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1

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

2

Design and Economics of a Lignite-to-SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) Facility Using Lurgi Gasifiers for Lignite Gasification and the Texaco Partial Oxidation Process to Gasify Lurgi By-Product Liquids. Final Topical Report April 1985-November 1985,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design and cost estimate was prepared for a 250 billion Btu/day lignite-to-SNG plant that uses Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify lignite and the Texaco Partial Oxidation (POX) process to gasify the various hydrocarbon liquids produced by the Lurgi pr...

J. T. Smith S. C. Smelser

1985-01-01

3

Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification and the Texaco Partial Oxidation Process to gasify Lurgi by-product liquids. Final topical report, April 1985November 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design and cost estimate was prepared for a 250 billion Btu\\/day lignite-to-SNG plant that uses Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify lignite and the Texaco Partial Oxidation (POX) process to gasify the various hydrocarbon liquids produced by the Lurgi process. Also presented are plant performance and economic comparisons between this plant design and a Base Case design prepared previously in

J. T. Smith; S. C. Smelser

1985-01-01

4

Refining Lurgi tar acids  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

Greco, N.P.

1984-04-17

5

Lurgi's MPG gasification plus Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification - advanced process combination for reliable syngas production  

SciTech Connect

Lurgi's Multi Purpose Gasification Process (MPG) is the reliable partial oxidation process to convert hydrocarbon liquids, slurries and natural gas into valuable syngas. The MPG burner has once again proven its capabilities in an ammonia plant based on asphalt gasification. Lurgi is operating the HP-POX demonstration plant together with the University of Freiberg, Germany. Gasification tests at pressures of up to 100 bar have shown that syngas for high pressure synthesis such as methanol and ammonia can be produced more economically. The Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification process yields ultra clean synthesis gas which is required to avoid problems in the downstream synthesis. Pure carbon dioxide is produced as a separate stream and is readily available for sequestration, enhanced oil recovery or other uses. The reliability of the Rectisol{reg_sign} process and the confidence of plant operators in this process are acknowledged by the fact that more than 75% of the syngas produced world wide by coal, oil and waste gasification is purified in Rectisol{reg_sign} units. Virtually all coal gasification plants currently under construction rely on Rectisol{reg_sign}. The new, large GTL plants and hydrogen production facilities require effective CO{sub 2} removal. New developments make Rectisol{reg_sign} attractive for this task. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

NONE

2005-07-01

6

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT REPORT: LURGI COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR SNG  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a compilation and analysis of data on the equipment and processes constituting the Lurgi Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) systems, the control/disposal alternatives for a media, the performance and cost of control alternatives, and present and proposed environmental req...

7

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

SciTech Connect

Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1980-06-01

8

Syngas production from South African coal sources using Sasol–Lurgi gasifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sasol has been operating the Sasol–Lurgi fixed bed coal gasification process for more than fifty years, and with ninety seven units in operation still remains the world's largest commercial application of this technology. The combined operational and engineering expertise vested in Sasol represents a formidable capability in the field of coal and gasification science. Coal is a crucial feedstock for

J. C. van Dyk; M. J. Keyser; M. Coertzen

2006-01-01

9

US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas' Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F. (British Gas plc, London (United Kingdom)); Turna, O. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

1991-12-01

10

SASOL'S UNIQUE POSITION IN SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM SOUTH AFRICAN COAL SOURCES USING SASOL- LURGI FIXED BED DRY BOTTOM GASIFIERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sasol has been operating the Sasol-Lurgi fixed bed coal gasification process for more than fifty years, and with ninety seven units in operation still remains the world's largest commercial application of this technology. The combined operational and engineering expertise vested in Sasol represents a formidable capability in the field of coal and gasification science. Coal is a crucial feedstock for

JC van Dyk; MJ Keyser; M Coertzen

11

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: LURGI OIL SHALE RETORTING WITH OPEN PIT MINING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Lurgi oil shale PCTM addresses the Lurgi retorting technology, developed by Lurgi Kohle and Mineralotechnik GmbH, West Germany, in the manner in which this technology may be applied to the oil shales of the western United States. This manual proceeds through a description of ...

12

ASPEN modeling of the Tri-State indirect liquefaction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis gas conversion to methanol followed by further processing to gasoline using the Mobil MTG process. Models developed in this study include the following: Lurgi gasifier, Texaco gasifier, synthesis gas cooling, Rectisol, methanol

J. M. Begovich; J. H. Clinton; P. J. Johnson; R. E. Barker

1983-01-01

13

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: MODIFIED 'IN SITU' OIL SHALE RETORTING COMBINED WITH LURGI SURFACE RETORTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using L...

14

ASSESSMENT OF DISCHARGES FROM SASOL I LURGI-BASED COAL GASIFICATION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses analytical information, obtained from Sasol I, on the emission and effluent streams analyzed in the normal course of operation and testing. The purpose was to provide EPA with representative information on a commercial-size Lurgi-based coal gasification proje...

15

EVALUATION OF BACKGROUND DATA RELATING TO NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR LURGI GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report contains information on expected emissions from a large coal gasification complex based on Lurgi technology. Use of best available control technology was assumed and two different schemes for sulfur removal were examined. The coal gasification plant was divided into 15...

16

Evaluation of two conceptual wastewater treatment schemes for a Lurgi-based indirect coal liquefaction plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate two conceptual treatment schemes for decontaminating the wastewaters likely to be generated in a conceptual dry-ash Lurgi-based indirect coal liquefaction plant. The conceptual indirect coal liquefaction plant is an integrated (i.e., all utilities generated onsite) facility designed to convert 15,000 tons of moisture- and ash-free coal per stream day to motor gasoline

J. F. Villiers-Fisher; S. P. N. Singh

1984-01-01

17

Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater using sewage sludge based activated carbon supported manganese and ferric oxides as catalysts.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge of biological wastewater treatment plant was converted into sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) with ZnCl2 as activation agent, which supported manganese and ferric oxides as catalysts (including SBAC) to improve the performance of ozonation of real biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. The results indicated catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalysts significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal and the treated wastewater was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. On the basis of positive effect of higher pH and significant inhibition of radical scavengers in catalytic ozonation, it was deduced that the enhancement of catalytic activity was responsible for generating hydroxyl radicals and the possible reaction pathway was proposed. Moreover, the prepared catalysts showed superior stability and most of toxic and refractory compounds were eliminated at successive catalytic ozonation runs. Thus, the process with economical, efficient and sustainable advantages was beneficial to engineering application. PMID:24907577

Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian

2014-08-01

18

ASPEN Modeling of the Tri-State Indirect Liquefaction Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis gas conversion to methanol followed by further processing...

J. M. Begovich J. H. Clinton P. J. Johnson R. E. Barker

1983-01-01

19

Evaluation of the British Gas Corporation\\/Lurgi slagging gasifier in gasification-combined-cycle power generation. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant designs, performance data, cost estimates, and bus-bar power costs were developed for a nominal 500-MW integrated coal gasification, combined-cycle power plant. The British Gas\\/Lurgi slagging, fixed-bed gasifier was employed to produce a clean fuel gas from coal. The clean fuel gas was fired in near-term, advanced technology combustion gas turbines operating at combustor temperatures of 2200°F. Gas turbine exhausts

J. A. delaMora; J. R. Grisso; H. W. Klumpe; A. Musso; T. R. Roszkowski; B. H. Thompson; H. Lienhard; T. Beyer

1985-01-01

20

ASPEN modeling of the Tri-State indirect-liquefaction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect-liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis-gas conversion to methanol folowed by further processing to gasoline using the Mobil MTG process. Models developed in this study include the following: Lurgi gasifier, Texaco gasifier, synthesis gas cooling, Rectisol, methanol synthesis, methanol-to-gasoline,

R. E. Barker; J. M. Begovich; J. H. Clinton; P. J. Johnson

1983-01-01

21

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of Lurgi coal gasification wastewater in a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

Lurgi coal gasification wastewater (LCGW) is a refractory wastewater, whose anaerobic treatment has been a severe problem due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. Using a mesophilic (35±2°C) reactor as a control, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (55±2°C) of LCGW was investigated in a UASB reactor. After 120 days of operation, the removal of COD and total phenols by the thermophilic reactor could reach 50-55% and 50-60% respectively, at an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD/(m(3) d) and HRT of 24 h; the corresponding efficiencies were both only 20-30% in the mesophilic reactor. After thermophilic digestion, the wastewater concentrations of the aerobic effluent COD could reach below 200 mg/L compared with around 294 mg/L if mesophilic digestion was done and around 375 mg/L if sole aerobic pretreatment was done. The results suggested that thermophilic anaerobic digestion improved significantly both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of LCGW. PMID:21112778

Wang, Wei; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Li, Huiqiang; Yuan, Min

2011-02-01

22

A 180-MWe British Gas/Lurgi-based IGCC (integrated gasification combined-cycle) power plant: Feasibility study at Virginia Power and Detroit Edison: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the merits of combining the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasifier (BGL gasifier) with an advanced gas turbine in a 180-MWe, commercial-scale IGCC power plant located at Virginia Power's Chesterfield station. The gasification plant was fed with run-of-mine Pittsburgh No. 8 coal (containing 60 percent fines) and sized to fully load one General Electric MS7001F gas turbine at 88/degree/F ambient temperature. Seventy-five percent of the total coal fines were pelletized by agglomeration prior to gasification. All recovered tars and oils were recycled to the gasifier, while the gas liquor (process wastewater) is completely incinerated. The results of the study indicate that the IGCC power plant has a very good heat rate on coal (8993 Btu/kWh at 59/degree/F and a moderate capital cost, i.e., total capital requirement, on coal ($1910/kW at 59/degree/F, with AFDC) for a commercial-scale plant in this size range. With distillate augmentation to the medium-Btu fuel gas at 59/degree/F, the capital cost drops to about $1770/kW (with AFDC). A sensitivity study compared the cost and performance of a similar IGCC power plant located at an alternate plant site owned by Detroit Edison. The capital cost for the Detroit Edison plant increased by about $200/kW, with a very slight improvement in heat rate. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

Booras, G.S.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Sibley, F.O.

1988-09-01

23

Great Plains coal gasification project: Quarterly technical progress report, Third quarter 1986. [Lurgi process  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the third quarter of 1986 are presented for the Great Plains coal gasification plant. The following areas are discussed: (1) lignite coal production; (2) SNG production; (3) SNG gas quality; (4) by-products production and inventories; (5) onstream factors; (6) raw material, product and by-product consumption and energy consumption for plant operations; (7) plant modifications - 1986 budget; (8) plant maintenance; (9) safety; (10) industrial hygiene; (11) medical services; (12) environmental executive summary; and (13) quality assurance/quality control activities.

Not Available

1986-10-31

24

Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification with KRW gasifiers for gasification of coal fines. Topical report (Final), April 1985January 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first-pass design and cost estimate was prepared for a plant to convert lignite to substitute natural gas (SNG) using Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify the coal and the KRW fluid-bed gasifiers to gasify the coal fines. The overall plant thermal efficiency is between that of the Lurgi and KRW base case designs. The study-case design is of commercial interest

Smelser

1986-01-01

25

Evaluation of the British Gas Corporation/Lurgi slagging gasifier in gasification-combined-cycle power generation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Plant designs, performance data, cost estimates, and bus-bar power costs were developed for a nominal 500-MW integrated coal gasification, combined-cycle power plant. The British Gas/Lurgi slagging, fixed-bed gasifier was employed to produce a clean fuel gas from coal. The clean fuel gas was fired in near-term, advanced technology combustion gas turbines operating at combustor temperatures of 2200/sup 0/F. Gas turbine exhausts were used to produce steam that was employed in a superheat/reheat main steam turbine generator to produce additional power. Duct burners and external combustors were investigated for the purpose of firing any fuel gas available in excess of that consumed by the gas turbines. The results of the study indicate that the power plant has the potential to provide base-load electricity at a cost that is 10% to 15% lower than the cost of electricity produced by a conventional coal-steam plant. In addition, the plant has the capability for producing very low-cost peak and intermediate load electricity. Harmful emissions from the plant would be considerably reduced in quantity relative to conventional coal-fired plants. 24 figures, 43 tables.

delaMora, J.A.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Musso, A.; Roszkowski, T.R.; Thompson, B.H.; Lienhard, H.; Beyer, T.

1985-03-01

26

Coal-gasification-process concepts. [Dependence on gasifier pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

First Generation coal gasification continues to grow with the expansion of Lurgi process to make gasoline in South Africa and SNG in the United States. This moving-bed gasifier is no doubt the leading commercial application of coal gasification. This can probably be attributed to its operation at the elevated pressure that simultaneously increases coal throughput and broadens the utility of

C. L. Miller; P. B. Tarman

1982-01-01

27

ASPEN Modeling of the Tri-State Indirect-Liquefaction Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect-liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis-gas conversion to methanol folowed by further processing ...

J. H. Clinton J. M. Begovich P. J. Johnson R. E. Barker

1983-01-01

28

Outlook for the HPI ((Hydrocarbon Processing Industry))\\/King Coal's rebirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey covers current projects for coal gasification; the probable extent of coal gasification activities in the U.S.; the production of liquid fuels from coal; the production of methanol from coal by use of the Lurgi, Winkler, or Koppers-Totzek gasification processes and scale-up methanol processes; technology currently available for coal conversion; and the economics of coal conversion.

Wall

1974-01-01

29

Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 3A. Gasification test at Sasolburg, overview. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; Sasolburg test of Illinois Basin coals in Lurgi Mark IV  

SciTech Connect

The SASOL test was conducted in order to confirm the operability of the Lurgi process with Western Kentucky coal and determine the preliminary design basis for the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The test plan was structured to optimize design parameters of both the gasification and associated plants and their component units by: demonstrating the need for additional gasifiers over the 36 estimated in the feasibility study; determining the steam requirement, which was about 6% higher than for the feasibility study; confirming the oxygen requirement estimated for the feasibility study; confirming design and performance of the distributor/stirrer to be satisfactory for Illinois Basin type coal; confirming that moderately swelling and strongly caking Illinois Basin coals can be gasified in a Mark IV gasifier fitted with a distributor/stirrer when using a non-caking coal for start-up; determining coal handling and preparation should provide a proper size and minimize fines generation and reject rock material to provide a constant specific gravity coal to gasifier. Confirming that dusty tar injection is feasible up to certain limits and that all the tar injected is gasified; determining that no oil is produced directly from the gasifier; determining that no shift unit is required to adjust the hydrogen-to-carbon monoxide ratio to that required for the input to the Fischer-Tropsch Synthol Units; determining a required increase in frequency of monitoring and quality control measures; and determining that direct use of stripped gas liquor for plant cooling purposes is not practical nor economical due to the excessively high chloride levels.

Not Available

1982-06-01

30

Executive Summary Commercial Plant Conceptual Design and Cost Estimate: CO Sub 2 Acceptor Process Gasification Pilot Plant. Final Report, Volume 13, August 1976--December 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the unique technical features of the CO sub 2 Acceptor process and the economic potential of the process as projected from demonstrated performance in a 40 T/D pilot plant at Rapid City, S.D. compared to a standard Lurgi unit, the C...

1977-01-01

31

Definition of Design Criteria for, and Design of, a Demonstration SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) Plant Incorporating the Commercial-Size Ruhr 100 Gasifier, Accounting for Process Engineering Design and Economic Requirements. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A commercial-size plant for SNG production in a Lurgi fixed-bed gas generator is to be constructed. The study comprises constructional and process studies for determining the optimum size of a RUHR 100 type commercial gas generator as well as the optimum ...

H. P. Peyrer M. Eichelsbacher W. Schaefer

1986-01-01

32

Removal of COD, phenols and ammonium from Lurgi coal gasification wastewater using A2O-MBR system.  

PubMed

As a typical industrial wastewater, coal gasification wastewater has poor biodegradability and high toxicity. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic membrane reactor (A(2)O-MBR) system was developed to investigate the treatment ability of coal gasification wastewater. The removal capacity of each pollutants used in this system were determined at different hydraulic residence times (HRT) and mixed liquor recycle ratios (R). The experimental results showed that this system could effectively deal with COD and phenol removal and remain in a stable level when the operational parameters altered, while the nitrification was sensitive to operational conditions. The best performance was obtained at HRT of 48 h and R of 3. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, NH(4)(+)-N and phenols were 97.4%, 92.8% and 99.7%, with final concentrations in the effluent of 71 mg/L, 9.6 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively. Organics degradation and transformation were analyzed by GC/MS and it was found that anaerobic process played an important role in degradation of refractory compounds. PMID:22902132

Wang, Zixing; Xu, Xiaochen; Gong, Zheng; Yang, Fenglin

2012-10-15

33

Process description of the SASOL 1 coal-gasification plant. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SASOL I coal-gasification plant is part of a highly-integrated industrial complex which produces liquid and solid hydrocarbons, petrochemicals, LPG, and medium-Btu gas by Lurgi gasification followed by gas cleanup and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Many of the process units used in this plant are also found in the designs of a number of first-generation coal-gasification plants proposed for this country. Some

J. D. Quass; F. D. Skinner

1987-01-01

34

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

1992-05-04

35

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Third quarterly report, April 1993--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report presents research objectives, discusses activities, and presents technical progress for the period April 1, 1993 through June 31, 1993 on Contract No. DE-FC21-86LC11084 with the Department of Energy, Laramie Project Office. The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

1993-08-11

36

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

1992-05-04

37

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the original research program and of its continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large-scale testing sufficient to describe commercial-scale embankment behavior. The large-scale testing was accomplished by constructing five lysimeters, each 7.3{times}3.0{times}3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process (Schmalfield 1975). Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was placed in the lysimeter cells. This report discusses and summarizes results from scientific efforts conducted between October 1991 and September 1992 for Fiscal Year 1992.

Turner, J.P.; Reeves, T.L.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

1992-11-01

38

ASPEN modeling of the Tri-State indirect liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis gas conversion to methanol followed by further processing to gasoline using the Mobil MTG process. Models developed in this study include the following: Lurgi gasifier, Texaco gasifier, synthesis gas cooling, Rectisol, methanol synthesis, methanol-to-gasoline, CO-shift, methanation, and naphtha hydrotreating. These models have been successfully developed in modular form so that they can be used to simulate a number of different flowsheets or process alternatives. Simulations of the Tri-State flowsheet have been made using two different coal feed rates and two types of feed coal. The overall simulation model was adjusted to match the Tri-State flowsheet values for methanol, LPG, isobutane, and gasoline. As a result of this adjustment, the MTG reactor yield structure necessary to match the flowsheet product rates was determined. The models were exercised at different flow rates and were unaffected by such changes, demonstrating their range of operability. The use of Illinois No. 6 coal, with its lower ash content, resulted in slightly higher production rates for each of the products as compared to use of the Kentucky coal.

Begovich, J.M.; Clinton, J.H.; Johnson, P.J.; Barker, R.E.

1983-01-01

39

Mathematical Modelling of Stationary and Dynamic Behaviour of the Lurgi Pressure Gasifier Taking Low-Temperature Carbonization of Coal into Account.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dissertation aims at calculating the effects of process-technological measures like increasing pressure and using two separate gas outlets. The configuration of the drying, carbonization, gasification and combustion zones allows successive description...

W. Mengis

1983-01-01

40

Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes  

SciTech Connect

This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

Not Available

1982-06-01

41

ASPEN modeling of the Tri-State indirect-liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

The ASPEN process simulator has been used to model an indirect-liquefaction flowsheet patterned after that of the Tri-State project. This flowsheet uses Lurgi moving-bed gasification with synthesis-gas conversion to methanol folowed by further processing to gasoline using the Mobil MTG process. Models developed in this study include the following: Lurgi gasifier, Texaco gasifier, synthesis gas cooling, Rectisol, methanol synthesis, methanol-to-gasoline, CO-shift, methanation, and naphtha hydrotreating. These models have been successfully developed in modular form so that they can be used to simulate a number of different flowsheets or process alternatives. Simulations of the Tri-State flowsheet have been made using two different coal-feed rates and two types of feed coal. The overall simulation model was adjusted to match the Tri-State flowsheet values for methanol, LPG, isobutane, and gasoline. As a result of this adjustment, the MTG reactor yield structure necessary to match the flowsheet product rates was determined. The models were exercised at different flow rates and were unaffected by such changes, demonstrating their range of operability. The use of Illinois No. 6 coal, with its lower ash content, resulted in slightly higher production rates of each of the products as compared to use of the Kentucky coal.

Barker, R.E.; Begovich, J.M.; Clinton, J.H.; Johnson, P.J.

1983-10-01

42

Process synergy accented synfuels debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to D. Netzer and R. T. Ellington (Fluor Eng. Consult. Inc.), a combination of a slagging Lurgi with a Texaco gasifier would cost $765 million vs. $1072 million for a conventional 250 million Btu\\/day dry-bottom Lurgi unit, and would increase the gas production efficiency from 55 to 66%. The ''two-stage liquefaction'' variation of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC I)

J. C. Davis; D. Netzer; R. T. Ellington; J. C. Tao; K. Davis

1979-01-01

43

Techno-economic assessment of the Mobil Two-Stage Slurry Fischer-Tropsch/ZSM-5 process  

SciTech Connect

A techno-economic assessment of the Mobil Two-Stage Slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor system was carried out. Mobil bench-scale data were evaluated and scaled to a commercial plant design that produced specification high-octane gasoline and high-cetane diesel fuel. Comparisons were made with three reference plants - a SASOL (US) plant using dry ash Lurgi gasifiers and Synthol synthesis units, a modified SASOL plant with a British Gas Corporation slagging Lurgi gasifier (BGC/Synthol) and a BGC/slurry-phase process based on scaled data from the Koelbel Rheinpreussen-Koppers plant. A conceptual commercial version of the Mobil two-stage process shows a higher process efficiency than a SASOL (US) and a BGC/Synthol plant. The Mobil plant gave lower gasoline costs than obtained from the SASOL (US) and BGC/Synthol versions. Comparison with published data from a slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (Koelbel) unit indicated that product costs from the Mobil process were within 6% of the Koelbel values. A high-wax version of the Mobil process combined with wax hydrocracking could produce gasoline and diesel fuel at comparable cost to the lowest values achieved from prior published slurry-phase results. 27 references, 18 figures, 49 tables.

El Sawy, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.; Tomlinson, G.

1984-11-01

44

Program plan for development of hot dirty gas compressors/expanders for coal gasification systems. [Gasifiers of Texaco, Shell, Koppers-Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi, Winkle, Westinghouse, U-Gas and Exxon catalytic processes  

SciTech Connect

This effort was conducted to provide supporting data for a proposed Department of Energy program for the development of components for hot dirty gas service in gasification systems. This report deals with compressor/expander applications, and its scope includes a broad range of gasification systems such as the generic models for entrained-flow, moving-bed, and fluidized-bed gasifiers. The normal isostatic operation of gasification systems indicated that there is little incentive to use hot dirty gas compressors/expanders in the primary gasification streams. Gasification systems that require auxiliary carbon combustion to either supply heat or to use char will require a combustion unit that can accept a wide range of fuels. Some of these units can be effectively coupled to a hot dirty gas expander. A state-of-the-art industrial capabilities survey indicated that cat-cracker expander operating conditions closely approached those of a PFBC. The estimated life of these units is in the 3- to 6-year range at an inlet temperature of 705/sup 0/C (1300/sup 0/F) and 1/3- to 1-year range at an inlet temperature of 900/sup 0/C (1650/sup 0/F). A present effort to increase the service life of expanders at inlet temperatures of up to 900/sup 0/C (1650/sup 0/F) is sponsored by DOE as part of the PFBC development program. The scope of the present program to advance the state of the art of hot dirty gas expanders, coupled with industry capability of supplying the presently envisioned gasification needs, appears to be sufficient to fulfill anticipated gasifier needs. Therefore, no expansion of the research and development efforts of the hot dirty gas expander program is justified. However, the general work performed as part of the PFBC program involves test areas that could have direct applications to gasification components. The PFBC program should be closely monitored for potential technology transfer to gasification applications. 15 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

Lackey, M.E.

1983-11-01

45

17 years of gas production from coal. [SASOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant of South African Coal Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd., at Sasolburg was expanded to produce gas for ammonia synthesis and a 500 Btu industrial gas in addition to synthetic liquid hydrocarbons. The plant uses Lurgi coal gasification, Lurgi Rectisol, and Lurgi Phenosolvan processes. Present production of 219 million cu ft\\/day is provided by 11 of the 13 installed

Hoogendom

1972-01-01

46

Coal conversion solid waste disposal. [Cogas, British Gas\\/Lurgi, Grace\\/Texaco, U-Gas, SRC-I\\/Kopper-Totzek, SRC-II\\/Texaco, Foster Wheeler\\/Stoic, Combustion Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major solid waste produced at coal conversion facilities will be gasification slag or ash. To evaluate the impact of this waste on the environment, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted extensive characterization and leaching studies on ash\\/slags that had been generated in bench-scale operations, pilot plants, and\\/or process development units for eight different gasification processes. These studies, designed to

C. W. Francis; W. J. Jr. Boegly; R. R. Turner; E. C. Davis

1982-01-01

47

Coal conversion solid waste disposal. [Cogas, British Gas/Lurgi, Grace/Texaco, U-Gas, SRC-I/Kopper-Totzek, SRC-II/Texaco, Foster Wheeler/Stoic, Combustion Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The major solid waste produced at coal conversion facilities will be gasification slag or ash. To evaluate the impact of this waste on the environment, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted extensive characterization and leaching studies on ash/slags that had been generated in bench-scale operations, pilot plants, and/or process development units for eight different gasification processes. These studies, designed to assess the consequences of disposal in landfills, showed that none of the leachates from these eight wastes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's toxicity limits. Thus, these ash/slags would be classified as nonhazardous wastes. Quantities of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that were observed in the aqueous leachates of selected ash/slags were less than 1 ..mu..g/g and appear to be of no significant environmental concern. Column elution studies revealed effluents with pH values less than three and sulfate concentrations greater than 10,000 mg/L for wastes containing sulfur concentrations from 0.3 to 4%. As a result, the major environmental impact associated with disposal of these solid wastes appears to be the dissolution of sulfate and the potential acidification of ground water. 2 figures, 4 tables.

Francis, C.W.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Turner, R.R.; Davis, E.C.

1982-12-01

48

Coal gasification: the new energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of coal gasification describes processes available today and ; in the future. Winkler, Koppers-Totzek, and Lurgi processes are briefly ; described. The Lurgi Process has been applied extensively for practically all of ; the first-generation projects. Some new processes include Bituminous Coal ; Research's BIGAS Process, Consolidation Coal's COâ Acceptor'' Process, ; and the Institute of Gas Technology's

J. E. Williams; J. H. Dressel

1973-01-01

49

An exergetic/energetic/economic analysis of three hydrogen production processes - Electrolysis, hybrid, and thermochemical  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a combined first and second law analysis, along with capital and operating costs, for hydrogen production from water by means of electrolytic, hybrid, and thermochemical processes. The processes are SPE and Lurgi electrolysis with light water reactor power generation and sulfur cycle hybrid, thermochemical and SPE electrolysis with a very high temperature reactor primary energy source. Energy and Exergy (2nd law) flow diagrams for the process are shown along with the location and magnitude of the process irreversibilities. The overall process thermal (1st law) efficiencies vary from 25 to 51% and the exergetic (2nd law) efficiencies, referred to the fuel for the primary energy source, vary from 22 to 45%. Capital and operating costs, escalated to 1979 dollars, are shown for each process for both the primary energy source and the hydrogen production plant. All costs were taken from information available in the open literature and are for a plant capacity of 100 x 10 to the 6th SCF/day. Production costs vary from 10 to 18 $/GJ, based on the higher heating value of hydrogen, and are based on a 90% plant operating factor with a 21% annual charge on total capital costs.

Funk, J. E.; Eisermann, W.

50

Thermal processing of unused waste products; The Sasol Perspective  

SciTech Connect

The Sasol group of companies gasify approximately 28 x 10{sup 6} metric tons of coal in their 97 Lurgi fixed bed gasifiers per annum. The syngas produced is used mainly in their Fischer-Tropsch plants for the production of transport fuels as well as a slate of other chemicals. In a complex operation such as Sasol, various sources of unutilized products or waste exist. Tars produced during gasification contain a substantial amount of solid material, essentially fine char and ash. Through various steps of sedimentation and filtration most of the tar is recovered as a clear liquid ready for further work-up. However an amount of {open_quotes}dusty tar{close_quotes}, high in solids (MIQ) is produced. In the operation of the Synthol (Fischer Tropsch) reactors, fine catalyst is carried over in the liquid product. This is also concentrated to form a waste product high in finely divided catalyst. Like any other large petrochemical facility from time to time waste from a number of sources is produced down-stream. This paper describes the waste management for the Sasol process.

Slaghuis, J.H.; Ooms, A.M. [Sastech R& D Division, Sasolburg (Saudi Arabia); Erasmus, H.B. [Sastech Technology Transfer Division, Johannesburg (Saudi Arabia)

1995-12-31

51

Coal research. II - Gasification faces an uncertain future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four coal gasification processes developed in the 1960s as alternatives to the Lurgi and Koppers-Totzek processes - Carbon Dioxide Acceptor, Hygas, Bi-gas and Synthane - have been or are being evaluated in pilot plants. These processes are outlined, and their technological and economic difficulties are identified. Two processes presently under consideration for demonstration plants, a slagging Lurgi process and the

A. L. Hammond

1976-01-01

52

Development of information for standards of performance for the fossil fuel conversion industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information pertaining to four SNG coal gasification processes (Lurgi, Synthane, Hygas and CO2-Acceptor) and one Low-BTU fuel gasification process (Lurgi) is supplied. Commercial literature on another Low-BTU process (Koppers-Totzek) is also given. Control of sulfurous emissions is discussed.

B. Kim; J. Genco; J. Oxley; P. Choi

1974-01-01

53

Development of information for standards of performance for the fossil fuel conversion industry. Final report. [Bibliography included  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report recapitulates information developed in EPA Report No. 9075-015 pertaining to four SNG coal gasification processes (Lurgi, Synthane, Hygas and CO2-Acceptor) and one Low-BTU fuel gasification process (Lurgi). Commercial literature on another Low-BTU process (Koppers-Totzek) is also recapitulated. Control of sulfurous emissions is discussed. (GRA)

B. Kim; J. M. Genco; J. Oxley; P. Choi

1974-01-01

54

Thermal processing of unused waste products; The Sasol Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sasol group of companies gasify approximately 28 x 10⁶ metric tons of coal in their 97 Lurgi fixed bed gasifiers per annum. The syngas produced is used mainly in their Fischer-Tropsch plants for the production of transport fuels as well as a slate of other chemicals. In a complex operation such as Sasol, various sources of unutilized products or

J. H. Slaghuis; A. M. Ooms; H. B. Erasmus

1995-01-01

55

LEACHING AND SELECTED HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF PROCESSED OIL SHALES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a column leaching test procedure developed to simulate the leaching of high volume wastes under semi-arid field conditions. The report also presents results obtained when retorted oil shales (Tosco, Paraho, Lurgi) are leached by this procedure. Selected hydr...

56

Which route to coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The author compares the SRC-II process with three indirect liquefaction processes: Lurgi gasification and Mobil's methanol to gasoline (MTG) process; Shell-Koppers gasification and the Mobil MTG process; and Lurgi gasification and SASOL Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Yields, thermal efficiencies, costs, state of development, and complexity of the processes are examined. Direct liquefaction is more thermally efficient. Investment costs are so close that the relative ranking of the process may change.

Nene, R.G.

1981-11-01

57

Hydrogen: Technical and Economical Comparison of Different Methods of Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons (catalytic reforming, partial oxidation and refinery gas processing), coal gasification (Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, Texaco processes and in-situ gasification), water decomposition (electrolysis, thermolysis, ther...

A. Salvadori D. Marque

1988-01-01

58

Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 6A. Export Sample Program/Wastewater Treatability Study Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following can be concluded from the research conducted on the treatment of Lurgi process wastewaters from the sample sent to Sasol: Biooxidation of pretreated gas liquors and synthesized Mobil MTG process wastewater components as feasible and a high d...

1982-01-01

59

76 FR 24007 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Lake Charles Carbon Capture...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Gasifiers and two trains of syngas processing, two Lurgi Rectisol...shut down for maintenance. The syngas processing includes a catalyst to convert carbon monoxide and...selectively removed from the syngas in the AGR units. Steam...

2011-04-29

60

Water Requirements for Steam-Electric Power Generation and Synthetic Fuel Plants in the Western United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the procedures for the detailed determination of the water consumed for mining and processing coal and oil shale, and for determining the residuals generated. The processes considered are Lurgi, Synthane, and Synthoil for coal convers...

H. Gold D. J. Goldstein R. F. Probstein J. S. Shen D. Yung

1977-01-01

61

Conventional gasification technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Winkler, Lurgi, and Koppers-Totzek gasification processes are compared. The Winkler process uses a fluidized fuel bed; the Lurgi, a 'fixed' (slowly downwards-moving) fuel bed; the Koppers-Totzek, entrainment of the coal or other feedstock. The dependency of these processes on coal type and sizing, temperature, atmosphere, pressure, and water vapor is examined. The economic impact of various operating conditions and

D. C. Elgin

1976-01-01

62

Gasification of Low-Rank Coals: Technology Status and Recent Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technology for gasification of low-rank coals includes processes that are commercially available as well as some that are being developed. Commercial Lurgi technology is being utilized by the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) to convert North Da...

G. A. Wiltsee W. G. Willson

1985-01-01

63

The Gasification of Coal - A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography consists of some 60 annotated references from the literature mainly within the period 1970-1973. The processes considered are: Winkler; Winkler-Flesch; Lurgi; Bi-Gas; Koppers Totzek; Hygas; CO2 Acceptor; Atgas; Kellogg; Synthane; Westingh...

D. G. Brinn

1974-01-01

64

New Mexico Synfuels Project: coal-liquid fuels and high-Btu coal gas. Feasibility study. Volume III. Plant design. [San Juan County, New Mexico; comparison of methanol synthesis and methanation processes and licensors  

SciTech Connect

A data base has been established to permit preparation of the scope and estimation of the cost of a coal gasification facility. The proposed plant would gasify New Mexico coal to produce methanol and synthetic natural gas (SNG), the quantities of the two fuel products being approximately equal in terms of heat of combustion. Marketable by-products will also be produced. Process technology from gasification of the coal through manufacturing the main fuel products was supplied by the Lurgi Corporation, Eastern Division. Information related to auxiliary units was supplied either from qualified licensors, or was derived from Bechtel in-house data. Note also that the facility has been designed in accordance with appropriate local and federal regulations in effect as of June, 1982. The data, information, bases and assumptions used in carrying out the technical and cost studies are presented. The general design philosophy was to minimize any risks and uncertainties associated with a coal gasification facility, while developing capital and operating costs sufficient to decide whether to proceed with the project after the feasibility study. In addition, the philosophy was to make selections of alternatives that provided the maximum amount of cost information for use in evaluating plant configurations and size.

Not Available

1982-10-01

65

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR LURGI-BASED INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION AND SNG (SUBSTITUTE NATURAL GAS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development has undertaken an extensive study to determine synthetic fuel plant waste stream characteristics and to evaluate potentially applicable pollution control systems. The purpose of this and all other PCTMs...

66

Use for coke cooling of waste gases from the drying zone of Lurgi-type ovens  

SciTech Connect

It has been proposed to use the waste heating agent gas to cool coke in the bottom of the oven, and then burn gas in waste-heat boilers after cleaning to remove moisture, tar, and the like. These waste gases contain oxidizing agents (oxygen, steam and carbon dioxide) which can react with the coke and alter its quality. Laboratory experiments are described which were carried out to determine the temperature ranges and rates of the reactions between coke and these oxidizing agents. Commercial trials are also described in which the waste gases were used for cooling. Physicochemical properties of the coke are compared. Use of this gas for cooling raised the specific surface area from 13.8 to 29.8 m/sup 2//g and the porosity from 58-59%. The volatile matter index fell from 5.7 to 4.5%, and there was a minor reduction in sulfur content (1.2 to 1.0%). Structural stength, reactivity , and ash content remained the same. 7 references, 2 tables.

Rod'kin, S.P.; Chalykh, G.N.; Chistyakov, V.E.; Gurenko, O.A.; Bychkovskii, G.A.; Kazachkov, A.I.

1983-01-01

67

Techno-economic assessment of the Mobil Two-Stage Slurry Fischer-Tropsch\\/ZSM-5 process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A techno-economic assessment of the Mobil Two-Stage Slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor system was carried out. Mobil bench-scale data were evaluated and scaled to a commercial plant design that produced specification high-octane gasoline and high-cetane diesel fuel. Comparisons were made with three reference plants - a SASOL (US) plant using dry ash Lurgi gasifiers and Synthol synthesis units, a modified SASOL plant

A. El Sawy; D. Gray; M. Neuworth; G. Tomlinson

1984-01-01

68

Parallel processing  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the current techniques of parallel processing, transputers, vector and vector supercomputers and covers such areas as transputer applications, programming models and language design for parallel processing.

Jesshop, C.

1987-01-01

69

Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97  

SciTech Connect

The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

NONE

1997-03-01

70

Hydrogen production from coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained phase techniques for hydrogen production from coal gasification are considered. Process heat may be supplied by the addition of oxygen, solid, liquid or gaseous heat carriers or indirectly through heat-transferring walls. In particular, attention is given to the selection of the Lurgi pressure process, the Winkler process or the Koppers-Totzek process for treating various

H. Teggers; H. Huettner; L. Schrader

1977-01-01

71

Assessment, selection, and development of procedures for determining the environmental acceptability of synthetic fuel plants based on coal. Appendix III  

Microsoft Academic Search

This program was designed to develop approaches for determining the environmental acceptability of synthetic fuel plants based on coal. Process engineering analyses were conducted on five processes which were considered representative of the emerging technologies. The processes were Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi, Solvent Refined Coal, Synthane, and Synthoil. All process streams, including effluent streams, were fully characterized as to temperature, pressure, phase,

R. G. Oldham; R. G. Wetherold

1977-01-01

72

Process Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a webpage with many learning objects concerning Process Control with lessons in Temperature, Level, Pressure, Flow, Analytical, Symbols, Tuning & Calibration, PID Controls and other basic concepts.

2012-10-22

73

Peat Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

1986-01-01

74

Solidification processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solidification processing activities are reported. The following topics are studied: behavior of semisolid metals, purification and strengthening by fractional melting, continuous casting, control of ingot surface quality, and metal matrix composites. Formation of deoxidation products in steels is also investigated. Rapid solidification, crystal growth, experimental and mathematical modeling of solidification processes are explored.

1982-01-01

75

Toward a unified mechanism for neat-coal and coal-slurry ignition. [Lurgi and Wellman-Galusha syngases  

Microsoft Academic Search

By comparing results from separate experiments with singular flat flame combustors at The Pennsylvania State University Fuels and Combustion Laboratory, a rather novel chemical mechanism for pulverized and slurried coal ignition has been advanced. Much more extensive experimental research on coals and their volatiles is underway in order to evaluate its limitations. Low-Btu coal-derived syngases appear to possess some remarkable

Reuther

1983-01-01

76

Process description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of hydrogen from coal by hydrogasification and subsequent steam hydrocarbon reforming was studied. Process heat and power requirements are supplied by an HTGR. The process is examined as a function of a maximum reforming (process) temperature of 922 K (1200 F) to 1367 K (2000 F). The major parameters for the five cases selected are summarized in a table. A fixed thermal capacity of 3000 MW for the HTGR heat source was used as a basis. The resulting hydrogen production rates and the corresponding hydrogen purity are also given in a table.

1975-01-01

77

Experimental design and statistical evaluation of a full-scale gasification project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sasol in South Africa gasifies approximately 30 million tons of bituminous coal per year to synthesis gas, which is converted to fuels and chemicals via the Fischer–Tropsch process. Three years ago, Sasol embarked upon a unique project to optimise the gas production of the Sasol–Lurgi fixed bed dry bottom coal gasification process. Optimisation of the gasification process was carried out

R. L. J. Coetzer; M. J. Keyser

2003-01-01

78

Metals processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The metals processing effort is directed towards improvement of performance and usefulness of materials through modification and control of shape and internal structure. Interaction of reactive gases, introduced into a plasma arc, with iron alloys were analyzed. The technology of magnesium production was assessed. The study of fast fluidized bed reactors is continued. Aspects of separation processes are being investigated. The development of high field superconducting composites for use in large magnetic fusion devices is also discussed. Processing, structure, and property relationships of superconducting materials and the substitution of precious metals in standard electrical contact and connector applications are tested. The influence of processing procedures on the structure of zircaloy and nickel base alloys with a goal of improving mechanical properties and performance is investigated. Investigation of the potential of metal insulator semiconductor junctions as photovoltaic devices is reported.

1982-01-01

79

Process Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from ATETV, learn about the field of process technology and what it takes to work in the field from the perspectives of a student, a community college professor, and an industry specialist.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-07-11

80

Manufacturing processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following issues are covered: process development frequently lags behind material development, high fabrication costs, flex joints (bellows) - a continuing program, SRM fabrication-induced defects, and in-space assembly will require simplified design.

Bennet, Jay; Brower, David; Levine, Stan; Walker, Ray; Wooten, John

1991-01-01

81

Multiphoton Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main features of multiphoton processes are described on a somewhat elementary basis. The emphasis is put on multiphoton ionization of atoms where the influence of resonance effects is given through typical examples. The important role played by the co...

C. Manus G. Mainfray

1980-01-01

82

Hydrogenation process  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to an effective process for producing plant stanol by hydrogenating plant sterol in an organic solvent at a hydrogen pressure of 1-200 bar in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst.

2013-09-03

83

Transplant Process  

MedlinePLUS

... of transplant. Discharge from the hospital Planning to go home The discharge process actually begins weeks before ... you What has to happen before you can go home? For the most part, transplant centers don’ ...

84

HYGAS Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is developing the HYGAS Process for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. This work is in the pilot-plant stage of development with a 75-ton\\/day, 1.5-million-cu ft-of-gas pilot plant in operation in Chicago. The process utilizes up-to-date engineering techniques, achieving coal gasification in a system that has a potential of large individual

Schora

1976-01-01

85

Cellulase Processivity  

PubMed Central

There are two types of processive cellulases, exocellulases and processive endoglucanases. There are also two classes of exocellulases, ones that attack the reducing ends of cellulose chains and ones that attack the nonreducing ends. There are a number of ways of assaying processivity but none of them are ideal. It appears that exocellulases, all of which have their active sites in a tunnel, couple movement along a cellulose chain with cleavage of cellobiose from the end of the cellulose molecule. There are two sets of structures that suggest how an exocellulase might move along a cellulose chain. For family 48 exocellulases there are two different ways that a chain can be bound in the active site while for family 6 exocellulases there are several different ligand-bound structures. Site-directed mutagenesis of Thermobifida fusca exocellulases Cel48A and Cel6B and the processive endoglucanase Cel9A have identified some mutations that increase processivity and some that decrease processivity. In addition a mutation in Cel6B was identified that appears to allow the mutant enzyme to move along a cellulose chain in the absence of cleavage.

Wilson, David B.; Kostylev, Maxim

2014-01-01

86

COMBINATION PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combination processes are here regarded as those whose influence is ; exerted primarily during the period after irradiation. Refrigeration, vacuum-; packing, addition of antibiotics, curing, and heating are considered. The first ; three do not change the state of raw foods. The value of refrigeration, besides ; the general slowing down of enzymic, chemical, and microbiological changes, is ; that

M INGRAM

1959-01-01

87

Recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for manufacturing carbon black and hydrocarbons from discarded tires, comprising: introducing the tires into a reactor; pyrolyzing the tires in a pyrolysis reaction vessel substantially in the absence of artificially introduced oil heating media at a temperature and pressure and for a reaction time sufficient to cause the tires to dissociate into a vapor phase and

Apffel

1987-01-01

88

Process evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is not always easy to conduct a study and implement a systematic policy in the aeronautical paint stripping field. The situations to be studied are complicated by extensive technical data, material conditions and financial unknowns. To these are added demands both in the civil and military fields to increase the performance obtained, optimize cycles, reduce recurrent costs, quickly amortize investments and now increasing respect for the environment. To reply correctly, the various possibilities must be assessed using, if possible, identical criteria and reference systems. The only criterion which applies to all the processes and methods is the overall stripping cost. It is not sufficient for a process to meet the related technical requirements (for example 'IATA guidelines'), it must also be economically justifiable. The overall costs take into account therefore the costs and materials, labor and also the downtime of the aircraft, amortization and maintenance of the installations and processing of waste, etc. For many years now, AEROSPATIALE has undertaken research and development programs to find and evaluate alternatives to the conventional chemical stripping process. This work has led it to carry out comparative analyses from technical elements enhanced as the work progressed.

Malavallon, Olivier

1995-04-01

89

Hydropyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing methane by reacting a hydrogen deficient carbonaceous material with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas having a composition selected and controlled so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to provide the hydrogen requirements for the overall process. The process consists of: (a) introducing the pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure and the carbonaceous material into a single pyrolysis zone of an entrained flow reactor (10) to react to form a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and a reduced content of hydrogen relative to that in the pyrolysis gas; (b) reacting a part of the carbon monoxide in the product gas mixture with a first controlled amount of steam in a water-gas shift reaction zone (18) sufficient to produce hydrogen in an amount substantially equal to the hydrogen consumed in the overall process; (c) withdrawing from the water-gas shift reaction zone a shifted gas mixture containing additional hydrogen and introducing the shifted gas mixture into a gas separation zone (30); (d) separating the shifted gas mixture in the gas separation zone into (1) a product comprising methane, and (2) a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane; (e) introducing the recycle gas from step (d)(2), a controlled amount of an oxygen-containing gas and a second controlled amount of steam into a gas treatment zone (44) for partial oxidation of the recycle gas to produce the pyrolysis gas having the elevated temperature for introduction into the entrained flow reactor (10); and (f) controlling steps (b), (d) and (e) to obtain, under steady-state conditions, a composition of the pyrolysis gas wherein hydrogen is the principal constituent and the remainder consists essentially of a minor amount of each of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to provide the hydrogen requirements for the overall process.

Ullman, A.Z.; Silverman, J.; Friedman, J.

1986-07-01

90

Gasoline from coal: the pioneering South African experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that South Africa had no commercially significant deposits of crude oil necessitated the early development of production of gasoline from coal which was present in abundance in low to medium grade in thick seams, the development of the process since the early 1950s is discussed. Both the Fischer Tropsch and Lurgi processes are used, and three large plants

Hoogendoorn

1982-01-01

91

WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR STEAM-ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION AND SYNTHETIC FUEL PLANTS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the procedures for the detailed determination of the water consumed for mining and processing coal and oil shale, and for determining the residuals generated. The processes considered are Lurgi, Synthane, and Synthoil for coal conversion, TOSCO II for shale c...

92

Assessment, selection and development of procedures for determining the environmental acceptability of synthetic fuel plants based on coal. Basic report and Appendix 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes results of an investigation designed to develop approaches for determining the environmental acceptability of synthetic fuel plants based on coal. Process engineering analyses were conducted on five processes considered representative of the emerging technologies: Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi, Solvent Refined Coal, Synthane, and Synthoil. A detailed analysis was performed on a generalized coal handling facility which is common to

R. G. Oldham; R. G. Wetherold

1977-01-01

93

Small-scale coal-gasification plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents technical and economic analyses of coal-gasification processes to manufacture medium-heating-value gas and synthetic natural gas from two commercially available processes: Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi. The plants were designed for a capacity of 30 x 10 to the 9th Btu\\/day.

ARUN VERMA; P. J. Read

1979-01-01

94

Assessment, selection, and development of procedures for determining the environmental acceptability of synthetic fuel plants based on coal. Appendix 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes analytical investigations related to approaches for determining the environmental acceptability of synthetic fuel plants based on coal. Process engineering analyses were conducted on five processes considered representative of the emerging technologies: Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi, Solvent Refined Coal, Synthane, and Synthoil. A detailed analysis was performed on a generalized coal handling facility which is common to all of the

R. G. Oldham; R. G. Wetherold

1977-01-01

95

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios  

SciTech Connect

A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

Not Available

1982-01-01

96

Process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

Bickler, D. B.

1985-01-01

97

Radiative processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar radiation and the processes that control its deposition in the Earth atmosphere are considered. The published data obtained since 1978 define a reference solar spectral irradiance for use in atmospheric chemical and dynamical studies, while long term satellite measurements are now providing information on variations in the output of the Sun over a range of time scales. As concerns absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere, new cross section data for molecular oxygen and ozone are now available. Line-by-line calculations used to predict infrared flux divergences, both as regards assumptions made in radiative transfer calculations and in the spectroscopic parameters used as inputs are examined. Also examined are the influence of radiative processes on planetary scale wave activity, photochemical acceleration of radiative damping, and the breakdown of local thermodynamic equilibrium at mesospheric altitudes.

Frederick, J. E.; Leovy, C.; Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Anderson, G. P.; Dickinson, R. E.; Drayson, S. R.; Fels, S.; Hall, L. A.; Kiehl, J.; Mentall, J. E.

1985-01-01

98

Restoration Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

1979-01-01

99

Fermentation process  

SciTech Connect

Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

Lutzen, N.W.

1982-02-23

100

Hydropyrolysis process  

DOEpatents

An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

Ullman, Alan Z. (Northridge, CA); Silverman, Jacob (Woodland Hills, CA); Friedman, Joseph (Huntington Beach, CA)

1986-01-01

101

Laser processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the Progress ceramic materials is reported. Experiments and models for sintering and microstructure evolution are described. Models and data for understanding the kinetics of grain boundary motion and of pore coarsening and new materials for fuel cells and batteries; are developed. New experimental techniques using lasers for forming fine, monosized powders and for forming stable and metastable structures from liquids, and solar materials research are also developed. Colloidal science and ceramics processing are explored; and research programs on the presintering science necessary for controlled green microstructures are outlined.

1982-01-01

102

Downstream Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two page PDF, created by Northeast Biomanufacturing Center and Collaborative, discusses the key functions and tasks of a manufacturing technician (downstream). The document focuses mostly on: the work compliance with both EH&S and cGMPS, the cleanliness and maintenance of production areas, maintaining effective communication, the preparation of process materials, the preparation of equipment, performance of basic manufacturing operations performing downstream manufacturing operations and performance sampling. Each one of these topics contains anywhere from five to fifteen different subtopics. The lists are meant to give a broad overview of each of these topics.

2009-09-24

103

Upstream Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two page PDF, created by Northeast Biomanufacturing Center and Collaborative, discusses the key functions and tasks of a manufacturing technician (upstream). The document focuses mostly on: the work compliance with both EH&S and cGMPS, the cleanliness and maintenance of production areas, maintaining effective communication, the preparation of process materials, the preparation of equipment, performance of basic manufacturing operations, performing upstream manufacturing operations and performance sampling. Each one of these topics contains anywhere from five to fifteen different subtopics. The lists are meant to give a broad overview of each one of these topics.

2009-09-24

104

Signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of signal processing technology to conventional weapons systems can lower operator workloads and enhance kill probabilities, while automating wide-area surveillance, target search and classification, target tracking, and aimpoint selection. Immediate opportunities exist for automatic target cueing in underwater and over-the-horizon targeting, as well as for airborne multiple-target fire control. By embedding the transit/receive electronics into conformal aircraft sensor arrays, a 'smart' skin can be created. Electronically scanned phased arrays can be used to yield accurate azimuthal and elevation positions while nullifying EW threats. Attention is given to major development thrusts in algorithm design.

Norman, David M.

105

Materials & Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by National Aerospace Technical Education Center (SpaceTEC), is centered on materials and processes. The document focuses on the material structure of metal. It mainly focuses on the properties, these being: hardness, brittleness, malleability, ductility, elasticity, toughness, density, fusibility, conductivity, contraction and expansion. After the initial discussion of properties, the topic shifts to metalworking, case hardening and corrosion. Corrosion dominates over half of the presentation. Overall, this is thorough examination of this material. It totals nearly seventy slides in length. Instructors could use this either as a study guide or simply to enhance existing curriculum.

2009-10-01

106

Hydrofining process  

SciTech Connect

A process for hydrotreating a hydrocarbon-containing feed stream is described comprising the step of simultaneously contacting a substantially liquid hydrocarbon-containing feed stream, which also contains compounds of nickel, vanadium and sulfur, with a free hydrogen-containing gas and a catalyst composition comprising alumina as support material, at least one compound of titanium, at least one compound of molybedenum and at least one compound of aluminum, under such hydro-treating conditions as to produce a hydrocarbon-containing stream having a reduced level of at least one of nickel, vanadium and sulfur. The catalyst composition is prepared by a process comprising the steps of: (A) impregnating a support material consisting essentially of alumina with a solution comprising water, at least one compound titanium and at least one compound of aluminum; (B) heating the material obtained in step (A) under such conditions as to at least partially dry the material obtained in step (A); (C) impregnating the at least partially dried material obtained in step (B) with a solution containing water and at least one compound of molybdenum; (D) heating the material obtained in step (C) at a first temperature so as to at least partially dry the material obtained in step (C); (E) heating the at least partially dried material obtained in step (D) at a second temperature, which is higher than the first temperature, so as to activate the at least partially dried material obtained in step (D).

Parrott, S.L.; Kukes, S.G.; Brandes, K.K.

1988-03-29

107

Lithospheric processes  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was to improve understanding of the origin and evolution of the Earth`s lithosphere by studying selected processes, such as deformation and magmatic intrusion during crustal extension, formation and extraction of mantle melts, fluid transport of heat and mass, and surface processes that respond to deep-seated events. Additional objectives were to promote and develop innovative techniques and to support relevant educational endeavors. Seismic studies suggest that underplating of crust by mantle melts is an important crustal-growth mechanism, that low-angle faults can be seismogenic, and that shear deformation creates mantle anisotropy near plate boundaries. Results of geochemical work determined that magmas from oceanic intraplate islands are derived from a uniform depth in the upper mantle, whereas melts erupted at mid-ocean ridges are mixed from a range of depths. The authors have determined the extent and style of fluid infiltration and trace-element distribution in natural magmatic systems, and, finally, investigated {sup 21}Ne as a tool for dating of surficial materials.

Baldridge, W.S.; Wohletz, K.; Fehler, M.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.] [and others

1997-11-01

108

Process Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Axiomatics Corporation developed a shunting Dielectric Sensor to determine the nutrient level and analyze plant nutrient solutions in the CELSS, NASA's space life support program. (CELSS is an experimental facility investigating closed-cycle plant growth and food processing for long duration manned missions.) The DiComp system incorporates a shunt electrode and is especially sensitive to changes in dielectric property changes in materials at measurements much lower than conventional sensors. The analyzer has exceptional capabilities for predicting composition of liquid streams or reactions. It measures concentrations and solids content up to 100 percent in applications like agricultural products, petrochemicals, food and beverages. The sensor is easily installed; maintenance is low, and it can be calibrated on line. The software automates data collection and analysis.

1993-01-01

109

Lithospheric processes  

SciTech Connect

The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

Baldridge, W. [and others

2000-12-01

110

Crystallization process  

DOEpatents

An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

Adler, Robert J. (Shaker Heights, OH); Brown, William R. (Brecksville, OH); Auyang, Lun (Highland Heights, OH); Liu, Yin-Chang (Richmond Heights, OH); Cook, W. Jeffrey (Cleveland Heights, OH)

1986-01-01

111

Etherification process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1990-08-21

112

Oligomerization process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1991-03-26

113

Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

1993-01-01

114

Why South Africa spurs liquefaction while other nations move more warily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large deposits of low-grade coal, no deposits of petroleum and natural gas, and a unique political vulnerability combine to make commercial coal liquefaction valid for South Africa. Local coal is used to generate electricity by the expensive Lurgi process, which is subsidized by the government. Sasol, the South Africa Coal, Oil, and Gas Corp. has operated since 1950 and supplied

Friedland

1977-01-01

115

The gasification of coal: A bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bibliography consists of some 60 annotated references from the literature mainly within the period 1970-1973. The processes considered are: Winkler; Winkler-Flesch; Lurgi; Bi-Gas; Koppers Totzek; Hygas; CO2 Acceptor; Atgas; Kellogg; Synthane; Westinghouse; Cogas; Stone and Webster; and Hydrane.

D. G. Brinn

1974-01-01

116

Auroral Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini has afforded a number of unique opportunities to understand auroral processes at Saturn and to highlight both differences and similarities with auroral physics at both Earth and Jupiter. A number of campaigns were coordinated with the Hubble Space Telescope such that Cassini could provide either ground truth on the impinging solar wind or in situ measurements of magnetospheric conditions leading to qualitative and sometimes quantitative relationships between the solar wind influence on the intensity, the morphology and evolution of the auroras, and magneto-spheric dynamics. The Hubble UV images are enhanced by Cassini's own remote sensing of the auroras. Cassini's in situ studies of the structure and dynamics of the magnetosphere discussed in other chapters of this book provide the context for understanding the primary drivers of Saturn's auroras and the role of magnetospheric dynamics in their variations. Finally, Cassini's three dimensional prime mission survey of the magnetosphere culminates in high inclination orbits placing it at relatively small radial distances while on auroral field lines, providing the first such in situ observations of auroral particles and fields at a planet other than Earth. The new observations have spawned a number of efforts to model the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere and understand how such dynamics influence the auroras.

Kurth, W. S.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T.; Crary, F. J.; Grodent, D. C.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Dyudina, U. A.; Lamy, L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Persoon, A. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Saur, J.; Stallard, T.

117

Process Technology: Process Maintenance Engineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, youâÂÂll meet Tyrone Walker, who keeps the enormous machines at a Tupperware factory running 24/7/365. Tyrone is a process maintenance engineer. This means he inspects all the parts of a machineâÂÂs electronics system looking for problems, from the tiniest components to the machine as a whole. Tyrone's community college degree in electronic engineering is key to doing this job, which he loves.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

118

Dynamic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to present the results of the dynamics of exciton (polariton)s or more generally of electron-hole pairs. For a recent review of this topic concentrating on quantum wells, see Davies and Jagadish (Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1), 1(2008)). We neither consider the dynamics of carriers, for example, their relaxation time entering in Hall mobility or electrical conductivity, nor the dynamics of phonons or spins, respectively. We give here only a very small selection of references to these topics (Baxter and Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 110:25229, 2006; Queiroz et al. Superlattice Microstruct. 42:270, 2007; Niehaus and Schwarz, Superlattice Microstruct. 42:299, 2007; Lee et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93:4939, 2003; A. K Azad, J. Han, W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88:021103, 2006; Janssen et al., QELS 2008 IEEE 2; D. Lagarde et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4:472, 2007; S. Gosh et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86:232507, 2005; W. K. Liu et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98:186804, 2007). The main characteristic time constants relevant to optical properties close to the fundamental absorption edge are the dephasing time T 2, (i.e. the time after which the polarization amplitude of the optically excited electron-hole pair loses the coherence with the driving light field), the intra band or inter sub band relaxation times T 3 (i.e. the time it takes for the electron-hole pairs to relax from their initial state of excitation to a certain other state e.g. to a thermal distribution with a temperature equal to or possibly still above lattice temperature) and finally the lifetime T 1 (i.e. the time until the electron-hole pairs recombine). The characteristic time constants T 2 and T 1 are also known as transverse and longitudinal relaxation times, respectively. Their inverses are the corresponding rate constants. T 2 is inversely proportional to the homogeneous width ?, and T 1 includes both the radiative and the generally dominating non-radiative recombination (Hauser et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92:211105, 2008). For this point, recall Figs. 6.16 and 6.33. Since the polarisation amplitude is gone in any case after the recombination process, there is an upper limit for T 2 given by T 2 ? 2 T1. The factor of two comes from the fact that T 2 describes the decay of an amplitude and T 1 the decay of a population, which is proportional to the amplitude squared. Sometimes T 2 is subdivided in a term due to recombination described by T 1 and another called 'pure dephasing' called T 2 ? with the relation 1 / T 2 = 1 / 2 T 1 + 1 / T2 ?. The quantity T 2 ? can considerably exceed 2 T 1. In the part on relaxation processes that is on processes contributing to T 3, we give also examples for the capture of excitons into bound, localized, or deep states. For more details on dynamics in semiconductors in general see for example, the (text-) books [Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2006); Haug and Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 4th edn. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004); Haug and Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 123 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 115 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); Schafer and Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2002)]. We present selected data for free, bound and localized excitons, biexcitons and electron-hole pairs in an EHP and examples for bulk materials, epilayers, quantum wells, nano rods and nano crystals with the restriction that - to the knowledge of the author - data are not available for all these systems, density ranges and temperatures. Therefore, we subdivide the topic below only according to the three time constants T 2, T 3 and T 1.

Klingshirn, C.

119

Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of disease and personalisation of health care [14].

Grangeat, P.

120

Further studies on developing technology for indirect liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Our investigations have resulted in the conclusion that fluid-bed gasifiers, such as Westinghouse or entrained-flow gasifiers such as Texaco and Shell-Koppers, offer significant advantages over the BGC Lurgi gasifier when Illinois No. 6 coal is employed as the feedstock. Dry-ash Lurgi gasification has additional disadvantages which appear to make it unsuitable for applications with mildly caking coal such as Illinois No. 6. The results of our analyses of Illinois No. 6 coal do not alter our prior conclusions regarding the use of advanced gasification systems for indirect liquefaction. BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse, Texaco and Shell-Koppers gasifiers offer significant advantages over dry-ash Lurgi and should be given detailed consideration for a US liquefaction facility. The final decision will probably be driven by the relative state of development at the time a decision is required, process license and guarantees which could be negotiated, the market value of an SNG co-product, and the specific characteristics of the coal feedstock to be used. Again, it should be stressed that all these potential improvements are contingent upon performance levels being achieved for both Kolbel synthesis and advanced gasifiers that are equal to those reported in the literature sources used in this study.

Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.B.; Tomlinson, G.

1982-03-01

121

Further studies on developing technology for indirect liquefaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our investigations have resulted in the conclusion that fluidized gasifiers, such as Westinghouse or entrained flow gasifiers such as Texaco and Shell-Koppers offer significant advantages over the BGC Lurgi gasifier when Illinois No. 6 coal is employed as the feedstock. Dry-ash Lurgi gasification has additional disadvantages which appear to make it unsuitable for applications with mildly caking coal such as Illinois No. 6. The results of our analyses of Illinois No. 6 coal do not alter our prior conclusions regarding the use of advanced gasification systems for indirect liquefaction. BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse, Texaco and Shell-Koppers gasifiers offer significant advantages over dry-ash Lurgi and should be given detailed consideration for a US liquefaction facility. The final decision will probably be driven by the relative state of development at the time a decision is required, process license and guarantees which could be negotiated, the market value of an SNG co-product, and the specific characteristics of the coal feedstock to be used.

Gray, D.; Neuworth, M. B.; Tomlinson, G.

1982-03-01

122

Statistical process control of multivariate processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With process computers routinely collecting measurements on large numbers of process variables, multivariate statistical methods for the analysis, monitoring and diagnosis of process operating performance have received increasing attention. Extensions of traditional univariate Shewhart, CUSUM and EWMA control charts to multivariate quality control situations are based on Hotelling's T2 statistic. Recent approaches to multivariate statistical process control which utilize not

J. F. MacGregor; T. Kourti

1995-01-01

123

Biosignal Processing Applications for Speech Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech is a biosignal that is amenable to general biosignal processing methodologies such as frequency domain processing. This is supported today by the availability of inexpensive digital multimedia hardware and by the developments of the theoretical aspects of signal processing. However, sound processing must be also regarded through the prism of the psychoacoustic reality of the human hearing system. Speech

Stefan Pantazi

124

Economic adaptive decision processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential adaptive economic decision process can generally be broken down into three interrelated sequential processes. The first is a stochastic environmental process; the second is a historical process which generates a record of the past environmental events; and the third is the decision process itself. Many different kinds of historical processes are possible. Heuristic processes are briefly considered but

R. E. Murphy

1965-01-01

125

Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96  

SciTech Connect

This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

NONE

1996-06-01

126

Manufacturing process modelling using process specification language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing process is one of the important processes in a product’s life cycle. The sharing of manufacturing process\\u000a information among different functional application systems, such as process planning, manufacturing simulation, manufacturing\\u000a execution and project management, has become difficult to implement due to the growing complexity of the manufacturing information\\u000a of product, process, resource and plant. A unified representation of

Lihong Qiao; Shuting Kao; Yizhu Zhang

2011-01-01

127

Extensible packet processing architecture  

DOEpatents

A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

2013-08-20

128

Progress and development trends in coal gasification and liquefaction technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, methods of converting coal into combustible gases are reviewed with particular reference to the Lurgi process, the Winkler process, and the Koppers-Totzek process. Thermodynamic analysis of the reactions which occur in the reduction zone indicates that by conducting the process of CO2 and H2O reduction under equilibrium conditions, the gasification process can be considerably intensified and

A. A. Krichko

1979-01-01

129

Methanation Processes. Interim Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following methanation schemes are currently being evaluated: product recycle methanation process, cold quench process, combined product recycle and cold quench process (IGT Hygas Plant), wet methanation process, tube wall reactor (TWR) system (Bureau ...

V. P. Sirohi

1976-01-01

130

Statistical process control application to weld process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical weld process monitoring system is described. Using data collected while welding, the welding statistical process control (SPC) tool provides weld process quality control by implementing techniques of data trending analysis, tolerance analysis, and sequential analysis. The SPC system computes the mean, standard deviation, and range of each of the parameters sampled by the data collection system. Changes in

George E. Cook; Joseph E. Maxwell; Robert Joel Barnett; Alvin M. Strauss

1997-01-01

131

Business Process Simulation with HP Process Manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business processes present business logic of enterprises and or web services. In current Internet based dynamic business environment, business logic and resource allocation may have to change more frequently than before to match various business conditions in time. Business process deployment is a very costly procedure. It is desirable that a business process reengineering action could be verified before it

Li-Jie Jin; Fabio Casati; Ming-Chien Shan

2002-01-01

132

Process Technology Student: Chemical & Refinery Process Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, learn about process technology and the career of a process technician, also known as a process operator. Process technology is what turns chemicals into products, from oil and gas to cosmetics and rubber soles for shoes. The process technician keeps the machines that process chemicals running smoothly. Jason Canales is studying to become a process technician. He explains what brought him to this field and why he wants to work at a refinery or a chemical plant after he graduates. Jason visits a factory to better understand how his classwork can be applied in the real world.The video runs 2:51 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

133

A Distributed Processing Approach to Word Processing/Data Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A word processing system developed at the University of Kansas is described. A cost-benefit analysis of the system v standard typewriter, mag-card, and other advanced word processing systems is developed. Intangible benefits such as worker satisfaction and reduced training and editing needs are discussed, and possible uses outlined. (MSE)

Adams, Robert D.; Magnuson, Jerry R.

1980-01-01

134

PARC process for an advanced PUREX process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced PUREX process, the PARC process, has been developed which aims to reduce the radioactive waste volume containing TRU elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium) and the environmental hazard risk due to long-lived nuclides such as technetium-99, carbon-14 and iodine-129. This paper describes the concept of the PARC process and major results of chemical flow sheet experiments using spent

G. Uchiyama; H. Mineo; S. Hotoku; T. Asakura; K. Kamei; M. Watanabe; Y. Nakano; S. Kimura; S. Fujine

2000-01-01

135

Distorted Poisson Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new family of Poisson cluster processes, called distorted Poisson (DP) processes, is introduced and shown to generalize the (stationary) Gauss-Poisson family. Representations of the DP processes in terms of the probability generating functional are deve...

P. F. Thall R. J. Serfling

1976-01-01

136

Special parallel processing workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

NONE

1994-12-01

137

Business Process Reengineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Reengineering-the path to change; Information technology as an enabler of process innovation; Implementing process innovation with information technology; Redesign strategies for typical process types; Conclusions; References.

S. Surakka P. Miikkulainen

1995-01-01

138

Digital Signal Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

2012-12-26

139

Process control for plasma processing of polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PE-CVD processes of a variety of coatings — fluoropolymers, SiOx, PEO- and Ag-PEO-like, ?COOH functional layers — are described, as well as plasma treatments aimed to selectively graft ?NH2 groups on polymers, with the use of spectroscopic plasma- and surface-diagnostics parameters of potential use for process transfer and control in industrial applications.

P. Favia; M. Creatore; F. Palumbo; V. Colaprico; R. d'Agostino

2001-01-01

140

Using Process Mining to Business Process Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is by far the most pervasive architecture which includes several building blocks among which orchestration engine is under special focus. Although, there are a number of centralized orchestration engines to execute business processes described by BPEL language in SOA, you may find several decentralized orchestration engines and their purpose is decomposing a BPEL process to several

Faramarz Safi Esfahani; Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad; Nur Izura Udzir

2009-01-01

141

A Modal Process Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel logic is introduced for the introduction of nondeterministic and concurrent processes expressed in a process algebra. For a process algebra to be useful as a process language, it must possess compositionality, i.e. it should be possible to decompose the problem of correctness for a combined system with respect to a given specification of similar and simpler correctness problems

Kim Guldstrand Larsen; Bent Thomsen

1988-01-01

142

Control of Manufacturing Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course features a complete set of lecture notes and problem sets with solutions. The objective of this subject is to understand the nature of manufacturing process variation and the methods for its control. The key concepts of these lessons are: statistical process control, process optimization and in-process feedback control.

Boning, Duane S.; Hardt, D. E. (David E.)

2009-01-28

143

The Deposition Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation of the chemical vapor deposition process. Objective: Identify the process of chemical vapor deposition. This simulation is from Module 054 of the Process & Equipment I Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

2012-11-08

144

Digital Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the basic technological aspects of Digital Image Processing with special reference to satellite image processing. Basically, all satellite image-processing operations can be grouped into three categories: Image Rectification and Restoration, Enhancement and Information Extraction. The former deals with initial processing of raw image data to correct for geometric distortion, to calibrate the data radiometrically and to eliminate

Minakshi Kumar

1981-01-01

145

Semantic Business Process Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current Business Process Management technologies cover all the process life-cycle but still suffer from many limitations with respect to their complexity, maintainability and degree of automation. Recent research initiatives aim at overcoming these limitations by introducing Semantic technologies in the process life-cycle. One of the steps that can benefit from this approach is the Business Process Analysis, that focuses on

Irene Celino; Ana Karla Alves De Medeiros; Gernot Zeissler; Michael Oppitz; Federico Michele Facca; Stefan Zoeller

2007-01-01

146

Turbine blade processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space processing of directionally solidified eutectic-alloy type turbine blades is envisioned as a simple remelt operations in which precast blades are remelted in a preformed mold. Process systems based on induction melting, continuous resistance furnaces, and batch resistance furnaces were evaluated. The batch resistance furnace type process using a multiblade mold is considered to offer the best possibility for turbine blade processing.

1975-01-01

147

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements  

SciTech Connect

In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

Griebenow, B.

1996-03-01

148

Process Technology Student: Oil Refinery Process Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, observe how Sandra Garcia is studying to be a process technician, and learn about the field of process technology. Sandra explains how her love of science brought her to community college after years away from school and how she's looking forward to a career in process technology. Also learn about the mysterious refractometer and how it can keep things running smoothly in a refinery.The video runs 2:31 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

149

Biomimetic Processing. Processing of Ceramics. Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In modern biology, great emphasis has been placed on the study of cellular metabolism and genetics, with a view to understanding the chemical relationships underlying living processes. Organisms are also structurally interesting in that there are enlighte...

P. Calvert R. J. Brook

1996-01-01

150

Hyperspectral processing in graphical processing units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of the commercial 3D video card in the mid 1990s, we have seen an order of magnitude performance increase with each generation of new video cards. While these cards were designed primarily for visualization and video games, it became apparent after a short while that they could be used for scientific purposes. These Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) are rapidly being incorporated into data processing tasks usually reserved for general purpose computers. It has been found that many image processing problems scale well to modern GPU systems. We have implemented four popular hyperspectral processing algorithms (N-FINDR, linear unmixing, Principal Components, and the RX anomaly detection algorithm). These algorithms show an across the board speedup of at least a factor of 10, with some special cases showing extreme speedups of a hundred times or more.

Winter, Michael E.; Winter, Edwin M.

2011-05-01

151

Status of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was made of economic and environmental trade-offs, in terms of land disturbance from mining, and water consumption, to be considered in choosing the Wellman-Galusha, Koppers-Totzek, or Lurgi coal gasification processes. Performance maximization, in terms of process efficiency or water consumption, was found to be application specific and site specific. Relatively small energy requirements appear to be best met

David A. Tillman

1976-01-01

152

Evaluation of intermediate-Btu coal gasification systems for retrofitting power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process and economic evaluations have been made of two different intermediate-Btu coal gasification systems retrofitted to an existing electric power unit. One of the systems uses fixed-bed, oxygen-blown Lurgi gasifiers for sized coal (coal fines are sold as a byproduct) with a tar and oil cleanup, hydrogen sulfide removal and sulfur recovery processes. The other system uses entrained-bed Koppers-Totzek gasifiers,

D. A. Waitzman; H. L. Faucett; D. E. Nichols; S. V. Tomlinson; W. J. Broadfoot

1977-01-01

153

Gasoline from coal: the pioneering South African experience  

SciTech Connect

The fact that South Africa had no commercially significant deposits of crude oil necessitated the early development of production of gasoline from coal which was present in abundance in low to medium grade in thick seams, the development of the process since the early 1950s is discussed. Both the Fischer Tropsch and Lurgi processes are used, and three large plants named Sasol One, Two, and Three have been completed. A flow diagram for the Lurgi process as used in these plants is included. Typical products and their properties resulting from the Sasol-type Synthol operation are presented in tabular form. Marketing considerations and economics of production of the Sasol products are discussed briefly. (BLM)

Hoogendoorn, J.C.

1982-03-01

154

Pyrolysis System and Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pyrolysis system and process for recovering energy from solid waste and other feedstocks containing hydrocarbons such as coal, asphalt, naphtha, cheap crude oils, etc. is described. The process is comprised of the following steps: continuously feeding t...

S. I. Cheng

1975-01-01

155

New Combustion Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to present material related to unconventional combustion processes which might be used in the development of hypersonic ramjet and supersonic combustion processes. A literature search revealed one article directly related to s...

1964-01-01

156

Materials processing in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility and possible advantages of processing materials in a nongravitational field are considered. Areas of investigation include biomedical applications, the processing of inorganic materials, and flight programs and funding.

1975-01-01

157

The requirements discovery process  

SciTech Connect

Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-02-01

158

Personal Software Process (PSP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Personal Software Process (PSP) provides engineers with a disciplined personal framework for doing software work. The PSP process consists of a set of methods, forms. and scripts that show software engineers how to plan, measure, and manage their work...

W. S. Humphrey

2000-01-01

159

Aerospace Materials and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace materials and processes. Topics discussed include structural materials, metal types, metalworking processes, corrosion and corrosion prevention, fluid lines and composites.

2011-09-22

160

Validation of fermentation processes.  

PubMed

The ability to prepare consistent biopharmaceutical products depends extensively on possession of banked and characterized cell substrates and on development of production processes which can be validated. While the attributes that define cell characterization have been extensively detailed by ICH and the regulatory agencies in the past decade, little has been specified regarding process validation for biological processes. The extent to which validation concepts can be applied to biological processes varies depending on the nature of the process, the nature of the product, and the level of knowledge regarding the relationship between process parameters and product quality. Expectations concerning the rigour of the validation programme should be adjusted accordingly. There is no single approach that is appropriate for all processes and products. At a minimum, there should be an attempt to define which process parameters are critical, and to focus the attention of validation efforts on these parameters. PMID:14620850

Lubiniecki, A S; Gardner, A R; Smith, T M; Wang, W K; McAllister, P R; Federici, M M

2003-01-01

161

Advanced Process Control Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

1980-01-01

162

Digital Wave Processing Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide variety of geophysical plasmas will be investigated by the Cluster mission. The digital wave processing (DWP) experiment implements the four ESA/NASA Cluster satellites as a component of the wave experiment consortium. The processing system within ...

L. J. C. Woolliscroft J. A. Thompson P. M. E. Decreau M. Parrot A. Egeland

1988-01-01

163

The Inductoslag Melting Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bulletin summarizes the results of Bureau of Mines research on the development of the inductoslag melting process. Inductoslag melting is an induction melting technique using a segmented, water-cooled, copper crucible. The process was developed as pa...

P. G. Clites

1982-01-01

164

CSM (Continuous Steelmaking) Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CSM process is a complete continuous process of melting, refining, grading, and casting, using scrap as raw materials, based on part of the results of studies on continuous steelmaking technology conducted at the National Research Institute for Metals...

K. Otawa S. Obayashi Y. Fujikawa T. Kobayashi

1985-01-01

165

Dynamic Document Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current role of computers in automatic document processing is briefly outlined, and some reasons are given why the early promise of library automation and of the mechanization of documentation processes has not been fulfilled. A new dynamic document e...

G. Salton

1972-01-01

166

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

2003-01-01

167

Hybrid Image Processing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hybrid optical/digital image processing system has been developed for an ongoing research program in hybrid image processing. This system is described and its capabilities and limitations are discussed. Major system components include a coherent optical...

T. H. May J. A. Blodgett

1980-01-01

168

GREENSCOPE: Sustainable Process Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA researchers are responding to environmental problems by incorporating sustainability into process design and evaluation. EPA researchers are also developing a tool that allows users to assess modifications to existing and new chemical processes to determine whether changes in...

169

Processing of Digital Ionograms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation is a summary of digital ionogram processing techniques. Real-time and on-line methods were emphasized and this implies continuing improvement and increasing complexity of the processing algorithms along with the technological advancement...

B. W. Reinisch

1981-01-01

170

Process evaluation distributed system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

171

News: Process intensification  

EPA Science Inventory

Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

172

Waste Activated Sludge Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made at pilot scale of a variety of processes for dewatering and stabilization of waste activated sludge from a pure oxygen activated sludge system. Processes evaluated included gravity thickening, dissolved air flotation thickening, basket ce...

S. R. Austin J. R. Livingston L. Tortorici

1980-01-01

173

WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was made at pilot scale of a variety of processes for dewatering and stabilization of waste activated sludge from a pure oxygen activated sludge system. Processes evaluated included gravity thickening, dissolved air flotation thickening, basket centrifugation, scroll cent...

174

Probabilistic Declarative Process Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The management of business processes is receiving much attention, since it can support significant efficiency improvements in organizations. One of the most interesting problems is the representation of process models in a language that allows to perform reasoning on it.

Bellodi, Elena; Riguzzi, Fabrizio; Lamma, Evelina

175

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOEpatents

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01

176

Lyophilization process design space.  

PubMed

The application of key elements of quality by design (QbD), such as risk assessment, process analytical technology, and design space, is discussed widely as it relates to freeze-drying process design and development. However, this commentary focuses on constructing the Design and Control Space, particularly for the primary drying step of the freeze-drying process. Also, practical applications and considerations of claiming a process Design Space under the QbD paradigm have been discussed. PMID:23946165

Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

2013-11-01

177

Processes on Complex Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building on their understanding of graphs, students are introduced to random processes on networks. They walk through an illustrative example to see how a random process can be used to represent the spread of an infectious disease, such as the flu, on a social network of students. This demonstrates how scientists and engineers use mathematics to model and simulate random processes on complex networks. Topics covered include random processes and modeling disease spread, specifically the SIR (susceptible, infectious, resistant) model.

Complex Systems Science Laboratory

178

Digital image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Federal Systems Division of IBM has developed an image processing facility to experimentally process, view, and record digital image data. This facility has been used to support LANDSAT digital image processing investigations and advanced image processing research and development. A brief description of the facility is presented, some techniques that have been developed to correct the image data are discussed, and some results obtained by users of the facility are described.

Bernstein, R.; Ferneyhough, D. G., Jr.

1975-01-01

179

Business Process Analytics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Business Process Management systems (BPMS) are a rich source of events that document the execution of processes and activities\\u000a within these systems. Business Process Management analytics is the family of methods and tools that can be applied to these\\u000a event streams in order to support decision making in organizations. The analysis of process events can focus on the behavior\\u000a of

Michael Mühlen; Robert Shapiro

180

Acoustic signal processing toolbox for array processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an acoustic signal processing toolbox (ASPT) for acoustic sensor array processing. The intent of this document is to describe the toolbox and its uses. The ASPT is a GUI-based software that is developed and runs under MATLAB. The current version, ASPT 3.0, requires MATLAB 6.0 and above. ASPT contains a variety of narrowband (NB) and incoherent and coherent wideband (WB) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and beamforming algorithms that have been researched and developed at ARL. Currently, ASPT contains 16 DOA and beamforming algorithms. It contains several different NB and WB versions of the MVDR, MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms. In addition, there are a variety of pre-processing, simulation and analysis tools available in the toolbox. The user can perform simulation or real data analysis for all algorithms with user-defined signal model parameters and array geometries.

Pham, Tien; Whipps, Gene T.

2003-08-01

181

The Vitrifix process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vitrifix process solves the problems of nonbiodegradability and the legal liability for asbestos in a landfill by totally destroying the asbestos and converting it into a safe, useful product-glass. The process uses well-established glass technology in a unique fashion. The use of an existing technology gives great reliability, and the way it is applied makes the process intrinsically safe.

D. Roberts

1989-01-01

182

A micropipe fabrication process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel process for fabricating a micropipe has been developed. This process is based on electrochemical deposition of metal onto a core or a microelectrode which is prepared by WEDG (wire electrodischarge grinding). This procedure is simple and the entire process can be carried out automatically. Using this method, one can produce a high-accuracy micropipe with a length 100 times

C.-L. Kuo; T. Masuzawa; M. Fujino

1991-01-01

183

Metallurgical processing. [on skylab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The metallurgical processing experiments on Skylab were chosen to: (1) elucidate the unknown effects of a low gravity environment on certain processes; (2) determine to what extent nongravitational driven flows operate in the processes; and (3) explore the possibilities of containerless solidification. Welding and brazing experiments were conducted to provide an understanding of solidification mechanics in a weightless environment.

1979-01-01

184

Signal Processing Information Base  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Signal Processing Information Base(SPIB) is a project sponsored by the Signal Processing Society and the National Science Foundation. SPIB is a repository of data, papers, software, newsgroups, bibliographies, and addresses of interest to the signal processing community, as well as links to other relevant repositories.

185

The Constitutional Amendment Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

Chism, Kahlil

2005-01-01

186

The Natural Learning Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher-educator and researcher Daniel L. Kohut suggests in "Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy" that there are many problems that result from the way music teachers often teach. Most teachers focus on the process, not the goal. The Natural Learning Process that Kohut advocates is the same process that young children use when they…

Criss, Ellen

2008-01-01

187

Sonar processing on CESAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An implementation of data processing from an active low frequency sonar on a CESAR computer system is described. CESAR is a powerful vector computer developed for fast delivery SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) processing. Data input, resampling, beamforming, and correlation are covered. The parallelization process is shown.

Bjordal, Halvor

1992-03-01

188

Hidden Process Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis introduces Hidden Process Models (HPMs). HPMs are a probabilistic time series model for data assumed to be generated by a set of processes, where each process is characterized by a unique spatial-temporal signature and a probability distributi...

R. A. Hutchinson

2009-01-01

189

Semantic Business Process Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of formal semantics for the support of Business Process Man- agement is an emerging branch of research, with substantial economic potential. In particular, business processes modelled in graphical notations such as BPMN can be semantically annotated to specify more precisely what the individual tasks in the process will be responsible for. This raises the need for, and opens

Ingo Weber; Jan Mendling

190

Processes for metal extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

Bowersox, David F.

1992-01-01

191

Turbo Iterative Signal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Turbo iterative method for signal processing is proposed. This method is a kind of multi-systems collaborative signal processing through iteration: several independent systems work in rotation, and each system takes feedback information from the other systems as a priori condition. We have applied such a Turbo iterative signal processing (TISP) method on speech signal enhancement, and on SAR (synthetic

Hong Sun; Henri Maître

2009-01-01

192

Hydrocarbon gas processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for separating hydrocarbon gases is described for the recovery of gases such as ethane and heavier hydrocarbons from natural gas streams or similar refinery or process streams. In the process described, the gas to be separated is cooled at a high pressure to produce partial condensation. The liquid from the partial condensation is further cooled and then expanded

R. E. Campbell; J. D. Wilkinson

1979-01-01

193

Process problems to profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profits can be made by pyrolizing scrap tires to obtain energy products and various materials using the Energy Recovery Research Group process. The process yields marketable fuel oils, gases, carbon black, and scrap steel, and can help to eliminate landfill problems. Operating costs are low for the pyrolysis process, which is described. (6 diagrams, 4 references, 2 tables)

1980-01-01

194

Metallurgical processing: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The items in this compilation, all relating to metallurgical processing, are presented in two sections. The first section includes processes which are general in scope and applicable to a variety of metals or alloys. The second describes the processes that concern specific metals and their alloys.

1973-01-01

195

Comprehension Processes in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

196

Implementing Collaboration Process Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of process integration between organizations too often is unfulfilled and new approaches are needed. Distributed control is a new and exciting opportunity to build more effective process networks for a wide range of applications in logistics and product development. A solution based on distributed control around the consumers of services in process networks is proposed. In logistics, it

Jan Holmström; Kary Främling; Jukka Tuomi; Mikko Kärkkäinen; Timo Ala-Risku

2002-01-01

197

Laser Processing Architecture for Improved Material Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter presents a novel architecture and software-hardware design system for materials processing techniques that are widely applicable to laser direct-write patterning tools. This new laser material processing approach has been crafted by association with the genome and genotype concepts, where predetermined and prescribed laser pulse scripts are synchronously linked with the tool path geometry, and each concatenated pulse sequence is intended to induce a specific material transformation event and thereby express a particular material attribute. While the experimental approach depends on the delivery of discrete amplitude modulated laser pulses to each focused volume element with high fidelity, the architecture is highly versatile and capable of more advanced functionality. The capabilities of this novel architecture fall short of the coherent spatial control techniques that are now emerging, but can be readily applied to fundamental investigations of complex laser-material interaction phenomena, and easily integrated into commercial and industrial laser material processing applications. Section 9.1 provides a brief overview of laser-based machining and materials processing, with particular emphasis on the advantages of controlling energy deposition in light-matter interactions to subtly affect a material's thermodynamic properties. This section also includes a brief discussion of conventional approaches to photon modulation and process control. Section 9.2 comprehensively describes the development and capabilities of our novel laser genotype pulse modulation technique that facilitates the controlled and precise delivery of photons to a host material during direct-write patterning. This section also reviews the experimental design setup and synchronized photon control scheme, along with performance tests and diagnostic results. Section 9.3 discusses selected applications of the new laser genotype processing technique, including optical property variations and silicate phase fractionation in a commercial photosensitive glass ceramic and pyroelectric phase transitions in a perovskite nanostructured thin-film. Finally, a chapter summary and future perspective are provided in Sect. 9.4.

Livingston, Frank E.; Helvajian, Henry

198

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

1982-01-01

199

Biomass process handbook  

SciTech Connect

Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

Not Available

1983-01-01

200

Process for preparing explosive  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process for preparing a gas bubble sensitized explosive composition. The present process comprises preparing an explosive composition comprising a water-in-oil emulsion and mechanically entraining gas bubbles into the explosive composition. Low viscosity emulsion explosives are able to be sensitized by this process. There is a preference for wax free emulsions to be used. The process is applicable to emulsion explosives comprising ammonium nitrate particles. By providing a process for the mechanical entrainment of stable gas bubbles we allow explosive compositions to be sensitized on-site by readily available mixing means.

1990-06-26

201

Digital signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the course of this contract, there have been several major task areas: the development of homomorphic signal processing techniques and their application to the development of a homomorphic vocoder and other signal processing applications; the development and implementation of techniques for enhancement and bandwidth compression of degraded speech; the development and evaluation of techniques for processing of multidimensional signals and the application of these techniques to image processing, and the processing of other multidimensional data sets; and the development of techniques and the implementation and evaluation of systems for speed transformations of speech.

Oppenheim, A. V.

202

Evaluation of steelmaking processes  

SciTech Connect

Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-01-01

203

Process Technology: Training & Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video excerpted from Pathways to Technology, learn about process technology and career opportunities in this field. Process refers to the steps that chemicals go through to become products, like gasoline or medicine. Process technology is used in just about every manufacturing industry, from pharmaceuticals to automobiles to cosmetics. A process technician keeps the machines that process chemicals running smoothly.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

204

Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

2012-01-01

205

Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy

1996-01-01

206

Business Process Redesign: Design the Improved Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis reports the results of a business activity modeling exercise to explore how a functional manager in DoD can best improve and redesign one's business processes. The validity of exercise results was assessed and found to be generally accurate wi...

J. L. Warwick

1993-01-01

207

Quantum process nonclassicality.  

PubMed

We propose a definition of nonclassicality for a single-mode quantum-optical process based on its action on coherent states. If a quantum process transforms a coherent state to a nonclassical state, it is verified to be nonclassical. To identify nonclassical processes, we introduce a representation for quantum processes, called the process-nonclassicality quasiprobability distribution, whose negativities indicate nonclassicality of the process. Using this distribution, we derive a relation for predicting nonclassicality of the output states for a given input state. We experimentally demonstrate our method by considering the single-photon addition as a nonclassical process and predicting nonclassicality of the output state for an input thermal state. PMID:23679584

Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Kiesel, Thomas; Vogel, Werner; Grandi, Samuele; Zavatta, Alessandro; Bellini, Marco

2013-04-19

208

Future Steelmaking Processes  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

Prof. R. J. Fruehan

2004-09-20

209

Rumor Processes on and Discrete Renewal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study two rumor processes on , the dynamics of which are related to an SI epidemic model with long range transmission. Both models start with one spreader at site and ignorants at all the other sites of , but differ by the transmission mechanism. In one model, the spreaders transmit the information within a random distance on their right, and in the other the ignorants take the information from a spreader within a random distance on their left. We obtain the probability of survival, information on the distribution of the range of the rumor and limit theorems for the proportion of spreaders. The key step of our proofs is to show that, in each model, the position of the spreaders on can be related to a suitably chosen discrete renewal process.

Gallo, Sandro; Garcia, Nancy L.; Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Rodríguez, Pablo M.

2014-05-01

210

Array signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first book which is completely devoted to array signal processing. Aspects of array processing in exploration seismology are discussed, taking into account the seismic experiment, wave propagation and models for the seismic experiment, seismic exploration objectives, seismic data acquisition, data processing, spectral estimation, multidimensional and multichannel filtering, polarization and dispersion analysis, deconvolution, and velocity analysis. Other subjects considered are related to sonar array processing, radar array processing for angle of arrival estimation, image reconstruction in synthesis radio telescope arrays, and tomographic imaging with diffracting and nondiffracting sources. Attention is given to array processing, wave propagation, the Burg technique, the forward-backward linear prediction method, wave fields of radio sources, array geometry and rotational sampling of baseline space, image reconstruction by Fourier inversion, and image restoration by the method 'Clean'.

Haykin, S.

211

Pultrusion process characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pultrusion is a process through which high-modulus, lightweight composite structural members such as beams, truss components, stiffeners, etc., are manufactured. The pultrusion process, though a well-developed processing art, lacks a fundamental scientific understanding. The objective here was to determine, both experimentally and analytically, the process parameters most important in characterizing and optimizing the pultrusion of uniaxial fibers. The effects of process parameter interactions were experimentally examined as a function of the pultruded product properties. A numerical description based on these experimental results was developed. An analytical model of the pultrusion process was also developed. The objective of the modeling effort was the formulation of a two-dimensional heat transfer model and development of solutions for the governing differential equations using the finite element method.

Vaughan, James G.; Hackett, Robert M.

1991-01-01

212

Chaotic and random processes  

SciTech Connect

System dynamicists frequently encounter signals they interpret as realizations of normal random processes. To simulate these analytically and in the laboratory they use methods that yield approximately normal random signals. The traditional digital methods for generating such signals have been developed during the past 25 years. During the same period of time much development has been done in the theory of chaotic processes. The conditions under which chaos occurs have been studied, and several measures of the nature of chaotic processes have been developed. Some of the measures used to characterize the nature of dynamic system motions are common to the study of both random vibrations and chaotic processes. This paper considers chaotic processes and random vibrations. It shows contrasts between the two and situations where they are indistinguishable. The applicability of the Central Limit Theorem to chaotic processes is demonstrated. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Paez, T.L.

1991-01-01

213

Eigenforms, Discrete Processes and Quantum Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This essay is a discussion of the concept of eigenform, due to Heinz von Foerster, and its relationship with discrete physics and quantum mechanics. We interpret the square root of minus one as a simple oscillatory process - a clock, and as an eigenform. By taking a generalization of this identification of i as a clock and eigenform, we show how quantum mechanics emerges from discrete physics.

Kauffman, Louis H.

2012-05-01

214

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical engineering analysis of the preliminary process design of a process for producing solar cell grade silicon from dichlorosilane is presented. A plant to produce 1,000 MT/yr of silicon is analyzed. Progress and status for the plant design are reported for the primary activities of base case conditions (60 percent), reaction chemistry (50 percent), process flow diagram (35 percent), energy balance (10 percent), property data (10 percent) and equipment design (5 percent).

1981-01-01

215

Materials processing in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prospects for materials processing in space are addressed. The types of materials that are of the most commercial interest in this regard are examined, and the relevant microgravity facilities and technologies are discussed. The characteristics of the Space Shuttle and the Free Flyer with regard to materials processing in space are briefly considered. The principal manufacturers and consumers of space-processed products are described. The potential impact of these products is assessed.

Kohli, Rajiv; Rancitelli, Louis A.

1987-01-01

216

The process audit.  

PubMed

Few executives question the idea that by redesigning business processes--work that runs from end to end across an enterprise--they can achieve extraordinary improvements in cost, quality, speed, profitability, and other key areas Yet in spite of their intentions and investments, many executives flounder, unsure about what exactly needs to be changed, by how much, and when. As a result, many organizations make little progress--if any at all--in their attempts to transform business processes. Michael Hammer has spent the past five years working with a group of leading companies to develop the Process and Enterprise Maturity Model (PEMM), a new framework that helps executives comprehend, formulate, and assess process-based transformation efforts. He has identified two distinct groups of characteristics that are needed for business processes to perform exceptionally well over a long period of time. Process enablers, which affect individual processes, determine how well a process is able to function. They are mutually interdependent--if any are missing, the others will be ineffective. However, enablers are not enough to develop high-performance processes; they only provide the potential to deliver high performance. A company must also possess or establish organizational capabilities that allow the business to offer a supportive environment. Together, the enablers and the capabilities provide an effective way for companies to plan and evaluate process-based transformations. PEMM is different from other frameworks, such as Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), because it applies to all industries and all processes. The author describes how several companies--including Michelin, CSAA, Tetra Pak, Shell, Clorox, and Schneider National--have successfully used PEMM in various ways and at different stages to evaluate the progress of their process-based transformation efforts. PMID:17432158

Hammer, Michael

2007-04-01

217

Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

1984-01-01

218

NASA Hazard Analysis Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

Deckert, George

2010-01-01

219

TEP process flow diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is

R Scott Wilms; Bryan Carlson; James Coons; William Kubic

2008-01-01

220

Digital signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signal and image processing research projects are described. Topics include: (1) modeling underwater acoustic propagation; (2) image restoration; (3) signal reconstruction; (4) speech enhancement; (5) pitch detection; (6) spectral analysis; (7) speech synthesis; (8) speech enhancement; (9) autoregressive spectral estimation; (10) knowledge based array processing; (11) speech analysis; (12) estimating the degree of coronary stenosis with image processing; (13) automatic target detection; and (14) video conferencing.

Oppenheim, A. V.; Baggeroer, A. B.; Lim, J. S.; Musicus, B. R.; Mook, D. R.; Duckworth, G. L.; Bordley, T. E.; Curtis, S. R.; Deadrick, D. S.; Dove, W. P.

1984-01-01

221

SRC-II process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive laboratory and pilot plant experimental work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process has led to the development of an improved version of the process known as SRC-II. This work has shown considerable promise and plans are being made to demonstrate the SRC-II process using commercial size equipment in a 6000 T\\/D plant to be located near Morgantown, West Virginia.

B. K. Schmid; D. M. Jackson

1980-01-01

222

Machine and process characterization  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to statistically characterize 11 precision machining centers to determine their operating characteristics and process capabilities. Measurement probes and a ball plate were used for measurement analysis. A generic test part designed with geometric features that the department typically manufactures was machined using various machining processes. A better understanding of each machine's characteristics and process capability was realized through repeating these methods on each machine.

Love, L.W.

1992-12-01

223

Assessing coal conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion covers the level of coal-conversion processes in the U.S., which is currently at the process developement unit to pilot-plant stage and which will require 10-15 yr to reach the stage of commercial-scale operating plants; various types of coal-gasification processes, e.g., those using hydrogasification; the use of coal liquefaction to produce an entire range of possible products, including fuel

John Talty

1978-01-01

224

Industrial process surveillance system  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

1998-06-09

225

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

1993-01-01

226

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Fletcher, James C. (inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

1992-01-01

227

Processing titanium aluminide foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to extend the available manufacturing technologies for Ti3Albase aluminides, the potential success of a new hot-rolling process for the production of high-quality foils has been investigated. Processing of Super-?2 aluminide foils approximately 0.15 mm thick takes full advantage of the combined benefits of controlled rolling and a unique pack rolling process. Based on the results of a study of phase transformation kinetics, microstructure and hardness of continuously-cooled and isothermally transformed specimens, the processing parameters are optimized to provide enhanced surface quality and superior ductilities in the as-rolled condition.

Bassi, Corrado; Peters, John; Wittenauer, Jerry

1989-09-01

228

Industrial Process Surveillance System  

DOEpatents

A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W (Glendale Heights, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL); Mott, Jack E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-30

229

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

1999-03-30

230

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, Richard R. (Winchester, MA); Baumann, Robert (Cambridge, MA)

1999-01-01

231

Industrial process surveillance system  

DOEpatents

A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W. (Glendale Heights, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL); Mott, Jack E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01

232

Powder towpreg process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process for dry powder impregnation of carbon fiber tows being developed at LaRC overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution, and slurry prepregging. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and fused to the fibers by radiant heating. Impregnated tows have been produced for preform, weaving, and composite materials applications. Design and operating data correlations were developed for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Bench scale single tow experiments at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec have demonstrated that the process can be controlled to produce weavable towpreg. Samples were woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

1991-01-01

233

JSME scatterometer data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system was developed which processes digitized scatterometer data from the 13.3 GHz, 1.6 GHz and 400 MHz scatterometer systems. In addition to this, the hardware capability has been developed to recover the raw analog radar signals and the aircraft parameters from an ADAS data stream in a digital format for processing by the software package. Software for the preparation of data reports and chart presentation of scattering coefficients time histories has also been developed. This report documents the development of the software, describes key components of the processing system and presents examples of the processed data and procedure for software operation.

1977-01-01

234

Mineralogical characterisation of Secunda gasifier feedstock and coarse ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of clinkers in a Sasol–Lurgi fixed bed dry bottom (FBDB) gasifier is a complex process controlled by coal mineralogy and operating conditions. This paper explores the link between the coal mineralogy and the mineralogy of the corresponding clinkers\\/coarse ash. CCSEM and XRD results indicate that kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and to a lesser extent quartz (SiO2) are the major coal

R. H. Matjie; C. van Alphen; P. C. Pistorius

2006-01-01

235

American Power Conference, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Ill., April 24-26, 1978, Proceedings. Volume 40  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cogeneration plants for steam and electric production, solar power stations, open-cycle coal-fired MHD power plants, flue gas desulfurization, hydroelectric power, and mechanical energy storage systems are discussed. Topics of the papers include stabilization of flue gas desulfurization sludge, a 10-MWe solar power station, simple techniques for estimating the economic advantages of cogenerating facilities, a Lurgi-process coal gasification installation integrated with

B. Haigh

1978-01-01

236

Low and intermediate-Btu gas burner systems: flame stability properties. [6 refs; 2 appendices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flash-back velocity gradients of 38 synthetic fuel-gas mixtures composed of CHâ, Hâ, and CO, with Nâ and COâ as inert diluents, in compositional ranges typical of the low-Btu products of Lurgi, Winkler, and Wellman-Galusha air-blown gasifiers, were determined experimentally as a function of the fuel\\/air ratio. The objective was to obtain data needed for converting industrial process furnace burners,

A. A. Putnam; E. L. Merryman; R. E. Barrett

1976-01-01

237

Assessment of trace contaminants from a model indirect liquefaction facility. Volume I. Summary and conclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process and waste streams of commercial-scale, Lurgi\\/Fischer-Tropsch liquefaction facilities may be expected to contain a variety of chemical substances known or suspected to be hazardous to human health or the environment. Although it does not appear that any of the hazards are inherently insurmountable, site-specific and economic constraints may limit the level to which wastes will be treated, secured, recycled,

J. V. Antizzo; D. L. Britt; M. E. Goldstein; A. D. Hinkley; N. Kenkeremath; P. H. Mathers; J. P. McNeal

1982-01-01

238

Coal conversion solid waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major solid waste produced at coal conversion facilities will be gasification slag or ash. To evaluate the impact of this waste on the environment, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted extensive characterization and leaching studies on ash\\/slags that had been generated in bench-scale operations, pilot plants, and\\/or process development units for the Cogas, British Gas\\/Lurgi, Grace\\/Texaco, U-Gas, Foster Wheeler\\/Stoic,

C. W. Francis; W. J. Jr. Boegly; R. R. Turner; E. C. Davis

1981-01-01

239

Theoretical investigation of selected trace elements in coal gasification plants. Final report Mar 78-Nov 79  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a theoretical investigation of the disposition of five volatile trace elements (arsenic, boron, lead, selenium, and mercury) in SNG-producing coal gasification plants. Three coal gasification processes (dry-bottom Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, and HYGAS) were investigated to examine the possible effects of gasifier operation conditions on the speciation of the volatile trace elements. Results of this investigation suggest

A. H. Hill; G. L. Anderson; D. K. Fleming

1983-01-01

240

Chemical process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01

241

On Cognizing Cognitive Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report on cognitive processes, a discussion of the rationale and assumptions used by investigators explains the experimental procedures. To determine actual cognitive problem-solving processes, (rather than inferring them from results), subjects in these studies were presented with a problem and allowed to ask a sequence of questions which…

Rimoldi, H. J. A.

242

Microgravity Control Integration Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify that the International Space Station (ISS) payload facility racks do not disturb the microgravity environment of neighboring facility racks during any ISS microgravity period, a control integration process must be followed. Currently no facility racks have taken this process from start to finish. The authors are assisting the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Fluids Combustion Facility (FCF) in

J. Heese; Carlos M. Grodsinsky

2002-01-01

243

Meixner processes in finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Black-Scholes option price model Brownian motion and the un- derlying Normal distribution play a fundamental role. Empirical evidence however shows that the normal distribution is a very poor model to fit real-life data. In order to achieve a better fit we replace the Brownian motion by a special Levy process: the Meixner process. We show that the underlying

Wim Schoutens

2001-01-01

244

The Mentoring Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A powerpoint presentation file from the EB 2002 Mentoring Symposium on the mentoring process: how it starts, how formal it is, how frequently you should be, who can be a mentor/mentee, role of assignments, and whether or not the process should be documented.

Neena Schwartz (Northwestern University)

2002-04-01

245

HEPA filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1994-02-22

246

Laser materials processing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laser materials processing facility and its capabilities are described. A CO2 laser with continuous wave, repetitive pulse, and shaped power-time cycles is employed. The laser heated crystal growth station was used to produce metal and metal oxide single crystals and for cutting and shaping experiments using Si3N4 to displace diamond shaping processes.

Haggerty, J. S.

1982-01-01

247

Contaminated nickel scrap processing  

SciTech Connect

The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

1994-12-01

248

Positron annihilation processes update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present knowledge concerning the positron annihilation processes is reviewed, with emphasis on the data of the cross sections of the various processes of interest in astrophysical applications. Recent results are presented including results on reaction rates and line widths, the validity of which is verified.

Guessoum, Nidhal; Skibo, Jeffrey G.; Ramaty, Reuven

1997-01-01

249

Monitoring Process Effectiveness  

EPA Science Inventory

Treatment of municipal sludges to produce biosolids which meet federal and/or state requirements for land application requires process monitoring. The goal of process monitoring is to produce biosolids of consistent and reliable quality. In its simplest form, for Class B treatme...

250

Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

Kathotia, Vinay

2011-01-01

251

Museum as Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's thriving art museums--and the various processes that deliver both their overt and covert missions--are likely to have a greater impact on society than ever before. With such potential, it seems especially important at this juncture to examine critically the art museum as process; to deconstruct that which has been "constructed as a symbol…

Jeffers, Carol S.

2003-01-01

252

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2006-10-24

253

A Textbook Selection Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

254

Industrial crystallization process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of every industrial crystallization process is to create crystals that meet specifications on size, shape, composition, and internal structure. This objective is achieved using a variety of methods and equipment configurations depending on the properties of the chemical system, the end-product specifications, and the production scale. This paper explain how crystallization is controlled in industrial processes and what

PAUL A. LARSEN; DANIEL B. PATIENCE; JAMES B. RAWLINGS

2006-01-01

255

Research into Process Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These papers are related to the basic comprehensive research and development plan of the Eastern Regional Institute for Education (ERIE). The first paper, Improving Process Education: A Comprehensive Plan by Burton G. Andreas, describes the comprehensive plan and introduces the succeeding papers. The goals of the program are to improve process…

Andreas, Burton G.; And Others

256

Transparent Materials Processing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A zero gravity processing furnace system was designed that will allow acquisition of photographic or other visual information while the sample is being processed. A low temperature (30 to 400 C) test model with a flat specimen heated by quartz-halide lamp...

J. S. Hetherington

1977-01-01

257

On classifying processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove several results concerning classifications, based on successive observations (X1<\\/sub>, ..., Xn<\\/sub>) of an unknown stationary and ergodic process, for membership of a given class of processes, such as the class of all finite-order Markov chains.

Gusztáv Morvai; Benjamin Weiss

2005-01-01

258

Multimedia Processing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview on VLSI implementations of multimedia pro- cessing systems is given with particular emphasis on architectures for im- age and video processing. Alternative design approaches are discussed for dedicated image and video processing circuits and for programmable multimedia processors. Current design examples of dedicated and pro- grammable architectures are reviewed, and the techniques employed to im- prove the performance

Peter Pirsch; Hans-Joachim Stolberg

259

Processing of plastics  

PubMed Central

An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed.

Spaak, Albert

1975-01-01

260

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications or microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

2010-01-26

261

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of Microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2007-09-18

262

Microwave processing of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

Katz, J.D.

1993-01-01

263

Microwave processing of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

Katz, J.D.

1993-04-01

264

SRC-II Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive laboratory and pilot plant experimental work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process has led to the development of an improved version of the process known as SRC-II. This work has shown considerable promise and plans are being made to demonstrate t...

B. K. Schmid D. M. Jackson

1980-01-01

265

Shell coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas produced (93 to 98% by volume hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is suitable for the manufacture of hydrogen or reducing gas and, with further processing, substitute natural gas (SNG). Moreover, the gas can be used for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol, and liquid hydrocarbons. Another possible application of this process is as an integral part of a combined-cycle power station

G. R. McCullough; S. C. Roberts; M. J. van der Burgt

1982-01-01

266

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent trends in research in natural language processing and discusses some applications of this research to the solution of information management problems. The article emphasizes that the importance of natural language processing systems is reflected in their frequent use in support of other computer programs. (71 references) (CK)

Rindflesch, Thomas C.

1996-01-01

267

Improved Image Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for image processing by one or more cycles of nutation and subtraction is described. The goal of the processing is the improvement of resolution in images degraded by linear motion blur, defocus, and diffraction. A mathematical analysis is for...

M. M. Kaplan P. Diament J. H. Troll

1975-01-01

268

Digital image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of digital image processing is reviewed with reference to its origins, progress, current status, and prospects for the future. Consideration is given to the evolution of image processor display devices, developments in the functional components of an image processor display system (e.g. memory, data bus, and pipeline central processing unit), and developments in the software. The major future

B. R. Hunt

1981-01-01

269

Digital image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the field of digital image processing is presented, with concentration upon image formation and recording processes, digital sampling and digital image display, and with in-depth coverage of image coding and image restoration. New results in image restoration are also presented, covering restoration by use of an eye-model constraint and nonlinear restoration by maximization of the posterior density

B. R. Hunt

1975-01-01

270

Shell Higher Olefins Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

Lutz, E. F.

1986-01-01

271

Algebraic Theory of Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides general and systematic introduction to the semantics of concurrent systems. The author presents his own theory of the behavioral semantics of processes ( testing equivalence ) and original results in example languages for distributed processes. The problems addressed are motivated from the standpoint of computer science, and all the required algebraic concepts are covered.

Matthew Hennessy

1988-01-01

272

Kuhlthau's Information Search Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model which is based on a constructivist view of learning and provides a framework for school library media specialists for the design of information services and instruction. Highlights include a shift from library skills to information skills; attitudes; process approach; and an interview with…

Shannon, Donna

2002-01-01

273

Generalized Gaussian process models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a generalized Gaussian process model (GGPM), which is a unifying framework that encompasses many existing Gaussian process (GP) models, such as GP regression, classification, and counting. In the GGPM framework, the observation likelihood of the GP model is itself parameterized using the exponential family distribution. By deriving approximate inference algorithms for the generalized GP model, we are able

Antoni B. Chan; Daxiang Dong

2011-01-01

274

Geophysical signal processing  

SciTech Connect

Draws together a number of areas of knowledge to give unified coverage of the subject: the geophysical applications of digital signal processing. The presentation has a strong applications orientation. The coverage connects and unifies several fields, namely wave propagation, digital signal processing, spectral analysis, and computer methods. The book covers many topics in depth.

Robinson, E.A.; Durrani, T.S.

1986-01-01

275

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) for producing silicon from dichlorosilane in a 1,000 MT/yr plant was continued. Progress and status for the chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process are reported for the primary process design engineering activities: base case conditions (85%), reaction chemistry (85%), process flow diagram (60%), material balance (60%), energy balance (30%), property data (30%), equipment design (20%) and major equipment list (10%). Engineering design of the initial distillation column (D-01, stripper column) in the process was initiated. The function of the distillation column is to remove volatile gases (such as hydrogen and nitrogen) which are dissolved in liquid chlorosilanes. Initial specifications and results for the distillation column design are reported including the variation of tray requirements (equilibrium stages) with reflux ratio for the distillation.

1981-01-01

276

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOEpatents

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

1993-09-07

277

Materials processing in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing-refining of raw materials from extraterrestrial sources is detailed for a space materials handling facility. The discussion is constrained to those steps necessary to separate desired components from raw or altered input ores, semi-purified feedstocks, or process scrap and convert the material into elements, alloys, and consumables. The materials are regarded as originating from dead satellites and boosters, lunar materials, and asteroids. Strong attention will be given to recycling reagent substances to avoid the necessity of transporting replacements. It is assumed that since no aqueous processes exist on the moon, the distribution of minerals will be homogeneous. The processing-refining scenario will include hydrochemical, pyrochemical, electrochemical, and physical techniques selected for the output mass rate/unit plant mass ratio. Flow charts of the various materials processing operations which could be performed with lunar materials are provided, noting the necessity of delivering several alloying elements from the earth due to scarcities on the moon.

Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

1982-01-01

278

Defragmenting the regulatory process.  

PubMed

The regulatory process is often criticized for being cumbersome and slow, much like a computer whose hard drive is fragmented by files no longer used or useful. Like such a computer, the regulatory process contains many requirements of dubious utility. These include the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and numerous executive orders. While other parts of the regulatory process such as notice and comment and cost-benefit analysis have received much more academic attention, these other parts of the process deserve examination as well. This article argues that such an examination will reveal that these statutes and executive orders add little of value to the regulatory process while consuming agency resources. An improved requirement for cost-benefit analysis with distributional analysis could easily replace virtually all of these requirements and improve regulations while reducing the time needed to promulgate regulations. PMID:21679219

Shapiro, Stuart

2011-06-01

279

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOEpatents

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Hu, Zhicheng (Somerville, MA)

1993-01-01

280

Impact of developing technology on indirect liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The status of commercial technology for indirect liquefaction, as exemplified by SASOL facilities in South Africa, is reviewed. The impact of substituting more advanced gasifiers and synthesis systems is then investigated. Slagging BGC/Lurgi, Texaco and Shell-Koppers gasifiers were substituted for the Dry Ash Lurgi units used at SASOL. SASOL SYNTHOL synthesis units were replaced by slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch units employing technology pioneered by Kolbel. The advanced systems were found to have a highly favorable impact on plant efficiency, product distribution and gasoline cost. If all the projected technical improvements can be realized for indirect liquefaction, the yields of refined transportation fuels per ton of coal will approach those anticipated for direct liquefaction processes.

Gray, D.; Lytton, M.; Neuworth, M.; Tomlinson, G.

1980-11-01

281

EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been tremendous development within measurement science and technology over the past couple of decades. New sensor technologies and compact versatile signal recovery electronics are continuously expanding the limits of what can be measured and the accuracy with which this can be done. Miniaturization of sensors and the use of nanotechnology push these limits further. Also, thanks to powerful and cost-effective computer systems, sophisticated measurement and reconstruction algorithms previously only accessible in advanced laboratories are now available for in situ online measurement systems. The process industries increasingly require more process-related information, motivated by key issues such as improved process control, process utilization and process yields, ultimately driven by cost-effectiveness, quality assurance, environmental and safety demands. Industrial process tomography methods have taken advantage of the general progress in measurement science, and aim at providing more information, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on multiphase systems and their dynamics. The typical approach for such systems has been to carry out one local or bulk measurement and assume that this is representative of the whole system. In some cases, this is sufficient. However, there are many complex systems where the component distribution varies continuously and often unpredictably in space and time. The foundation of industrial tomography is to conduct several measurements around the periphery of a multiphase process, and use these measurements to unravel the cross-sectional distribution of the process components in time and space. This information is used in the design and optimization of industrial processes and process equipment, and also to improve the accuracy of multiphase system measurements in general. In this issue we are proud to present a selection of the 145 papers presented at the 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography in Bergen, September 2007. Interestingly, x-ray technologies, one of the first imaging modalities available, keep on moving the limits on both spatial and temporal measurement resolution; experimental results of less than 100 nm and several thousand frames/s are reported, respectively. Important progress is demonstrated in research and development on sensor technologies and algorithms for data processing and image reconstruction, including unconventional sensor design and adaptation of the sensors to the application in question. The number of applications to which tomographic methods are applied is steadily increasing, and results obtained in a representative selection of applications are included. As guest editors we would like express our appreciation and thanks to all authors who have contributed and to IOP staff for excellent collaboration in the process of finalizing this special feature.

Anton Johansen, Geir; Wang, Mi

2008-09-01

282

Biomedical image processing  

SciTech Connect

Biomedical image processing is a very broad field; it covers biomedical signal gathering, image forming, picture processing, and image display to medical diagnosis based on features extracted from images. This article reviews this topic in both its fundamentals and applications. In its fundamentals, some basic image processing techniques including outlining, deblurring, noise cleaning, filtering, search, classical analysis and texture analysis have been reviewed together with examples. The state-of-the-art image processing systems have been introduced and discussed in two categories: general purpose image processing systems and image analyzers. In order for these systems to be effective for biomedical applications, special biomedical image processing languages have to be developed. The combination of both hardware and software leads to clinical imaging devices. Two different types of clinical imaging devices have been discussed. There are radiological imagings which include radiography, thermography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and CT. Among these, thermography is the most noninvasive but is limited in application due to the low energy of its source. X-ray CT is excellent for static anatomical images and is moving toward the measurement of dynamic function, whereas nuclear imaging is moving toward organ metabolism and ultrasound is toward tissue physical characteristics. Heart imaging is one of the most interesting and challenging research topics in biomedical image processing; current methods including the invasive-technique cineangiography, and noninvasive ultrasound, nuclear medicine, transmission, and emission CT methodologies have been reviewed.

Huang, H.K.

1981-01-01

283

Biological Process Linkage Networks  

PubMed Central

Background The traditional approach to studying complex biological networks is based on the identification of interactions between internal components of signaling or metabolic pathways. By comparison, little is known about interactions between higher order biological systems, such as biological pathways and processes. We propose a methodology for gleaning patterns of interactions between biological processes by analyzing protein-protein interactions, transcriptional co-expression and genetic interactions. At the heart of the methodology are the concept of Linked Processes and the resultant network of biological processes, the Process Linkage Network (PLN). Results We construct, catalogue, and analyze different types of PLNs derived from different data sources and different species. When applied to the Gene Ontology, many of the resulting links connect processes that are distant from each other in the hierarchy, even though the connection makes eminent sense biologically. Some others, however, carry an element of surprise and may reflect mechanisms that are unique to the organism under investigation. In this aspect our method complements the link structure between processes inherent in the Gene Ontology, which by its very nature is species-independent. As a practical application of the linkage of processes we demonstrate that it can be effectively used in protein function prediction, having the power to increase both the coverage and the accuracy of predictions, when carefully integrated into prediction methods. Conclusions Our approach constitutes a promising new direction towards understanding the higher levels of organization of the cell as a system which should help current efforts to re-engineer ontologies and improve our ability to predict which proteins are involved in specific biological processes.

Dotan-Cohen, Dikla; Letovsky, Stan; Melkman, Avraham A.; Kasif, Simon

2009-01-01

284

The VISAR Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Video Image Stabilization And Registration (VISAR) process is an award winning video image processing software developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. VISAR has a wide variety of application areas where the refinement of digital video is needed. It is used to correct jitter, rotation, and zoom effects by registering and processing on individual image captures that are a part of normal video capturing. Its most prominent uses were the 1996 Olympic Bombing case and in identifying Saddam Hussein during the Iraq war. Based on first-hand knowledge, this paper describes the VISAR process, which consists of several steps designed to refine digital video using VISAR software. The process determines the differences between two video images so that one, or both, of the images can be changed in ways that make them match as well as possible. Corrections include changes in position (horizontal and vertical image shifts), changes in orientation (image rotation), and changes in magnification (image zoom). While much of the VISAR process is automated, in its current embodiment it requires the user to initially identify the area of interest and to reset a threshold parameter if the default gives unacceptable results. The basic process that is used is an old tried and true method that determines how well the two images match. This process is called cross-correlation. It gives a single number, the correlation coefficient, that is equal to 1.0 if the images are perfectly matched, is equal to 0.0 if the images have nothing in common, and is equal to -1.0 if one image is the negative of the other. This basic process is used by many image stabilization methods. With VISAR we use it in a manner that provides statistical information needed to best determine orientation and magnification.

Hathaway, David; Meyer, Paul; Templeton, Gary F.

2003-01-01

285

Precision Heating Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat sealing process was developed by SEBRA based on technology that originated in work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The project involved connecting and transferring blood and fluids between sterile plastic containers while maintaining a closed system. SEBRA markets the PIRF Process to manufacturers of medical catheters. It is a precisely controlled method of heating thermoplastic materials in a mold to form or weld catheters and other products. The process offers advantages in fast, precise welding or shape forming of catheters as well as applications in a variety of other industries.

1992-01-01

286

Image processing benchmark study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the benchmarking of image processing algorithms using high-performance workstations and personal desktop computers. For the various platforms evaluated which included machines from Sun, SGI, Apple, and Gateway, compiler options were varied to obtain the fastest execution times. Algorithms evaluated included typical image processing operations such as derivatives, logical operations, morphology, subtraction, median filter, and the new SKIPSM approach. Data were collected using the different platforms and are presented here in tabular form. The results indicate that the latest generation of personal computers have processing capabilities that are similar to UNIX-based work stations.

Miller, John W. V.; Eddy, C.; Waltz, Frederick M.; Hack, Ralf; Wood, James; Stokes, D.

1998-10-01

287

Material Selection and Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Cambridge Department of Engineering operates a very informative site on material selection and processing. Its purpose is "to aid good practice in the selection of materials for product design." Of the many features offered on the site, a particularly valuable section is the Process Encyclopedia. This has a long list of manufacturing processes with detailed descriptions and illustrations. Extensive information about common materials and properties are also given. Interactive material selection charts show the relationship between various physical parameters. Product analysis case studies, tutorials, and many more items make this a very comprehensive resource.

288

The Poisson Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this online, interactive lesson on the Poisson process provides examples, exercises, and applets. Specific topics include the exponential distribution, gamma distribution, Poisson distribution, splitting a Poisson process, analogy with Bernoulli trials, and higher dimensional Poisson processes. Additionally, the author offers external resources for those interested in further study of this statistical concept. Overall, this is a nice resource as it provides students with definitions and then allows them to apply these theories in the form of interactive applets.

Siegrist, Kyle

2009-05-01

289

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01

290

Carbon wastewater treatment process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.

Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.

1974-01-01

291

Lubricant Coating Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Peen Plating," a NASA developed process for applying molybdenum disulfide, is the key element of Techniblast Co.'s SURFGUARD process for applying high strength solid lubricants. The process requires two machines -- one for cleaning and one for coating. The cleaning step allows the coating to be bonded directly to the substrate to provide a better "anchor." The coating machine applies a half a micron thick coating. Then, a blast gun, using various pressures to vary peening intensities for different applications, fires high velocity "media" -- peening hammers -- ranging from plastic pellets to steel shot. Techniblast was assisted by Rural Enterprises, Inc. Coating service can be performed at either Techniblast's or a customer's facility.

1989-01-01

292

Ultrasonic Processing of Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

2005-06-30

293

Chemical Processing Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

Beyerle, F. J.

1972-01-01

294

Robot welding process control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

Romine, Peter L.

1991-01-01

295

Adaptive materials processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New sensors for both arc welding and resistance spot welding processes were studied. For arc welding, the arc itself is used as the sensor. Minor changes in both composition and geometry of the plasma result in fluctuations in the arc voltage. While the process as currently employed is an off-line system, development of an on-line process controller would be possible once the optimum analysis technique is developed. It has been shown that for resistance spot welding, the dynamic resistance of the weld joint can be correlated to growth of the fusion zone. It is indicated that this technique is not as useful for projection welds as for spot welds.

Eager, T. W.

1982-01-01

296

Business Process Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business process management is one of the core drivers of business innovation and is based on strategic technology and capable of creating and successfully executing end-to-end business processes. The trend will be to move from relatively stable, organization-specific applications to more dynamic, high-value ones where business process interactions and trends are examined closely to understand more accurately an application's requirements. Such collaborative, complex end-to-end service interactions give rise to the concept of Service Networks (SNs).

Hantry, Francois; Papazoglou, Mike; van den Heuvel, Willem-Jan; Haque, Rafique; Whelan, Eoin; Carroll, Noel; Karastoyanova, Dimka; Leymann, Frank; Nikolaou, Christos; Lammersdorf, Winfried; Hacid, Mohand-Said

297

Direct coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300 C to 400 C for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.

1993-10-26

298

LIDC - Reader Marking Process  

Cancer.gov

Slide 1LIDC Radiologists' MarkingsA Multiple Reader/ Multiple Session Process Blinded Read Each Radiologist reads independently (Blinded to other readers' markings) Unblinded Read Each Radiologist re-reads, but is shown their own blinded read markings

299

Direct coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

Rindt, John R. (Grand Forks, ND); Hetland, Melanie D. (Grand Forks, ND)

1993-01-01

300

Magnetization Process: Hysteresis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetization process, hysteresis (the difference in the path of magnetization for an increasing and decreasing magnetic field), hysteresis loops, and hard magnetic materials are discussed. The fabrication of classroom projects for demonstrating hyste...

R. Balsamel

1990-01-01

301

LIMB PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers basic and applied studies concerned with three Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process objectives: (1) avoiding degradation of collection efficiency in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during LIMB, (2) achieving satisfactory sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

302

Optical Signal Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optical signal processing makes possible rapid coordinate transformations, optical pattern recognition, and matrix-matrix multiplication. In the present contract, DSI has demonstrated several significant accomplishments. Among these are: (a) the design an...

1983-01-01

303

Phenol removal pretreatment process  

DOEpatents

A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO) [Westminster, CO

2004-04-13

304

Process simulators on supercomputers  

SciTech Connect

Rigorous simulation of chemical processes involves solving very large sets of algebraic equations. Simulations performed on mainframe computers like the VAX are often compute bound causing problems or delays in day-to-day process modeling. One solution to this problem is to adapt flowsheet simulators to run on supercomputers like the Cray X-MP. Supercomputers provide both raw speedup and vector processing. This study compares running two industrial flowsheet simulators, PROCESS (from SimSci) and CPES (Du Pont in-house) on a VAX 8800 to running them on a Cray X-MP and used 32 real world problems to gather benchmark statistics from both machines. Details of the study are presented.

Haley, J.C.; Sarma, P.V.L.N. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Engg. Dept., Newark, DE (US))

1988-01-01

305

Quantum Stochastic Processes  

SciTech Connect

We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

Spring, William Joseph [Quantum Information and Probability Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

2009-04-13

306

Organ Donation: The Process  

MedlinePLUS

... Organ After Your Transplant Contact Your Donor Family Organ Donation: The Process Enrolling as a Donor : The altruistic ... If the deceased's evaluation does not rule out donation, the OPO contacts the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) to begin the ...

307

Improving Software Process Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two dichotomies characterize software process improvement efforts and approaches: disciplined versus creative work and procurer risks versus user satisfaction. Based on these perspectives, the authors introduce six theses to illuminate the problems of pursuing SPI.

Reidar Conradi; Alfonso Fuggetta

2002-01-01

308

Data Access Request Process  

Cancer.gov

This page contains instructions for submitting a Data Access Request for dataset(s) under the purview of the Extramural National Cancer Institute (NCI) Data Access Committee (DAC) and an overview of the review process.

309

Manufacturing Processes and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by Jonathan S. Colton of the Georgia Institute of Technology, contains class notes for a senior-level course on manufacturing processes and engineering. This site contains assignments, solutions, course requirements, syllabi, quizzes, and manufacturing videos.

Colton, Jonathan S.

2009-12-29

310

Petroleum Processing Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

Baker, D. A.

1978-01-01

311

Qualitative Process Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Things move, collide, flow, bend heat up, cool down, stretch, break, and boil these and other things that happen to cause changes in objects over time are intuitively characterized as processes. To understand common sense physical reasoning and make machi...

K. D. Forbus

1982-01-01

312

Spectator processes and baryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectator processes which are in thermal equilibrium during the period of baryogenesis influence the final baryon asymmetry. We study this effect quantitatively for thermal leptogenesis where we find a suppression by a factor O(1).

W. Buchmüller; M. Plümacher

2001-01-01

313

Meiotic Process and Aneuploidy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process of meiosis is analyzed by dissecting it into its component parts using the early oocyte of Drosophila as a model. Entrance of the oocytes into premeiotic interphase signals initiation of DNA replication which continues for 30 h. Coincidentally...

R. F. Grell

1985-01-01

314

Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

Goldberg, Robert B.

1988-01-01

315

Friction-Stir Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Friction-stir processing (FSP) is an emerging surface-engineering technology that can locally eliminate casting defects and refine microstructures, thereby improving strength and ductility, increase resistance to corrosion and fatigue, enhance formability...

M. W. Mahoney, S. P. Lynch

2006-01-01

316

Relational processing following stroke.  

PubMed

The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three levels of relational complexity. Relational processing was impaired in the stroke groups. This was due mainly to items at the intermediate ternary-relational level of complexity. Less complex binary-relational items and more complex quaternary-relational items (the latter are difficult for adults generally) were less sensitive to stroke status. Impairment was greater in frontal than non-frontal stroke patients. Positive inter-correlations among measures supported the domain-general nature of relational processing. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:23174427

Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

2013-02-01

317

Formal process ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports some results of the author's recent work on aprocess-ontological framework called APT. APT is based on thenotion of a free process, a new category in ontology, with Broad's\\/ Sellars' \\

Johanna Seibt

2001-01-01

318

Diffusion Processes in Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book consists of a collection of papers dealing with diffusion welding of metals, effect of irradiation on diffusion and diffusion-controlled processes, migration of particles in the stress-field of dislocation loops, diffusion in liquid metals, grai...

1969-01-01

319

Hallmarks, Processing nutrients: Hanahan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer cells require a source of nutrients and oxygen, which is supplied through new blood vessel growth âÃÂàthe process of angiogenesis, which is critical for almost all cancers.

2009-12-26

320

Dissolution processes: Stuffed structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding oxide dissolution processes on the molecular scale remains a challenge. A study on nanoscale oxides suggests a mechanism for dissolution that proceeds through the formation of oxygen-stuffed metastable structures.

Fenter, Paul

2012-03-01

321

Optoelectronic Information Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: Explore optoelectronic information processing, integrated photonics, and associated optical device components & fabrication for air and space platforms to transform AF capabilities in computing, communications, storage, sen...

G. S. Pomrenke

2012-01-01

322

Optical Data Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our research concerns optical data processing for missile guidance and target recognition. It uses pattern recognition techniques with an increasing use of knowledge base, inference machine and associative processor techniques. Our Year 2 work addresses d...

D. Casasent

1986-01-01

323

FDA -- Electronic Submission Process  

Cancer.gov

Food and Drug Administration – E lectronic Submission Process Stephen E. Wilson, DrPH (Biostatistics) Deputy Direct or Division of Biometrics II, CDER, FDA Member, CDER Electronic Submissions Working Group NIH Cancer Imaging Informatics Workshop Bethesda

324

Process Safety Management (Reprinted).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases in processes involving highly hazardous chemicals have been reported for many years. Incidents continue to occur in various industries that use highly hazardous chemicals which may be ...

2000-01-01

325

Process Safety Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases in processes involving highly hazardous chemical have been reported for many years. Incidents continue to occur in various industries that use highly hazardous chemicals which may be t...

1994-01-01

326

Process Safety Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases in processes involving highly hazardous chemicals have been reported for many years. Incidents continue to occur in various industries that use highly hazardous chemicals which may be ...

2000-01-01

327

Presenting the Scientific Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a course titled Scientific Process, the authors introduce undergraduates to the philosophy and practice of science and initiate them into a 2-year undergraduate research track. Engaging exercises and discussions help students understand the scientific

Meers, Mason; Savarese, Michael; Demers, Nora E.

2003-12-01

328

Electrochemical Atomic Layer Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Atomic layer processing with electrochemical control is discussed. A method for the electrodeposition of compound semiconductors based on the principles of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) is reported, with specific reference to the formation of ZnTe. This meth...

C. K. Rhee B. M. Huang E. M. Wilmer S. Thomas J. L. Stickney

1994-01-01

329

Electron-Attachment Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects...

L. G. Christophorou, D. L. McCorkle, A. A. Christodoulides

1982-01-01

330

High intensity laser processes  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on high intensity laser processes. Topics covered include laser particle acceleration, multiphoton ionization and related phenomena, laser-produced plasma x-ray sources, and x-ray lasers.

Alcock, A.J.

1986-01-01

331

Transparallel processing by hyperstrings  

PubMed Central

Human vision research aims at understanding the brain processes that enable us to see the world as a structured whole consisting of separate objects. To explain how humans organize a visual pattern, structural information theory starts from the idea that our visual system prefers the organization with the simplest descriptive code, that is, the code that captures a maximum of visual regularity. Empirically, structural information theory gained support from psychological data on a wide variety of perceptual phenomena, but theoretically, the computation of guaranteed simplest codes remained a troubling problem. Here, the graph-theoretical concept of “hyperstrings” is presented as a key to the solution of this problem. A hyperstring is a distributed data structure that allows a search for regularity in O(2N) strings as if only one string of length N were concerned. Thereby, hyperstrings enable transparallel processing, a previously uncharacterized form of processing that might also be a form of cognitive processing.

van der Helm, Peter A.

2004-01-01

332

Computer processed LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background information and exercises are provided to: (1) establish or expand understanding of the concepts, methods, and terminology of computer processing of image producing data; (2) develop insight into the advantages of computer based image processing compared with the photointerpretation approach for processing, classifying, interpreting, and applying remote sensing data; (3) foster a broad perspective on the principal of the main techniques for image enhancement, pattern recognition, and thematic classification; (4) appreciate the pros and cons of batch and interactive modes of image analysis; (5) examine and evaluate some specific computer generated products for subscenes in Pennsylvania and New Jersey; and (6) interrelate these particular examples of output with more theoretical explanations of computer processing strategies and procedures.

1982-01-01

333

CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

334

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01

335

Apple Image Processing Educator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

Gunther, F. J.

1981-01-01

336

Transparent materials processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero gravity processing furnace system was designed that will allow acquisition of photographic or other visual information while the sample is being processed. A low temperature (30 to 400 C) test model with a flat specimen heated by quartz-halide lamps was constructed. A high temperature (400 to 1000 C) test model heated by resistance heaters, utilizing a cylindrical specimen and optics, was also built. Each of the test models is discussed in detail. Recommendations are given.

Hetherington, J. S.

1977-01-01

337

Advanced Polymer Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) γ, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science

Muenchausen; Ross E

2012-01-01

338

Advanced Polymer Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-25

339

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

A low-cost digital acquisition unit for a CARY-210 spectrophotometer has been designed and constructed. The data-flow is controlled by a 6809 microprocessor driving four parallel interface adapters. Two RS232-C serial links are provided for communication with a terminal and a mass storage unit. The acquired data are processed by a personal computer. Included are several software modules, based on powerful signal-processing algorithms, which are highly useful in kinetic studies. PMID:18964634

Meyer, J J; Paumard, J L; Milin, D; Levoir, P; Fontaine, J C

1988-11-01

340

Image Processing Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ames digital image velocimetry technology has been incorporated in a commercially available image processing software package that allows motion measurement of images on a PC alone. The software, manufactured by Werner Frei Associates, is IMAGELAB FFT. IMAGELAB FFT is a general purpose image processing system with a variety of other applications, among them image enhancement of fingerprints and use by banks and law enforcement agencies for analysis of videos run during robberies.

1990-01-01

341

Statistical process control  

SciTech Connect

Addressing the increasing importance for firms to have a thorough knowledge of statistically based quality control procedures, this book presents the fundamentals of statistical process control (SPC) in a non-mathematical, practical way. It provides real-life examples and data drawn from a wide variety of industries. The foundations of good quality management and process control, and control of conformance and consistency during production are given. Offers clear guidance to those who wish to understand and implement modern SPC techniques.

Oakland, J.S.

1986-01-01

342

Evaluating Collaborative Learning Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and analyzing collaborative learning processes require a fine-grained sequential analysis of the group interaction\\u000a in the context of learning goals. Several researchers in the area of cooperative work take as a success criterion the quality\\u000a of the group outcome. Nevertheless, recent findings are giving importance to the quality of the cooperation process itself.\\u000a This paper presents a set of

César A. Collazos; Luis A. Guerrero; José A. Pino; Sergio F. Ochoa

2002-01-01

343

Spherical nitroguanidine process  

DOEpatents

A process of preparing spherical high bulk density nitroguanidine by dissing low bulk density nitroguanidine in N-methyl pyrrolidone at elevated temperatures and then cooling the solution to lower temperatures as a liquid characterized as a nonsolvent for the nitroguanidine is provided. The process is enhanced by inclusion in the solution of from about 1 ppm up to about 250 ppm of a metal salt such as nickel nitrate, zinc nitrate or chromium nitrate, preferably from about 20 to about 50 ppm.

Sanchez, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Roemer, Edward L. (Los Alamos, NM); Stretz, Lawrence A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

344

Textile composite processing science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-dimensional model of the Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process was developed for the prediction of the infiltration behavior of a resin into an anisotropic fiber preform. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was developed for in-situ monitoring of the RTM process. Flow visualization and mold filling experiments were conducted to verify sensor measurements and model predictions. Test results indicated good agreement between model predictions, sensor readings, and experimental data.

Loos, Alfred C.; Hammond, Vincent H.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Hasko, Gregory H.

1993-01-01

345

Mean residual life processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yang and Hall and Wellner initiated investigations of the asymptotic uniform behaviour of mean residual life (MRL) processes. They obtained results holding true over fixed and expanding compact subintervals of $[0, \\\\infty)$.\\u000a¶ In this exposition we study MRL processes over the whole positive half-line $[0, \\\\infty)$. We describe classes of weight functions which enable us to establish the (a)

Miklós Csörg?

1996-01-01

346

Image Processing Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To convert raw data into environmental products, the National Weather Service and other organizations use the Global 9000 image processing system marketed by Global Imaging, Inc. The company's GAE software package is an enhanced version of the TAE, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center to support remote sensing and image processing applications. The system can be operated in three modes and is combined with HP Apollo workstation hardware.

1992-01-01

347

Materials Processing in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report describes investigations of materials processing in low-gravity environment. Ultimately, research could lead to new commercially-applicable materials and processes and to an understanding of constraints imposed by gravity. NASA-supported work is carried out in 46 academic, industrial, and Government laboratories, and covers a number of areas. An overview is given of objective and current state of development for over 100 tasks.

Naumann, R. J.

1982-01-01

348

Hydrogen recovery process  

DOEpatents

A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

2000-01-01

349

Studsvik Processing Facility Update  

SciTech Connect

Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

2003-02-25

350

STP Multiplicative Process Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP Multiplicative Process program simulates the outcome of a random multiplicative process, a product of random numbers. Examples of multiplicative processes include the distributions of incomes, rainfall, and the fragments sizes in rock crushing processes. Consider the latter for which we begin with a rock of size w. We strike the rock with a hammer and generate two fragments whose sizes are pw and (1-p)w. What is the distribution of the fragments after N blows of the hammer? The default is the random product of two numbers x1 and x2 with probability p = 1/2 multiplied N=4 times. STP MultiplicativeProcess is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the stp_MultiplicativeProcess.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-03-09

351

Helium process cycle  

DOEpatents

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2007-10-09

352

Image Processing Learning Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hypermedia Image Processing Reference (HIPR) offers a wealth of resources for users of image processing and an introduction to hypermedia (through use with Web browsers). HIPR was developed at the Department of Artificial Intelligence in the University of Edinburgh as computer-based tutorial materials for use in courses on image processing and machine vision. The material is available as a package that can easily be shared on a local area network and then made available at any suitably equipped computer connected to that network. The materials cover a wide range of image processing operations and are complemented by an extensive collection of actual digitized images, all organized for easy cross-referencing. Some features include a reference section with information on some of the most common classes of image-processing operations currently used, a section describing how each operation works, and various other instructional tools, such as Java demonstrations; interactive tableau where multiple operators can demonstrate sequences of operations; suggestions for appropriate use of operations; example input and output images for each operation; suggested student exercises; an encyclopedic glossary of common image processing concepts and terms; and other reference information. From the index, visitors can search on a particular topic covered in this website.

353

Polycrystalline semiconductor processing  

DOEpatents

A process is described for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by impingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step. 10 figs.

Glaeser, A.M.; Haggerty, J.S.; Danforth, S.C.

1983-04-05

354

The Kimberley Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past several decades have seen a growing interest among various social justice organizations into investigating the various origins or manufacturing processes used to create various products and their effects on the people who make these products. One such luxury item that has come under close scrutiny is the diamond. In May 2000, Southern African diamond producing states met in Kimberly, South Africa to come up with a way to stop the trade in conflict diamonds and "to ensure consumers that the diamonds that they purchase have not contributed to violent conflict and human rights abuses in their countries of origin." Some two years later, a number of participants (including national governments and the international diamond industry) developed the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme to assure that these conflict diamonds would not enter legitimate trade. On this compelling site, visitors can learn about the process, read news updates about the process, and read documents related to the process from the World Trade Organization and examine a list of participants in the process.

355

Helium process cycle  

DOEpatents

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA) [Yorktown, VA

2008-08-12

356

Ionic liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of regenerating the solubilizing agent from the process stream of a single stage ionic coal liquefaction process wherein the coal liquefaction is accomplished by reaction of the coal with a polar solvent solubilizing agent and an aqueous solution containing inorganic ionic species where major amounts of the solubilizing agent are selected from the group consisting of aromatic alcohols, phenols, polycyclic phenols and substituted phenols; including o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, catechol, resorcinol, naphthol and mixtures and derivatives thereof; and minor amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially-hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fully hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having from 1 to 4 carbon rings such as naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, acenaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, tetralin, gamma-picoline, isoquinoline, dihydronaphthalene, decalin, 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and mixtures and derivatives thereof, as well as carbonaceous material-derived solvents; and (b) the inorganic ionic species are dissolved in water and include a compound having a cation selected from the group consisting of alkali and alkaline-earth metals comprising the steps after ionic liquefaction of: (1) removing non-condensible gases from the process stream; (2) removing immiscible water from the process stream; (3) removing alkaline compound containing solids from the process stream; (4) removing carbonaceous products from the process stream by the use of methanol; (5) separating methanol from the solubilizing agents; (6) separately hydrotreating the carbonaceous products; (7) recovering methanol; and (8) recovering regenerated solubilizing agent capable of being used directly in a single stage ionic coal liquefaction process.

Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.; Farnum, S.A.

1989-07-11

357

Kennedy Space Center Payload Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the payload processing functions at Kennedy Space Center. It details some of the payloads processed at KSC, the typical processing tasks, the facilities available for processing payloads, and the capabilities and customer services that are available.

Lawson, Ronnie; Engler, Tom; Colloredo, Scott; Zide, Alan

2011-01-01

358

Laminar Soot Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soot processes within hydrocarbon-fueled flames affect particle emissions from combustion processes, thermal loads of combustor components, hazards of unwanted fires, and capabilities for computational combustion. Thus, soot processes within laminar nonpremixed (diffusion) and premixed flames are being studied, using both space-based (flight) experiments at MicroGravity (MG) and supporting ground-based experiments at Normal Gravity (NG). The study is limited to laminar flames due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of these results to practical turbulent flames based on laminar flamelet concepts. Unfortunately, buoyancy affects soot processes in laminar diffusion flames while effects of buoyancy are small for most practical flames; therefore, present observations of laminar diffusion flames involve either particular flame conditions where effects of buoyancy are small during ground-based experiments at ng or truly nonbuoyant flames during planned flight experiments at mg. Laminar premixed flames are also being considered during ground-based experiments at ng because soot processes are easier to interpret and less affected by buoyancy in laminar premixed flames than in laminar diffusion flames.

Xu, F.; Sunderland, P. B.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.

1997-01-01

359

NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

2009-05-27

360

Range Process Simulation Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

2005-01-01

361

Noncolliding Squared Bessel Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a particle system of the squared Bessel processes with index ?>-1 conditioned never to collide with each other, in which if -1process is determinantal in the sense that any multitime correlation function is given by a determinant with a continuous kernel called the correlation kernel. When the number of particles is infinite, we give sufficient conditions for initial configurations so that the system is well defined. There the process with an infinite number of particles is determinantal and the correlation kernel is expressed using an entire function represented by the Weierstrass canonical product, whose zeros on the positive part of the real axis are given by the particle-positions in the initial configuration. From the class of infinite-particle initial configurations satisfying our conditions, we report one example in detail, which is a fixed configuration such that every point of the square of positive zero of the Bessel function J ? is occupied by one particle. The process starting from this initial configuration shows a relaxation phenomenon converging to the stationary process, which is determinantal with the extended Bessel kernel, in the long-term limit.

Katori, Makoto; Tanemura, Hideki

2011-02-01

362

Microwave sintering process model.  

PubMed

In order to simulate and optimize the microwave sintering of a silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt toolbits process, a microwave sintering process model has been built. A cylindrical sintering furnace was used containing a heat insulating layer, a susceptor layer, and an alumina tube containing the green toolbit parts between parallel, electrically conductive, graphite plates. Dielectric and absorption properties of the silicon nitride green parts, the tungsten carbide/cobalt green parts, and an oxidizable susceptor material were measured using perturbation and waveguide transmission methods. Microwave absorption data were measured over a temperature range from 20 degrees C to 800 degrees C. These data were then used in the microwave process model which assumed plane wave propagation along the radial direction and included the microwave reflection at each interface between the materials and the microwave absorption in the bulk materials. Heat transfer between the components inside the cylindrical sintering furnace was also included in the model. The simulated heating process data for both silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt samples closely follow the experimental data. By varying the physical parameters of the sintering furnace model, such as the thickness of the susceptor layer, the thickness of the allumina tube wall, the sample load volume and the graphite plate mass, the model data predicts their effects which are helpful in optimizing those parameters in the industrial sintering process. PMID:15323110

Peng, Hu; Tinga, W R; Sundararaj, U; Eadie, R L

2003-01-01

363

Toward metrics for process validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a great extent, the usefulness of a formal model of a software process lies in its ability to accurately predict the behavior of the executing process. Similarly, the usefulness of an executing process lies largely in its ability to fulfil the requirements embodied in a formal model of the process. When process models and process executions diverge, something significant

Jonathan E. Cook; Alexander L. Wolf

1994-01-01

364

Process control by quality charting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of automated process control depends on the used statistical process control technique intended for testing uniformity and stability, representing two major process characteristics. Stability characterizes the statistical process behavior, whereas uniformity reflects the ability of the process to yield the products with the same (or similar) properties. Control charts, representing one of the main tools in statistical process

Z. Bluvband; P. Grabov

1994-01-01

365

Specification of software process measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most software organizations perform their development and maintenance projects according to inadequately specified processes. The lack of explicit and formal process specifications createsa process experience transfer problem: It is difficult to transfer the organization's informal process knowledge (e.g., training new personnel).a process tailoring problem: The tailoring of processes to changing project goals and project environment characteristics is based on subjective

H. Dieter Rombach

1990-01-01

366

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering design of the third distillation column in the process was accomplished. The initial design is based on a 94.35% recovery of dichlorosilane in the distillate and a 99.9% recovery of trichlorosilane in the bottoms. The specified separation is achieved at a reflux ratio of 15 with 20 trays (equilibrium stages). Additional specifications and results are reported including equipment size, temperatures and pressure. Specific raw material requirements necessary to produce the silicon in the process are presented. The primary raw materials include metallurgical grade silicon, silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen, copper (catalyst) and lime (waste treatment). Hydrogen chloride is produced as by product in the silicon deposition. Cost analysis of the process was initiated during this reporting period.

1982-01-01

367

Cervical spinous process reconstruction.  

PubMed

Posterior neck deformity with an unsightly crater-like defect may result after cervicothoracic laminectomies. The authors present a new technique, spinous process reconstruction, to address this problem. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive quadriparesis secondary to cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Previously he had undergone multiple neck surgeries including cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy. Postoperatively, he developed severe craniocervical spinal deformity and a large painful concave surgical defect in the neck. The authors performed craniocervical decompression and craniocervicothoracic instrumented stabilization. At the same time, cervicothoracic spinous process reconstruction was performed using titanium mesh to address the defect. Cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy results in varying degrees of neck defect with resulting unsightly and an often painful surgical wound defect despite an appropriate multilayer closure. The presented spinous process reconstruction is a simple technique to address this problem with good clinical outcome. PMID:24206034

Panchal, Ripul R; Duong, Huy T; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Kim, Kee D

2014-01-01

368

(Fundamentals of materials processing)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Indo-US Workshop on Fundamentals of Materials Processing and presented an invited paper entitled Microstructural Modifications During Laser Welding.'' The workshop was organized by the US Office of Naval Research in collaboration with the Department of Science and Technology, India. The traveler was part of the US delegation comprised of world-renowned scientists representing the US Navy, National Science Foundation, National Bureau of Standards, and US universities. The Workshop program continued several papers on topics relating to mathematical modeling of melting and solidification processes, continuous casting, laser, and plasma processing of materials. The traveler also attended a one-day Indo-US Workshop on Welding Science. Funds for the travel were provided by the US Navy through the Special Foreign Currency Program.

David, S.A.

1988-02-02

369

Magnetic Particle Process Improvement  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic particle testing process is performed to find linear, surface and near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic test materials. A wet fluorescent method is used at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). This method employs a liquid carrier mixed with iron oxide particles in suspension, and the particles used in the method are coated with a fluorescent dye to make them visible under a black light. The process in its current state employs the use of a tank of liquid solution of a mineral oil carrier with iron oxide particles in suspension. The change to the use of an aerosol delivery system with the same material reduces the amount of waste involved in the process while preserving the sensitivity of the testing, shortens the flowtime for the test, and saves labor and material costs.

Hubert, R.R.

2002-08-13

370

Quartz resonator processing system  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

Peters, Roswell D. M. (Rustburg, VA)

1983-01-01

371

Improving Metal Casting Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

1998-01-01

372

A process of illumination  

SciTech Connect

The reworking of previously analyzed seismic datasets or reprocessing has always played a significant part in the makeup of a seismic contractor's workload. The type of datasets being reworked runs the gamut from old onshore 2D analog data from central Asia through recently acquired marine 3D surveys from the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea. This activity has always been an important revenue source for geophysical contractors, particularly when new acquisition activity is depressed. It is difficult to generalize what percentage of total processing revenues comes from reprocessing, as temporal and geographic variance is substantial. On average, it probably exceeds 50% of the total processing budgets in the industry. This paper describes why data is reprocessed, depth migration, regional context, reservoir characterization, remediation of infield processing, nonexclusive reprocessing, deepwater hazard surveys, and time-lapse 4D seismic.

Murdoch, C.

2000-05-01

373

The Bosch process.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many previous studies have been carried out to elucidate certain aspects of the Bosch process wherein CO2 is reacted over an iron catalyst to form carbon and water at temperatures around 1100 F. These results are assembled, and with the aid of new experimental data, are used to analyze the various reactions involved. It is shown that CO2 and H2 will not usually react to deposit carbon unless water is removed in a recycle loop. The critical importance of large catalyst areas is stressed relative to catalyst pretreatment processes. It is shown that in most operating Bosch reactions, mass transfer controls the rate of reaction, and it is suggested that the carbon filaments found are the expected result of such a rate limiting process. Typical recycle gas mixtures are considered, and maximum water yields are determined from various cases. A few suggestions are made to improve Bosch reaction performance, and a number of unresolved problems are noted.

Meissner, H. P.; Reid, R. C.

1972-01-01

374

Powder treatment process  

DOEpatents

(1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA) [Greensburg, PA

1988-01-01

375

Powder treatment process  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

Weyand, J.D.

1988-02-09

376

Optimizing process vacuum condensers  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum condensers play a critical role in supporting vacuum processing operations. Although they may appear similar to atmospheric units, vacuum condensers have their own special designs, considerations and installation needs. By adding vacuum condensers, precondensers and intercondensers, system cost efficiency can be optimized. Vacuum-condensing systems permit reclamation of high-value product by use of a precondenser, or reduce operating costs with intercondensers. A precondenser placed between the vacuum vessel and ejector system will recover valuable process vapors and reduce vapor load to an ejector system--minimizing the system`s capital and operating costs. Similarly, an intercondenser positioned between ejector stages can condense motive steam and process vapors and reduce vapor load to downstream ejectors as well as lower capital and operating costs. The paper describes vacuum condenser systems, types of vacuum condensers, shellside condensing, tubeside condensing, noncondensable gases, precondenser pressure drop, system interdependency, equipment installation, and equipment layout.

Lines, J.R.; Tice, D.W. [Graham Mfg. Co., Batavia, NY (United States)

1997-09-01

377

Basic Nanotechnology Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK) Center is an organization committed to supporting twoâÂÂyear degree programs in micro and nanotechnology. The center offers online educational material for curriculum enhancement in this subject field. One of these courses focuses on basic nanotechnology processes. The material is a âÂÂhands-on introduction to the processing involved in âÂÂtop downâÂÂ, âÂÂbottom upâÂÂ, and hybrid nanofabrication.â Downloadable features include topics such as introductions to basic pattern transfer, wet etching and uses of plasmas in processing. Additionally, resources on chemical vapor and physical deposition are available in this unit. The site requires a free log-in for access to the material.

2010-03-05

378

COTS software selection process.  

SciTech Connect

Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

2006-05-01

379

SRC-II process  

SciTech Connect

Extensive laboratory and pilot plant experimental work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process has led to the development of an improved version of the process known as SRC-II. This work has shown considerable promise and plans are being made to demonstrate the SRC-II process using commercial size equipment in a 6000 T/D plant to be located near Morgantown, West Virginia. On the basis of recent economic studies, the products (both liquid and gas) from a future large-scale commercial plant are expected to have an overall selling price of $4.00 to 5.00 per million Btu (first quarter 1980 basis). The major product of the primary process is distillate fuel oil of less than 0.3% sulfur for use largely as a non-polluting fuel for generating electrical power and steam, especially in the east where utilities and industry are presently using petroleum products. For the longer term, the major growth opportunity for SRC-II fuel oil in the generation of electric power will probably be through advanced combustion turbine units with heat recovery boilers (combined cycle units). The light liquid fractions (naphtha and middle distillate) produced by the SRC-II process can be upgraded to a high octane unleaded gasoline to supplement petroleum-derived supplies. Significant quantities of pipeline gas are also produced at a cost which should be competitive with SNG from direct coal gasification. Light hydrocarbons (ethane, propane) from the process may be effectively converted to ethylene in conventional cracking plants to offset ethylene demand from petroleum-derived naphtha and gas oil, both of which could otherwise be used for other refinery products. In addition, certain fraction of the fuel oil might also be used in medium speed diesel engines and automotive gas turbines.

Schmid, B.K.; Jackson, D.M.

1980-01-01

380

NTP comparison process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

Corban, Robert

381

NTP comparison process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

Corban, Robert

1993-01-01

382

Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

383

Process Damping Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of process damping as a stabilising effect in milling has been encountered by machinists since milling and turning began. It is of great importance when milling aerospace alloys where maximum surface speed is limited by excessive tool wear and high speed stability lobes cannot be attained. Much of the established research into regenerative chatter and chatter avoidance has focussed on stability lobe theory with different analytical and time domain models developed to expand on the theory first developed by Trusty and Tobias. Process damping is a stabilising effect that occurs when the surface speed is low relative to the dominant natural frequency of the system and has been less successfully modelled and understood. Process damping is believed to be influenced by the interference of the relief face of the cutting tool with the waveform traced on the cut surface, with material properties and the relief geometry of the tool believed to be key factors governing performance. This study combines experimental trials with Finite Element (FE) simulation in an attempt to identify and understand the key factors influencing process damping performance in titanium milling. Rake angle, relief angle and chip thickness are the variables considered experimentally with the FE study looking at average radial and tangential forces and surface compressive stress. For the experimental study a technique is developed to identify the critical process damping wavelength as a means of measuring process damping performance. For the range of parameters studied, chip thickness is found to be the dominant factor with maximum stable parameters increased by a factor of 17 in the best case. Within the range studied, relief angle was found to have a lesser effect than expected whilst rake angle had an influence.

Turner, Sam

2011-12-01

384

Coking and gasification process  

DOEpatents

An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

1986-01-01

385

Sequential elution process  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus are disclosed for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials. 1 fig.

Kingsley, I.S.

1987-01-06

386

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1981-01-01

387

Characterising Probabilistic Processes Logically  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we work on (bi)simulation semantics of processes that exhibit both nondeterministic and probabilistic behaviour. We propose a probabilistic extension of the modal mu-calculus and show how to derive characteristic formulae for various simulation-like preorders over finite-state processes without divergence. In addition, we show that even without the fixpoint operators this probabilistic mu-calculus can be used to characterise these behavioural relations in the sense that two states are equivalent if and only if they satisfy the same set of formulae.

Deng, Yuxin; van Glabbeek, Rob

388

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

1987-01-01

389

Sequential elution process  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials.

Kingsley, Ilse S. (Bethlehem, PA)

1987-01-01

390

Biomass Processing Photolibrary  

DOE Data Explorer

Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

391

Actinide metal processing  

DOEpatents

A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

1992-03-24

392

Research Planning Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

Lofton, Rodney

2010-01-01

393

Modular Containerless Processing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Containerless Processing Facility (MCPF) of the Space Station Freedom, being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is described. The MCPF will be capable of positioning, manipulating, and performing processing operations on samples completely free of container walls. It will be comprised of a host facility and a series of interchangeable plug-in modules. Initial iterations of MCPF modules will be flown on the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML) series of Shuttle flights. The Drop Physics Module schedualed to fly on USML-1 in March 1992 is also considered.

Morrison, Andrew D.

1990-01-01

394

[Image processing and radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Medical images are of great importance in radiotherapy, which became a privileged application field for image processing techniques. Moreover, because of the progression of the computers' performances, these techniques are also in full expansion. Today, the recent developments of the radiotherapy (3DCR, IMRT) offer a huge place to them. Effectively, they can potentially answer to the precision requirements of the modern radiotherapy, and may then contribute to improve the delivered treatments. The purpose of this article is to present the different image processing techniques that are currently used in radiotherapy (including image matching and segmentation) as they are described in the literature. PMID:15132145

Bondiau, P Y; Malandain, G; Chanalet, S; Marcy, P Y; Foa, C; Ayache, N

2004-04-01

395

BCP processing facility  

SciTech Connect

FNAL is engaged in the fabrication of two types of superconducting RF cavities: 3.9 GHz deflecting mode cavities for the RF separator of the CKM experiment and 3.9 GHz 3rd harmonic accelerating mode cavities for the FNAL-NICADD photo-injector upgrade. Thorough surface treatment at several fabrication stages is required for both cavity types to achieve acceptable performance. Buffered chemical polishing (BCP) was chosen as a baseline treatment process. This paper describes the details of the BCP process implementation at the facility under development at FNAL.

Yuri Tereshkin et al.

2003-10-14

396

Image Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) is using a digital image processing system which employs NASA-developed technology. MIR's computer system is the largest radiology system in the world. It is used in diagnostic imaging. Blood vessels are injected with x-ray dye, and the images which are produced indicate whether arteries are hardened or blocked. A computer program developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory known as Mini-VICAR/IBIS was supplied to MIR by COSMIC. The program provides the basis for developing the computer imaging routines for data processing, contrast enhancement and picture display.

1986-01-01

397

Reversible brazing process  

DOEpatents

A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, John J. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

398

Actinide metal processing  

DOEpatents

A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

1992-01-01

399

Titanium for Electrochemical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its physical and electrochemical properties, titanium offers numerous advantages in many electrochemical processes compared to conventional materials. Titanium has been introduced successfully in commercial plants in recent years. This paper describes the electrochemical properties of titanium and discusses some applications. Titanium is used to a great extent for electrochemical process equipment and for electrodes, e.g., anode material in the electrolysis of chlorine, chlorate, and manganese dioxide. Some new developments as titanium electrodes in electrowinning of metals and other possible applications are also discussed.

Bewer, G.; Debrodt, H.; Herbst, H.

1982-01-01

400

Statecharts Via Process Algebra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

1999-01-01

401

Real time SAR processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified model for the SAR imaging problem is presented. The model is based on the geometry of the SAR system. Using this model an expression for the entire phase history of the received SAR signal is formulated. From the phase history, it is shown that the range and the azimuth coordinates for a point target image can be obtained by processing the phase information during the intrapulse and interpulse periods respectively. An architecture for a VLSI implementation for the SAR signal processor is presented which generates images in real time. The architecture uses a small number of chips, a new correlation processor, and an efficient azimuth correlation process.

Premkumar, A. B.; Purviance, J. E.

1990-01-01

402

Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

2007-05-01

403

Crow process modeling  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (wRI) has developed a numerical model (TCROW) to describe CROW{sup TM} processing of contaminated aquifers. CROW is a patented technology for the removal of contaminant organics from water-saturated formations by injection of hot water or low- temperature steam. TCROW is based on a fully implicit, thermal, compositional model (TSRS) previously developed by wRI. TCROW`s formulation represents several enhancements and simplifications over TSRS and results in a model specifically tailored to model the CROW process.

NONE

1997-04-01

404

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analysis was continued for the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) in which solar cell silicon is produced in a 1,000 MT/yr plant. Progress and status are reported for the primary engineering activities involved in the preliminary process engineering design of the plant base case conditions (96%), reaction chemistry (96%), process flow diagram (85%), material balance (85%), energy balance (60%), property data (60%), equipment design (40%), major equipment list (30%) and labor requirements (10%). Engineering design of the second distillation column (D-02, TCS column) in the process was completed. The design is based on a 97% recovery of the light key (TCS, trichlorosilane) in the distillate and a 97% recovery of the heavy key (TET, silicon tetrachloride) in the bottoms. At a reflux ratio of 2, the specified recovery of TCS and TET is achieved with 20 trays (equilibrium stages, N=20). Respective feed tray locations are 9, 12 and 15 (NF sub 1 = 9, NF sub 2 = 12,, and NF sub 3 = 15). A total condenser is used for the distillation which is conducted at a pressure of 90 psia.

1982-01-01

405

Performance Evaluation Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on the performance evaluation process and human resource development (HRD). "Assessing the Effectiveness of OJT (On the Job Training): A Case Study Approach" (Julie Furst-Bowe, Debra Gates) is a case study of the effectiveness of OJT in one of a high-tech manufacturing company's product lines.…

1998

406

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

1986-12-02

407

The Oil Refining Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Learning Centre at the New Zealand Refining Company Ltd., hosts a collection of annotated diagrams and pictures of various stages in the oil refining process. Users can click their way through the site to learn somewhat technical details of oil delivery, storage, and refinement.

Company, The N.

408

Refuse burning process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with

Lientz

1983-01-01

409

Image Processing Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT: A brief description of astronomical image software is presented. This software was developed in a Digital Micro Vax II Computer System. : St presenta una somera descripci6n del software para procesamiento de imagenes. Este software fue desarrollado en un equipo Digital Micro Vax II. : DATA ANALYSIS - IMAGE PROCESSING

Bosio, M. A.

1990-11-01

410

Fluidized bed combustion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an FCC catalyst regeneration process for regenerating coke and nitrogen containing catalyst in an FCC regenerator with a regeneration gas comprising oxygen to form hot regenerated catalyst and flue gas. It comprises adding the spent FCC catalyst to a dense bed regeneration zone, operating at dense bed regeneration zone, operating at dense bed catalyst regeneration conditions including

G. J. Green; T. Y. Yan

1992-01-01

411

Processing Speechread Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three methods by which hearing adults process speechread information are discussed: selective adaptation, immediate memory, and repetition priming. Also discussed are mental representations of speech by hearing-impaired and hearing children, infants' responses to speechread stimuli compared to other stimuli, infants' speechreading of a foreign…

Dodd, Barbara; Burnham, Denis

1988-01-01

412

Initial process of rifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generally accepted model of rifting (the McKenzie model) has certain geometric and spatial constraints that seem to preclude its operation in the earliest stage of rifting. It may be a more advanced stage of the rifting process, if it is correctly described. An aborted rift system can be studied in the subsurface of the Permian basin. The Delaware, Val

Elam

1985-01-01

413

Change Process in Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on the change process in organizations moderated by John Redding at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Corporate Culture: Friend or Foe of Change?" (Joanne Burgess) reports a study of the characteristics of corporate culture that facilitate…

1996

414

Improved compression molding process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified compression molding process produces plastic molding compounds that are strong, homogeneous, free of residual stresses, and have improved ablative characteristics. The conventional method is modified by applying a vacuum to the mold during the molding cycle, using a volatile sink, and exercising precise control of the mold closure limits.

Heier, W. C.

1967-01-01

415

Processing eutectics in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigations of directional solidification have indicated the necessity of establishing a secure foundation in earth-based laboratory processing in order to properly assess low-gravity processing. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the regularity of microstructure of the rod-like eutectic Al-Al3Ni obtained under different conditions of growth involving the parameters of thermal gradient, solidification rate, and interfacial curvature. In the case of Al-Al3Ni, where the Al3Ni phase appears as facets rods, solidification rate was determined to be a controlling parameter. Zone melting of thin eutectic films showed that for films of the order of 10 to 20 micrometers thick, the extra surface energy appears to act to stabilize a regular microstructure. The results suggest that the role of low-gravity as provided in space-laboratory processing of materials is to be sought in the possibility of generating a higher thermal gradient in the solidifying ingot for a given power input-output arrangement than can be obtained under normal one-g processes.

Douglas, F. C.; Galasso, S. F.

1975-01-01

416

Image processing for teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Image Processing for Teaching (IPT) project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional “coded” ways of teaching these subjects. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including biomedical imaging, Earth remote sensing and meteorology data, and planetary exploration images. They also learn about the many mathematical concepts that underlie image processing, such as coordinate systems, slope and intercept, pixels, binary arithmetic, along with many others. We have developed curriculum materials in all areas of mathematics and science for the upper elementary and secondary levels, allowing this tool to be used across a variety of grade levels and student interests. Preliminary indications show image processing to be an effective and fun way to study the application of science and mathematics to “real world” applications, as represented by digital imagery. The use of image processing is also an effective method with which to engage students in inquiry and discovery learning.

Greenberg, R.; Kolvoord, R. A.; Magisos, M.; Strom, R. G.; Croft, S.

1993-09-01

417

Laser-ablation processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The various mechanisms by which ablation of materials can be induced with lasers are discussed in this paper. The various ablation processes and potential applications are reviewed from the threshold for ablation up to fluxes of about 10(sup 13) W/cm(sup ...

R. S. Dingus

1992-01-01

418

Media processing ecologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the MIT Media Laboratory's Object-Based Media Group is looking to solve multimedia signal processing problems through the creation of ecosystems of intelligent devices that organize themselves to distribute information and to divide large tasks. This paper examines the technological trends that make this approach possible and desirable, and briefly introduce three example systems.

V. Michael Bove

2003-01-01

419

Customer requirements process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Customer requirements are presented through three viewgraphs. One graph presents the range of services, which include requirements management, network engineering, operations, and applications support. Another viewgraph presents the project planning process. The third viewgraph presents the programs and/or projects actively supported including life sciences, earth science and applications, solar system exploration, shuttle flight engineering, microgravity science, space physics, and astrophysics.

Russell, Yvonne; Falsetti, Christine M.

1991-01-01

420

Software process assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software process assessments (SPA's) are part of an ongoing program of continuous quality improvements in AT&T. Their use was found to be very beneficial by software development organizations in identifying the issues facing the organization and the actions required to increase both quality and productivity in the organization.

Miller, Sharon E.; Tucker, George T.; Verducci, Anthony J., Jr.

1992-01-01

421

Laminar soot processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soot processes within hydrocarbon fueled flames are important because they affect the durability and performance of propulsion systems, the hazards of unwanted fires, the pollutant and particulate emissions from combustion processes, and the potential for developing computational combustion. Motivated by these observations, the present investigation is studying soot processes in laminar diffusion and premixed flames in order to better understand the soot and thermal radiation emissions of luminous flames. Laminar flames are being studied due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of such results to practical turbulent flames through the laminar flamelet concept. Weakly-buoyant and nonbuoyant laminar diffusion flames are being considered because buoyancy affects soot processes in flames while most practical flames involve negligible effects of buoyancy. Thus, low-pressure weakly-buoyant flames are being observed during ground-based experiments while near atmospheric pressure nonbuoyant flames will be observed during space flight experiments at microgravity. Finally, premixed laminar flames also are being considered in order to observe some aspects of soot formation for simpler flame conditions than diffusion flames. The main emphasis of current work has been on measurements of soot nucleation and growth in laminar diffusion and premixed flames.

Sunderland, P. B.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.

1995-01-01

422

Instructional Reorganization: The Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a process for community colleges to engage and direct discontinuous change in the face of the coming millennium. Described are several characteristics of change envisioned in the near future, including a complete break with the past, major reconstruction of nearly every element of the organization, and modification of the…

Parsons, Michael H.

423

Phenmedipham process development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to investigate the process for the production of an organic herbicide, phenmedipham, utilising isobutylacetate as solvent and to scale up the reaction to one litre. This was carried out according to a technical bulletin received from Barclay Plant Protection Ltd. Difficulties were encountered in isolating the product, methyl N-(3-hydroxyphenyl) carbamate, from stage 1 with

Maura Byrne

1998-01-01

424

Intelligent OCR Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies types and distributions of errors in text produced by optical character recognition (OCR) and proposes a process using machine learning techniques to recognize and correct errors in OCR texts. Results of experiments indicating that this strategy can reduce human interaction required for error correction are reported. (25 references)…

Sun, Wei; And Others

1992-01-01

425

Knowledge Processes and Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology for knowledge management has so far focused on the management of knowledge containers. We present an approach that is oriented towards managing knowledge contents instead by identifying knowledge items at various levels of formality. This is done by providing various types of meta data that are tied to ontologies for conceptual interlinkage. Knowledge items are embedded into knowledge processes,

Steffen Staab; Rudi Studer; Hans-peter Schnurr; York Sure

2001-01-01

426

Clinical image processing engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our group provides clinical image processing services to various institutes at NIH. We develop or adapt image processing programs for a variety of applications. However, each program requires a human operator to select a specific set of images and execute the program, as well as store the results appropriately for later use. To improve efficiency, we design a parallelized clinical image processing engine (CIPE) to streamline and parallelize our service. The engine takes DICOM images from a PACS server, sorts and distributes the images to different applications, multithreads the execution of applications, and collects results from the applications. The engine consists of four modules: a listener, a router, a job manager and a data manager. A template filter in XML format is defined to specify the image specification for each application. A MySQL database is created to store and manage the incoming DICOM images and application results. The engine achieves two important goals: reduce the amount of time and manpower required to process medical images, and reduce the turnaround time for responding. We tested our engine on three different applications with 12 datasets and demonstrated that the engine improved the efficiency dramatically.

Han, Wei; Yao, Jianhua; Chen, Jeremy; Summers, Ronald

2009-02-01

427

Fracture process in blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to clarify the respective roles of stress wave and gas pressure in the fragmentation of an underground blast the fracture process in the zone immediately around the borehole was studied by separating the 2 principal blast forces analytically and experimentally. In model tests the explosion wave was simulated by the pulse generated by an underwater spark discharge, and

H. K. Kutter; C. Fairhurst

1971-01-01

428

Parallel processing and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. High instruction execution rates may be achieved through a vorpal of inexpensive processors operating in parallel. The harnessing of this raw computing power to discrete event simulation applications is an active area of research. Three major approaches to the problem, of assigning computational tasks to processing elements may be identified: (1) model based assignment, (2) local

John C. Comfort; David Jefferson; Y. V. Reddy; Paul Reynolds; Sallie Sheppard

1983-01-01

429

Genomic signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomics is a highly cross-disciplinary field that creates paradigm shifts in such diverse areas as medicine and agriculture. It is believed that many significant scientific and technological endeavors in the 21st century will be related to the processing and interpretation of the vast information that is currently revealed from sequencing the genomes of many living organisms, including humans. Genomic information

D. Anastassiou

2001-01-01

430

Process for catalyst recovery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for recovering a homogeneous catalyst from a catalytic reaction mixture. It comprises: removing the reaction mixture solvent using temperatures such that decomposition of the catalyst is minimized; simultaneously adding a lower alkanoic acid; and recovering the precipitated homogeneous catalyst.

Bodurow, C.C.

1990-08-21

431

Communicating sequential processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When combined with a development of Dijkstra's guarded command, these concepts are surprisingly versatile. Their use is illustrated by sample solutions of a variety of a familiar programming exercises.

C. A. R. Hoare; R. L. Rivest

1978-01-01

432

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

Drug prescription is the very first step initiating a cascade of events in the medication process. It is, hence, decisive for success or failure of any pharmacologic treatment. A good prescription must therefore consider (1) relevant patient factors and co-morbidities, (2) evidence-based knowledge on medically sound prescribing practices, and (3) the setting in which a prescription is issued. The setting will determine which partners will participate, contribute, and safeguard the ongoing medication process and how much responsibility can be shared. Partners in the medication process refer to other healthcare professionals dispensing the drug, teaching the patient, or administering the medicines. It also involves the patients or their relatives with their information needs and often variable motivation and conviction to use a drug. By issuing a prescription, the physician must provide the partners with sufficient and appropriate information, must ensure that they understand the meaning of the prescription and are able to perform their assigned tasks during the medication process. Lastly, medication prescription is also subject to formal constraints and must meet legal criteria that are relevant for reimbursement by health insurance companies. PMID:24867345

Seidling, Hanna M; Haefeli, Walter E

2014-06-01

433

Uranium extraction process  

SciTech Connect

Uranium is extracted from wet process phosphoric acid by extraction with a mixture of a diorganophosphate and a neutral phosphorus compound, which is preferably a triorgano phosphine oxide, in the presence of nitrate to form an organic extract layer containing uranium and an aqueous acid layer, which are separated.

Rose, M.A.

1983-05-03

434

Development of metallization process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non lead frit paste is evaluated. A two step process is discussed where the bulk of the metallization is Mo/Sn but a small ohmic pad is silver. A new matrix of paste formulations is developed. A variety of tests are performed on paste samples to determine electrical, thermal and structural properties.

Garcia, A., III

1983-01-01

435

Negative ion detachment processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the following topics: H{sup {minus}} and D{sup {minus}} collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces.

Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

1990-10-01

436

The Serendipitous Research Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of an exploratory study asking faculty in the first-year writing program and instruction librarians about their research process focusing on results specifically related to serendipity. Steps to prepare for serendipity are highlighted as well as a model for incorporating serendipity into a first-year writing…

Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

2010-01-01

437

The Serendipitous Research Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an exploratory study asking faculty in the first-year writing program and instruction librarians about their research process focusing on results specifically related to serendipity. Steps to prepare for serendipity are highlighted as well as a model for incorporating serendipity into a first-year writing course.

Jennifer E. Nutefall; Phyllis Mentzell Ryder

2010-01-01

438

Materials and Processes I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a first course on materials and processes as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. Topics include identifying and characterizing materials and commodities, metallurgy, uses and hazards involved in handling common materials and commodities, corrosion, metal fatigue, and good welding techniques.

2011-08-03

439

Pervaporation process and assembly  

DOEpatents

The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

Wynn, Nicholas P. (Redwood City, CA); Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

2010-07-20

440

Building Science Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. The National Science Education Standards call for science teachers "to design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources…

DeFina, Anthony V.

2006-01-01

441

Catalyst deoiling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled

C. B. Olson; R. T. Plichta; D. W. Coyne

1987-01-01

442

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1983-01-01

443

Process for Functionalizing Alkanes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe sub 3 H sub 2 in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60 exp 0 to -17 exp 0 C to ...

R. G. Bergman A. H. Janowicz R. A. Periana-Pillai

1984-01-01

444

Hybrid microcircuit intraconnection processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid intraconnections join thin film networks and applique components into an electrically functional hybrid microcircuit (HMC). Applique components were intraconnected with thermocompression (TC) bonds to chromium\\/gold metallized thin film networks. The project determined critical processes, material parameters, quality criteria, and characterization techniques. The program began on July 1, 1970, and initial efforts consisted of organizing the development program and forecasting

1976-01-01

445

Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

446

Array Processing for FORTRAN.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Special Task Force on Cray FORTRAN (STF) was chartered to consider ...new language features to exploit the vector hardware of the CRAY-1 that might also be applicable to other large scientific computers. The new array processing features in STF FORTRA...

C. Wetherell

1980-01-01

447

Building Science Process Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. This article describes an onsite trip to the Bronx Zoo that allowed collaborating students to develop acquisitive and organizational skills while exploring rain forest habitat characteristics and species diversity.

Defina, Anthony V.

2006-01-01

448

Superintendent's Evaluation Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is in the superintendent's best interest to have a well thought out formal evaluation plan in place rather than suffer the reality of an informal evaluation--an evaluation that is often based on whim and fancy. In the evolution of the evaluation process, the primary thrust has moved from personal qualities to input measures to, finally, output…

Candoli, I. C.

449

Motion signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques from the image and signal processing domain can be successfully applied to designing, modifying, and adapting ani- mated motion. For this purpose, we introduce multiresolution mo- tion filtering, multitarget motion interpolation with dynamic time- warping, waveshaping and motion displacement mapping. The techniques are well-suited for reuse and adaptation of existing mo- tion data such as joint angles, joint coordinates

Armin Bruderlin; Lance Williams

1995-01-01

450

Generalized Fractional Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A class of stationary long-memory processes is proposed which is an extension of the fractional autoregressive moving-average (FARMA) model. The FARMA model is limited by the fact that it does not allow data with persistent cyclic (or seasonal) behavior t...

H. L. Gray N. F. Zhang W. A. Woodward

1989-01-01

451

Superconducting materials processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of materials processing on the properties and behavior of high temperature yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconductors were investigated. Electrical, magnetic, and structural characteristics of thin films (300 nm) YBA2CU3O(delta) structures grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates were used to evaluate processing. Pole projection and thin film diffraction measurements were used to establish grain orientation and verify structural integrity of the samples. Susceptibility magnetization, and transport measurements were used to evaluate the magnetic and electrical transport properties of the samples. Our results verified that an unfortunate consequence of processing is inherent changes to the internal structure of the material. This effect translates into modifications in the properties of the materials, and undesired feature that makes it very difficult to consistently predict material behavior. The results show that processing evaluation must incorporate a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the materials. Future studies will emphasize microstructural characteristics of the materials, in particular, those microscopic properties that map macroscopic behavior.

Hurley, John S.; Karikari, Emmanuel K.; Hiamang, S. O.; Danjaji, M.; Bassey, Affiong; Morgan, Andre

1995-01-01

452

Wavelets and signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, nonrigorous, synthetic view of wavelet theory is presented for both review and tutorial purposes. The discussion includes nonstationary signal analysis, scale versus frequency, wavelet analysis and synthesis, scalograms, wavelet frames and orthonormal bases, the discrete-time case, and applications of wavelets in signal processing. The main definitions and properties of wavelet transforms are covered, and connections among the various

O. Rioul; M. Vetterli

1991-01-01

453

NONLINEAR ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear techniques for signal processing and recognition have the promise of achieving systems which are superior to linear systems in a number of ways such as better performance in terms of accuracy, fault tolerance, resolution, highly parallel architectures and cloker similarity to biological intelligent systems. The nonlinear techniques proposed are in the form of multistage neural networks in which each

S.-W. Deng; O. K. Ersoy

1992-01-01

454

Quantum Markov Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These notes give an introduction to some aspects of quantum Markov processes. Quantum Markov processes come into play whenever a mathematical description of irreversible time behaviour of quantum systems is aimed at. Indeed, there is hardly a book on quantum optics without having at least a chapter on quantum Markov processes. However, it is not always easy to recognize the basic concepts of probability theory in families of creation and annihilation operators on Fock space. Therefore, in these lecture notes much emphasis is put on explaining the intuition behind the mathematical machinery of classical and quantum probability. The lectures start with describing how probabilistic intuition is cast into the mathematical language of classical probability (Sects. 4.1-4.3). Later on, we show how this formulation can be extended such as to incorporate the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics (Sects. 4.4,4.5). Quantum Markov processes are constructed and discussed in Sects. 4.6,4.7, and we add some further discussions and examples in Sects. 4.8-4.11.

Kümmerer, Burkhard

455

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

1988-05-24

456

Digital image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objectives of this book are to provide an introduction to basic concepts and techniques for digital image processing and to lay a foundation that can be used as the basis for further study and research. Attention is focused on material which is fundamental and where the scope of application is not limited to specialized problems. The book is

R. S. Gonzalez; P. Wintz

1977-01-01

457

Method of processing tubing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for manufacturing zirconium base alloy tubing having a substantially uniform metallic composition throughout the tubing, comprising the steps of: cold pilgering a starting tube to produce an as cold pilgered intermediate tube; intermediate surface annealing the as cold pilgered intermediate tube by rapidly scanning the tube with a rapid heating means to heat a first

Prizzi

1987-01-01

458

Computing and data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applications of computers and data processing to astronomy are discussed. Among the topics covered are the emerging national information infrastructure, workstations and supercomputers, supertelescopes, digital astronomy, astrophysics in a numerical laboratory, community software, archiving of ground-based observations, dynamical simulations of complex systems, plasma astrophysics, and the remote control of fourth dimension supercomputers.

Smarr, Larry; Press, William; Arnett, David W.; Cameron, Alastair G. W.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Helfand, David J.; Horowitz, Paul; Kleinmann, Susan G.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Madore, Barry F.

1991-01-01

459

Telecommunication market research processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data processing in two telecommunication market investigations is described. One of the studies concerns the office applications of communication and the other the experiences with a videotex terminal. Statistical factorial analysis was performed on a large mass of data. A comparison between utilization intentions and effective utilization is made. Extensive rewriting of statistical analysis computer programs was required.

Dupont, J. F.

1983-06-01

460

Catalytic cracking process  

DOEpatents

Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2001-01-01

461

Image-Processing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

1994-01-01

462

Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process  

DOEpatents

A process for the production of a mono-olefin from a gaseous paraffinic hydrocarbon having at least two carbon atoms or mixtures thereof comprising reacting said hydrocarbons and molecular oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst. The catalyst consist essentially of platinum supported on alumina or zirconia monolith, preferably zirconia and more preferably in the absence of palladium, rhodium and gold.

Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN); Huff, Marylin (St. Paul, MN)

2002-01-01

463

Data warehouse process management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has provided metadata models that enable the capturing of the static components of a data warehouse architecture, along with information on different quality factors over these components. This paper complements this work with the modeling of the dynamic parts of the data warehouse. The proposed metamodel of data warehouse operational processes is capable of modeling complex activities, their

Panos Vassiliadis; Christoph Quix; Yannis Vassiliou; Matthias Jarke

2001-01-01

464

Immunology as Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes the behavior of the immune system from an informationprocessing perspective. It reviews a series of projects conducted at the University of New Mexico and the Santa Fe Institute, which have developed and explored the theme "immunology as information processing." The projects cover the spectrum from serious modeling of real immunological phenomena, such as crossreactive responses in animals

Stephanie Forrest; Steven A. Hofmeyr

2000-01-01

465

Information processing and ptsd  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews a series of studies that have utilized information-processing paradigms with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) populations. The review suggests that pre-trauma measures of intelligence (IQ) are predictive of the development of PTSD symptoms following trauma. There is also evidence of impaired performance on standardized tests of memory (independent of IQ) in PTSD populations. PTSD populations are found to

Todd C. Buckley; Edward B. Blanchard; W. Trammell Neill

2000-01-01

466

NMR Quantum Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has provided a valuable experimental testbed for quantum information processing (QIP). Here, we briefly review the use of nuclear spins as qubits, and discuss the current status of NMR-QIP. Advances in the techniques available for control are described along with the various implementations of quantum algorithms and quantum simulations that have been performed using NMR. The

Chandrasekhar Ramanathan; Nicolas Boulant; Zhiying Chen; David G. Cory; Isaac Chuang; Matthias Steffen

2004-01-01

467

The magnetization process: Hysteresis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetization process, hysteresis (the difference in the path of magnetization for an increasing and decreasing magnetic field), hysteresis loops, and hard magnetic materials are discussed. The fabrication of classroom projects for demonstrating hysteresis and the hysteresis of common magnetic materials is described in detail.

Balsamel, Richard

1990-01-01

468

Processing heterogeneous biomass  

PubMed Central

Plants have been developed as an alternative platform for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins, culminating recently with the FDA approval of the first plant-derived recombinant pharmaceutical enzyme for human use (ELELYSOÔ by Protalix Biotherapeutics). Among the many different plant-based technologies that have been proposed, transient expression mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens has proven to be particularly suitable for the rapid production of vaccines in response to emerging pandemics. However, one potential drawback of transient expression in whole plants is the large variation in recombinant protein expression levels among different leaves, which introduces a level of uncertainty in process design that can increase the regulatory burden and production costs. Transient expression is also used to test expression constructs prior to the longer and more expensive process of generating transgenic plants, and here the variation can produce misleading results leading to erroneous conclusions about the relative activity of different promoters and other regulatory elements. Such variation can be caused by loosely controlled environmental and process factors such incubation temperature, plant characteristics and the method and timing of harvesting. Here we discuss differences between transgenic plants and transient expression in intact plants, and their specific pitfalls for model building. We also highlight which aspects researchers should consider when using a DoE approach to investigate protein expression in plants, both for fundamental research and process development.

Buyel, Johannes F.; Fischer, Rainer

2013-01-01

469

Restructuring manufacturing process flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Xilinx, Inc. a new manufacturing execution system, the Advanced Manufacturing System (AMS), is being jointly designed, developed and implemented with TIBCO, Inc. to replace a proprietary application. The system architecture is a radical departure from current market solutions. Two key features that differentiate this new tool are an automated flow determination model, for prescriptive processing, and modular flow designs

N. F. Kane

1996-01-01

470

Actinide recovery process  

DOEpatents

Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

Muscatello, Anthony C. (Arvada, CO); Navratil, James D. (Arvada, CO); Saba, Mark T. (Arvada, CO)

1987-07-28

471

Semicoherent Doppler processing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coherent radar digital data collector (CRDDC) has been developed which records I, Q data obtained by sampling the receiver intermediate frequency (IF) of a fan-beam radar with a single A\\/D convertor. The paper describes the sampling technique which was developed for this application, called the semicoherent Doppler processing technique, which allows operation with radars employing a noncoherent transmitter such

F. R. Castella; R. E. Thurber

1986-01-01

472

Studsvik Processing Facility Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which ...

J. B. Mason T. W. Oliver G. M. Hill P. F. Davin M. R. Ping

2003-01-01

473

Optimization of TATB Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The processes developed by Mason and Hanger for the pilot scale production of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) are described. 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) was nitrated to form 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene and then aminated to form TATB...

V. H. Evans

1977-01-01

474

Biomedical image processing.  

PubMed

Biomedical image processing is a very broad field; it covers biomedical signal gathering, image forming, picture processing, and image display to medical diagnosis based on features extracted from images. This article reviews this topic in both its fundamentals and applications. In its fundamentals, some basic image processing techniques including outlining, deblurring, noise cleaning, filtering, search, classical analysis and texture analysis have been reviewed together with examples. The state-of-the-art image processing systems have been introduced and discussed in two categories: general purpose image processing systems and image analyzers. In order for these systems to be effective for biomedical applications, special biomedical image processing languages have to be developed. The combination of both hardware and software leads to clinical imaging devices. Two different types of clinical imaging devices have been discussed. There are radiological imagings which include radiography, thermography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and CT. Among these, thermography is the most noninvasive but is limited in application due to the low energy of its source. X-ray CT is excellent for static anatomical images and is moving toward the measurement of dynamic function, whereas nuclear imaging is moving toward organ metabolism and ultrasound is toward tissue physical characteristics. Heart imaging is one of the most interesting and challenging research topics in biomedical image processing; current methods including the invasive-technique cineangiography, and noninvasive ultrasound, nuclear medicine, transmission, and emission CT methodologies have been reviewed. Two current federally funded research projects in heart imaging, the dynamic spatial reconstructor and the dynamic cardiac three-dimensional densitometer, should bring some fruitful results in the near future. Miscrosopic imaging technique is very different from the radiological imaging technique in the sense that interaction between the operator and the imaging device is very essential. The white blood cell analyzer has been developed to the point that it becomes a daily clinical imaging device. An interactive chromosome karyotyper is being clinical evaluated and its preliminary indication is very encouraging. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to automation of cancer cytology; it is hoped that some prototypes will be available for clinical trials very soon. Automation of histology is still in its infancy; much work still needs to be done in this area. The 1970s have been very fruitful in utilizing the imaging technique in biomedical application; the computerized tomographic scanner and the white blood cell analyzer being the most successful imaging devices... PMID:7023828

Huang, H K

1981-01-01

475

Business process simulation: a fundamental step supporting process centered management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business processes are increasingly recognised as the key to competitive survival. The important opportunities inherent to this invisible economic asset are the foundations of process centred management. Simulation of business processes creates added value in understanding, analysing, and designing processes by introducing dynamic aspects. It provides decision support by anticipation of future changes in process design and improves understanding of

Marc Aguilar; Tankred Rautert; Alexander J. G. Pater

1999-01-01

476

Biosphere Process Model Report  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor. Collectively, the potential human receptor and exposure pathways form the biosphere model. More detailed technical information and data about potential human receptor groups and the characteristics of exposure pathways have been developed in a series of AMRs and Calculation Reports.

J. Schmitt

2000-05-25

477

RASSP signal processing architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid prototyping of application specific signal processors (RASSP) program is an ARPA/tri-service effort to dramatically improve the process by which complex digital systems, particularly embedded signal processors, are specified, designed, documented, manufactured, and supported. The domain of embedded signal processing was chosen because it is important to a variety of military and commercial applications as well as for the challenge it presents in terms of complexity and performance demands. The principal effort is being performed by two major contractors, Lockheed Sanders (Nashua, NH) and Martin Marietta (Camden, NJ). For both, improvements in methodology are to be exercised and refined through the performance of individual 'Demonstration' efforts. The Lockheed Sanders' Demonstration effort is to develop an infrared search and track (IRST) processor. In addition, both contractors' results are being measured by a series of externally administered (by Lincoln Labs) six-month Benchmark programs that measure process improvement as a function of time. The first two Benchmark programs are designing and implementing a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor. Our demonstration team is using commercially available VME modules from Mercury Computer to assemble a multiprocessor system scalable from one to hundreds of Intel i860 microprocessors. Custom modules for the sensor interface and display driver are also being developed. This system implements either proprietary or Navy owned algorithms to perform the compute-intensive IRST function in real time in an avionics environment. Our Benchmark team is designing custom modules using commercially available processor ship sets, communication submodules, and reconfigurable logic devices. One of the modules contains multiple vector processors optimized for fast Fourier transform processing. Another module is a fiberoptic interface that accepts high-rate input data from the sensors and provides video-rate output data to a display. This paper discusses the impact of simulation on choosing signal processing algorithms and architectures, drawing from the experiences of the Demonstration and Benchmark inter-company teams at Lockhhed Sanders, Motorola, Hughes, and ISX.

Shirley, Fred; Bassett, Bob; Letellier, J. P.

1995-06-01

478

Vaccine process technology.  

PubMed

The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory perspective, Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) are important initiatives that can be applied effectively to many types of vaccine processes. Universal demand for vaccines requires that a manufacturer plan to supply tens and sometimes hundreds of millions of doses per year at low cost. To enable broader use, there is intense interest in improving temperature stability to allow for excursions from a rigid cold chain supply, especially at the point of vaccination. Finally, there is progress in novel routes of delivery to move away from the traditional intramuscular injection by syringe approach. PMID:22407777

Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

2012-06-01

479

Behavior of Mercury during DWPF Chemical Process Cell Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mer...

D. Koopman J. Zamecnik

2012-01-01

480

ON MULTISTAGE STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most products and services today are the results of several process stages and steps. With the current emphasis in industry on improved quality, control charts are widely used in process monitoring. However, conventional statistical process control (SPC) techniques focus mostly on individual stages in a process and do not consider disseminating information throughout the multiple stages of the process. Such

Lianjie Shu; Fugee Tsung

2003-01-01

481

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

1977-01-01

482

Photoinduced Charge Transfer Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoinduced charge transfer process is the fundamental process in a photovoltaic system. Organic photovoltaics contain a donor-acceptor molecular system which undergoes photoinduced charge transfer leading to a large dipole moment. Often the charge transfer properties of such donor-acceptor systems are measured in solution. The dipole moments on the solvent molecules creates a reaction field. To simulate this reaction field we adopt an approach similar to the explicit solvent model proposed by Washel and co-workers. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine various possible solvent structures. We use a carotenoid-porphyrin-C60 molecular triad as the light-harvesting system. This molecular triad has a very large dipole moment (153 Debye) in the charge separated state. The resulting solvent structures and the reaction field as a function of temperature will be presented.

Basurto, Luis; Baruah, Tunna; Zope, Rajendra; Rodriguez, Jose

2011-10-01

483

Apparatus for processing coal  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

Williams, R.M.

1985-02-12

484

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

In our recent work, Monte Carlo Cross Validation Stacked Regression (MCCVSR) is proposed to achieve automatic optimization of spectral interval selection in multivariate calibration. Though MCCVSR performs well in normal conditions, it is still necessary to improve it for more general applications. According to the well-known principle of "garbage in, garbage out (GIGO)", as a precise ensemble method, MCCVSR might be influenced by outlying and very bad submodels. In this paper, a statistical test is designed to exclude the ruinous submodels from the ensemble learning process, therefore, the combination process becomes more reliable. Though completely automated, the proposed method is adjustable according to the nature of the data analyzed, including the size of training samples, resolution of spectra and quantitative potentials of the submodels. The effectiveness of the submodel refining is demonstrated by the investigation of a real standard data. PMID:19547705

Yu, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Lu; Yu, Ru-Qin

2009-01-01

485

Process for degrading hypochlorite  

SciTech Connect

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved means and method for the degradation of hypochlorite in alkali waste solutions. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a more effective and less costly method for the degradation of hypochlorite. The foregoing objects and others are accomplished in accordance with the present invention, generally speaking, by providing a process to degrade hypochlorite into chloride and oxygen which includes contacting an aqueous hypochlorite basic solution with a catalyst comprising about 1--10 w/w % cobalt oxide and about 1--15 w/w % molybdenum oxide on a suitable substrate. In another embodiment a similar process for degrading lithium hypochlorite is provided in which waste solution concentration is lowered in order to minimize carbonate precipitation. 6 tabs.

Huxtable, W.P.; Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

1989-05-12

486

Controlling the synfuel process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three main problem areas for instrumentation used in coal gasification and liquefaction systems are measurement of the density and velocity of the process streams (known as mixed-phase mass-flow monitoring); on-line analysis of the molecular composition of process streams; and measurement of temperatures in combustion and reactor vessels. Intrusive flow meters are ill suited because of the corrosion problem. The present paper deals with the development of nonintrusive flowmeters of the electromagnetic, thermal, sonic, and ultrasonic type, the development of capacitive transducers for velocity and density measurements, the use of neutron-induced gamma-ray spectrometry in on-line analysis to obtain the effective density of each constituent, and the use of acoustic techniques (time domain reflectometry) in temperature measurements.

Fagenbaum, J.

1980-11-01

487

Hydroprocessing catalyst and process  

SciTech Connect

In a hydrocracking process for converting a hydrocarbon feed, at least 70% of which boils within the range of 650/sup 0/ to about 1050/sup 0/F, to liquid products boiling in the rane of C/sub 5/+ to 700/sup 0/F. This patent describes a process which comprises contacting the feed and gaseous hydrogen at elevated pressure with a hydrocracking catalyst under hydrocracking conditions. The improvement comprises: contacting the feed with a hydrocracking catalyst composition comprising a hydrogenation component, a crystalline aluminosilicate cracking component having the essential X-ray diffraction pattern of Zeolite Beta, the crystalline aluminosilicate being further characterized by the presence of 0.5 wt % to about 4.0 wt % of framework boron and a silica to alumina ratio of at least about 35, and a solid source of alumina, whereby the catalyst life is extended.

Chen, N.Y.; Huang, T.J.

1988-07-12

488

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

1996-01-01

489

The aluminum smelting process.  

PubMed

This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development. PMID:24806722

Kvande, Halvor

2014-05-01

490

Process control for survival  

SciTech Connect

Increasing competition for a decreasing market mandates that the success of a company be determined by the manner in which it embraces quality. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is the most efficient means of dramatically improving quality and is essential to survival in the emerging electronic marketplace. During the three years that industry practitioners assembled to write IPC-PC-90, General Requirements for the Implementation of statistical Process Control, many heated discussions ensued about the actual definition of SPC. Some people view SPC as the application of Control Chart methods, others view it as the use of Statistical Experimental Design. Both are in some ways wrong and are limiting the scope of application. Those companies that have successfully applied SPC view it as a philosophy of statistical principles that will reduce variation in every phase of their business. 2 figs.

Yocom, J.A.

1991-06-01

491

High temperature lubricating process  

DOEpatents

It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

492

The precaution adoption process.  

PubMed

This article presents a critique of current models of preventive behavior. It discusses a variety of factors that are usually overlooked-including the appearance of costs and benefits over time, the role of cues to action, the problem of competing life demands, and the ways that actual decision behavior differs from the rational ideal implicit in expectancy-value and utility theories. Such considerations suggest that the adoption of new precautions should be viewed as a dynamic process with many determinants. The framework of a model that is able to accommodate these additional factors is described. This alternative model portrays the precaution adoption process as an orderly sequence of qualitatively different cognitive stages. Data illustrating a few of the suggestions made in the article are presented, and implications for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:3049068

Weinstein, N D

1988-01-01

493

Nucleic acid isolation process  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

494

Process Standardization of Rasamanikya  

PubMed Central

Rasamanikya is a famous drug, frequently used by Ayurvedic physicians for Vata-Kaphaja diseases like Shwasa, Kasa and Kushtha (Skin disorders). Various methods of preparation have been found described in Rasa classics. Generally it is prepared by Shuddha Haratala which is kept between two thin transparent Abharaka Patra (mica sheets) in small scale and in sharava for large scale, heated up to desired level. There are so many methods and different liquid media have been found described for Shodhana of Haratala. Therefore the methods of preparation of Rasamanikya and Shodhana process of Haratala have been validated through various experiments. Tankana-treated Haratala (T. Treated) is found best for Shodhana process and final product too i.e. Rasamanikya in terms of pharmaceutical standards i.e. Ruby in colour, along with reproducibility of fixed quality.

Srimannarayana, K.; Patgiri, B. J.; Prajapati, P. K.

2010-01-01

495

The local Dirichlet process  

PubMed Central

As a generalization of the Dirichlet process (DP) to allow predictor dependence, we propose a local Dirichlet process (lDP). The lDP provides a prior distribution for a collection of random probability measures indexed by predictors. This is accomplished by assigning stick-breaking weights and atoms to random locations in a predictor space. The probability measure at a given predictor value is then formulated using the weights and atoms located in a neighborhood about that predictor value. This construction results in a marginal DP prior for the random measure at any specific predictor value. Dependence is induced through local sharing of random components. Theoretical properties are considered and a blocked Gibbs sampler is proposed for posterior computation in lDP mixture models. The methods are illustrated using simulated examples and an epidemiologic application.

Dunson, David B.

2013-01-01

496

Illuminating Vertebrate Olfactory Processing  

PubMed Central

The olfactory system encodes information about molecules by spatiotemporal patterns of activity across distributed populations of neurons and extracts information from these patterns to control specific behaviors. Recent studies used in vivo recordings, optogenetics, and other methods to analyze the mechanisms by which odor information is encoded and processed in the olfactory system, the functional connectivity within and between olfactory brain areas, and the impact of spatiotemporal patterning of neuronal activity on higher-order neurons and behavioral outputs. The results give rise to a faceted picture of olfactory processing and provide insights into fundamental mechanisms underlying neuronal computations. This review focuses on some of this work presented in a Mini-Symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in 2012.

Albeanu, Dinu Florin; Murthy, Venkatesh N.; Rinberg, Dmitry; Uchida, Naoshige; Wachowiak, Matt

2012-01-01

497

Catalytic dewaxing process  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing a hydrodewaxed feedstock of acceptable pour point specifications and oxidative stability specifications, as measured by ASTM D-943. The process comprises contacting a feedstock, containing wax components in unacceptable amounts and thiophenic sulfur containing components and boiling above about 550/sup 0/F., with a catalyst comprising ZSM-5 and at least one element selected from the group consisting of elements of Group VIII and elements of Group VI in the presence of hydrogen at pressure, temperature and LHSV conditions effective to maintain hydrogenation of at least about 10% of the thiophenic sulfur containing components. The resulting hydrodewaxed feedstock exhibits acceptable oxidative stability as measured by ASTM D-943 and the necessity of hydrotreating conditions, subsequent to the hydrodewaxing, to achieve the oxidative stability, is eliminated.

Adams, P.L.; Farcasiu, M.

1987-02-10

498

Process air quality data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

1978-01-01

499

Ridge regression processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current navigation requirements depend on a geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) criterion. As long as the GDOP stays below a specific value, navigation requirements are met. The GDOP will exceed the specified value when the measurement geometry becomes too collinear. A new signal processing technique, called Ridge Regression Processing, can reduce the effects of nearly collinear measurement geometry; thereby reducing the inflation of the measurement errors. It is shown that the Ridge signal processor gives a consistently better mean squared error (MSE) in position than the Ordinary Least Mean Squares (OLS) estimator. The applicability of this technique is currently being investigated to improve the following areas: receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM), coverage requirements, availability requirements, and precision approaches.

Kuhl, Mark R.

1990-01-01

500

Coated substrates and process  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a coated substrate and a process for forming films on substrates and for providing a particularly smooth film on a substrate. The method of this invention involves subjecting a surface of a substrate to contact with a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient force and energy to substantially change the surface characteristics of said substrate, and then exposing a film-forming material to a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient energy to vaporize the atoms of said film-forming material and to transmit the vaporized atoms to the substrate surface with sufficient force to form a film bonded to the substrate. This process is particularly useful commercially because it forms strong bonds at room temperature. This invention is particularly useful for adhering a gold film to diamond and forming ohmic electrodes on diamond, but also can be used to bond other films to substrates.

Chu, Wei-kan (Chapel Hill, NC); Childs, Charles B. (Chapel Hill, NC)

1991-01-01