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Sample records for lupins lupinus albus

  1. White Lupin (Lupinus albus) Response to Phosphorus Stress: Evidence for Complex Regulation of LaSAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) has a unique adaptation to phosphorus deficiency stress, such that a set of tightly coordinated physiological and morphological responses gives rise to the formation of cluster, or proteoid roots, structures that allow the plant to live in extremely infertile soils. The c...

  2. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies root-soil interactions of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) have drawn special attention to researchers due to its particularly high potential to increase bioavailability of phosphorous (P) and trace nutrients in soils. In mixed cultures, white lupine has the ability to mobilize P and trace nutrients in soil in excess of its own need and make this excess available for other intercropped companion species. While improved acquisition of P and improved yield parameters have mostly been documented in cereal-lupine intercrops, compared to sole crops, only a few recent studies have evidenced similar effects for trace elements e.g. Fe, Zn and Mn. In this preliminary study we tried to obtain more information about the mobilization of trace elements due to intercropping under field conditions. We hypothesize, that processes that lead to a better acquisition of trace nutrients might also affect other trace elements what could be useful for phytoremediation and phytomining research. Here we report the results of a semi-field experiment were we investigated the effects of an intercropping of white lupine with oat (Avena sativa L.) on the concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat. We investigated the effects on 12 trace elements, including 4 elements with relevance for plant nutrition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) and 8 trace elements, belonging to the group of metalloids, lanthanides and actinides with high relevance in phytoremediation (Cd, Pb Th, U) and phytomining research (Sc, La, Nd, Ge). The experiment was carried out on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the intercropping-dependent mobilization of trace metals in soil and enhanced uptake of elements by oat, white lupine and oat were cultivated on 20 plots (4 m² each) in monocultures and mixed cultures and two different white lupin /oat-ratios (11% and 33%, respectively) applying various treatments. The geometrical arrangement of

  3. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil. PMID:26940160

  4. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P.; White, Philip J.; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m–2 s–1 or 600 µmol m–2 s–1 light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

  5. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

  6. Influence of graded inclusion of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal on performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Hejdysz, M; Kubiś, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal (WLM) addition on the intestinal viscosity, bird performance, nutrient utilisation and villi morphology of growing broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted with 480 broiler chicks divided into 6 dietary treatments, including a maize-soybean meal control diet (CON) and 5 experimental diets containing 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 g/kg WLM. During the period from d 0 to 35, birds fed on 200 or higher WLM/kg were characterised by lower body weight gain and feed intake than CON. The use of 150 g of WLM/kg increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON treatment. Apparent metabolisable energy corrected to zero N balance (AMEN) and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and starch, linearly decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. There was a quadratic effect of WLM dose on sialic acid excretion. A strong negative linear correlation was found between the excretion of sialic acid and AMEN. The viscosity of ileal digesta was linearly increased as WLM increased. The effect of WLM dose on ileum villus height (VH) was linear, while that on ileum villus area (VA) was quadratic. Both parameters decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. In conclusion, the use of over 150 g/kg of WLM in broiler diets depressed performance results. However, depression of nutrient utilisation was only observed when 250 or 300 g/kg of WLM was used. PMID:27025275

  7. Synthesis, Storage, and Utilization of Amino Compounds in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Pate, John S.; Atkins, Craig A.; Herridge, David F.; Layzell, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in total N and in free amino compounds were followed during growth of nodulated white lupin. Leaflets contained the greatest fraction of plant N but had lower proportions (1 to 4%) of their N in soluble amino form than stem + petioles (10 to 27%) and reproductive parts (15 to 33%). Mobilization of free amino compounds from plant parts to fruits contributed at most only 7% of the total N intake of fruits, compared with 50% in mobilization of other forms of N and 43% from fixation during fruiting. Asparagine was usually the most abundant free amino compound in plant parts, followed by glutamine and alanine. Valine, glycine, isoleucine, aspartic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid comprised the bulk of the remaining soluble amino N. Composition of tissue pools of amino-N closely resembled that of xylem and phloem exudates. Data on N flow and utilization were combined with information on composition of transport fluids to quantify syntheses, exchanges, and consumptions of asparagine, glutamine, aspartic acid, and valine by organs of the 51- to 58-day plant. These amino compounds carried 56, 29, 5, and 2%, respectively, of the N exported from nodules and contributed in roughly commensurate proportions to transport exchanges and N increments of plant parts. There were, however, more than expected involvements of glutamine and valine in mobilization of N from lower leaves, of asparagine in xylem to phloem transfer, and of aspartic acid in cycling of N through the root, and there was a less than expected participation of aspartic acid in xylem to phloem transfer and in phloem translocation to the shoot apex. The significance of these differences is discussed. PMID:16661629

  8. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion. PMID:26252418

  9. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages

  10. [Canning of "humitas" prepared with opaque-2 corn, supplemented with sweet lupine (Lupinus albus var. Multolupa). Nutritional and quality changes].

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Bañados, E; Fernández, E

    1989-06-01

    The effects of opaque-2 corn and the complementation with lupin flour on the sensory quality and nutritive value of "humitas" were evaluated. Moreover, the nutritional and quality changes which occur during the retorting of the product canned in two can sizes, were studied. Hybrid and opaque-2 corn were replaced with 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% lupin flour, being 8% the complementation level with the best sensory and nutritional quality. Heat penetration studies of the product canned in N2 and N6 tin cans, were carried out. Total process time at 121 degrees C was 73 min and 147 min, respectively. "Humitas" prepared with hybrid and opaque-2 corn, with and without 8% lupin flour, prior and after sterilization, were subjected to proximate analysis, pH, titratible acidity and available lysine determinations. Biological evaluation of the protein by the net protein ratio (NPR) and digestibility, as well as organoleptic quality and acceptability analyses were also determined. It was concluded that the complementation with 8% lupin flour improves significantly the nutritional value of hybrid corn "humitas", but not that of opaque-2 corn. The canning process affected lysine availability and was directly related to the amino acid concentration, and to the retorting duration. On the other hand, the thermal processing adversely affected the biological quality of protein and some sensory attributes. The 8% lupin complementation was also detrimental for the organoleptic quality of the product. PMID:2487029

  11. Effect of different debittering processes on mineral and phytic acid content of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Nilgün; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-11-01

    Lupin is a valuable ancient legume which contains high amount of protein, dietary fiber, oil, minerals and different functional components. Bitter lupin seeds cannot be consumed directly since its high toxic alkaloid content. Cooking and soaking are effective processes for removing these toxic substances and antinutrients as phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. In this study, debittering process containing cooking and soaking up to 144 h was applied to lupin seeds. Raw lupin seeds had 3.3 % ash and 41.3 % protein content. Ash and protein content of debittered seeds changed between 2.1 and 2.5 %, 39.5 and 40.9 % respectively. After debittering process, significant (p < 0.05) decreases (between % 5.7 and 75.7) were observed in calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, magnesium and manganese contents of the lupin seeds. Phytic acid was removed from raw lupin seeds up to 71.4 % ratio by debittering processes, and soaking in distilled water at 55 °C and long soaking time (144 h) was found the most effective methods on phytic acid loss. While more lighter (L*) seeds were obtained with soaking in distilled water at 25 °C, soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution gave more yellowish (b*) seed properties compared to other soaking methods. Soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution at 144 h gave the most liked products in terms of sensorial evaluation. PMID:26396330

  12. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this

  13. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Lupinus albus L. germplasm and its implication for association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and applications as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47%) and oil (6-13%). It also has many secondary metabolites that are pote...

  14. Auxin mediates patterning of cluster root development induced by phosphorus deficiency in Lupinus albus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) develops cluster roots under phosphorus (P) deficiency. This species is widely used as a model system to study the morphology and physiology of cluster roots. However, the mechanism of P deficiency-induced cluster root formation is not fully understood. To evaluate the...

  15. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300 g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P < 0.001), nutrient digestibility (P < 0.01), and average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (P < 0.001). Carcass quality parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for supplemented sheep. However, the difference in carcass quality parameters among supplemented groups was not significant (P > 0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants. PMID:26250152

  16. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W. PMID:25708530

  17. [Lupine, a contribution to the human food supply. 4. Acceptability of Lupinus alba flour].

    PubMed

    Gross, U; Reyes, J; Gross, R; vonBaer, E

    1976-12-01

    48 different dishes enriched with lupinus albus flour have been tested by 20 persons. The test duration has been 4 weeks. Meals and products with lupine admixtures have been judged equally with concern to corresponding conventional dishes. Farinaceous products had the best test results. Therefore, it is recommended for Peru to add lupine flour when producing bread, biscuits, sauces, soups, and noodles (maccaronis etc.). The test time had no influence to the test results. PMID:1020375

  18. A re-assessment of sucrose signaling involved in cluster-root formation and function in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengrui; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2015-07-01

    Apart from substrate functions, a signaling role of sucrose in root growth regulation is well established. This raised the question whether sucrose signals might also be involved in formation of cluster-roots (CRs) under phosphate (Pi) limitation, mediating exudation of phosphorus (P)-mobilizing root exudates, e.g. in Lupinus albus and members of the Proteaceae. Earlier studies demonstrated that CR formation in L. albus was mimicked to some extent by external application of high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) in the presence of extremely high P supply (1-10 mM), usually suppressing CR formation. In this study, we re-addressed this question using an axenic hydroponic culture system with normal P supply (0.1 mM) and a range of sucrose applications (0.25-25 mM). The 2.5 mM sucrose concentration was comparable with internal sucrose levels in the zone of CR initiation in first-order laterals of P-deficient plants (3.4 mM) and induced the same CR morphology. Similar to earlier studies, high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) resulted in root thickening and inhibition of root elongation, associated with a 10-fold increase of the internal sucrose level. The sucrose analog palatinose and a combination of glucose/fructose failed to stimulate CR formation under P-sufficient conditions, demonstrating a signal function of sucrose and excluding osmotic or carbon source effects. In contrast to earlier findings, sucrose was able to induce CR formation but had no effect on CR functioning with respect to citrate exudation, in vitro activity and expression of genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, secretory acid phosphatase and MATE transporters, mediating P-mobilizing functions of CRs. PMID:25412792

  19. The regulatory network of cluster-root function and development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus) identified by transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengrui; Straub, Daniel; Yang, Huaiyu; Kania, Angelika; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2014-07-01

    Lupinus albus serves as model plant for root-induced mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphates via the formation of cluster-roots (CRs) that mediate secretion of protons, citrate, phenolics and acid phosphatases (APases). This study employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these complex adaptive responses at the transcriptome level. We compared different stages of CR development, including pre-emergent (PE), juvenile (JU) and the mature (MA) stages. The results confirmed that the primary metabolism underwent significant modifications during CR maturation, promoting the biosynthesis of organic acids, as had been deduced from physiological studies. Citrate catabolism was downregulated, associated with citrate accumulation in MA clusters. Upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway reflected the accumulation of phenolics. Specific transcript expression of ALMT and MATE transporter genes correlated with the exudation of citrate and flavonoids. The expression of transcripts related to nucleotide degradation and APases in MA clusters coincided with the re-mobilization and hydrolysis of organic phosphate resources. Most interestingly, hormone-related gene expression suggested a central role of ethylene during CR maturation. This was associated with the upregulation of the iron (Fe)-deficiency regulated network that mediates ethylene-induced expression of Fe-deficiency responses in other species. Finally, transcripts related to abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were upregulated in MA clusters, while auxin- and brassinosteroid-related genes and cytokinin receptors were most strongly expressed during CR initiation. Key regulations proposed by the RNA-seq data were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and some physiological analyses. A model for the gene network regulating CR development and function is presented. PMID:24635386

  20. Characterization of an isoflavonoid-specific prenyltransferase from Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guoan; Huhman, David; Lei, Zhentian; Snyder, John; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    Prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids possess antimicrobial activity against fungal pathogens of plants. However, only a few plant flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferase genes have been identified to date. In this study, an isoflavonoid prenyltransferase gene, designated as LaPT1, was identified from white lupin (Lupinus albus). The deduced protein sequence of LaPT1 shared high homologies with known flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases. The LaPT1 gene was mainly expressed in roots, a major site for constitutive accumulation of prenylated isoflavones in white lupin. LaPT1 is predicted to be a membrane-bound protein with nine transmembrane regions and conserved functional domains similar to other flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases; it has a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and is plastid localized. A microsomal fraction containing recombinant LaPT1 prenylated the isoflavone genistein at the B-ring 3' position to produce isowighteone. The enzyme is also active with 2'-hydroxygenistein but has no activity with other flavonoid substrates. The apparent K(m) of recombinant LaPT1 for the dimethylallyl diphosphate prenyl donor is in a similar range to that of other flavonoid prenyltransferases, but the apparent catalytic efficiency with genistein is considerably higher. Removal of the transit peptide increased the apparent overall activity but also increased the K(m). Medicago truncatula hairy roots expressing LaPT1 accumulated isowighteone, a compound that is not naturally produced in this species, indicating a strategy for metabolic engineering of novel antimicrobial compounds in legumes. PMID:22430842

  1. Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis) population cycles with climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) contains the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine that causes a crooked calf syndrome when a cow ingests lupine between the 40-100 day of gestation. An outbreak of crooked calves occurred in the Scabland region of eastern Washington in 1997 following t...

  2. Mycobiota of Lupinus albus seed from a public germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedborne mycobiota of Lupinus albus was assessed using blotter paper and agar media with Rose Bengal or semi-selective for Pythium or Fusarium. Samples of 200 seeds were taken from each of 16 inventories, comprising 14 accessions originating from Germany, France, Ukraine, Syria, Hungary or Spain, a...

  3. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops). PMID:27263113

  4. Characterization of an Isoflavonoid-Specific Prenyltransferase from Lupinus albus1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guoan; Huhman, David; Lei, Zhentian; Snyder, John; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids possess antimicrobial activity against fungal pathogens of plants. However, only a few plant flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferase genes have been identified to date. In this study, an isoflavonoid prenyltransferase gene, designated as LaPT1, was identified from white lupin (Lupinus albus). The deduced protein sequence of LaPT1 shared high homologies with known flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases. The LaPT1 gene was mainly expressed in roots, a major site for constitutive accumulation of prenylated isoflavones in white lupin. LaPT1 is predicted to be a membrane-bound protein with nine transmembrane regions and conserved functional domains similar to other flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases; it has a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and is plastid localized. A microsomal fraction containing recombinant LaPT1 prenylated the isoflavone genistein at the B-ring 3′ position to produce isowighteone. The enzyme is also active with 2′-hydroxygenistein but has no activity with other flavonoid substrates. The apparent Km of recombinant LaPT1 for the dimethylallyl diphosphate prenyl donor is in a similar range to that of other flavonoid prenyltransferases, but the apparent catalytic efficiency with genistein is considerably higher. Removal of the transit peptide increased the apparent overall activity but also increased the Km. Medicago truncatula hairy roots expressing LaPT1 accumulated isowighteone, a compound that is not naturally produced in this species, indicating a strategy for metabolic engineering of novel antimicrobial compounds in legumes. PMID:22430842

  5. Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced “crooked calf disease” occur in northern Oregon and e...

  6. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL‑1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL‑1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin‑1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL‑1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL‑1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)‑1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius

  7. Chemical and biological properties in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus alter soil heavy metal fractionation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcalá, I; Walker, D J; Bernal, M P

    2010-05-01

    To understand better the suitability of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, the effect of its roots on chemical and biological properties of the rhizosphere affecting soil metal fractionation was studied. Plants were cultivated in two similar soils, with high levels of Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb but differing pH values (4.2 and 6.8). In the rhizosphere of both soils, its roots induced increases in water-soluble carbon, which influenced the fractionation of heavy metals and ultimately their uptake by plant roots. In the rhizosphere of the acid soil, the concentrations of 0.1M CaCl(2)-extractable Mn, Zn and Cu were lower than in the bulk soil, possibly due to their increased retention on Fe (III) hydroxides/oxyhydroxides, while in the neutral soil only the Zn concentration was lower. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in plants growing on the acid soil, reflecting their greater availability in this soil. The restricted transfer of heavy metals to the shoot confirms the potential role of this species in the initial phytoimmobilisation of heavy metals, particularly in neutral-alkaline soils. PMID:20060590

  8. THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein is limited. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins' thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties of lupin meal was studi...

  9. Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov., isolated from nodules of Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Flores-Félix, José David; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Igual, José M; Tejedor, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-09-01

    A bacterial strain designated RLAHU15(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus, with its closest relatives being Paenibacillus catalpae D75(T), Paenibacillus glycanilyticus DS-1(T), Paenibacillus endophyticus PECAE04(T) and Paenibacillus xinjiangensis B538(T) with 98.8 %, 98.9 %, 97.4 % and 97.4 % similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed values lower than 45 % between the strain RLAHU15(T) and any of these species. The isolate was a Gram-stain positive, motile and sporulating rod. Catalase activity was weak and oxidase activity was positive. Casein and starch were hydrolysed but gelatin was not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 54.4 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain RLAHU15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RLAHU15(T) ( = LMG 27296(T) = CECT 8235(T)). PMID:24928428

  10. THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is very little research done in the area of structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties o...

  11. Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupinus leucophyllus is one of many lupine species known to contain toxic and/or teratogenic alkaloids that can cause congenital birth defects. The concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual major alkaloids were measured in three different years from different plant parts over the phenolog...

  12. The nutritional value of narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) for fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Kasprowicz-Potocka, Małgorzata; Zaworska, Anita; Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutrient digestibility of seeds of four varieties of narrow-leafed lupines (Lupinus angustifolius) and the possibility of soya bean meal (SBM) substitution by lupine seeds alone and in combination with rapeseed meal (RSM) in the diets of pigs. The seeds of the lupine varieties Kalif, Sonet, Zeus and Boruta were analysed. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) was determined on 50 cross-bred pigs using the difference method with titanium dioxide as a marker. The substitution of SBM by lupine seeds alone (at 0 - 100%) was tested on 60 pigs (20-105 kg body weight (BW)) and by a combination of lupine seeds and RSM on 180 fattening pigs (35-80 kg BW). The chemical composition of lupine seeds differed considerably, especially in terms of crude protein and mineral content. All seeds contained less than 0.05% alkaloids and 9.3% oligosaccharides in dry matter. The ATTD of protein ranged from 70% to 74%, those of ether extract from 36% to 55% and those of gross energy from 77% to 84%. The entire replacement of SBM by lupine seeds (var. Sonet) did not have a negative effect on the performance of grower and fattener pigs. The substitution of SBM by a combination of lupines and RSM reduced the performance of growing and finishing pigs significantly. PMID:26967104

  13. Assimilation and Transport of Nitrogen in Nonnodulated (NO3-grown) Lupinus albus L 1

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.; Layzell, David B.

    1979-01-01

    The response of nonnodulated white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants to a range of NO3 levels in the rooting medium was studied by in vitro assays of extracts of plant parts for NO3 reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) activity, measurements of NO3-N in plant organs, and solute analyses of root bleeding (xylem) sap and phloem sap from stems and petioles. Plants were grown for 65 days with 5 millimolar NO3 followed by 10 days with 1, 5, 15, or 30 millimolar NO3. NO3 reductase was substrate-induced in all tissues. Roots contained 76, 68, 62 and 31% of the total NO3 reductase activity of plants fed with 1, 5, 15, and 30 millimolar NO3, respectively. Stem, petioles, and leaflets contained virtually all of the NO3 reductase activity of a shoot, the activity in extracts of fruits amounting to less than 0.3% of the total enzyme recovered from the plant. Xylem sap from NO3-grown nonnodulated plants contained the same organic solutes as from nodulated plants grown in the absence of combined N. Asparagine accounted for 50 to 70% and glutamine 10 to 20% of the xylem-borne N. The level of NO3 in xylem sap amounted to 4, 13, 12, and 17% of the total xylem N at 1, 5, 15, and 30 millimolar NO3, respectively. Xylem to phloem transfer of N appeared to be quantitatively important in supplying fruits and vegetative apices with reduced N, especially at low levels of applied NO3. NO3 failed to transfer in any quantity from xylem to phloem, representing less than 0.3% of the phloem-borne N at all levels of applied NO3. Shoot organs were ineffective in storing NO3. Even when NO3 was supplied in great excess (30 millimolar level) it accounted for only 8% of the total N of stem and petioles, and only 2 and 1% of the N of leaflets and fruits, respectively. PMID:16661096

  14. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases play an important role in phosphate recycling and phosphate sensing in white lupin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.), a well adapted species to phosphate (Pi) impoverished soils, develops short, densely clustered lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) to increase Pi uptake. Here, we report two white lupin glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes which share strong homo...

  15. Integration of Lupinus angustifolius L. (narrow-leafed lupin) genome maps and comparative mapping within legumes.

    PubMed

    Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Książkiewicz, Michał; Szczepaniak, Anna; Susek, Karolina; Podkowiński, Jan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) has recently been considered a reference genome for the Lupinus genus. In the present work, genetic and cytogenetic maps of L. angustifolius were supplemented with 30 new molecular markers representing lupin genome regions, harboring genes involved in nitrogen fixation during the symbiotic interaction of legumes and soil bacteria (Rhizobiaceae). Our studies resulted in the precise localization of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) carrying sequence variants for early nodulin 40, nodulin 26, nodulin 45, aspartate aminotransferase P2, asparagine synthetase, cytosolic glutamine synthetase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Together with previously mapped chromosomes, the integrated L. angustifolius map encompasses 73 chromosome markers, including 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 45S rDNA, and anchors 20 L. angustifolius linkage groups to corresponding chromosomes. Chromosomal identification using BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization identified two BAC clones as narrow-leafed lupin centromere-specific markers, which served as templates for preliminary studies of centromere composition within the genus. Bioinformatic analysis of these two BACs revealed that centromeric/pericentromeric regions of narrow-leafed lupin chromosomes consisted of simple sequence repeats ordered into tandem repeats containing the trinucleotide and pentanucleotide simple sequence repeats AGG and GATAC, structured into long arrays. Moreover, cross-genus microsynteny analysis revealed syntenic patterns of 31 single-locus BAC clones among several legume species. The gene and chromosome level findings provide evidence of ancient duplication events that must have occurred very early in the divergence of papilionoid lineages. This work provides a strong foundation for future comparative mapping among legumes and may facilitate understanding of mechanisms involved in shaping legume chromosomes. PMID:27168155

  16. Composition of fractional and functional properties of dietary fiber of lupines (L. luteus and L. albus).

    PubMed

    Górecka, D; Lampart-Szczapa, E; Janitz, W; Sokolowska, B

    2000-08-01

    In this study the lupine raw materials (flour and hull) of L. luteus var. Juno and L. albus var. Wat were characterized with regard to the dietary fiber content (NDF) and its fractional composition. Functional properties, i.e. water holding capacity (WHC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of lupine raw material were determined, with respect to various conditions existing in each part of the human digestive tract (pH-value, time of passage). Experimental products (shortcakes, ginger breads, pancakes, minced meat and dumplings filled with meat) with addition of 5, 10 or 15% of lupine flour or shell were processed and sensory evaluation was performed according to the 5-point scale. The NDF content ranged from 75.7% to 78% in the hull of the Wat and Juno lupine vars. respectively, and 28.8% to 33.4% in the flour. Cellulose was predominant in the hull's NDF while in the flour hemicellulose was major fraction. WHC of samples depended mainly on pH-value and was higher in lupine hulls (up to 5.14 g/g dry matter (d.m.) than in the flours (up to 3.83 g/g d.m.). The CEC of lupine ranged from 0.260 to 0.750 mEq/g d.m. and from 0.330 to 0.870 mEq/g d.m. in flour of the Wat and Juno varieties. The CEC of hull was lower in the Wat var. (0.290 to 0.650 mEq/g d.m.) in comparison with the Juno variety (0.150 to 0.750 mEq/g d.m.) Sensory evaluation showed that 10% addition of flour or hull of lupine to experimental products enables preparation of good quality foodstuffs. PMID:10996894

  17. Nitric oxide is involved in phosphorus deficiency-induced cluster root development and citrate exudation in white lupin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) forms specialized cluster roots characterized by exudation of organic anions under phosphorus (P) deficiency. Here, we evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in P deficiency-induced cluster-root formation and citrate exudation in white lupin. Plants were treated with NO ...

  18. LC-MSMS profiling of flavonoid conjugates in wild Mexican lupine, Lupinus reflexus.

    PubMed

    Stobiecki, Maciej; Staszków, Anna; Piasecka, Anna; Garcia-Lopez, Pedro M; Zamora-Natera, Francisco; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2010-07-23

    Profiles of flavonoid conjugates present in the root and leaf tissues of the Mexican wild lupine, Lupinus reflexus, were established using two LC-MSMS systems in the positive and negative ion modes. The ion trap mass spectrometer and quadrupole time-of flight instrument provided sequential MS(n) spectra and MSMS spectra with accurate m/z values of [M + H](+) and [M - H] (-) ions, respectively. Sixty-two flavone and isoflavone glycoconjugates were found and tentatively identified. Numerous isomeric or isobaric compounds with the same molecular mass could be differentiated. Isomeric di- and mono glucosides of biochanin A, genistein, 2'-hydroxygenistein, luteone, and 2,3-didehydrokievitone were distinguished on the basis of relative abundances of product ions. The studied flavonoid glycoconjugates were acylated with dicarboxylic aliphatic acids and their methyl esters at either the aglycone or glycosidic moiety. PMID:20568784

  19. The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from Lupines (Lupinus spp.) that cause crooked calf disease.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly “crooked calf disease” in pregnant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primari...

  20. Protein distribution in lupin protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. prepared by various isolation techniques.

    PubMed

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Volke, Daniela; Hoffmann, Ralf; Eisner, Peter; Herfellner, Thomas; Brunnbauer, Markus; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-09-15

    Differences in the protein distribution of various protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor were identified as affected by the isolation procedure (alkaline and/or salt-induced extraction followed by isoelectric and/or dilutive precipitation). Protein isolates extracted in alkaline solution showed higher protein yields (26.4-31.7%) compared to salt-induced extraction (19.8-30.0%) or combined alkaline and salt-induced extraction (23.3-25.6%). Chemical variations among the protein isolates especially occurred within the albumins. Protein isolates precipitated isoelectrically showed the highest contents, whereas protein isolates precipitated by dilutive showed the lowest contents of conglutin δ. Furthermore, the alkaline subunits of conglutin α and conglutin γ decreased during alkaline extraction compared to salt-induced extraction. A decrease in protein-bound polar and basic amino acids was shown after protein isolation. In contrast, the amounts of nonpolar, aliphatic, aromatic, hydroxylated and sulfur-rich amino acids were higher in the lupin protein isolates compared to the lupin flakes. However, the functional side chains could not be related to the specific molecular arrangements of the protein isolates, as a similar amino acid composition was found among the protein isolates. PMID:27080873

  1. Real-time RT-PCR profiling of transcription factors including 34 MYBs and signaling components in white lupin reveals their P status dependent and organ-specific expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting macronutrient because of its low availability in soils. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants are well adapted to growth under P-deficient conditions. White lupin acclimation to P-deficiency includes changes in root architecture and enhanced expression of numerous ...

  2. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

  3. Cohnella lupini sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Flores-Félix, José David; Carro, Lorena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, José M; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain designated RLAHU4B(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in León (Spain). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain showed similarities lower than 97 % with respect to species of the genus Cohnella. The strain was a Gram-variable, sporulating rod, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, and facultatively anaerobic. It was positive for oxidase, catalase and β-galactosidase production but negative for urease, amylase and gelatinase. Strain RLAHU4B(T) grew in the presence of 5 % NaCl. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid was present in the peptidoglycan. anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. Major polar lipids of strain RLAHU4B(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown phospholipids, two unknown aminophospholipids and one unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Strain RLAHU4B(T) presented phenotypic differences from all recognized species of the genus Cohnella. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data indicated that strain RLAHU4B(T) belongs to a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella lupini sp. nov. is proposed, with strain RLAHU4B(T) ( = LMG 27416(T) = CECT 8236(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24021729

  4. Molecular Analysis of SCARECROW Genes Expressed in White Lupin Cluster Roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Scarecrow (SCR) transcription factor plays a crucial role in root cell radial patterning and is required for maintenance of the quiescent center and differentiation of the endodermis. In response to phosphorus (P) deficiency, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) root surface area increases some 50- to...

  5. White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a phosphate (Pi) deficiency tolerant legume which develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and...

  6. TILLAGE AND ROTATION EFFECTS ON LUPIN IN DOUBLE-CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful introduction of a new crop into a region requires that basic crop management parameters be determined and provided to producers through an information extension system. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was cultivated in the southeastern USA from 1930-1950 on up to 1 million ha, primarily a...

  7. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation.

    PubMed

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-02-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS(n). The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon germination, with the total content and composition of isoflavonoids more affected than those of flavonoids. Glycosylated isoflavones were the most predominant compounds found in lupine seedlings. Lesser amounts of isoflavone aglycones, including prenylated ones, were also accumulated. Elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae, in addition to germination, raised the content of isoflavonoids further: the total content of 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives was increased considerably, without increasing that of genistein derivatives. Elicitation by fungus triggered prenylation of isoflavonoids, especially of the 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives. The preferred positions of prenylation differed among the three lupine species. The change in isoflavone composition increased the agonistic activity of the extracts towards the human estrogen receptors, whereas no antagonistic activity was observed. PMID:26749476

  8. Scarecrow (SCR) mediates root development in Lupinus albus and Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin is considered an ideal crop in which to study plant response to phosphate (P) deficiency. Phosphorus is a major element limiting plant growth. White lupin has evolved several strategies to acquire scarce P including: modified root growth resulting in massive root proliferation and root e...

  9. An RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of orthophosphate-deficient white lupin reveals novel insights into phosphorus acclimation in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi-deficiency remains largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has evolved unique adaptation systems for gro...

  10. RNA-Seq atlas of white lupin: a guide to the phosphorus deficiency response pathway in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptation systems for growth in P-deficient conditions (-P) in soils including: 1) development of densely clustered determinant lateral roots called pr...

  11. Impact of biochar and root-induced changes on metal dynamics in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris and Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Houben, David; Sonnet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Rhizosphere interactions are deemed to play a key role in the success of phytoremediation technologies. Here, the effects of biochar and root-induced changes in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris L. and Lupinus albus L. on metal (Cd, Pb and Zn) dynamics were investigated using a biotest on a 2mm soil layer and a sequential extraction procedure (Tessier's scheme). In the bulk soil, the application of 5% biochar significantly reduced the exchangeable pool of metals primarily due to a liming effect which subsequently promoted the metal shift into the carbonate-bound pool. However, metals were re-mobilized in the rhizosphere of both A. capillaris and L. albus due to root-induced acidification which counteracted the liming effect of biochar. As a result, the concentrations of metals in roots and shoots of both plants were not significantly reduced by the application of biochar. Although the study should be considered a worst-case scenario because experimental conditions induced the intensification of rhizosphere processes, the results highlight that changes in rhizosphere pH can impact the effectiveness of biochar to immobilize metals in soil. Biochar has thus a potential as amendment for reducing metal uptake by plants, provided the acidification of the rhizosphere is minimized. PMID:25559173

  12. Identification of genes induced in proteoid roots of white lupin under nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with functional characterization of a formamidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is considered a model system for understanding plant acclimation to nutrient deficiency. It acclimates to phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots; proteoid-root development ...

  13. Lipoxygenase activity in different species of sweet lupin (Lupinus L.) seeds and flakes.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Michael; Bader-Mittermaier, Stephanie; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-05-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalysed degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids is supposed to be a major cause of undesirable off-flavour development in legumes. In the present study, a photometric LOX assay including adequate sample workup was adapted to lupin seeds, kernels and flakes, respectively. Optimum reaction conditions were at pH 7.5 using a phosphate buffer concentration of 150 mmol l(-1) without the addition of sodium chloride. The LOX activities of different lupin species and varieties were compared. Significant variations among the species and varieties ranging from 50 to 1004 units mg(-1) protein were determined, being significantly lower than soybean LOX activity. Hulling and flaking of the seeds resulted in a 15% increase of LOX activity. In contrast to soy and other legumes, LOX from lupin only converted free fatty acids, whereas trilinolein and β-carotene were not oxidised. Consequently, according to the established classification, lupin LOX activity may be assigned to the LOX type-1, which, to the best of our knowledge, was demonstrated for the first time. PMID:25529698

  14. The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from lupines (Lupinus species) that cause crooked calf disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, S T; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Welch, K D

    2008-10-01

    Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly crooked calf disease in pregnant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primarily responsible for crooked calf disease. Lupines also contain teratogenic piperidine alkaloids including ammodendrine. Previous work in sheep has shown that lupine alkaloid clearance may be influenced by the animal's physiological status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if differences in body condition of cattle would alter the absorption and elimination of anagyrine or ammodendrine given in a single oral dose as Lupinus leucophyllus or Lupinus sulphureus, respectively. Mature non-lactating cows in low body condition (LBC, n = 4) and high body condition (HBC, n = 4) received a single dose of dry ground lupine plant (2.0 g/kg of BW) via oral gavage. Lupinus leucophyllus (anagyrine) was dosed first; then after 21 d the same animals were dosed with L. sulphureus (ammodendrine). Blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture 0 to 60 h after dosing. Serum anagyrine and ammodendrine concentrations were evaluated. The concentration of anagyrine was greater (P = 0.001) in the HBC group and peaked 2 h after dosing versus 12 h in LBC cows. Similarly for ammodendrine, the alkaloid concentration peaked at 3 h after dosing for the HBC group compared with 6 h for the LBC group (P = 0.001). Area under the curve tended to differ (P

  15. Lupine inhalation induced asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; Gil-Adrados, Ana C; Domínguez-Noche, Carmen; Cosmes, Pedro M

    2005-09-01

    The ingestion of lupine seed flour has been reported as a cause of allergic reactions. There is some evidence of its allergenic potential after inhalation. An 8-year-old asthmatic child, who was allergic to peanut, was studied in our clinic with the suspicion of an adverse drug reaction due to salbutamol. He suffered an asthma attack while playing with his brother, who had been eating lupine seed as snack; surprisingly, the asthma attack worsened with salbutamol. The skin tests showed a positive result with Lupinus albus extract, peanut, garbanzo bean, navy bean, pea, green bean, lentil, soy, Olea europea pollen, grass pollen and Plantago lanceolata pollen. The prick-by-prick tests both from dried seeds and those preserved in salt and water were strongly positive. Serum specific IgE antibodies were positive to Lupine albus (1.43 kU/l), peanut (4.32 kU/l), soy (2.15 kU/l), lentil (3.12 kU/l) and garbanzo (0.7 kU/l). After informed consent salbutamol was well tolerated but the patient had asthma in 5 min of manipulation of the lupine seeds. In our case, reactivity with other legumes was also demonstrated, but only peanut allergy was relevant because boiled legumes were tolerated. It is also notorious that anamnesis is so important to assess the true etiological agents of asthma. PMID:16176404

  16. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    Przysiecka, Łucja; Książkiewicz, Michał; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI), a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL), and fatty acid-binding (FAP) proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1) main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis, and Glycine

  17. [Sensory characterization of lupin pudding using surface response methodology].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Miranda, H; Wittig, E; Catalán, M

    1996-09-01

    Full fat sweet lupin flour (Lupinus albus c.v. Multolupa) with 39.6% protein and 13.0% lipid content, and carrageenan were used to incorporate them to commercial pudding formula with the specific purpose to prepare an optimized pudding for diabetic people. Using response surface methodology, several experimental pudding trails were prepared and sensorially assessed to optimize the variables that may influence the overall sensory quality of pudding meals. Different concentrations of lupin flour and carrageenan were tested simultaneously at three levels each parameter, requiring nine combinations to be analyzed for a panel of eleven trained judges. Appearance, aroma, taste, color, texture were tested to determine total sensory quality using a composite scoring test. It was concluded that appropriate concentration of lupin flour range from 7% to 11%, and carrageenan from 0.4% to 0.5% to be added to the pudding formulation. This result was confirmed by hedonic test of acceptability. PMID:9429627

  18. Development of genomic resources for the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius): construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lupinus angustifolius L, also known as narrow-leafed lupin (NLL), is becoming an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognised as a potential human health food. Recent interest is being directed at NLL to improve grain production, disease and pest management and health benefits of the grain. However, studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Results A NLL BAC library was constructed consisting of 111,360 clones with an average insert size of 99.7 Kbp from cv Tanjil. The library has approximately 12 × genome coverage. Both ends of 9600 randomly selected BAC clones were sequenced to generate 13985 BAC end-sequences (BESs), covering approximately 1% of the NLL genome. These BESs permitted a preliminary characterisation of the NLL genome such as organisation and composition, with the BESs having approximately 39% G:C content, 16.6% repetitive DNA and 5.4% putative gene-encoding regions. From the BESs 9966 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified and some of these are shown to be potential markers. Conclusions The NLL BAC library and BAC-end sequences are powerful resources for genetic and genomic research on lupin. These resources will provide a robust platform for future high-resolution mapping, map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole-genome sequencing data for the species. PMID:22014081

  19. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of lupine residues in foods.

    PubMed

    Kaw, C H; Hefle, S L; Taylor, S L

    2008-10-01

    Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, lupine provokes allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. The presence of undeclared lupine residues in foods can pose a serious health risk to lupine-allergic individuals. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a sandwich-type ELISA for the detection of lupine residues in foods. Lupine flour derived from Lupinus albus was used to immunize 3 rabbits and a sheep. Pooled lupine-specific antibodies were partially purified from the sera by ammonium sulfate precipitation. A sandwich lupine ELISA with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 ppm was developed by utilizing the rabbit antisera as the capture reagent and the sheep antiserum as the detector reagent. The binding of the antigen-antibody complex was visualized by the addition of commercial rabbit antisheep IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase with subsequent addition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate to produce a colored product for quantification. Minor cross-reactivity was observed with soy (Glycine max) and black bean (Castanospermum australe). The performance of the lupine ELISA was evaluated in reference food standards (beef frankfurter and apple cinnamon muffin) and laboratory-prepared cooked frankfurters and corn muffins. The mean percent recovery for lupine spiked-frankfurters and corn muffins were 108.4%+/- 8.8% and 103.1%+/- 11.5%, respectively. The sandwich-type lupine ELISA developed in this study provides food manufacturers and regulatory agencies with an effective analytical tool to detect and quantify lupine residues in processed foods. PMID:19019135

  20. Structural analysis and profiling of phenolic secondary metabolites of Mexican lupine species using LC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Wojakowska, Anna; Piasecka, Anna; García-López, Pedro M; Zamora-Natera, Francisco; Krajewski, Paweł; Marczak, Łukasz; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2013-08-01

    Flavonoid glycoconjugates from roots and leaves of eight North America lupine species (Lupinus elegans, Lupinus exaltatus, Lupinus hintonii, Lupinus mexicanus, Lupinus montanus, Lupinus rotundiflorus, Lupinus stipulatus, Lupinus sp.), three Mediterranean species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) and one species from South America domesticated in Europe (Lupinus mutabilis) were analyzed using two LC/MS systems: low-resolution ion trap instrument and high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight spectrometer. As a result of the LC/MS profiling using the CID/MS(n) experiments structures of 175 flavonoid glycoconjugates found in 12 lupine species were identified at three confidence levels according to the Metabolomic Standard Initiative, mainly at level 2 and 3, some of them were classified to the level 1. Among the flavonoid derivatives recognized in the plant extracts were isomeric or isobaric compounds, differing in the degree of hydroxylation of the aglycones and the presence of glycosidic, acyl or alkyl groups in the molecules. The elemental composition of the glycoconjugate molecules was established from the exact m/z values of the protonated/deprotonated molecules ([M+H](+)/[M-H](-)) measured with the accuracy better than 5 ppm. Information concerning structures of the aglycones, the type of sugar moieties (hexose, deoxyhexose or pentose) and, in some cases, their placement on the aglycones as well as the acyl substituents of the flavonoid glycoconjugates was achieved in experiments, in which collision-induced dissociation was applied. Flavonoid aglycones present in the studied O-glycoconjugates were unambiguously identified after the comparison of the pseudo-MS(3) spectra with the spectra registered for the standards. Isomers of flavonoid glycoconjugates, in which one or two sugar moieties were attached to 4'- or 7-hydroxyl groups or directly to the C-6 or C-8 of the aglycones, could be distinguished on the basis of the MS(2) spectra. However

  1. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop) using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC), Helicase (HEL), and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots) encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other potentially more

  2. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Candy M; Jost, Ricarda; Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop) using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC), Helicase (HEL), and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots) encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other potentially more

  3. Phylogenetic examination of two chemotypes of Lupinus leucophyllus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines (Lupinus spp.) are a common legume found on western U.S. rangelands. Lupinus spp. may contain quinolizidine and or piperidine alkaloids that could be toxic and or teratogenic to grazing livestock. Lupinus leucohyllus and Lupinus polyphyllus represent important species in the rangelands of ...

  4. The Alkaloid Profiles of Lupinus sulphureus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). One such lupine, Lupinus sulphureus, occurs in parts of Oregon, Washington, and British ...

  5. Excess cation uptake, and extrusion of protons and organic acid anions by Lupinus albus under phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sas, L; Rengel, Z; Tang, C

    2001-05-01

    In symbiotically-grown legumes, rhizosphere acidification may be caused by a high cation/anion uptake ratio and the excretion of organic acids, the relative importance of the two processes depending on the phosphorus nutritional status of the plants. The present study examined the effect of P deficiency on extrusions of H(+) and organic acid anions (OA(-)) in relation to uptake of excess cations in N(2)-fixing white lupin (cv. Kiev Mutant). Plants were grown for 49 days in nutrient solutions treated with 1, 5 or 25 mmol P m(-3) Na(2)HPO(4) in a phytotron room. The increased formation of cluster roots occurred prior to a decrease in plant growth in response to P deficiency. The number of cluster roots was negatively correlated with tissue P concentrations below 2.0 g kg(-1) in shoots and 3 g kg(-1) in roots. Cluster roots generally had higher concentrations of Mg, Ca, N, Cu, Fe, and Mn but lower concentrations of K than non-cluster roots. Extrusion of protons and OA(-) (90% citrate and 10% malate) from roots was highly dependent on P supply. The amounts of H(+) extruded per unit root biomass decreased with time during the experiment. On the equimolar basis, H(+) extrusion by P-deficient plants (grown at 1 and 5 mmol P m(-3)) were, on average, 2-3-fold greater than OA(-) exudation. The excess cation content in plants was generally the highest at 1 mmol P m(-3) and decreased with increasing P supply. The ratio of H(+) release to excess cation uptake increased with decreasing P supply. The results suggest that increased exudation of OA(-) due to P deficiency is associated with H(+) extrusion but contributes only a part of total acidification. PMID:11337076

  6. Auxin carriers in membranes of lupin hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Sabater, M; Sabater, F

    1986-01-01

    The pH-driven accumulation of [(3)H]indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been found to occur in membrane vesicles of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) hypocotyls. Most of this association of auxin with membranes is very sensitive to osmotic shock, high concentrations of permeable weak acids, incubation at 20° C for 20 min and to some ionophores. Long incubation times also depress the ability to accumulate radioactive IAA but this ability can be partially restored by a treatment that presumably reconstitutes the pH gradient across the membranes. Two specific inhibitors of auxin transport, N-1-naphtylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, stimulate net IAA uptake with an optimum at about 10(-6) M (pH 5.0). At least two auxin carriers appear to be present in the lupin membrane vesicles. An uptake carrier seems to be saturated at 10(-7) M IAA in the presence of N-1-naphtylphthalamic acid, but higher IAA concentrations are needed to saturate an efflux carrier. The uptake carrier also shows a high affinity for IAA and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and a low affinity for 1-naphthylacetic acid. PMID:24241734

  7. Effects of a vegetable extract from Lupinus albus (LU105) on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP2, MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP1, TIMP2) by human gingival fibroblasts in culture.

    PubMed

    Gaultier, F; Foucault-Bertaud, A; Lamy, E; Ejeil, A L; Dridi, S M; Piccardi, N; Piccirilli, A; Msika, P; Godeau, G; Gogly, B

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the effects of a vegetable extract from Lupinus albus (LU105) on MMPs and TIMPs secreted by human gingival fibroblasts in culture. LU105 was extracted from seeds of L. albus and is freely soluble in water. Gelatin zymography showed that control human gingival fibroblasts maintained in culture for 48 h express pro-MMP2 (progelatinase A) in the culture medium while the active form of MMP2 (gelatinase A), the active form of MMP9 (gelatinase B), and pro-MMP9 (progelatinase B) are not detected. Fibroblasts derived from inflamed gingiva expressed in the culture medium increased amounts of pro-MMP2 (progelatinase A) compared with controls and significant amounts of pro-MMP9 (progelatinase B). LU105 diminished the expression by gingival fibroblasts derived from inflamed tissue of both pro-MMP2 and pro-MMP9. Furthermore LU105 did not modify the amount of TIMP2 expressed in culture by controls or by gingival fibroblasts derived from inflamed tissue. TIMP1 and MMP1 significantly decreased when LU105 was added in the culture media of gingival fibroblasts derived from inflamed tissue compared with control fibroblasts. Thus LU105 seems to offer an opportunity to restore a correct balance between MMP2, MMP9, MMP1, and their natural inhibitors, i.e., TIMP1 and TIMP2 in human inflamed gingiva. PMID:12802622

  8. Lupine consumption by cattle in the scablands of Eastern Washington.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Scabland region of eastern Washington is dominated by annual grasses and in some areas by Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine). The purpose of these trials was to document the consumption of velvet lupine and relate the amount of lupine eaten by pregnant cows with the incidence of crooked calv...

  9. Effects of Experience and Lactation on Lupine Consumption by Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines (Lupinus spp.) containing certain alkaloids are either acutely toxic or cause birth defects in livestock. Lupine toxicity has been especially troublesome in portions of eastern Washington state. Some reports suggest that naïve, younger animals may consume more lupine than more experienced, o...

  10. Metabolic Adaptations of White Lupin Roots and Shoots under Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Julia; Gödde, Victoria; Niehaus, Karsten; Zörb, Christian

    2015-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is highly adapted to phosphorus-diminished soils. P-deficient white lupin plants modify their root architecture and physiology to acquire sparingly available soil phosphorus. We employed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling of P-deficient white lupins, to investigate biochemical pathways involved in the P-acquiring strategy. After 14 days of P-deficiency, plants showed reduced levels of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in shoots. Phosphorylated metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, myo-inositol-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate were reduced in both shoots and roots. After 22 days of P-deficiency, no effect on shoot or root sugar metabolite levels was found, but the levels of phosphorylated metabolites were further reduced. Organic acids, amino acids and several shikimate pathway products showed enhanced levels in 22-day-old P-deficient roots and shoots. These results indicate that P-deficient white lupins adapt their carbohydrate partitioning between shoot and root in order to supply their growing root system as an early response to P-deficiency. Organic acids are released into the rhizosphere to mobilize phosphorus from soil particles. A longer period of P-deficiency leads to scavenging of Pi from P-containing metabolites and reduced protein anabolism, but enhanced formation of secondary metabolites. The latter can serve as stress protection molecules or actively acquire phosphorus from the soil. PMID:26635840

  11. Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction – Many species in the Lupinus genus are poorly defined resulting in improper taxonomic identification. Lupine species may contain quinolizidine and/or piperidine alkaloids that can be acutely toxic and/or teratogenic resulting in crooked calf disease. Objective – To identify any char...

  12. Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

    1995-01-01

    Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon. PMID:7857911

  13. Molecular control of acid phosphatase secretion into the rhizosphere of proteoid roots from phosphorus-stressed white lupin.

    PubMed

    Miller, S S; Liu, J; Allan, D L; Menzhuber, C J; Fedorova, M; Vance, C P

    2001-10-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) grown under P deficiency displays a suite of highly coordinated adaptive responses. Included among these is secretion of copious amounts of acid phosphatase (APase). Although numerous reports document that plants secrete APases in response to P deficiency, little is known of the biochemical and molecular events involved in this process. Here we characterize the secreted APase protein, cDNA, and gene from white lupin. The secreted APase enzyme is a glycoprotein with broad substrate specificity. It is synthesized as a preprotein with a deduced M(r) of 52,000 containing a 31-amino acid presequence. Analysis of the presequence predicts that the protein is targeted to outside the cell. The processed protein has a predicted M(r) of 49,000 but migrates as a protein with M(r) of 70,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. This is likely due to glycosylation. Enhanced expression is fairly specific to proteoid roots of P-stressed plants and involves enhanced synthesis of both enzyme protein and mRNA. Secreted APase appears to be encoded by a single gene containing seven exons interrupted by six introns. The 5'-upstream putative promoter of the white lupin-secreted APase contains a 50-base pair region having 72% identity to an Arabidopsis APase promoter that is responsive to P deficiency. The white lupin-secreted APase promoter and targeting sequence may be useful tools for genetically engineering important proteins from plant roots. PMID:11598233

  14. Evaluation of USDA Lupinus sp. collection for seed-borne potyviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant viruses pose a threat to the acquisition, maintenance, and distribution of lupin germplasm (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). The availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from maintained lupin collections is mandatory for conducting lupin research. The objective of t...

  15. A First Glimpse of Wild Lupin Karyotype Variation As Revealed by Comparative Cytogenetic Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Susek, Karolina; Bielski, Wojciech K.; Hasterok, Robert; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Insight into plant genomes at the cytomolecular level provides useful information about their karyotype structure, enabling inferences about taxonomic relationships and evolutionary origins. The Old World lupins (OWL) demonstrate a high level of genomic diversification involving variation in chromosome numbers (2n = 32–52), basic chromosome numbers (x = 5–7, 9, 13) and in nuclear genome size (2C DNA = 0.97–2.68 pg). Lupins comprise both crop and wild species and provide an intriguing system to study karyotype evolution. In order to investigate lupin chromosome structure, heterologous FISH was used. Sixteen BACs that had been generated as chromosome markers for the reference species, Lupinus angustifolius, were used to identify chromosomes in the wild species and explore karyotype variation. While all “single-locus” in L. angustifolius, in the wild lupins these clones proved to be “single-locus,” “single-locus” with additional signals, “repetitive” or had no detectable BAC-FISH signal. The diverse distribution of the clones in the targeted genomes suggests a complex evolution history, which possibly involved multiple chromosomal changes such as fusions/fissions and repetitive sequence amplification. Twelve BACs were sequenced and we found numerous transposable elements including DNA transposons as well as LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons with varying quantity and composition among the different lupin species. However, at this preliminary stage, no correlation was observed between the pattern of BAC-FISH signals and the repeat content in particular BACs. Here, we describe the first BAC-based chromosome-specific markers for the wild species: L. cosentinii, L. cryptanthus, L. pilosus, L. micranthus and one New World lupin, L. multiflorus. These BACs could constitute the basis for an assignment of the chromosomal and genetic maps of other lupins, e.g., L. albus and L. luteus. Moreover, we identified karyotype variation that helps illustrate the

  16. A First Glimpse of Wild Lupin Karyotype Variation As Revealed by Comparative Cytogenetic Mapping.

    PubMed

    Susek, Karolina; Bielski, Wojciech K; Hasterok, Robert; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Insight into plant genomes at the cytomolecular level provides useful information about their karyotype structure, enabling inferences about taxonomic relationships and evolutionary origins. The Old World lupins (OWL) demonstrate a high level of genomic diversification involving variation in chromosome numbers (2n = 32-52), basic chromosome numbers (x = 5-7, 9, 13) and in nuclear genome size (2C DNA = 0.97-2.68 pg). Lupins comprise both crop and wild species and provide an intriguing system to study karyotype evolution. In order to investigate lupin chromosome structure, heterologous FISH was used. Sixteen BACs that had been generated as chromosome markers for the reference species, Lupinus angustifolius, were used to identify chromosomes in the wild species and explore karyotype variation. While all "single-locus" in L. angustifolius, in the wild lupins these clones proved to be "single-locus," "single-locus" with additional signals, "repetitive" or had no detectable BAC-FISH signal. The diverse distribution of the clones in the targeted genomes suggests a complex evolution history, which possibly involved multiple chromosomal changes such as fusions/fissions and repetitive sequence amplification. Twelve BACs were sequenced and we found numerous transposable elements including DNA transposons as well as LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons with varying quantity and composition among the different lupin species. However, at this preliminary stage, no correlation was observed between the pattern of BAC-FISH signals and the repeat content in particular BACs. Here, we describe the first BAC-based chromosome-specific markers for the wild species: L. cosentinii, L. cryptanthus, L. pilosus, L. micranthus and one New World lupin, L. multiflorus. These BACs could constitute the basis for an assignment of the chromosomal and genetic maps of other lupins, e.g., L. albus and L. luteus. Moreover, we identified karyotype variation that helps illustrate the relationships between the

  17. An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Orthophosphate-Deficient White Lupin Reveals Novel Insights into Phosphorus Acclimation in Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Jamie A.; Yang, S. Samuel; Miller, Susan S.; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W.; Vance, Carroll P.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (Pi), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in Pi-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to Pi supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ≥ 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to Pi deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ≤ 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to Pi deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the Pi status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in Pi deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. PMID:23197803

  18. Emulsifying and Foaming Properties of Different Protein Fractions Obtained from a Novel Lupin Variety AluProt-CGNA(®) (Lupinus luteus).

    PubMed

    Burgos-Díaz, César; Piornos, José A; Wandersleben, Traudy; Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Xaviera; Rubilar, Mónica

    2016-07-01

    The use of vegetable proteins as food ingredient is becoming increasingly important due to their high versatility and environmental acceptability. This work describes a chemical characterization and techno-functional properties (emulsifying and foaming properties) of 3 protein fractions obtained from a protein-rich novel lupin variety, AluProt-CGNA(®) . This nongenetically modified variety have a great protein content in dehulled seeds (60.6 g protein/100 g, dry matter), which is higher than soybean and other lupin varieties. A simple procedure was utilized to obtain 3 different fractions by using alkali solubilization and isoelectric precipitation. Fractions 1 and 3 were mainly composed of protein and polysaccharides (NNE), whereas fraction 2 was mainly composed by protein (97%, w/w). Fraction 3 presented interesting and potential foaming properties in comparison to the other fractions evaluated in the study. Besides, its solubility, foaming and emulsifying capacity were practically not affected by pH variations. The 3 fractions also presented good emulsion stability, reaching values above a 95%. SDS-PAGE showed that fractions 1 and 2 contained mainly conglutin α, β, and δ, but in different ratios, whereas fraction 3 contained mainly conglutin γ and albumins. The results of this work will provide better understanding for the utilization of each protein fractions as potential ingredients in food industry. PMID:27232549

  19. The alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sulphureus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel; Lee, Stephen T; Gardner, Dale R; Pfister, James A; Welch, Kevin D; Green, Benedict T; Davis, T Zane; Panter, Kip E

    2009-02-25

    Lupines are common plants on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). One such lupine, Lupinus sulphureus, occurs in parts of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Specimens of L. sulphureus from field collections and herbaria were evaluated taxonomically and by chemical means. A total of seven distinct alkaloid profiles and the individual alkaloids associated with each profile were identified. Each alkaloid profile was unique in its geographical distribution and its potential risk to livestock. In conclusion, taxonomic classification is not sufficient to determine risk, as chemical characterization of the alkaloids must also be performed. PMID:19182952

  20. Determination of quinolizidine alkaloids in different Lupinus species by NACE using UV and MS detection.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, Markus; Krüger, Anja; Wink, Michael

    2010-12-15

    Lupin seeds are important for animal and human nutrition. However, they may contain toxic quinolizidine alkaloids (QA). Analytical methods for a reliable alkaloid determination are therefore of importance. Here the presented study reports on the first CE method for the analysis of QA in Lupinus species. A buffer system consisting of 100mM ammonium formate in methanol, acetonitrile, and small amounts of water and acetic acid enabled the baseline separation of sparteine, lupanine, angustifoline and 13alpha-hydroxylupanine in less than 10min. Applied voltage, temperature and detection wavelength were 25kV, 30 degrees C and 210nm, respectively. Additional compounds were identified in CE-MS experiments, in which all alkaloids could be assigned in positive ESI mode at corresponding [M+H](+) values. The CE method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and then used to assess the seeds of seven different Lupinus species for their alkaloid content. Lupanine was present in all of them within a range from 0.02% (L. densiflorus, L. microcarpus) to 1.47% (L. albus). The highest percentage of an individual alkaloid was found in L. polyphyllus (3.28% of angustifoline), the content of total alkaloids ranged from 0.43% (L. microcarpus) to 5.13% in L. polyphyllus. The quantitative results were in good agreement with literature data. PMID:20580181

  1. [Ruminal digestion and intestinal absorption of lupine proteins extruded in the lactating cow].

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R; Vernay, M

    1991-01-01

    Four lactating cows fitted with permanent ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae were used to study the effect of extrusion of whole lupin seeds at 195 degrees C (Lupinus albus cv Lublanc) on organic matter (OM) and nitrogen (N) degradation in the rumen and their flow to and absorption from the small intestine. Raw whole lupin seeds (RWLS) and extruded whole lupin seeds (EWLS) were fed in diets containing 15.5% crude protein and composed of 22.6% whole lupin seeds, 56.5% corn silage, 10.2% corn grain and 10.7% Italian ray-grass on a DM basis, supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Chromium ethylenediaminotetraacetic (Cr-EDTA) and ytterbium chloride (YbCl3) were used as liquid and particulate markers respectively, while purines and 15N ammonium sulfate were utilized as bacterial markers. Cows fed EWLS had a similar ruminal ammonia N and volatile fatty acid concentrations and efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis compared to those fed the RWLS diet. Total tract OM and N digestion were not affected by inclusion of EWLS instead of RWLS; the corresponding mean values were 70 and 71%. Apparent degradation of OM and N in the rumen were 44 and 64% for diets containing RWLS, and 40 and 39% for EWLS diets. Feeding diets including EWLS both increased non ammonia N and dietary N flow to the duodenum compared with diets containing RWLS (472 vs 357 g/d) and (263 vs 153 g/d) respectively. Absorption from the small intestine (g/d and % entering) of dietary N was higher for EWLS diets (146 vs 62 g/d; 34 vs 15%). The PDIA, PDIE and PDIN contents (g/kg of DM) of RWLS were 18, 94 and 245 respectively; the corresponding values after extrusion were 145, 220 and 220. PMID:1777057

  2. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes during Infection of Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) by Phytophthora parasitica

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Leila M.; Cullerne, Darren P.; Torreña, Pernelyn; Taylor, Jen; Hardham, Adrienne R.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq analysis has shown that over 60% (12,962) of the predicted transcripts in the Phytophthora parasitica genome are expressed during the first 60 h of lupin root infection. The infection transcriptomes included 278 of the 431 genes encoding P. parasitica cell wall degrading enzymes. The transcriptome data provide strong evidence of global transcriptional cascades of genes whose encoded proteins target the main categories of plant cell wall components. A major cohort of pectinases is predominantly expressed early but as infection progresses, the transcriptome becomes increasingly dominated by transcripts encoding cellulases, hemicellulases, β-1,3-glucanases and glycoproteins. The most highly expressed P. parasitica carbohydrate active enzyme gene contains two CBM1 cellulose binding modules and no catalytic domains. The top 200 differentially expressed genes include β-1,4-glucosidases, β-1,4-glucanases, β-1,4-galactanases, a β-1,3-glucanase, an α-1,4-polygalacturonase, a pectin deacetylase and a pectin methylesterase. Detailed analysis of gene expression profiles provides clues as to the order in which linkages within the complex carbohydrates may come under attack. The gene expression profiles suggest that (i) demethylation of pectic homogalacturonan occurs before its deacetylation; (ii) cleavage of the backbone of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I precedes digestion of its side chains; (iii) early attack on cellulose microfibrils by non-catalytic cellulose-binding proteins and enzymes with auxiliary activities may facilitate subsequent attack by glycosyl hydrolases and enzymes containing CBM1 cellulose-binding modules; (iv) terminal hemicellulose backbone residues are targeted after extensive internal backbone cleavage has occurred; and (v) the carbohydrate chains on glycoproteins are degraded late in infection. A notable feature of the P. parasitica infection transcriptome is the high level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes that degrade β-1

  3. Whole-Plant Gas Exchange and Reductive Biosynthesis in White Lupin1

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Yan-Ping; Turpin, David H.; Layzell, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of CO2 (CER) and O2 (OER) exchange in roots and shoots of vegetative white lupin (Lupinus albus) were used to calculate the flow of reducing power to the synthesis of biomass that was more reduced per unit of carbon than carbohydrate. On a whole-plant basis, the diverted reductant utilization rate (DRUR which is: 4 × [CER + OER]) of shoot tissue was consistently higher than that of roots, and values obtained in the light were greater than those in the dark. An analysis of the biomass being synthesized over a 24-h period provided an estimate of whole-plant DRUR (3.5 mmol e− plant−1 d−1), which was similar to that measured by gas exchange (3.2 mmol e− plant−1 d−1). Given that nitrate reduction to ammonia makes up about 74% of whole-plant DRUR, root nitrate reduction in white lupin was estimated to account for less than 43% of whole-plant nitrate reduction. The approach developed here should offer a powerful tool for the noninvasive study of metabolic regulation in intact plants or plant organs. PMID:11500554

  4. First Report of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus from Diseased Lupinus luteus L. in Eastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, ARS, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, in Pullman, Washington is responsible for the acquisition, maintenance, storage, and distribution of lupine (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). Availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from lupine collections is ma...

  5. Cattle preference for forage kochia, crested wheatgrass, and velvet lupine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkaloids in velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) cause a crooked calf syndrome if the dam consumes the plant between day 40 to 100 of gestation. In spring calving operations, this coincides with late summer when annual grasses are mature and senescent in the Scabland Region of east...

  6. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  7. Identification of a Low Digestibility δ-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  8. RNA-seq analysis identifies an intricate regulatory network controlling cluster root development in white lupin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Highly adapted plant species are able to alter their root architecture to improve nutrient uptake and thrive in environments with limited nutrient supply. Cluster roots (CRs) are specialised structures of dense lateral roots formed by several plant species for the effective mining of nutrient rich soil patches through a combination of increased surface area and exudation of carboxylates. White lupin is becoming a model-species allowing for the discovery of gene networks involved in CR development. A greater understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms driving these developmental processes is important for the generation of smarter plants for a world with diminishing resources to improve food security. Results RNA-seq analyses for three developmental stages of the CR formed under phosphorus-limited conditions and two of non-cluster roots have been performed for white lupin. In total 133,045,174 high-quality paired-end reads were used for a de novo assembly of the root transcriptome and merged with LAGI01 (Lupinus albus gene index) to generate an improved LAGI02 with 65,097 functionally annotated contigs. This was followed by comparative gene expression analysis. We show marked differences in the transcriptional response across the various cluster root stages to adjust to phosphate limitation by increasing uptake capacity and adjusting metabolic pathways. Several transcription factors such as PLT, SCR, PHB, PHV or AUX/IAA with a known role in the control of meristem activity and developmental processes show an increased expression in the tip of the CR. Genes involved in hormonal responses (PIN, LAX, YUC) and cell cycle control (CYCA/B, CDK) are also differentially expressed. In addition, we identify primary transcripts of miRNAs with established function in the root meristem. Conclusions Our gene expression analysis shows an intricate network of transcription factors and plant hormones controlling CR initiation and formation. In addition

  9. Profiling isoflavone conjugates in root extracts of lupine species with LC/ESI/MSn systems.

    PubMed

    Kachlicki, Piotr; Marczak, Lukasz; Kerhoas, Lucien; Einhorn, Jacques; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2005-08-01

    Extracts obtained from roots of three lupine species (Lupinus albus, L. angustifolius, L. luteus) were analysed using LC/UV and LC/ESI/MS(n). The experiments were performed using two mass spectrometric systems, equipped with the triple quadrupole or ion trap analysers. Thirteen to twenty isomeric isoflavone conjugates were identified in roots of the investigated lupine species. These were di- and monoglycosides of genistein and 2'-hydroxygenistein with different patterns of glycosylation, both at oxygen and carbon atoms; some glycosides were acylated with malonic acid. It was not possible to establish the glycosylation sites of the aglycone only on the basis of the registered mass spectra; however, it was possible to differentiate C- and O-glucosides of isoflavones. Only comparison of retention times with those of standard compounds permitted to indicate the correct glycosylation pattern. In the case of diglycosides, the glycosylation pattern (O-diglucoside or O-glucosylglucoside) was distinguishable on the basis of the relative intensities of daughter ions in the mass spectra of protonated molecular ions. It was not possible to elucidate the site of malonylation on the sugar moiety from mass spectra, however, protonated molecules [M + H](+) of isoflavone glucosides with different placement of the malonyl group on the sugar ring were recognized in the extracts. In addition to the isoflavone glycosides, some flavone or flavonol glycosides were identified in the samples on the basis of collision-induced daughter ion spectra of the aglycone ions. A comparison of results obtained with the triple quadrupole and ion trap analysers was done in the course of the investigations. PMID:15971291

  10. Localized application of soil organic matter shifts distribution of cluster roots of white lupin in the soil profile due to localized release of phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Gang; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lambers, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Phosphorus (P) is a major factor controlling cluster-root formation. Cluster-root proliferation tends to concentrate in organic matter (OM)-rich surface-soil layers, but the nature of this response of cluster-root formation to OM is not clear. Cluster-root proliferation in response to localized application of OM was characterized in Lupinus albus (white lupin) grown in stratified soil columns to test if the stimulating effect of OM on cluster-root formation was due to (a) P release from breakdown of OM; (b) a decrease in soil density; or (c) effects of micro-organisms other than releasing P from OM. Methods Lupin plants were grown in three-layer stratified soil columns where P was applied at 0 or 330 mg P kg−1 to create a P-deficient or P-sufficient background, and OM, phytate mixed with OM, or perlite was applied to the top or middle layers with or without sterilization. Key Results Non-sterile OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation and root length, and this effect became greater when phytate was supplied in the presence of OM. Both sterile OM and perlite significantly decreased cluster-root formation in the localized layers. The OM position did not change the proportion of total cluster roots to total roots in dry biomass among no-P treatments, but more cluster roots were concentrated in the OM layers with a decreased proportion in other places. Conclusions Localized application of non-sterile OM or phytate plus OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation of L. albus in the localized layers. This effect is predominantly accounted for by P release from breakdown of OM or phytate, but not due to a change in soil density associated with OM. No evidence was found for effects of micro-organisms in OM other than those responsible for P release. PMID:20150198

  11. Recovering root system traits using image analysis exemplified by two-dimensional neutron radiography images of lupine.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

  12. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins. PMID:23763660

  13. Lupinus mutabilis: Composition, Uses, Toxicology, and Debittering.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Larenas, F E; Linnemann, A R; Nout, M J R; Koziol, M; van Boekel, M A J S

    2016-07-01

    Lupinus mutabilis has protein (32.0-52.6 g/100 g dry weight) and lipid (13.0-24.6 g/100 g dry weight) contents similar to soya bean (Glycine max). The Ω3, Ω6, and Ω9 contents are 1.9-3.0, 26.5-39.6, and 41.2-56.2 g/100 g lipid, respectively. Lupins can be used to fortify the protein content of pasta, bread, biscuits, salads, hamburgers, sausages, and can substitute milk and soya bean. Specific lupin protein concentrates or isolates display protein solubility (>90%), water-absorption capacity (4.5 g/g dry weight), oil-absorption capacity (3.98 g/g), emulsifying capacity (2000 mL of oil/g), emulsifying stability (100%, 60 hours), foaming capacity (2083%), foaming stability (78.8%, 36 hours), and least gelation concentration (6%), which are of industrial interest. Lupins contain bitter alkaloids. Preliminary studies on their toxicity suggest as lethal acute dose for infants and children 10 mg/kg bw and for adults 25 mg/kg bw. However, alkaloids can also have medical use for their hypocholesterolemic, antiarrhythmic, and immunosuppressive activity. Bitter lupins can be detoxified by biological, chemical, or aqueous processes. The shortest debittering process requires one hour. This review presents the nutritional composition of lupins, their uses (as food, medicine, and functional protein isolates), toxicology, and debittering process scenarios. It critically evaluates the data, infers conclusions, and makes suggestions for future research. PMID:26054557

  14. Crude protein supplementation to reduce lupine consumption by pregnant cattle in the scablands of eastern Washington.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine) is prevalent in eastern Washington, and when consumed by pregnant cows, can cause “crooked calf disease.” Rangelands in this region are dominated by poor quality annual grasses. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding supplemental crude protein...

  15. [Allergenicity of lupin flour].

    PubMed

    Leduc, V; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guérin, L

    2002-06-01

    Lupin flour is used in human food for its high quality nutritional and functional qualities. The frequency of crossed allergy between lupin flour and peanuts, both members of the family of Leguminosae, is strong, since 68% of patients who are allergic to peanut have shown positive reactions to lupin flour when tested by TPO-DA. Cases of isolated allergy to lupin flour without pre-existence of peanut allergy as well as workplace asthma by inhalation are also rarely seen. The specific allergens of lupin and those that participate in crosses with peanut have been studied by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. The diversity of allergens contained in different lupin flour has also been studied. Further, the detection of lupin flour in a "pizza" flour which induced a strong allergic reaction exposed its eventual implication as a masked allergen. PMID:12134645

  16. Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, M.; Evans, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 {micro}M phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. The authors suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}].

  17. Intermittent grazing: A management tool to reduce the impact of lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome (CCS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lupinus genus is a large group of legumes, some of which cause a congenital condition in cattle referred to as “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS). Only Lupines that contain the alkaloids anagyrine or ammodendrine are problematic to cattle producers. The syndrome is manifest by a series of multiple ...

  18. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  19. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-06-01

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause congenital defects known as crooked calf disease that is periodically economically devastating for the cattle industry. Previous research indicates that cattle breeds may eliminate plant toxins differently, potentially altering their susceptibility. The objective of this study was to describe the toxicokinetics in Holsteins of anagyrine, the teratogenic lupine alkaloid that produces crooked calf disease. Other alkaloids including lupanine, an unidentified alkaloid and 5,6-dehydrolupanine were also evaluated. Dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus was orally dosed to four Holstein steers and blood samples were collected for 96 h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated. The serum elimination of anagyrine in Holstein steers was faster than those reported for beef breeds. This suggests that Holsteins may be less susceptible to lupine-induced crooked calf disease. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings and to verify if there is a breed difference in disease incidence or severity. PMID:25912242

  20. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  1. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  2. Widespread adaptive evolution during repeated evolutionary radiations in New World lupins.

    PubMed

    Nevado, Bruno; Atchison, Guy W; Hughes, Colin E; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that drive rapid species diversification are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether Darwinian adaptation or non-adaptive processes are the primary drivers of explosive species diversifications. Here we show that repeated rapid radiations within New World lupins (Lupinus, Leguminosae) were underpinned by a major increase in the frequency of adaptation acting on coding and regulatory changes genome-wide. This contrasts with far less frequent adaptation in genomes of slowly diversifying lupins and all other plant genera analysed. Furthermore, widespread shifts in optimal gene expression coincided with shifts to high rates of diversification and evolution of perenniality, a putative key adaptation trait thought to have triggered the evolutionary radiations in New World lupins. Our results reconcile long-standing debate about the relative importance of protein-coding and regulatory evolution, and represent the first unambiguous evidence for the rapid onset of lineage- and genome-wide accelerated Darwinian evolution during rapid species diversification. PMID:27498896

  3. Widespread adaptive evolution during repeated evolutionary radiations in New World lupins

    PubMed Central

    Nevado, Bruno; Atchison, Guy W.; Hughes, Colin E.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that drive rapid species diversification are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether Darwinian adaptation or non-adaptive processes are the primary drivers of explosive species diversifications. Here we show that repeated rapid radiations within New World lupins (Lupinus, Leguminosae) were underpinned by a major increase in the frequency of adaptation acting on coding and regulatory changes genome-wide. This contrasts with far less frequent adaptation in genomes of slowly diversifying lupins and all other plant genera analysed. Furthermore, widespread shifts in optimal gene expression coincided with shifts to high rates of diversification and evolution of perenniality, a putative key adaptation trait thought to have triggered the evolutionary radiations in New World lupins. Our results reconcile long-standing debate about the relative importance of protein-coding and regulatory evolution, and represent the first unambiguous evidence for the rapid onset of lineage- and genome-wide accelerated Darwinian evolution during rapid species diversification. PMID:27498896

  4. Distribution of N within Pea, Lupin, and Soybean Nodules.

    PubMed

    Kohl, D H; Reynolds, P H; Shearer, G

    1989-06-01

    The (15)N abundance of some, but not all, legume root nodules is significantly elevated compared to that of the whole plant. It seems probable that differences in (15)N enrichment reflect differences in the assimilatory pathway of fixed N. In that context, we have determined the distribution of naturally occurring (15)N in structural fractions of nodules from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), and pea (Pisum sativum) nodules and in chemical components from soybean nodules and to a lesser extent, pea and lupin nodules. None of the fractions of pea nodules (cortex, bacteriod, or host plant cytoplasm) was enriched in (15)N. The differences among bacteriods, cortex, and plant cytoplasm were smaller in lupin than in soybean nodules, but in both, bacteriods had the highest (15)N enrichment. In soybean nodules, the (15)N abundance of bacteriods and cortex was higher than plant cytoplasm, but all three fractions were more enriched in (15)N than the entire plant. Plant cytoplasm from soybean nodules was fractionated into protein-rich material, nonprotein alcohol precipitable material (NA), and a low molecular weight fraction. The N of the latter was further separated into N of ureides, nucleotides and free amino acids. Most of these components were either similar to or lower in (15)N abundance than the plant cytoplasm as a whole, but the NA fraction showed unusual (15)N enrichment. However, the percentage of nodule N in this fraction was small. NA fractions from yellow lupin and pea nodules and from soybean leaves were not enriched in (15)N. Nor was the NA fraction in ruptured bacteriods and cortical tissue of soybean nodules. Variation among soybean nodule fractions in the preponderance in protein of different amino acids was not large enough to explain the differences in (15)N abundances among them. A hypothesis, consistent with all known data, concerning the mechanism leading to the observed excess (15)N of lupin and soybean bacteriods is

  5. Precursors of storage proteins in Lupinus angustifolius.

    PubMed Central

    Gayler, K R; Boadle, B G; Snook, M; Johnson, E D

    1984-01-01

    The proteins that are synthesized during differentiation and development in the cotyledons of Lupinus angustifolius L. were characterized both in situ and after purification. The proteins present in situ were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and subjected to 'Western'-blot analysis to identify immunologically related polypeptides. The major storage proteins of the lupin, conglutins alpha and beta, were both present in juvenile tissue only as higher Mr precursors. For conglutin beta, a family of at least three polypeptides of Mr 66 000-72 000 accumulated during the earliest phases of protein synthesis in the developing cotyledon (20-28 days after flowering). Later in development each of these polypeptides disappeared and there was the concurrent appearance in the cotyledon of the lower-Mr fragments characteristic of mature conglutin beta. For conglutin alpha, an equivalent family of precursor polypeptides of Mr 60 000-83 000 was detected. Multiple internal sites for proteolytic cleavage of all these precursors appeared to be present. However, processing of the precursors was sufficiently slow to allow them to accumulate to over 50% of total soluble protein in juvenile tissue. The precursors were purified by column chromatography under non-dissociating conditions and shown by ultracentrifugation to be multimeric proteins with Mr values in the range 150 000-200 000. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6548131

  6. Diversification of lupine Bradyrhizobium strains: evidence from nodulation gene trees.

    PubMed

    Stepkowski, Tomasz; Hughes, Colin E; Law, Ian J; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Gurda, Dorota; Chlebicka, Agnieszka; Moulin, Lionel

    2007-05-01

    Bradyrhizobium strains isolated in Europe from Genisteae and serradella legumes form a distinct lineage, designated clade II, on nodulation gene trees. Clade II bradyrhizobia appear to prevail also in the soils of Western Australia and South Africa following probably accidental introduction with seeds of their lupine and serradella hosts. Given this potential for dispersal, we investigated Bradyrhizobium isolates originating from a range of native New World lupines, based on phylogenetic analyses of nodulation (nodA, nodZ, noeI) and housekeeping (atpD, dnaK, glnII, recA) genes. The housekeeping gene trees revealed considerable diversity among lupine bradyrhizobia, with most isolates placed in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum lineage, while some European strains were closely related to Bradyrhizobium canariense. The nodA gene tree resolved seven strongly supported groups (clades I to VII) that correlated with strain geographical origins and to some extent with major Lupinus clades. All European strains were placed in clade II, whereas only a minority of New World strains was placed in this clade. This work, as well as our previous studies, suggests that clade II diversified predominately in the Old World, possibly in the Mediterranean. Most New World isolates formed subclade III.2, nested in a large "pantropical" clade III, which appears to be New World in origin, although it also includes strains originating from nonlupine legumes. Trees generated using nodZ and noeI gene sequences accorded well with the nodA tree, but evidence is presented that the noeI gene may not be required for nodulation of lupine and that loss of this gene is occurring. PMID:17400786

  7. The Effect of Military Training Activity on Eastern Lupine and the Karner Blue Butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.; Turner, Monica G.; Rusch, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly ( Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine ( Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training.

  8. The effect of military training activity on eastern lupine and the Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Turner, Monica G; Rusch, Donald H

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training. PMID:11740627

  9. Nuclear DNA Content Variation and Species Relationships in the Genus Lupinus (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    NAGANOWSKA, BARBARA; WOLKO, BOGDAN; ŚLIWIŃSKA, ELWIRA; KACZMAREK, ZYGMUNT

    2003-01-01

    The 2C nuclear DNA content has been estimated by flow cytometry in 18 species and botanical forms of the genus Lupinus (family Fabaceae), using propidium iodide as a fluorescent dye. They represented distinct infrageneric taxonomic groups and differed in somatic chromosome numbers. Estimated 2C DNA values ranged from 0·97 pg in L. princei to 2·44 pg in L. luteus, which gives a more than 2·5-fold variation. Statistical analysis of the data obtained resulted in a grouping that supports the generally accepted taxonomic classification of the Old World lupins. The rough-seeded L. princei turned out to be an interesting exception, getting closer to smooth-seeded species. Results of DNA content analyses are discussed with regards to the phylogenetic relationships among the Old World lupins and some aspects of the evolution of the genus. PMID:12853281

  10. Role of basipetal auxin transport and lateral auxin movement in rooting and growth of etiolated lupin hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    López Nicolás, Juana Inés; Acosta, Manuel; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2004-06-01

    The involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) on the growth of light-grown seedlings and rooting is generally accepted, while the role of auxin and PAT on the growth of dark-grown seedlings is subject to controversy. To further investigate this question, we have firstly studied the influence of NPA, a known inhibitor of PAT, on the rooting and growth of etiolated Lupinus albus hypocotyls. Rooting was inhibited when the basal ends of de-rooted seedlings were immersed in 100 micro m NPA but was partially restored after immersion in NPA + auxin. However, NPA applied to de-rooted seedlings or the roots of intact seedlings did not inhibit hypocotyl growth. It was taken up and distributed along the organ, and actually inhibited the basipetal transport of ((3)H)-IAA applied to isolated hypocotyl sections. Since the apex is the presumed auxin source for hypocotyl growth and rooting, and the epidermis is considered the limiting factor in auxin-induced growth, the basipetal and lateral auxin movement (LAM) after application of ((3)H)-IAA to decapitated seedlings were studied, in an attempt to evaluate the role of PAT and LAM in the provision of auxin to competent cells for growth and rooting. Local application of ((3)H)-IAA to the stele led to the basipetal transport of auxin in this tissue, but the process was drastically reduced when roots were immersed in NPA since no radioactivity was detected below the apical elongation region of the hypocotyl. LAM from the stele to the cortex and the epidermis occurred during basipetal transport, since radioactivity in these tissues increased as transport time progressed. Radioactivity on a per FW basis in the epidermis was 2-4 times higher than in the cortex, which suggests that epidermal cells acted as a sink for LAM. NPA did not inhibit LAM along the elongation region. These results suggest that while PAT was essential for rooting, LAM from the PAT pathway to the auxin-sensitive epidermal cells could play a key role in supplying

  11. Cluster-root formation and carboxylate release in three Lupinus species as dependent on phosphorus supply, internal phosphorus concentration and relative growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Pearse, Stuart J.; Lambers, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Some Lupinus species produce cluster roots in response to low plant phosphorus (P) status. The cause of variation in cluster-root formation among cluster-root-forming Lupinus species is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if cluster-root formation is, in part, dependent on different relative growth rates (RGRs) among Lupinus species when they show similar shoot P status. Methods Three cluster-root-forming Lupinus species, L. albus, L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, were grown in washed river sand at 0, 7·5, 15 or 40 mg P kg−1 dry sand. Plants were harvested at 34, 42 or 62 d after sowing, and fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems, cluster roots and non-cluster roots of different ages were measured. The percentage of cluster roots, tissue P concentrations, root exudates and plant RGR were determined. Key Results Phosphorus treatments had major effects on cluster-root allocation, with a significant but incomplete suppression in L. albus and L. pilosus when P supply exceeded 15 mg P kg−1 sand. Complete suppression was found in L. atlanticus at the highest P supply; this species never invested more than 20 % of its root weight in cluster roots. For L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, cluster-root formation was decreased at high internal P concentration, irrespective of RGR. For L. albus, there was a trend in the same direction, but this was not significant. Conclusions Cluster-root formation in all three Lupinus species was suppressed at high leaf P concentration, irrespective of RGR. Variation in cluster-root formation among the three species cannot be explained by species-specific variation in RGR or leaf P concentration. PMID:24061491

  12. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. PMID:26341422

  13. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-α- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-α-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

  14. WHITE LUPIN NITROGEN FIXATION UNDER PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin is highly adapted to growth in a low P environment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether white lupin grown under P-stress has adaptations in nodulation and N2 fixation that facilitate continued functioning. Nodulated plants were grown in silica sand supplied with N-...

  15. 78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Findings In the Federal Register of March 14, 2012 (77 FR 15012) (FRL-9335- 9), EPA issued a document... Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has been exempted from review under... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May...

  16. Bradyrhizobium-Lupinus mariae-josephae: a unique symbiosis endemic of a basic soil in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, D.; Sánchez-Cañizares, C.; Navarro, A.; Rey, L.; Imperial, J.; Ruiz-Argüeso, T.

    2012-04-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is an intriguing lupine species recently discovered in the Mediterranean region and constitutes an endemism of a small area of Eastern Spain (Valencia province; Pascual, 2004; Mahé et al. 2011). It opens new perspectives for ecological and agronomic interests, as it represents the sole lupine species that preferentially grows in basic soils, while almost all other lupine species occur in acid to neutral soils. The L. mariae-josephae symbionts isolated from soils of calcareous areas of Valencia are extremely slow-growing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhrizobium genus and showing symbiotic specificity that prevents nodulation of other Lupinus spp. such as L. angustifolius or L. luteus typically thriving in acid soils (Sanchez-Cañizares et al, 2011). Their phylogenetic analysis based on housekeeping and symbiotic genes showed that L. mariae-josephae symbionts belong to an evolutionary lineage that also includes endosymbiotic bacteria from Retama spp. of Northern Algeria basic soils (Boulila et al. 2009). Conversely, this new lineage is phylogenetically distinct from that of endosymbiotic bacteria from other Lupinus spp. native of the Iberian Peninsula, which were nested mainly within B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages. A genomic diversity study of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population of the calcareous areas in Valencia, based on fingerprint and phylogenetic analysis, showed the existence of a large diversity of genotypes, some of which are related to bacteria from the Retama spp. symbiosis in Algeria. This singular genomic divergence of L. mariae-josephae symbiotic bacteria in such a small geographical area fosters attractive studies on the origin, ecology and evolution of both partners of the symbiosis. Furthermore, it is expected that ongoing seed inoculation experiments with selected strains will allow us to extend the extant distribution spots of L. mariae-josephae plants in Valencia area, and also to determine whether the

  17. "In situ" phytostabilisation of heavy metal polluted soils using Lupinus luteus inoculated with metal resistant plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dary, M; Chamber-Pérez, M A; Palomares, A J; Pajuelo, E

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of metal phytostabilisation potential of Lupinus luteus inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. 750 and heavy metal resistant PGPRs (plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria), for in situ reclamation of multi-metal contaminated soil after a mine spill. Yellow lupines accumulated heavy metals mainly in roots (Cu, Cd and especially Pb were poorly translocated to shoots). This indicates a potential use of this plant in metal phytostabilisation. Furthermore, As accumulation was undetectable. On the other hand, zinc accumulation was 10-100 times higher than all other metals, both in roots and in shoots. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. 750 increased both biomass and nitrogen content, indicating that nitrogen fixation was effective in soils with moderate levels of contamination. Co-inoculation of lupines with a consortium of metal resistant PGPR (including Bradyrhizobium sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Ochrobactrum cytisi) produced an additional improvement of plant biomass. At the same time, a decrease in metal accumulation was observed, both in shoots and roots, which could be due to a protective effect exerted on plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate the usefulness of L. luteus inoculated with a bacterial consortium of metal resistant PGPRs as a method for in situ reclamation of metal polluted soils. PMID:20056325

  18. Root trait diversity, molecular marker diversity, and trait-marker associations in a core collection of Lupinus angustifolius.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinglong; Shan, Fucheng; Nelson, Matthew N; Siddique, Kadambot Hm; Rengel, Zed

    2016-06-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the predominant grain legume crop in southern Australia, contributing half of the total grain legume production of Australia. Its yield in Australia is hampered by a range of subsoil constraints. The adaptation of lupin genotypes to subsoil constraints may be improved by selecting for optimal root traits from new and exotic germplasm sources. We assessed root trait diversity and genetic diversity of a core collection of narrow-leafed lupin (111 accessions) using 191 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. The genetic relationship among accessions was determined using the admixture model in STRUCTURE. Thirty-eight root-associated traits were characterized, with 21 having coefficient of variation values >0.5. Principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis of the DArT markers revealed broad diversity among the accessions. An ad hoc statistics calculation resulted in 10 distinct populations with significant differences among and within them (P < 0.001). The mixed linear model test in TASSEL showed a significant association between all root traits and some DArT markers, with the numbers of markers associated with an individual trait ranging from 2 to 13. The percentage of phenotypic variation explained by any one marker ranged from 6.4 to 21.8%, with 15 associations explaining >10% of phenotypic variation. The genetic variation values ranged from 0 to 7994, with 23 associations having values >240. Root traits such as deeper roots and lateral root proliferation at depth would be useful for this species for improved adaptation to drier soil conditions. This study offers opportunities for discovering useful root traits that can be used to increase the yield of Australian cultivars across variable environmental conditions. PMID:27049020

  19. Root trait diversity, molecular marker diversity, and trait-marker associations in a core collection of Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yinglong; Shan, Fucheng; Nelson, Matthew N; Siddique, Kadambot HM; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the predominant grain legume crop in southern Australia, contributing half of the total grain legume production of Australia. Its yield in Australia is hampered by a range of subsoil constraints. The adaptation of lupin genotypes to subsoil constraints may be improved by selecting for optimal root traits from new and exotic germplasm sources. We assessed root trait diversity and genetic diversity of a core collection of narrow-leafed lupin (111 accessions) using 191 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. The genetic relationship among accessions was determined using the admixture model in STRUCTURE. Thirty-eight root-associated traits were characterized, with 21 having coefficient of variation values >0.5. Principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis of the DArT markers revealed broad diversity among the accessions. An ad hoc statistics calculation resulted in 10 distinct populations with significant differences among and within them (P < 0.001). The mixed linear model test in TASSEL showed a significant association between all root traits and some DArT markers, with the numbers of markers associated with an individual trait ranging from 2 to 13. The percentage of phenotypic variation explained by any one marker ranged from 6.4 to 21.8%, with 15 associations explaining >10% of phenotypic variation. The genetic variation values ranged from 0 to 7994, with 23 associations having values >240. Root traits such as deeper roots and lateral root proliferation at depth would be useful for this species for improved adaptation to drier soil conditions. This study offers opportunities for discovering useful root traits that can be used to increase the yield of Australian cultivars across variable environmental conditions. PMID:27049020

  20. Comparative genomics of Lupinus angustifolius gene-rich regions: BAC library exploration, genetic mapping and cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The narrow-leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., is a grain legume species with a relatively compact genome. The species has 2n = 40 chromosomes and its genome size is 960 Mbp/1C. During the last decade, L. angustifolius genomic studies have achieved several milestones, such as molecular-marker development, linkage maps, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Here, these resources were integratively used to identify and sequence two gene-rich regions (GRRs) of the genome. Results The genome was screened with a probe representing the sequence of a microsatellite fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) marker linked to Phomopsis stem blight resistance. BAC clones selected by hybridization were subjected to restriction fingerprinting and contig assembly, and 232 BAC-ends were sequenced and annotated. BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) identified eight single-locus clones. Based on physical mapping, cytogenetic localization, and BAC-end annotation, five clones were chosen for sequencing. Within the sequences of clones that hybridized in FISH to a single-locus, two large GRRs were identified. The GRRs showed strong and conserved synteny to Glycine max duplicated genome regions, illustrated by both identical gene order and parallel orientation. In contrast, in the clones with dispersed FISH signals, more than one-third of sequences were transposable elements. Sequenced, single-locus clones were used to develop 12 genetic markers, increasing the number of L. angustifolius chromosomes linked to appropriate linkage groups by five pairs. Conclusions In general, probes originating from MFLP sequences can assist genome screening and gene discovery. However, such probes are not useful for positional cloning, because they tend to hybridize to numerous loci. GRRs identified in L. angustifolius contained a low number of interspersed repeats and had a high level of synteny to the genome of the model legume G. max. Our results showed that

  1. Decomposition and Nutrient Release of Cover Crops on Different Landscape Positions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decomposition patterns of cover crops determine availability of nutrients to subsequent crops. Decomposition and mineralization patterns of Lupinus albus L. (white lupin), Avena strigosa Shreb (black oat), Trifolium incarnatum L. (crimson clover) and Brassica napus L. (rape) were studied under fiel...

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Bujacz, Grzegorz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2008-07-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.

  3. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  4. Conservation of endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in its natural habitat by inoculation with selected, native Bradyrhizobium strains.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simón; Laguna, Emilio; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in "terra rossa" soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other "terra rossa" or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive. PMID:25019379

  5. Conservation of Endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in Its Natural Habitat by Inoculation with Selected, Native Bradyrhizobium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simón; Laguna, Emilio; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in “terra rossa” soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other “terra rossa” or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive. PMID:25019379

  6. Removal of carbaryl, linuron, and permethrin by Lupinus angustifolius under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Garcinuño, R M; Fernandez Hernando, P; Camara, C

    2006-07-12

    The metabolism of organic pollutants by plants normally requires contaminant direct uptake by cells. Factors affecting this uptake and the later distribution of chemicals within the plant include the physicochemical properties of the compounds (concentration, structure, solubility, log k(ow), diffusion rate) and the biochemical characteristics of the plant. This paper reports the tolerance, uptake, and effects of the pesticides carbaryl, linuron, and permethrin on Lupinus angustifolius germination and growth as well as contaminant intraplant distribution and possible degradation. Lupine plants were grown in hydroponic culture containing either 1 or 5 mg of the individual pesticides, or combinations of these (1, 5, or 10 mg of each), in 100 mL nutrient and water solutions. Analysis of the remaining solutions 8 days post-germination showed the water solutions to have higher remaining pesticide concentrations than nutrient solutions. Furthermore, in the presence of pesticides, germination was more frequent in the water solutions. After 16 days of growth, the plants were harvested, and their tissues were microwaved digested and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Although only minor quantities of each pesticide were detected in plant tissues, their amount in the roots was higher than in the stems. No accumulation was noted in the cotyledons, and only 2% of linuron was detected in the leaves. Mass recovery at the end of the experiment showed that 57, 53, and 55% of carbaryl, linuron, and permethrin, respectively, were degraded and/or bound in an irreversible manner to plant material. The results suggest that L. angustifolius could be useful for the cleaning/remediation of pesticide-contaminated water. PMID:16819913

  7. [Heterogeneity of leghemoglobin from yellow lupine nodules].

    PubMed

    Kudriavtseva, N N; Borodenko, L I; Krasnobaeva, N N; Zhizhevskaia, G Ia

    1978-02-01

    A possibility is demonstrated to separate summary lupine leghemoglobins (which are salted out within 55--90% of ammonium sulphate saturation) into Lb I and Lb II components by means of ionic exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Lb I is eluted at lower ionic strength buffer than LbII, and differs from the latter in the form and the size of crystals. Both components have the same electrophoretic mobility and contain N-terminal glycine. LbII and LbI precipitate under gradual salting out within 55--75% and 78--90% of saturation respectively. PMID:647081

  8. The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lucas, M Mercedes; Stoddard, Frederick L; Annicchiarico, Paolo; Frías, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Sussmann, Daniela; Duranti, Marcello; Seger, Alice; Zander, Peter M; Pueyo, José J

    2015-01-01

    Europe has become heavily dependent on soya bean imports, entailing trade agreements and quality standards that do not satisfy the European citizen's expectations. White, yellow, and narrow-leafed lupins are native European legumes that can become true alternatives to soya bean, given their elevated and high-quality protein content, potential health benefits, suitability for sustainable production, and acceptability to consumers. Nevertheless, lupin cultivation in Europe remains largely insufficient to guarantee a steady supply to the food industry, which in turn must innovate to produce attractive lupin-based protein-rich foods. Here, we address different aspects of the food supply chain that should be considered for lupin exploitation as a high-value protein source. Advanced breeding techniques are needed to provide new lupin varieties for socio-economically and environmentally sustainable cultivation. Novel processes should be optimized to obtain high-quality, safe lupin protein ingredients, and marketable foods need to be developed and offered to consumers. With such an integrated strategy, lupins can be established as an alternative protein crop, capable of promoting socio-economic growth and environmental benefits in Europe. PMID:26442020

  9. The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, M. Mercedes; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Annicchiarico, Paolo; Frías, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Sussmann, Daniela; Duranti, Marcello; Seger, Alice; Zander, Peter M.; Pueyo, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Europe has become heavily dependent on soya bean imports, entailing trade agreements and quality standards that do not satisfy the European citizen’s expectations. White, yellow, and narrow-leafed lupins are native European legumes that can become true alternatives to soya bean, given their elevated and high-quality protein content, potential health benefits, suitability for sustainable production, and acceptability to consumers. Nevertheless, lupin cultivation in Europe remains largely insufficient to guarantee a steady supply to the food industry, which in turn must innovate to produce attractive lupin-based protein-rich foods. Here, we address different aspects of the food supply chain that should be considered for lupin exploitation as a high-value protein source. Advanced breeding techniques are needed to provide new lupin varieties for socio-economically and environmentally sustainable cultivation. Novel processes should be optimized to obtain high-quality, safe lupin protein ingredients, and marketable foods need to be developed and offered to consumers. With such an integrated strategy, lupins can be established as an alternative protein crop, capable of promoting socio-economic growth and environmental benefits in Europe. PMID:26442020

  10. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Detter, J. Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  11. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

  12. Diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating Lupinus micranthus on both sides of the Western Mediterranean: Algeria and Spain.

    PubMed

    Bourebaba, Yasmina; Durán, David; Boulila, Farida; Ahnia, Hadjira; Boulila, Abdelghani; Temprano, Francisco; Palacios, José M; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Rey, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Lupinus micranthus is a lupine distributed in the Mediterranean basin whose nitrogen fixing symbiosis has not been described in detail. In this study, 101 slow-growing nodule isolates were obtained from L. micranthus thriving in soils on both sides of the Western Mediterranean. The diversity of the isolates, 60 from Algeria and 41 from Spain, was addressed by multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, atpD, glnII and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodC). Using genomic fingerprints from BOX elements, 37 different profiles were obtained (22 from Algeria and 15 from Spain). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and concatenated atpD, glnII and recA sequences of a representative isolate of each BOX profile displayed a homogeneous distribution of profiles in six different phylogenetic clusters. All isolates were taxonomically ascribed to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Three clusters comprising 24, 6, and 4 isolates, respectively, accounted for most of the profiles. The largest cluster was close to the Bradyrhizobium canariense lineage, while the other two were related to B. cytisi/B. rifense. The three remaining clusters included only one isolate each, and were close to B. canariense, B. japonicum and B. elkanii species, respectively. In contrast, phylogenetic clustering of BOX profiles based on nodC sequences yielded only two phylogenetic groups. One of them included all the profiles except one, and belonged to symbiovar genistearum. The remaining profile, constituted by a strain related to B. elkanii, was not related to any well-defined symbiotic lineage, and may constitute both a new symbiovar and a new genospecies. PMID:27236566

  13. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these oth...

  14. [Chemical, sensory and clinical characterization of lupin marmalades].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Larenas, G; Wittig, E; Díaz, V; Muñoz, Y

    1996-09-01

    Legumes are characterized as showing interesting hypoglicemic properties. Their presence in the diet is very useful in controlling the level of blood glucose in diabetic people. Taking in mind this property different formulations of prune marmalades were developed using 5, -7.5, 10 and 15% of full fat sweet lupin flour (FFLF). These samples were submitted to chemical, physical, sensory and clinical analysis. The protein content increased from 0.6 to 5.2% in direct proportion to lupin flour concentration. Energy content remained relatively constant in all formulations. The incorporation of FFLF did not affect the natural dark red prune color and pH, acidity and soluble solids values remained under the limits of Chilean food regulation laws. The samples were analyzed by a Rank preference test. Reported data showed a significative preference for the prune marmalade with 10% HEL (p < 0.05). A facial Hedonic test was used to compare the degree of acceptability between this formula and a control marmalade with fructose as edulcorant. Statistical analysis using the student test did not show significant difference (p < 0.05) between them. The hypoglycemic effect of the lupin flour was tested in seven adult non insulin dependent diabetic patients using the glucose tolerance test. Postprandial blood glucose concentration data was lower in individuals after a test meal of lupin marmalade compared to fructose marmalade. This result would allow diabetic people to eat foods such as marmalades which are known to contain a large amount of carbohydrates. PMID:9429628

  15. Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf disease” is used to describe a number of skeletal malformations in newborn calves, including a twisted spine, neck, and one or both forelimbs. These malformations develop when the pregnant cow eats toxic lupines containing the alkaloids anagyrine, ammodendrine, and N-methyl ammodendri...

  16. Complete nucleotide sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames ORFs with a similar genetic organization and conceptual translations of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The orde...

  17. Diversity of selected Lupinus angustifolius L. genotypes at the phenotypic and DNA level with respect to microscopic seed coat structure and thickness.

    PubMed

    Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawiński, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. 'Emir', and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars 'Sonet' and 'Emir'. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar 'Zeus' (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

  18. Diversity of Selected Lupinus angustifolius L. Genotypes at the Phenotypic and DNA Level with Respect to Microscopic Seed Coat Structure and Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawiński, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. ‘Emir’, and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars ‘Sonet’ and ‘Emir’. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar ‘Zeus’ (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

  19. Staphylococcus albus in Wound Infection and in Septicemia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T. S.; Stuart, R. D.

    1965-01-01

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus albus was considered to be the causal agent in 53 (4.4%) of 1200 wound infections investigated in a large general hospital over the eight-year period 1957-1964. There was clinical evidence of morbidity in these patients, with fever, but the infection cleared spontaneously, usually in a week or two, and antibiotics were unnecessary. Of much greater importance was the finding of this organism in blood cultures on repeated occasions, with associated clinical septicemia. Twelve patients were so affected, of whom six died, a mortality rate of 50%. Such data emphasize the tragic mistake of dismissing the report of Staph. albus in a blood culture as “only a contaminant”, and of failure to recognize that the organism can cause serious disease. This is particularly true in poor-risk patients, and in those who have undergone cardiac surgery. PMID:14308909

  20. Eustrongylides sp. epizootic in young common egrets (Casmerodius albus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    In May 1985, epizootic mortality was reported in common egrets (Casmerodius albus) on Avery Island, Louisiana. Subsequent investigation revealed that more than 400 birds died. Severe peritoneal nematodiasis (Eustrongylides sp.) was found on postmortem examination. A nearby breeding rookery on the same island was apparently unaffected. Reasons for this selective mortality are presented. Three other reports of epizootic mortality due to Eustrongylides sp. have been reported. This is the first report of this type of epizootic in gulf-coast birds.

  1. Enhanced Phytochrome Sensitivity and Its Reversal in Amaranthus albus Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chadoeuf-Hannel, Regine; Taylorson, Ray B.

    1985-01-01

    Seed of Amaranthus alus L. develop an enhanced sensitivity to the farred absorbing form of phytochrome after prolonged imbibition at temperatures >32°C. The enhanced sensitivity developed at 40°C could be reversed by subsequent treatment at 20°C and similarly reestablished by repeating a 40°C treatment. It is concluded that relative sensitivity to the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome may be readily manipulated in seeds of A. albus. PMID:16664221

  2. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  3. Fusarium oxysporum-induced oxidative stress and antioxidative defenses of yellow lupine embryo axes with different sugar levels.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Bednarski, Waldemar

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Polo inoculated with a necrotrophic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum and cultured on Heller medium for 96h. Four variants were compared: inoculated embryo axes cultured with 60mM sucrose (+Si) or without it (-Si), and non-inoculated embryo axes cultured with 60mM sucrose (+Sn) or without it (-Sn). After inoculation, an accumulation of stable free radicals and Mn2+ ions in +Si and -Si were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance. Concentrations of the radicals with g-values of 2.0052+/-0.0004 and 2.0029+/-0.0003 were generally higher in -Si than in +Si. Beginning at 24h after inoculation, in both +Si and -Si the concentrations of these ions decreased, but more strongly in -Si than in +Si. After inoculation, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) were higher in -Si than in +Si. SOD and CAT zymograms showed that the synthesis of new isoforms was induced after inoculation. Simultaneously, superoxide anions were assayed in embryo axes by using their specific indicator dihydroethidium (DHE). The DHE-derived fluorescence was stronger and covered a much larger tissue area in +Si than in -Si. The respiration rate was generally much higher in +Si than in -Si. Electron micrographs revealed that, in contrast to -Si cells, +Si cells had numerous mitochondria with less reduced numbers of cristae and long sections of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies. These results indicate that different defensive strategies against F. oxysporum were induced depending on soluble sugar levels in yellow lupine embryo axes. PMID:17913293

  4. Composition and functional properties of Lupinus campestris protein isolates.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Martínez-Ayala, A L; Millán, F; Dávila-Ortíz, G

    2005-09-01

    Protein isolates from L. campestris and soybean seeds were prepared using isoelectric precipitation (PI) and micellization (MI) procedures. The amount of protein recovered was considerably higher with the isoelectric precipitation than with the micellization procedure (60% and 30%, respectively). Protein contents were higher than 90% in protein isolates. Antinutritional factors content (alkaloids, lectins, and tannins) were reduced to innocuous levels after protein isolate preparation. Minimum protein solubility for the precipitated lupin protein isolate (LPI) was at pH 4.0, and between pH 4 and 6 for the micellized lupin protein isolate (LMI), increasing at both extremes of the pH scale. Water absorption for the LMI was 1.3 ml/g of protein and its oil absorption 2.2 ml/g of protein. The LPI had 1.7 ml/g of protein in both water and oil absorption. Foaming capacity and stability was pH-dependent. Foaming capacity was higher at pH 2 and lower near the protein isoelectric points. Minimum protein concentration for gelation in LMI was 8% w/v at pH 4, while for LPI was 6% at pH 4 and 6. Amino acid composition in L. campestris flour and protein isolates was high in lysine and low in methionine. Most of the essential amino acids in lupin protein isolates were at acceptable levels compared to a reference pattern for infants and adults. The electrophoretic pattern of both protein isolates showed three bands with different mobilities, suggesting that the protein fractions belong to alpha-conglutin (11S-like protein), beta-conglutin (7S-like protein) and gamma-conglutin. It is proven that some of the functional properties of L. campestris protein isolates are similar to those soybean protein isolates recovered under equal conditions. PMID:16187011

  5. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

  6. Effects of endogenous signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the mechanism regulating genistein synthesis and accumulation in yellow lupine and their impact on plant cell cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Marczak, Łukasz; Nowak, Witold; Narożna, Dorota; Bednarski, Waldemar; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Morkunas, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes. Infection significantly enhanced the synthesis of genistein and other isoflavone aglycones in cells of embryo axes of yellow lupine with high endogenous sugar levels. The activity of β-glucosidase, the enzyme that releases free aglycones from their glucoside bindings, was higher in the infected tissues than in the control ones. At the same time, a very strong generation of the superoxide anion radical was observed in tissues with high sugar contents already in the initial stage of infection. During later stages after inoculation, a strong generation of semiquinone radicals was observed, which level was relatively higher in tissues deficient in sugars than in those with high sugar levels. Observations of actin and tubulin cytoskeletons in cells of infected embryo axes cultured on the medium with sucrose, as well as the medium without sugar, showed significant differences in their organization. PMID:25178062

  7. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

  8. Control of common bunt of wheat under field conditions with the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the biological control potential of the fungus Muscodor albus, when applied as a seed treatment or an in furrow soil treatment, for control of common bunt (CB) of wheat caused by Tilletia caries. For seed treatments, dry rye grain culture of M. albus wa...

  9. Restriction of a bacteriophage of Streptomyces albus G involving endonuclease SalI.

    PubMed Central

    Chater, K F; Wilde, L C

    1976-01-01

    The bacteriophage Pa16, isolated from soil on Streptomyces albus G, was restricted when transferred from an alternative host back to S. albus G. Extracted unmodified Pa16 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at a single site by a cell-free extract of S. albus G. Fractions cleaving Pal6 deoxyribonucleic acid contained the endonuclease SalI first described by J. Arrand, P. Myers, and R. J. Roberts (unpublished data). A mutant of S. albus G was isolated which was defective in both restriction and modification of Pal6. This mutant lacked SalI activity. It is concluded that SalI is the agent of restriction of Pal6 by S. albus G. Images PMID:977549

  10. Influence of grazing pressure on cattle consumption of the teratogenic plant velvet lupine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupine species may contain teratogenic alkaloids that cause birth defects called crooked calf syndrome. If pregnant cows ingest toxic lupine between days 40 and 100 of gestation, fetal movement is impaired and irreversible skeletal defects occur. There is a need to determine the time and condition...

  11. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  12. Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lupin allergy remains a significant cause of food-induced allergic reactivity and anaphylaxis. Previous work suggests a strong association with legume allergy and peanut allergy in particular. Both doctors and the public have little awareness of lupin as an allergen. Case presentation Case 1 was a 41-year-old Caucasian woman without previous atopy who developed facial swelling, widespread urticaria with asthma and hypotension within minutes of eating a quiche. Her lupin allergy was confirmed by both blood and skin tests. Her lupin sensitivity was so severe that even the miniscule amount of lupin allergen in the skin testing reagent produced a mild reaction. Case 2 was a 42-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with three episodes of worsening urticaria and asthma symptoms over 6 years occurring after the consumption of foods containing lupin flour. Blood and skin tests were positive for lupin allergy. Case 3 was a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with known oral allergy syndrome who had two reactions associated with urticaria and vomiting after consuming foods containing lupin flour. Skin testing confirmed significant responses to a lupin flour extract and to one of the foods inducing her reaction. Case 4 was a 54-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with a 7 year history of three to four episodes each year of unpredictable oral tingling followed by urticaria after consuming a variety of foods. The most recent episode had been associated with vomiting. She had developed oral tingling with lentil and chickpeas over the previous year. Skin and blood tests confirmed lupin allergy with associated sensitivity to several legumes. Conclusions Lupin allergy can occur for the first time in adults without previous atopy or legume sensitivity. Although asymptomatic sensitisation is frequent, clinical reactivity can vary in severity from severe anaphylaxis to urticaria and vomiting. Lupin allergy may be confirmed by skin and specific immunoglobulin E estimation

  13. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  14. THE EFFECTS OF SELF-POLLINATION AND MATERNAL RESOURCES ON REPRODUCTION AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN THE WILD LUPINE, LUPINUS PERENNIS (FABACEAE). (R826596)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Doroghazi, J. R.; Ju, K.-S.; Metcalf, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with five other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these other species, including Streptomyces almquistii NRRL B-1685T, Streptomyces flocculus NRRL B-2465T, Streptomyces gibsonii NRRL B-1335T and Streptomyces rangoonensis NRRL B-12378T are quite similar. This cluster is of particular taxonomic interest because Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. The related strains were subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB and confirmation of previously reported phenotypic characteristics. The five strains formed a coherent cluster supported by a 100 % bootstrap value in phylogenetic trees generated from sequence alignments prepared by concatenating the sequences of the housekeeping genes, and identical tree topology was observed using various different tree-making algorithms. Moreover, all but one strain, S. flocculus NRRL B-2465T, exhibited identical sequences for all of the five housekeeping gene loci sequenced, but NRRL B-2465T still exhibited an MLSA evolutionary distance of 0.005 from the other strains, a value that is lower than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. These data support a proposal to reclassify S. almquistii, S. flocculus, S. gibsonii and S. rangoonensis as later heterotypic synonyms of S. albus with NRRL B-1811T as the type strain. The MLSA sequence database also demonstrated utility for quickly and conclusively confirming that numerous strains within the ARS Culture Collection had been previously misidentified as subspecies of S. albus and that Streptomyces albus subsp. pathocidicus should be redescribed as a novel species, Streptomyces

  16. Nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase distribution and their relation to proton release in five nodulated grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Fan, X H; Tang, C; Rengel, Z

    2002-09-01

    Nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and net proton release were compared in five grain legumes grown at 0.2 and 2 mM nitrate in nutrient solution. Nitrate treatments, imposed on 22-d-old, fully nodulated plants, lasted for 21 d. Increasing nitrate supply did not significantly influence the growth of any of the species during the treatment, but yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) had a higher growth rate than the other species examined. At 0.2 mM nitrate supply, nitrate uptake rates ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 mg N g(-1) d(-1) in the order: yellow lupin > field pea (Pisum sativum) > chickpea (Cicer arietinum) > narrow-leafed lupin (L angustifolius) > white lupin (L albus). At 2 mM nitrate supply, nitrate uptake ranged from 1.7 to 8.2 mg N g(-1) d(-1) in the order: field pea > chickpea > white lupin > yellow lupin > narrow-leafed lupin. Nitrate reductase activity increased with increased nitrate supply, with the majority of NRA being present in shoots. Field pea and chickpea had much higher shoot NRA than the three lupin species. When 0.2 mM nitrate was supplied, narrow-leafed lupinreleased the most H+ per unit root biomass per day, followed by yellow lupin, white lupin, field pea and chickpea. At 2 mM nitrate, narrow-leafed lupin and yellow lupin showed net proton release, whereas the other species, especially field pea, showed net OH- release. Irrespective of legume species and nitrate supply, proton release was negatively correlated with nitrate uptake and NRA in shoots, but not with NRA in roots. PMID:12234143

  17. First report of Colletotrichum lupini on Lupinus hartwegii and L. mutabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 2013 winter cut flower production season, a severe anthracnose epidemic was observed on Lupinus mutabilis (syn L. cruckshanksii) on a commercial flower farm in Martin County, FL. Approximately 50% of the crop was lost to the disease. Symptoms included mild leaf spots, but more typically...

  18. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is colloquially termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and angular limb malformations which are fo...

  19. Functional phylotyping approach for assessing intraspecific diversity of Ruminococcus albus within the rumen microbiome.

    PubMed

    Rozman Grinberg, Inna; Yin, Guohua; Borovok, Ilya; Berg Miller, Margret E; Yeoman, Carl J; Dassa, Bareket; Yu, Zhongtang; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Flint, Harry J; Bayer, Edward A; White, Bryan A; Lamed, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic bacterium, is a critical member of the rumen community. Ruminococcus albus lacks a classical cellulosome complex, but it possesses a unique family 37 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM37), which is integrated into a variety of carbohydrate-active enzymes. We developed a potential molecular tool for functional phylotyping of the R. albus population in the rumen, based on a variable region in the cel48A gene. cel48A encodes a single copy of the CBM37-associated family 48 glycoside hydrolase in all known strains of this bacterium. A segment of the cel48A gene was amplified from rumen metagenomic samples of four bovines, and its abundance and diversity were evaluated. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed the co-existence of multiple functional phylotypes of cel48A in all four animals. These included sequences identical or similar to those of R. albus isolates (reference strains), as well as several novel sequences. The dominant cel48A type varied among animals. This method can be used for detection of intraspecific diversity of R. albus in metagenomic samples. Together with scaC, a previously reported gene marker for R. flavefaciens, we present a set of two species-specific markers for phylotyping of Ruminococci in the herbivore rumen. PMID:25673657

  20. Research on Lupine-Induced "Crooked Calf Disease" at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are over 500 species of lupine in the world with over 300 in North America and over 150 in the Intermountain West. Past research at the Poisonous Plant Research Lab determined that lupine was responsible for skeletal birth defects in cattle in the western U.S. Anagyrine was determined to be...

  1. ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 μg/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 μg/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin α+β conglutin. PMID:24128446

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the white char Salvelinus albus (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Parensky, Valery A; Kovalev, Mikhail Yu; Ayala, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced in two individuals of white char Salvelinus albus. The genome sequences are 16 653 bp in size, and the gene arrangement, composition, and size are very similar to the salmonid fish genomes published previously. The low level of sequence divergence detected between the genome of S. albus and the GenBank complete mitochondrial genomes of the Northern Dolly Varden char S. malma (KJ746618) and the Arctic char S. alpinus (AF154851) may likely be due to recent divergence of the species and/or historical hybridization and interspecific replacement of mtDNA. PMID:26358825

  3. The Marr and Albus Theories of the Cerebellum: Two Eary Models of Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1989-01-01

    The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum are compared and contrasted. They are shown to be similar in their analysis of the function of the mossy fibers, granule cells, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cells. They both predict motor learning in the parallel fiber synapses on the Purkinje dendrites mediated by concurrent climbing fiber input. This prediction has been confirmed by experimental evidence. In contrast, Marr predicts these synapses would be facilitated by learning, while Albus predicts they would be weakened. Experimental evidence confirms synaptic weakening.

  4. Localization of the Enzymes of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Leaf Chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus1

    PubMed Central

    Wink, Michael; Hartmann, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Studies with purified chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus LINDL. leaflets indicate that the first two enzymes of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, lysine decarboxylase and 17-oxosparteine synthase, are localized in the chloroplast stroma. Thus, both enzymes share the same subcellular compartment as the biosynthetic pathway of lysine, the precursor of quinolizidine alkaloids. The activity of diaminopimelate decarboxylase, the final enzyme in lysine biosynthesis, is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the enzymes of alkaloid formation. PMID:16662483

  5. Mortality of Tilletia spp. teliospores caused by volatiles from the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatiles produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, T. indica, and T. tritici which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of wheat, and common bunt of wheat, respectively. Ten g...

  6. Effects of non-native Melilotus albus on pollination and reproduction in two boreal shrubs.

    PubMed

    Spellman, Katie V; Schneller, Laura C; Mulder, Christa P H; Carlson, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of abundantly flowered, highly rewarding non-native plant species is expected to have strong consequences for native plants through altered pollination services, particularly in boreal forest where the flowering season is short and the pollinator pool is small. In 18 boreal forest sites, we added flowering Melilotus albus to some sites and left some sites as controls in 2 different years to test if the invasive plant influences the pollination and reproductive success of two co-flowering ericaceous species: Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Rhododendron groenlandicum. We found that M. albus increased the pollinator diversity and tended to increase visitation rates to the focal native plant species compared to control sites. Melilotus albus facilitated greater seed production per berry in V. vitis-idaea when we added 120 plants compared to when we added 40 plants or in control sites. In R. groenlandicum, increasing numbers of M. albus inflorescences lowered conspecific pollen loads and percentage of flowers pollinated; however, no differences in fruit set were detected. The number of M. albus inflorescences had greater importance in explaining R. groenlandicum pollination compared to other environmental variables such as weather and number of native flowers, and had greater importance in lower quality black spruce sites than in mixed deciduous and white spruce sites for explaining the percentage of V. vitis-idaea flowers pollinated. Our data suggest that the identity of new pollinators attracted to the invaded sites, degree of shared pollinators between invasive and native species, and variation in resource limitation among sites are likely determining factors in the reproductive responses of boreal native plants in the presence of an invasive. PMID:26071209

  7. Complete nucleotide sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Nancy L; Côté, Fabien; Paré, Christine; Leblanc, Eric; Bergeron, Michel G; Leclerc, Denis

    2007-12-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames (ORFs) with a similar genetic organization of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The order and gene product size, starting from the 5'-proximal ORF consisted of: (1) polymerase/replicase gene, ORF1 (p27) and ORF1RT (readthrough) (p87), (2) movement proteins ORF2 (p7) and ORF3 (p9), and, (3) the 3'-proximal coat protein ORF4, (p37). The genomic 5'- and 3'-proximal termini contained a short (59 nt) and a relatively longer 405 nt untranslated region, respectively. The longer replicase gene product contained the GDD motif common to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Phylogenetically, NLVCV formed a subgroup with the following four carmoviruses when separately comparing the amino acids of the coat protein or replicase protein: Angelonia flower break virus (AnFBV), Carnation mottle virus (CarMV), Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), and Saguaro cactus virus (SgCV). Whole genome nucleotide analysis (percent identities) among the carmoviruses with NLVCV suggested a similar pattern. The species demarcation criteria in the genus Carmovirus for the amino acid sequence identity of the polymerase (<52%) and coat (<41%) protein genes restricted NLVCV as a distinct species, and instead, placed it as a tentative strain of CarMV, PFBV, or SgCV when both the polymerase and CP were used as the determining factors. In contrast, the species criteria that included different host ranges with no overlap and lack of serology relatedness between NLVCV and the carmoviruses, suggested that NLVCV was a distinct species. The relatively low cutoff percentages allowed for the polymerase and CP genes to dictate the inclusion/exclusion of a distinct carmovirus species should be reevaluated. Therefore, at this time we have concluded that NLVCV should be classified as a tentative new species in the genus Carmovirus

  8. Genetic Structure and Symbiotic Characteristics of a Bradyrhizobium Population Recovered from a Pasture Soil †

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, Peter J.; Cheng, Hsin-Hua; Strain, Steven R.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the genetic structure and symbiotic characteristics of Bradyrhizobium isolates recovered from four legume species (Lupinus albus [white lupine], Lupinus angustifolius [blue lupine], Ornithopus compressus [yellow serradella], and Macroptilium atropurpureum [sirato]) grown in an Oregon soil. We established that multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) can provide insights into the genetic relatedness among Bradyrhizobium strains by showing a positive correlation (r2 = ≥0.90) between the relatedness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains determined by MLEE at 13 enzyme loci and that determined by other workers using either DNA-DNA hybridization or DNA sequence divergence estimates. MLEE identified 17 electrophoretic types (ETs) among 95 Bradyrhizobium isolates recovered from the four hosts. Although the overall genetic diversity among the ETs (H = 0.69) is one of the largest measured to date in a local population of any soilborne bacterial species, there was no evidence of multilocus structure (linkage disequilibrium) within the population. The majority of the isolates (73%) were represented by two closely related ETs (2 and 3) which dominated the root nodules of white lupine, serradella, and siratro. In contrast, ET1 dominated nodules of blue lupine. Although representative isolates from all of the 17 ETs nodulated siratro, white lupine, blue lupine, and big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus), they were either completely ineffective or poorly effective at fixing nitrogen on these hosts. Despite the widespread use of serradella as a surrogate host for lupine-nodulating bradyrhizobia, 7 of the 17 ETs did not nodulate this host, and the remaining 10 ETs were ineffective at fixing nitrogen. PMID:16349270

  9. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India. PMID:24426163

  10. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  11. Root tip-dependent, active riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Higa, Ataru; Miyamoto, Erika; ur Rahman, Laiq; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2008-04-01

    Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots with/without an exogenous gene (11 clones) were established by inoculation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. All clones cultured under iron-deficient condition secreted riboflavin from the root tips into the culture medium and the productivity depended on the number and size of root tips among the clones. A decline of pH was observed before riboflavin production and root development. By studying effects of proton-pump inhibitors, medium acidification with external organic acid, and riboflavin addition upon pH change and riboflavin productivity, we indicate that riboflavin efflux is not directly connected to active pH reduction, and more significantly active riboflavin secretion occurs as a response to an internal requirement in H. albus hairy roots under iron deficiency. PMID:18367404

  12. First evidence of bioflocculant from Shinella albus with flocculation activity on harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2016-10-01

    Bioflocculant from Shinella albus xn-1 could be used to harvest energy-producing microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass for the first time. In this study, we investigated the flocculation activity and mode of strain xn-1, the characteristics of bioflocculant, the effect of flocculation conditions and optimized the flocculation efficiency. The results indicated that strain xn-1 exhibited flocculation activity through secreting bioflocculant; the bioflocculant with high thermal stability, pH stability and low molecular weight was proved to be not protein and polysaccharide, and flocculation active component was confirmed to contain triple bond and cumulated double bonds; algal pH, temperature and metal ions showed great impacts on the flocculation efficiency of bioflocculant; the maximum flocculation activity of bioflocculant reached 85.65% after the response surface optimization. According to the results, the bioflocculant from S. albus xn-1 could be a good potential in applications for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae. PMID:27423548

  13. Micro-PIXE studies of Lupinus angustifolius L. after treatment of seeds with molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Wouters, K.; Vlassak, K.; Combrink, N. J. J.

    1997-02-01

    An example of nuclear microprobe application in agriculture is presented. The NAC nuclear microprobe was used to determine quantitative elemental distribution of major, minor and trace elements in Lupinus angustifolius L. (Leguminosae) after treatment of seeds with molybdenum. Experiments were performed in order to establish safe concentration levels and sources of Mo in seed treatments. Elemental distributions in Mo-treated plants and in the non-treated control plants were studied in order to explain how Mo causes toxicity. Some specific regions of Mo and other main and trace elements enrichment were identified.

  14. Complete mitogenome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus: genetic structure and comparative genomics within Echinozoa.

    PubMed

    Cea, Graciela; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2015-06-01

    The edible Chilean red sea urchin, Loxechinus albus, is the only species of its genus and endemic to the Southeastern Pacific. In this study, we reconstructed the mitochondrial genome of L. albus by combining Sanger and pyrosequencing technologies. The mtDNA genome had a length of 15,737 bp and encoded the same 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes as other animal mtDNAs. The size of this mitogenome was similar to those of other Echinodermata species. Structural comparisons showed a highly conserved structure, composition, and gene order within Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in Asteroidea and Crinoidea, with the majority of differences explained by the inversions of some tRNA genes. Phylogenetic reconstruction supported the monophyly of Echinozoa and recovered the monophyletic relationship of Holothuroidea and Echinoidea. Within Holothuroidea, Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses recovered a sister-group relationship between Dendrochirotacea and Aspidochirotida. Similarly within Echinoidea, these analyses revealed that L. albus was closely related to Paracentrotus lividus, both being part of a sister group to Strongylocentrotidae and Echinometridae. In addition, two major clades were found within Strongylocentrotidae. One of these clades comprised all of the representative species Strongylocentrotus and Hemicentrotus, whereas the other included species of Mesocentrotus and Pseudocentrotus. PMID:25433433

  15. Copper excess promotes propagation and induces proteomic change in root cultures of Hyoscyamus albus L.

    PubMed

    Sako, Ari; Kandakar, Jebunnahar; Tamari, Noriko; Higa, Ataru; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2016-06-01

    Hyoscyamus albus L. seedlings respond positively to copper (Cu) excess. In the present study, to understand how roots cope with Cu excess, propagation and proteome composition in the presence of Cu were examined using a root culture system. When H. albus roots were cultured in a medium without Cu, root growth deteriorated. However, in the presence of Cu, root growth increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and vigorous lateral root development was observed at 200 μM Cu. Cu accumulation in the roots increased with the Cu supply. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the highest amount of Cu was present in the cell wall-containing fraction, followed by the soluble fraction. However, the highest specific incorporation of Cu, in terms of fresh weight, was in the mitochondria-rich fraction. High Cu levels enhanced respiration activity. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, de novo protein synthesis, cell division, and ATP synthesis increased in abundance, whereas the proteasome decreased. These results indicate that Cu promotes propagation of H. albus roots through the activation of the energy supply and anabolism. Newly propagated root tissues and newly generated proteins that bind to Cu may provide space and reservoirs for deposition of additional Cu. PMID:26945770

  16. Biomineralization of carbonates by Marinococcus albus and Marinococcus halophilus isolated from the Salar de Atacama (Chile).

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra, M A; Delgado, G; Soriano, M; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Delgado, R

    1999-07-01

    We studied the precipitation of carbonates in 17 strains of moderately halophilic, Gram-positive cocci belonging to two species: Marinococcus halophilus and Marinococcus albus, isolated from the Salar de Atacama (Chile). They were cultivated in solid and liquid laboratory media for 42 days at salt concentrations (wt/vol) of 3%, 7.5%, 15%, and 20%. The bioliths precipitated were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. M. halophilus formed crystals at each of the salt concentrations, with a maximum number of strains capable of precipitating carbonates at 7.5% and 15% salt concentrations. M. albus did not precipitate at 20% and showed a maximum at 7.5%. This behavior is similar to that of other gram-positive bacteria and differs from that found in gram-negative bacteria. The bioliths precipitated were spherical, generally isolated, with a size of 10-100 microm, varying with salinity. They were of magnesium calcite (CO3 Ca1-x Mgx) with Mg content increasing with increasing salinity and Mg/Ca molar ratio of the culture medium. These results demonstrate the active role played by M. halophilus and M. albus in the precipitation of carbonates. PMID:10387118

  17. The Unique Biosynthetic Route from Lupinus β-Conglutin Gene to Blad

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Sara; Freitas, Regina; Rajasekhar, Baru T.; Teixeira, Artur R.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.

    2010-01-01

    Background During seed germination, β-conglutin undergoes a major cycle of limited proteolysis in which many of its constituent subunits are processed into a 20 kDa polypeptide termed blad. Blad is the main component of a glycooligomer, accumulating exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Principal Findings The sequence of the gene encoding β-conglutin precursor (1791 nucleotides) is reported. This gene, which shares 44 to 57% similarity and 20 to 37% identity with other vicilin-like protein genes, includes several features in common with these globulins, but also specific hallmarks. Most notable is the presence of an ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM), which possibly links the unique catabolic route of β-conglutin to the ubiquitin/proteasome proteolytic pathway. Significance Blad forms through a unique route from and is a stable intermediary product of its precursor, β-conglutin, the major Lupinus seed storage protein. It is composed of 173 amino acid residues, is encoded by an intron-containing, internal fragment of the gene that codes for β-conglutin precursor (nucleotides 394 to 913) and exhibits an isoelectric point of 9.6 and a molecular mass of 20,404.85 Da. Consistent with its role as a storage protein, blad contains an extremely high proportion of the nitrogen-rich amino acids. PMID:20066045

  18. Numerical modelling of agricultural products on the example of bean and yellow lupine seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Andrzej; Kaliniewicz, Zdzisław; Markowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Numerical models of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno were generated with the use of a 3D scanner, the geometric parameters of seeds were determined based on the models developed, and compared with the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. Measurements of seed length, width and thickness performed with the use of a micrometer, 3D scanner and digital image analysis produced similar results that did not differ significantly at α = 0.05. The micrometer delivered the simplest and fastest measurements. The mean surface area of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno, calculated with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of micrometer measurements and digital image analysis, differed significantly from the mean surface area determined with a 3D scanner. No significant differences in seed volume were observed when this parameter was measured with a 3D scanner and determined with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. The only differences were noted when the volume of yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno was measured in a 25 ml liquid pycnometer.

  19. AnthracnoseTracer: A Spatiotemporal Model for Simulating the Spread of Anthracnose in a Lupin Field.

    PubMed

    Diggle, A J; Salam, M U; Thomas, G J; Yang, H A; O'Connell, M; Sweetingham, M W

    2002-10-01

    ABSTRACT A spatiotemporal model has been developed to simulate the spread of anthracnose, initiated by infected seed, in a lupin field. The model quantifies the loss of healthy growing points of lupin in all 1-m(2) subunits of a field throughout a growing season. The development of growing points is modeled as a function of temperature using a 1-day time step, and disease-induced compensatory growth is accounted for. Dispersal of spores is simulated explicitly using Monte Carlo techniques. Spread of spores occurs during rainfall events on a 1-h time step. The distance traveled by spores is partially dependent on wind speed and is generated by adding the values selected from half-Cauchy distributions. The direction of travel of the spores is influenced by wind direction. The model has been employed to produce a theoretical assessment of damage from disease in two environments at five levels of seed infection. It was calculated that in a susceptible lupin cultivar with a 0.01% initial seed infection, anthracnose would cause approximately 15% loss of healthy growing points in a high rainfall environment in Western Australia. In a low rainfall environment, similar damage would be unlikely even with a much higher (1%) level of seed infection. PMID:18944222

  20. THE POTENTIAL OF THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS, MUSCODOR ALBUS, AS A BIO-CONTROL AGENT AGAINST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Muscodor albus produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals with activity against post-harvest disease causing organisms, insect pests of harvested fruit and tubers, and soil-borne disease causing agents and plant parasitic nematodes. M. albus was tested for its potenti...

  1. Pupal mortality and adult emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to the fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae).

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Lacey, Lawrence A; Bishop, Belinda J B

    2009-12-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides alone for fly control could be fumigation of the fly's overwintering habitat using the fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel & Hess (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) in conjunction with reduced insecticide use. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are biocidal for a variety of organisms. In this study, the main objectives were to determine the effects of M. albus VOCs on mortality of R. indifferens pupae and on adult emergence under laboratory conditions. In fumigation chamber experiments, a 14-d exposure of pupae in soil to VOCs resulted in 61.9% control, and exposure to VOCs for 7, 10, and 14 d reduced fly emergence by 44.2, 70.0, and 86.3%, respectively, relative to controls. In an experiment using plastic covers to retain VOCs in treated soil, a concentration of 1% M. albus formulation (fungus + rye grain) did not affect pupal mortality and fly emergence, but a concentration of 5% M. albus formulation resulted in 27.4% control and reduced fly emergence by 30.1% relative to the control. Larvae of R. indifferens that were dropped onto soil with 1% M. albus formulation were not affected by the fungus. Results indicate that prolonged exposure and high concentrations of M. albus VOCs can cause significant mortality of R. indifferens pupae in soil and delay adult emergence. PMID:20069829

  2. The haem-accessibility in leghaemoglobin of Lupinus luteus as observed by proton magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Vuk-pavlović, S; Benko, B; Maricić, S; Lahajnar, G; Kuranova, I P; Vainshtein, B K

    1976-01-01

    Using the solvent-protons' longitudinal magnetic relaxation rates (p.m.r.) for Lupinus luteus leghaemoglobin derivatives the accessibility of the haem has been evaluated by our "stereo-chemical p.m.r. titration" method with nonexchangeable protons of aliphatic lower alcohols in otherwise deuterated solutions. The haem in leghaemoglobin is more accessible and its protein environment more flexible compared with vertebrate haemoglobins. The correlation time in aquometleghaemglobin aqueous solution has been determined by measuring the frequency dispersion of the p.m.r. rates between 6.1 and 93 MHZ. Taking into account the measured value of tauc = (7.7 +/- 0.5 x 10(-10) s the iron-to-proton inter-spin distances have been calculated. The significance of these distances as well as the electronic g-factor anisotrophy for elucidation of fine structural details of the haem-environment are discussed. PMID:965150

  3. Genome sequence of the Ornithopus/Lupinus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; De Meyer, Sofie; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing root nodule formed on the annual legume Ornithopus pinnatus (Miller) Druce growing at Oyster Harbour, Albany district, Western Australia in 1982. This strain is in commercial production as an inoculant for Lupinus and Ornithopus. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,784,016 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 1 scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,372 protein-coding genes and 58 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976882

  4. Enhanced salinomycin production by adjusting the supply of polyketide extender units in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenyang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Jiang, Ming; Bai, Linquan

    2016-05-01

    The anticoccidial salinomycin is a polyketide produced by Streptomyces albus and requires malonyl-CoAs, methylmalonyl-CoAs, and ethylmalonyl-CoAs for the backbone assembly. Genome sequencing of S. albus DSM 41398 revealed a high percentage of genes involved in lipid metabolism, supporting the high salinomycin yield in oil-rich media. Seven PKS/PKS-NRPS gene clusters in the genome were found to be actively transcribed and had been individually deleted, which resulted in significantly improved salinomycin production. However, a combined deletion of PKS-NRPS-2 and PKS-6 showed no further improvement. Whereas the concentrations of malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA were increased, the concentration of ethylmalonyl-CoA remained low in the mutants. An endogenous crotonyl-CoA reductase gene (ccr) was overexpressed in the ΔPKS-NRPS-2/ΔPKS-6 mutant, resulting in improved production. Combination of cluster deletions and over-expression of ccr gene led to an overall titer improvement of salinomycin from 0.60 to 6.60g/L. This engineering strategy can be implemented for various natural polyketides production. PMID:26969249

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin: Loxechinus albus (Camarodonta, Parechinidae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Gila; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin Loxechinus albus, the single species of the genus Loxechinus, is determined. The circular mitogenome is 15,709 bp in length containing 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein coding genes as well as the control region. The gene order is identical to those of described Camarodonta species. There are 24 bp gene overlaps at 6 locations and 124 bp intergenic spacers at 17 boundaries. The nucleotide composition of the genome is 31.2% A, 22.3% C, 29.7% T, and 16.8% G. The A+T bias (60.9%) is similar to that of P. lividus (60.3%) but slightly higher than those of strongylocentrotid species (58.8-59.8%). The mitogenome sequence of L. albus will provide valuable information on the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Loxechinus in relation to other Camarodonta sea urchins. PMID:24409862

  6. Haloglycomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, filamentous actinomycete of the family Glycomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Tang, Shu-Kun; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-06-01

    A novel halophilic actinobacterium, designated YIM 92370(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The strain was aerobic, Gram-positive-staining and halophilic, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 8-12 % (w/v). The whole-cell sugar pattern consisted of ribose, xylose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) and the major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The phospholipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, two unknown phosphoglycolipids and one unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 92370(T) can be distinguished from representatives of Glycomyces and Stackebrandtia, the two existing genera in the family Glycomycetaceae, by low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (<93.7 %). Strain YIM 92370(T) therefore represents a novel genus and species of the family Glycomycetaceae, for which the name Haloglycomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Haloglycomyces albus is YIM 92370(T) (=DSM 45210(T) =KCTC 19481(T)). PMID:19502305

  7. Anaerobic bioconversion of cellulose by Ruminococcus albus, Methanobrevibacter smithii, and Methanosarcina barkeri.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Currenti, E; Wolin, M J

    2000-10-01

    A system is described that combines the fermentation of cellulose to acetate, CH4, and CO2 by Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter smithii with the fermentation of acetate to CH4 and CO2 by Methanosarcina barkeri to convert cellulose to CH4 and CO2. A cellulose-containing medium was pumped into a co-culture of the cellulolytic R. albus and the H2-using methanogen, Mb. smithii. The effluent was fed into a holding reservoir, adjusted to pH 4.5, and then pumped into a culture of Ms. barkeri maintained at constant volume by pumping out culture contents. Fermentation of 1% cellulose to CH4 and CO2 was accomplished during 132 days of operation with retention times (RTs) of the Ms. barkeri culture of 7.5-3.8 days. Rates of acetate utilization were 9.5-17.3 mmol l(-1) day(-1) and increased with decreasing RT. The Ks for acetate utilization was 6-8 mM. The two-stage system can be used as a model system for studying biological and physical parameters that influence the bioconversion process. Our results suggest that manipulating the different phases of cellulose fermentation separately can effectively balance the pH and ionic requirements of the acid-producing phase with the acid-using phase of the overall fermentation. PMID:11092623

  8. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  9. Molecular characterization and expression profile of the estrogen receptor α gene during different reproductive phases in Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weidong; Cao, Liping; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism of estrogen and to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor in mediating estrogen action, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor α (ERα) was cloned from Monopterus albus, and its expression pattern and distribution were investigated. The ERα cDNA of M. albus includes an open reading frame of 1863 bp, a 140-bp 5'-untranslated region and a 797-bp 3'-untranslated region. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that the Monopterus albus ERα has a moderate degree of similarity with Sebastes schlegelii, Zoarces viviparus and Haplochromis burtoni (81.1%, 80.7% and 80.4%, respectively). Quantitative PCR results showed that the highest level of ERα expression was in the liver; the next highest level of expression was observed in the gonads, where it was expressed at high levels particularly in the ovary in developmental stages IV and V and in the testis in developmental stage II/III. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that ERα was present as slender particles distributed mainly in the membranes of spermatocytes and oocytes in the testis and ovary, whereas no positive signal was observed in the cytoplasm of sperm cells. This report describes the first molecular characterization of full-length ERα and its tissue-specific distribution in M. albus. PMID:27295422

  10. Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitao, Naoya; Fukui, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Osborne, Peter G.

    2009-03-01

    The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in Hokkaido, Japan. Body temperature of N. p. albus decreased from 38°C in autumn to 35.9-36.7°C while maintaining a circadian rhythm in late February ( n = 3). A transient 18-36% decrease in resting heart rate occurred when body temperature was low ( n = 2). Despite a 33-45% decrease in body weight due to winter fasting, circulating glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels were maintained ( n = 4). Serum urea nitrogen dropped by 43-45% from autumn to spring, suggesting protein conservation during fasting. The overwintering survival strategy of N. p. albus in central Hokkaido is based upon large changes in seasonal activity patterns, winter denning and communal housing without the large decrease in body temperature that is characteristic of subarctic animals exhibiting hibernation or torpor.

  11. Molecular characterization and expression profile of the estrogen receptor α gene during different reproductive phases in Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Weidong; Cao, Liping; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism of estrogen and to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor in mediating estrogen action, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor α (ERα) was cloned from Monopterus albus, and its expression pattern and distribution were investigated. The ERα cDNA of M. albus includes an open reading frame of 1863 bp, a 140-bp 5’-untranslated region and a 797-bp 3’-untranslated region. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that the Monopterus albus ERα has a moderate degree of similarity with Sebastes schlegelii, Zoarces viviparus and Haplochromis burtoni (81.1%, 80.7% and 80.4%, respectively). Quantitative PCR results showed that the highest level of ERα expression was in the liver; the next highest level of expression was observed in the gonads, where it was expressed at high levels particularly in the ovary in developmental stages IV and V and in the testis in developmental stage II/III. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that ERα was present as slender particles distributed mainly in the membranes of spermatocytes and oocytes in the testis and ovary, whereas no positive signal was observed in the cytoplasm of sperm cells. This report describes the first molecular characterization of full-length ERα and its tissue-specific distribution in M. albus. PMID:27295422

  12. Functional and modular analyses of diverse endoglucanases from Ruminococcus albus 8, a specialist plant cell wall degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Iakiviak, Michael; Devendran, Saravanan; Skorupski, Anna; Moon, Young Hwan; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a specialist plant cell wall degrading ruminal bacterium capable of utilizing hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose degradation requires a suite of enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases. The enzymes employed by R. albus 8 in degrading cellulose are yet to be completely elucidated. Through bioinformatic analysis of a draft genome sequence of R. albus 8, seventeen putatively cellulolytic genes were identified. The genes were heterologously expressed in E. coli, and purified to near homogeneity. On biochemical analysis with cellulosic substrates, seven of the gene products (Ra0185, Ra0259, Ra0325, Ra0903, Ra1831, Ra2461, and Ra2535) were identified as endoglucanases, releasing predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose. Each of the R. albus 8 endoglucanases, except for Ra0259 and Ra0325, bound to the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, confirming functional carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The polypeptides for Ra1831 and Ra2535 were found to contain distantly related homologs of CBM65. Mutational analysis of residues within the CBM65 of Ra1831 identified key residues required for binding. Phylogenetic analysis of the endoglucanases revealed three distinct subfamilies of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Our results demonstrate that this fibrolytic bacterium uses diverse GH5 catalytic domains appended with different CBMs, including novel forms of CBM65, to degrade cellulose. PMID:27439730

  13. Unique aspects of fiber degradation by the ruminal ethanologen Ruminococcus albus 7 revealed by physiological and transcriptomic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus are important and ubiquitous members of mammalian guts. In particular, ruminococci are key contributors to the rumen ecosystem because they are capable of digesting a wide range of plant cell wall polysaccharides. In bovines, Ruminococcus albus 7 is a primary cellu...

  14. Mycofumigation by the Volatile Organic Compound-Producing Fungus Muscodor albus Induces Bacterial Cell Death through DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Alpha, Cambria J.; Campos, Manuel; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M. albus. Furthermore, the sensitivity of knockouts involved in the repair of specific DNA alkyl adducts suggests that the VOCs may induce alkylation. Evidence of DNA damage suggests that these adducts lead to breaks during DNA replication or transcription if not properly repaired. Additional cytotoxicity profiling indicated that during VOC exposure, E. coli became filamentous and demonstrated an increase in cellular membrane fluidity. The volatile nature of the toxic compounds produced by M. albus and their broad range of inhibition make this fungus an attractive biological agent. Understanding the antimicrobial effects and the VOC mode of action will inform the utility and safety of potential mycofumigation applications for M. albus. PMID:25452287

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus SM254, a Potent Antagonist of Bat White-Nose Syndrome Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans

    PubMed Central

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P.; Erickson, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced and annotated the complete 7,170,504-bp genome of a novel secondary metabolite-producing Streptomyces strain, Streptomyces albus SM254, isolated from copper-rich subsurface fluids at ~220-m depth within the Soudan Iron Mine (Soudan, MN, USA). PMID:27081146

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus SM254, a Potent Antagonist of Bat White-Nose Syndrome Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    PubMed

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P; Erickson, Joshua D; Salomon, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced and annotated the complete 7,170,504-bp genome of a novel secondary metabolite-producingStreptomycesstrain,Streptomyces albusSM254, isolated from copper-rich subsurface fluids at ~220-m depth within the Soudan Iron Mine (Soudan, MN, USA). PMID:27081146

  17. Functional and modular analyses of diverse endoglucanases from Ruminococcus albus 8, a specialist plant cell wall degrading bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Iakiviak, Michael; Devendran, Saravanan; Skorupski, Anna; Moon, Young Hwan; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a specialist plant cell wall degrading ruminal bacterium capable of utilizing hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose degradation requires a suite of enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases. The enzymes employed by R. albus 8 in degrading cellulose are yet to be completely elucidated. Through bioinformatic analysis of a draft genome sequence of R. albus 8, seventeen putatively cellulolytic genes were identified. The genes were heterologously expressed in E. coli, and purified to near homogeneity. On biochemical analysis with cellulosic substrates, seven of the gene products (Ra0185, Ra0259, Ra0325, Ra0903, Ra1831, Ra2461, and Ra2535) were identified as endoglucanases, releasing predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose. Each of the R. albus 8 endoglucanases, except for Ra0259 and Ra0325, bound to the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, confirming functional carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The polypeptides for Ra1831 and Ra2535 were found to contain distantly related homologs of CBM65. Mutational analysis of residues within the CBM65 of Ra1831 identified key residues required for binding. Phylogenetic analysis of the endoglucanases revealed three distinct subfamilies of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Our results demonstrate that this fibrolytic bacterium uses diverse GH5 catalytic domains appended with different CBMs, including novel forms of CBM65, to degrade cellulose. PMID:27439730

  18. 78 FR 48898 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    .... The applicant requests authorization to take scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum) for the purpose of seed harvesting, germ plasm storage, and germination research in Polk County, Florida. Permit Application...

  19. Oxidative-stress: comparison of species specific and tissue specific effects in the marine bivalves Mytilus edulis (L.) and Dosinia lupinus (L.).

    PubMed

    Walker, S T; Mantle, D; Bythell, J C; Thomason, J C

    2000-11-01

    This study describes a novel approach to the objective of identifying a suitable biomarker of oxidative-stress in marine animals and evaluates an established assay under controlled experimental conditions in vivo and in vitro. Live animals and tissue homogenates of the euryoxic blue mussel Mytilus edulis (L.), and the stenoxic smooth artemis Dosinia lupinus (L.), were exposed to oxidative-stress generated using a 60Co gamma-radiation source. In live organisms, mortality-rates were significantly different between species. M. edulis showed zero mortality and D. lupinus 30% mortality over 18 h. Protein-carbonyl (PC=O) content was determined by colourimetric assay (total protein-carbonyl) or immunodetection (for individual proteins) in four tissue types: digestive gland, mantle, adductor muscle and foot. In tissue homogenates, digestive gland and adductor muscle of both species showed significant increases (greater for D. lupinus) in PC=O content following irradiation in vitro. All tissues from live animals (with the exception of M. edulis mantle and adductor muscle of D. lupinus which died under irradiation) showed significantly different levels of PC Os following irradiation; D. lupinus PC=O levels were increased whilst in M. edulis PC=O content decreased. In D. lupinus which died during irradiation, PC=O content was greater than in those D. lupinus which survived, particularly in the adductor muscle, the former were inceased by 74% above controls. The findings support the hypothesis that species-specific adaptations to euryoxic and stenoxic environments, and metabolic requirements of different tissues, should result in differing ROS defences. PMID:11126765

  20. Burkholderia Species Are Major Inhabitants of White Lupin Cluster Roots▿†

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, Laure; Heller, Stefanie; Eberl, Leo

    2011-01-01

    The formation of cluster roots by plants represents a highly efficient strategy for acquisition of sparingly available phosphate. This particular root type is characterized by a densely branched structure and high exudation of organic acids and protons, which are likely to influence the resident bacterial community. Until now, the identity of the bacterial populations living in cluster roots has not been investigated. We applied cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods to characterize the dominant bacterial genera inhabiting the growing cluster roots of white lupin. We observed a high relative abundance of Burkholderia species (up to 58% of all isolated strains and 44% of all retrieved 16S rRNA sequences) and a significant enrichment with increasing cluster root age. Most of the sequences retrieved clustered together with known plant- or fungus-associated Burkholderia species, while only one of 98 sequences was affiliated with the Burkholderia cepacia complex. In vitro assays revealed that Burkholderia strains were much more tolerant to low pH than non-Burkholderia strains. Moreover, many strains produced large amounts of siderophores and were able to utilize citrate and oxalate as carbon sources. These features seem to represent important traits for the successful colonization and maintenance of Burkholderia species in white lupin cluster roots. PMID:21908626

  1. A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Caresana, M.; Varoli, V.; Ferrarini, M.; Hohmann, E.; Mayer, S.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.

    2014-06-15

    LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 μSv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

  2. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles enhance seedling growth and photosynthesis in wheat and lupin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dequan; Hussain, Hashmath I; Yi, Zhifeng; Rookes, James E; Kong, Lingxue; Cahill, David M

    2016-06-01

    The application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as a smart delivery system to agricultural crops is gaining attention but the release of nanoparticles into the environment may pose a potential threat to biological systems. We investigated the effects of MSNs on the growth and development of wheat and lupin plants grown under controlled conditions. We report a dramatic increase in the growth of wheat and lupin plants exposed to MSNs. We also found that, in leaves, MSNs localised to chloroplasts and that photosynthetic activity was significantly increased. In addition, absorption and cellular distribution of MSNs by the two plant species following root uptake were observed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Following uptake of MSNs at 500 and 1000 mg L(-1), there was enhancement of seed germination, increased plant biomass, total protein and chlorophyll content. Treatment of both species with MSNs at the highest concentration (2000 mg L(-1)) did not result in oxidative stress or cell membrane damage. These findings show that MSNs can be used as novel delivery systems in plants and that over the range of concentrations tested, MSNs do not have any negative impacts on plant growth or development. PMID:26963239

  3. A new version of the LUPIN detector: improvements and latest experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Caresana, M; Cassell, C; Ferrarini, M; Hohmann, E; Manessi, G P; Mayer, S; Silari, M; Varoli, V

    2014-06-01

    LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 μSv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed. PMID:24985847

  4. Hyperfine interactions in soybean and lupin oxy-leghemoglobins studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Alenkina, I. V.; Zakharova, A. P.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    A comparative study of monomeric soybean and lupin leghemoglobins in the oxy-form was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 90 K. The 57Fe hyperfine parameters of measured spectra were evaluated and compared with possible structural differences in the heme Fe(II)-O 2 bond.

  5. Structural and functional characteristics of two novel members of pathogensis-related multigene family of class 10 from yellow lupine+.

    PubMed

    Handschuh, Luiza; Femiak, Iwona; Kasperska, Alina; Figlerowicz, Marek; Sikorski, Michał M

    2007-01-01

    PR-10 proteins (pathogensis-related), ubiquitous within the plant kingdom, are usually encoded by multigene families. To date we have identified 10 homologous pr-10 genes in a yellow lupine cDNA library. Here, the structure and expression of two newly identified yellow lupine pr-10 genes (LlYpr10-2b and LlYpr10-2f) are presented. Many potential regulatory sites were found in both gene promoters including common ones as well as those unique for each gene. However, promoter deletion analysis in transgenic tobacco plants revealed similar patterns of reporter gene (gus) expression. Shortened fragments of both gene promoters studied caused high GUS activity in leaves (along vascular bundles), stamen stigma, anthers and pollen grains. When conjugated with longer LlYpr-10.2 promoter fragments, GUS was additionally present in petal edges. Only a long fragment of the LlYpr10-2b gene promoter caused GUS expression in the stem. In yellow lupine the pr-10.2 genes are present in all studied organs, but their level of expression depends on the stage of development and is affected by wounding, oxidative stress and salicylic acid treatment. Silencing of the Llpr-10.2b gene in 4-week-old yellow lupine plants did not lead to any visible symptoms, which suggests that the function of the silenced gene is supplemented by its close homologues, still present in the studied plants. PMID:18080022

  6. Where do roots take up water? Neutron radiography of water flow into the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil.

    PubMed

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kim, Yangmin X; Carminati, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Where and how fast does water flow from soil into roots? The answer to this question requires direct and in situ measurement of local flow of water into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. We used neutron radiography to trace the transport of deuterated water (D₂O) in lupin (Lupinus albus) roots. Lupins were grown in aluminum containers (30 × 25 × 1 cm) filled with sandy soil. D₂O was injected in different soil regions and its transport in soil and roots was monitored by neutron radiography. The transport of water into roots was then quantified using a convection-diffusion model of D₂O transport into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the lower ones. Along an individual root, the radial flux was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal segments. In lupins, most of the water uptake occurred in lateral roots. The function of the taproot was to collect water from laterals and transport it to the shoot. This function is ensured by a low radial conductivity and a high axial conductivity. Lupin root architecture seems well designed to take up water from deep soil layers. PMID:23692148

  7. Wood adhesives prepared from lucerne fiber fermentation residues of Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Koegel, R G; Lorenz, L F; Frihart, C R; Kenealy, W R

    2005-03-01

    Fermentation residues (consisting of incompletely fermented fiber, adherent bacterial cells, and a glycocalyx material that enhanced bacterial adherence) were obtained by growing the anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus albus 7 or Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 on a fibrous fraction derived from lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). The dried residue was able to serve as an effective co-adhesive for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) bonding of aspen veneer sheets to one another. Testing of the resulting plywood panels revealed that the adhesive, formulated to contain 30% of its total dry weight as fermentation residue, displayed shear strength and wood failure values under both wet and dry conditions that were comparable with those of industry standards for PF that contained much smaller amounts of fillers or extenders. By contrast, PF adhesives prepared with 30% of dry weight as either unfermented lucerne fiber or conventional fillers or extenders rather than as fermentation residues, displayed poor performance, particularly under wet conditions. PMID:15735965

  8. Seasonal and annual variations in the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L.

    PubMed

    Fisogni, A; Rossi, M; Sgolastra, F; Bortolotti, L; Bogo, G; de Manincor, N; Quaranta, M; Galloni, M

    2016-05-01

    The interplay between insect and plant traits outlines the patterns of pollen transfer and the subsequent plant reproductive fitness. We studied the factors that affect the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L. by evaluating insect behaviour and morphological characteristics in relation to flowering phenology. In order to extrapolate the pollinator importance of single taxa and of the whole pollinator guild, we calculated an index distinguishing between potential (PPI) and realized (RPI) pollinator importance. Although the pollinator species spectrum appeared rather constant, we found high intra- and inter-annual variability of pollinator frequency and importance within the insect community. Flower visitation rate strictly depended on insect abundance and on the overlap between their flying period and flower blooming. All the pollinators visited flowers from the bottom to the top of the racemes, excluding intra-plant geitonogamous pollination, and most of them showed high pollen fidelity. Only medium large-sized bees could contact the upward bending stiles while feeding on nectar, highlighting a specialisation of the plant towards bigger pollinators. Moreover, we found evidence of functional specialisation, since all pollinators were restricted to a single taxonomic group (order: Hymenoptera; superfamily: Apoidea). Both the PPI and RPI indices indicate Habropoda tarsata as the most important pollinator of D. albus. Following hand cross-pollination experiments we revealed the presence of pollination limitation in 1 of the 3 years of field study. We discuss this result in relation to flowering abundance and to possible mismatches of phenological periods between plants and insects. PMID:26573095

  9. The reaction of Lupinus angustifolius L. root meristematic cell nucleoli to lead.

    PubMed

    Balcerzak, Lucja; Glińska, Sława; Godlewski, Mirosław

    2011-04-01

    The effect of 2-48 h treatment of Lupinus angustifolius L. roots with lead nitrate at the concentration of 10(-4) M on the nucleoli in meristematic cells was investigated. In the lead presence the number of ring-shaped as well as segregated nucleoli increased especially after 12-48 h of treatment, while spindle-shaped nucleoli appeared after 24 h and 48 h. Lead presence also increased the frequency of cells with silver-stained particles in the nucleus and the number of these particles especially from the 12th hour of treatment. It was accompanied by significant decline of nucleolar area. Analysis of these cells in transmission electron microscope confirmed the presence of ring-shaped and segregated nucleoli. Moreover, electron microscopy revealed compact structure nucleoli without granular component. Additionally, one to three oval-shaped fibrillar structures attached to nucleolus or lying free in the nucleoplasm were visible. The possible mechanism of lead toxicity to the nucleolus is briefly discussed. PMID:20625779

  10. Identification of Arthrobacter oxydans, Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov., and Arthrobacter albus sp. nov., Isolated from Human Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Wauters, Georges; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michèle; Delmée, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Five Arthrobacter isolates from clinical specimens were studied by phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genetic characterization. Two strains had characteristics consistent with those of Arthrobacter oxydans. One strain was related to A. citreus; however, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics indicated that this strain belongs to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov. is proposed. Two strains were closely related to A. cumminsii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, but DNA-DNA hybridization, peptidoglycan type, and some phenotypic features indicated that they should be assigned to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter albus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. luteolus is CF25 (DSM 13067). The type strain of A. albus is CF43 (DSM 13068). PMID:10835019

  11. Mating system and size advantage of male mating in the protogynous swamp eel Monopterus albus with paternal care.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro; Kohda, Masanori

    2011-05-01

    In fish with paternal care, protogynous sex change (female to male) is rare and has only been reported from species with haremic polygyny. The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous fish with paternal care, but little is known about its mating system. To understand protogyny in this species, we examined the mating system and male size advantage in mating in M. albus under semi-natural condition. Females swam over wide ranges and visited multiple male nests. Males defended a narrow territory around nests against other males that approached nests; at these nests, males courted and accepted visiting females. After spawning inside nests, caring males continued to perform courtship activities, and multiple breeding was observed. These observations suggest that the M. albus mating system is male-territory-visiting (MTV)-polygamy. Larger males had nests, and mated more frequently compared with small males. Because small initial males of this species are not found in nature, and because M. albus does not engage in sneaking tactics, larger nesting males do not suffer from reproductive parasitism. Thus, protogyny in this fish is likely consistent with the predictions of the size-advantage model. Biting attacks by territorial males of this predatory fish seriously wounded intruding males, occasionally resulting in the death of the intruder. We discuss the possibility that sexual differences in mortality rates in small fish may facilitate the evolution of protogyny in this species. Protogyny of the swamp eel is, to our knowledge, the first example of an MTV-polygamous mating system in a fish with paternal care. PMID:21557660

  12. Gene cloning and induced expression pattern of IRF4 and IRF10 in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    PubMed Central

    XU, Qiao-Qing; YANG, Dai-Qin; TUO, Rui; WAN, Jing; CHANG, Ming-Xian; NIE, Pin

    2014-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish in East Asia, but data on the immune genes of M. albus are scarce compared to other commercially important fish. A better understanding of the eel’s immune responses may help in developing strategies for disease management, potentially improving yields and mitigating losses. In mammals, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play a vital role in both the innate and adaptive immune system; though among teleosts IRF4 and IRF10 have seldom been studied. In this study, we characterized IRF4 and IRF10 from M. albus (maIRF4 and maIRF10) and found that maIRF4 cDNA consists of 1 716 nucleotides encoding a 451 amino acid (aa) protein, while maIRF10 consists of 1 744 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 236 nt encoding 411 aa. The maIRF10 gene was constitutively expressed at high levels in a variety of tissues, while maIRF4 showed a very limited expression pattern. Expression of maIRF4 and maIRF10 in head kidney, and spleen tissues was significantly up-regulated from 12 h to 48 h post-stimulation with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a common pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. These results suggest that IRF4 and IRF10 play roles in immune responses to both viral and bacterial infections in M. albus. PMID:25297077

  13. Does the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus increase pollinator visitation to a native herb through effects on pollinator population sizes?

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Anna; Padrón, Benigno

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants may compete with native species for abiotic factors as light, space and nutrients, and have also been shown to affect native pollination interactions. Studies have mainly focused on how invasive plants affect pollinator behaviour, i.e. attraction of pollinators to or away from native flowers. However, when an invasive plant provides resources utilized by native pollinators this could increase pollinator population sizes and thereby pollination success in natives. Effects mediated through changes in pollinator population sizes have been largely ignored in previous studies, and the dominance of negative interactions suggested by meta-analyses may therefore be biased. We investigated the impact of the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus on pollination in the native Lotus corniculatus using a study design comparing invaded and uninvaded sites before and after the flowering period of the invasive. We monitored wild bee abundance in transects, and visit rate and seed production of potted Lotus plants. Bumblebee abundance increased 3.9 times in invaded sites during the study period, whereas it was unaltered in uninvaded sites. Total visit rate per Lotus plant increased 2.1 times in invaded sites and decreased 4.4 times in uninvaded sites. No corresponding change in seed production of Lotus was found. The increase in visit rate to Lotus was driven by an increase in solitary bee visitation, whereas mainly bumblebees were observed to visit the invasive Lupinus. The mechanism by which the invasive increases pollinator visit rates to Lotus could be increased availability of other flower resources for solitary bees when bumblebees forage on Lupinus. PMID:24061551

  14. Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus. PMID:25363394

  15. Paths of water entry and structures involved in the breaking of seed dormancy of Lupinus.

    PubMed

    Robles-Díaz, Erika; Flores, Joel; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura

    2016-03-15

    Physical dormancy is the water impermeability of the seed coat caused by one or more palisade cell layer(s) called macrosclereids. The specialised structure for water entry sites is the water gap, which serves as a detector of environmental cues for germination. In Fabaceae, the water gap is the lens, although another seed structure for water entry could exist. In this study, we identified the initial site of water entry, observed the hydration of a cushion-like structure near the radicle, described the anatomy of the water gap, and analysed the association of anatomical seed traits with the initial site of water entry and the imbibition velocity of six species of Lupinus from the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Dye tracking with a toluidine blue solution was used to identify the initial site of water entry. The anatomical description was performed using conventional microtechnique and a light microscope. The entry of the toluidine solution into seeds of L. montanus was observed after 6h, followed by L. exaltatus and L. mexicanus after 18h and L. elegans, L. reflexus and L. rotundiflorus after 48h. The site of water entry was the lens in L. elegans, L. exaltatus, L. reflexus and L. rotundiflorus and the micropyle in L. mexicanus and L. montanus. The cushion-like structure was responsible for water accumulation in embryo imbibition. Significant differences among anatomical seed traits such as thickness in the hilar region, the counter-palisade layer, cushion-like structure, epidermis, hypodermis, and innermost parenchyma layer were found among the species. PMID:26874334

  16. The genus Micromonospora is widespread in legume root nodules: the example of Lupinus angustifolius.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Martha E; Alonso-Vega, Pablo; Rodríguez, Raúl; Carro, Lorena; Cerda, Eugenia; Alonso, Pilar; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2010-10-01

    Our current knowledge of plant-microbe interactions indicate that populations inhabiting a host plant are not restricted to a single microbial species but comprise several genera and species. No one knows if communities inside plants interact, and it has been speculated that beneficial effects are the result of their combined activities. During an ecological study of nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities from Lupinus angustifolius collected in Spain, significant numbers of orange-pigmented actinomycete colonies were isolated from surface-sterilized root nodules. The isolates were analysed by BOX-PCR fingerprinting revealing an unexpectedly high genetic variation. Selected strains were chosen for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that all strains isolated belonged to the genus Micromonospora and that some of them may represent new species. To determine the possibility that the isolates fixed atmospheric nitrogen, chosen strains were grown in nitrogen-free media, obtaining in some cases, significant growth when compared with the controls. These strains were further screened for the presence of the nifH gene encoding dinitrogenase reductase, a key enzyme in nitrogen fixation. The partial nifH-like gene sequences obtained showed a 99% similarity with the sequence of the nifH gene from Frankia alni ACN14a, an actinobacterium that induces nodulation and fixes nitrogen in symbiosis with Alnus. In addition, in situ hybridization was performed to determine if these microorganisms inhabit the inside of the nodules. This study strongly suggests that Micromonospora populations are natural inhabitants of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. PMID:20445637

  17. Kinship rivalry does not trigger specific allocation strategies in Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Milla, Rubén; del Burgo, Ainhoa Vélez; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Research on the ability of plants to recognize kin and modify plant development to ameliorate competition with coexisting relatives is an area of very active current exploration. Empirical evidence, however, is insufficient to provide a sound picture of this phenomenon. Methods An experiment was designed to assess multi-trait phenotypic expression in response to competition with conspecifics of varied degrees of genealogical relatedness. Groups of siblings, cousins and strangers of Lupinus angustifolius were set in competition in a pots assay. Several whole-plant and organ-level traits, directly related to competition for above- and below-ground resources, were measured. In addition, group-level root proliferation was measured as a key response trait to relatedness to neighbours, as identified in previous work. Key Results No major significant phenotypic differences were found between individuals and groups that could be assigned to the gradient of relatedness used here. This occurred in univariate models, and also when multi-trait interactions were evaluated through multi-group comparisons of Structural Equation Models. Root proliferation was higher in phenotypically more heterogeneous groups, but phenotypic heterogeneity was independent of the relatedness treatments of the experiment, and root proliferation was alike in the neighbourhoods of siblings, cousins and strangers. Conclusions In contrast to recent findings in other species, genealogical relatedness to competing neighbours has a negligible impact on the phenotypic expression of individuals and groups of L. angustifolius. This suggests that kin recognition needs further exploration to assess its generality, the ecological scenarios where it might have been favoured or penalized by natural selection, and its preponderance in different plant lineages. PMID:22562807

  18. Compositions and functions of the hatching froth from ricefield eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew).

    PubMed

    Yin, Shaowu; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The ricefield eel (Monopterus albus) is an economic fish species in China. To improve its artificial reproduction, we studied the compositions and functions of the hatching froth secreted by ricefield eels. The froth showed a viscosity of 2.72 mPaS, composed of glycoproteins with a sugar content of 0.156 mg/ml and a protein content of 0.250 mg/ml at a ratio of 1.60. The froth proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE as four proteins with the molecular weights of 42.5, 58.6, 65.3, and 98.2 kDa respectively. Their total amino acid content was 201.88 mg/100 ml, consisting of 16 kinds of amino acids. Filed observation revealed three beneficial effects of the froth on the hatching of the eel eggs. First, the froth increased the hatching rates of fertilized eggs at a range of water temperatures. Second, the froth decreased the rates of infection of the fertilized eggs by the water mold. Finally, the froth accelerated velum breakage in the fertilized eggs. Of the different hatching methods, froth incubation achieved the highest hatching rate and larvae survival rate. These results demonstrate the indispensable function of the froth of ricefield eels, and offer practical reasons for protecting the froth during the breeding season. PMID:18949569

  19. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat. PMID:22538454

  20. Mercury contamination in free-ranging great egret nestlings (Ardea albus) from southern Florida, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Williams, G.E. Jr.

    1999-05-01

    Between March and June of 1994 and 1995, mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined from 393 blood and 164 growing scapular feathers from 252 great egret nestlings (Ardea albus). Nestlings came from eight colonies located in Water Conservation Area 3 in the Everglades region in southern Florida. The ages of these birds ranged from 1 to 44 d (bill length 1.1 to 10.2 cm). Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of first-hatched great egret nestlings sampled during 1994 averaged 1.2 {micro}g/g (range = 0.07--3.9) wet weight and 16 {micro}g/g (4.5--40) dry weight, respectively. During 1995, first-hatched chicks had blood and feather Hg concentrations that averaged 0.8 {micro}g/g (0.2--1.7) and 9.7 {micro}g/g (2.3--26), respectively. In both years, Hg concentrations in blood and feathers were significantly correlated, and a significant correlation also was found between Hg in blood and age of the chicks. Blood and feather Hg concentrations differed significantly between years, with higher concentrations during 1994. Birds from JW1 and L67 colonies had the highest concentrations of Hg in blood and feathers. Mercury concentrations did not differ between chicks of different hatch order Mercury in feathers of great egret nestlings from southern Florida are approximately six times higher than when compared to feather Hg concentrations of nestlings wading birds sampled elsewhere.

  1. The Pied Crow (Corvus albus) is insensitive to diclofenac at concentrations present in carrion.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Mompati, Kefiloe Feliciity; Duncan, Neil; Taggart, Mark Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), kills vultures (Gyps spp.) that consume tainted carcasses. As a result, vulture populations in India, Nepal, and Pakistan have been devastated. Studies on meloxicam and ketoprofen demonstrated that the toxicity of the NSAIDs is unpredictable, thereby necessitating individual testing of all available NSAIDs. Because it is no longer practical to use vultures for toxicity testing, we evaluated the Pied Crow (Corvus albus) as a model. Pied Crows (n=6) were exposed to a dose of 0.8 and 10 mg/kg of diclofenac, with no signs of toxicity, and a rapid half-life of elimination. Using primary renal cell and hepatocyte cultures, a high tolerance was demonstrated at the cellular level. Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic data for the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus) and the African White-backed (Gyps africanus), Cape Griffon (Gyps coprotheres), and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) showed a trend toward toxicity when the half-life of elimination increased. We conclude that the crow is not susceptible to diclofenac and, more important, that toxicity in the Gyps species is probably related to zero-order metabolism. PMID:22102664

  2. Lupin protein isolate versus casein modifies cholesterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters in a pig model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lupin proteins exert hypocholesterolemic effects in man and animals, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we investigated whether lupin proteins compared to casein modulate sterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters by use of pigs as an animal model with similar lipid metabolism as humans, and cellular cholesterol-uptake by Caco-2 cells. Methods Two groups of pigs were fed cholesterol-containing diets with either 230 g/kg of lupin protein isolate from L. angustifolius or 230 g/kg casein, for 4 weeks. Faeces were collected quantitatively over a 5 d period for analysis of neutral sterols and bile acids by gas chromatographically methods. The mRNA abundances of intestinal lipid transporters were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol-uptake studies were performed with Caco-2 cells that were incubated with lupin conglutin γ, phytate, ezetimibe or albumin in the presence of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol. Results Pigs fed the lupin protein isolate revealed lower cholesterol concentrations in total plasma, LDL and HDL than pigs fed casein (P < 0.05). Analysis of faeces revealed a higher output of cholesterol in pigs that were fed lupin protein isolate compared to pigs that received casein (+57.1%; P < 0.05). Relative mRNA concentrations of intestinal sterol transporters involved in cholesterol absorption (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, scavenger receptor class B, type 1) were lower in pigs fed lupin protein isolate than in those who received casein (P < 0.05). In vitro data showed that phytate was capable of reducing the uptake of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol into the Caco-2 cells to the same extend as ezetimibe when compared to control (−20.5% vs. −21.1%; P < 0.05). Conclusions Data reveal that the cholesterol-lowering effect of lupin protein isolate is attributable to an increased faecal output of cholesterol and a reduced intestinal uptake of cholesterol. The findings indicate phytate as a

  3. Metabolic and ultrastructural responses of lupine embryo axes to sugar starvation.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Bednarski, Waldemar; Ratajczak, Wiktoria; Waplak, Stefan

    2003-03-01

    Embryo axes isolated from germinating lupine seeds were cultivated in vitro for 24-96 h over media containing either 60 mmol/L sucrose or no sucrose. Ultrastructural studies showed that large vacuoles were accumulating in a central region of primary parenchyma cells in sucrose starved lupine embryo axes, whereas cytoplasm along with organelles were forced to a periphery of the cells. We suggest that the autolysis of cytoplasmic proteins contributes to the accumulation of the vacuoles and this suggestion is consistent with the results of the characterisation of protein content. The level of cytosolic proteins was reduced by 50% and the activity of cytosolic marker enzyme, PEP carboxylase, was reduced by 46% in starved embryos as compared to control. The mitochondria from starved tissues were not degraded. The level of mitochondrial proteins was reduced by only 10% and the activity of mitochondrial NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase decreased by 8% as a result of starvation. As demonstrated by the results of Percoll density gradient centrifugation, sucrose starvation caused an increase of 49% in many of the higher density mitochondria fractions, whereas many of the lower density mitochondria fractions were decreased by 33%. The samples of mitochondria from starved embryo axes were determined to have higher respiration activity in the presence of glutamate and malate as compared to control samples. EPR-based analyses of free radicals showed the presence of free radicals with a signal at g = 2.0060 in embryo axes. The level of the radical was two times higher in sucrose-starved embryo axes than in control (the level of this radical increased in senescing plant tissues as well). The results of EPR-based quantitation of Mn2+ ions revealed that the level was a few times higher in starved material than in control. Starved embryo axes, however, do possess a number of adaptive mechanisms protecting them from oxidative damage. Densitometric analyses of gels revealed an increase in

  4. Muscodor albus E-6, an endophyte of Guazuma ulmifolia making volatile antibiotics: isolation, characterization and experimental establishment in the host plant.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Gary A; Kluck, Katreena; Hess, Wilford M; Sears, Joe; Ezra, David; Vargas, Percy N

    2007-08-01

    Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus, represented by a number of isolates from tropical tree and vine species in several of the world's rainforests, that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antibiotic activity. A new isolate, E-6, of this organism, with unusual biochemical and biological properties, has been obtained from the branches of a mature Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) tree growing in a dry tropical forest in SW Ecuador. This unique organism produces many VOCs not previously observed in other M. albus isolates, including butanoic acid, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-; 2-butenal, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester; 3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl; guaiol; 1-octene, 3-ethyl-; formamide, N-(1-methylpropyl); and certain azulene and naphthalene derivatives. Some compounds usually seen in other M. albus isolates also appeared in the VOCs of isolate E-6, including caryophyllene; phenylethyl alcohol; acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester; bulnesene; and various propanoic acid, 2-methyl- derivatives. The biological activity of the VOCs of E-6 appears different from the original isolate of this fungus, CZ-620, since a Gram-positive bacterium was killed, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani were not. Scanning electron micrographs of the mycelium of isolate E-6 showed substantial intertwining of the hyphal strands. These strands seemed to be held together by an extracellular matrix accounting for the strong mat-like nature of the mycelium, which easily lifts off the agar surface upon transfer, unlike any other isolate of this fungus. The ITS-5.8S rDNA partial sequence data showed 99 % similarity to the original M. albus strain CZ-620. For the first time, successful establishment of M. albus into its natural host, followed by recovery of the fungus, was accomplished in seedlings of G. ulmifolia. Overall, isolates of M. albus, including E-6, have chemical, biological and structural characteristics that make them potentially useful in

  5. Functional Analyses of Multiple Lichenin-Degrading Enzymes from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8▿†

    PubMed Central

    Iakiviak, Michael; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a fibrolytic ruminal bacterium capable of utilization of various plant cell wall polysaccharides. A bioinformatic analysis of a partial genome sequence of R. albus revealed several putative enzymes likely to hydrolyze glucans, including lichenin, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide of glucose linked together in β-1,3 and β-1,4 glycosidic bonds. In the present study, we demonstrate the capacity of four glycoside hydrolases (GHs), derived from R. albus, to hydrolyze lichenin. Two of the genes encoded GH family 5 enzymes (Ra0453 and Ra2830), one gene encoded a GH family 16 enzyme (Ra0505), and the last gene encoded a GH family 3 enzyme (Ra1595). Each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified to near homogeneity. Upon screening on a wide range of substrates, Ra0453, Ra2830, and Ra0505 displayed different hydrolytic properties, as they released unique product profiles. The Ra1595 protein, predicted to function as a β-glucosidase, preferred cleavage of a nonreducing end glucose when linked by a β-1,3 glycosidic bond to the next glucose residue. The major product of Ra0505 hydrolysis of lichenin was predicted to be a glucotriose that was degraded only by Ra0453 to glucose and cellobiose. Most importantly, the four enzymes functioned synergistically to hydrolyze lichenin to glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose. This lichenin-degrading enzyme mix should be of utility as an additive to feeds administered to monogastric animals, especially those high in fiber. PMID:21890664

  6. Adsorption at the air-water interface and emulsification properties of grain legume protein derivatives from pea and broad bean.

    PubMed

    Tsoukala, A; Papalamprou, E; Makri, E; Doxastakis, G; Braudo, E E

    2006-12-01

    Functional properties of native and modified (through induced autolysis) pea (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.) protein derivatives are studied. In specific, protein solubility and behavior at the air-water interface through surface pressure measurements are investigated. Furthermore the ability of the protein products to act as emulsifying agents and to stabilize emulsions is studied through oil droplet size distribution measurements and by the protein adsorbed at the oil-water interface. The data reveal that the ability of the proteins to act as surfactants and build up a rigid film around the oil droplets, mainly depends on their suitable molecular configuration and structure. Hydrolysis did not promote the functionality of the legume proteins. Broad bean exhibited better functionality than pea, before and after hydrolysis. Some comparisons were also made with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) protein isolate. PMID:17049437

  7. Properties and Expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-Subunit Isoforms in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Which Has Unusually High Brain Ammonia Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu L.; Wee, Nicklaus L. J. E.; Hiong, Kum C.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2013-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l−1) and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (∼4.5 µmol g−1). Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka) is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4+ can substitute for K+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka α-subunits, some of which might have high K+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka α-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities over a range of K+/NH4+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nkaα (nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b) were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nkaα2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l−1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na+/K+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4+/K+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1) lack of nkaα2 expression, (2) high K+ specificity of K+ binding sites of Nkaα1, Nkaα3a and Nkaα3b, and (3) down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nkaα isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus. PMID:24391932

  8. Pharmacokinetics and residue depletion of praziquantel in rice field eels Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Dong, Jing; Yang, Yibin; Ai, Xiaohui

    2016-04-12

    We investigated the pharmacokinetic characteristics of praziquantel (PZQ) in rice field eels Monopterus albus. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined following a single intravenous administration (5 mg kg(-1) body weight [bw]) and a single oral administration (10 mg kg(-1) bw) at 22.0 ± 0.7°C. We also evaluated residue depletion in tissues following daily administration of PZQ (10 mg kg(-1) bw) that was given orally for 3 consecutive days at 22.0 ± 0.7°C. Following intravenous treatment, the plasma concentration-time curve was best described by a 3-compartment open model, with distribution half-life (t(1/2α)), elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 0.54 h, 17.10 h, and 14505.12 h µg l(-1), respectively. After oral administration, the plasma concentration-time curve was best described by a 1-compartment open model with first-order absorption, with absorption half-life (t(1/2Ka)), elimination half-life (t(1/2Ke)), peak concentration (C(max)), time-to-peak concentration (T(max)), and AUC estimated to be 2.28 h, 6.66 h, 361.29 µg l(-1), 5.36 h, and 6065.46 h µg l(-1), respectively. The oral bioavailability (F) was 20.9%. With respect to residue depletion of PZQ, the t(1/2β) values of muscle, skin, liver, and kidney were 20.2, 28.4, 14.9, and 54.1 h, respectively. Our results indicated rapid absorption, rapid elimination, and low bioavailability of PZQ in rice field eels at the tested dosing conditions. PMID:27068504

  9. Studies of the extracellular glycocalyx of the anaerobic cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Paul J; Price, Neil P J; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Van Zyl, Willem H

    2006-12-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied by the formation of thin cellular extensions that allowed the bacterium to adhere to cellulose, followed by formation of a ramifying network that interconnected individual cells to one another and to the unraveling cellulose microfibrils. Extraction of 48-h-old whole-culture pellets (bacterial cells plus glycocalyx [G] plus residual cellulose [C]) with 0.1 N NaOH released carbohydrate and protein in a ratio of 1:5. Boiling of the cellulose fermentation residue in a neutral detergent solution removed almost all of the adherent cells and protein while retaining a residual network of adhering noncellular material. Trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of this residue (G plus C) released primarily glucose, along with substantial amounts of xylose and mannose, but only traces of galactose, the most abundant sugar in most characterized bacterial exopolysaccharides. Linkage analysis and characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that most of the glucosyl units were not present as partially degraded cellulose. Calculations suggested that the energy demand for synthesis of the nonprotein fraction of EPS by this organism represents only a small fraction (<4%) of the anabolic ATP expenditure of the bacterium. PMID:17028224

  10. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Williams, G.E.; Nico, L.; Robins, R.

    1999-09-01

    The authors estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish, though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and they found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. The authors estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. They estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish. The authors estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. They estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledgling mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  11. Dechlorination of chlorophenols using extracellular peroxidases produced by streptomyces albus ATCC 3005.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, V T.; Rob, A; Ball, A S.; Wilson, M T.

    2001-07-01

    Streptomyces albus ATCC 3005 was found to produce higher levels of extracellular peroxidase activity (3.420 U mg(-1)) than previously reported for any other actinomycete. Maximum peroxidase activity was obtained after 72 h of incubation at a temperature of 30 degrees C in a liquid medium (pH 7.6) containing (in w/v) 0.8% to 0.9% oat spelts xylan and 0.6% yeast extract, corresponding to a C:N ratio of around 8.4:1. Characterization of the peroxidases revealed that the optimal temperature for peroxidase activity, using the standard 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) assay was 53 degrees C, when the enzyme reaction was performed at pH 7.2. A study of the effect of temperature on the stability of peroxidase over time, showed that the enzyme was stable at 40 degrees C, with a half-life of 224 min, while at higher temperatures the stability and activity was reduced such that at 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C the half-life of the enzyme was 50 min and 9 min respectively. The optimum pH for the activity of the enzyme occurred between pH 8.1 and 10.4. In terms of substrate specificity, the peroxidase was able to catalyze a broad range of substrates including 2,4-DCP, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and other chlorophenols in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Ion exchange chromatography was used to confirm that the enzyme was able to release chloride ions from a range of chlorophenols. PMID:11427236

  12. Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-07-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T) = CCTCC AA 2013003(T) = NRRL B-59998(T) = KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T) = CCTCC AA 2013004(T) = NRRL B-24927(T) = KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

  13. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, Peter C; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Sepalveda, Maria S.; Williams, Gary E.; Nico, Leo G.; Robins, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish (>95% of biomass), though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and we found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. We estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. We estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish (4-year mean = 0.41 mg/kg). We estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. We estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledging mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  14. Molecular cloning of the BLADE-ON-PETIOLE gene and expression analyses during nodule development in Lupinus luteus.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Kamil; Wilmowicz, Emilia; Kućko, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) genes have been recently shown to play an essential role in many physiological processes, including embryogenesis, meristem determinacy, leaf patterning and nodule development. In our research we used Lupinus luteus, a plant with great agronomic potential due to its high protein content and nitrogen fixation ability. In this work, LlBOP in L. luteus was identified for the first time and its expression during nodule development was analyzed. The high expression levels of LlBOP and LlLbI (LEGHEMOGLOBIN), essential to nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, were noted in the developing root nodules and were correlated with the occurrence of leghemoglobin. All of these data indicate that LlBOP is an important regulator of root nodule formation and functioning in L. luteus. PMID:25817415

  15. Rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic carbon decomposition under plant species differing in soil acidification and root exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Caixian; Severi, Julia; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A

    2016-08-01

    Effects of rhizosphere properties on the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) are unknown. This study aimed to link species variation in RPE with plant traits and rhizosphere properties. Four C3 species (chickpea, Cicer arietinum; field pea, Pisum sativum; wheat, Triticum aestivum; and white lupin, Lupinus albus) differing in soil acidification and root exudation, were grown in a C4 soil. The CO2 released from soil was trapped using a newly developed NaOH-trapping system. White lupin and wheat showed greater positive RPEs, in contrast to the negative RPE produced by chickpea. The greatest RPE of white lupin was in line with its capacity to release root exudates, whereas the negative RPE of chickpea was attributed to its great ability to acidify rhizosphere soil. The enhanced RPE of field pea at maturity might result from high nitrogen deposition and release of structural root carbon components following root senescence. Root biomass and length played a minor role in the species variation in RPE. Rhizosphere acidification was shown to be an important factor affecting the magnitude and direction of RPE. Future studies on RPE modelling and mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate RPE should consider the effect of rhizosphere pH. PMID:27101777

  16. Phloem Glutamine and the Regulation of O2 Diffusion in Legume Nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Neo, H. H.; Layzell, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the N content or the composition of the phloem sap that supplies nodulated roots may play a role in the feedback regulation of nitrogenase activity by increasing nodule resistance to O2 diffusion. Treating shoots of lupin (Lupinus albus cv Manitoba) or soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Maple Arrow) with 100 [mu]L L-1 NH3 caused a 1.3-fold (lupin) and 2.6-fold (soybean) increase in the total N content of phloem sap without altering its C content. The increase in phloem N was due primarily to a 4.8-fold (lupin) and 10.5-fold (soybean) increase in the concentration of glutamine N. In addition, there was a decline in both the apparent nitrogenase activity and total nitrogenase activity that began within 4 h and reached about 54% of its initial activity within 6 h of the start of the NH3 treatment. However, the potential nitrogenase activity values in the treated plants were not significantly different from those of the control plants. These results provide evidence that changes in the N composition of the phloem sap, particularly the glutamine content, may increase nodule resistance to O2 diffusion and, thereby, down-regulate nodule metabolism and nitrogenase activity by controlling the supply of O2 to the bacteria-infected cells. PMID:12223605

  17. The reallocation of carbon in P deficient lupins affects biological nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, Aleysia; Venter, Mauritz; Kossmann, Jens; Valentine, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    It is not known how phosphate (P) deficiency affects the allocation of carbon (C) to biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes. The alteration of the respiratory and photosynthetic C costs of BNF was investigated under P deficiency. Although BNF can impose considerable sink stimulation on host respiratory and photosynthetic C, it is not known how the change in the C and energy allocation during P deficiency may affect BNF. Nodulated Lupinus luteus plants were grown in sand culture, using a modified Long Ashton nutrient solution containing no nitrogen (N) for ca. four weeks, after which one set was exposed to a P-deficient nutrient medium, while the other set continued growing on a P-sufficient nutrient medium. Phosphorus stress was measured at 20 days after onset of P-starvation. During P stress the decline in nodular P levels was associated with lower BNF and nodule growth. There was also a shift in the balance of photosynthetic and respiratory C toward a loss of C during P stress. Below-ground respiration declined under limiting P conditions. However, during this decline there was also a shift in the proportion of respiratory energy from maintenance toward growth respiration. Under P stress, there was an increased allocation of C toward root growth, thereby decreasing the amount of C available for maintenance respiration. It is therefore possible that the decline in BNF under P deficiency may be due to this change in resource allocation away from respiration associated with direct nutrient uptake, but rather toward a long term nutrient acquisition strategy of increased root growth. PMID:25155758

  18. The exocellular beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G. Purification, properties and comparison with the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Duez, C; Frère, J M; Klein, D; Noël, M; Ghuysen, J M; Delcambe, L; Dierickx, L

    1981-01-01

    The exocellular beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G has been purified to near protein homogeneity. It consists of one single polypeptide chain of mol.wt. 30 000-31 000, has a rather low isoelectric point (at pH 6.0) and contains less lysine (2.1%) and more half-cystine residues than most beta-lactamases from other Gram-positive bacteria. Penicillins are much better substrates than delta 3-cephalosporins; the catalytic-centre activity of good penicillin substrates is 333-500 s-1. The exocellular, mol.wt. 17 000 DD-carboxypeptidase of S. albus G [previously purified to protein homogeneity; Duez, Frère, Geurts, Ghuysen, Dierickx & Delcambe (1978) Biochem. J. 175, 793-800] behaves as an exceedingly poor beta-lactamase, hydrolysing benzylpenicillin into benzylpenicilloate 5 x 10(-6)-fold less rapidly than does the exocellular beta-lactamase. To all appearances, the beta-lactamase has no bivalent cation requirement whereas, as shown elsewhere [Dideberg, Charlier, Dupont, Vermeire, Frère & Ghuysen (1980) FEBS Lett. 117, 212-214, and Dideberg, Joris, Frère, Ghuysen, Weber, Robaye, Delbrouck & Roelands (1980) FEBS Lett. 117, 215-218], the DD-carboxypeptidase possesses one essential Zn2+ ion per molecule. Peptide 'mapping' and immunological studies suggest that the two Streptomyces enzymes probably have very different structural and mechanistic properties. PMID:6975618

  19. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-01-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution. PMID:24575231

  20. Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

    2012-01-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different

  1. Identification of gonadal soma-derived factor involvement in Monopterus albus (protogynous rice field eel) sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yefei; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaowu; Guan, Guijun

    2016-07-01

    We studied molecular events and potential mechanisms underlying the process of female-to-male sex transformation in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish in which the gonad is initially a female ovary and transforms into male testes. We cloned and identified a novel gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF), which encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. gsdf expression was measured in gonads of female, intersex and male with reverse transcription-PCR and gsdf's role in sex transformation was studied with qPCR, histological analysis and dual-color in situ hybridization assays and compared to other sex-related genes. gsdf was correlated to Sertoli cell differentiation, indicating involvement in testicular differentiation and sex transformation from female to male in this species. A unique expression pattern reveals a potential role of gsdf essential for the sex transformation of rice field eels. PMID:27230579

  2. Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Onstott, Tullis; McGown, Daniel; Bakermans, Corien; Ruskeeniemi, T; Ahonen, L; Telling, J; Soffientino, B; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Frape, S; Stotler, R; Johnson, E; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Rothmel, Randi; Pratt, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient

  3. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters in and below the base of thick permafrost at Lupin, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotler, Randy L.; Frape, Shaun K.; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Onstott, Tullis C.; Hobbs, Monique Y.

    2009-06-01

    SummaryShield fluids are commonly understood to evolve through water-rock interaction. However, fluids may also concentrate during ice formation. Very little is currently known about groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost in crystalline environments. This paper evaluates three possible Shield fluid evolution pathways at a crystalline Shield location currently under 500+ meters of permafrost, including surfical cryogenic concentration of seawater, in situ cryogenic concentration and water-rock interaction. A primary goal of this study was to further scientific understanding of permafrost and its role in influencing deep flow system evolution, fluid movement and chemical evolution of waters in crystalline rocks. Precipitation, surface, permafrost and subpermafrost water samples were collected, as well as dissolved and free gas samples, fracture fillings and matrix fluid samples to characterize the site. Investigations of groundwater conditions beneath thick permafrost provides valuable information which can be applied to safety assessment of deep, underground nuclear waste repositories, effects of long-term mining in permafrost areas and understanding analogues to potential life-bearing zones on Mars. The study was conducted in the Lupin gold mine in Nunavut, Canada, located within the zone of continuous permafrost. Through-taliks beneath large lakes in the area provided potential hydraulic connections through the permafrost. Na-Cl and Na-Cl-SO 4 type permafrost waters were contaminated by mining activities, affecting the chloride and nitrate concentrations. High nitrate concentrations (423-2630 mg L -1) were attributed to remnants of blasting. High sulfate concentrations in the permafrost (578-5000 mg L -1) were attributed to naturally occurring and mining enhanced sulfide oxidation. Mine dewatering created an artificial hydraulic gradient, resulting in methane hydrate dissociation at depth. Less contaminated basal waters had medium sulfate concentrations

  4. Microbial communities in subpermafrost saline fracture water at the Lupin Au mine, Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Onstott, T C; McGown, Daniel J; Bakermans, Corien; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Ahonen, Lasse; Telling, Jon; Soffientino, Bruno; Pfiffner, Susan M; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Frape, Shaun; Stotler, Randy; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Rothmel, Randi; Pratt, Lisa M

    2009-11-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na-Ca-Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, approximately25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were approximately10(3) cells mL(-1). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through

  5. Larval Gnathostoma spinigerum Detected in Asian Swamp Eels, Monopterus albus, Purchased from a Local Market in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Park, Jong-Bok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of swamp eels with Gnathostoma sp. larvae in Myanmar. We purchased total 37 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from a local market in Yangon in June and December 2013 and 2014. All collected eels were transferred with ice to our laboratory and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion technique. A total of 401 larval gnathostomes (1-96 larvae/eel) were detected in 33 (89.2%) swamp eels. Most of the larvae (n=383; 95.5%) were found in the muscle. The remaining 18 larvae were detected in the viscera. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) were 2.3-4.4 mm long and 0.25-0.425 mm wide. The characteristic head bulb (0.093 × 0.221 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, muscular long esophagus (1.025 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.574 mm) were observed by light microscopy. The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. As scanning electron microscopic findings, the characteristic 4-5 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, a cervical papilla, tegumental spines regularly arranged in the transverse striations, and an anus were well observed. Based on these morphological characters, they were identified as the AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum. By the present study, it has been confirmed for the first time that Asian swamp eels, M. albus, from Yangon, Myanmar are heavily infected with G. spinigerum larvae. PMID:26537042

  6. Larval Gnathostoma spinigerum Detected in Asian Swamp Eels, Monopterus albus, Purchased from a Local Market in Yangon, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Park, Jong-Bok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of swamp eels with Gnathostoma sp. larvae in Myanmar. We purchased total 37 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from a local market in Yangon in June and December 2013 and 2014. All collected eels were transferred with ice to our laboratory and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion technique. A total of 401 larval gnathostomes (1-96 larvae/eel) were detected in 33 (89.2%) swamp eels. Most of the larvae (n=383; 95.5%) were found in the muscle. The remaining 18 larvae were detected in the viscera. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) were 2.3-4.4 mm long and 0.25-0.425 mm wide. The characteristic head bulb (0.093 × 0.221 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, muscular long esophagus (1.025 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.574 mm) were observed by light microscopy. The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. As scanning electron microscopic findings, the characteristic 4-5 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, a cervical papilla, tegumental spines regularly arranged in the transverse striations, and an anus were well observed. Based on these morphological characters, they were identified as the AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum. By the present study, it has been confirmed for the first time that Asian swamp eels, M. albus, from Yangon, Myanmar are heavily infected with G. spinigerum larvae. PMID:26537042

  7. Fluoride absorption by the root and foliar tissues of the horse-bean (calicole) and lupin (calcifuge)

    SciTech Connect

    Garrec, J.P.; Letourneur, L.

    1981-01-01

    In the root and foliar tissues of calcicole (horse-bean) and calcifuge (lupin) plants, absorption of fluoride, at least in weak concentrations, does not appear to be related to the metabolism of these plants. Nevertheless the comparison of these two tissues highlights clearly the differences in absorption of fluoride in the two species. Absorption appears to be slower and of longer duration in calcifuge plants whereas between the two tissues, absorption is essentially quantitative, the foliar tissues always showing higher levels of fluoride than the roots. On the other hand, fluoride is only weakly attached to the tissues since most of it can be easily exsorbed into the water. Our data disclose a great similarity in the absorption mechanism of fluoride and calcium ions in calcicole and calcifuge plants.

  8. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N = 140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N = 15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9 cm to 12.2 cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51 days old (N = 13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2 cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild.

  9. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, J.M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N=140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N=15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9cm to 12.2cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51days old (N=13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Biochemical Analyses of Multiple Endoxylanases from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 and Their Synergistic Activities with Accessory Hemicellulose-Degrading Enzymes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Hwan; Iakiviak, Michael; Bauer, Stefan; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a ruminal bacterium capable of metabolizing hemicellulose and cellulose, the major components of the plant cell wall. The enzymes that allow this bacterium to capture energy from the two polysaccharides, therefore, have potential application in plant cell wall depolymerization, a process critical to biofuel production. For this purpose, a partial genome sequence of R. albus 8 was generated. The genomic data depicted a bacterium endowed with multiple forms of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. The endoxylanases of R. albus 8 exhibited diverse modular architectures, including incorporation of a catalytic module, a carbohydrate binding module, and a carbohydrate esterase module in a single polypeptide. The accessory enzymes of xylan degradation were a β-xylosidase, an α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and an α-glucuronidase. We hypothesized that due to the chemical complexity of the hemicellulose encountered in the rumen, the bacterium uses multiple endoxylanases, with subtle differences in substrate specificities, to attack the substrate, while the accessory enzymes hydrolyze the products to simple sugars for metabolism. To test this hypothesis, the genes encoding the predicted endoxylanases were expressed, and the proteins were biochemically characterized either alone or in combination with accessory enzymes. The different endoxylanase families exhibited different patterns of product release, with the family 11 endoxylanases releasing more products in synergy with the accessory enzymes from the more complex substrates. Aside from the insights into hemicellulose degradation by R. albus 8, this report should enhance our knowledge on designing effective enzyme cocktails for release of fermentable sugars in the biofuel industry. PMID:21666020