lupine between days 40 and 100 of gestation, fetal movement is impaired and irreversible skeletal defects occur. There is a need to determine the time and condition...

  15. Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lupin allergy remains a significant cause of food-induced allergic reactivity and anaphylaxis. Previous work suggests a strong association with legume allergy and peanut allergy in particular. Both doctors and the public have little awareness of lupin as an allergen. Case presentation Case 1 was a 41-year-old Caucasian woman without previous atopy who developed facial swelling, widespread urticaria with asthma and hypotension within minutes of eating a quiche. Her lupin allergy was confirmed by both blood and skin tests. Her lupin sensitivity was so severe that even the miniscule amount of lupin allergen in the skin testing reagent produced a mild reaction. Case 2 was a 42-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with three episodes of worsening urticaria and asthma symptoms over 6 years occurring after the consumption of foods containing lupin flour. Blood and skin tests were positive for lupin allergy. Case 3 was a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with known oral allergy syndrome who had two reactions associated with urticaria and vomiting after consuming foods containing lupin flour. Skin testing confirmed significant responses to a lupin flour extract and to one of the foods inducing her reaction. Case 4 was a 54-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with a 7 year history of three to four episodes each year of unpredictable oral tingling followed by urticaria after consuming a variety of foods. The most recent episode had been associated with vomiting. She had developed oral tingling with lentil and chickpeas over the previous year. Skin and blood tests confirmed lupin allergy with associated sensitivity to several legumes. Conclusions Lupin allergy can occur for the first time in adults without previous atopy or legume sensitivity. Although asymptomatic sensitisation is frequent, clinical reactivity can vary in severity from severe anaphylaxis to urticaria and vomiting. Lupin allergy may be confirmed by skin and specific immunoglobulin E estimation. Even skin testing can cause symptoms in some highly sensitive individuals. The diagnosis of lupin allergy in adults may be difficult because it is frequently included as an undeclared ingredient. Better food labelling and medical awareness of lupin as a cause of serious allergic reactions is suggested. PMID:24529316

  16. Anticholinergic toxicity associated with lupine seeds as a home remedy for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tsiodras, S; Shin, R K; Christian, M; Shaw, L M; Sass, D A

    1999-06-01

    We describe a case of sparteine intoxication associated with using a preparation from lupine seeds. A female patient of Portuguese origin presented to the emergency department with classic anticholinergic signs after ingestion of a lupine seed extract. She took the preparation with the belief it represented a cure for her recently diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of the patient's lupine bean extract identified the preponderant compound as oxo-sparteine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Intoxication by lupine seeds rarely occurs in human beings. To our knowledge, no medical or toxicologic evidence supports a belief that lupine extract could lower serum glucose levels. This case highlights the need for emergency care providers to be aware of the health hazards that can be associated with the use of such home remedies. PMID:10339689

  17. Phenylacetic and Phenylpropionic Acids Do Not Affect Xylan Degradation by Ruminococcus albus

    PubMed Central

    Reveneau, Carine; Adams, Sarah E.; Cotta, M. A.; Morrison, M.

    2003-01-01

    Since the addition of either ruminal fluid or a combination of phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids (PAA/PPA) has previously been shown to dramatically improve cellulose degradation and growth of Ruminococcus albus, it was of interest to determine the effects of these additives on xylan-grown cultures. Although cell-bound xylanase activity increased when either PAA/PPA or ruminal fluid was added to the growth medium, total xylanase did not change, and neither of these supplements affected the growth or xylan-degrading capacity of R. albus 8. Similarly, neither PAA/PPA nor ruminal fluid affected xylan degradation by multiple strains of R. albus when xylan prepared from oat spelts was used as a carbohydrate source. These results show that the xylanolytic potential of R. albus is not conditional on the availability of PAA/PPA or other components of ruminal fluid. PMID:14602663

  18. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-04-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  19. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Doroghazi, J. R.; Ju, K.-S.; Metcalf, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with five other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these other species, including Streptomyces almquistii NRRL B-1685T, Streptomyces flocculus NRRL B-2465T, Streptomyces gibsonii NRRL B-1335T and Streptomyces rangoonensis NRRL B-12378T are quite similar. This cluster is of particular taxonomic interest because Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. The related strains were subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB and confirmation of previously reported phenotypic characteristics. The five strains formed a coherent cluster supported by a 100 % bootstrap value in phylogenetic trees generated from sequence alignments prepared by concatenating the sequences of the housekeeping genes, and identical tree topology was observed using various different tree-making algorithms. Moreover, all but one strain, S. flocculus NRRL B-2465T, exhibited identical sequences for all of the five housekeeping gene loci sequenced, but NRRL B-2465T still exhibited an MLSA evolutionary distance of 0.005 from the other strains, a value that is lower than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. These data support a proposal to reclassify S. almquistii, S. flocculus, S. gibsonii and S. rangoonensis as later heterotypic synonyms of S. albus with NRRL B-1811T as the type strain. The MLSA sequence database also demonstrated utility for quickly and conclusively confirming that numerous strains within the ARS Culture Collection had been previously misidentified as subspecies of S. albus and that Streptomyces albus subsp. pathocidicus should be redescribed as a novel species, Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov., with the type strain NRRL B-24287T. PMID:24277863

  20. THE EFFECTS OF SELF-POLLINATION AND MATERNAL RESOURCES ON REPRODUCTION AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN THE WILD LUPINE, LUPINUS PERENNIS (FABACEAE). (R826596)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. LUPIN, a new instrument for pulsed neutron fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Ferrarini, M.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.; Varoli, V.

    2013-06-01

    A number of studies focused in the last decades on the development of survey meters to be used in pulsed radiation fields. This is a topic attracting widespread interest for applications such as radiation protection and beam diagnostics in accelerators. This paper describes a new instrument specifically conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fields (PNF). The detector, called LUPIN, is a rem counter type instrument consisting of a 3He proportional counter placed inside a spherical moderator. It works in current mode with a front-end electronics consisting of a current-voltage logarithmic amplifier, whose output signal is acquired with an ADC and processed on a PC. This alternative signal processing allows the instrument to be used in PNF without being affected by saturation effects. Moreover, it has a measurement capability ranging over many orders of burst intensity. Despite the fact that it works in current mode, it can measure a single neutron interaction. The LUPIN was first calibrated in CERN's calibration laboratory with a PuBe source. Measurements were carried out under various experimental conditions at the Helmholtz-Zentrum in Berlin, in the stray field at various locations of the CERN Proton Synchrotron complex and around a radiotherapy linear accelerator at the S. Raffaele hospital in Milan. The detector can withstand single bursts with values of H*(10) up to 16 nSv/burst without showing any saturation effect. It efficiently works in pulsed stray fields, where a conventional rem-counter underestimates by a factor of 2. It is also able to reject the very intense and pulsed photon contribution that often accompanies the neutron field with good reliability.

  2. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is colloquially termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and angular limb malformations which are fo...

  3. Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Ruminococcus albus and an anaerobic recombinant, FE7

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Nagashima, K.; Kajino, T.; Ohmiya, K.; Shimizu, S.

    1988-05-01

    Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic, gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium (Pc/sup s/ Sm/sup r/ Km/sup s/), and an anaerobic recombinant, FE7 (Pc/sup r/ Sm/sup s/ Km/sup r/), having lignin-related compound-degrading activities, was performed under strictly anaerobic conditions to introduce cellulase genes into strain FE7. One of the two fusants named FE7R2, showed 45 to 47% of the ..beta..-glucosidase and cellobiosidase activities of its parent R. albus and still maintained a level of degradation activity against dehydrodivanillin, a lignin-related compound, of up to 87% of that of the parent strain FE7. To verify that the cellulolytic activities expressed in the fusant FE7R2 originated from R. albus cellulase genes, the ..beta..-glucosidase gene of R. albus was cloned into Escherichia coli HB101 with plasmid pBR322. Cells bearing are recombinant plasmid, pRAII, produced high enzyme activities against both p-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D-glucoside and p-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D-cellobioside and could degrade cellobiose to glucose. Southern blot results showed that the cloned DNA fragment could hybridize with chromosomal DNAs of both R. albus and FE7R2, but did not with the chromosomal DNA of FE7, indicating that the ..beta..-glucosidase gene fragment was introduced into the chromosome of FE7R2 from R. albus via the protoplast fusion. The fusant FE7R2 could utilize simultaneously both cellobiose and dehydrodivanillin.

  4. Potential of the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for control of building molds.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Julien; Jiménez, Jorge I

    2007-03-01

    The possibility of using the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for biofumigation against building molds was investigated. Several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium as well as fungi belonging to nine other genera were inhibited or killed in vitro by volatiles produced by potato dextrose agar or rye grain cultures of M. albus. Trichoderma viride was the only fungus that was not inhibited by M. albus volatiles. To test biofumigation as a preventative treatment against fungal colonization of building material, dry pieces of gypsum drywall were fumigated with grain cultures of M. albus in closed boxes. After a simulated water damage and incubation under saturated humidity for 2 weeks, untreated drywall developed natural fungal populations of about 10(5)-10(6) cfu/cm2, while drywall fumigated with M. albus culture (20 g/11 L) had nondetectable fungal populations. To test for curative ability, moist pieces of drywall heavily colonized with Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus niger, or Stachybotrys chartarum were fumigated for 48 h with grain cultures of M. albus. Cladosporium cladosporioides was eliminated within 48 h, while A. niger and S. chartarum were usually more resistant. However, a longer curative fumigation of 96 h was effective in reducing A. niger or naturally occurring mold populations by about 5 log values. The production of volatile organic compounds from 20 g of rye grain culture in 11 L containers was monitored by solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography. Concentrations of isobutyric acid, the most abundant volatile, increased gradually in the headspace until it reached 25 microg/L (m/v) within 96 h. The second and third most abundant compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol and isobutanol, peaked at about 10 and 5 microg/L (m/v), respectively, within the first 24 h and declined gradually afterwards. PMID:17538650

  5. The Marr and Albus Theories of the Cerebellum: Two Eary Models of Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1989-01-01

    The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum are compared and contrasted. They are shown to be similar in their analysis of the function of the mossy fibers, granule cells, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cells. They both predict motor learning in the parallel fiber synapses on the Purkinje dendrites mediated by concurrent climbing fiber input. This prediction has been confirmed by experimental evidence. In contrast, Marr predicts these synapses would be facilitated by learning, while Albus predicts they would be weakened. Experimental evidence confirms synaptic weakening.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the white char Salvelinus albus (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Parensky, Valery A; Kovalev, Mikhail Yu; Ayala, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced in two individuals of white char Salvelinus albus. The genome sequences are 16 653 bp in size, and the gene arrangement, composition, and size are very similar to the salmonid fish genomes published previously. The low level of sequence divergence detected between the genome of S. albus and the GenBank complete mitochondrial genomes of the Northern Dolly Varden char S. malma (KJ746618) and the Arctic char S. alpinus (AF154851) may likely be due to recent divergence of the species and/or historical hybridization and interspecific replacement of mtDNA. PMID:26358825

  7. Research on Lupine-Induced "Crooked Calf Disease" at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are over 500 species of lupine in the world with over 300 in North America and over 150 in the Intermountain West. Past research at the Poisonous Plant Research Lab determined that lupine was responsible for skeletal birth defects in cattle in the western U.S. Anagyrine was determined to be...

  8. ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 μg/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 μg/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin α+β conglutin. PMID:24128446

  9. Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hull using subcritical water technology.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Deniz; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2015-10-01

    Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hulls was conducted in this study using subcritical water technology. Effects of process parameters, such as pressure (50-200 bar), temperature (160-220°C), flow rate (2-10 mL/min), and pH (2-12), were studied to optimize maximum hemicellulose sugars recovery in the extracts. Extracts were analyzed for total hemicellulose sugars, phenolics and organic carbon contents and solid residues left after treatments were also characterized. Temperature, flow rate, and pH had a significant effect on hemicellulose sugar removal; however, the effect of pressure was not significant. The highest yield of hemicellulose sugars in the extracts (85.5%) was found at 180°C, 50 bar, 5 mL/min and pH 6.2. The thermal stability of the solid residue obtained at optimum conditions improved after treatment and the crystallinity index increased from 11.5% to 58.6%. The results suggest that subcritical water treatment is a promising technology for hemicellulose sugars removal from biomass. PMID:26185928

  10. Evidence of nickel (Ni) efflux in Ni-tolerant ectomycorhizal Pisolithus albus isolated from ultramafic soil.

    PubMed

    Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel; Jourand, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Nickel (Ni)-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus was isolated from extreme ultramafic soils that are naturally rich in heavy metals. This study aimed to identify the specific molecular mechanisms associated with the response of P. albus to nickel. In presence of high concentration of nickel, P. albus Ni-tolerant isolate showed a low basal accumulation of nickel in its fungal tissues and was able to perform a metal efflux mechanism. Three genes putatively involved in metal efflux were identified from the P. albus transcriptome, and their overexpression was confirmed in the mycelium that was cultivated in vitro in the presence of nickel and in fungal tissues that were sampled in situ. Cloning these genes in yeast provided significant advantages in terms of nickel tolerance (+ 31% Ni EC50) and growth (+ 83% μ) compared with controls. Furthermore, nickel efflux was also detected in the transformed yeast cells. Protein sequence analysis indicated that the genes encoded a P-type-ATPase, an ABC transporter and a major facilitator superfamily permease (MFS). This study sheds light on a global mechanism of metal efflux by P. albus cells that supports nickel tolerance. These specific responses to nickel might contribute to the fungal adaptation in ultramafic soil. PMID:25646544

  11. Effect of biofumigation with volatiles from Muscodor albus on the viability of Tilletia spp. teliospores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on dormant and physiologically active teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, T. indica, and T. tritici which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of w...

  12. The first complete chloroplast genome of the Genistoid legume Lupinus luteus: evidence for a novel major lineage-specific rearrangement and new insights regarding plastome evolution in the legume family

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Guillaume E.; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Cordonnier, Solenn; Lima, Oscar; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Naquin, Delphine; de Carvalho, Julie Ferreira; Aïnouche, Malika; Salmon, Armel; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims To date chloroplast genomes are available only for members of the non-protein amino acid-accumulating clade (NPAAA) Papilionoid lineages in the legume family (i.e. Millettioids, Robinoids and the ‘inverted repeat-lacking clade’, IRLC). It is thus very important to sequence plastomes from other lineages in order to better understand the unusual evolution observed in this model flowering plant family. To this end, the plastome of a lupine species, Lupinus luteus, was sequenced to represent the Genistoid lineage, a noteworthy but poorly studied legume group. Methods The plastome of L. luteus was reconstructed using Roche-454 and Illumina next-generation sequencing. Its structure, repetitive sequences, gene content and sequence divergence were compared with those of other Fabaceae plastomes. PCR screening and sequencing were performed in other allied legumes in order to determine the origin of a large inversion identified in L. luteus. Key Results The first sequenced Genistoid plastome (L. luteus: 155 894 bp) resulted in the discovery of a 36-kb inversion, embedded within the already known 50-kb inversion in the large single-copy (LSC) region of the Papilionoideae. This inversion occurs at the base or soon after the Genistoid emergence, and most probably resulted from a flip–flop recombination between identical 29-bp inverted repeats within two trnS genes. Comparative analyses of the chloroplast gene content of L. luteus vs. Fabaceae and extra-Fabales plastomes revealed the loss of the plastid rpl22 gene, and its functional relocation to the nucleus was verified using lupine transcriptomic data. An investigation into the evolutionary rate of coding and non-coding sequences among legume plastomes resulted in the identification of remarkably variable regions. Conclusions This study resulted in the discovery of a novel, major 36-kb inversion, specific to the Genistoids. Chloroplast mutational hotspots were also identified, which contain novel and potentially informative regions for molecular evolutionary studies at various taxonomic levels in the legumes. Taken together, the results provide new insights into the evolutionary landscape of the legume plastome. PMID:24769537

  13. Effects of non-native Melilotus albus on pollination and reproduction in two boreal shrubs.

    PubMed

    Spellman, Katie V; Schneller, Laura C; Mulder, Christa P H; Carlson, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of abundantly flowered, highly rewarding non-native plant species is expected to have strong consequences for native plants through altered pollination services, particularly in boreal forest where the flowering season is short and the pollinator pool is small. In 18 boreal forest sites, we added flowering Melilotus albus to some sites and left some sites as controls in 2 different years to test if the invasive plant influences the pollination and reproductive success of two co-flowering ericaceous species: Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Rhododendron groenlandicum. We found that M. albus increased the pollinator diversity and tended to increase visitation rates to the focal native plant species compared to control sites. Melilotus albus facilitated greater seed production per berry in V. vitis-idaea when we added 120 plants compared to when we added 40 plants or in control sites. In R. groenlandicum, increasing numbers of M. albus inflorescences lowered conspecific pollen loads and percentage of flowers pollinated; however, no differences in fruit set were detected. The number of M. albus inflorescences had greater importance in explaining R. groenlandicum pollination compared to other environmental variables such as weather and number of native flowers, and had greater importance in lower quality black spruce sites than in mixed deciduous and white spruce sites for explaining the percentage of V. vitis-idaea flowers pollinated. Our data suggest that the identity of new pollinators attracted to the invaded sites, degree of shared pollinators between invasive and native species, and variation in resource limitation among sites are likely determining factors in the reproductive responses of boreal native plants in the presence of an invasive. PMID:26071209

  14. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (P<0·05), whereas no cholesterol changes were observed in the subjects consuming the bars containing casein+cellulose, casein+oat fibre or pea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin. PMID:22032303

  15. Effects of enzyme supplementation on the nutritive value of dehulled lupins.

    PubMed

    Annison, G; Hughes, R J; Choct, M

    1996-03-01

    1. Separate balance experiments were conducted to assess the potential of 2 commercial enzyme supplements to improve the nutritive value of dehulled lupin kernels. One supplement (enzyme A) contained primarily xylanase, pentosanase, hemicellulase activities and the other (enzyme B) primarily beta-glucanase, hemicellulase and pectinase activities. 2. The enzymes were added at 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 g/kg in diets containing (g/kg) lupins 300, sorghum 543, casein 91, celite (as marker) 20, and vitamins and minerals 46. Control diets, with and without enzyme supplementation contained sorghum and casein at 800 and 134 g/kg, respectively, and no lupins. 3. Growth rates and food conversion ratios (FCR) of birds over 7 days were not affected by lupin inclusion or enzyme supplementation. FCR of broilers fed on the sorghum diet was improved by enzyme A but not by enzyme B. 4. Ileal starch digestibilities were slightly lower in birds fed on the lupin control diet (no enzyme) compared to the basal control diet. 5. Enzyme A increased the AME of the lupins from 10.01 MJ/kg DM to 11.65 MJ/kg DM when added at 0.5 g/kg. Higher rates of supplementation did not lead to further increases in AME values. 6. Enzyme A did not improve starch digestion in the diets but insoluble non-starch polysaccharides concentration in the digesta decreased (50.41-42.71 g/g acid insoluble ash marker) with increasing enzyme supplementation, suggesting that the improvement in AME was the result of increased fermentation of fibre in the hindgut. 7. Enzyme B did not affect the AME of lupins nor the ileal digestibility of nutrients, but caused an increase in the concentrations of soluble non-starch polysaccharides in the ileal digesta of chickens (19.21-35.77 mg/ml). This was accompanied by an increase in ileal digesta viscosity (11.4-34.2 m.Pa/s). PMID:8833536

  16. Efficiency of white lupin in the removal of mercury from contaminated soils: soil and hydroponic experiments.

    PubMed

    Zornoza, Pilar; Millán, Rocío; Sierra, M José; Seco, Almudena; Esteban, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the ability of the white lupin to remove mercury (Hg) from a hydroponic system (Hg concentrations 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 micromol/L) and from soil in pots and lysimeters (total Hg concentration (19.2 +/- 1.9) mg/kg availability 0.07%, and (28.9 +/- 0.4) mg/kg availability 0.09%, respectively), and investigated the accumulation and distribution of Hg in different parts of the plant. White lupin roots efficiently took up Hg, but its translocation to the harvestable parts of the plant was low. The Hg concentration in the seeds posed no risk to human health according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, but the shoots should not be used as fodder for livestock, at least when unmixed with other fodder crops. The accumulation of Hg in the hydroponically-grown plants was linear over the concentration range tested. The amount of Hg retained in the roots, relative to the shoots, was almost constant irrespective of Hg dose (90%). In the soil experiments, Hg accumulation increased with exposure time and was the greater in the lysimeter than in the pot experiments. Although Hg removal was the greater in the hydroponic system, revealing the potential of the white lupin to extract Hg, bioaccumulation was the greatest in the lysimeter-grown plants; the latter system more likely reflects the true behaviour of white lupin in the field when Hg availability is a factor that limits Hg removal. The present results suggest that the white lupin could be used in long-term soil reclamation strategies that include the goal of profitable land use in Hg-polluted areas. PMID:20614785

  17. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  18. Characterization of Streptomyces albus 18-kilodalton heat shock-responsive protein.

    PubMed Central

    Servant, P; Mazodier, P

    1995-01-01

    In Streptomyces albus during the heat shock response, a small heat shock protein of 18 kDa is dramatically induced. This protein was purified, and internal sequences revealed that S. albus HSP18 showed a marked homology with proteins belonging to the family of small heat shock proteins. The corresponding gene was isolated and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis confirmed that the hsp18 gene product is an analog of the 18-kDa antigen of Mycobacterium leprae. No hsp18 mRNA could be detected at 30 degrees C, but transcription of this gene was strongly induced following heat shock. The transcription initiation site was determined by nuclease S1 protection. A typical streptomycete vegetative promoter sequence was identified upstream from the initiation site. Disruption mutagenesis of hsp18 showed that HSP18 is not essential for growth in the 30 to 42 degrees C temperature range. However, HSP18 is involved in thermotolerance at extreme temperatures. PMID:7768794

  19. Copper excess promotes propagation and induces proteomic change in root cultures of Hyoscyamus albus L.

    PubMed

    Sako, Ari; Kandakar, Jebunnahar; Tamari, Noriko; Higa, Ataru; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2016-06-01

    Hyoscyamus albus L. seedlings respond positively to copper (Cu) excess. In the present study, to understand how roots cope with Cu excess, propagation and proteome composition in the presence of Cu were examined using a root culture system. When H. albus roots were cultured in a medium without Cu, root growth deteriorated. However, in the presence of Cu, root growth increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and vigorous lateral root development was observed at 200 μM Cu. Cu accumulation in the roots increased with the Cu supply. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the highest amount of Cu was present in the cell wall-containing fraction, followed by the soluble fraction. However, the highest specific incorporation of Cu, in terms of fresh weight, was in the mitochondria-rich fraction. High Cu levels enhanced respiration activity. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, de novo protein synthesis, cell division, and ATP synthesis increased in abundance, whereas the proteasome decreased. These results indicate that Cu promotes propagation of H. albus roots through the activation of the energy supply and anabolism. Newly propagated root tissues and newly generated proteins that bind to Cu may provide space and reservoirs for deposition of additional Cu. PMID:26945770

  20. Molting and cuticle deposition in the subterranean trichoniscid Titanethes albus (Crustacea, Isopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Vittori, Miloš; Kostanjšek, Rok; Žnidaršič, Nada; Štrus, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial isopods are a suitable group for the study of cuticle synthesis and calcium dynamics because they molt frequently and have evolved means to store calcium during molt. Little data is currently available on molting in Synocheta and subterranean isopods. We studied the molting dynamics in the subterranean trichoniscid Titanethes albus under laboratory conditions and performed a microscopic investigation of sternal CaCO3 deposits and the tergal epithelium during molt in this species. In accordance with its lower metabolic rate, molting in the laboratory is roughly 2–3 times less frequent in Titanethes albus than would be expected for an epigean isopod under similar conditions. Animals assumed characteristic postures following the molt of each body half and did not consume the posterior exuviae after posterior molt. The structure of sternal calcium deposits and the ultrastructural characteristics of the epidermis during cuticle formation in Titanethes albus are similar to those described in representatives of Ligiidae. During the deposition of the exocuticle, the apical plasma membrane of epidermal cells forms finger-like extensions and numerous invaginations. In the ecdysial space of individuals in late premolt we observed cellular extensions surrounded by bundles of tubules. PMID:22536097

  1. Micro-PIXE studies of Lupinus angustifolius L. after treatment of seeds with molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Wouters, K.; Vlassak, K.; Combrink, N. J. J.

    1997-02-01

    An example of nuclear microprobe application in agriculture is presented. The NAC nuclear microprobe was used to determine quantitative elemental distribution of major, minor and trace elements in Lupinus angustifolius L. (Leguminosae) after treatment of seeds with molybdenum. Experiments were performed in order to establish safe concentration levels and sources of Mo in seed treatments. Elemental distributions in Mo-treated plants and in the non-treated control plants were studied in order to explain how Mo causes toxicity. Some specific regions of Mo and other main and trace elements enrichment were identified.

  2. Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6T, a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Microvirga lupini LUT6T is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6T was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6T forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project. PMID:25197490

  3. Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6(T), a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-06-15

    Microvirga lupini LUT6(T) is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6(T) was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6(T) forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project. PMID:25197490

  4. Microencapsulation by spray drying of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with lupin nodules.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniela C; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Aravena, Javiera; Amiard, Véronique; Jorquera, Milko A; Inostroza, Nitza G; Rubilar, Mónica

    2014-09-01

    Plant growth promoting bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) used for crop inoculation have important biotechnological potential as a sustainable fertilization tool. However, the main limitation of this technology is the low inoculum survival rate under field conditions. Microencapsulation of bacterial cells in polymer matrices provides a controlled release and greater protection against environmental conditions. In this context, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative NFB associated with lupin nodules and to evaluate their microencapsulation by spray drying. For this purpose, 21 putative NFB were isolated from lupin nodules and characterized (16S rRNA genes). Microencapsulation of bacterial cells by spray drying was studied using a mixture of sodium alginate:maltodextrin at different ratios (0:15, 1:14, 2:13) and concentrations (15 and 30% solids) as the wall material. The microcapsules were observed under scanning electron microscopy to verify their suitable morphology. Results showed the association between lupin nodules of diverse known NFB and nodule-forming bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In microencapsulation assays, the 1:14 ratio of sodium alginate:maltodextrin (15% solids) showed the highest cell survival rate (79%), with a microcapsule yield of 27% and spherical microcapsules of 5-50 µm in diameter. In conclusion, diverse putative NFB genera and nodule-forming bacteria are associated with the nodules of lupine plants grown in soils in southern Chile, and their microencapsulation by spray drying using sodium alginate:maltodextrin represents a scalable process to generate a biofertilizer as an alternative to traditional nitrogen fertilization. PMID:24806812

  5. THE POTENTIAL OF THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS, MUSCODOR ALBUS, AS A BIO-CONTROL AGENT AGAINST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Muscodor albus produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals with activity against post-harvest disease causing organisms, insect pests of harvested fruit and tubers, and soil-borne disease causing agents and plant parasitic nematodes. M. albus was tested for its potenti...

  6. Numerical modelling of agricultural products on the example of bean and yellow lupine seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Andrzej; Kaliniewicz, Zdzisław; Markowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Numerical models of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno were generated with the use of a 3D scanner, the geometric parameters of seeds were determined based on the models developed, and compared with the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. Measurements of seed length, width and thickness performed with the use of a micrometer, 3D scanner and digital image analysis produced similar results that did not differ significantly at α = 0.05. The micrometer delivered the simplest and fastest measurements. The mean surface area of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno, calculated with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of micrometer measurements and digital image analysis, differed significantly from the mean surface area determined with a 3D scanner. No significant differences in seed volume were observed when this parameter was measured with a 3D scanner and determined with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. The only differences were noted when the volume of yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno was measured in a 25 ml liquid pycnometer.

  7. High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O₂ transport system to secure adequate O₂ delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O₂ binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O₂ equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O₂ binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O₂ carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O₂ with an unusually high affinity (P₅₀=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O₂ affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ∙ g wet tissue⁻¹, respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O₂ affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O₂ flux from the blood to the muscles. PMID:25139401

  8. Albusin B, a Bacteriocin from the Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7 That Inhibits Growth of Ruminococcus flavefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junqin; Stevenson, David M.; Weimer, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    An ∼32-kDa protein (albusin B) that inhibited growth of Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 was isolated from culture supernatants of Ruminococcus albus 7. Traditional cloning and gene-walking PCR techniques revealed an open reading frame (albB) encoding a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 32,168 Da. A BLAST search revealed two homologs of AlbB from the unfinished genome of R. albus 8 and moderate similarity to LlpA, a recently described 30-kDa bacteriocin from Pseudomonas sp. strain BW11M1. PMID:15128585

  9. [Sinorhizobium meliloti strains screening for efficient bactarization of Melilotus albus Medik].

    PubMed

    Patyka, V P; Ovsiienko, O L; Kalinichenko, A V

    2014-01-01

    The data presents about analytical selection of root nodule bacteria of Melilotus to obtain bacterial fertilizer under sweet clover, presowing inoculation of it seeds and form a legume-rhizobial effective symbiosis. From natural melilot population a number of new strains had been allocated, inoculation of them was contributed to an increase of height. biomass Melilotus albus Medik., and nitrogenase activity in comparison to the influence of the existing production strains. The identification of most effective strains Sinorhizobium meliloti had been determined. PMID:25007439

  10. YEAR TO YEAR VARIATION IN ALKALOID CONCENTRATION IN LUPINUS LEUCOPHYLLUS GROWING ON THE SCABLANDS OF CENTRAL WASHINGTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There was substantial year to year variation in total alkaloid concentration of lupines at all sites. Total alkaloid concentration over the 5 year period varied from two-fold to eight-fold at the individual sites. In any one year the change-trend in total alkaloid concentration was the same at eac...

  11. Enhanced salinomycin production by adjusting the supply of polyketide extender units in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenyang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Jiang, Ming; Bai, Linquan

    2016-05-01

    The anticoccidial salinomycin is a polyketide produced by Streptomyces albus and requires malonyl-CoAs, methylmalonyl-CoAs, and ethylmalonyl-CoAs for the backbone assembly. Genome sequencing of S. albus DSM 41398 revealed a high percentage of genes involved in lipid metabolism, supporting the high salinomycin yield in oil-rich media. Seven PKS/PKS-NRPS gene clusters in the genome were found to be actively transcribed and had been individually deleted, which resulted in significantly improved salinomycin production. However, a combined deletion of PKS-NRPS-2 and PKS-6 showed no further improvement. Whereas the concentrations of malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA were increased, the concentration of ethylmalonyl-CoA remained low in the mutants. An endogenous crotonyl-CoA reductase gene (ccr) was overexpressed in the ΔPKS-NRPS-2/ΔPKS-6 mutant, resulting in improved production. Combination of cluster deletions and over-expression of ccr gene led to an overall titer improvement of salinomycin from 0.60 to 6.60g/L. This engineering strategy can be implemented for various natural polyketides production. PMID:26969249

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin: Loxechinus albus (Camarodonta, Parechinidae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Gila; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2015-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin Loxechinus albus, the single species of the genus Loxechinus, is determined. The circular mitogenome is 15,709 bp in length containing 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein coding genes as well as the control region. The gene order is identical to those of described Camarodonta species. There are 24 bp gene overlaps at 6 locations and 124 bp intergenic spacers at 17 boundaries. The nucleotide composition of the genome is 31.2% A, 22.3% C, 29.7% T, and 16.8% G. The A + T bias (60.9%) is similar to that of P. lividus (60.3%) but slightly higher than those of strongylocentrotid species (58.8-59.8%). The mitogenome sequence of L. albus will provide valuable information on the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Loxechinus in relation to other Camarodonta sea urchins. PMID:24409862

  13. Haloglycomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, filamentous actinomycete of the family Glycomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Tang, Shu-Kun; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-06-01

    A novel halophilic actinobacterium, designated YIM 92370(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The strain was aerobic, Gram-positive-staining and halophilic, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 8-12 % (w/v). The whole-cell sugar pattern consisted of ribose, xylose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) and the major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The phospholipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, two unknown phosphoglycolipids and one unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 92370(T) can be distinguished from representatives of Glycomyces and Stackebrandtia, the two existing genera in the family Glycomycetaceae, by low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (<93.7 %). Strain YIM 92370(T) therefore represents a novel genus and species of the family Glycomycetaceae, for which the name Haloglycomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Haloglycomyces albus is YIM 92370(T) (=DSM 45210(T) =KCTC 19481(T)). PMID:19502305

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus SM254, a Potent Antagonist of Bat White-Nose Syndrome Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans

    PubMed Central

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P.; Erickson, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced and annotated the complete 7,170,504-bp genome of a novel secondary metabolite-producing Streptomyces strain, Streptomyces albus SM254, isolated from copper-rich subsurface fluids at ~220-m depth within the Soudan Iron Mine (Soudan, MN, USA). PMID:27081146

  15. Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitao, Naoya; Fukui, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Osborne, Peter G.

    2009-03-01

    The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in Hokkaido, Japan. Body temperature of N. p. albus decreased from 38°C in autumn to 35.9-36.7°C while maintaining a circadian rhythm in late February ( n = 3). A transient 18-36% decrease in resting heart rate occurred when body temperature was low ( n = 2). Despite a 33-45% decrease in body weight due to winter fasting, circulating glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels were maintained ( n = 4). Serum urea nitrogen dropped by 43-45% from autumn to spring, suggesting protein conservation during fasting. The overwintering survival strategy of N. p. albus in central Hokkaido is based upon large changes in seasonal activity patterns, winter denning and communal housing without the large decrease in body temperature that is characteristic of subarctic animals exhibiting hibernation or torpor.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus SM254, a Potent Antagonist of Bat White-Nose Syndrome Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    PubMed

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P; Erickson, Joshua D; Salomon, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced and annotated the complete 7,170,504-bp genome of a novel secondary metabolite-producingStreptomycesstrain,Streptomyces albusSM254, isolated from copper-rich subsurface fluids at ~220-m depth within the Soudan Iron Mine (Soudan, MN, USA). PMID:27081146

  17. Effects of the Fusarium spp. mycotoxins fusaric acid and deoxynivalenol on the growth of Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium.

    PubMed

    May, H D; Wu, Q; Blake, C K

    2000-08-01

    The Fusarium spp. mycotoxins fusaric acid and deoxynivalenol (DON) were tested for antimicrobial activity against Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium. The growth of both organisms was inhibited by fusaric acid as low as 15 micrograms/mL (84 microM) but not by DON, at levels as high as 100 micrograms/mL (338 microM). No synergistic inhibitory effect was observed with DON plus fusaric acid. Neither organism was able to adapt to the fusaric acid and responses of each organism to the compound were different. The optical density (OD) maximum for R. albus, but not for M. ruminantium, was diminished after 28 days incubation at concentrations of fusaric acid below 240 micrograms/mL. Inhibition of R. albus started before significant growth had occurred, while M. ruminantium doubled twice before the onset of inhibition. Responses to picolinic acid, an analog of fusaric acid, were also dramatically different between the two microorganisms with M. ruminantium exhibiting a severe lag followed by a complete recovery of growth, while R. albus was only slightly inhibited with no lag. These results suggest that the mechanism of fusaric acid inhibition is specific to each microorganism. This is the first demonstration of the common mycotoxin fusaric acid inhibiting the growth of rumen bacteria. PMID:10941514

  18. Mycofumigation by the Volatile Organic Compound-Producing Fungus Muscodor albus Induces Bacterial Cell Death through DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Alpha, Cambria J.; Campos, Manuel; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M. albus. Furthermore, the sensitivity of knockouts involved in the repair of specific DNA alkyl adducts suggests that the VOCs may induce alkylation. Evidence of DNA damage suggests that these adducts lead to breaks during DNA replication or transcription if not properly repaired. Additional cytotoxicity profiling indicated that during VOC exposure, E. coli became filamentous and demonstrated an increase in cellular membrane fluidity. The volatile nature of the toxic compounds produced by M. albus and their broad range of inhibition make this fungus an attractive biological agent. Understanding the antimicrobial effects and the VOC mode of action will inform the utility and safety of potential mycofumigation applications for M. albus. PMID:25452287

  19. Efficacy of the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in simulated storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Horton, D R; Jones, D C; Headrick, H L; Neven, L G

    2009-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples (Malus spp.) because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. The need for alternatives to fumigants such as methyl bromide for quarantine security of exported fruit has encouraged the development of effective fumigants with reduced side effects. The endophytic fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel and Hess (Ascomycota: Xylariales) produces volatile compounds that are biocidal for several pest organisms, including plant pathogens and insect pests. The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of M. albus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on codling moth adults, neonate larvae, larvae in infested apples, and diapausing cocooned larvae in simulated storage conditions. Fumigation of adult codling moth with VOCs produced by M. albus for 3 d and incubating in fresh air for 24 h at 25 degrees C resulted in 81% corrected mortality. Four- and 5-d exposures resulted in higher mortality (84 and 100%, respectively), but control mortality was also high due to the short life span of the moths. Exposure of neonate larvae to VOCs for 3 d on apples and incubating for 7 d resulted in 86% corrected mortality. Treated larvae were predominantly first instars, whereas 85% of control larvae developed to second and third instars. Exposure of apples that had been infested for 5 d, fumigated with M. albus VOCs for 3 d, and incubated as described above resulted in 71% corrected larval mortality. Exposure of diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae to VOCs for 7 or 14 d resulted in 31 and 100% mortality, respectively, with negligible control mortality. Our data on treatment of several stages of codling moth with M. albus VOCs indicate that the fungus could provide an alternative to broad spectrum chemical fumigants for codling moth control in storage and contribute to the systems approach to achieve quarantine security of exported apples. PMID:19253616

  20. A novel technique for compensation of space charge effects in the LUPIN-II detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassell, C.; Ferrarini, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Caresana, M.

    2015-12-01

    A new method for improving REM counter performance in Pulsed Neutron Fields (PNFs) has been developed. This method uses an analysis of the build-up of space charge in the counter to compensate for an underestimation of Ambient Dose Equivalent (H*(10)) in intense pulsed fields. It was applied to three sets of experimental data acquired using the LUPIN-II REM counter device, which is designed for use in PNFs. The data was acquired using the cyclotron at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), at the HiRadMat facility at CERN and at the 'Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste' (ELETTRA), Italy. A comparison of the data with and without this compensation method is used to highlight its effectiveness. The LUPIN-II performance, which has already been shown to be able to cope with fields of up to hundreds of nSv/burst, is improved by at least one order of magnitude, with further potential for improvement.

  1. A new version of the LUPIN detector: improvements and latest experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Caresana, M; Cassell, C; Ferrarini, M; Hohmann, E; Manessi, G P; Mayer, S; Silari, M; Varoli, V

    2014-06-01

    LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 μSv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed. PMID:24985847

  2. A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Caresana, M.; Varoli, V.; Ferrarini, M.; Hohmann, E.; Mayer, S.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.

    2014-06-15

    LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 μSv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

  3. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles enhance seedling growth and photosynthesis in wheat and lupin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dequan; Hussain, Hashmath I; Yi, Zhifeng; Rookes, James E; Kong, Lingxue; Cahill, David M

    2016-06-01

    The application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as a smart delivery system to agricultural crops is gaining attention but the release of nanoparticles into the environment may pose a potential threat to biological systems. We investigated the effects of MSNs on the growth and development of wheat and lupin plants grown under controlled conditions. We report a dramatic increase in the growth of wheat and lupin plants exposed to MSNs. We also found that, in leaves, MSNs localised to chloroplasts and that photosynthetic activity was significantly increased. In addition, absorption and cellular distribution of MSNs by the two plant species following root uptake were observed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Following uptake of MSNs at 500 and 1000 mg L(-1), there was enhancement of seed germination, increased plant biomass, total protein and chlorophyll content. Treatment of both species with MSNs at the highest concentration (2000 mg L(-1)) did not result in oxidative stress or cell membrane damage. These findings show that MSNs can be used as novel delivery systems in plants and that over the range of concentrations tested, MSNs do not have any negative impacts on plant growth or development. PMID:26963239

  4. Structural and functional characteristics of two novel members of pathogensis-related multigene family of class 10 from yellow lupine+.

    PubMed

    Handschuh, Luiza; Femiak, Iwona; Kasperska, Alina; Figlerowicz, Marek; Sikorski, Michał M

    2007-01-01

    PR-10 proteins (pathogensis-related), ubiquitous within the plant kingdom, are usually encoded by multigene families. To date we have identified 10 homologous pr-10 genes in a yellow lupine cDNA library. Here, the structure and expression of two newly identified yellow lupine pr-10 genes (LlYpr10-2b and LlYpr10-2f) are presented. Many potential regulatory sites were found in both gene promoters including common ones as well as those unique for each gene. However, promoter deletion analysis in transgenic tobacco plants revealed similar patterns of reporter gene (gus) expression. Shortened fragments of both gene promoters studied caused high GUS activity in leaves (along vascular bundles), stamen stigma, anthers and pollen grains. When conjugated with longer LlYpr-10.2 promoter fragments, GUS was additionally present in petal edges. Only a long fragment of the LlYpr10-2b gene promoter caused GUS expression in the stem. In yellow lupine the pr-10.2 genes are present in all studied organs, but their level of expression depends on the stage of development and is affected by wounding, oxidative stress and salicylic acid treatment. Silencing of the Llpr-10.2b gene in 4-week-old yellow lupine plants did not lead to any visible symptoms, which suggests that the function of the silenced gene is supplemented by its close homologues, still present in the studied plants. PMID:18080022

  5. Hyperfine interactions in soybean and lupin oxy-leghemoglobins studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Alenkina, I. V.; Zakharova, A. P.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    A comparative study of monomeric soybean and lupin leghemoglobins in the oxy-form was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 90 K. The 57Fe hyperfine parameters of measured spectra were evaluated and compared with possible structural differences in the heme Fe(II)-O 2 bond.

  6. Exocellular β-Lactamases of Streptomyces albus G and Strains R39 and K11

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth; Dusart, Jean; Campbell, James N.; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie

    1973-01-01

    The β-lactamases excreted by the highly benzylpenicillin-susceptible Streptomyces strain R39 and the highly benzylpenicillin-resistant Streptomyces albus G were isolated and purified. Neither β-lactamase exhibited dd-carboxypeptidase activity. Both were anionic at pH 8.3, did not require metal ions, and were not sensitive to iodine, but were inhibited by Cu2+ and readily inactivated by heat. p-Chloromercuribenzoate, iodoacetate, p-aminobenzoate, and substrates and inhibitors of dd-carboxypeptidase had no effect on β-lactamase activity. The Km and Vmax values for β-lactamase activity were studied with 6-aminopenicillanic acid and with various penicillins and cephalosporins. The β-lactamase from the related strain K11 of Streptomyces, which is intermediate in its susceptibility to benzylpenicillin, was partially purified, and its activity was compared on the various substrates. Images PMID:4494518

  7. Complete genome sequence of Thermocrinis albus type strain (HI 11/12T)

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Reinhard; Sikorski, Johannes; Brambilla, Evelyne; Misra, Monica; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Tapia, Roxane; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Pati, Amrita; Anderson, Iain; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Bilek, Yvonne; Hader, Thomas; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Tindall, Brian J.; Rohde, Manfred; Göker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Thermocrinis albus Eder and Huber 2002 is one of three species in the genus Thermocrinis in the family Aquificaceae. Members of this family have become of significant interest because of their involvement in global biogeochemical cycles in high-temperature ecosystems. This interest had already spurred several genome sequencing projects for members of the family. We here report the first completed genome sequence a member of the genus Thermocrinis and the first type strain genome from a member of the family Aquificaceae. The 1,500,577 bp long genome with its 1,603 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:21304702

  8. Expression of Ruminococcus albus xylanase gene ( xynA) in Streptococcus bovis 12-U-1.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mutsumi; Nagamine, Takafumi; Harada, Chisato; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Hiroki; Benno, Yoshimi

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to ligate the xylanase gene A ( xynA) isolated from Ruminococcus albus 7 into the promoter and signal-peptide region of the lichenase [beta-(1,3-1,4)-glucanase] gene of Streptococcus bovis JB1. This fusion gene was inserted into the pSBE11 vector, and the resulting recombinant, plasmid pXA, was used to transform S. bovis 12-U-1 cells. The transformant, S. bovis 12UXA, secreted the xylanase, which was stable against freeze-thaw treatment and long-time incubation at 37 degrees C. The introduction of pXA and production of xylanase did not affect cell growth, and the xylanase produced degraded xylan from oat-spelt and birchwood. PMID:12783197

  9. Wood adhesives prepared from lucerne fiber fermentation residues of Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Koegel, R G; Lorenz, L F; Frihart, C R; Kenealy, W R

    2005-03-01

    Fermentation residues (consisting of incompletely fermented fiber, adherent bacterial cells, and a glycocalyx material that enhanced bacterial adherence) were obtained by growing the anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus albus 7 or Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 on a fibrous fraction derived from lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). The dried residue was able to serve as an effective co-adhesive for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) bonding of aspen veneer sheets to one another. Testing of the resulting plywood panels revealed that the adhesive, formulated to contain 30% of its total dry weight as fermentation residue, displayed shear strength and wood failure values under both wet and dry conditions that were comparable with those of industry standards for PF that contained much smaller amounts of fillers or extenders. By contrast, PF adhesives prepared with 30% of dry weight as either unfermented lucerne fiber or conventional fillers or extenders rather than as fermentation residues, displayed poor performance, particularly under wet conditions. PMID:15735965

  10. Spatial scales of genetic structure and gene flow in Calochortus albus (Liliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Henss, Jillian M; Moeller, Jackson R; Theim, Terra J; Givnish, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Calochortus (Liliaceae) displays high species richness, restriction of many individual taxa to narrow ranges, geographic coherence of individual clades, and parallel adaptive radiations in different regions. Here we test the first part of a hypothesis that all of these patterns may reflect gene flow at small geographic scales. We use amplified fragment length polymorphism variation to quantify the geographic scales of spatial genetic structure and apparent gene flow in Calochortus albus, a widespread member of the genus, at Henry Coe State Park in the Coast Ranges south of San Francisco Bay. Analyses of 254 mapped individuals spaced 0.001–14.4 km apart show a highly significant decline in genetic identity with ln distance, implying a root-mean-square distance of gene flow σ of 5–43 m. STRUCTURE analysis implies the existence of 2–4 clusters over the study area, with frequent reversals among clusters over short distances (<200 m) and a relatively high frequency of admixture within individuals at most sampling sites. While the intensity of spatial genetic structure in C. albus is weak, as measured by the Sp statistic, that appears to reflect low genetic identity of adjacent plants, which might reflect repeated colonizations at small spatial scales or density-dependent mortality of individual genotypes by natural enemies. Small spatial scales of gene flow and spatial genetic structure should permit, under a variety of conditions, genetic differentiation within species at such scales, setting the stage ultimately for speciation and adaptive radiation as such scales as well. PMID:23789059

  11. Putrescine N-Methyltransferase in Cultured Roots of Hyoscyamus albus1

    PubMed Central

    Hibi, Naruhiro; Fujita, Toshihiro; Hatano, Mika; Hashimoto, Takashi; Yamada, Yasuyuki

    1992-01-01

    Biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids is thought to proceed by way of the diamine putrescine, followed by its methylation by putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT; EC 2.1.1.53). High PMT activities were found in branch roots and/or cultured roots of several solanaceous plants. PMT was partially purified and characterized from cultured roots of Hyoscyamus albus that contain hyoscyamine as the main alkaloid. Initial velocity studies and product inhibition patterns of PMT are consistent with an ordered bi-bi mechanism, in which the Km values for putrescine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine are 277 and 203 μm, respectively, and the Ki value for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine is 110 μm. PMT efficiently N-methylated amines that have at least two amino groups separated by three or four methylene groups. Monoamines were good competitive inhibitors of PMT, among which n-butylamine, cyclohexylamine, and exo-2-aminonorbornane were most inhibitory, with respective Ki values of 11.0, 9.1, and 10.0 μm. When n-butylamine was fed to root cultures of H. albus, the alkamine intermediates (tropinone, tropine, and pseudotropine) drastically decreased at 1 mm of the exogenous monoamine, and the hyoscyamine content decreased by 52% at 6 mm, whereas the contents of 6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine and scopolamine did not change. Free and conjugated forms of polyamines were also measured. The n-butylamine treatment caused a large increase in the putrescine content (especially in the conjugated pool), and the spermine content also increased slightly, whereas the spermidine content decreased slightly. The increase in the putrescine pool size (approximately 40 nmol/mg dry weight) was large enough to account for the decrease in the total alkaloid pool size. Similar results were also obtained in root cultures of Datura stramonium. These studies further support the role of PMT as the first committed enzyme specific to alkaloid biosynthesis. Images Figure 8 PMID:16653064

  12. Seasonal and annual variations in the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L.

    PubMed

    Fisogni, A; Rossi, M; Sgolastra, F; Bortolotti, L; Bogo, G; de Manincor, N; Quaranta, M; Galloni, M

    2016-05-01

    The interplay between insect and plant traits outlines the patterns of pollen transfer and the subsequent plant reproductive fitness. We studied the factors that affect the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L. by evaluating insect behaviour and morphological characteristics in relation to flowering phenology. In order to extrapolate the pollinator importance of single taxa and of the whole pollinator guild, we calculated an index distinguishing between potential (PPI) and realized (RPI) pollinator importance. Although the pollinator species spectrum appeared rather constant, we found high intra- and inter-annual variability of pollinator frequency and importance within the insect community. Flower visitation rate strictly depended on insect abundance and on the overlap between their flying period and flower blooming. All the pollinators visited flowers from the bottom to the top of the racemes, excluding intra-plant geitonogamous pollination, and most of them showed high pollen fidelity. Only medium large-sized bees could contact the upward bending stiles while feeding on nectar, highlighting a specialisation of the plant towards bigger pollinators. Moreover, we found evidence of functional specialisation, since all pollinators were restricted to a single taxonomic group (order: Hymenoptera; superfamily: Apoidea). Both the PPI and RPI indices indicate Habropoda tarsata as the most important pollinator of D. albus. Following hand cross-pollination experiments we revealed the presence of pollination limitation in 1 of the 3 years of field study. We discuss this result in relation to flowering abundance and to possible mismatches of phenological periods between plants and insects. PMID:26573095

  13. Production of Rhizobium Inoculants for Lupinus nootkatensis on Nutrient-Supplemented Pumice.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, S; Gudmundsson, J; Sverrisson, H; Kristjansson, J K; Runolfsson, S

    1993-11-01

    The use of the legume Lupinus nootkatensis as a pioneer plant to fight soil erosion and to reclaim eroded soils in Iceland has been under development for a few years. Production of a robust, low-cost bacterial inoculant was therefore a prerequisite for the extended use of this plant. Volcanic pumice is a naturally expanded mineral which is available in vast amounts in Iceland. It was tested as a carrier for solid fermentation of Rhizobium lupini. Nutrient-supplemented pumice containing a small percentage of peat and diatomaceous earth and kept in sterile plastic bags promoted good growth of the bacteria. Viable-colony counts remained stable at 10 to 10/g for at least 35 weeks when the carrier was stored at 22 degrees C. The pumice-based inoculant had good storage and handling properties and could be mixed directly with the seeds during the sowing process. When seeds of L. nootkatensis were sown manually into nutrient-poor eroded sandy soils, about 56% of the first-year plants were successfully nodulated. PMID:16349083

  14. Identification of Arthrobacter oxydans, Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov., and Arthrobacter albus sp. nov., Isolated from Human Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Wauters, Georges; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michèle; Delmée, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Five Arthrobacter isolates from clinical specimens were studied by phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genetic characterization. Two strains had characteristics consistent with those of Arthrobacter oxydans. One strain was related to A. citreus; however, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics indicated that this strain belongs to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov. is proposed. Two strains were closely related to A. cumminsii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, but DNA-DNA hybridization, peptidoglycan type, and some phenotypic features indicated that they should be assigned to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter albus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. luteolus is CF25 (DSM 13067). The type strain of A. albus is CF43 (DSM 13068). PMID:10835019

  15. Gene cloning and induced expression pattern of IRF4 and IRF10 in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    PubMed Central

    XU, Qiao-Qing; YANG, Dai-Qin; TUO, Rui; WAN, Jing; CHANG, Ming-Xian; NIE, Pin

    2014-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish in East Asia, but data on the immune genes of M. albus are scarce compared to other commercially important fish. A better understanding of the eel’s immune responses may help in developing strategies for disease management, potentially improving yields and mitigating losses. In mammals, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play a vital role in both the innate and adaptive immune system; though among teleosts IRF4 and IRF10 have seldom been studied. In this study, we characterized IRF4 and IRF10 from M. albus (maIRF4 and maIRF10) and found that maIRF4 cDNA consists of 1 716 nucleotides encoding a 451 amino acid (aa) protein, while maIRF10 consists of 1 744 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 236 nt encoding 411 aa. The maIRF10 gene was constitutively expressed at high levels in a variety of tissues, while maIRF4 showed a very limited expression pattern. Expression of maIRF4 and maIRF10 in head kidney, and spleen tissues was significantly up-regulated from 12 h to 48 h post-stimulation with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a common pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. These results suggest that IRF4 and IRF10 play roles in immune responses to both viral and bacterial infections in M. albus. PMID:25297077

  16. Does the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus increase pollinator visitation to a native herb through effects on pollinator population sizes?

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Anna; Padrón, Benigno

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants may compete with native species for abiotic factors as light, space and nutrients, and have also been shown to affect native pollination interactions. Studies have mainly focused on how invasive plants affect pollinator behaviour, i.e. attraction of pollinators to or away from native flowers. However, when an invasive plant provides resources utilized by native pollinators this could increase pollinator population sizes and thereby pollination success in natives. Effects mediated through changes in pollinator population sizes have been largely ignored in previous studies, and the dominance of negative interactions suggested by meta-analyses may therefore be biased. We investigated the impact of the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus on pollination in the native Lotus corniculatus using a study design comparing invaded and uninvaded sites before and after the flowering period of the invasive. We monitored wild bee abundance in transects, and visit rate and seed production of potted Lotus plants. Bumblebee abundance increased 3.9 times in invaded sites during the study period, whereas it was unaltered in uninvaded sites. Total visit rate per Lotus plant increased 2.1 times in invaded sites and decreased 4.4 times in uninvaded sites. No corresponding change in seed production of Lotus was found. The increase in visit rate to Lotus was driven by an increase in solitary bee visitation, whereas mainly bumblebees were observed to visit the invasive Lupinus. The mechanism by which the invasive increases pollinator visit rates to Lotus could be increased availability of other flower resources for solitary bees when bumblebees forage on Lupinus. PMID:24061551

  17. Paths of water entry and structures involved in the breaking of seed dormancy of Lupinus.

    PubMed

    Robles-Díaz, Erika; Flores, Joel; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura

    2016-03-15

    Physical dormancy is the water impermeability of the seed coat caused by one or more palisade cell layer(s) called macrosclereids. The specialised structure for water entry sites is the water gap, which serves as a detector of environmental cues for germination. In Fabaceae, the water gap is the lens, although another seed structure for water entry could exist. In this study, we identified the initial site of water entry, observed the hydration of a cushion-like structure near the radicle, described the anatomy of the water gap, and analysed the association of anatomical seed traits with the initial site of water entry and the imbibition velocity of six species of Lupinus from the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Dye tracking with a toluidine blue solution was used to identify the initial site of water entry. The anatomical description was performed using conventional microtechnique and a light microscope. The entry of the toluidine solution into seeds of L. montanus was observed after 6h, followed by L. exaltatus and L. mexicanus after 18h and L. elegans, L. reflexus and L. rotundiflorus after 48h. The site of water entry was the lens in L. elegans, L. exaltatus, L. reflexus and L. rotundiflorus and the micropyle in L. mexicanus and L. montanus. The cushion-like structure was responsible for water accumulation in embryo imbibition. Significant differences among anatomical seed traits such as thickness in the hilar region, the counter-palisade layer, cushion-like structure, epidermis, hypodermis, and innermost parenchyma layer were found among the species. PMID:26874334

  18. Kinship rivalry does not trigger specific allocation strategies in Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Milla, Rubén; del Burgo, Ainhoa Vélez; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Research on the ability of plants to recognize kin and modify plant development to ameliorate competition with coexisting relatives is an area of very active current exploration. Empirical evidence, however, is insufficient to provide a sound picture of this phenomenon. Methods An experiment was designed to assess multi-trait phenotypic expression in response to competition with conspecifics of varied degrees of genealogical relatedness. Groups of siblings, cousins and strangers of Lupinus angustifolius were set in competition in a pots assay. Several whole-plant and organ-level traits, directly related to competition for above- and below-ground resources, were measured. In addition, group-level root proliferation was measured as a key response trait to relatedness to neighbours, as identified in previous work. Key Results No major significant phenotypic differences were found between individuals and groups that could be assigned to the gradient of relatedness used here. This occurred in univariate models, and also when multi-trait interactions were evaluated through multi-group comparisons of Structural Equation Models. Root proliferation was higher in phenotypically more heterogeneous groups, but phenotypic heterogeneity was independent of the relatedness treatments of the experiment, and root proliferation was alike in the neighbourhoods of siblings, cousins and strangers. Conclusions In contrast to recent findings in other species, genealogical relatedness to competing neighbours has a negligible impact on the phenotypic expression of individuals and groups of L. angustifolius. This suggests that kin recognition needs further exploration to assess its generality, the ecological scenarios where it might have been favoured or penalized by natural selection, and its preponderance in different plant lineages. PMID:22562807

  19. Mercury contamination in free-ranging great egret nestlings (Ardea albus) from southern Florida, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Williams, G.E. Jr.

    1999-05-01

    Between March and June of 1994 and 1995, mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined from 393 blood and 164 growing scapular feathers from 252 great egret nestlings (Ardea albus). Nestlings came from eight colonies located in Water Conservation Area 3 in the Everglades region in southern Florida. The ages of these birds ranged from 1 to 44 d (bill length 1.1 to 10.2 cm). Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of first-hatched great egret nestlings sampled during 1994 averaged 1.2 {micro}g/g (range = 0.07--3.9) wet weight and 16 {micro}g/g (4.5--40) dry weight, respectively. During 1995, first-hatched chicks had blood and feather Hg concentrations that averaged 0.8 {micro}g/g (0.2--1.7) and 9.7 {micro}g/g (2.3--26), respectively. In both years, Hg concentrations in blood and feathers were significantly correlated, and a significant correlation also was found between Hg in blood and age of the chicks. Blood and feather Hg concentrations differed significantly between years, with higher concentrations during 1994. Birds from JW1 and L67 colonies had the highest concentrations of Hg in blood and feathers. Mercury concentrations did not differ between chicks of different hatch order Mercury in feathers of great egret nestlings from southern Florida are approximately six times higher than when compared to feather Hg concentrations of nestlings wading birds sampled elsewhere.

  20. Cloning and characterization of the polyether salinomycin biosynthesis gene cluster of Streptomyces albus XM211.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunyan; Wang, Hougen; Kang, Qianjin; Liu, Jing; Bai, Linquan

    2012-02-01

    Salinomycin is widely used in animal husbandry as a food additive due to its antibacterial and anticoccidial activities. However, its biosynthesis had only been studied by feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors. A strategy with degenerate primers based on the polyether-specific epoxidase sequences was successfully developed to clone the salinomycin gene cluster. Using this strategy, a putative epoxidase gene, slnC, was cloned from the salinomycin producer Streptomyces albus XM211. The targeted replacement of slnC and subsequent trans-complementation proved its involvement in salinomycin biosynthesis. A 127-kb DNA region containing slnC was sequenced, including genes for polyketide assembly and release, oxidative cyclization, modification, export, and regulation. In order to gain insight into the salinomycin biosynthesis mechanism, 13 gene replacements and deletions were conducted. Including slnC, 7 genes were identified as essential for salinomycin biosynthesis and putatively responsible for polyketide chain release, oxidative cyclization, modification, and regulation. Moreover, 6 genes were found to be relevant to salinomycin biosynthesis and possibly involved in precursor supply, removal of aberrant extender units, and regulation. Sequence analysis and a series of gene replacements suggest a proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of salinomycin. The information presented here expands the understanding of polyether biosynthesis mechanisms and paves the way for targeted engineering of salinomycin activity and productivity. PMID:22156425

  1. Lupin protein isolate versus casein modifies cholesterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters in a pig model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lupin proteins exert hypocholesterolemic effects in man and animals, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we investigated whether lupin proteins compared to casein modulate sterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters by use of pigs as an animal model with similar lipid metabolism as humans, and cellular cholesterol-uptake by Caco-2 cells. Methods Two groups of pigs were fed cholesterol-containing diets with either 230 g/kg of lupin protein isolate from L. angustifolius or 230 g/kg casein, for 4 weeks. Faeces were collected quantitatively over a 5 d period for analysis of neutral sterols and bile acids by gas chromatographically methods. The mRNA abundances of intestinal lipid transporters were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol-uptake studies were performed with Caco-2 cells that were incubated with lupin conglutin γ, phytate, ezetimibe or albumin in the presence of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol. Results Pigs fed the lupin protein isolate revealed lower cholesterol concentrations in total plasma, LDL and HDL than pigs fed casein (P < 0.05). Analysis of faeces revealed a higher output of cholesterol in pigs that were fed lupin protein isolate compared to pigs that received casein (+57.1%; P < 0.05). Relative mRNA concentrations of intestinal sterol transporters involved in cholesterol absorption (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, scavenger receptor class B, type 1) were lower in pigs fed lupin protein isolate than in those who received casein (P < 0.05). In vitro data showed that phytate was capable of reducing the uptake of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol into the Caco-2 cells to the same extend as ezetimibe when compared to control (−20.5% vs. −21.1%; P < 0.05). Conclusions Data reveal that the cholesterol-lowering effect of lupin protein isolate is attributable to an increased faecal output of cholesterol and a reduced intestinal uptake of cholesterol. The findings indicate phytate as a possible biofunctional ingredient of lupin protein isolate. PMID:24490902

  2. Apparent competition with an invasive plant hastens the extinction of an endangered lupine.

    PubMed

    Dangremond, Emily M; Pardini, Eleanor A; Knight, Tiffany M

    2010-08-01

    Invasive plants may compete with native plants by increasing the pressure of native consumers, a mechanism known as "apparent competition." Apparent competition can be as strong as or stronger than direct competition, but the role of apparent competition has rarely been examined in biological invasions. We used four years of demographic data and seed-removal experiments to determine if introduced grasses caused elevated levels of seed consumption on native plant species in a coastal dune system in California, USA. We show that the endangered, coastal dune plant Lupinus tidestromii experiences high levels of pre-dispersal seed consumption by the native rodent Peromyscus maniculatus due to its proximity to the invasive grass, Ammophila arenaria. We use stage-structured, stochastic population models to project that two of three study populations will decline toward extinction under ambient levels of consumption. For one of these declining populations, a relatively small decrease in consumption pressure should allow for persistence. We show that apparent competition with an invasive species significantly decreases the population growth rate and persistence of a native species. We expect that apparent competition is an important mechanism in other ecosystems because invasive plants often change habitat structure and plant-consumer interactions. Possible implications of the apparent-competition mechanism include selective extinction of species preferred by seed consumers in the presence of an invasive species and biological homogenization of communities toward non-preferred native plant species. PMID:20836448

  3. Muscodor albus E-6, an endophyte of Guazuma ulmifolia making volatile antibiotics: isolation, characterization and experimental establishment in the host plant.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Gary A; Kluck, Katreena; Hess, Wilford M; Sears, Joe; Ezra, David; Vargas, Percy N

    2007-08-01

    Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus, represented by a number of isolates from tropical tree and vine species in several of the world's rainforests, that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antibiotic activity. A new isolate, E-6, of this organism, with unusual biochemical and biological properties, has been obtained from the branches of a mature Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) tree growing in a dry tropical forest in SW Ecuador. This unique organism produces many VOCs not previously observed in other M. albus isolates, including butanoic acid, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-; 2-butenal, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester; 3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl; guaiol; 1-octene, 3-ethyl-; formamide, N-(1-methylpropyl); and certain azulene and naphthalene derivatives. Some compounds usually seen in other M. albus isolates also appeared in the VOCs of isolate E-6, including caryophyllene; phenylethyl alcohol; acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester; bulnesene; and various propanoic acid, 2-methyl- derivatives. The biological activity of the VOCs of E-6 appears different from the original isolate of this fungus, CZ-620, since a Gram-positive bacterium was killed, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani were not. Scanning electron micrographs of the mycelium of isolate E-6 showed substantial intertwining of the hyphal strands. These strands seemed to be held together by an extracellular matrix accounting for the strong mat-like nature of the mycelium, which easily lifts off the agar surface upon transfer, unlike any other isolate of this fungus. The ITS-5.8S rDNA partial sequence data showed 99 % similarity to the original M. albus strain CZ-620. For the first time, successful establishment of M. albus into its natural host, followed by recovery of the fungus, was accomplished in seedlings of G. ulmifolia. Overall, isolates of M. albus, including E-6, have chemical, biological and structural characteristics that make them potentially useful in medicine, agricultural and industrial applications. PMID:17660425

  4. Functional Analyses of Multiple Lichenin-Degrading Enzymes from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8▿†

    PubMed Central

    Iakiviak, Michael; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a fibrolytic ruminal bacterium capable of utilization of various plant cell wall polysaccharides. A bioinformatic analysis of a partial genome sequence of R. albus revealed several putative enzymes likely to hydrolyze glucans, including lichenin, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide of glucose linked together in β-1,3 and β-1,4 glycosidic bonds. In the present study, we demonstrate the capacity of four glycoside hydrolases (GHs), derived from R. albus, to hydrolyze lichenin. Two of the genes encoded GH family 5 enzymes (Ra0453 and Ra2830), one gene encoded a GH family 16 enzyme (Ra0505), and the last gene encoded a GH family 3 enzyme (Ra1595). Each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified to near homogeneity. Upon screening on a wide range of substrates, Ra0453, Ra2830, and Ra0505 displayed different hydrolytic properties, as they released unique product profiles. The Ra1595 protein, predicted to function as a β-glucosidase, preferred cleavage of a nonreducing end glucose when linked by a β-1,3 glycosidic bond to the next glucose residue. The major product of Ra0505 hydrolysis of lichenin was predicted to be a glucotriose that was degraded only by Ra0453 to glucose and cellobiose. Most importantly, the four enzymes functioned synergistically to hydrolyze lichenin to glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose. This lichenin-degrading enzyme mix should be of utility as an additive to feeds administered to monogastric animals, especially those high in fiber. PMID:21890664

  5. Properties and Expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-Subunit Isoforms in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Which Has Unusually High Brain Ammonia Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu L.; Wee, Nicklaus L. J. E.; Hiong, Kum C.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2013-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l−1) and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (∼4.5 µmol g−1). Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka) is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4+ can substitute for K+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka α-subunits, some of which might have high K+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka α-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities over a range of K+/NH4+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nkaα (nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b) were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nkaα2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l−1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na+/K+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4+/K+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1) lack of nkaα2 expression, (2) high K+ specificity of K+ binding sites of Nkaα1, Nkaα3a and Nkaα3b, and (3) down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nkaα isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus. PMID:24391932

  6. Adsorption at the air-water interface and emulsification properties of grain legume protein derivatives from pea and broad bean.

    PubMed

    Tsoukala, A; Papalamprou, E; Makri, E; Doxastakis, G; Braudo, E E

    2006-12-01

    Functional properties of native and modified (through induced autolysis) pea (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.) protein derivatives are studied. In specific, protein solubility and behavior at the air-water interface through surface pressure measurements are investigated. Furthermore the ability of the protein products to act as emulsifying agents and to stabilize emulsions is studied through oil droplet size distribution measurements and by the protein adsorbed at the oil-water interface. The data reveal that the ability of the proteins to act as surfactants and build up a rigid film around the oil droplets, mainly depends on their suitable molecular configuration and structure. Hydrolysis did not promote the functionality of the legume proteins. Broad bean exhibited better functionality than pea, before and after hydrolysis. Some comparisons were also made with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) protein isolate. PMID:17049437

  7. Pharmacokinetics and residue depletion of praziquantel in rice field eels Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Dong, Jing; Yang, Yibin; Ai, Xiaohui

    2016-04-12

    We investigated the pharmacokinetic characteristics of praziquantel (PZQ) in rice field eels Monopterus albus. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined following a single intravenous administration (5 mg kg-1 body weight [bw]) and a single oral administration (10 mg kg-1 bw) at 22.0 ± 0.7°C. We also evaluated residue depletion in tissues following daily administration of PZQ (10 mg kg-1 bw) that was given orally for 3 consecutive days at 22.0 ± 0.7°C. Following intravenous treatment, the plasma concentration-time curve was best described by a 3-compartment open model, with distribution half-life (t1/2α), elimination half-life (t1/2β), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 0.54 h, 17.10 h, and 14505.12 h µg l-1, respectively. After oral administration, the plasma concentration-time curve was best described by a 1-compartment open model with first-order absorption, with absorption half-life (t1/2Ka), elimination half-life (t1/2Ke), peak concentration (Cmax), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax), and AUC estimated to be 2.28 h, 6.66 h, 361.29 µg l-1, 5.36 h, and 6065.46 h µg l-1, respectively. The oral bioavailability (F) was 20.9%. With respect to residue depletion of PZQ, the t1/2β values of muscle, skin, liver, and kidney were 20.2, 28.4, 14.9, and 54.1 h, respectively. Our results indicated rapid absorption, rapid elimination, and low bioavailability of PZQ in rice field eels at the tested dosing conditions. PMID:27068504

  8. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Williams, G.E.; Nico, L.; Robins, R.

    1999-09-01

    The authors estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish, though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and they found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. The authors estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. They estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish. The authors estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. They estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledgling mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  9. Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-07-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T) = CCTCC AA 2013003(T) = NRRL B-59998(T) = KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T) = CCTCC AA 2013004(T) = NRRL B-24927(T) = KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

  10. Total phenolic and phytosterol compounds and the radical scavenging activity of germinated Australian sweet lupin flour.

    PubMed

    Rumiyati; Jayasena, Vijay; James, Anthony P

    2013-12-01

    In addition to their favourable nutritional profile, legumes also contain a range of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds and phytosterols which may protect against chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Germination of some legume seeds has been previously reported to increase the concentration of the bioactive compounds. In this study, the effect of germination of Australian Sweet Lupin (ASL) seeds for 9 days on the concentration of some bioactive compounds and the radical scavenging activity in the resulting flour was determined. The concentration of total phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts of germinated ASL flour was determined using Folin Ciocalteu reagent and phytosterols in oil extracts were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The methanolic and oil extracts were also used to determine radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. In the methanolic extracts of germinated ASL flour, phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity were significantly increased following germination (700 and 1400 %, respectively). Analysis of the oil extracts of germinated ASL flour revealed that the concentration of phytosterols and the antioxidant activity were also increased significantly compared to ungerminated ASL flour (300 and 800 %, respectively). The relative proportion of phytosterols in germinated ASL flour was: β-sitosterol (60 %), stigmasterol (30 %) and campesterol (10 %). Germination increases the concentration of bioactive compounds and the radical scavenging activity in the germinated ASL flour. PMID:23943234

  11. Molecular cloning of the BLADE-ON-PETIOLE gene and expression analyses during nodule development in Lupinus luteus.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Kamil; Wilmowicz, Emilia; Ku?ko, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) genes have been recently shown to play an essential role in many physiological processes, including embryogenesis, meristem determinacy, leaf patterning and nodule development. In our research we used Lupinus luteus, a plant with great agronomic potential due to its high protein content and nitrogen fixation ability. In this work, LlBOP in L. luteus was identified for the first time and its expression during nodule development was analyzed. The high expression levels of LlBOP and LlLbI (LEGHEMOGLOBIN), essential to nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, were noted in the developing root nodules and were correlated with the occurrence of leghemoglobin. All of these data indicate that LlBOP is an important regulator of root nodule formation and functioning in L. luteus. PMID:25817415

  12. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-01-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution. PMID:24575231

  13. The exocellular beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G. Purification, properties and comparison with the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Duez, C; Frère, J M; Klein, D; Noël, M; Ghuysen, J M; Delcambe, L; Dierickx, L

    1981-01-01

    The exocellular beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G has been purified to near protein homogeneity. It consists of one single polypeptide chain of mol.wt. 30 000-31 000, has a rather low isoelectric point (at pH 6.0) and contains less lysine (2.1%) and more half-cystine residues than most beta-lactamases from other Gram-positive bacteria. Penicillins are much better substrates than delta 3-cephalosporins; the catalytic-centre activity of good penicillin substrates is 333-500 s-1. The exocellular, mol.wt. 17 000 DD-carboxypeptidase of S. albus G [previously purified to protein homogeneity; Duez, Frère, Geurts, Ghuysen, Dierickx & Delcambe (1978) Biochem. J. 175, 793-800] behaves as an exceedingly poor beta-lactamase, hydrolysing benzylpenicillin into benzylpenicilloate 5 x 10(-6)-fold less rapidly than does the exocellular beta-lactamase. To all appearances, the beta-lactamase has no bivalent cation requirement whereas, as shown elsewhere [Dideberg, Charlier, Dupont, Vermeire, Frère & Ghuysen (1980) FEBS Lett. 117, 212-214, and Dideberg, Joris, Frère, Ghuysen, Weber, Robaye, Delbrouck & Roelands (1980) FEBS Lett. 117, 215-218], the DD-carboxypeptidase possesses one essential Zn2+ ion per molecule. Peptide 'mapping' and immunological studies suggest that the two Streptomyces enzymes probably have very different structural and mechanistic properties. PMID:6975618

  14. The effect of temperature and duration of exposure of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in infested tubers to the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Horton, David R; Jones, Dana C

    2008-02-01

    The endophytic fungus, Muscodor albus produces several volatile compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, acids and lipids) that are biocidal for a range of organisms including plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, nematodes and insects. We studied the effects of these volatiles on 3-day-old potato tuber moth larvae within infested tubers inside sealed chambers. The length of exposure to M. albus significantly affected mortality of larvae, calculated as percentage of larvae failing to survive to the adult stage. Exposure durations of 3, 7, or 14 days at 24 degrees C followed by incubation in fresh air at 27 degrees C until emergence resulted in mortalities of 84.2, 95.5 and 99.6%, respectively. However, the longer exposures also resulted in increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) that are unacceptable for tuber storage. Effects of M. albus on larval survival was also monitored at 10, 15 and 24 degrees C, using an exposure duration of 7 days followed by incubation in clean air at 27 degrees C until emergence. Mortality of larvae was sharply reduced at the lower temperatures resulting in 50.8, 76.8, and 95.4% mortality, respectively. Tuber storage conditions, especially cooling rates, are discussed with respect to using M. albus as a fumigant without simultaneously producing unacceptable (for tuber storage) levels of CO(2). PMID:17897669

  15. Metabolic Mechanism of Mannan in a Ruminal Bacterium, Ruminococcus albus, Involving Two Mannoside Phosphorylases and Cellobiose 2-Epimerase

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Ryosuke; Saburi, Wataru; Odaka, Rei; Taguchi, Hidenori; Ito, Shigeaki; Mori, Haruhide; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus is a typical ruminal bacterium digesting cellulose and hemicellulose. Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE; EC 5.1.3.11), which converts cellobiose to 4-O-β-d-glucosyl-d-mannose, is a particularly unique enzyme in R. albus, but its physiological function is unclear. Recently, a new metabolic pathway of mannan involving CE was postulated for another CE-producing bacterium, Bacteroides fragilis. In this pathway, β-1,4-mannobiose is epimerized to 4-O-β-d-mannosyl-d-glucose (Man-Glc) by CE, and Man-Glc is phosphorolyzed to α-d-mannosyl 1-phosphate (Man1P) and d-glucose by Man-Glc phosphorylase (MP; EC 2.4.1.281). Ruminococcus albus NE1 showed intracellular MP activity, and two MP isozymes, RaMP1 and RaMP2, were obtained from the cell-free extract. These enzymes were highly specific for the mannosyl residue at the non-reducing end of the substrate and catalyzed the phosphorolysis and synthesis of Man-Glc through a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In a synthetic reaction, RaMP1 showed high activity only toward d-glucose and 6-deoxy-d-glucose in the presence of Man1P, whereas RaMP2 showed acceptor specificity significantly different from RaMP1. RaMP2 acted on d-glucose derivatives at the C2- and C3-positions, including deoxy- and deoxyfluoro-analogues and epimers, but not on those substituted at the C6-position. Furthermore, RaMP2 had high synthetic activity toward the following oligosaccharides: β-linked glucobioses, maltose, N,N′-diacetylchitobiose, and β-1,4-mannooligosaccharides. Particularly, β-1,4-mannooligosaccharides served as significantly better acceptor substrates for RaMP2 than d-glucose. In the phosphorolytic reactions, RaMP2 had weak activity toward β-1,4-mannobiose but efficiently degraded β-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than β-1,4-mannobiose. Consequently, RaMP2 is thought to catalyze the phosphorolysis of β-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than β-1,4-mannobiose to produce Man1P and β-1,4-mannobiose. PMID:23093406

  16. Biosynthesis and characterization of ¹⁵N₆-labeled phomopsin A, a lupin associated mycotoxin produced by Diaporthe toxica.

    PubMed

    Schloß, Svenja; Wedell, Ines; Koch, Matthias; Rohn, Sascha; Maul, Ronald

    2015-06-15

    The hepatotoxin phomopsin A (PHO-A), a secondary metabolite mainly produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica, occurs predominantly on sweet lupins. Along with the growing interest in sweet lupins for food and feed commodities, concerns have been raised about fungal infestations, and consequently, about the determination of PHO-A. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) represents the most suitable analytical technique for sensitive and selective detection of mycotoxins including PHO-A. However, isotopic labeled substances are needed as internal standards for a reliable and convenient quantification. As no isotope standard for PHO-A is currently available, a biosynthesis of fully (15)N6-labeled PHO-A was established by cultivation of D. toxica on defined media containing Na(15)NO3 and (15)N-labeled yeast extract as the only nitrogen sources. The identity of (15)N6-PHO-A was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry. The new (15)N6-labeled standard will facilitate the method development for PHO-A including a more accurate quantification by LC-MS/MS. PMID:25660858

  17. Effect of yellow lupine (L. luteus) on the egg yolk fatty acid profile, the physicochemical and sensory properties of eggs, and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Magdalena; Przywitowski, Marcin; Mikulski, Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary inclusion of raw yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on laying hen performance, the fatty acid (FA) profile, physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. A total of 224 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 32 wk age were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets for 16 wk. The control diet contained soybean meal (SBM), and in study diets SBM was replaced with YLM at 100, 200, or 300 g/kg. In comparison with soybean, lupine seeds had a higher content of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) (29.5 vs. 14.0 and 8.56 vs. 5.91% DM). The dietary 300 g/kg lupine seeds increased the content of NSP and RFO in the ration, from 9.34 to 13.39 and 1.36 to 2.54%, respectively. The YLM inclusion level had no adverse effect on laying performance, including feed intake, FCR, egg production, and egg weight. The final BW of hens fed lupine-based diets were significantly higher compared with the control (P=0.039). Throughout the study, dietary treatments had no effect on eggshell and albumen quality. An increase in the inclusion rate of YLM was followed by a linear increase (P<0.001) in yolk color intensity. Dietary treatments had no influence on the aroma, taste, and texture of eggs evaluated in laying hens at 46 wk age. The inclusion of lupine seeds in experimental diets caused a linear increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content and the n-6/n-3 ratio (all P<0.001), but it had no influence on the atherogenic and the thrombogenic indices of egg yolk lipids. The results of this study indicate that YLM can be included at 300 g/kg in layer diets as a partial substitute for soybean meal without compromising laying performance, the physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. PMID:25825783

  18. Larval Gnathostoma spinigerum Detected in Asian Swamp Eels, Monopterus albus, Purchased from a Local Market in Yangon, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Park, Jong-Bok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of swamp eels with Gnathostoma sp. larvae in Myanmar. We purchased total 37 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from a local market in Yangon in June and December 2013 and 2014. All collected eels were transferred with ice to our laboratory and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion technique. A total of 401 larval gnathostomes (1-96 larvae/eel) were detected in 33 (89.2%) swamp eels. Most of the larvae (n=383; 95.5%) were found in the muscle. The remaining 18 larvae were detected in the viscera. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) were 2.3-4.4 mm long and 0.25-0.425 mm wide. The characteristic head bulb (0.093 × 0.221 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, muscular long esophagus (1.025 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.574 mm) were observed by light microscopy. The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. As scanning electron microscopic findings, the characteristic 4-5 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, a cervical papilla, tegumental spines regularly arranged in the transverse striations, and an anus were well observed. Based on these morphological characters, they were identified as the AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum. By the present study, it has been confirmed for the first time that Asian swamp eels, M. albus, from Yangon, Myanmar are heavily infected with G. spinigerum larvae. PMID:26537042

  19. Larval Gnathostoma spinigerum Detected in Asian Swamp Eels, Monopterus albus, Purchased from a Local Market in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Park, Jong-Bok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of swamp eels with Gnathostoma sp. larvae in Myanmar. We purchased total 37 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from a local market in Yangon in June and December 2013 and 2014. All collected eels were transferred with ice to our laboratory and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion technique. A total of 401 larval gnathostomes (1-96 larvae/eel) were detected in 33 (89.2%) swamp eels. Most of the larvae (n=383; 95.5%) were found in the muscle. The remaining 18 larvae were detected in the viscera. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) were 2.3-4.4 mm long and 0.25-0.425 mm wide. The characteristic head bulb (0.093 × 0.221 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, muscular long esophagus (1.025 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.574 mm) were observed by light microscopy. The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. As scanning electron microscopic findings, the characteristic 4-5 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, a cervical papilla, tegumental spines regularly arranged in the transverse striations, and an anus were well observed. Based on these morphological characters, they were identified as the AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum. By the present study, it has been confirmed for the first time that Asian swamp eels, M. albus, from Yangon, Myanmar are heavily infected with G. spinigerum larvae. PMID:26537042

  20. Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

    2012-01-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different clades, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that iteroparity functioned as an adaptive key innovation, providing a mechanism for range expansion and rapid divergence in upper elevation regions across much of the New World. PMID:22228799

  1. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters in and below the base of thick permafrost at Lupin, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotler, Randy L.; Frape, Shaun K.; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Onstott, Tullis C.; Hobbs, Monique Y.

    2009-06-01

    SummaryShield fluids are commonly understood to evolve through water-rock interaction. However, fluids may also concentrate during ice formation. Very little is currently known about groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost in crystalline environments. This paper evaluates three possible Shield fluid evolution pathways at a crystalline Shield location currently under 500+ meters of permafrost, including surfical cryogenic concentration of seawater, in situ cryogenic concentration and water-rock interaction. A primary goal of this study was to further scientific understanding of permafrost and its role in influencing deep flow system evolution, fluid movement and chemical evolution of waters in crystalline rocks. Precipitation, surface, permafrost and subpermafrost water samples were collected, as well as dissolved and free gas samples, fracture fillings and matrix fluid samples to characterize the site. Investigations of groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost provides valuable information which can be applied to safety assessment of deep, underground nuclear waste repositories, effects of long-term mining in permafrost areas and understanding analogues to potential life-bearing zones on Mars. The study was conducted in the Lupin gold mine in Nunavut, Canada, located within the zone of continuous permafrost. Through-taliks beneath large lakes in the area provided potential hydraulic connections through the permafrost. Na-Cl and Na-Cl-SO 4 type permafrost waters were contaminated by mining activities, affecting the chloride and nitrate concentrations. High nitrate concentrations (423-2630 mg L -1) were attributed to remnants of blasting. High sulfate concentrations in the permafrost (578-5000 mg L -1) were attributed to naturally occurring and mining enhanced sulfide oxidation. Mine dewatering created an artificial hydraulic gradient, resulting in methane hydrate dissociation at depth. Less contaminated basal waters had medium sulfate concentrations and were Ca-Na dominated, similar to deeper subpermafrost waters. Subpermafrost waters had a wide range of salinities (2.6-40 g L -1). It was unclear from this investigation what impact talik waters would have on deep groundwaters in undisturbed environments. In situ cryogenic concentration due to ice and methane hydrate formation may have concentrated the remaining fluids, however there was no evidence that infiltration of cryogenically concentrated seawater occurred since the last glacial maximum. Matrix waters were dilute and unable to affect groundwater salinity. Fracture infillings were scarce, but calcite fluid inclusion microthermometry indicated a large range in salinities, potentially an additional source of salinity to the system.

  2. Microbial communities in subpermafrost saline fracture water at the Lupin Au mine, Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Onstott, T C; McGown, Daniel J; Bakermans, Corien; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Telling, Jon; Soffientino, Bruno; Pfiffner, Susan M; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Frape, Shaun; Stotler, Randy; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Rothmel, Randi; Pratt, Lisa M

    2009-11-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na-Ca-Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, approximately25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were approximately10(3) cells mL(-1). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient created during mine dewatering. Although the absence of methanogens from this subsurface ecosystem is somewhat surprising, it may be attributable to an energy bottleneck that restricts their migration from surface permafrost deposits where they are frequently reported. These results have implications for the biological origin of CH4 on Mars. PMID:19568805

  3. Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Onstott, Tullis; McGown, Daniel; Bakermans, Corien; Ruskeeniemi, T; Ahonen, L; Telling, J; Soffientino, B; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Frape, S; Stotler, R; Johnson, E; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Rothmel, Randi; Pratt, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient created during mine dewatering. Although the absence of methanogens from this subsurface ecosystem is somewhat surprising, it may be attributable to an energy bottleneck that restricts their migration from surface permafrost deposits where they are frequently reported. These results have implications for the biological origin of CH4 on Mars.

  4. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, J.M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N=140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N=15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9cm to 12.2cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51days old (N=13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N = 140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N = 15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9 cm to 12.2 cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51 days old (N = 13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2 cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild.

  6. Aligning a new reference genetic map of Lupinus angustifolius with the genome sequence of the model legume, Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew N; Moolhuijzen, Paula M; Boersma, Jeffrey G; Chudy, Magdalena; Lesniewska, Karolina; Bellgard, Matthew; Oliver, Richard P; Swiecicki, Wojciech; Wolko, Bogdan; Cowling, Wallace A; Ellwood, Simon R

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a dense reference genetic map of Lupinus angustifolius (2n = 40) based on a set of 106 publicly available recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between domesticated and wild parental lines. The map comprised 1090 loci in 20 linkage groups and three small clusters, drawing together data from several previous mapping publications plus almost 200 new markers, of which 63 were gene-based markers. A total of 171 mainly gene-based, sequence-tagged site loci served as bridging points for comparing the Lu. angustifolius genome with the genome sequence of the model legume, Lotus japonicus via BLASTn homology searching. Comparative analysis indicated that the genomes of Lu. angustifolius and Lo. japonicus are highly diverged structurally but with significant regions of conserved synteny including the region of the Lu. angustifolius genome containing the pod-shatter resistance gene, lentus. We discuss the potential of synteny analysis for identifying candidate genes for domestication traits in Lu. angustifolius and in improving our understanding of Fabaceae genome evolution. PMID:20133394

  7. Increased temperature tolerance of the air-breathing Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus after high-temperature acclimation is not explained by improved cardiorespiratory performance.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Findorf, I; Bayley, M; Huong, D T T; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that in the Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, an air-breathing fish from south-east Asia that uses the buccopharyngeal cavity for oxygen uptake, the upper critical temperature (TU ) is increased by acclimation to higher temperature, and that the increased TU is associated with improved cardiovascular and respiratory function. Monopterus albus were therefore acclimated to 27° C (current average) and 32° C (current maximum temperature as well as projected average within 100-200 years), and both the effect of acclimation and acute temperature increments on cardiovascular and respiratory functions were investigated. Two weeks of heat acclimation increased upper tolerated temperature (TU ) by 2° C from 36·9 ± 0·1° C to 38·9 ± 0·1° C (mean ± s.e.). Oxygen uptake (M˙O2 ) increased with acclimation temperature, accommodated by increases in both aerial and aquatic respiration. Overall, M˙O2 from air (M˙O2a ) was predominant, representing 85% in 27° C acclimated fish and 80% in 32° C acclimated fish. M˙O2 increased with acute increments in temperature and this increase was entirely accommodated by an increase in air-breathing frequency and M˙O2a . Monopterus albus failed to upregulate stroke volume; rather, cardiac output was maintained through increased heart rate with rising temperature. Overall, acclimation of M. albus to 32° C did not improve its cardiovascular and respiratory performance at higher temperatures, and cardiovascular adaptations, therefore, do not appear to contribute to the observed increase in TU . PMID:26563596

  8. Biochemical Analyses of Multiple Endoxylanases from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 and Their Synergistic Activities with Accessory Hemicellulose-Degrading Enzymes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Hwan; Iakiviak, Michael; Bauer, Stefan; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a ruminal bacterium capable of metabolizing hemicellulose and cellulose, the major components of the plant cell wall. The enzymes that allow this bacterium to capture energy from the two polysaccharides, therefore, have potential application in plant cell wall depolymerization, a process critical to biofuel production. For this purpose, a partial genome sequence of R. albus 8 was generated. The genomic data depicted a bacterium endowed with multiple forms of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. The endoxylanases of R. albus 8 exhibited diverse modular architectures, including incorporation of a catalytic module, a carbohydrate binding module, and a carbohydrate esterase module in a single polypeptide. The accessory enzymes of xylan degradation were a β-xylosidase, an α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and an α-glucuronidase. We hypothesized that due to the chemical complexity of the hemicellulose encountered in the rumen, the bacterium uses multiple endoxylanases, with subtle differences in substrate specificities, to attack the substrate, while the accessory enzymes hydrolyze the products to simple sugars for metabolism. To test this hypothesis, the genes encoding the predicted endoxylanases were expressed, and the proteins were biochemically characterized either alone or in combination with accessory enzymes. The different endoxylanase families exhibited different patterns of product release, with the family 11 endoxylanases releasing more products in synergy with the accessory enzymes from the more complex substrates. Aside from the insights into hemicellulose degradation by R. albus 8, this report should enhance our knowledge on designing effective enzyme cocktails for release of fermentable sugars in the biofuel industry. PMID:21666020

  9. Genomics of sponge-associated Streptomyces spp. closely related to Streptomyces albus J1074: insights into marine adaptation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis potential.

    PubMed

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B; Sekurova, Olga N; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Zotchev, Sergey B

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  10. A site-specific endodeoxyribonuclease from Streptomyces albus CMI 52766 sharing site-specificity with Providencia stuartii endonuclease PstI.

    PubMed

    Chater, K F

    1977-06-01

    A class II site-specific endodeoxyribonuclease (SalPI) was identified in cell-free extracts of Streptomyces albus CMI 52766 after high speed centrifugation and fractionation through Bio Gel AO.5M. SalPI cleaves lambda DNA into at least 18 fragments. Five cleavage sites were located in the linear lambda map by the use of double and triple restriction enzyme digests involving EcoRI, HindIII, SalGI and another new Streptomyces enzyme, SacI. The results were indistinguishable from those previously obtained for a Providencia stuartii enzyme, PstI, by Smith, Blattner & Davies (Nucleic Acids Res. 1976 3, 343). SalPI and PstI were shown by a double digest test to have the same site specificity. None of 34 phages tested was obviously restricted by S. albus CMI 52766, and correspondingly DNA from two of them was not cleaved in vitro by SalPI. DNA from Streptomyces phage that does not form plaques on S. albus CMI 52766, and plasmid SCP2 DNA from S. coelicolor A3 (2), were both cleaved. PMID:896480

  11. Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential

    PubMed Central

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  12. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blamey, F. Pax C.; Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Cheng, Miaomiao; Tang, Caixian; Paterson, David J.; Lombi, Enzo; Wang, Wei Hong; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Kopittke, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 µm Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albus), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupin angustifolius), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) grew well at 100 µm Mn. Differences in species’ tolerance to high Mn could not be explained simply by differences in root, stem, or leaf Mn status, being 8.6, 17.1, 6.8, and 9.5 mmol kg–1 leaf fresh mass at 100 µm Mn. Furthermore, x-ray absorption near edge structure analyses identified the predominance of Mn(II), bound mostly to malate or citrate, in roots and stems of all four species. Rather, differences in tolerance were due to variations in Mn distribution and speciation within leaves. In Mn-sensitive soybean, in situ analysis of fresh leaves using x-ray fluorescence microscopy combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure showed high Mn in the veins, and manganite [Mn(III)] accumulated in necrotic lesions apparently through low Mn sequestration in vacuoles or other vesicles. In the two lupin species, most Mn accumulated in vacuoles as either soluble Mn(II) malate or citrate. In sunflower, Mn was sequestered as manganite at the base of nonglandular trichomes. Hence, tolerance to high Mn was ascribed to effective sinks for Mn in leaves, as Mn(II) within vacuoles or through oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III) in trichomes. These two mechanisms prevented Mn accumulation in the cytoplasm and apoplast, thereby ensuring tolerance to high Mn in the root environment. PMID:26395840

  13. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment.

    PubMed

    Blamey, F Pax C; Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C; Cheng, Miaomiao; Tang, Caixian; Paterson, David J; Lombi, Enzo; Wang, Wei Hong; Scheckel, Kirk G; Kopittke, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 µm Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albus), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupin angustifolius), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) grew well at 100 µm Mn. Differences in species' tolerance to high Mn could not be explained simply by differences in root, stem, or leaf Mn status, being 8.6, 17.1, 6.8, and 9.5 mmol kg(-1) leaf fresh mass at 100 µm Mn. Furthermore, x-ray absorption near edge structure analyses identified the predominance of Mn(II), bound mostly to malate or citrate, in roots and stems of all four species. Rather, differences in tolerance were due to variations in Mn distribution and speciation within leaves. In Mn-sensitive soybean, in situ analysis of fresh leaves using x-ray fluorescence microscopy combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure showed high Mn in the veins, and manganite [Mn(III)] accumulated in necrotic lesions apparently through low Mn sequestration in vacuoles or other vesicles. In the two lupin species, most Mn accumulated in vacuoles as either soluble Mn(II) malate or citrate. In sunflower, Mn was sequestered as manganite at the base of nonglandular trichomes. Hence, tolerance to high Mn was ascribed to effective sinks for Mn in leaves, as Mn(II) within vacuoles or through oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III) in trichomes. These two mechanisms prevented Mn accumulation in the cytoplasm and apoplast, thereby ensuring tolerance to high Mn in the root environment. PMID:26395840

  14. Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of γ-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario; Scarafoni, Alessio; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa; Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. •The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. •The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed γ-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether γ-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, γ-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of γ-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, γ-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that γ-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin γ-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity.

  15. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH

    PubMed Central

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-01-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4–10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment. PMID:25493199

  16. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment. PMID:25493199

  17. Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus

    SciTech Connect

    Jang Songhun; Zhou Fang; Xia Laixin; Zhao Wei; Cheng Hanhua . E-mail: hhcheng@whu.edu.cn; Zhou Rongjia . E-mail: rjzhou@whu.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600 Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8% of the genome of the rice field eel. This is first BAC library constructed from this species. To estimate the possibility of isolating a specific clone, high-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using Dmrt1 cDNA of the rice field eel as a probe. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed three positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig covering the Dmrt1 gene of 195 kb. By sequence comparisons with the Dmrt1 cDNA and sequencing of first four intron-exon junctions, Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel was predicted to contain four introns and five exons. The sizes of first and second intron are 1.5 and 2.6 kb, respectively, and the sizes of last two introns were predicted to be about 20 kb. The Dmrt1 gene structure was conserved in evolution. These results also indicate that the BAC library is a useful resource for BAC contig construction and molecular isolation of functional genes.

  18. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile. PMID:21519742

  19. Production of sesquiterpene-type phytoalexins by hairy roots of Hyoscyamus albus co-treated with cupper sulfate and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Kawauchi, Morihiro; Arima, Toshihide; Shirota, Osamu; Sekita, Setsuko; Nakane, Takahisa; Takase, Yoichi; Kuroyanagi, Masanori

    2010-07-01

    The production of sesquiterpene-type phytoalexins with a vetispyradiene skeleton by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was reported in a previous paper. The production pattern on co-treatment with cupper sulfate and MeJA (CuSO(4)-MeJA) showed a TLC profile differing from that on treatment with MeJA. Thus, we studied the production of phytoalexins on hairy root culture involving co-treatment with CuSO(4)-MeJA. In the experiment, many sesquiterpene-type phytoalexins with a vetispyradiene skeleton were isolated, most of which were different from the products reported in the previous paper. Here, we isolated four new phytoalexins (1-4) along with known compounds 5-10 from the culture medium of H. albus hairy roots co-treated with MeJA-CuSO(4). The structures of the new compounds (1-4) were determined as: (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-acetoxy-9-(2-methylpropionyloxy)solavetivone (1), (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-hydroxy-9-(3-methylbutanoyloxy)solavetivone (2), (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-acetoxy-9-(3-methyl-butanoyloxy)solavetivone (3), and (3R,4S,5R,7S,9R)-3-acetoxy-9-(3-methyl-2-butenoyloxy)-solavetivone (4) based on MS and NMR including 2D-NMR data. These findings indicated that the production of phytoalexins in H. albus hairy roots yielded different products based on treatment with different chemicals (CuSO(4), MeJA, and MeJA-CuSO(4)). PMID:20606340

  20. Effects of methylmercury and spatial complexity on foraging behavior and foraging efficiency in juvenile white ibises (Eudocimus albus).

    PubMed

    Adams, Evan M; Frederick, Peter C

    2008-08-01

    Methylmercury is a globally distributed neurotoxin, endocrine disruptor, and teratogen, the effects of which on wildlife at environmentally relevant levels are largely unknown. In birds, foraging efficiency and learning may be sensitive endpoints for sublethal methylmercury toxicity, and these endpoints also may be biologically relevant at the population level. In the present study, groups of wild-caught, prefledgling white ibises (Eudocimus albus) were raised in a free-flight, open-air aviary on diets that approximated the measured range of methylmercury exposure in the Everglades ecosystem (0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg/d). The effect of methylmercury exposure on group foraging efficiency was examined by allowing birds to forage on 200 fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in artificial ponds for 15 min by straining the arenas' contents through a seine net and counting all remaining prey. Additionally, we varied the difficulty of foraging by these tactile feeding birds by adding multiple levels of structural complexity (e.g., increased vegetation and prey refugia) to the pond. Structural complexity affected both foraging efficiency and the rate of increase in efficiency over time (improvement). Methylmercury exposure affected foraging efficiency (p = 0.03). It did not affect foraging improvement in the face of increasingly challenging environments, however, and the dose-response relationship was nonlinear (e.g., the control and high-exposure groups were the least efficient foragers). Evidence for an effect of methylmercury on foraging efficiency therefore was inconclusive because of unpredicted results and no interaction with time or habitat complexity. These data suggest a nonlinear dose-response relationship at low levels of methylmercury exposure; future research is needed to verify this hypothesis. This appears to be the first experimental demonstration of the effects of habitat complexity on foraging efficiency in long-legged wading birds. PMID:18315390

  1. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  2. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  3. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon.

  4. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  5. Conglutin gamma, a lupin seed protein, binds insulin in vitro and reduces plasma glucose levels of hyperglycemic rats.

    PubMed

    Magni, Chiara; Sessa, Fabio; Accardo, Elena; Vanoni, Marco; Morazzoni, Paolo; Scarafoni, Alessio; Duranti, Marcello

    2004-11-01

    This work describes the in vitro interaction between a lupin seed protein, namely, conglutin gamma, and insulin. The binding to an insulin-immobilized matrix occurs in the pH range from 7.5 to 4.2 and is strongly affected by ionic strength, suggesting that it is driven primarily by electrostatic interactions. The quantitative parameters of the binding were determined by surface plasmon resonance. On the basis of the conditions required for the interaction to take place and the quantitative binding parameters, it appeared that the interaction is specific, despite the fact that the origin of the two protein molecules is completely different. The effect of the oral administration of conglutin gamma on the glycemic levels of rats subjected to glucose overloading was a statistically significant reduction in glycemia comparable to that of metformin, a well-known glucose lowering drug. These findings represent the first molecular evidence of the possible use of a legume protein in the control of glycemia. PMID:15590267

  6. Identification of putative methanol dehydrogenase (moxF) structural genes in methylotrophs and cloning of moxF genes from Methylococcus capsulatus bath and Methylomonas albus BG8.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, R L; Haygood, M G; Lidstrom, M E

    1988-01-01

    An open-reading-frame fragment of a Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 gene (moxF) encoding a portion of the methanol dehydrogenase structural protein has been used as a hybridization probe to detect similar sequences in a variety of methylotrophic bacteria. This hybridization was used to isolate clones containing putative moxF genes from two obligate methanotrophic bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Methylomonas albus BG8. The identity of these genes was confirmed in two ways. A T7 expression vector was used to produce methanol dehydrogenase protein in Escherichia coli from the cloned genes, and in each case the protein was identified by immunoblotting with antiserum against the Methylomonas albus methanol dehydrogenase. In addition, a moxF mutant of Methylobacterium strain AM1 was complemented to a methanol-positive phenotype that partially restored methanol dehydrogenase activity, using broad-host-range plasmids containing the moxF genes from each methanotroph. The partial complementation of a moxF mutant in a facultative serine pathway methanol utilizer by moxF genes from type I and type X obligate methane utilizers suggests broad functional conservation of the methanol oxidation system among gram-negative methylotrophs. Images PMID:3129400

  7. Direct cloning and heterologous expression of the salinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces albus DSM41398 in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; Hoffmann, Michael; Bian, Xiaoying; Tu, Qiang; Yan, Fu; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Stewart, A Francis; Müller, Rolf; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Youming

    2015-01-01

    Linear plus linear homologous recombination-mediated recombineering (LLHR) is ideal for obtaining natural product biosynthetic gene clusters from pre-digested bacterial genomic DNA in one or two steps of recombineering. The natural product salinomycin has a potent and selective activity against cancer stem cells and is therefore a potential anti-cancer drug. Herein, we separately isolated three fragments of the salinomycin gene cluster (salO-orf18) from Streptomyces albus (S. albus) DSM41398 using LLHR and assembled them into intact gene cluster (106 kb) by Red/ET and expressed it in the heterologous host Streptomyces coelicolor (S. coelicolor) A3(2). We are the first to report a large genomic region from a Gram-positive strain has been cloned using LLHR. The successful reconstitution and heterologous expression of the salinomycin gene cluster offer an attractive system for studying the function of the individual genes and identifying novel and potential analogues of complex natural products in the recipient strain. PMID:26459865

  8. Direct cloning and heterologous expression of the salinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces albus DSM41398 in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jia; Hoffmann, Michael; Bian, Xiaoying; Tu, Qiang; Yan, Fu; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Francis Stewart, A.; Müller, Rolf; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Youming

    2015-01-01

    Linear plus linear homologous recombination-mediated recombineering (LLHR) is ideal for obtaining natural product biosynthetic gene clusters from pre-digested bacterial genomic DNA in one or two steps of recombineering. The natural product salinomycin has a potent and selective activity against cancer stem cells and is therefore a potential anti-cancer drug. Herein, we separately isolated three fragments of the salinomycin gene cluster (salO-orf18) from Streptomyces albus (S. albus) DSM41398 using LLHR and assembled them into intact gene cluster (106 kb) by Red/ET and expressed it in the heterologous host Streptomyces coelicolor (S. coelicolor) A3(2). We are the first to report a large genomic region from a Gram-positive strain has been cloned using LLHR. The successful reconstitution and heterologous expression of the salinomycin gene cluster offer an attractive system for studying the function of the individual genes and identifying novel and potential analogues of complex natural products in the recipient strain. PMID:26459865

  9. Bacteria associated with yellow lupine grown on a metal-contaminated soil: in vitro screening and in vivo evaluation for their potential to enhance Cd phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Weyens, N; Gielen, M; Beckers, B; Boulet, J; van der Lelie, D; Taghavi, S; Carleer, R; Vangronsveld, J

    2014-09-01

    In order to stimulate selection for plant-associated bacteria with the potential to improve Cd phytoextraction, yellow lupine plants were grown on a metal-contaminated field soil. It was hypothesised that growing these plants on this contaminated soil, which is a source of bacteria possessing different traits to cope with Cd, could enhance colonisation of lupine with potential plant-associated bacteria that could then be inoculated in Cd-exposed plants to reduce Cd phytotoxicity and enhance Cd uptake. All cultivable bacteria from rhizosphere, root and stem were isolated and genotypically and phenotypically characterised. Many of the rhizobacteria and root endophytes produce siderophores, organic acids, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, as well as being resistant to Cd and Zn. Most of the stem endophytes could produce organic acids (73.8%) and IAA (74.3%), however, only a minor fraction (up to 0.7%) were Cd or Zn resistant or could produce siderophores or ACC deaminase. A siderophore- and ACC deaminase-producing, highly Cd-resistant Rhizobium sp. from the rhizosphere, a siderophore-, organic acid-, IAA- and ACC deaminase-producing highly Cd-resistant Pseudomonas sp. colonising the roots, a highly Cd- and Zn-resistant organic acid and IAA-producing Clavibacter sp. present in the stem, and a consortium composed of these three strains were inoculated into non-exposed and Cd-exposed yellow lupine plants. Although all selected strains possessed promising in vitro characteristics to improve Cd phytoextraction, inoculation of none of the strains (i) reduced Cd phytotoxicity nor (ii) strongly affected plant Cd uptake. This work highlights that in vitro characterisation of bacteria is not sufficient to predict the in vivo behaviour of bacteria in interaction with their host plants. PMID:24400887

  10. Glycocaulis albus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic dimorphic prosthecate bacterium isolated from petroleum-contaminated saline soil.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiang-Lin; Xie, Bai-Sheng; Cai, Man; Geng, Shuang; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wang, Ya-Nan; Cui, Heng-Lin; Liu, Xue-Ying; Ye, Si-Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2014-09-01

    Two novel bacterial strains, SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2, which shared 99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other, were isolated from petroleum-contaminated saline soil in Shengli Oilfield, eastern China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, motile, aerobic, mesophilic and moderately halophilic. They could grow chemoheterotrophically with oxygen as an electron acceptor. Morphologically, cells were typical Caulobacteria-type dimorphic prosthecate bacteria. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 were 61.8 mol% and 61.6 mol% respectively. Strain SLG210-30A1(T) had Q10 as the predominant respiratory ubiquinone, and C16 : 0 (28.4 %), C17 : 0 (11.6 %), C18 : 0 (22.1 %) and C18 : 1ω7c (14.0 %) as the major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipids of the two isolates were some glycolipids, a lipid, a phospholipid, an aminoglycolipid and an aminophospholipid (all unidentified). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 showed the highest similarities with Glycocaulis abyssi MCS 33(T) (99.8-99.9 %), but low sequence similarities (<94.7 %) with type strains of other members of the family Hyphomonadaceae. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness of G. abyssi MCS 33(T) to strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 was 37.4±4.4 % and 36.1±1.1 %, respectively. Based on different physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic characteristics, strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 represent a novel species of the genus Glycocaulis. The name Glycocaulis albus is therefore proposed with strain SLG210-30A1(T) ( = LMG 27741(T) = CGMCC 1.12766(T)) as the type strain. An emended description of the genus Glycocaulis is also provided. PMID:24966201

  11. The effects of increased CO[sub 2] on the competitive ability of Lupinus arboreus, a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.M. )

    1993-06-01

    Plant responses to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] have been shown to be both species-specific and dependent on other environmental factors, potentially changing competitive interactions and altering community structure. The competitive response of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub to an introduced annual (Bromus diandrus) and a native perennial grass (Bromus carinatus) was measured under ambient and high CO[sub 2] and two nitrogen levels. These species coexist in a generally nitrogen-limited coastal grassland reserve besieged with alien species. The relative competitive ability of the lupin increased with CO[sub 2] for all treatments, with the largest difference occurring at low nitrogen in competition with the introduced annual. This study provides a global change perspective for those interested in conserving native Californian grassland species, as well as the first data on the competitive response of nitrogen-fixers to high CO[sub 2].

  12. Incorporation of [15N]Ammonia by the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes BL2, Ruminococcus albus SY3, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17

    PubMed Central

    Atasoglu, Cengiz; Newbold, C. James; Wallace, R. John

    2001-01-01

    The origin of cell nitrogen and amino acid nitrogen during growth of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in different growth media was investigated by using 15NH3. At high concentrations of peptides (Trypticase, 10 g/liter) and amino acids (15.5 g/liter), significant amounts of cell nitrogen of Fibrobacter succinogenes BL2 (51%), Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 (43%), and Ruminococcus albus SY3 (46%) were derived from non-NH3-N. With peptides at 1 g/liter, a mean of 80% of cell nitrogen was from NH3. More cell nitrogen was formed from NH3 during growth on cellobiose compared with growth on cellulose in all media. Phenylalanine was essential for F. succinogenes, and its 15N enrichment declined more than that of other amino acids in all species when amino acids were added to the medium. PMID:11375199

  13. A small-scale proteomic approach reveals a survival strategy, including a reduction in alkaloid biosynthesis, in Hyoscyamus albus roots subjected to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Khandakar, Jebunnahar; Haraguchi, Izumi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2013-01-01

    Hyoscyamus albus is a well-known source of the tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are biosynthesized in the roots. To assess the major biochemical adaptations that occur in the roots of this plant in response to iron deficiency, we used a small-scale proteomic approach in which 100 mg of root tips were treated with and without Fe, respectively, for 5 days. Two-dimensional mini gels showed that 48 spots were differentially accumulated between the two conditions of Fe availability and a further 36 proteins were identified from these spots using MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins that showed elevated levels in the roots lacking Fe were found to be associated variously with carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation, secondary metabolism, and oxidative defense. Most of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were increased in abundance, but mitochondrial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was decreased, possibly resulting in malate secretion. Otherwise, all the proteins showing diminished levels in the roots were identified as either Fe-containing or ATP-requiring. For example, a significant decrease was observed in the levels of hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H), which requires Fe and is involved in the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. To investigate the effects of Fe deficiency on alkaloid biosynthesis, gene expression studies were undertaken both for H6H and for another Fe-dependent protein, Cyp80F1, which is involved in the final stage of hyoscyamine biosynthesis. In addition, tropane alkaloid contents were determined. Reduced gene expression was observed in the case of both of these proteins and was accompanied by a decrease in the content of both hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Finally, we have discussed energetic and Fe-conservation strategies that might be adopted by the roots of H. albus to maintain iron homeostasis under Fe-limiting conditions. PMID:24009619

  14. A small-scale proteomic approach reveals a survival strategy, including a reduction in alkaloid biosynthesis, in Hyoscyamus albus roots subjected to iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Khandakar, Jebunnahar; Haraguchi, Izumi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2013-01-01

    Hyoscyamus albus is a well-known source of the tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are biosynthesized in the roots. To assess the major biochemical adaptations that occur in the roots of this plant in response to iron deficiency, we used a small-scale proteomic approach in which 100 mg of root tips were treated with and without Fe, respectively, for 5 days. Two-dimensional mini gels showed that 48 spots were differentially accumulated between the two conditions of Fe availability and a further 36 proteins were identified from these spots using MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins that showed elevated levels in the roots lacking Fe were found to be associated variously with carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation, secondary metabolism, and oxidative defense. Most of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were increased in abundance, but mitochondrial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was decreased, possibly resulting in malate secretion. Otherwise, all the proteins showing diminished levels in the roots were identified as either Fe-containing or ATP-requiring. For example, a significant decrease was observed in the levels of hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H), which requires Fe and is involved in the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. To investigate the effects of Fe deficiency on alkaloid biosynthesis, gene expression studies were undertaken both for H6H and for another Fe-dependent protein, Cyp80F1, which is involved in the final stage of hyoscyamine biosynthesis. In addition, tropane alkaloid contents were determined. Reduced gene expression was observed in the case of both of these proteins and was accompanied by a decrease in the content of both hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Finally, we have discussed energetic and Fe-conservation strategies that might be adopted by the roots of H. albus to maintain iron homeostasis under Fe-limiting conditions. PMID:24009619

  15. High Brain Ammonia Tolerance and Down-Regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl- Cotransporter 1b mRNA and Protein Expression in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Exposed to Environmental Ammonia or Terrestrial Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Yuen K.; Hou, Zhisheng; Chen, Xiu L.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C.; Chew, Shit F.

    2013-01-01

    Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g-1 and 2.7 µmol g-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance. PMID:24069137

  16. Age estimations of wild pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus, Forbes & Richardson 1905) based on pectoral fin spines, otoliths and bomb radiocarbon: inferences on recruitment in the dam-fragmented Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Campana, S. E.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Bruch, R. M.; Jordan, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    An extant stock of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus persists in the fragmented upper Missouri River basin of Montana and North Dakota. Although successful spawning and hatch of embryos has been verified, long-term catch records suggest that recruitment has not occurred for several decades as the extant stock lacks juvenile size classes and is comprised exclusively of large, presumably old individuals. Ages of 11 deceased (death years 1997–2007) wild S. albus (136–166 cm fork length) were estimated based on pectoral fin spines, sagittal otoliths and bomb radiocarbon (14C) assays of otoliths to test the hypothesis that members of this stock are old and to provide inferences on recruitment years that produced the extant stock. Age estimations based on counts of presumed annuli were about 2 years greater for otoliths (mean = 51 years, range = 43–57 years) than spines (mean = 49 years, range = 37–59 years). Based on 14C assays, confirmed birth years for all individuals occurred prior to 1957, thus establishing known longevity of at least 50 years. Estimated age based on presumed otolith annuli for one S. albus was validated to at least age 49. Although 14C assays confirmed pre-1957 birth years for all S. albus, only 56% of estimated ages from spines and 91% of estimated ages from otoliths depicted pre-1957 birth years. Both ageing structures were subject to under-ageing error (up to 15 years). Lack of or severe curtailment of S. albus recruitment in the upper Missouri River basin since the mid-1950s closely parallels the 1953–1957 timeframe when a mainstem reservoir was constructed and started to fill. This reservoir may function as a system-wide stressor to diminish recruitment success of S. albus in the upper Missouri River basin.

  17. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  18. The formation of short-chain fatty acids is positively associated with the blood lipid-lowering effect of lupin kernel fiber in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Anita; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Lupin kernel fiber beneficially modifies blood lipids because of its bile acid-binding capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of a lupin kernel fiber preparation on cardiovascular diseases and to clarify possible mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 60 moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (plasma total cholesterol: >5.2 mmol/L) passed 3 intervention periods in different orders with a 2-wk washout phase between each. Participants consumed either a high-fiber diet containing 25-g/d lupin kernel fiber (LF) or citrus fiber (CF), or a low-fiber control diet (CD) for 4 wk each. Anthropometric, plasma, and fecal variables were assessed at baseline and after the interventions. Contrary to the CF period, total (9%) and LDL (12%) cholesterol as well as triacylglycerols (10%) were lower after the LF period when compared with the CD period [P ≤ 0.02, adjusted for baseline, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)]. HDL cholesterol remained unchanged. Moreover, the LF period reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) when compared with baseline. Bile acid binding could not be shown because the excretion of total bile acids remained constant after the high-fiber diets. However, the LF period resulted in an enhanced formation of the main short-chain fatty acids in comparison with the CD period. During the CF period, only acetate increased significantly. Both high-fiber diets led to higher satiety and modified nutritional behavior, resulting in significantly lower body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with the CD period. The blood lipid-lowering effects of LF are apparently not a result of bile acid binding. Rather, we hypothesize for the first time, to our knowledge, that the blood lipid-lowering effects of LF may be mainly attributed to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, specifically propionate and acetate. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01035086. PMID:24572041

  19. Gene Cloning and mRNA Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in the Liver, Brain, and Intestine of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), Exposed to Freshwater, Terrestrial Conditions, Environmental Ammonia, or Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tok, Chia Y.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2011-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5′ UTR, a complete coding sequence region spanning 1629 bp and a 3′ UTR of approximately 717 bp, from the liver, intestine, and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence had 542 residues, and it formed a monophyletic clade with Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2, and O. mykiss Gdh1a. One day of exposure to terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl, but not to water at salinity 20, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the liver of M. albus. However, exposure to brackish water, but not to terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl, led to a significant increase in the mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the intestine. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus, despite a significant decrease in the Gdh amination activity in the brain of fish exposed to 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl for 6 days. Our results indicate for the first time that the mRNA expression of gdh1a was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus in response to ammonia toxicity and salinity stress, respectively. The increases in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity would probably lead to an increase in glutamate production in support of increased glutamine synthesis for the purpose of ammonia detoxification or cell volume regulation under these two different environmental conditions. PMID:22319499

  20. Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.

    PubMed

    Berger, J D; Ludwig, C

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime's C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

  1. Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J. D.; Ludwig, C.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime’s C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of amh and dax1 genes and their expression during sex inversion in rice-field eel Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    The full-length cDNAs of amh and dax1 in the hermaphrodite, rice-field eel (Monopterus albus), were cloned and characterized in this study. Multiple sequence alignment revealed Dax1 was well conserved among vertebrates, whereas Amh had a low degree of similarity between different vertebrates. Their expression profiles in gonads during the course of sex inversion and tissues were investigated. The tissue distribution indicated amh was expressed mostly in gonads and was scarcely detectable in other tissues, whereas the expression of dax1 was widespread among the different tissues, especially liver and gonads. amh was scarcely detectable in ovaries whereas it was abundantly expressed in both ovotestis and testis. By contrast, dax1 was highly expressed in ovaries, especially in ♀IV (ovaries in IV stage), but it was decreased significantly in ♀/♂I (ovotestis in I stage). Its expression was increased again in ♀/♂III (ovotestis in III stage), and then decreased to a low level in testis. These significant different expression patterns of amh and dax1 suggest the increase of amh expression and the decline of dax1 expression are important for the activation of testis development, and the high level of amh and a low level of dax1 expression are necessary for maintenance of testis function. PMID:26578091

  3. Performance assessment for determining malachite green and leucomalachite green in swamp eel (Monopterus albus) muscle using assigned reference values in a proficiency test.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y C; Cheung, T C

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a proficiency test (APLAC T058) for malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG) in swamp eel (Monopterus albus). The programme was organized by the Hong Kong Government Laboratory and Hong Kong Accreditation Service (HKAS), under the auspices of the Asia-Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Co-operation (APLAC) in 2007. Results submitted by participants were compared with the assigned reference values, which were determined by an accurate liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) technique, and their performance was evaluated on the basis of z-score index. The distribution of data was very wide and discrepancy from the assigned reference values was found to be method dependent. Only 48% and 62% of participants achieved satisfactory z-scores (i.e. |z|

  4. Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), eel (Monopterus albus) and cockle (Anadara granosa).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Zamri, M; Fadilla, N

    2012-06-15

    This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish. PMID:24191621

  5. Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: A comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andvik, R.T.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.; French, William E.; Bertrand, K.N.; Chipps, S.R.; Klumb, R.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r2 ??? 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both ??15N and ??13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day-1) using stable ??15N and ??13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue ??15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but ??13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species. ?? 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  6. An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Ruggles, M.P.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.; Holm, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean = 0.66–0.70 m s−1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m s−1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day−1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

  7. Asparagine Metabolism—Key to the Nitrogen Nutrition of Developing Legume Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.; Sharkey, Patrick J.

    1975-01-01

    Asparagine accounted for 50 to 70% of the nitrogen carried in translocatory channels serving fruit and seed of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). Rates of supply of the amide always greatly exceeded its incorporation as such into protein. An asparaginase (l-asparagine amido hydrolase EC 3.5.1.1) was demonstrated in crude extracts of seeds. In vitro activity was up to 5 μmoles of aspartate formed per hour per gram fresh weight at the apparent KmAsn value of 10 mM, and this more than accounted for the estimated rates of asparagine utilization in vivo. Asparaginase activity per seed increased 10-fold in the period 5 to 7 weeks after anthesis, coinciding with early stages of storage protein synthesis in the cotyledons. Double labeled (14C (U), 15N (amide)) asparagine was fed to fruiting shoots through the transpiration steram. Fruit phloem sap analysis indicated that virtually all of the label was translocated to seeds in the form of asparagine. In young seeds 15N from asparagine breakdown was traced to the ammonia, glutamine, and alanine of endospermic fluid, the 14C appearing mainly in nonamino compounds. In the cotyledon-filling stage the C and N of asparagine was contributed to a variety of amino acid residues of protein. PMID:16659399

  8. Visualization of Root Water Uptake: Quantification of Deuterated Water Transport in Roots Using Neutron Radiography and Numerical Modeling[C

    PubMed Central

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of soil and plant water relations is limited by the lack of experimental methods to measure water fluxes in soil and plants. Here, we describe a new method to noninvasively quantify water fluxes in roots. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D2O) into roots. The results showed that (1) the radial transport of D2O from soil to the roots depended similarly on diffusive and convective transport and (2) the axial transport of D2O along the root xylem was largely dominated by convection. To quantify the convective fluxes from the radiographs, we introduced a convection-diffusion model to simulate the D2O transport in roots. The model takes into account different pathways of water across the root tissue, the endodermis as a layer with distinct transport properties, and the axial transport of D2O in the xylem. The diffusion coefficients of the root tissues were inversely estimated by simulating the experiments at night under the assumption that the convective fluxes were negligible. Inverse modeling of the experiment at day gave the profile of water fluxes into the roots. For a 24-d-old lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in a soil with uniform water content, root water uptake was higher in the proximal parts of lateral roots and decreased toward the distal parts. The method allows the quantification of the root properties and the regions of root water uptake along the root systems. PMID:25189533

  9. Modeling the Transport and Utilization of Carbon and Nitrogen in a Nodulated Legume 1

    PubMed Central

    Pate, John S.; Layzell, David B.; McNeil, David L.

    1979-01-01

    An empirical modeling technique was developed for depicting quantitatively the transport and partitioning of photosynthetically fixed C and symbiotically fixed N during 10-day intervals of a 40-day period in the growth of nodulated plants of white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra). Model construction utilized data for C and N consumption of plant parts and C:N weight ratios of the xylem and phloem fluids serving specific plant organs. Formulas were derived from calculating the net transport of C and N between plant parts in xylem and phloem. The models provided quantitative information on the dependence of growing organs on xylem and phloem for their supply of C and N, the cycling of N through leaflets and of C through nodules, the extent of direct incorporation of fixed N into growing nodules, and the involvement of N from shoot translocate in the nutrition of the nodulated root. Stem plus petioles abstracted considerably more N from xylem than expected from their transpirational activity. Xylem to phloem transfer of recently fixed N in mature stem and petioles was substantiated by the models, being depicted as a device for dispensing N to growing parts of the shoot extra to that attracted transpirationally in xylem or received as translocate from leaflets. PMID:16660802

  10. A Novel Image-Analysis Toolbox Enabling Quantitative Analysis of Root System Architecture1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pagès, Loïc; Draye, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We present in this paper a novel, semiautomated image-analysis software to streamline the quantitative analysis of root growth and architecture of complex root systems. The software combines a vectorial representation of root objects with a powerful tracing algorithm that accommodates a wide range of image sources and quality. The root system is treated as a collection of roots (possibly connected) that are individually represented as parsimonious sets of connected segments. Pixel coordinates and gray level are therefore turned into intuitive biological attributes such as segment diameter and orientation as well as distance to any other segment or topological position. As a consequence, user interaction and data analysis directly operate on biological entities (roots) and are not hampered by the spatially discrete, pixel-based nature of the original image. The software supports a sampling-based analysis of root system images, in which detailed information is collected on a limited number of roots selected by the user according to specific research requirements. The use of the software is illustrated with a time-lapse analysis of cluster root formation in lupin (Lupinus albus) and an architectural analysis of the maize (Zea mays) root system. The software, SmartRoot, is an operating system-independent freeware based on ImageJ and relies on cross-platform standards for communication with data-analysis software. PMID:21771915

  11. Effects of Short-Term N2 Deficiency on N Metabolism in Legume Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.; Shelp, Barry J.

    1984-01-01

    The study aimed to test the hypothesis that ammonia production by Rhizobium bacteroids provides not only a source of nitrogen for growth but has a central regulatory role in maintaining the metabolic activity and functional integrity of the legume nodule. Production of ammonia in intact, attached nodules was interrupted by short-term (up to 3 days) exposure of the nodulated root systems of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv Vita 3: Rhizobium CB 756) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv Ultra: Rhizobium WU 425) to atmospheres of argon:oxygen (80:20; v/v). Treatment did not affect nodule growth, levels of plant cell and bacteroid protein, leghaemoglobin content, or nitrogenase (EC 1.7.99.2) activity (acetylene reduction) but severely reduced (by 90%) synthesis and export of the major nitrogenous solutes produced by the two symbioses (ureides in cowpea, amides in lupin). Glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) and NAD:glutamate oxidoreductase (EC I.4.1.2) were more or less stable to Ar:O2 treatment, but activities of the glutamine-utilizing enzymes, glutamate synthase (EC 2.6.1.53), asparagine synthetase (EC 6.3.5.4) (lupin only), and de novo purine synthesis (cowpea only), were all markedly reduced. Production and export of nitrogenous solutes by both symbioses resumed within 2 hours after transferring Ar:O2-treated plants back to air. In each case the major exported product of fixation after transfer was initially glutamine, reflecting the relative stability of glutamine synthetase activity. Subsequently, glutamine declined and products of its assimilation became predominant consistent with resurgence of enzymes for the synthesis of asparagine in lupin and ureides in cowpea. Enzymes not directly involved with either ammonia or glutamine assimilation (purine synthesis, purine oxidation, and carbon metabolism of both bacteroids and plant cells) also showed transient changes in activity following interruption of N2 supply. These data have been interpreted to indicate a far-reaching effect of the production of ammonia by bacteroids on a wide range of enzymes, possibly through control of protein turnover, rather than a highly specific effect of ammonia, or some product of its assimilation, on a few enzyme species. PMID:16663910

  12. Legume genomics: understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approx. 17 000 species. A few of these species, including, but not limited to, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing protein for approx. 300 million people worldwide. Additional species, including soybean (Glycine max) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), are important crops utilized mainly in animal feed. In addition, legumes are important contributors to biological nitrogen, forming symbiotic relationships with rhizobia to fix atmospheric N2 and providing up to 30 % of available nitrogen for the next season of crops. The application of high-throughput genomic technologies including genome sequencing projects, genome re-sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) by the legume research community has provided major insights into genome evolution, genomic architecture and domestication. Scope and Conclusions This review presents an overview of the current state of legume genomics and explores the role that next-generation sequencing technologies play in advancing legume genomics. The adoption of next-generation sequencing and implementation of associated bioinformatic tools has allowed researchers to turn each species of interest into their own model organism. To illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing, an in-depth overview of the transcriptomes of both soybean and white lupin (Lupinus albus) is provided. The soybean transcriptome focuses on analysing seed development in two near-isogenic lines, examining the role of transporters, oil biosynthesis and nitrogen utilization. The white lupin transcriptome analysis examines how phosphate deficiency alters gene expression patterns, inducing the formation of cluster roots. Such studies illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in elucidating the gene networks underlying biological processes. PMID:24769535

  13. Chemical and plant tests to assess the viability of amendments to reduce metal availability in mine soils and tailings.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Rocío; Sánchez, Virtudes; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this research was to assess the potential of several industrial wastes to immobilise metals in two polluted soils deriving from an old Pb/Zn mine. Two different approaches were used to assess the performance of different amendments: a chemical one, using extraction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and a biological one, using Lupinus albus as a bio-indicator. Four amendments were used: inorganic sugar production waste (named 'sugar foam', SF), sludge from a drinking water treatment sludge (DWS), organic waste from olive mill waste (OMW) and paper mill sludge (PMS). Amendment to soil ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 (w/w). All the amendments were capable of significantly decreasing (p < 0.05) EDTA-extractable Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in the two soils used, with decreases in ranges 21-100, 25-100 and 2-100 % for Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. The amendments tested were also effective in reducing the bioavailability of Pb and Zn for L. albus, which gave rise to a decrease in shoot metal accumulation by the lupine plants compared to that found in the control soil. That decrease reached up to 5.6 and 2.8 times for Pb and Zn, respectively, being statistically significant in most cases. Moreover, application of the OMW, DWS and SF amendments led to higher average values of plant biomass (up to 71 %) than those obtained in the control soil. The results obtained showed the technology put forward to be a viable means of remediating mine soils as it led to a decrease in the availability and toxicity of metals and, thus, facilitated the growth of a vegetation layer. PMID:25772873

  14. Hydrogen Formation and Its Regulation in Ruminococcus albus: Involvement of an Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, of a Non-Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, and of a Putative Hydrogen-Sensing [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanning; Kahnt, Jörg; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 has played a key role in the development of the concept of interspecies hydrogen transfer. The rumen bacterium ferments glucose to 1.3 acetate, 0.7 ethanol, 2 CO2, and 2.6 H2 when growing in batch culture and to 2 acetate, 2 CO2, and 4 H2 when growing in continuous culture in syntrophic association with H2-consuming microorganisms that keep the H2 partial pressure low. The organism uses NAD+ and ferredoxin for glucose oxidation to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and CO2, NADH for the reduction of acetyl-CoA to ethanol, and NADH and reduced ferredoxin for the reduction of protons to H2. Of all the enzymes involved, only the enzyme catalyzing the formation of H2 from NADH remained unknown. Here, we report that R. albus 7 grown in batch culture on glucose contained, besides a ferredoxin-dependent [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA2), a ferredoxin- and NAD-dependent electron-bifurcating [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydABC) that couples the endergonic formation of H2 from NADH to the exergonic formation of H2 from reduced ferredoxin. Interestingly, hydA2 is adjacent to the hydS gene, which is predicted to encode an [FeFe]-hydrogenase with a C-terminal PAS domain. We showed that hydS and hydA2 are part of a larger transcriptional unit also harboring putative genes for a bifunctional acetaldehyde/ethanol dehydrogenase (Aad), serine/threonine protein kinase, serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and a redox-sensing transcriptional repressor. Since HydA2 and Aad are required only when R. albus grows at high H2 partial pressures, HydS could be a H2-sensing [FeFe]-hydrogenase involved in the regulation of their biosynthesis. PMID:25157086

  15. Oxalotrophy, a widespread trait of plant-associated Burkholderia species, is involved in successful root colonization of lupin and maize by Burkholderia phytofirmans

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Thomas; Stopnisek, Nejc; Agnoli, Kirsty; Eberl, Leo

    2014-01-01

    Plant roots and shoots harbor complex bacterial communities. Early seed and plantlet colonization plays a key role in determining which bacterial populations will successfully invade plant tissues, yet the mechanisms enabling plants to select for beneficial rather than harmful populations are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a role of oxalate as a determinant in this selection process, using members of the genus Burkholderia as model organisms. Oxalotrophy, i.e., the ability to use oxalate as a carbon source, was found to be a property strictly associated with plant-beneficial species of the Burkholderia genus, while plant pathogenic (B. glumae, B. plantarii) or human opportunistic pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia complex strains) were unable to degrade oxalate. We further show that oxalotrophy is required for successful plant colonization by the broad host endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN: an engineered Δoxc mutant, which lost the ability to grow on oxalate, was significantly impaired in early colonization of both lupin and maize compared with the wild-type. This work suggests that in addition to the role of oxalate in heavy metal tolerance of plants and in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi, it is also involved in specifically recruiting plant-beneficial members from complex bacterial communities. PMID:24409174

  16. Oxalotrophy, a widespread trait of plant-associated Burkholderia species, is involved in successful root colonization of lupin and maize by Burkholderia phytofirmans.

    PubMed

    Kost, Thomas; Stopnisek, Nejc; Agnoli, Kirsty; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2014-01-01

    Plant roots and shoots harbor complex bacterial communities. Early seed and plantlet colonization plays a key role in determining which bacterial populations will successfully invade plant tissues, yet the mechanisms enabling plants to select for beneficial rather than harmful populations are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a role of oxalate as a determinant in this selection process, using members of the genus Burkholderia as model organisms. Oxalotrophy, i.e., the ability to use oxalate as a carbon source, was found to be a property strictly associated with plant-beneficial species of the Burkholderia genus, while plant pathogenic (B. glumae, B. plantarii) or human opportunistic pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia complex strains) were unable to degrade oxalate. We further show that oxalotrophy is required for successful plant colonization by the broad host endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN: an engineered Δoxc mutant, which lost the ability to grow on oxalate, was significantly impaired in early colonization of both lupin and maize compared with the wild-type. This work suggests that in addition to the role of oxalate in heavy metal tolerance of plants and in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi, it is also involved in specifically recruiting plant-beneficial members from complex bacterial communities. PMID:24409174

  17. Isotherms and kinetic study of dihydrogen and hydrogen phosphate ions (H{2}PO{4}- and HPO{4}2-) adsorption onto crushed plant matter of the semi-arid zones of Morocco: Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus and Senecio anthophorbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiban, M.; Benhima, H.; Saadi, B.; Nounah, A.; Sinan, F.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work H{2}PO4- and HPO42- ions adsorption onto organic matter (OM) obtained from ground dried three plants growing in arid zones of Morocco has been studied. The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, particle size and initial concentration of phosphate solution (Ci ≤ 30 mg/l). The uptake of both ions is increased by increasing the concentration of them selves. The retention of phosphate ions by Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus are well defined by several isotherms such as the Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus inoculation of Acacia spirorbis and Eucalyptus globulus grown in ultramafic topsoil enhances plant growth and mineral nutrition while limits metal uptake.

    PubMed

    Jourand, Philippe; Hannibal, Laure; Majorel, Clarisse; Mengant, Stéphane; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel

    2014-01-15

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) isolates of Pisolithus albus (Cooke and Massee) from nickel-rich ultramafic topsoils in New Caledonia were inoculated onto Acacia spirorbis Labill. (an endemic Fabaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (used as a Myrtaceae plant host model). The aim of the study was to analyze the growth of symbiotic ECM plants growing on the ultramafic substrate that is characterized by high and toxic metal concentrations i.e. Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni, deficient concentrations of plant essential nutrients such as N, P, K, and that presents an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio (1/19). ECM inoculation was successful with a plant level of root mycorrhization up to 6.7%. ECM symbiosis enhanced plant growth as indicated by significant increases in shoot and root biomass. Presence of ECM enhanced uptake of major elements that are deficient in ultramafic substrates; in particular P, K and Ca. On the contrary, the ECM symbioses strongly reduced transfer to plants of element in excess in soils; in particular all metals. ECM-inoculated plants released metal complexing molecules as free thiols and oxalic acid mostly at lower concentrations than in controls. Data showed that ECM symbiosis helped plant growth by supplying uptake of deficient elements while acting as a protective barrier to toxic metals, in particular for plants growing on ultramafic substrate with extreme soil conditions. Isolation of indigenous and stress-adapted beneficial ECM fungi could serve as a potential tool for inoculation of ECM endemic plants for the successful restoration of ultramafic ecosystems degraded by mining activities. PMID:24331432

  19. The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

    1998-01-01

    Larvae of the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, feed solely on wild lupine, Lupinus perennis, from the emergence to summer senescence of the plant. Wild lupine is most abundant in open areas but Karner blue females oviposit more frequently on lupines growing in moderate shade. Can differences in lupine quality between open and shaded areas help explain this disparity in resource use? Furthermore, many lupines are senescent before the second larval brood completes development. How does lupine senescence affect larval growth? We addressed these questions by measuring growth rates of larvae fed lupines of different phenological stages and lupines growing under different shade conditions. The habitat conditions under which lupines grew and plant phenological stage did not generally affect final larval or pupal weight but did significantly affect duration of the larval period. Duration was shortest for larvae fed leaves from flowering lupines and was negatively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration. Ovipositing in areas of moderate shade should increase second-brood larval exposure to flowering lupines. In addition, larval growth was significantly faster on shade-grown lupines that were in seed than on similar sun-grown lupines. These are possible advantages of the higher-than-expected oviposition rate on shade-grown lupines. Given the canopy-related trade-off between lupine abundance and quality, maintenance of canopy heterogeneity is an important conservation management goal. Larvae were also fed leaves growing in poor soil conditions and leaves with mildew infection. These and other feeding treatments that we anticipated would inhibit larval growth often did not. In particular, ant-tended larvae exhibited the highest weight gain per amount of lupine eaten and a relatively fast growth rate. This represents an advantage of ant tending to Karner blue larvae.

  20. Growth performance, gastrointestinal function and meat quality in growing-finishing turkeys fed diets with different levels of yellow lupine (L. luteus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Zduńczyk, Zenon; Jankowski, Jan; Mikulski, Dariusz; Mikulska, Marzena; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Slominski, Bogdan A; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a different dietary content of sweet yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on gastrointestinal tract development and function, the growth performance (13-18 weeks of age) and meat quality of growing-finishing turkeys. Control grower and finisher diets contained soybean meal (SBM), and in experimental diets, SBM was replaced with YLM at 6%, 12% and 18% (Groups L6, L12 and L18, respectively). The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic. In the first phase of feeding, YLM tended to decrease feed intake (p = 0.087) and body weight gain (BWG, p = 0.078) linearly due to significant deterioration in feed conversion ratio (FCR, p = 0.030). An opposite trend was noted in the second phase of feeding: BWG increased (p = 0.069) and FCR improved significantly (p = 0.004). Over the entire experiment, inclusion of YLM did not affect feed intake, BWG, FCR or excreta dry matter (DM) content. The highest YLM dietary level had no adverse effects on fermentation processes in the caeca. Positive changes, which were observed in turkeys fed YLM-supplemented diets, included an increased gizzard weight, a decreased pH of gizzard contents and a decreased viscosity of small intestinal digesta. The inclusion of YLM at 18% had no effect on carcass quality, the pH and colour intensity of breast meat. The highest inclusion rate of YLM (18%) in turkey diets significantly (p < 0.05) intensified the fatty flavour of meat and increased its hardness, springiness and chewiness, whereas it had no effect on the appearance, aroma and overall acceptability of breast meat. It can be concluded that YLM at the highest dietary rate used in the present experiment (18% of the diet) had no adverse effects on the growth performance or the analysed physiological parameters of turkeys. PMID:24870269

  1. Comparative calorimetric studies on the dynamic conformation of plant 5S rRNA. I. Thermal unfolding pattern of lupin seeds and wheat germ 5S rRNAs, also in the presence of magnesium and sperminium cations.

    PubMed Central

    Barciszewski, J; Bratek-Wiewiórowska, M D; Górnicki, P; Naskret-Barciszewska, M; Wiewiórowski, M; Zielenkiewicz, A; Zielenkiewicz, W

    1988-01-01

    An attempt has been made to correlate differential scanning calorimetry melting profiles of 5S rRNAs from lupin seeds (L.s.) and wheat germ (W.g.) with their structure. It is suggested that the observed differences in thermal unfolding are due to differences in RNA nucleotide sequence and as a consequence in higher order structures. Interesting effects induced by magnesium cation, perprotonated and permethylated sperminium tetracations are discussed. It is suggested that the difference in the stabilizing effect of the three cations results from different mode of their interactions with RNA. "Pure" electrostatic interactions expected for permethylated tetracations are rather weak due to the steric hindrance around each positively charged nitrogen atom. Electrostatic interactions of the other two cations are significantly enhanced by coordination bonding for magnesium and by hydrogen bonding for protonated sperminium cation. PMID:3340550

  2. Effect of diets containing whole white lupin seeds on rabbit doe milk yield and milk fatty acid composition as well as the growth and health of their litters.

    PubMed

    Volek, Z; Marounek, M; Volková, L; Kudrnová, E

    2014-05-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of white lupin seed (WLS) on the milk composition and yield of rabbit does as well as the performance of their litters was studied. Two lactation diets having identical digestible protein (DP):DE ratio and two weaning diets having identical DP:DE ratio were formulated. The first lactation diet (SL) contained soybean meal (SBM; 13.0%) and sunflower meal (5.0%) as the main CP sources, whereas the second lactation diet (LL) was based on WLS (25.0%). As a result, the LL diet had a greater ether extract (EE) content than did the SL diet. The first weaning diet (SW) included SBM (7.0%) as the main CP source, whereas the second weaning diet (LW) diet was based on WLS (12.0%). No additional fat was added to any of the diets. A total of 32 (16 per treatment) Hyplus PS 19 does (4,225 ± 607 g BW, at the second parturition) were fed 1 of the 2 lactation diets. The litters were standardized to 9 kits (564 ± 81 g BW) on the day of birth and were fed 1 of the 2 weaning diets from d 17 to 69 of age. At d 30 of age (weaning), 66 rabbits on each weaning diet (689 ± 71 g BW; 3 per cage) were used to evaluate performance. Feed intake and doe BW were not affected by the dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be higher between d 1 and 30 of lactation in does fed the LL diet (P = 0.094), a finding that is related to the higher dietary EE content and intake in the LL diet. When expressed per kilogram of metabolic weight, milk output (P < 0.05) and fat output (P < 0.05) were greater in these does. Improved G:F (P < 0.05) between d 1 and 21 of lactation and greater ADG (P = 0.072) and milk efficiency (P < 0.05) of litters was observed in does fed the LL diet. The milk of does fed the LL diet contained less linoleic acid (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (C 20:4n-6; P < 0.05) and more oleic acid (P < 0.05), α-linolenic acid (P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenic acid (P < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the total PUFA n-3:C 20:4n-6 ratio (P < 0.05). The performance of fattening rabbits was not affected by dietary treatment. The number of ill plus dead rabbits caused by digestive disease was lower (P < 0.05) in rabbits fed the LW diet. Therefore, WLS is a suitable dietary CP source for lactating does that can replace traditionally used CP sources without adverse effects on feed intake and milk yield or on the growth and viability of their litters. Due to its fatty acid (FA) composition, the use of WLS in the lactation diet has the potential to improve the milk FA composition of does. PMID:24663193

  3. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 µM Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albu...

  4. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 M Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albu...

  5. Adherence of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Ruminococcus albus to Cellulose and Identification of a Novel Form of Cellulose-Binding Protein Which Belongs to the Pil Family of Proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Pegden, Randall S.; Larson, Marilynn A.; Grant, Richard J.; Morrison, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The adherence of Ruminococcus albus 8 to crystalline cellulose was studied, and an affinity-based assay was also used to identify candidate cellulose-binding protein(s). Bacterial adherence in cellulose-binding assays was significantly increased by the inclusion of either ruminal fluid or micromolar concentrations of both phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids in the growth medium, and the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to assays decreased the adherence of the bacterium to cellulose. A cellulose-binding protein with an estimated molecular mass following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ∼21 kDa, designated CbpC, was present in both cellobiose- and cellulose-grown cultures, and the relative abundance of this protein increased in response to growth on cellulose. Addition of 0.1% (wt/vol) CMC to the binding assays had an inhibitory effect on CbpC binding to cellulose, consistent with the notion that CbpC plays a role in bacterial attachment to cellulose. The nucleotide sequence of the cbpC gene was determined by a combination of reverse genetics and genomic walking procedures. The cbpC gene encodes a protein of 169 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 17,655 Da. The amino-terminal third of the CbpC protein possesses the motif characteristic of the Pil family of proteins, which are most commonly involved with the formation of type 4 fimbriae and other surface-associated protein complexes in gram-negative, pathogenic bacteria. The remainder of the predicted CbpC sequence was found to have significant identity with 72- and 75-amino-acid motifs tandemly repeated in the 190-kDa surface antigen protein of Rickettsia spp., as well as one of the major capsid glycoproteins of the Chlorella virus PBCV-1. Northern blot analysis showed that phenylpropionic acid and ruminal fluid increase cbpC mRNA abundance in cellobiose-grown cells. These results suggest that CbpC is a novel cellulose-binding protein that may be involved in adherence of R. albus to substrate and extends understanding of the distribution of the Pil family of proteins in gram-positive bacteria. PMID:9811650

  6. Suppression of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Potting Mixes Amended with Uncomposted and Composted Animal Manures.

    PubMed

    Aryantha, I P; Cross, R; Guest, D I

    2000-07-01

    ABSTRACT We examined the effects of fresh and composted animal manures on the development of root rot, dieback, and plant death caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Fresh chicken manure, or chicken manure composted for 5 weeks before incorporation into the potting mix (25%, vol/vol), significantly reduced pathogen survival and the development of symptoms on Lupinus albus seedlings. Chicken manure composted for 2 weeks was less suppressive. Cow, sheep, and horse manure, whether fresh or composted, did not consistently suppress populations of P. cinnamomi or disease symptoms at the rates used (25%, vol/vol). All composts increased organic matter content, total biological activity, and populations of actinomycetes, fluorescent pseudomonads, and fungi. Only chicken manure stimulated endospore-forming bacteria, a factor that was strongly associated with seedling survival. Fallowing the potting mix for an additional 8 weeks after the first harvest increased the survival of lupin seedlings in a second bioassay, with survival rates in chicken manure compost-amended potting mix exceeding 90%. These data suggest that the ability of composted manure to stimulate sustained biological activity, in particular the activity of endospore-forming bacteria, is the key factor in reducing disease symptoms caused by P. cinnamomi. Supporting these results, the survival of rooted cuttings of Thryptomene calycina was significantly higher in sand-peat potting mix following amendment with commercially available chicken manure (15% vol/vol). However, this protection was reduced if the potting mix was steam pasteurized before amendment, indicating that suppression was due to endogenous as well as introduced microbes. Chicken manure compost incorporated at 5% (vol/vol) or more was strongly phytotoxic to young Banksia spinulosa plants and is not suitable as an amendment for phosphorus-sensitive plants. PMID:18944498

  7. A multi-imaging approach to study the root–soil interface

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph-Mohr, Nicole; Vontobel, Peter; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Dynamic processes occurring at the soil–root interface crucially influence soil physical, chemical and biological properties at a local scale around the roots, and are technically challenging to capture in situ. This study presents a novel multi-imaging approach combining fluorescence and neutron radiography that is able to simultaneously monitor root growth, water content distribution, root respiration and root exudation. Methods Germinated seeds of white lupins (Lupinus albus) were planted in boron-free glass rhizotrons. After 11 d, the rhizotrons were wetted from the bottom and time series of fluorescence and neutron images were taken during the subsequent day and night cycles for 13 d. The following day (i.e. 25 d after planting) the rhizotrons were again wetted from the bottom and the measurements were repeated. Fluorescence sensor foils were attached to the inner sides of the glass and measurements of oxygen and pH were made on the basis of fluorescence intensity. The experimental set-up allowed for simultaneous fluorescence imaging and neutron radiography. Key Results The interrelated patterns of root growth and distribution in the soil, root respiration, exudation and water uptake could all be studied non-destructively and at high temporal and spatial resolution. The older parts of the root system with greater root-length density were associated with fast decreases of water content and rapid changes in oxygen concentration. pH values around the roots located in areas with low soil water content were significantly lower than the rest of the root system. Conclusions The results suggest that the combined imaging set-up developed here, incorporating fluorescence intensity measurements, is able to map important biogeochemical parameters in the soil around living plants with a spatial resolution that is sufficiently high enough to relate the patterns observed to the root system. PMID:25344936

  8. Partitioning of Carbon and Nitrogen and the Nutrition of Root and Shoot Apex in a Nodulated Legume 1

    PubMed Central

    Layzell, David B.; Pate, John S.; Atkins, Craig A.; Canvin, David T.

    1981-01-01

    Empirically based models depicting exchanges of C, N, and H2O in phloem and xylem among organs of nodulated white lupin (Lupinus albus cv Ultra) were constructed for the interval 51 to 58 days after sowing. Information was incorporated on the economy of C, N, and H2O in plant parts, the solute composition of transport fluids collected at selected sites on the plant, and the photosynthetic inputs, transpirational losses, and translocatory activities of different age groups of leaflets and stem + petiole segments of the shoot. Partitioning of C and N showed preferential transfer of N to the shoot apex, which imported 13 milligrams C per milligram N, compared with 54 milligrams C per milligram N for the nodulated root. Leaves translocated assimilates at a C:N weight ratio of 43 to 59, and older leaves serving the roots produced the translocate most rich in N relative to C. The shoot apex was enriched with N, additional to its intake from leaves, by direct uptake of xylem fluid (C:N ratio, 2.4) and receipt of nitrogenous solutes transferred from xylem to upward-moving phloem streams in upper regions of the stem. The models for flow of N and H2O indicated that xylem streams passing to leaves were substantially less rich in N than the adjacent stream moving through the body of the stem and that a progressive increase in concentration of N occurred within stem xylem elements from base to top of the shoot. This apparently resulted from an abstraction of N from xylem of departing leaf traces, possibly by xylem transfer cells, and a subsequent feedback of this N to xylem streams passing on up the shoot. Upper leaves and shoot apex, therefore, acquired more N from xylem per unit of H2O transpired than lower parts of the shoot. PMID:16661628

  9. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/ g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  10. Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

    1998-01-01

    The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30–60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally larger in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy openings and shade, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

  11. Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.; Sulzman, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30-60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally larger in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy openings and shade, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

  12. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system on corn straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Muraoka, Takashi; Tavares, Silvio; Ambrosano, Glaucia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of green manure in on soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, conducted in a randomized block with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were as green manures intercropping or not on cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), dwarf mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek ), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one without corn straw and another with corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part during the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in an oven of forced air and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a knife mill type Willy and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for the analysis of δN-15. It measured the percentage of transfer of N green manure for tomato, the tomato plants grown as monocropped were considered a control and came to the result that 27 % N found in the fruit came from the green manure and the aerial part this figure was 23%. These results show that dur¬ing the fruit set of tomato can occur greater translocation and consequent higher utilization of N from green manure than in the aerial part. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in treatments not intercropped caused some soil alterations that could be detected in samples collected in the harvesting season. There was an increase in organic matter, Ca, Mg and Zn availability, and consequently in base saturation and pH. The presence of green manure caused a significant sum of bases increase, due to increases in calcium and magnesium; consequently, treatments involving jack bean, sunn hemp and mung bean showed higher CEC values and low acidity potential. The presence of organic acids in the plant mass could be the reason for this change. The use of green manure also works on carbon sequestration, helping in the reduction of the greenhouse gas effect.

  13. Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores Slow a Plant Reinvasion at Mount St. Helens.

    PubMed

    Fagan; Bishop

    2000-02-01

    Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, were expected to strongly affect successional trajectories through facilitative effects. However, their effects remain localized because initially high rates of reinvasive spread were short lived, despite widespread habitat availability. We experimentally tested whether insect herbivores, by reducing plant growth and fecundity at the edge of the expanding lupine population, could curtail the rate of reinvasion and whether those herbivores had comparable impacts in the older, more successionally advanced core region. We found that removing insect herbivores increased both the areal growth of individual lupine plants and the production of new plants in the edge region, thereby accelerating the lupine's intrinsic rate of increase at the front of the lupine reinvasion. We found no such impacts of herbivory in the core region, where low plant quality or a complex of recently arrived natural enemies may hold herbivores in check. In the context of invasion theory, herbivore-mediated decreases in lupine population growth rate in the edge region translate into decreased rates of lupine spread, which we quantify here using diffusion models. In the Mount St. Helens system, decreased rate of lupine reinvasion will result in reductions in rates of soil formation, nitrogen input, and entrapment of seeds and detritus that are likely to postpone or alter trajectories of primary succession. If the type of spatial subtleties in herbivore effects we found here are common, with herbivory focused on the edge of an expanding plant population and suppressed or ineffective in the larger, denser central region (where the plants might be more readily noticed and studied), then insect herbivores may have stronger impacts on the dynamics of primary succession and plant invasions than previously recognized. PMID:10686163

  14. Stimulation by potassium ions of the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus during liquid-and solid-substrate fermentations.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, W; Davey, C L; Hedger, J N; Kell, D B

    1991-03-01

    Soya beans and several other beans and cereals have been used as substrates for tempe fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus Saito. Except for the presence of alkaloids, the chemical composition of lupins (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) is similar to that of soya beans. Therefore the potential of lupins for tempe production in regions with a long tradition of lupin consumption is promising. The preparation of the fermentation substrate when using bitter lupins (which contain significan quantities of alkaloids) as starting material includes a debittering stage to remove the alkaloids. However, we found that the debittering process yielded lupins that did not support the mycelial growth required in the tempe fermentation. We discovered that potassium is preferentially leached out during the debittering process. The effect of potassium on fungal biomass formation was monitored using a computerized system that determines biomass accretion by measurement of the electrical capacitance at radio frequencies. The importance of potassium for the growth of R. oligosporus was confirmed in liquid cultures. A linear relationship was found between biomass yield and K(+) concentration in the range of 1 to 10 mg/l. The present report represents one of the few demonstrations of a mineral deficiency during the growth of a fungus on a natural, solid substrate. PMID:24424941

  15. Update on white lupin cluster roots acclimation to phosphorus deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of 17 essential elements required for plant growth. Although bound P is quite abundant in many soils, it is largely unavailable for uptake. As such, P is frequently the most limiting element for plant growth and development. Crop yield on 40% to 60% of the world's arable land i...

  16. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Forti, Gianluca; Marignoli, Silvia

    2005-01-15

    In the years 2002-2003 research was carried out concerning ethnomedicine in the Acquapendente district (Viterbo, Latium, central Italy), an area so far less frequently studied from the perspective of plant folk traditions. The district, from the ethnobotanical point of view, shows traces of the influences of the neighbouring regions. In this study 96 plant entities are described, belonging to 45 families, of which 64 are employed in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 22 in the feeding of domestic animals, 5 as antiparasitics and 5 for other uses. Some medicinal uses are linked to beliefs or residual forms of magic prescriptions (11 plants). Amongst the more notable uses the most interesting are those of: Verbena officinalis (rheumatic pains, wounds), Juglans regia (antiparasitic use for cheeses), Santolina etrusca (antimoth use), Stellaria media and Lupinus albus (birdseed for poultry and fodder for lambs), and Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis (used to curdle milk). PMID:15619562

  17. Bioactivities of some essential oils against the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F

    2014-02-01

    Nasopharyngeal myiasis of camels is caused by the larvae of Cephalopina titillator. We determined the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) of pumpkin, Cucurbita maxima; lupinus, Lupinus luteus; garlic oil, Allium sativum; and peppermint, Mentha piperita, against the third larval stage of C. titillator using larval immersion tests. The positive control group was treated with ivermectin and the negative control one was treated with distilled water and few drops of Tween 80. Larvae were reared until adult emergence. The data indicated that complete larval mortalities were reached 24 h post treatment (PT) with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupinus, and 0.15 % ivermectin. The lethal values, LC50s, were 0.20, 0.44, 0.42, 0.47, and 0.03 %, respectively. Pumpkin and ivermectin were 2 and 17 times, respectively, more effective than the other EOs. Ivermectin was seven times more intoxicating than pumpkin oil. Formation of pupae had been stopped after treatment of larvae with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupines, and 0.04 % ivermectin. Adult emergence had been completely ceased following treatment of larvae with 0.5 % EOs and 0.04 % ivermectin. Morphological abnormalities were pronounced after treatments, and peppermint oil was the foremost cause of deformation in larvae (44 % PT with 7.5 %) and pupae (40 % PT with 2 %). Pumpkin oil (6 %) was selected to be the drug of choice for controlling C. titillator. Besides their insecticidal effects, EOs are much safer than ivermectin regarding health and environmental issues. Consequently, EOs described herein merit further study as potential nasal drench for C. titillator control. PMID:24276644

  18. Resource availability, matrix quality, microclimate, and spatial pattern as predictors of patch use by the Karner blue butterfly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of which aspects of habitat quality and habitat spatial arrangement best account for variation in a species’ distribution can guide management for organisms such as the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), a federally endangered subspecies inhabiting savannas of Midwest and Eastern United States. We examined the extent to which three sets of predictors, (1) larval host plant (Lupinus perennis, wild lupine) availability, (2) characteristics of the matrix surrounding host plant patches, and (3) factors affecting a patch’s thermal environment, accounted for variation in lupine patch use by Karner blues at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana and Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA. Each predictor set accounted for 7–13% of variation in patch occupancy by Karner blues at both sites and in larval feeding activity among patches at Indiana Dunes. Patch area, an indicator of host plant availability, was an exception, accounting for 30% of variation in patch occupancy at Indiana Dunes. Spatially structured patterns of patch use across the landscape accounted for 9–16% of variation in patch use and explained more variation in larval feeding activity than did spatial autocorrelation between neighboring patches. Because of this broader spatial trend across sites, a given management action may be more effective in promoting patch use in some portions of the landscape than in others. Spatial trend, resource availability, matrix quality, and microclimate, in general, accounted for similar amounts of variation in patch use and each should be incorporated into habitat management planning for the Karner blue butterfly.

  19. Impact of Lupinus leucophyllous on the nitrogen budgets of semi-arid plant communities

    SciTech Connect

    Hinds, W.T.; Hinds, N.R.

    1982-10-01

    In the semi-arid grassland on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, three legume flushes occurred in the past decade. Estimates of leguminous nitrogen in both native and disturbed vegetation after a flush showed that nitrogen in the legume (above-ground) doubled the amount of nitrogen associated with vascular plant tissues. 21 references, 2 tables.

  20. Overexpression of serine acetlytransferase produced large increases in O-acetylserine and free cysteine in developing seeds of a grain legume.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Linda; Wirtz, Markus; Molvig, Lisa; Droux, Michel; Hell, Ruediger

    2010-03-01

    There have been many attempts to increase concentrations of the nutritionally essential sulphur amino acids by modifying their biosynthetic pathway in leaves of transgenic plants. This report describes the first modification of cysteine biosynthesis in developing seeds; those of the grain legume, narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, L.). Expression in developing lupin embryos of a serine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSAT1 or AtSerat 2;1) was associated with increases of up to 5-fold in the concentrations of O-acetylserine (OAS), the immediate product of SAT, and up to 26-fold in free cysteine, resulting in some of the highest in vivo concentrations of these metabolites yet reported. Despite the dramatic changes in free cysteine in developing embryos of SAT overexpressers, concentrations of free methionine in developing embryos, and the total cysteine and methionine concentrations in mature seeds were not significantly altered. Pooled F(2) seeds segregating for the SAT transgene and for a transgene encoding a methionine- and cysteine-rich sunflower seed storage protein also had increased OAS and free cysteine, but not free methionine, during development, and no increase in mature seed total sulphur amino acids compared with controls lacking SAT overexpression. The data support the view that the cysteine biosynthetic pathway is active in developing seeds, and indicate that SAT activity limits cysteine biosynthesis, but that cysteine supply is not limiting for methionine biosynthesis or for storage protein synthesis in maturing lupin embryos in conditions of adequate sulphur nutrition. OAS and free methionine, but not free cysteine, were implicated as signalling metabolites controlling expression of a gene for a cysteine-rich seed storage protein. PMID:19939888

  1. Hymenolepiosis in a group of albino rats (Rattus albus): a study.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch

    2015-06-01

    A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68 %) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15 %) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52 %). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons. PMID:26064027

  2. STUDIES OF THE EXTRACELLULAR GLYCOCALYX OF THE ANAEROBIC RUMINAL BACTERIUM RUMINOCOCCUS ALBUS 7.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, one of which is the production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the composition and structure of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, a combination of scanning e...

  3. Activation and identification of five clusters for secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus J1074

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Carlos; García, Ignacio; González, Aranzazu; Rodriguez, Miriam; Rozas, Daniel; Rubio, Julio; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Braña, Alfredo F; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces albus J1074 is a streptomycete strain widely used as a host for expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of this organism predicts the presence of 27 gene clusters for secondary metabolites. We have used three different strategies for the activation of some of these silent/cryptic gene clusters in S. albus J1074: two hybrid polyketide-non-ribosomal peptides (PK-NRP) (antimycin and 6-epi-alteramides), a type I PK (candicidin), a non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) (indigoidine) and glycosylated compounds (paulomycins). By insertion of a strong and constitutive promoter in front of selected genes of two clusters, production of the blue pigment indigoidine and of two novel members of the polycyclic tetramate macrolactam family (6-epi-alteramides A and B) was activated. Overexpression of positive regulatory genes from the same organism also activated the biosynthesis of 6-epi-alteramides and heterologous expression of the regulatory gene pimM of the pimaricin cluster activated the simultaneous production of candicidins and antimycins, suggesting some kind of cross-regulation between both clusters. A cluster for glycosylated compounds (paulomycins) was also identified by comparison of the high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the wild-type strain with that of a mutant in which two key enzymes of the cluster were simultaneously deleted. PMID:24593309

  4. White Sweetclover (Melilotus albus) and Narrowleaf Hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum) Seed Germination after Passing Through Moose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are non-indigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of non-indigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing viable seed from these plants after ingestio...

  5. Risk factors for lupine-induced crooked calf disorder in east-central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was established in a year of high incidence and severity (28.4% of 2210 calves born on 13 ranches were severely deformed) to examine management and other risk factors for disease occurrence. Ten ranches with a crooked calf incidence varying from zero to 100% were selected for study and lupi...

  6. On-the-fly Neutron Tomography of Water Transport into Lupine Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea; Kaestner, Anders; Mannes, David; Morgano, Manuel; Peetermans, Steven; Lehmann, Eberhard; Trtik, Pavel

    Measurement and visualization of water flow in soil and roots is essential for understanding of how roots take up water from soils. Such information would allow for the optimization of irrigation practices and for the identification of the optimal traits for the capture of water, in particular when water is scarce. However, measuring water flow in roots growing in soil is challenging. The previous 2D experiments (Zarebanadkouki et al., 2012) have not been sufficient for understanding the water transport across the root and therefore we employed an on-the-fly tomography technique with temporal resolution of three minutes. In this paper, we show that the series of on-the-fly neutron tomographic experiments performed on the same sample allow for monitoring the three-dimensional spatial distribution of D2O across the root tissue. The obtained data will allow us to calculate the convective and diffusive transport properties across root tissue and to estimate the relative importance of different pathways of water across the root tissue.

  7. Island radiation on a continental scale: Exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Colin; Eastwood, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Species radiations provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species diversification and patterns of biodiversity. To compare plant diversification over a similar time period to the recent cichlid fish radiations, which are an order of magnitude faster than documented bird, arthropod, and plant radiations, we focus on the high-altitude flora of the Andes, which is the most species-rich of any tropical mountains. Because of the recent uplift of the northern Andes, the upland environments where much of this rich endemic flora is found have been available for colonization only since the late Pliocene or Pleistocene, 2–4 million years (Myr) ago. Using DNA sequence data we identify a monophyletic group within the genus Lupinus representing 81 species endemic to the Andes. The age of this clade is estimated to be 1.18–1.76 Myr, implying a diversification rate of 2.49–3.72 species per Myr. This exceeds previous estimates for plants, providing the most spectacular example of explosive plant species diversification documented to date. Furthermore, it suggests that the high cichlid diversification rates are not unique. Lack of key innovations associated with the Andean Lupinus clade suggests that diversification was driven by ecological opportunities afforded by the emergence of island-like habitats after Andean uplift. Data from other genera indicate that lupines are one of a set of similarly rapid Andean plant radiations, continental in scale and island-like in stimulus, suggesting that the high-elevation Andean flora provides a system that rivals other groups, including cichlids, for understanding rapid species diversification. PMID:16801546

  8. Genetic engineering for high methionine grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Müntz, K; Christov, V; Saalbach, G; Saalbach, I; Waddell, D; Pickardt, T; Schieder, O; Wüstenhagen, T

    1998-08-01

    Methionine (Met) is the primary limiting essential amino acid in grain legumes. The imbalance in amino acid composition restricts their biological value (BV) to 55 to 75% of that of animal protein. So far improvement of the BV could not be achieved by conventional breeding. Therefore, genetic engineering was employed by several laboratories to resolve the problem. Three strategies have been followed. A) Engineering for increased free Met levels; B) engineering of endogenous storage proteins with increased numbers of Met residues; C) transfer of foreign genes encoding Met-rich proteins, e.g. the Brazil nut 2S albumin (BNA) and its homologue from sunflower, into grain legumes. The latter strategy turned out to be most promising. In all cases the gene was put under the control of a developmentally regulated seed specific promoter and transferred into grain legumes using the bacterial Agrobacterium tumefaciens-system. Integration into and copy numbers in the plant genome as well as Mendelian inheritance and gene dosage effects were verified. After correct precursor processing the mature 2S albumin was intracellularly deposited in protein bodies which are part of the vacuolar compartment. The foreign protein amounted to 5 to 10% of the total seed protein in the best transgenic lines of narbon bean (Vicia narbonensis L., used in the authors' laboratories), lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L., used in CSIRO, Australia), and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., used by Pioneer Hi-Bred, Inc., USA). In the narbon bean the increase of Met was directly related to the amount of 2S albumin in the transgenic seeds, but in soybean it remained below the theoretically expected value. Nevertheless, trangenic soybean reached 100%, whereas narbon bean and lupins reached approximately 80% of the FAO-standard for nutritionally balanced food proteins. These results document that the Met problem of grain legumes can be resolved by genetic engineering. PMID:9739551

  9. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    PubMed

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P

  10. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Nematode Population Levels in North Florida

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P ≤ 0.05), but no treatment differences were observed in year 2. Wheat was a good host to Paratrichodorus minor, whereas vetch was a poor host, but numbers of P. minor were not lower in vetch-planted plots after corn was grown. The second experiment used a split-plot design in which rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P ≤ 0.05) but not by the winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida. PMID:19262833

  11. Mount St. Helens ash: recreating its effects on the steppe environment and ecophysiology. [Artemisia tridentata; Lupinus sulphureus

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.A.; Mack, R.N.

    1986-10-01

    The 18 May 1980 ash fall from Mount St. Helens was experimentally reproduced in May 1982 by applying silt-sized ash to a stand of the Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum association in south-central Washington. Compared to the adjacent control site, ash caused an immediate increase in albedo from 13% to 28%, while other parameters of the energy budget were simultaneously lowered: net radiation by approx. = 20%, soil surface temperatures by as much as 10/sup 0/C, and soil heat flux by as much as 50%. The ash's mulching action initially increased water availability and delayed leaf abscission in Artemisia tridentata (Big sagebrush) by 2 wk in summer 1982. But after summer 1982 water availability declined, while water use increased, illustrating the diverse effects of the ash. Increased reflection from the ash-covered surface increased the radiation load on plant canopies. In turn, air temperature at 0.5 m increased, latent heat flux often doubled in summer, and xylem pressure potentials decreased. Available water at the -1 m soil depth eventually decreased as much as 40%. This decrease was the result of the increase in latent heat flux and the decline in infiltration through the stratified layer created by the ash cap. In addition to allowing assessment of the effects of the 18 May 1980 ash fall on arid steppe, application of ash provided an unexpected level of precision in detecting the often subtle effects that occur when some microenvironmental parameters change while the overall macroclimate remains the same.

  12. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIPID METABOLISM INDICES IN SOME PARASITES OF THE WHITE CHARR (SALVELINUS ALBUS) FROM THE LAKE KRINOTSKOE].

    PubMed

    Gordeev, I I; Mikryakov, D V; Silkina, N I

    2015-01-01

    Comparative study of lipid metabolism indices (total lipids, separate lipid fractions, level of the lipid peroxidation processes, and antioxidant protection) was carried out in three parasite species collected from the white char in the Lake Kronotskoe: Diphyllobothrium ditremum Crepin, 1825 (Cestoda), Philonema oncorhynchi Kuitunen-Ekbaum, 1933 (Nematoda) H Neoechinorhynchus salmonis Ching, 1984 (Acanthocephala). Acanthocephalans possessed significantly greater levels of total lipids, triacylglycerol, and malondialdehyde; nematodes, of cholesterol and sterol esters; and cestodes, in phospholipids and constants of the substrate oxidation. Dependence between lipid metabolism of helminths and their taxonomic affiliation, morpho-functional features, the stage of the life cycle, and the site of infection in the host are discussed. PMID:26314155

  13. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  14. Characteristics and phylogenetic studies of complete mitochondrial DNA based on the ricefield eel (Monopterus albus) from four different areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dunxue; Chu, Wuying; He, Yan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Mai, Kangsen

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of ricefield eel populations from four different areas (Guizhou province, Guangxi province, Hunan province, and Guangdong province) in China. The mitochondrial genome was 16,622 bp in length and deposited in the GenBank with accession numbers KP779622-KP779625. The organizations of the complete mitogenomes of the four ricefield eel were similar to those of other teleost species which contained 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes, as well as a putative control region (CR). Most of these genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other genes were encoded on the H-strand. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the ricefield eel was clustered with Mastacembelus armatus (KJ184553) and they belong to Synbranchiformes. The four ricefield eel populations could be divided into two groups: Guangxi province and the other population cluster together. PMID:26258513

  15. Water-quality requirements, tolerances, and preferences of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Additional research could be used to characterize and quantify the requirements, tolerance, and preferences of pallid sturgeon to these water-quality characteristics, especially during the egg and larval life stages. Enhancements to existing water-sampling programs are needed to quantify the exposure of pallid sturgeon to many of these water-quality stressors.

  16. Efficacy of the Biofumigant Fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for Control of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Simulated Storage Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth CM, Cydia pomonella, (L.), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. Broad spectrum fumigants have been used as the principle method for the protection of exported fruit from insect infestations. Some of th...

  17. Development of working hypotheses linking management of the Missouri River to population dynamics of Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The initial set of candidate hypotheses provides a useful starting point for quantitative modeling and adaptive management of the river and species. We anticipate that hypotheses will change from the set of working management hypotheses as adaptive management progresses. More importantly, hypotheses that have been filtered out of our multistep process are still being considered. These filtered hypotheses are archived and if existing hypotheses are determined to be inadequate to explain observed population dynamics, new hypotheses can be created or filtered hypotheses can be reinstated.

  18. Effect of succession after fire on species contribution to evapotranspiration in sagebrush steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naithani, K.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Bayless, M. K.

    2005-12-01

    Shrubland ecosystems play an important role in the hydrology of the often drought stricken inter-mountain basins of the United Sates. Our objective was to investigate the impact of changing environmental conditions on three major plant functional types, shrubs, grasses and forbs. We measured changes in diurnal water flux from Artemisia tridentata var vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush), Elymus smithii (western wheatgrass) and Lupinus argentus (lupine) with changing environmental drivers for a sagebrush ecosystem fire chronosequence near the Sierra Madre Mountains, Wyoming, USA. The measurements were conducted on four stands ranging in age from 2 to 38 years, during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Leaf scale measurements and shrub sapflux were compared with ecosystem scale measurements. We explained the diurnal and monthly variability of water fluxes from June through October using vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, light and temperature. In the year 2005, peak ecosystem level evapotranspiration of 5-7 mmol m-2 s-1 was higher than 2004 with 2-3 mmol m-2 s-1. The interannual difference in evapotranspiration was explained by higher precipitation causing greater biomass, especially in non shrub species, in 2005. Our results show that environmental conditions have impacts on total evapotranspiration that depend on plant functional type.

  19. A study on embryonic death in goats due to Nicotiana glauca ingestion.

    PubMed

    Welch, K D; Lee, S T; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R

    2014-11-01

    Numerous plants are known to be teratogenic in livestock. In addition to causing malformations, several plants can also cause embryonic death. These losses decrease the reproductive efficiency of animals exposed to these plants. The aim of this study was to determine if teratogenic plants such as lupines or tobaccos cause embryonic losses. A goat model using the plant Nicotiana glauca was used in this study, as this model has been used to characterize the mechanism of Lupinus, Conium, and Nicotiana-induced terata. Four groups of goats were dosed from gestational day 1-10, 11-20, 21-30, and 31-40. Goats were evaluated via ultrasound imaging for pregnancy after completion of the dosing regimen and kids were evaluated for malformations at the time of parturition. Overall, there was no evidence from this study that N. glauca (anabasine) at this dose (2 g/kg/day) would cause embryonic losses in goats. However, the dose of N. glauca used in this study was at the lower threshold that would be expected to produce terata. Therefore it is possible that higher doses of anabasine could cause embryonic loss. Further work is also needed to characterize the kinetic profile of anabasine, and other teratogenic alkaloids, in the fetal compartments. PMID:25108148

  20. Confocal laser scanning microscopy elucidation of the micromorphology of the leaf cuticle and analysis of its chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Nadiminti, Pavani P; Rookes, James E; Boyd, Ben J; Cahill, David M

    2015-11-01

    Electron microscopy techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been invaluable tools for the study of the micromorphology of plant cuticles. However, for electron microscopy, the preparation techniques required may invariably introduce artefacts in cuticle preservation. Further, there are a limited number of methods available for quantifying the image data obtained through electron microscopy. Therefore, in this study, optical microscopy techniques were coupled with staining procedures and, along with SEM were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the ultrastructure of plant leaf cuticles. Leaf cryosections of Triticum aestivum (wheat), Zea mays (maize), and Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) were stained with either fat-soluble azo stain Sudan IV or fluorescent, diarylmethane Auramine O and were observed under confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). For all the plant species tested, the cuticle on the leaf surfaces could be clearly resolved in many cases into cuticular proper (CP), external cuticular layer (ECL), and internal cuticular layer (ICL). Novel image data analysis procedures for quantifying the epicuticular wax micromorphology were developed, and epicuticular waxes of L. angustifolius were described here for the first time. Together, application of a multifaceted approach involving the use of a range of techniques to study the plant cuticle has led to a better understanding of cuticular structure and provides new insights into leaf surface architecture. PMID:25712592

  1. Consumers limit the abundance and dynamics of a perennial shrub with a seed bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauffman, M.J.; Maron, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, ecologists have argued that predators of seeds and seedlings seldom have population-level effects on plants with persistent seed banks and density-dependent seedling survival. We parameterized stage-based population models that incorporated density dependence and seed dormancy with data from a 5.5-year experiment that quantified how granivorous mice and herbivorous voles influence bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus) demography. We asked how seed dormancy and density-dependent seedling survival mediate the impacts of these consumers in dune and grassland habitats. In dune habitat, mice reduced analytical ?? (the intrinsic rate of population growth) by 39%, the equilibrium number of above-ground plants by 90%, and the seed bank by 98%; voles had minimal effects. In adjacent grasslands, mice had minimal effects, but seedling herbivory by voles reduced analytical ?? by 15% and reduced both the equilibrium number of aboveground plants and dormant seeds by 63%. A bootstrap analysis demonstrated that these consumer effects were robust to parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that the quantitative strengths of seed dormancy and density-dependent seedling survival-not their mere existence-critically mediate consumer effects. This study suggests that plant population dynamics and distribution may be more strongly influenced by consumers of seeds and seedlings than is currently recognized. ?? 2006 by The University of Chicago.

  2. In planta selfing and oospore production of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the presence of Acacia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Jayasekera, Arunodini U; McComb, Jen A; Shearer, Bryan L; Hardy, Giles E St J

    2007-03-01

    This paper provides the first evidence of A2 type 1 and type 2 isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi producing selfed oospores in planta in an Australian soil and in a potting mix. Oospores were observed in infected lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) roots incubated for 7d either in the substrate under potted Acacia pulchella plants, or in soils collected from under and near varieties of A. pulchella in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest. The A2 type isolates varied in their ability to produce selfed oospores and none were produced by A1 isolates. The gametangial association was amphigynous and spores were predominantly spherical with diameters from 13-40 microm. The oospores were viable but dormant. Two A2 type isolates produced small numbers of selfed oospores with amphigynous antheridia axenically in Ribeiro's liquid medium within 30 d, and one A2 type 2 isolate produced oospores after mating with an A1 strain. Evidence is presented that the presence of roots of Acacia pulchella, and particularly A. pulchella var. glaberrima and var. goadbyi, enhances the production of oospores. PMID:17350243

  3. Phytochemicals: the good, the bad and the ugly?

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Russell J; Lee, Stephen T; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; James, Lynn F

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemicals are constitutive metabolites that enable plants to overcome temporary or continuous threats integral to their environment, while also controlling essential functions of growth and reproduction. All of these roles are generally advantageous to the producing organisms but the inherent biological activity of such constituents often causes dramatic adverse consequences in other organisms that may be exposed to them. Nevertheless, such effects may be the essential indicator of desirable properties, such as therapeutic potential, especially when the mechanism of bioactivity can be delineated. Careful observation of cause and effect, followed by a coordinated approach to identify the responsible entities, has proved extremely fruitful in discovering roles for phytochemical constituents. The process is illustrated by selected examples of plants poisonous to animals and include the steroidal alkaloid toxin of Veratrum californicum (Western false hellebore), piperidine alkaloids of Lupinus species (lupines), and polyhydroxy indolizidine, pyrrolizidine and nortropane alkaloids of Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds), Castanospermum australe (Moreton Bay chestnut) and Ipomoea species (morning glories). PMID:17950388

  4. The occurrence of dauciform roots amongst Western Australian reeds, rushes and sedges, and the impact of phosphorus supply on dauciform-root development in Schoenus unispiculatus (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Shane, Michael W; Dixon, Kingsley W; Lambers, Hans

    2005-03-01

    * The incidence of species that develop specialised 'dauciform' lateral roots, which are hypothesised to be important for phosphorus (P) acquisition, is uncertain. We investigated their occurrence in Australian reed, rush and sedge species, grown at low P concentration in nutrient solution, and studied the response of Schoenus unispiculatus (Cyperaceae) to a range of P concentrations. * We assessed the fraction of root biomass invested in dauciform roots, their respiration and net P-uptake rate, and the P status of roots and leaves. * Dauciform-root development occurred only in particular genera of Cyperaceae when grown at low P supply. Increased P supply was associated with increased growth of S. unispiculatus and increased leaf [P]. Dauciform-root growth was reduced by increased P supply, and reduced P uptake co-occurred with the complete suppression of dauciform roots. * The P-induced suppression of dauciform roots in Cyperaceae is similar to that observed for proteoid roots in members of Proteaceae and Lupinus albus. The response of dauciform roots to altered P supply and their absence from root systems of some sedge species are discussed in terms of managed and natural systems. PMID:15720700

  5. Root colonization of different plants by plant-growth-promoting Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 studied with monospecific polyclonal antisera.

    PubMed Central

    Schloter, M; Wiehe, W; Assmus, B; Steindl, H; Becke, H; Höflich, G; Hartmann, A

    1997-01-01

    Monospecific polyclonal antisera raised against Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39, a bacterium which was isolated originally from red clover nodules, were used to study the colonization of roots of leguminous and nonleguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Lupinus albus, Triticúm aestivum, and Zea mays) after inoculation. Eight weeks after inoculation of soil-grown plants, between 0.1 and 1% of the total bacterial population in the rhizospheres of all inoculated plants were identified as R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39. To characterize the associative colonization of the nonleguminous plants by R.leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 in more detail, a time course study was performed with inoculated roots of Z. mays. R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 was found almost exclusively in the rhizosphere soil and on the rhizoplane 4 weeks after inoculation. Colonization of inner root tissues was detected only occasionally at this time. During the process of attachment of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 to the rhizoplane, bacterial lipopolysaccharides were overexpressed, and this may be important for plant-microbe interaction. Fourteen weeks after inoculation, microcolonies of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 were detected in lysed cells of the root cortex as well as in intracellular space of central root cylinder cells. At the beginning of flowering (18 weeks after inoculation), the number of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 organisms decreased in the rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and inner root tissue. PMID:9143133

  6. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality. PMID:21519743

  7. Integration of continuous biofumigation with Muscodor albus with pre-cooling fumigation with ozone or sulfur dioxide to control postharvest gray mold of table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation controls postharvest decay of commercially stored table grapes. To develop an alternative to SO2, fumigation with up to 10,000 micro-l/l ozone (O3) for up to 2 h was applied to control postharvest gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. O3 was effective when grapes were...

  8. Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

  9. Interaction of proteases with legume seed inhibitors. Molecular features.

    PubMed

    de Seidl, D S

    1996-12-01

    After having found that raw black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were toxic, while the cooked ones constitute the basic diet of the underdeveloped peoples of the world, in the sixties, our research directed by Dr. Jaffé, concentrated mainly around the detection and identification of the heat labile toxic factors in legume seeds. A micromethod for the detection of protease inhibitors (PI) in individual seeds was developed, for the purpose of establishing that the multiple trypsin inhibitors (TI) found in the Cubagua variety were expressions of single seeds and not a mixture of a non homogenous bean lot. Six isoinhibitors were isolated and purified, all of which were "double-headed" and interacted with trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (CHT) independently and simultaneously, as shown by electrophoresis of their binary and ternary complexes with each and both enzymes. However, their affinity for the enzymes, including elastases, was rather variable, as well as their amino acid composition which consisted of 51 units for inhibitor V, the smallest, and 83 amino acids for inhibitor I, the largest. A low molecular weight protein fraction that inhibited subtilisin (S), but recognized neither T, CHT nor pancreatic elastase was detected in 63 varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris as well as in broad beans (Vicia faba), chick peas (Cicer arietinum), jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis), kidney beans (Vigna aureus), etc., It was absent though, in soybeans (Glycine max), lentils (Lens culinaris), green peas (Pisum sativum), cowpea (Vigna sinensis) and lupine seeds (Lupinus sp). Subtilisin inhibitors (SI) were isolated from black beans, broad beans, chick peas and jack beans. Their Mr is between 8-9KD and they show a rather high stability in the presence of denaturing agents. They are specific toward microbial proteases, in addition to subtilisins, Carlsberg and BPN', they inhibit the alkaline protease from Tritirachium album (Protease K), from Aspergillus oryzae and one isolated from Streptomyces griseus, but do not interact with either animal digestive or plant thiol enzymes. PMID:9137634

  10. The digestion of fibre by pigs. 1. The effects of amount and type of fibre on apparent digestibility, nitrogen balance and rate of passage.

    PubMed

    Stanogias, G; Pearce, G R

    1985-05-01

    The effects of the amount and the type of dietary fibre on the apparent digestibility (AD) by growing pigs of neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and NDF components, on nitrogen balance and on the rate of passage of digesta were studied using a semi-purified basal diet and fibre in the forms of soya-bean hulls, lupin (Lupinus sp.) hulls, pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, wheat bran, maize hulls, maize cobs, oat hulls and lucerne (Medicago sativa) stems. Both the amount and the type of dietary fibre significantly influenced the AD of dietary dry matter, N and energy. The AD of NDF and of NDF components was markedly affected by the type and the amount of fibre in the diet. The proportion of NDF digested ranged from 0.016 to 0.905, of cellulose from 0.026 to 0.931 and of hemicellulose from 0.010 to 0.999. N retention by the pigs ranged from 12.9 to 25.8 g/d and with some fibres there was a tendency towards increased N retention with increasing intakes of NDF. Rate of passage of digesta, expressed as the 50 and 95% excretion times of stained feed particles, ranged from 22.2 to 85.1 h and 40.0 to 117.1 h respectively. Large individual variations in rate of passage occurred but, in general, the rate of passage tended to increase with increasing intakes of NDF. No strong associations between the rate of passage of digesta and apparent digestibility of NDF components were observed. The results suggest that the extent of fibre digestibility depends predominantly on the origin of the fibre and to a lesser extent on the amount of fibre in the diet. PMID:2998445

  11. Effect of cropping system on composition of the Rhizoctonia populations recovered from canola and lupin in a winter rainfall region of South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia spp. are important pathogens of a broad range of crop plants that are economically important to the farm economy of the Western Cape region of South Africa. However, there is little information concerning the identity and relative importance of these fungal pathogens, and the effect of ...

  12. Eremophila glabra reduces methane production and methanogen populations when fermented in a Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Li, XiXi; Durmic, Zoey; Liu, ShiMin; McSweeney, Chris S; Vercoe, Philip E

    2014-10-01

    Eremophila glabra Juss. (Scrophulariaceae), a native Australian shrub, has been demonstrated to have low methanogenic potential in a batch in vitro fermentation system. The present study aimed to test longer-term effects of E. glabra on rumen fermentation characteristics, particularly methane production and the methanogen population, when included as a component of a fermentation substrate in an in vitro continuous culture system (Rusitec). E. glabra was included at 150, 250, 400 g/kg DM (EG15, EG25, and EG40) with an oaten chaff and lupin-based substrate (control). Overall, the experiment lasted 33 days, with 12 days of acclimatization, followed by two periods during which fermentation characteristics (total gas, methane and VFA productions, dry matter disappearance, pH) were measured. The number of copies of genes specifically associated with total bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria (16S rRNA gene) and total ruminal methanogenic archaeal organisms (the methyl coenzyme M reductase A gene (mcrA)) was also measured during this time using quantitative real-time PCR. Total gas production, methane and volatile fatty acid concentrations were significantly reduced with addition of E. glabra. At the end of the experiment, the overall methane reduction was 32% and 45% for EG15 and EG25 respectively, compared to the control, and the reduction was in a dose-dependent manner. Total bacterial numbers did not change, but the total methanogen population decreased by up to 42.1% (EG40) when compared to the control substrate. The Fibrobacter succinogenes population was reduced at all levels of E. glabra, while Ruminococcus albus was reduced only by EG40. Our results indicate that replacing a portion of a fibrous substrate with E. glabra maintained a significant reduction in methane production and methanogen populations over three weeks in vitro, with some minor inhibition on overall fermentation at the lower inclusion levels. PMID:24225531

  13. Soil zymography - A novel technique for mapping enzyme activity in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Marie

    2014-05-01

    The effect plant roots on microbial activity in soil at the millimeter scale is poorly understood. One reason for this is that spatially explicit methods for the study of microbial activity in soil are limited. Here we present a quantitative in situ technique for mapping the distribution of exoenzymes in soil along with some results about the effects of roots on exoenzyme activity in soil. In the first study we showed that both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were up to 5.4-times larger in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus than in the bulk soil. While acid phosphatase activity (produced by roots and microorganisms) was closely associated with roots, alkaline phosphatase activity (produced only by microorganisms) was more widely distributed, leading to a 2.5-times larger area of activity of alkaline than of acid phosphatase. These results indicate a spatial differentiation of different ecophysiological groups of organic phosphorus mineralizing organisms in the rhizosphere which might alleviate a potential competition for phosphorus between them. In a second study cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activities were analyzed in the presence of living Lupinus polyphyllus roots and dead/dying roots (in the same soils 10, 20 and 30 days after cutting the L. polyphyllus shoots). The activity of all three enzymes was 9.0 to 13.9-times higher at the living roots compared to the bulk soil. Microhotspots of cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activity in the soil were found up to 60 mm away from the living roots. 10 days after shoot cutting, the areas of high activities of cellulase and phosphatase activity were extend up to 55 mm away from the next root, while the extension of the area of chitinase activity did not change significantly. At the root, cellulase and chitinase activity increased first at the root tips after shoot cutting and showed maximal activity 20 days after shoot cutting. The number and activity of microhotspots of chitinase activity was maximal 10 days after shoot cutting and decreased thereafter. In conclusion, the study showed that fresh root detritus stimulates enzyme activities much stronger than living roots, probably because of the high pulse input of C and N from dying roots compared to slow continuous release of rhizodeposits. Taken together, soil zymography is a very promising novel technique to gain insights the effects of roots on the spatial and temporal dynamic of exoenzyme activity in soil. References Spohn, M., Carminati, A., Kuzyakov, Y. (2013). Zymography - A novel in situ method for mapping distribution of enzyme activity in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 58, 275-280. Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y. (2013): Distribution of microbial- and root- derived phosphatase activities in the rhizosphere depending on P availability and C allocation - Coupling soil zymography with 14C imaging. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 67, 106-113. Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y. (accepted): Spatial and temporal dynamics of hotspots of enzyme activity as affected by living and dead roots - A soil zymography analysis. Plant and Soil

  14. Suppression of the auxin response pathway enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi while phosphite-mediated resistance stimulates the auxin signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora cinnamomi is a devastating pathogen worldwide and phosphite (Phi), an analogue of phosphate (Pi) is highly effective in the control of this pathogen. Phi also interferes with Pi starvation responses (PSR), of which auxin signalling is an integral component. In the current study, the involvement of Pi and the auxin signalling pathways in host and Phi-mediated resistance to P. cinnamomi was investigated by screening the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 and several mutants defective in PSR and the auxin response pathway for their susceptibility to this pathogen. The response to Phi treatment was also studied by monitoring its effect on Pi- and the auxin response pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that phr1-1 (phosphate starvation response 1), a mutant defective in response to Pi starvation was highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi compared to the parental background Col-0. Furthermore, the analysis of the Arabidopsis tir1-1 (transport inhibitor response 1) mutant, deficient in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skp1 − Cullin − F-Box) ubiquitination pathway was also highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi and the susceptibility of the mutants rpn10 and pbe1 further supported a role for the 26S proteasome in resistance to P. cinnamomi. The role of auxin was also supported by a significant (P < 0.001) increase in susceptibility of blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) to P. cinnamomi following treatment with the inhibitor of auxin transport, TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Given the apparent involvement of auxin and PSR signalling in the resistance to P. cinnamomi, the possible involvement of these pathways in Phi mediated resistance was also investigated. Phi (especially at high concentrations) attenuates the response of some Pi starvation inducible genes such as AT4, AtACP5 and AtPT2 in Pi starved plants. However, Phi enhanced the transcript levels of PHR1 and the auxin responsive genes (AUX1, AXR1and AXR2), suppressed the primary root elongation, and increased root hair formation in plants with sufficient Pi. Conclusions The auxin response pathway, particularly auxin sensitivity and transport, plays an important role in resistance to P. cinnamomi in Arabidopsis, and phosphite-mediated resistance may in some part be through its effect on the stimulation of the PSR and auxin response pathways. PMID:24649892

  15. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D. pinodes is not specialized on pea and its host range is larger than that of D. fabae, D. lentil, and D. rabiei. This has relevant implications in epidemiology and control as these species might act as alternative hosts for D. pinodes.

  16. Dynamics of air gap formation around roots with changing soil water content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetterlein, D.; Carminati, A.; Weller, U.; Oswald, S.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    Most models regarding uptake of water and nutrients from soil assume intimate contact between roots and soil. However, it is known for a long time that roots may shrink under drought conditions. Due to the opaque nature of soil this process could not be observed in situ until recently. Combining tomography of the entire sample (field of view of 16 x 16 cm, pixel side 0.32 mm) with local tomography of the soil region around roots (field of view of 5 x 5 cm, pixel side 0.09 mm), the high spatial resolution required to image root shrinkage and formation of air-filled gaps around roots could be achieved. Applying this technique and combining it with microtensiometer measurements, measurements of plant gas exchange and microscopic assessment of root anatomy, a more detailed study was conducted to elucidate at which soil matric potential roots start to shrink in a sandy soil and which are the consequences for plant water relations. For Lupinus albus grown in a sandy soil tomography of the entire root system and of the interface between taproot and soil was conducted from day 11 to day 31 covering two drying cycles. Soil matric potential decreased from -36 hPa at day 11 after planting to -72, -251, -429 hPa, on day 17, 19, 20 after planting. On day 20 an air gap started to occur around the tap root and extended further on day 21 with matric potential below -429 hPa (equivalent to 5 v/v % soil moisture). From day 11 to day 21 stomatal conductivity decreased from 467 to 84 mmol m-2 s-1, likewise transpiration rate decreased and plants showed strong wilting symptoms on day 21. Plants were watered by capillary rise on day 21 and recovered completely within a day with stomatal conductivity increasing to 647 mmol m-2 s-1. During a second drying cycle, which was shorter as plants continuously increased in size, air gap formed again at the same matric potential. Plant stomatal conductance and transpiration decreased in a similar fashion with decreasing matric potential and appearance of air gap as during the first cycle. Microscopic assessment of the tap root at day 31 showed that secondary thickening of the taproot occurred all along the region of interest observed during X-ray tomography. A large part of the cross sections consists of lignified tissue; no root hairs could be observed along the tap root. Gaps are expected to reduce water transfers between soil and roots. Opening and closing of gaps may help plants to prevent water loss when the soil dries, and to restore the soil-root continuity when water becomes available.

  17. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  18. Ultrasensitive aptamer based detection of β-conglutin food allergen.

    PubMed

    Svobodova, Marketa; Mairal, Teresa; Nadal, Pedro; Bermudo, M Carmen; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2014-12-15

    Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, there has been a response to the increasing number of severe cases of lupine allergies reported during the last decade, and as a result lupine was recently added to the list of substances requiring mandatory advisory labelling on foodstuffs sold in the European Union. In this paper we report the robust and ultrasensitive detection of the anaphylactic β-conglutin allergen using Apta-PCR achieving a detection limit of 85 pM (25 ng mL(-1)). No cross-reactivity with other conglutins or plant species potentially used in lupine containing foodstuffs was observed. This robust method provides an effective analytical tool for the detection and quantification of the toxic β-conglutin subunit present in lupine flour. PMID:25038695

  19. Molecular beacons: trial of a fluorescence-based solution hybridization technique for ecological studies with ruminal bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, P; Pell, A N; Krause, D O

    1997-01-01

    Molecular beacons are fluorescent probes developed for solution rather than membrane hybridization. We have investigated the utility of these probes to study rumen microbial ecology. Two cellulolytic species, Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes, were tested. Membrane and solution hybridizations gave similar results in competition experiments with cocultures of R. albus 8 and F. succinogenes S85. PMID:9055429

  20. Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and clef...

  1. Nutrient Limitation of Native and Invasive N2-Fixing Plants in Northwest Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Andrea S.; Perakis, Steven; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope δ15N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar δ15N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar δ15N averaged −0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar δ15N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications. PMID:24386399

  2. Nutrient limitation of native and invasive N2-fixing plants in northwest prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, Andrea S.; Perakis, Steven S.; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope δ15N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar δ15N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar δ15N averaged −0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar δ15N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications.

  3. CARBON AND NITROGEN ACCUMULATION AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN MOUNT ST. HELENS PYROCLASTIC SUBSTRATES AFTER 25 YEARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines are important ecosystem engineers, linking above and belowground recovery of Mount St. Helens pyroclastic substrates by increasing soil organic matter and microbial activity and by influencing other biotic processes. Various soil properties were measured in samples collected from locations ...

  4. 26. WARDROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, AT TABLE, WEAPONS CLOSET, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. WARDROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, AT TABLE, WEAPONS CLOSET, AND DESK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  5. 10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE DECK, SHOWING MOST OF BOOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  6. 8. FOCASTLE DECK TOWARDS STERN, WINCHES (EITHER SIDE) ARE REPLACEMENTS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FOCASTLE DECK TOWARDS STERN, WINCHES (EITHER SIDE) ARE REPLACEMENTS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  7. 14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE WOODEN WINDOW FRAMES. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  8. 13. CO'S STATEROOM (CABIN'S QUARTERS), PORT EXTERIOR. NOTE PORTHOLE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CO'S STATEROOM (CABIN'S QUARTERS), PORT EXTERIOR. NOTE PORTHOLE AND WOODEN FRAME WINDOWS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  9. 30. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, WOODEN COMPASS CASE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, WOODEN COMPASS CASE AND HELM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  10. 21 CFR 522.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Hemolytic staphylococcus, Streptococcus spp., Bacterial pulmonary infections caused by Brucella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, secondary bacterial infections caused by Micrococcus pyogenes var. albus, Brucella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus spp. (2) The drug is...

  11. Common and divergent shoot-root signalling in legume symbioses.

    PubMed

    Foo, Eloise; Heynen, Eveline M H; Reid, James B

    2016-04-01

    The role of shoot-root signals in the control of nodulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) development were examined in the divergent legume species pea and blue lupin. These species were chosen as pea can host both symbionts, whereas lupin can nodulate but has lost the ability to form AM. Intergeneric grafts between lupin and pea enabled examination of key long-distance signals in these symbioses. The role of strigolactones, auxin and elements of the autoregulation of nodulation (AON) pathway were investigated. Grafting studies were combined with loss-of-function mutants to monitor symbioses (nodulation, AM) and hormone effects (levels, gene expression and application studies). Lupin shoots suppress AM colonization in pea roots, in part by downregulating strigolactone exudation involving reduced expression of the strigolactone biosynthesis gene PsCCD8. By contrast, lupin shoots enhance pea nodulation, independently of strigolactones, possibly due to a partial incompatibility in AON shoot-root signalling between pea and lupin. This study highlights that nodulation and AM symbioses can be regulated independently and this may be due to long-distance signals, a phenomenon we were able to uncover by working with divergent legumes. We also identify a role for strigolactone exudation in determining the status of non-AM hosts. PMID:26661110

  12. Competition for cellulose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-limited conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y; Odt, C L; Weimer, P J

    1997-01-01

    Three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, and Ruminococcus albus 7) were grown in different binary combinations to determine the outcome of competition in either cellulose-excess batch culture or in cellulose-limited continuous culture. Relative populations of each species were estimated by using signature membrane-associated fatty acids and/or 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Both F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens coexisted in cellulose-excess batch culture with similar population sizes (58 and 42%, respectively; standard error, 12%). By contrast, under cellulose limitation R. flavefaciens predominated (> 96% of total cell mass) in coculture with F. succinogenes, regardless of whether the two strains were inoculated simultaneously or whether R. flavefaciens was inoculated into an established culture of F. succinogenes. The predominance of R. flavefaciens over F. succinogenes under cellulose limitation is in accord with the former's more rapid adherence to cellulose and its higher affinity for cellodextrin products of cellulose hydrolysis. In batch cocultures of F. succinogenes and R. albus, the populations of the two species were similar. However, under cellulose limitation, F. succinogenes was the predominant strain (approximately 80% of cell mass) in cultures simultaneously coinoculated with R. albus. The results from batch cocultures of R. flavefaciens and R. albus were not consistent within or among trials: some experiments yielded monocultures of R. albus (suggesting production of an inhibitory agent by R. albus), while others contained substantial populations of both species. Under cellulose limitation, R. flavefaciens predominated over R. albus (85 and 15%, respectively), as would be expected by the former's greater adherence to cellulose. The retention of R. albus in the cellulose-limited coculture may result from a combination of its ability to utilize glucose (which is not utilizable by R. flavefaciens), its demonstrated ability to adapt under selective pressure in the chemostat to utilization of lower concentrations of cellobiose, a major product of cellulose hydrolysis, and its possible production of an inhibitory agent. PMID:9023950

  13. Competition for cellobiose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-limited conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y; Weimer, P J

    1997-01-01

    The ruminal cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 and Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 coexisted in substrate-excess coculture with about equal population size, but R. flavefaciens outcompeted F. succinogenes for cellobiose in the substrate-limited cocultures whether the two strains were coinoculated or a steady-state culture of F. succinogenes was challenged by R. flavefaciens. This outcome of competition between these two strains is due to a classical pure and simple competition mechanism based on affinity for cellobiose. Although the population size of F. succinogenes was much higher (> 70%) than that of another cellulolytic species, Ruminococcus albus 7 in substrate-excess coculture, F. succinogenes was replaced by a population of R. albus in the substrate-limited coculture in both coinoculation and challenge experiments. R albus outcompeted F. succinogenes, apparently due to selection in the chemostat of a population of R. albus with a higher affinity for cellobiose. R. albus also outcompeted R. flavefaciens under substrate-limited conditions. PMID:9023951

  14. A pharmacodynamic comparison of piperidine and pyridine alkaloid actions at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperidine and pyridine alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Lobelia spp., Conium spp., Nicotiana spp., and Lupinus spp. Some of these alkaloids cause multiple congenital contracture deformities (MCC) and cleft palates in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The mechanism behind MCC ...

  15. The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperidine alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum, Nicotiana spp., and Lupinus spp. A pharmacodynamic comparison was made of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, and coniine in; SH-SY5Y cells which express autonomic-type nicotinic acetylcholine recept...

  16. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The imperiled frosted elfin butterfly, Callophrys irus Godart, is restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where its larval host plants, Lupinus perennis L. and Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. occur. C. irus pupae are noted to reside in both leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape dir...

  17. Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants often synthesize secondary metabolites that are enantiomers. Enantiomers can cause very different physiological responses. Ammodendrine (1) and anabasine (2) are teratogens that can cause congenital malformations in livestock and enantiomeric forms of each have been found in Lupinus spp. an...

  18. Investigation of wind and water level for the Giacomini Wetland Restoration Project, Point Reyes National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, John R.; Anima, Roberto J.

    2007-01-01

    Point Reyes National Seashore (PRNS), comprising unique elements of geological, biological, and historical interest, is located on the central California coast approximately 60 km northwest of San Francisco. The National Seashore contains nearly 130 km of exposed and protected shorelines, spectacular coastal cliffs and headlands, lagoons, open grasslands, bushy hillsides, and forested ridges. Approximately 30 km of the shoreline are coastal-dune habitat that supports 11 federally listed species, including the threatened western snowy plover and the endangered plants Tidestrom's lupine (Lupinus tidestromii) and beach layia (Layia carnosa). The San Andreas Fault, a right-lateral strike-slip fault, trends northwest along the northeastern side of the park. Tomales Bay, which is straight, long, narrow, and shallow, runs along the northeastern boundary of PRNS. The Bay, which fills the northwestern end of a rift valley at the intersection of the San Andreas Fault with the coastline, is approximately 20 km long, 2 km wide, and 6 m deep with mountainous terrain to the southwest and rolling hills to the northeast. Tomales Bay is one of the cleanest estuaries on the West Coast. In winter, approximately 17,000 to 20,000 shorebirds inhabit Tomales Bay and Bodega Bay, which lies directly to the north. At the head of Tomales Bay, the Giacomini Ranch comprises 563 acres of pastureland currently being used for grazing dairy cattle. After more than 50 years of operation as a dairy, the National Park Service acquired the Giacomini property with the intention to restore most of it and the nearby Olema Marsh to tidal wetland. Restoration will add approximately 4% to the existing coastal wetlands in California. The project will return the headwaters of Tomales Bay and two major stream intersections to an intertidal marsh environment, enhancing habitat for both wildlife and fish populations and contributing to the long-term health of Tomales Bay. Prior to the establishment of the ranch, the area was primarily salt marsh that formed as the delta of Lagunitas Creek expanded into Tomales Bay. In converting the salt marsh to dairy land, levees and tide gates were constructed to prevent tidal incursion and stream flooding. Those levees have significantly altered the patterns of estuarine circulation and sediment deposition. To restore natural hydrologic processes within the area and to promote the return of ecological functions and processes, the levees will have to be breached or removed. Developing a successful restoration strategy requires knowledge of elevations within the pastureland and the range of water depths that can be expected from tidal, river, and wind action. In support of the restoration program, the USGS provides technical assistance to PRNS in the form of a scientific study focusing on understanding the physical processes that could affect the Giacomini wetland restoration. The study will yield scientific products that NPS resource managers can use in designing and implementing the restoration project. Research elements include: - Develop a Geodetic Control Network (GCN) throughout PRNS that meets the standards specified National Geodetic Survey data base (the NGS "Bluebook"). The grid will allow this and future studies to be conducted to a precision commensurate with the expressed goals of PRNS. The survey will consist of three steps: (1) verify existing GPS control monuments in the area; (2) tie control monuments in the study areas to the GPS control monuments; and (3) establish NAVD88 elevations using a digital electronic level. - Conduct a detailed survey of the Giacomini site to produce an accurate topographic map of the property. The site survey can be coupled with on-site water-level measurements to produce an empirical flooding model. - Measure water level and wind regime at the Giacomini site. The water-level range is critical to determining the wetland types based on the elevation of the dairy land. Water level at Sacramento Landing, in central Tomales Bay, will also be measured for comparison. As of November 2005, we have created a GCN, produced a detailed topographic map of the Giacomini site, and collected approximately three years of water-level and wind data at the Giacomini site and over one year of usable water-level data at the Sacramento Landing pier.

  19. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  20. 37. DETAIL OF REAR OF STARBOARD ENGINE. AT LOWER LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF REAR OF STARBOARD ENGINE. AT LOWER LEFT OF ENGINE IS THE CASING FOR THE SHAFT GOING INTO THE ADJACENT AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  1. 33. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, SHOWING SHAFT ALLEY IN FOREGROUND AND FRAMING OF VESSEL (CURVED VERTICAL FRAMING, HORIZONTAL FRAMING, AND CEILING FRAMING). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  2. What We Muggles Can Learn about Teaching from Hogwarts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The Harry Potter series furnishes many instances of both good and bad teaching. From them, we can learn more about three principles outlined in "How People Learn" (National Research Council 2000a). (1) Teachers should question students about their prior knowledge, as Professor Lupin does before his lessons; (2) we should encourage students to

  3. 78 FR 57749 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... proposed rule (77 FR 59518) to list the Mount Charleston blue butterfly as endangered, and the lupine blue.... 8-9). In the September 27, 2012, proposed rule (77 FR 59518), we identified Lee Meadows to be... FR 59518), we identified the Bonanza Trail location (Location 10) as presumed occupied. Detections...

  4. Polyploids did not Predate the Evolution of Nodulation in all Legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several lines of evidence indicate that polyploidy occurred by around 54 million years ago, early in the history of legume evolution, but it has not been known whether this event was confined to the papilionoid subfamily (Papilionoideae; e.g., beans, medics, lupins) or occurred earlier. Determining...

  5. The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats.

    PubMed

    Welch, K D; Panter, K E; Lee, S T; Gardner, D R

    2015-01-01

    Sustained inhibition of fetal movement in livestock species, induced by several poisonous plants, can result in numerous skeletal-contracture malformations. Lupines are responsible for a condition in cattle referred to as "crooked calf syndrome" that occurs when pregnant cattle graze teratogenic lupines. Similar malformations are also seen in animals poisoned by Conium maculatum (coniine) and Nicotiana glauca (anabasine). A proposed management strategy to limit these types of birth defects includes utilizing an intermittent grazing schedule to allow short durations of grazing lupine-infested areas interrupted by movement to a lupine-free pasture. The objective of this study was to use a goat model to determine if an intermittent schedule of five continuous days on treatment followed by two days off treatment would be sufficient to decrease, or prevent, the incidence of anabasine-induced malformations. The data from this study suggest that, for N. glauca in goats, the intermittent grazing program of five days exposure with two days of non-exposure is insufficient to prevent significant skeletal malformations from occurring. However, this study did demonstrate an inverse relationship between the amount of serum anabasine in the dam and the extent of fetal movement. PMID:25451537

  6. The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained inhibition of fetal movement in livestock species, induced by several poisonous plants, can result in numerous skeletal-contracture malformations. Lupines are responsible for a condition in cattle referred to as “crooked calf syndrome” that occurs when pregnant cattle graze teratogenic lup...

  7. Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratology, as a scientific discipline, is relatively new and recognition of poisonous plants that cause birth defects in livestock only came to the forefront in the 1950’s and 1960’s. The Veratrum-induced “monkey faced” lamb syndrome and lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”, both studied extensive...

  8. Characterization of surface active materials derived from farm products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface active materials obtained by chemical modification of plant protein isolates (lupin, barley, oat), corn starches (dextrin, normal, high amylose, and waxy) and soybean oil (soybean oil based polysoaps, SOPS) were investigated for their surface and interfacial properties using axisymmetric dro...

  9. Surface and tribological properties of seed proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous solutions of oat and lupin proteins were investigated for their surface, interfacial, friction and wear properties. The investigated oat proteins included those that were also chemically modified using a variety of methods (acetylation, succinylation, x-linking) and combinations of methods....

  10. 36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING AT TWO DIESEL ENGINES, STAIRS LEAD UP TO CREW'S BERTHING. THIS IMAGE IS CLOSER TO THE STERN AND MORE ANGLED TOWARDS THE PORT THAN IMAGE 34. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  11. Genomic and genetic control of phosphate stress in legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is critical for plant growth and development, particularly for N2-fixing legumes due to the high demand for P in root nodules. Genomic and molecular studies of P-stress in legumes have used a variety of research strategies and have focused primarily on white lupin, common bean, soybea...

  12. The Fetal Cleft Palate: IV. Midfacial Growth and Bony Palatal Development following In Utero and Neonatal Repair of the Congenital Caprine Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Spanish goat model was developed to ascertain the mechanism of action of lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”. This goat model is now being used to study new treatments and improved intervention in the treatment of cleft palate in children. We previously demonstrated that in utero palatoplasty...

  13. Characterization of Plant-derived Dissolved Organic Matter by Multiple Spectroscopic Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from fresh or early-stage decomposing soil amendment materials may play an important role in the process of organic matter accumulation. In this study, eight DOM samples from alfalfa, corn, crimson clover, hairy vetch, lupin, soybean, wheat and dairy manure wer...

  14. [Optimization of a spaghetti formula enriched with dietary fiber and micronutrients for elderly people].

    PubMed

    Wittig de Penna, Emma; Serrano, Lisis; Bunger, Andrea; Soto, Delia; López, Luis; Hernández, Nieves; Ruales, Jenny

    2002-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated low dietary fiber intake in elderly people, which increases the risk of diseases such as constipation, colon cancer and diverticulosis. A spaghetti formula enriched with lupin fibre was developed to increase the dietary fibre intake in elderly people, as spaghetti are frequently consumed in this age group. Sweet lupin bran (Vitafiber) was used as fibre source and gluten was used as improving additive. Response surface methodology with a two variable composite rotatable design was applied to optimize the formulations. The independent variables were lupin bran (7.14-14.29%) and gluten Vital (0.1-2.0%). The dependent variables were the responses of a trained 10-member sensory panel who evaluated the sensory quality parameters color, shape, aroma, flavor and texture by the Karlsruhe 9-point test. The optimized formula was prepared with 66.7% semoline, 7.14% lupin bran, 1.05% gluten and 24.7% water, enriched with 0.019% of a vitamin premix (A. E, D, B2, B12 and folic acid) and with 0.41% of a mineral premix (Ca, Fe, Zn), in order to meet 30% of the RDA for the elderly per 100 g dry spaghetti. The dietary fibre content of the optimized product was 11.05 g/100 g. The study showed that fibre-enriched spaghetti formula is a good way to increase dietary fibre intake in elderly people, as it is a common food, simple to prepare and easy to eat. PMID:12214554

  15. 4. DETAIL OF NAME AND RIBBON BOARDS ON PORT SIDE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF NAME AND RIBBON BOARDS ON PORT SIDE. NAME BOARD WAS REMOVED AT TIME OF DECOMMISSIONING. PHOTOGRAPHER TEMPORARILY REATTACHED THE NAME BOARD. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  16. 42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  17. 44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  18. 47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  19. 15. STARBOARD WING OF FLYBRIDGE. PILOT HOUSE AT LEFT. BEYOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. STARBOARD WING OF FLYBRIDGE. PILOT HOUSE AT LEFT. BEYOND LIFT PRESERVER IS SEAT AND BEYOND SEAT ARE ENGINE CONTROLS FOR SHIP. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  20. 48. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by Tony Cammarata, Boston Photographers. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE OF DECK FROM BRIDGE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  1. 16. FLYBRIDGE LOOKING TO PORT. PILOTHOUSE IS TO LEFT, BOOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. FLYBRIDGE LOOKING TO PORT. PILOTHOUSE IS TO LEFT, BOOM CONTROLS AT RIGHT (COVER DOWN OVER CONTROLS). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  2. 43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. LOADING OF LIGHTED BUOYS WITH MOORINGS OF HEAVY CHAIN. CONCRETE, AND CAST-IRON SINKERS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  3. 46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  4. 18. FROM DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW, AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FROM DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW, AT DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE AND BEYOND IS MAST. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  5. 11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH DOOR INTO WINCH ROOM IN THE SUPERSTRUCTURE (LABELED AS FASSAGE & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY ON PLAN), SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF GEARED WHEEL OF BOOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  6. 12. BOOM, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), SHOWING DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. BOOM, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), SHOWING DETAIL OF GEARED WHEEL OF BOOM, FLYBRIDGE AT LEFT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  7. 49. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph, dated August 12, 1987, photograph by Tony Cammarata, Boston Photographers. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. AERIAL VIEW OF PORT SIDE WHILE UNDERWAY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  8. 19. FROM DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. FROM DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, IN FOREGROUND IS DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, BEYOND ARE DECK ABOVE MESS WITH RHI (RIGID HULL INFLATABLE) AT LEFT, THEN STACK AND BEYOND IT IS THE FIDLY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  9. 20. FROM DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING, LOOKING TOWARDS THE BOW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. FROM DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING, LOOKING TOWARDS THE BOW, SHOWING WINCH FIDLY, STACK, AND UPPER DECKS. TO EITHER SIDE OF THE FIDLY IS A RHI (RIGID HULL INFLATABLE) AND CRANES. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  10. 45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PILOT HOUSE SHOWING STARBOARD SIDE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  11. 31. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH IN FOREGROUND, AT BACKGROUND LEFT IS TOP OF STAIRS DOWN TO MESS DECK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  12. 28. CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PILOT HOUSE, TO LEFT UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PILOT HOUSE, TO LEFT UNDER WINDOW ARE SAFES, TO THE FAR RIGHT IS BUNK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  13. Development of a SIDA-LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Phomopsin A in Legumes.

    PubMed

    Schloß, Svenja; Koch, Matthias; Rohn, Sascha; Maul, Ronald

    2015-12-01

    A novel method for the determination of phomopsin A (1) in lupin flour, pea flour, and bean flour as well as whole lupin plants was established based on stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) LC-MS/MS using (15)N6-1 as an isotopically labeled internal standard. Artificially infected samples were used to develop an optimized extraction procedure and sample pretreatment. The limits of detection were 0.5-1 μg/kg for all matrices. The limits of quantitation were 2-4 μg/kg. The method was used to analyze flour samples generated from selected legume seeds and lupin plant samples that had been inoculated with Diaporthe toxica and two further fungal strains. Finally, growing lupin plants infected with D. toxica were investigated to simulate a naturally in-field mycotoxicosis. Toxin levels of up to 10.1 μg/kg of 1 were found in the pods and 7.2 μg/kg in the stems and leaves. PMID:26567714

  14. What We Muggles Can Learn about Teaching from Hogwarts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The Harry Potter series furnishes many instances of both good and bad teaching. From them, we can learn more about three principles outlined in "How People Learn" (National Research Council 2000a). (1) Teachers should question students about their prior knowledge, as Professor Lupin does before his lessons; (2) we should encourage students to…

  15. Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. Isolated From Seaweed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel agarase-producing, non-endospore-forming marine bacterium WH0801T was isolated from a fresh seaweed sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. Preliminary characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that WH0801T shared 96.1% identity with Agarivorans albus MKT 10...

  16. Fish and chips? Implanted transmitters help map the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chojnacki, Kimberly; DeLonay, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    With a flattened snout, long slender tail and rows of bony plates lining its body, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has a unique, almost pre-historic, appearance. This endangered fish is native to the muddy, free-flowing waters of the Missouri River.

  17. 78 FR 16526 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Pallid Sturgeon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) announces the availability of a draft revised recovery plan for the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). This species is federally listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The Service solicits review and comment from the public on this draft revised...

  18. FERMENTATION RESIDUES FROM RUMINOCOCCUS CELLULOSE FERMENTATIONS AS COMPONENTS OF WOOD ADHESIVE FORMULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residues from the fermentation of cellulose by the anaerobic bacteria Ruminococcus albus (strain 7) or Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1 or B34b) containing residual cellulose, bacterial cells and their associated adhesins, were examined for their ability to serve as components of adhesives f...

  19. Five Lessons of a Dumbledore Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music, Rusmir; Agans, Lyndsay J.

    2007-01-01

    Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and the world of Harry Potter may help educators re-imagine their daily work and provide good reminders that intentional formal and informal mentoring, informed by educational theory, play an essential role in student learning and development. Mentoring principles at Hogwarts flow from Albus Dumbledore,…

  20. PREDATION OF A SPAWNING ATHERINID FISH, 'MENIDIA MENIDIA', BY AVIAN AND AQUATIC PREDATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predation of Atlantic silversides was observed during spawning runs in the intertidal zone of the North Edisto River estuary, South Carolina. Snowy egrets, Egretta thula, and Great egrets, Casmerodius albus, were the dominant avian predators. Snowy egrets often caught M. menidia ...

  1. Identification of Ruminococcus flavefaciens as the Predominant Cellulolytic Bacterial Species of the Equine Cecum

    PubMed Central

    Julliand, Veronique; de Vaux, Albane; Millet, Liliane; Fonty, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    Detection and quantification of cellulolytic bacteria with oligonucleotide probes showed that Ruminococcus flavefaciens was the predominant species in the pony and donkey cecum. Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus were present at low levels. Four isolates, morphologically resembling R. flavefaciens, differed from ruminal strains by their carbohydrate utilization and their end products of cellobiose fermentation. PMID:10427077

  2. Effects of Methylcellulose on Cellulolytic Bacteria Attachment and Rice Straw Degradation in the In vitro Rumen Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Ha Guyn; Kim, Min Ji; Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Ha, Jong K.; Lee, Sung Sill

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of methylcellulose on the attachment of major cellulolytic bacteria on rice straw and its digestibility. Rice straw was incubated with ruminal mixture with or without 0.1% methylcellulose (MC). The attachment of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus populations on rice straw was measured using real-time PCR with specific primer sets. Methylcellulose at the level of 0.1% decreased the attachment of all three major cellulolytic bacteria. In particular, MC treatment reduced (p<0.05) attachment of F. succinogenes on rice straw after 10 min of incubation while a significant reduction (p<0.05) in attachment was not observed until 4 h incubation in the case of R. flavefaciens and R. albus. This result indicated F. succinogenes responded to MC more sensitively and earlier than R. flavefaciens and R. albus. Dry matter digestibility of rice straw was subsequently inhibited by 0.1% MC, and there was a significant difference between control and MC treatment (p<0.05). Incubated cultures containing MC had higher pH and lower gas production than controls. Current data clearly indicated that the attachment of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus on rice straw was inhibited by MC, which apparently reduced rice straw digestion. PMID:25049909

  3. Utilization of individual cellodextrins by three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y; Weimer, P J

    1996-01-01

    Growth of the ruminal bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, and R. albus 7 followed Monod kinetics with respect to concentrations of individual pure cellodextrins (cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose). Under the conditions tested, R. flavefaciens FD-1 possesses the greatest capacity to compete for low concentrations of these cellodextrins. PMID:8975600

  4. Phagocytosis-enhancing effect of lactoferrin on bovine peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Szuster-Ciesielska, A; Kamińska, T; Kandefer-Szerszeń, M

    1995-01-01

    The effect of lactoferrin (LF) on in vitro and in vivo phagocytic ability of bovine blood monocytes was studied. It was demonstrated that bovine LF enhanced in vitro phagocytosis of bacteria and ovine erythrocyte-antibody complexes and increased intracellular killing of Staphylococcus albus. Monocytes of colostrum deprived calves, which were intravenously injected with LF, also exhibited elevated phagocytic properties. PMID:9071453

  5. Developing and Improving Modified Achievement Level Descriptors: Rationale, Procedures, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Albus, Debra; Rogers, Chris; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Some states are developing alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) to measure the academic achievement of some students with disabilities (Albus, Lazarus, Thurlow, & Cormier, 2009; Lazarus, Thurlow, Christensen, & Cormier, 2007). These assessments measure the same content as the general assessment for a given…

  6. Might Flowers of Invasive Plants Increase Native Bees Carrying Capacity? Intimations from Capitol Reef National Park, Utah

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the native bees visiting the flowers of three species of invasive plants (Tamarix spp., Melilotus albus, M. officinalis) with those visiting seven native plant species in mid-summer at three sites in Capitol Reef National Park, UT, USA. Overall, as many species of bees visited the flowe...

  7. DEGRADATION OF ALFALFA CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDES BY PURE CULTURES OF FIVE RUMEN BACTERIAL SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rumen bacterial strains Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 (Fs), Ruminococcus albus 7 (Ra), R. flavefaciens FD-1 (Rf), Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c (Bf), and Lachnospira multipara 40 (Lm) were compared for their ability to degrade alfalfa stem cell wall polysaccharides in pure culture, as a five-spe...

  8. Food intake, postprandial glucose, insulin and subjective satiety responses to three different bread-based test meals.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Jennifer; Atkinson, Fiona; Eisenhauer, Bronwyn; Inamdar, Amar; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-12-01

    The effect of bread consumption on overall food intake is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure postprandial food intake after a set breakfast containing three different breads. Ten males and 10 females aged 20.1-44.8 years, BMI 18.4-24.8 kg/m(2), consumed two slices of White Bread, Bürgen Wholemeal and Seeds Bread or Lupin Bread (all 1300 kJ) with 10 g margarine and 30 g strawberry jam. Fullness and hunger responses and were measured before and during the test breakfasts. Glucose and insulin responses (incremental area under each two-hour curve (iAUC)) were calculated. Food intake was measured and energy and nutrient intake determined at a buffet meal two hours later. Subjects consumed significantly less energy after the Bürgen Bread meal compared to the White Bread meal (2548 ± 218 vs. 3040±328kJ, Bürgen Bread vs. White Bread, P<0.05). There were higher fullness responses for the Lupin Bread (P<0.01), and the Bürgen Bread (P<0.05) compared with the White Bread. Lupin Bread and Bürgen Bread produced smaller postprandial glucose responses (79 ± 7, 74 ± 4, 120 ± 10 mmol/L min iAUC, Lupin, Bürgen and White Bread respectively, P<0.01). Differences in insulin responses were also observed (6145 ± 1048, 6471 ± 976, 9674 ± 1431 pmol/L min iAUC, Lupin, Bürgen and White Bread respectively, P<0.01). Equal-energy portions of three different commercially available breads differed in their short-term satiation capacity. Further studies are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit for weight management. PMID:21907743

  9. Surtsey and Mount St. Helens: a comparison of early succession rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Moral, R.; Magnússon, B.

    2014-04-01

    Surtsey and Mount St. Helens are celebrated but very different volcanoes. Permanent plots allow for comparisons that reveal mechanisms that control succession and its rate and suggest general principles. We estimated rates from structure development, species composition using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), changes in Euclidean distance (ED) of DCA vectors, and by principal components analysis (PCA) of DCA. On Surtsey, rates determined from DCA trajectory analyses decreased as follows: gull colony on lava with sand > gull colony on lava, no sand ≫ lava with sand > sand spit > block lava > tephra. On Mount St. Helens, plots on lahar deposits near woodlands were best developed. The succession rates of open meadows declined as follows: Lupinus-dominated pumice > protected ridge with Lupinus > other pumice and blasted sites > isolated lahar meadows > barren plain. Despite the prominent contrasts between the volcanoes, we found several common themes. Isolation restricted the number of colonists on Surtsey and to a lesser degree on Mount St. Helens. Nutrient input from outside the system was crucial. On Surtsey, seabirds fashioned very fertile substrates, while on Mount St. Helens wind brought a sparse nutrient rain, then Lupinus enhanced fertility to promote succession. Environmental stress limits succession in both cases. On Surtsey, bare lava, compacted tephra and infertile sands restrict development. On Mount St. Helens, exposure to wind and infertility slow succession.

  10. Surtsey and Mount St. Helens: a comparison of early succession rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Moral, R.; Magnússon, B.

    2013-12-01

    Surtsey and Mount St. Helens are celebrated, but very different volcanoes. Permanent plots allow comparisons that reveal mechanisms that control succession and its rate and suggest general principles. We estimated rates from structure development, species composition using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), changes in Euclidean distance (ED) of DCA vectors and by principal components analysis (PCA) of DCA. On Surtsey, rates determined from DCA trajectory analyses decreased as follows: gull colony on lava with sand > gull colony on lava, no sand ≫ lava with sand > sand spit > block lava > tephra. On Mount St. Helens, plots on lahar deposits near woodlands were best developed. The succession rates of open meadows declined as follows: Lupinus-dominated pumice > protected ridge with Lupinus > other pumice and blasted sites > isolated lahar meadows > barren plain. Despite the prominent contrasts between the volcanoes, common themes were revealed. Isolation restricted the number of colonists on Surtsey and to a lesser degree on Mount St. Helens. Nutrient input from outside the system was crucial. On Surtsey, seabirds fashioned very fertile substrates, while on Mount St. Helens wind brought a sparse nutrient rain, then Lupinus enhanced fertility to promote succession. Environmental stress limits succession in both cases. On Surtsey, bare lava, compacted tephra and infertile sands restrict development. On Mount St. Helens, exposure to wind and infertility slow succession.

  11. Molecular basis of lipo-chitooligosaccharide recognition by the lysin motif receptor-like kinase LYR3 in legumes.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Nikita; Fliegmann, Judith; Rosenberg, Charles; Gasciolli, Virginie; Timmers, Antonius C J; Nurisso, Alessandra; Cullimore, Julie; Bono, Jean-Jacques

    2016-05-15

    LYR3 [LysM (lysin motif) receptor-like kinase 3] of Medicago truncatula is a high-affinity binding protein for symbiotic LCO (lipo-chitooligosaccharide) signals, produced by rhizobia bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The present study shows that LYR3 from several other legumes, but not from two Lupinus species which are incapable of forming the mycorrhizal symbiosis, bind LCOs with high affinity and discriminate them from COs (chitooligosaccharides). The biodiversity of these proteins and the lack of binding to the Lupinus proteins were used to identify features required for high-affinity LCO binding. Swapping experiments between each of the three LysMs of the extracellular domain of the M. truncatula and Lupinus angustifolius LYR3 proteins revealed the crucial role of the third LysM in LCO binding. Site-directed mutagenesis identified a tyrosine residue, highly conserved in all LYR3 LCO-binding proteins, which is essential for high-affinity binding. Molecular modelling suggests that it may be part of a hydrophobic tunnel able to accommodate the LCO acyl chain. The lack of conservation of these features in the binding site of plant LysM proteins binding COs provides a mechanistic explanation of how LCO recognition might differ from CO perception by structurally related LysM receptors. PMID:26987814

  12. A Bonner Sphere Spectrometer for pulsed fields.

    PubMed

    Aza, E; Dinar, N; Manessi, G P; Silari, M

    2016-02-01

    The use of conventional Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS) in pulsed neutron fields (PNF) is limited by the fact that proportional counters, usually employed as the thermal neutron detectors, suffer from dead time losses and show severe underestimation of the neutron interaction rate, which leads to strong distortion of the calculated spectrum. In order to avoid these limitations, an innovative BSS, called BSS-LUPIN, has been developed for measuring in PNF. This paper describes the physical characteristics of the device and its working principle, together with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of its response matrix. The BSS-LUPIN has been tested in the stray neutron field at the CERN Proton Synchrotron, by comparing the spectra obtained with the new device, the conventional CERN BSS and via Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:25948828

  13. Accessing gelling ability of vegetable proteins using rheological and fluorescence techniques.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ana Paula; Portugal, Carla A M; Sousa, Isabel; Crespo, João G; Raymundo, Anabela

    2005-08-01

    This work aims to present a comprehensive study about the macroscopic characteristics of globular vegetable proteins, in terms of their gelling ability, by understanding their molecular behaviour, when submitted to a thermal gelling process. The gels of soy, pea and lupin proteins were characterized by rheological techniques. Gelation kinetics, mechanical spectra, as well as the texture of these gels were analyzed and compared. Additionally, capillary viscometry, steady-state fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy were used to monitor the structural changes induced by the thermal denaturation, which constitutes the main condition for the formation of a gel structure. Based on these techniques it was possible to establish a relationship between the gelling ability of each protein isolate and their structural resistance to thermal unfolding, enabling us to explain the weakest and the strongest gelling ability observed for lupin and soy proteins isolates, respectively. PMID:15996729

  14. Conversion of carbohydrates in herbaceous crops during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Annukka; Kymalainen, Maritta; Stoddard, Frederick L; Viikari, Liisa

    2012-08-15

    The methane yields and conversion of pentoses (xylose) and hexoses (cellulose) in hemp, maize, and white lupin were studied over 30 days of anaerobic digestion. Preservation of hemp increased the methane yield by 23% compared with the fresh hemp. The increased methane yield of hemp was verified by the enhanced conversion of C6 sugars, increasing from 48% to about 70%, whereas the conversion of C5 sugars increased from only 9% to nearly 50%. The consumption of all carbohydrates in fresh maize was almost complete in the 30 days of anaerobic digestion. Hence, there was no major difference in carbohydrate consumption between fresh and preserved maize during biogas production. Fresh white lupin produced the highest methane yield (343 ± 33 dm(3) kg(-1) TS) in this work, mainly due to its highest amount of proteins. Conversion of C6 sugars was 80%, but that of C5 sugars was notably less at 46%. PMID:22788699

  15. The role of mycorrhizal fungi and microsites in primary succession on Mount St. Helens.

    PubMed

    Titus, J; Del Moral, R

    1998-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the role of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and microsites on the growth of pioneer species. Flat, rill, near-rock, and dead lupine microsites were created in plots in barren areas of the Pumice Plain of Mount St. Helens. VAM propagules were added to the soil in half of the plots. Six pioneer species were planted into both VAM and non-VAM inoculated microsites. Plants in dead lupine microsites were greater in biomass than those in flat, rill, and near-rock microsites. Significant effects of VAM on plant biomass did not occur. Microsites continue to be important to plant colonization on the Pumice Plain, but VAM do not yet appear to play an important role. This may be due to limited nutrient availability and the facultatively mycotrophic nature of the colonizing plant species. It is unlikely that VAM play an important role in successional processes in newly emplaced nutrient-poor surfaces. PMID:21684921

  16. How predation can slow, stop or reverse a prey invasion.

    PubMed

    Owen, M R; Lewis, M A

    2001-07-01

    Observations on Mount St Helens indicate that the spread of recolonizing lupin plants has been slowed due to the presence of insect herbivores and it is possible that the spread of lupins could be reversed in the future by intense insect herbivory [Fagan, W. F. and J. Bishop (2000). Trophic interactions during primary sucession: herbivores slow a plant reinvasion at Mount St. Helens. Amer. Nat. 155, 238-251]. In this paper we investigate mechanisms by which herbivory can contain the spatial spread of recolonizing plants. Our approach is to analyse a series of predator-prey reaction-diffusion models and spatially coupled ordinary differential equation models to derive conditions under which predation pressure can slow, stall or reverse a spatial invasion of prey. We focus on models where prey disperse more slowly than predators. We comment on the types of functional response which give such solutions, and the circumstances under which the models are appropriate. PMID:11497163

  17. Waiting for Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamson-Nussbaum, Jorie

    2013-01-01

    The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the Rum

  18. Waiting for Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamson-Nussbaum, Jorie

    2013-01-01

    The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the Rum…

  19. 40 CFR 180.589 - Boscalid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... group 20 3.5 Papya 1.5 Pea and bean, dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C, except cowpea, field pea and grain lupin 2.5 Pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6B, except cowpea 0.6 Peanut 0.05... 18, seed 0.05 Beet, garden, roots 0.1 Beet, sugar, roots 0.1 Cowpea, seed 0.1 Grain, cereal,...

  20. Real-time monitoring of the accretion of Rhizopus oligosporus biomass during the solid-substrate tempe fermentation.

    PubMed

    Davey, C L; Pealoza, W; Kell, D B; Hedger, J N

    1991-03-01

    We describe a novel method for the real-time estimation of the accretion of blomass during the solid-substrate tempe fermentation of soy beans, lupins and quinoa by Rhizopus oligosporus Salto. The method is based on measurements of the dielectric permittivity at radio-frequencies, using a four-terminal instrument (the Bugmeter). In all cases, excellent Ilnearity is observed during the growth phase between the dielectric permittivity and the hyphal length as determined microscopically. PMID:24424940

  1. Sparse distributed memory and related models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1992-01-01

    Described here is sparse distributed memory (SDM) as a neural-net associative memory. It is characterized by two weight matrices and by a large internal dimension - the number of hidden units is much larger than the number of input or output units. The first matrix, A, is fixed and possibly random, and the second matrix, C, is modifiable. The SDM is compared and contrasted to (1) computer memory, (2) correlation-matrix memory, (3) feet-forward artificial neural network, (4) cortex of the cerebellum, (5) Marr and Albus models of the cerebellum, and (6) Albus' cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC). Several variations of the basic SDM design are discussed: the selected-coordinate and hyperplane designs of Jaeckel, the pseudorandom associative neural memory of Hassoun, and SDM with real-valued input variables by Prager and Fallside. SDM research conducted mainly at the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) in 1986-1991 is highlighted.

  2. Altitudinal gradients of generalist and specialist herbivory on three montane Asteraceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidel, U.; Röhl, S.; Bruelheide, H.

    Different functional types of herbivory on three montane Asteraceae were investigated in natural populations in central Germany to test the hypothesis that herbivory is decreasing with altitude. Generalist herbivory was assessed as leaf area loss, mainly caused by slugs, and, in Petasites albus, as rhizome mining by oligophagous insect larvae. Capitules were found to be parasitized by oligophagous insects in Centaurea pseudophrygia and by the specialist fly Tephritis arnicae in Arnica montana. Only the damage to leaves of P. albus showed the hypothesized decrease with increasing altitude. No altitudinal gradient could be found in the leaf and capitule damage to C. pseudophrygia. In A. montana, capitule damage increased with increasing elevation. The data suggest that abundance and activity of generalist herbivores are more affected by climatic conditions along altitudinal gradients than specialist herbivores. In all probability, specialist herbivores depend less on abiotic conditions than on their host's population characteristics, such as host population size.

  3. Tryptophan Biosynthesis from Indole-3-Acetic Acid by Anaerobic Bacteria from the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Milton J.; Robinson, I. M.; Baetz, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Microbes in ruminal contents incorporated 14C into cells when they were incubated in vitro in the presence of [14C]carboxyl-labeled indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Most of the cellular 14C was found to be in tryptophan from the protein fractions of the cells. Pure cultures of several important ruminal species did not incorporate labeled IAA, but all four strains of Ruminococcus albus tested utilized IAA for tryptophan synthesis. R. albus did not incorporate 14C into tryptophan during growth in medium containing either labeled serine or labeled shikimic acid. The mechanism of tryptophan biosynthesis from IAA is not known but appears to be different from any described biosynthetic pathway. We propose that a reductive carboxylation, perhaps involving a low-potential electron donor such as ferredoxin, is involved. PMID:4855566

  4. Salmonellosis in a captive heron colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.

    1974-01-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella typhimurium was one of several factors responsible for losses among young herons being held at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The infection was demonstrated in five black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), three common egrets (Casmerodius albus), two little blue herons (Florida caerulea), one cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), one snowy egret (Leucophoyx thula) and one Louisiana heron (Hydranassa tricolor). The disease was characterized by emaciation, focal liver necrosis, and frequently by a caseo-necrotic enteritis.

  5. Heterogeneous detection probabilities for imperiled Missouri River fishes: implications for large-river monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, J.T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Doyle, W.J.; Hill, Tracy D.; Steffensen, K.D.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2012-01-01

    Occupancy modeling was used to determine (1) if detection probabilities (p) for 7 regionally imperiled Missouri River fishes (Scaphirhynchus albus, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, Cycleptus elongatus, Sander canadensis, Macrhybopsis aestivalis, Macrhybopsis gelida, and Macrhybopsis meeki) differed among gear types (i.e. stationary gill nets, drifted trammel nets, and otter trawls), and (2) how detection probabilities were affected by habitat (i.e. pool, bar, and open water), longitudinal position (five 189 to 367 rkm long segments), sampling year (2003 to 2006), and season (July 1 to October 30 and October 31 to June 30). Adult, large-bodied fishes were best detected with gill nets (p: 0.02–0.74), but most juvenile large-bodied and all small-bodied species were best detected with otter trawls (p: 0.02–0.58). Trammel nets may be a redundant sampling gear for imperiled fishes in the lower Missouri River because most species had greater detection probabilities with gill nets or otter trawls. Detection probabilities varied with river segment for S. platorynchus, C. elongatus, and all small-bodied fishes, suggesting that changes in habitat influenced gear efficiency or abundance changes among river segments. Detection probabilities varied by habitat for adult S. albus and S. canadensis, year for juvenile S. albus, C. elongatus, and S. canadensis, and season for adult S. albus. Concentrating sampling effort on gears with the greatest detection probabilities may increase species detections to better monitor a population's response to environmental change and the effects of management actions on large-river fishes.

  6. Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Pothalil A.; Sankaran, Pradeep M.; Malamel, Jobi J.; Joseph, Mathew M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the jumping spider genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886, Stenaelurillus albus sp. n., is described from the Western Ghats of India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnostic features and illustrations of copulatory organs of both sexes are given. Detailed redescription, diagnosis and illustration of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 are provided. The occurrence of a mating plug in the genus is reported. PMID:25878537

  7. Helminth Parasites of the Juvenile Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Werneck, M R; Lima, E H S M; Pires, T; Silva, R J

    2015-08-01

    The helminth fauna of 31 juvenile specimens of Eretmochelys imbricata from the Brazilian coast was examined. Seventeen individuals were infected with helminths (54.8%). The helminths found were: Diaschistorchis pandus, Cricocephalus albus, Metacetabulum invaginatum, Pronocephalus obliquus (Pronocephalidae), Cymatocarpus solearis (Brachycoeliidae), Styphlotrema solitaria (Styphlotrematidae), Carettacola stunkardi, Amphiorchis caborojoensis (Spirorchiidae), Orchidasma amphiorchis (Telorchiidae), and Anisakis nematode larvae. This report is the first analysis of parasite communities in this host. PMID:25738321

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of White henbane treated by phytohormones.

    PubMed

    Kadi, Kenza; Yahia, Abdelouahab; Hamli, Sofia; Auidane, Laiche; Khabthane, Hamid; Ali, Wahiba Kara

    2013-10-01

    This study reported the effect of interaction between cytokinins and auxins to enhance accumulation of alkaloids in White henbane (Hyoscyamus albus L.). Plants of this specie were grown under controlled conditions and treated with plant-hormones: Auxins by: 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) and 3-Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), Cytokinins by: Kinetin (K) and Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP), at 0-10 and 20 mg L(-1) rates isolated and interacted. The results showed that treatment of 2, 4-D and K at the highest applied rates 20 mg L(-1) increased the accumulation threefold rate estimated to 2.321% in the root plant part and 1.702% in the aerial plant part with the same plant-hormones but dosage of (20x10 mg L(-1)) in order. The TLC for alkaloid extracts shows that H. albus L. contains 6 alkaloids. In this study, it was concluded that the treatment with interaction of (Kx2,4-D) (20x20 mg L(-1)) gives the highest percent of alkaloids in the root and shoot parts compared to plant-hormones separated. The in vitro antibacterial activity was determined on microorganisms: Pseudomonas stutzeri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. And performed by disc diffusion assay. Respectively, ethanol extracts showed no inhibitory effect on the microorganisms, however alkaloid extracts of H. albus L. of the same treatments with plant-hormones of shoot and root parts showed antibacterial activity against microorganisms that were tested. The results obtained in the present study suggest that alkaloid of H. albus L. can be used in treating diseases caused by the test organisms. PMID:24502159

  9. Egg size and laying order of snowy egrets, great egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Frederick, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors' objective was to describe egg size in relation to laying order for Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus ), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula ), and Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax ) in a southern Texas colony and Great Egrets in a southern Florida colony. Based on egg-size patterns in other colonial waterbirds and the occurrence of brood reduction in egrets and herons, they predicted that the final egg laid in a clutch would be smaller than those laid earlier.

  10. Revision of the taxonomic status of the species Rhizobium lupini and reclassification as Bradyrhizobium lupini comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Peix, Alvaro; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Flores-Félix, José David; Alonso de la Vega, Pablo; Rivas, Raúl; Mateos, Pedro F; Igual, José M; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Trujillo, Martha E; Velázquez, Encarna

    2015-04-01

    The species Rhizobium lupini was isolated from Lupinus nodules and included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in 1980. Nevertheless, on the basis of the analysis of the type strain of this species available in DSMZ, DSM 30140(T), whose 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the type strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum , R. lupini was considered a later synonym of this species. In this study we confirmed that the strain DSM 30140(T) belongs to the species B. japonicum , but also that it cannot be the original strain of R. lupini because this species effectively nodulated Lupinus whereas strain DSM 30140(T) was able to nodulate soybean but not Lupinus. Since the original type strain of R. lupini was deposited into the USDA collection by L. W. Erdman under the accession number USDA 3051(T) we analysed the taxonomic status of this strain showing that although it belongs to the genus Bradyrhizobium instead of genus Rhizobium , it is phylogenetically distant from B. japonicum and closely related to Bradyrhizobium canariense . The type strains R. lupini USDA 3051(T) and B. canariense BTA-1(T) share 16S rRNA, recA and glnII gene sequences with similarities of 99.8%, 96.5% and 97.1%, respectively. They presented a DNA-DNA hybridization value of 36% and also differed in phenotypic characteristics and slightly in the proportions of some fatty acids. Therefore we propose the reclassification of the species Rhizobium lupini as Bradyrhizobium lupini comb. nov. The type strain is USDA 3051(T) ( = CECT 8630(T) = LMG 28514(T)). PMID:25609676

  11. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011-30 November 2011.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Aluana G; Albaina, A; Alpermann, Tilman J; Apkenas, Vanessa E; Bankhead-Dronnet, S; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L; Cho, Chang-Hung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Aurélie; DE Feraudy, D; Estonba, A; Hankeln, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Irigoien, X; Iriondo, M; Kay, Kathleen M; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; LE Hénanff, Maxime; Lieutier, F; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, C; Martin, C; Morris, Veronica R F; Nanninga, Gerrit; Pardo, M A; Plieske, Jörg; Pointeau, S; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M; Schwarcz, Kaiser D; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L; Solferini, Vera N; Stevens, Virginie M; Veith, Michael; Wen, Mei-Juan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jennifer M; Zarraonaindia, I

    2012-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. PMID:22296658

  12. Effects of a deep-rooted crop and soil amended with charcoal on spatial and temporal runoff patterns in a degrading tropical highland watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayabil, Haimanote K.; Tebebu, Tigist Y.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2016-02-01

    Placement and hence performance of many soil and water conservation structures in tropical highlands has proven to be challenging due to uncertainty of the actual location of runoff-generating areas in the landscape. This is the case especially in the (sub-)humid areas of the Ethiopian highlands, resulting in limited success of such conservation measures. To improve understanding of the effect of land use on spatial and temporal runoff patterns in the Ethiopian highlands, we monitored runoff volumes from 24 runoff plots constructed in the 113 ha Anjeni watershed, where historical data of rainfall and stream discharge were available. In addition, we assessed the effectiveness of charcoal amendment of the soil and crop rooting depth in reducing runoff, and we compared the effect of lupine (a deep-rooted crop) to that of barley. We also measured daily rainfall, surface runoff, and root zone moisture contents during the monsoon seasons of 2012 and 2013 (with all plots being tilled in 2012, but only barley plots tilled in 2013). In addition, we analyzed long-term surface runoff from four plots, and outlet discharge data from the research site (1989-1993) were analyzed and compared with our observations. Results showed that the degrees of soil degradation and soil disturbance (tillage) were significant factors affecting plot-scale runoff responses. As expected, runoff was greater from more degraded soils. Overall, under the commonly applied lupine cropping practice, runoff was higher than under the commonly applied barley cropping practice. In particular, considerable difference was observed during smaller rainfall events (approximately < 20 mm) in 2013, when lupine plots (non-tilled) had greater runoff than barley plots (tilled). Charcoal tended to decrease runoff, but results were not significant.

  13. Spatial and temporal runoff processes in the degraded Ethiopian Highlands: the Anjeni Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayabil, H. K.; Tebebu, T. Y.; Stoof, C. R.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2015-04-01

    As runoff mechanisms in the Ethiopian highlands are not well understood, performance of many soil and water conservation measures is inadequate because of ineffective placement outside the major runoff source areas. To improve understanding of the runoff generating mechanisms in these highlands, we monitored runoff volumes from 24 runoff plots constructed in the 113 ha Anjeni watershed, where historic data of rainfall and stream discharge were available. In addition, we assessed the effectiveness of charcoal and crop rooting depth in reducing runoff, in which we compared the effect of lupine (a deep-rooted crop) to that of barley. Daily rainfall, surface runoff, and root zone moisture content were measured during the monsoon seasons of 2012 and 2013 (with all plots being tilled in 2012, but only barley plots in 2013). In addition, long-term surface runoff (from four plots) and outlet discharge data from the research site (1989-1993) was analyzed and compared with our observations. Results showed that the degree of soil degradation and soil disturbance (tillage) were significant factors affecting plot runoff responses. As expected runoff was greater from more degraded soils, while tilled plots had greater soil storage and thus less runoff. Overall, barley plots produced significantly less runoff than lupine plots. Specifically, considerable difference was observed for smaller rainfall events (ca. <20 mm) in 2013, when lupine plots (non-tilled) resulted in greater runoff than barley plots (tilled). This suggests that plot rainfall-runoff relationships are greatly affected by root-zone storage, which is directly affected by soil degradation and tillage practices.

  14. Early successional microhabitats allow the persistence of endangered plants in coastal sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Vickstrom, Kyle E; Knight, Tiffany M

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  15. Early Successional Microhabitats Allow the Persistence of Endangered Plants in Coastal Sand Dunes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  16. Identification and differential distribution of CART in the small intestine depending on the diet.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, I; Olkowski, B; Szczotka-Bochniarz, A

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at identifying and locating cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the small intestine of broilers in relation to the diet. The feeding regime of the chicks was based on diets largely consisting of maize and one of four protein sources: post-extraction soya bean meal (SBM) or non-GM seed meal - meal from traditional variety of soy seeds Glicine max (FFS) and meal from seeds of Lupinus angustifolius (LA) and Lupinus luteus L (LY). The presence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript immunoreactive (CART-IR) in the wall of the small intestine of the chicks was determined on the basis of staining patterns produced by the immunohistochemical method (IHC). CART-IR structures were found in the myenteric plexus (MP), submucosus plexus (SP), in endomucosal fibres, and fibres innervating miocytes and blood vessels in the muscularis membrane and adipocytes of the white adipose tissue (WAT) located on the perimeter of the serous membrane and single cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Based on microscopic observation and result analysis, the lowest number of CART-IR structures was identified in the group that was fed the SBM-based diet. This study confirms previous observations concerning CART distribution in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animal and broadens current knowledge by inclusion of chicken in the list of CART-positive species. Moreover, this work provides evidence that dietary composition can be a factor that stimulates post-prandial CART secretion in intestinal nerve structures. PMID:24797515

  17. Plant Succession at the Edges of Two Abandoned Cultivated Fields on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Sally A.; Rickard, William H.

    2002-12-01

    How vegetation recovers from disturbances is an important question for land managers. We examined 500 m2 plots to determine the progress made by native herbaceous plant species in colonizing the edges of abandoned cultivated fields at different elevations and microclimates, but with similar soils in a big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass steppe. Alien species, especially cheatgrass and cereal rye, were the major competitors to the natives. The native species with best potential for restoring steppe habitats were sulphur lupine, hawksbeard, bottlebrush squirreltail, needle-and-thread grass, Sandberg's bluegrass, and several lomatiums.

  18. Burkholderia cepacia Genomovar III Is a Common Plant-Associated Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Balandreau, Jacques; Viallard, Veronique; Cournoyer, Benoit; Coenye, Tom; Laevens, Severine; Vandamme, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study involving DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-cell protein electrophoresis, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis revealed that a group of Burkholderia cepacia-like organisms isolated from the rhizosphere or tissues of maize, wheat, and lupine belong to B. cepacia genomovar III, a genomic species associated with “cepacia syndrome” in cystic fibrosis patients. The present study also revealed considerable protein electrophoretic heterogeneity within this species and demonstrated that the B. cepacia complex consists of two independent phylogenetic lineages. PMID:11157274

  19. 17. LOOKING FROM DECK ABOVE MESS UP AT DECK ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. LOOKING FROM DECK ABOVE MESS UP AT DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM. RECTANGULAR WINDOWS IS AT REAR OF PILOT HOUSE. TO RIGHT OF WINDOW IS TOP OF STAIRS TO STARBOARD WING OF FLYBRIDGE. AT EXTREME RIGHT IS ENGINE CONTROLS AND IN BACKGROUND IS COMPASS WITH COVER OVER IT. RIGHT EDGE OF THIS IMAGE IS SAME AS IMAGE 14, JUST OBSTRUCTED IN IMAGE 14 BY LIFE PRESERVER AND SEAT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  20. Effects of Aspergillus Oryzae Culture and 2-Hydroxy-4-(Methylthio)-Butanoic Acid on In vitro Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Populations between Different Roughage Sources

    PubMed Central

    Sun, H.; Wu, Y. M.; Wang, Y. M.; Liu, J. X.; Myung, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Aspergillus oryzae culture (AOC) and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB) on rumen fermentation and microbial populations between different roughage sources. Two roughage sources (Chinese wild rye [CWR] vs corn silage [CS]) were assigned in a 2×3 factorial arrangement with HMB (0 or 15 mg) and AOC (0, 3, or 6 mg). Gas production (GP), microbial protein (MCP) and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) were increased in response to addition of HMB and AOC (p<0.01) for the two roughages. The HMB and AOC showed inconsistent effects on ammonia-N with different substrates. For CWR, neither HMB nor AOC had significant effect on molar proportion of individual VFA. For CS, acetate was increased (p = 0.02) and butyrate was decreased (p<0.01) by adding HMB and AOC. Increase of propionate was only occurred with AOC (p<0.01). Populations of protozoa (p≤0.03) and fungi (p≤0.02) of CWR were differently influenced by HMB and AOC. Percentages of F. succinogenes, R. albus, and R. flavefaciens (p<0.01) increased when AOC was added to CWR. For CS, HMB decreased the protozoa population (p = 0.01) and increased the populations of F. succinogenes and R. albus (p≤0.03). Populations of fungi, F. succinogenes (p = 0.02) and R. flavefacien (p = 0.03) were increased by adding AOC. The HMB×AOC interactions were noted in MCP, fungi and R. flavefacien for CWR and GP, ammonia-N, MCP, total VFA, propionate, acetate/propionate (A/P) and R. albus for CS. It is inferred that addition of HMB and AOC could influence rumen fermentation of forages by increasing the number of rumen microbes. PMID:25178372

  1. Effects of Methylcellulose on Fibrolytic Bacterial Detachment and In vitro Degradation of Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ji; Sung, Ha Guyn; Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Ha, Jong K.; Lee, Sung Sill

    2013-01-01

    Two in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of methylcellulose (MC) on i) bacterial detachment from rice straw as well as ii) inhibition of bacterial attachment and fiber digestibility. To evaluate the effect of MC on fibrolytic bacterial detachment (Exp 1), in vitro bacterial cultures with 0.1% (w/v) MC solution were compared with cultures without MC after 8 h incubation. The effect of MC on inhibition of bacterial attachment was determined by comparing with real-time PCR the populations of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus established on rice straw pre-treated with 0.1% MC with those on untreated straw after incubation for 0, 6 and 12 h (Exp 2). The major fibrolytic bacterial attachment on rice straw showed significantly lower populations with either the addition of MC to the culture or pre-treated rice straw compared to controls (p<0.05). Also, the digestibility of rice straw with MC was significantly lower compared with control (p<0.05). The F. succinogenes population did not show detachment from rice straw, but showed an inhibition of attachment and proliferation on rice straw in accordance with a decrease of fiber digestion. The detachments of Ruminococcus species co-existed preventing the proliferations with subsequent reduction of fiber degradation by MC during the incubation. Their detachments were induced from stable colonization as well as the initial adhesion on rice straw by MC in in vitro ruminal fermentation. Furthermore, the detachment of R. albus was more sensitive to MC than was R. flavefaciens. These results showed the certain evidence that attachment of major fibrolytic bacteria had an effect on fiber digestion in the rumen, and each of fibrolytic bacteria, F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus had a specific mechanism of attachment and detachment to fiber. PMID:25049729

  2. Modeling the action-potential-sensitive nonlinear-optical response of myelinated nerve fibers and short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M. N.; Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2011-11-01

    The Goldman-Albus treatment of the action-potential dynamics is combined with a phenomenological description of molecular hyperpolarizabilities into a closed-form model of the action-potential-sensitive second-harmonic response of myelinated nerve fibers with nodes of Ranvier. This response is shown to be sensitive to nerve demyelination, thus enabling an optical diagnosis of various demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The model is applied to examine the nonlinear-optical response of a three-neuron reverberating circuit—the basic element of short-term memory.

  3. Will machines ever think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence research has come under fire for failing to fulfill its promises. A growing number of AI researchers are reexamining the bases of AI research and are challenging the assumption that intelligent behavior can be fully explained as manipulation of symbols by algorithms. Three recent books -- Mind over Machine (H. Dreyfus and S. Dreyfus), Understanding Computers and Cognition (T. Winograd and F. Flores), and Brains, Behavior, and Robots (J. Albus) -- explore alternatives and open the door to new architectures that may be able to learn skills.

  4. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: is it an autoimmune disease due to bacteria showing molecular mimicry with brain antigens?

    PubMed Central

    Ebringer, A; Thorpe, C; Pirt, J; Wilson, C; Cunningham, P; Ettelaie, C

    1997-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) could be an autoimmune disease produced following exposure of cattle to feedstuffs containing bacteria showing molecular mimicry between bacterial components and bovine tissue. Analysis of molecular sequence databases (Genbank and SwissProt) shows that three bacteria (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus,Ruminococcus albus, and Agrobacter tumefaciens) share sequences with the encephalitogenic peptide of bovine myelin, while three molecules in Escherichia coli show molecular mimicry with host-encoded prion protein. Immune responses against these bacteria at both T and B cell levels may cause neurological tissue injury resembling BSE. The role of these bacteria in BSE, if any, merits further investigation. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9370514

  5. Post-meiotic cytokinesis and pollen aperture pattern ontogeny: comparison of development in four species differing in aperture pattern.

    PubMed

    Ressayre, Adrienne; Dreyer, Leanne; Triki-Teurtroy, Sarah; Forchioni, Arlette; Nadot, Sophie

    2005-04-01

    Pollen aperture patterns vary widely in angiosperms. An increasing number of studies indicate that aperture pattern ontogeny is correlated with the way in which cytokinesis that follows male meiosis is completed. The formation of the intersporal callose walls that isolate the microspores after meiosis was studied in four species with different aperture patterns (two monocots, Phormium tenax and Asphodelus albus, and two eudicots, Helleborus foetidus and Protea lepidocarpodendron). The way in which post-meiotic cytokinesis is performed differs between all four species, and variation in callose deposition appears to be linked to aperture pattern definition. PMID:21652436

  6. A neural-network approach to robotic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. P. W.; Deleuterio, G. M. T.

    1993-01-01

    An artificial neural-network paradigm for the control of robotic systems is presented. The approach is based on the Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller created by James Albus and incorporates several extensions. First, recognizing the essential structure of multibody equations of motion, two parallel modules are used that directly reflect the dynamical characteristics of multibody systems. Second, the architecture of the proposed network is imbued with a self-organizational capability which improves efficiency and accuracy. Also, the networks can be arranged in hierarchical fashion with each subsequent network providing finer and finer resolution.

  7. The control of a manipulator by a computer model of the cerebellum.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Extension of previous work by Albus (1971, 1972) on the theory of cerebellar function to an application of a computer model of the cerebellum to manipulator control. Following a discussion of the cerebellar function and of a perceptron analogy of the cerebellum, particularly in regard to learning, an electromechanical model of the cerebellum is considered in the form of an IBM 1800 computer connected to a Rancho Los Amigos arm with seven degrees of freedom. It is shown that the computer memory makes it possible to train the arm on some representative sample of the universe of possible states and to achieve satisfactory performance.

  8. Mercury in eggs of aquatic birds, Lake St. Clair-1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Elder, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs from four species of aquatic birds inhabiting waterways of the Lake St. Clair region were collected in 1973 and analyzed for mercury. Species analyzed were mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), common terns (Sterna hirundo), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Casmerodius albus). Mallard eggs contained relatively low residue levels, less than 0.05-0.26 ppm, and common tern eggs contained the highest residues, ranging up to 1.31 ppm. Mercury levels in the eggs were appreciably lower than those in the same species in 1970. The declines are attributed to the 1970 restrictions placed on industrial discharges of mercury into the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers.

  9. Microorganisms of the upper layer of the atmosphere and the protective role of their cell pigments.

    PubMed

    Imshenetsky, A A; Lysenko, S V; Lach, S P

    1979-01-01

    Of the six species of microorganisms isolated from the mesosphere, five contained pigments and were more resistant to UV radiation compared with their pigment-free mutants. The black pigment isolated from the conidia of Aspergillus niger considerably increased the UV resistance of the unpigmented mutant conidia of Penicillium notatum, the spore Circinella muscae and the vegetative cells of Micrococcus albus. From the data it is possible to conclude that in the upper layers of the Earth's atmosphere the predominant proportion of pigmented microorganisms is the consequence of natural selection by UV radiation. PMID:12296351

  10. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans. PMID:26048442

  11. DNA Aptamers against the Lup an 1 Food Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Pedro; Pinto, Alessandro; Svobodova, Marketa; Canela, Nuria; O'Sullivan, Ciara K.

    2012-01-01

    Using in vitro selection, high affinity DNA aptamers to the food allergen Lup an 1, ß-conglutin, were selected from a pool of DNA, 93 bases in length, containing a randomised sequence of 49 bases. ß-conglutin was purified from lupin flour and chemically crosslinked to carboxylated magnetic beads. Peptide mass fingerprinting was used to confirm the presence of the ß-conglutin. Single stranded DNA was generated from the randomised pool using T7 Gene 6 Exonuclease and was subsequently incubated with the magnetic beads and the captured DNA was released and amplified prior to a further round of Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). Evolution was monitored using enzyme linked oligonucleotide assay and surface plasmon resonance. Once a plateau in evolution was reached, the isolated DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced. The consensus motif was identified via alignment of the sequences and the affinities of these sequences for immobilised ß-conglutin were determined using surface plasmon resonance. The selected aptamer was demonstrated to be highly specific, showing no cross-reactivity with other flour ingredients or with other conglutin fractions of lupin. The secondary structures of the selected aptamers were predicted using m-fold. Finally, the functionality of the selected aptamers was demonstrated using a competitive assay for the quantitative detection of ß-conglutin. . Future work will focus on structure elucidation and truncation of the selected sequences to generate a smaller aptamer for application to the analysis of the Lup an 1 allergen in foodstuffs. PMID:22529997

  12. When can herbivores slow or reverse the spread of an invading plant? A test case from Mount St. Helens.

    PubMed

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark; Neubert, Michael G; Aumann, Craig; Apple, Jennifer L; Bishop, John G

    2005-12-01

    Here we study the spatial dynamics of a coinvading consumer-resource pair. We present a theoretical treatment with extensive empirical data from a long-studied field system in which native herbivorous insects attack a population of lupine plants recolonizing a primary successional landscape created by the 1980 volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens. Using detailed data on the life history and interaction strengths of the lupine and one of its herbivores, we develop a system of integrodifference equations to study plant-herbivore invasion dynamics. Our analyses yield several new insights into the spatial dynamics of coinvasions. In particular, we demonstrate that aspects of plant population growth and the intensity of herbivory under low-density conditions can determine whether the plant population spreads across a landscape or is prevented from doing so by the herbivore. In addition, we characterize the existence of threshold levels of spatial extent and/or temporal advantage for the plant that together define critical values of "invasion momentum," beyond which herbivores are unable to reverse a plant invasion. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for successional dynamics and the use of biological control agents to limit the spread of pest species. PMID:16475084

  13. Non-gluten proteins as structure forming agents in gluten free bread.

    PubMed

    Ziobro, Rafał; Juszczak, Lesław; Witczak, Mariusz; Korus, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of selected protein isolates and concentrates on quality and staling of gluten-free bread, in the absence of other structure-forming agents such as guar gum and pectin. The applied preparations included albumin, collagen, pea, lupine and soy. Their addition had various effects on rheological properties of the dough and volume of the bread. Volumes of the loaves baked with soy and pea protein were smaller, while those with albumin significantly larger than control. Presence of non-gluten protein caused changes in crumb structure (higher porosity, decrease in cell density, higher number of pores with a diameter above 5 mm) and its color, which was usually darker than of unsupplemented starch-based bread. The least consumer's acceptance was found for bread baked with soy protein. The presence of pea and lupine preparations improved sensory parameters of the final product, providing more acceptable color and smell in comparison to control, while soy caused a decrease of all analyzed consumer's scores. The addition of protein caused an increase in bread hardness and in enthalpy of retrograded amylopectin, during bread storage. PMID:26787976

  14. Comparison of metabolisable energy values of different foodstuffs determined in ostriches and poultry.

    PubMed

    Cilliers, S C; Sales, J; Hayes, J P; Chwalibog, A; Du Preez, J J

    1999-09-01

    Apparent (AMEn) and true (TMEn) metabolisable energy values, corrected for nitrogen retention, of wheat bran, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia), common reed (Phragmites australis), lupins, soyabean oil cake meal (SBOCM), sunflower oil cake meal (SFOCM) and fishmeal were compared in 7 successive trials using 12 mature South African Black ostriches and 10 adult Australorp cockerels per ingredient. TMEn values of 11.91, 7.09, 8.67, 14.61, 13.44, 10.79 and 15.13 MJ/kg for wheat bran, saltbush, common reed, lupins, SBOCM, SFOCM and fishmeal, respectively, were found for ostriches in comparison to lower (P<0.05) values of 8.55, 4.50, 2.79, 9.40, 9.04, 8.89 and 13.95 MJ/kg for cockerels. The higher (P<0.05) ME values for ostriches confirm that the ostrich is capable of digesting foodstuffs, especially those with high fibre concentrations such as drought-resistant fodders, more effectively than poultry. Plant protein sources could make a considerable energy contribution to diets for ostriches. It is concluded that it is essential to use energy values of foodstuffs determined using ostriches and not extrapolated values derived from poultry in diet formulation for ostriches. PMID:10579407

  15. Plant functional traits in relation to fire in crown-fire ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pausas, J.G.; Bradstock, R.; Keith, D.; Keeley, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Significant decreases in eggshell thickness were found in 15 of 22 species of aquatic birds in Texas in 1970. Shell thickness reductions of 9 to 15 percent were found in white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), brown pelicans (P .occidentalis), and great blue herons (Ardea herodias). DDT family compounds were found in all eggs, and mean residues ranged from 0.4 ppm in white ibis (Eudocimus albus) to 23.2 ppm in great egrets (Casmerodius albus). GDDT residues were negatively correlated with shell thickness in five species; PCBs were negatively correlated in two. Residues in marine birds were generally lower and more uniform than levels in birds feeding in fresh and brackish water. DDT and dieldrin residues were higher in eggs from colonies near agricultural areas where these insecticides were heavily used; higher PCB residues were consistently associated with urban and industrial areas. Populations of five species have declined and deserve continued study: brown pelican, reddish egret (Dichromanassa rufescens), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), laughing gull (Larus atricilla), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Population trends of four other species were undetermined and should be followed closely in future years.

  16. Changes in Rumen Microbial Community Composition during Adaption to an In Vitro System and the Impact of Different Forages

    PubMed Central

    Lengowski, Melanie B.; Zuber, Karin H. R.; Witzig, Maren; Möhring, Jens; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ruminal microbial community composition alterations during initial adaption to and following incubation in a rumen simulation system (Rusitec) using grass or corn silage as substrates. Samples were collected from fermenter liquids at 0, 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 h and from feed residues at 0, 24, and 48 h after initiation of incubation (period 1) and on day 13 (period 2). Microbial DNA was extracted and real-time qPCR was used to quantify differences in the abundance of protozoa, methanogens, total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Prevotella bryantii, Selenomonas ruminantium, and Clostridium aminophilum. We found that forage source and sampling time significantly influenced the ruminal microbial community. The gene copy numbers of most microbial species (except C. aminophilum) decreased in period 1; however, adaption continued through period 2 for several species. The addition of fresh substrate in period 2 led to increasing copy numbers of all microbial species during the first 2–4 h in the fermenter liquid except protozoa, which showed a postprandial decrease. Corn silage enhanced the growth of R. amylophilus and F. succinogenes, and grass silage enhanced R. albus, P. bryantii, and C. aminophilum. No effect of forage source was detected on total bacteria, protozoa, S. ruminantium, or methanogens or on total gas production, although grass silage enhanced methane production. This study showed that the Rusitec provides a stable system after an adaption phase that should last longer than 48 h, and that the forage source influenced several microbial species. PMID:26928330

  17. Characterization of a thermophilic 4-O-β-D-mannosyl-D-glucose phosphorylase from Rhodothermus marinus.

    PubMed

    Jaito, Nongluck; Saburi, Wataru; Odaka, Rei; Kido, Yusuke; Hamura, Ken; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Matsui, Hirokazu; Mori, Haruhide

    2014-01-01

    4-O-β-D-Mannosyl-D-glucose phosphorylase (MGP), found in anaerobes, converts 4-O-β-D-mannosyl-D-glucose (Man-Glc) to α-D-mannosyl phosphate and D-glucose. It participates in mannan metabolism with cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE), which converts β-1,4-mannobiose to Man-Glc. A putative MGP gene is present in the genome of the thermophilic aerobe Rhodothermus marinus (Rm) upstream of the gene encoding CE. Konjac glucomannan enhanced production by R. marinus of MGP, CE, and extracellular mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase. Recombinant RmMGP catalyzed the phosphorolysis of Man-Glc through a sequential bi-bi mechanism involving ternary complex formation. Its molecular masses were 45 and 222 kDa under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions, respectively. Its pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 75 °C, and it was stable between pH 5.5-8.3 and below 80 °C. In the reverse reaction, RmMGP had higher acceptor preferences for 6-deoxy-D-glucose and D-xylose than R. albus NE1 MGP. In contrast to R. albus NE1 MGP, RmMGP utilized methyl β-D-glucoside and 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol as acceptor substrates. PMID:25036679

  18. [Genetics in methylotrophic bacteria]. Progress report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The focus of this project has been to identify and characterize mox genes and other methylotrophy genes in both methane- and methanol-utilizing bacteria, and study expression of those genes. In the last three years of support, the project has focused on identifying methylotrophy genes and the regions involved in their expression for comparative purposes, and has begun the process of analyzing the genes involved in transcriptional regulation of the mox system in the strain for which the authors have the most information, M. extorquens AM1. In order to carry out comparative studies of the transcription of methylotrophy genes, they have cloned and characterized genes involved in methanol oxidation (mox genes) from two Type I methanotrophs, Methylobacter marinus A45 (formerly Methylomonas sp A45) and Methylobacter albus BG8 (formerly Methylomonas albus BG8). In both cases, the organization of the genes was found to be identical, and the transcriptional start sites upstream of the mxaF genes were mapped. Other methylotrophy genes have been cloned and characterized from these methanotrophs, including mxaAKL and fdh. The rest of this project has focused on the regulatory network for the mox system in M. extorquens AM1. The authors have sequenced two mox regulatory genes, mxbD and mxbM and they show identify with a specific group of sensor-kinase/response regulator pair systems.

  19. Degradation of Bermuda and Orchard Grass by Species of Ruminal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Danny E.; Rigsby, Luanne L.

    1985-01-01

    Fiber degradation in Bermuda grass and orchard grass was evaluated gravimetrically and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy after incubation with pure cultures of rumen bacteria. Lachnospira multiparus D-32 was unable to degrade plant cell wall components. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 49 degraded 6 and 14.9% of the fiber components in Bermuda grass and orchard grass, respectively, and Ruminococcus albus 7 degraded 11.4% orchard grass fiber but none in Bermuda grass. Both B. fibrisolvens and R. albus lacked capsules, did not adhere to fiber, and degraded only portions of the more easily available plant cell walls. R. flavefaciens FD-1 was the most active fiber digester, degrading 8.2 and 55.3% of Bermuda and orchard grass fiber, respectively. The microbe had a distinct capsule and adhered to fiber, especially that which is slowly degraded, but was able to cause erosion and disorganization of the more easily digested cell walls, apparently by extracellular enzymes. Results indicated that more digestible cell walls could be partially degraded by enzymes disassociated from cellulolytic and noncellulolytic bacteria, and data were consistent with the hypothesis that the more slowly degraded plant walls required attachment. Microbial species as well as the cell wall architecture influenced the physical association with and digestion of plant fiber. Images PMID:16346915

  20. Rumen Cellulosomics: Divergent Fiber-Degrading Strategies Revealed by Comparative Genome-Wide Analysis of Six Ruminococcal Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dassa, Bareket; Borovok, Ilya; Ruimy-Israeli, Vered; Lamed, Raphael; Flint, Harry J.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Morrison, Mark; Mosoni, Pascale; Yeoman, Carl J.; White, Bryan A.; Bayer, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Background A complex community of microorganisms is responsible for efficient plant cell wall digestion by many herbivores, notably the ruminants. Understanding the different fibrolytic mechanisms utilized by these bacteria has been of great interest in agricultural and technological fields, reinforced more recently by current efforts to convert cellulosic biomass to biofuels. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have used a bioinformatics-based approach to explore the cellulosome-related components of six genomes from two of the primary fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen: Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1, 007c and 17) and Ruminococcus albus (strains 7, 8 and SY3). The genomes of two of these strains are reported for the first time herein. The data reveal that the three R. flavefaciens strains encode for an elaborate reservoir of cohesin- and dockerin-containing proteins, whereas the three R. albus strains are cohesin-deficient and encode mainly dockerins and a unique family of cell-anchoring carbohydrate-binding modules (family 37). Conclusions/Significance Our comparative genome-wide analysis pinpoints rare and novel strain-specific protein architectures and provides an exhaustive profile of their numerous lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. This work provides blueprints of the divergent cellulolytic systems in these two prominent fibrolytic rumen bacterial species, each of which reflects a distinct mechanistic model for efficient degradation of cellulosic biomass. PMID:24992679

  1. Gender identification of shovelnose sturgeon using ultrasonic and endoscopic imagery and the application of the method to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bryan, J.L.; Annis, M.L.; Allert, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Monthly sampling of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, a biological surrogate for the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, was conducted to develop a multiseasonal profile of reproductive stages. Data collected included histological characteristics of gonads from wild caught fish and laboratory and field ultrasonic and endoscopic images. These data were used to compare effectiveness of ultrasonic and endoscopic techniques at identifying gender of adult shovelnose sturgeon at different reproductive stages. The least invasive method (i.e. ultrasound) was least effective while the most invasive (i.e. endoscope through an abdominal incision) was the most effective at identifying shovelnose sturgeon gender. In most cases, success rate for identifying males was greater than females, with success at identifying both genders greater in more advanced reproductive stages. Concomitantly, for most months average reproductive stage was more advanced for males than females. April and May were the months with the most advanced reproductive stage, and were the months when ultrasound was most effective. Methods were also applied in the Upper Missouri River to validate their use on pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Ultrasound was successful at identifying pallid sturgeon gender, however, endoscopic examination through the urogenital duct was only successful at identifying pallid sturgeon gender when the urogenital duct was not opaque. ?? 2005 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Feeding habitat use by colonially breeding herons egrets and ibises in North Carolina USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Nine species of herons, egrets and ibises [Egretta thula, Florida caerula, Hydranassa tricolor, Eudocimus albus, Bubulcus ibis, Casmerodius albus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Plegadis falcinellus and Nyctanassa violacea] were followed by airplane from a nesting colony near Beaufort, North Carolina to their feeding sites. Except for cattle egrets, which flew exclusively to fields and dumps, the birds few mainly to saltmarsh habitat. The selection of feeding habitats by great egrets and Louisiana herons was directly related to tidal depth. The great egret was the only species that effectively used eelgrass [Zostera marina] beds, and its use of this habitat was restricted to between 1.5 h before and after low tide. Shorter-legged herons probably did not use eelgrass regularly because the water was too deep. Most great egrets, white ibises, Louisiana herons and snowy egrets used areas near the colony (< 4 km). Great egrets, black-crowned night herons and white ibises flew farther from the colony at high than at low tide. Great egrets traveled farther from the colony when they used thermals and the rate of travel to feeding sites was the same, whether or not thermals were used. Aggressive encounters were observed at the landing sites of great egrets, Louisiana herons, snowy egrets and black-crowned night herons. Cattle egrets and white ibises often flew in groups to feeding sites. Colonies may act as information centers, where unsuccessful birds follow successful ones to better feeding locations.

  3. Distribution species abundance and nesting site use of Atlantic coast colonies of herons and their allies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Stout, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    In 1975 and 1976, 8 teams of investigators located 262 colonies of nesting herons and their allies along the Atlantic coast from Florida to Maine [USA]. Fourteen species [Ajaia ajaja, Plegadis falcinellus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ardea herodias, Eudocimus albus, Egretta thula, Hydranassa tricolor, Bubulcus ibis, Casmerodius albus, Butorides striatus, Florida caerulea, Dichromanassa rufescens, Nyctanassa violacea and Mycteria americana] were found in Florida, numbers decreasing to 7 in Maine. Colonies censused in the extreme south and north of the study area were lower in number of species and number of adults than those in the intermediate area. More than 90% of the colony sites surveyed in 1975 were active in 1976. The total number of nesting adults per colony, number of species per colony and number of nesting adults of each species per colony in 1976 were significantly correlated with their respective values for 1975. Abandoned and new colonies may be satellites of nearby reused colonies; they had fewer individuals and species than reused colonies and were closer to reused colonies than reused colonies were to each other. [This study was part of an attempt to examine colonially nesting herons as biological indicators of environmental quality.

  4. Characterization of the cellulolytic bacteria communities along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese Mongolian sheep by using PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Ni, Xueqin; Tang, Yurui; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Hesong; Yin, Zhongqiong; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2015-07-01

    A balanced gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem is crucial for the health and growth of animals. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants, cellulolytic bacteria aid in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Rumen contents and feces in ruminants are often used to assess gastrointestinal microbial communities; however, these sites do not guarantee to represent the diversity of microbes found in the entire GIT. In this study, we investigated the microbiota along the GIT of five Chinese Mongolian sheep using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR analysis. Results indicated that microbiota were more abundant in the stomach and large intestine than in the small intestine. DGGE and real-time PCR revealed the predominance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the GIT. Meanwhile, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Clostridium cluster IV showed significant difference in their abundance along the GIT (P < 0.05). Fibrobacter succinogenes was the most dominant species, followed by Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens. The ileum harbored a larger number of cellulolytic bacteria, particularly-Clostridium cluster IV, than reported previously. In addition, comparisons between microbiota in the rumen and rectum indicated similar number of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, F. succinogenes, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Clostridium cluster IV, and Clostridium cluster XIVa, whereas the number of R. albus and R. flavefaciens was higher in the rumen. This study investigated the composition and quantification of GIT microbial community in Chinese Mongolian sheep, and revealed for the first time the cellulolytic bacterial community in these sheep. PMID:25931374

  5. Solid residues from Ruminococcus cellulose fermentations as components of wood adhesive formulations.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Conner, A H; Lorenz, L F

    2003-11-01

    Residues from the fermentation of cellulose by the anaerobic bacteria Ruminococcus albus (strain 7) or Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1 or B34b) containing residual cellulose, bacterial cells and their associated adhesins, were examined for their ability to serve as components of adhesives for plywood fabrication. The residues contained differing amounts of protein (0.4-4.2% of dry weight), but the ratios of monosaccharides recovered following two-stage treatment of the residue with detergent (pH 7) and TFA were similar for all three strains (0.71 glucose:0.18 xylose:0.08 mannose:0.02 galactose), suggesting similarities in exopolysaccharide composition. Three-ply aspen panels prepared with fermentation residues (FR) displayed better shear strength and wood failure under dry conditions than following a vacuum/pressure/soak/dry treatment, but adhesive properties were inferior to those prepared with conventional phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesives. However, panels prepared by incorporating the R. albus 7 FR into PF formulation, at 73% by weight of the total adhesive, exhibited shear strength and wood failure similar to that obtained with PF adhesive alone. Use of residues from fermentations by these bacteria as components of adhesives may add value to biomass fermentations aimed primarily at producing ethanol and other chemical products. PMID:12819957

  6. URJC GB dataset: Community-based seed bank of Mediterranean high-mountain and semi-arid plant species at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain).

    PubMed

    Alonso, Patricia; Iriondo, José María

    2014-01-01

    The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos was created in 2008 and currently holds 235 accessions and 96 species. This bank focuses on the conservation of wild-plant communities and aims to conserve ex situ a representative sample of the plant biodiversity present in a habitat, emphasizing priority ecosystems identified by the Habitats Directive. It is also used to store plant material for research and teaching purposes. The collection consists of three subcollections, two representative of typical habitats in the center of the Iberian Peninsula: high-mountain pastures (psicroxerophylous pastures) and semi-arid habitats (gypsophylic steppes), and a third representative of the genus Lupinus. The high-mountain subcollection currently holds 153 accessions (63 species), the semi-arid subcollection has 76 accessions (29 species,) and the Lupinus subcollection has 6 accessions (4 species). All accessions are stored in a freezer at -18 °C in Kilner jars with silica gel. The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos follows a quality control protocol which describes the workflow performed with seeds from seed collection to storage. All collectors are members of research groups with great experience in species identification. Herbarium specimens associated with seed accessions are preserved and 63% of the records have been georreferenced with GPS and radio points. The dataset provides unique information concerning the location of populations of plant species that form part of the psicroxerophylous pastures and gypsophylic steppes of Central Spain as well as populations of genus Lupinus in the Iberian Peninsula. It also provides relevant information concerning mean seed weight and seed germination values under specific incubation conditions. This dataset has already been used by researchers of the Area of Biodiversity and Conservation of URJC as a source of information for the design and implementation of experimental designs in these plant communities. Since they are all active subcollections in continuous growth, data is updated regularly every six months and the latest version can be accessed through the GBIF data portal at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=germoplasma-urjc. This paper describes the URJC Germplasm Bank and its associated dataset with the aim of disseminating the dataset and explaining how it was derived. PMID:24843289

  7. URJC GB dataset: Community-based seed bank of Mediterranean high-mountain and semi-arid plant species at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Patricia; Iriondo, José María

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos was created in 2008 and currently holds 235 accessions and 96 species. This bank focuses on the conservation of wild-plant communities and aims to conserve ex situ a representative sample of the plant biodiversity present in a habitat, emphasizing priority ecosystems identified by the Habitats Directive. It is also used to store plant material for research and teaching purposes. The collection consists of three subcollections, two representative of typical habitats in the center of the Iberian Peninsula: high-mountain pastures (psicroxerophylous pastures) and semi-arid habitats (gypsophylic steppes), and a third representative of the genus Lupinus. The high-mountain subcollection currently holds 153 accessions (63 species), the semi-arid subcollection has 76 accessions (29 species,) and the Lupinus subcollection has 6 accessions (4 species). All accessions are stored in a freezer at -18 °C in Kilner jars with silica gel. The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos follows a quality control protocol which describes the workflow performed with seeds from seed collection to storage. All collectors are members of research groups with great experience in species identification. Herbarium specimens associated with seed accessions are preserved and 63% of the records have been georreferenced with GPS and radio points. The dataset provides unique information concerning the location of populations of plant species that form part of the psicroxerophylous pastures and gypsophylic steppes of Central Spain as well as populations of genus Lupinus in the Iberian Peninsula. It also provides relevant information concerning mean seed weight and seed germination values under specific incubation conditions. This dataset has already been used by researchers of the Area of Biodiversity and Conservation of URJC as a source of information for the design and implementation of experimental designs in these plant communities. Since they are all active subcollections in continuous growth, data is updated regularly every six months and the latest version can be accessed through the GBIF data portal at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=germoplasma-urjc. This paper describes the URJC Germplasm Bank and its associated dataset with the aim of disseminating the dataset and explaining how it was derived. PMID:24843289

  8. Specialization-generalization trade-off in a Bradyrhizobium symbiosis with wild legume hosts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Specialized interactions help structure communities, but persistence of specialized organisms is puzzling because a generalist can occupy more environments and partake in more beneficial interactions. The “Jack-of-all-trades is a master of none” hypothesis asserts that specialists persist because the fitness of a generalist utilizing a particular habitat is lower than that of a specialist adapted to that habitat. Yet, there are many reasons to expect that mutualists will generalize on partners. Plant-soil feedbacks help to structure plant and microbial communities, but how frequently are soil-based symbiotic mutualistic interactions sufficiently specialized to influence species distributions and community composition? To address this question, we quantified realized partner richness and phylogenetic breadth of four wild-grown native legumes (Lupinus bicolor, L. arboreus, Acmispon strigosus and A. heermannii) and performed inoculation trials to test the ability of two hosts (L. bicolor and A. strigosus) to nodulate (fundamental partner richness), benefit from (response specificity), and provide benefit to (effect specificity) 31 Bradyrhizobium genotypes. Results In the wild, each Lupinus species hosted a broader genetic range of Bradyrhizobium than did either Acmispon species, suggesting that Acmispon species are more specialized. In the greenhouse, however, L. bicolor and A. strigosus did not differ in fundamental association specificity: all inoculated genotypes nodulated both hosts. Nevertheless, A. strigosus exhibited more specificity, i.e., greater variation in its response to, and effect on, Bradyrhizobium genotypes. Lupinus bicolor benefited from a broader range of genotypes but averaged less benefit from each. Both hosts obtained more fitness benefit from symbionts isolated from conspecific hosts; those symbionts in turn gained greater fitness benefit from hosts of the same species from which they were isolated. Conclusions This study affirmed two important tenets of evolutionary theory. First, as predicted by the Jack-of-all-trades is a master of none hypothesis, specialist A. strigosus obtained greater benefit from its beneficial symbionts than did generalist L. bicolor. Second, as predicted by coevolutionary theory, each test species performed better with partner genotypes isolated from conspecifics. Finally, positive fitness feedback between the tested hosts and symbionts suggests that positive plant-soil feedback could contribute to their patchy distributions in this system. PMID:24641813

  9. Growing with siblings: a common ground for cooperation or for fiercer competition among plants?

    PubMed Central

    Milla, Rubén; Forero, Diana M.; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work has shown that certain plants can identify their kin in competitive settings through root recognition, and react by decreasing root growth when competing with relatives. Although this may be a necessary step in kin selection, no clear associated improvement in individual or group fitness has been reported to qualify as such. We designed an experiment to address whether genetic relatedness between neighbouring plants affects individual or group fitness in artificial populations. Seeds of Lupinus angustifolius were sown in groups of siblings, groups of different genotypes from the same population and groups of genotypes from different populations. Both plants surrounded by siblings and by genotypes from the same population had lower individual fitness and produced fewer flowers and less vegetative biomass as a group. We conclude that genetic relatedness entails decreased individual and group fitness in L. angustifolius. This, together with earlier work, precludes the generalization that kin recognition may act as a widespread, major microevolutionary mechanism in plants. PMID:19403541

  10. Macromolecules in phloem exudates--a review.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Craig A; Smith, Penny M C; Rodriguez-Medina, Caren

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses using the growing resources of genomic information have been applied to identification of macromolecules in exudates collected from phloem. Most of the analyses rely on collection of exudate following incisions made to the vasculature, but some limited data are available for exudates collected from excised aphid stylets. Species examined, to date, include a number of cereals (rice, barley, and wheat), a number of cucurbits, castor bean, members of the genus Lupinus, brassicas, and Arabidopsis. As many as 1,100 proteins, some hundreds of transcripts, and a growing number of small ribonucleic acids (RNAs), including micro-RNAs, have been identified across the species with a high degree of commonality. Questions relating to the nature and extent of contamination of sieve element contents with those of surrounding companion cells and nonvascular cells are addressed together with likely functions of identified macromolecules. The review considers likely translocation and systemic signaling functions among the macromolecular inventory of phloem exudates. PMID:21057827

  11. Humus status of soddy-podzolic soil upon application of different green manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripol'Skaya, L. N.; Romanovskaya, D. K.; Shlepetiene, A.

    2008-08-01

    Results of studying the effect of different plant species on the humus status of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil were generalized. It was found that the application of different green manure species ( Lupinus luteus L., Trifolium pratense L., and Raphanus sativus L.) and straw from cereal crops ( Secale cereale, Hordeum L.) under percolative conditions helped to sustain a stable humus budget in grain agrophytocenoses. A significant change in the fractional composition of HAs and FAs occurred under the effect of green manure. The fractions of free HAs and those bound to clay minerals accumulated with the application of Trifolium pratense and Raphanus sativus biomass and cereal straw. Lower amounts of aggressive and free FAs were formed in the soil with the application of straw and fallow plants. The decomposition of green manure and the formation of humic substances also depended on the hydrothermal conditions during application of manure.

  12. Fluctuating patch boundaries in a native annual forb: the roles of niche and dispersal limitation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kara A

    2009-02-01

    Abiotic, biotic, and dispersal constraints jointly control the spatial distributions of species, but few studies have directly evaluated how these forces interact and vary over time to create dynamic spatial distributions. Through three years of observation and two years of field manipulation, I investigated simultaneous constraints on the spatial distribution of Lupinus nanus, a native annual legume that grows in dense patches in California grasslands. I transplanted L. nanus across its own patch boundaries, yet within apparently suitable habitat, and assessed the demographic success of naturally occurring and seeded plants in plots with and without competitor removal in years that varied in temperature and rainfall. Core sites were defined as those consistently densely occupied, whereas peripheral sites were densely occupied only during some years, and exterior sites were consistently unoccupied or very sparsely occupied. Site types (core, periphery, and exterior) differed in soil moisture, P, and NO3. Competition limited emergence in all site types in the dry/warm year and in patch peripheries in the wet/cool year. Population fitness (seeds produced per seed added) was > 1.0 in cores during all years. Peripheral sites had fitness near replacement in the wet/cool year, which was greatly increased by competition removal. Exterior fitness was < 1.0 in both experimental years, regardless of seed addition and competitor removal. Seed addition did not increase site-specific fitness, and a seed bank was found to be present in all site types. Herbivory was greater in patch cores and peripheries than in exteriors. Soil variation exerted the most consistent control over patch limits, while competition played an intermittent role in excluding Lupinus from patch peripheries. The dynamic distribution of L. nanus is the product of temporal variation in specific abiotic and biotic niche axes, primarily soil characteristics and competition, rather than dispersal limitation. PMID:19323222

  13. Identification and expression of isoflavone synthase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of isoflavones in legumes.

    PubMed

    Jung, W; Yu, O; Lau, S M; O'Keefe, D P; Odell, J; Fader, G; McGonigle, B

    2000-02-01

    Isoflavones have drawn much attention because of their benefits to human health. These compounds, which are produced almost exclusively in legumes, have natural roles in plant defense and root nodulation. Isoflavone synthase catalyzes the first committed step of isoflavone biosynthesis, a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we used a yeast expression assay to screen soybean ESTs encoding cytochrome P450 proteins. We identified two soybean genes encoding isoflavone synthase, and used them to isolate homologous genes from other leguminous species including red clover, white clover, hairy vetch, mung bean, alfalfa, lentil, snow pea, and lupine, as well as from the nonleguminous sugarbeet. We expressed soybean isoflavone synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana, which led to production of the isoflavone genistein in this nonlegume plant. Identification of the isoflavone synthase gene should allow manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway for agronomic and nutritional purposes. PMID:10657130

  14. Isolation and study of the functional properties of pea proteins.

    PubMed

    Tömösközi, S; Lásztity, R; Haraszi, R; Baticz, O

    2001-10-01

    Proteins of pea seeds were isolated after defatting with hexane using alkaline (0.1 M sodium hydroxide) extraction and acid (HCl) precipitation. Concentrates were also prepared by hexane extraction and ethanolic extraction (pH = 5). Gross chemical composition amino acid content and functional properties (solubility profile, emulsifying--and foaming properties, water--and oil absorption) were studied. The results were compared with the same parameters of soy and lupin protein products. Although the majority of functional characteristics of isolates were lower in comparison to soy isolates, pea protein concentrate and isolate could be successfully used in bakery products for enrichment in protein and improvement of biological value. Their utilization as meat protein substitute in some Frankfurter type sausages is also possibly. PMID:11712241

  15. The Metabolism of Hormones during Seed Germination and Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Sondheimer, Ernest; Tzou, Dong-Sun

    1971-01-01

    8-14C-Zeatin is taken up rapidly and is extensively metabolized by excised bean axes during a 12-hour incubation at 26 C. Most of the radioactivity is found in the 80% ethanol soluble fraction and consists of zeatin, zeatin riboside, zeatin-5′-ribotide, as well as corresponding dihydrozeatin derivatives. The characterization of 14C-dihydrozeatin included crystallization to constant specific radioactivity. No cleavage of the zeatin side chain to adenine, hypoxanthine, their ribosides, or glycylpurine was detected. Dihydrozeatin has been previously isolated from yellow lupin seeds, and our experiments indicate that it can be derived through reduction of the side chain from preexisting cytokinin. While the total amount of zeatin metabolized is not affected by growth-inhibiting concentrations of abscisic acid or cycloheximide, the conversion to dihydrozeatin derivatives is curtailed. Although somewhat less effective than zeatin and zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin and dihydrozeatin riboside also counteract the abscisic acid-induced growth inhibition. PMID:16657652

  16. Green and brown bridges between weeds and crops reveal novel Diaporthe species in Australia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S M; Tan, Y P; Shivas, R G; Neate, S M; Morin, L; Bissett, A; Aitken, E A B

    2015-12-01

    Diaporthe (syn. Phomopsis) species are well-known saprobes, endophytes or pathogens on a range of plants. Several species have wide host ranges and multiple species may sometimes colonise the same host species. This study describes eight novel Diaporthe species isolated from live and/or dead tissue from the broad acre crops lupin, maize, mungbean, soybean and sunflower, and associated weed species in Queensland and New South Wales, as well as the environmental weed bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata) in eastern Australia. The new taxa are differentiated on the basis of morphology and DNA sequence analyses based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, and part of the translation elongation factor-1α and ß-tubulin genes. The possible agricultural significance of live weeds and crop residues ('green bridges') as well as dead weeds and crop residues ('brown bridges') in aiding survival of the newly described Diaporthe species is discussed. PMID:26823627

  17. Probing chemical space with alkaloid-inspired libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Michael C.; Singh, Gurpreet; Plampin, James N.; Rane, Digamber; Wang, Jenna L.; Day, Victor W.; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Screening of small-molecule libraries is an important aspect of probe and drug discovery science. Numerous authors have suggested that bioactive natural products are attractive starting points for such libraries because of their structural complexity and sp3-rich character. Here, we describe the construction of a screening library based on representative members of four families of biologically active alkaloids (Stemonaceae, the structurally related cyclindricine and lepadiformine families, lupin and Amaryllidaceae). In each case, scaffolds were based on structures of the naturally occurring compounds or a close derivative. Scaffold preparation was pursued following the development of appropriate enabling chemical methods. Diversification provided 686 new compounds suitable for screening. The libraries thus prepared had structural characteristics, including sp3 content, comparable to a basis set of representative natural products and were highly rule-of-five compliant.

  18. Host Status of Selected Crops to Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Carlson, H. L.; Viglierchio, D. R.; Westerdahl, B. B.; Wu, F. W.; Anderson, C. E.; Juurma, A.; Kirby, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    Various crops were tested in greenhouse and field trials for their potential utility in the rotation sequence in the potato cropping system in Meloidogyne chitwoodi-infested soils of the Klamath Basin in northeastern California and southern Oregon. Two Solarium accessions from the International Potato Center in Peru were potential sources of resistance to M. chitwoodi. Cultivars of barley, oat, rye, wheat, and white lupine were maintenance hosts, supporting the nematode population at its current level without substantial increase or decline. Poor to nonhosts to race 1 of the nematode included cultivars of alfalfa, amaranth, oilseed radish, oilseed rape, and safflower. These crops have potential for inclusion in the cropping system but are subject to various constraints, including frost sensitivity and availability of markets. Sugarbeet, a new crop in the area, is a maintenance or better host of M. chitwoodi. Potato, tomato, and sunflower are excellent hosts. PMID:19279852

  19. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  20. Microbial Adaptations to Biosustainabilitiy in Deep-Subsurface Environments on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, L. M.; Onstott, T. C.

    2005-12-01

    Exploration for life on Mars and icy moons in our solar system necessitates development of innovative techniques for life-detection followed by field testing in analogue environments on Earth. A collaborative international effort is underway to drill and sample within regions of persistent permafrost in northern Canada for the purpose of characterizing microbial ecosystems adapted to long-term cold conditions. In 2001 and 2002, Finnish and Canadian scientists installed an instrumented borehole array in a commercial gold mine with sampling valves at 890 and 1130 meters below the surface. Numerous water and gas samples from the Lupin borehole array have been analyzed for molecular and isotopic compositions of organic and inorganic chemical constituents. Boreholes with the lowest concentration of methane and largest 34S fractionation between dissolved sulfate and sulfide are the focus of microbiological sampling. Microbial diversity at Lupin is being assessed by culturing, sequencing, and direct detection of microbial reactions. Cell counts indicate a low biodensity, ranging from 100 to100,000 cells/ml. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA indicates low biodiversity with the planktonic biota dominated by a distinctive new phlyotype having 95-97% similarity to Thiohalobaccili. Similarly, the subsurface brines sampled at depths of 1500 to 3500 meters in the Witwatersrand basin of South Africa yield low biodensity and biodiversity with the dominant phylotype being a Desulfotomaculum-like organism that appears to represent a new species and new family. Microbes sampled in fracture water at kilometer depths below the surface are significantly different from surface extremophiles and show specific genetic adaptations to biosustainability in deep-subsurface environments.