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1

Lurgi's MPG gasification plus Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification - advanced process combination for reliable syngas production  

SciTech Connect

Lurgi's Multi Purpose Gasification Process (MPG) is the reliable partial oxidation process to convert hydrocarbon liquids, slurries and natural gas into valuable syngas. The MPG burner has once again proven its capabilities in an ammonia plant based on asphalt gasification. Lurgi is operating the HP-POX demonstration plant together with the University of Freiberg, Germany. Gasification tests at pressures of up to 100 bar have shown that syngas for high pressure synthesis such as methanol and ammonia can be produced more economically. The Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification process yields ultra clean synthesis gas which is required to avoid problems in the downstream synthesis. Pure carbon dioxide is produced as a separate stream and is readily available for sequestration, enhanced oil recovery or other uses. The reliability of the Rectisol{reg_sign} process and the confidence of plant operators in this process are acknowledged by the fact that more than 75% of the syngas produced world wide by coal, oil and waste gasification is purified in Rectisol{reg_sign} units. Virtually all coal gasification plants currently under construction rely on Rectisol{reg_sign}. The new, large GTL plants and hydrogen production facilities require effective CO{sub 2} removal. New developments make Rectisol{reg_sign} attractive for this task. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

NONE

2005-07-01

2

Sulfur behavior in the Sasol-Lurgi fixed-bed dry-bottom gasification process  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the findings of a study regarding the sulfur behavior across a Sasol-Lurgi gasifier. This was undertaken to understand the behavior of the various sulfur-bearing components in the coal, as they are exposed to the conditions in the gasifier. In this study, conventional characterization techniques were employed to monitor the behavior of sulfur-bearing mineral matter across the gasifier. It was observed from the study that the sulfur-bearing mineral (pyrite) in the coal structure undergoes various changes with pyrite being transformed to pyrrhotite and then to various oxides of iron with the subsequent loss of sulfur to form H{sub 2}S. A low proportion of the sulfur species including the organically associated sulfur was encapsulated by a melt that was formed by the interaction between kaolinite and fluxing minerals (pyrite, calcite, and dolomite/ankerite) present in the coal at elevated temperatures and pressure, thereby ending up in the ash. The remaining small proportions of sulfur-bearing mineral matter including pyrite and organically bound sulfur in the unburned carbon in the carbonaceous shales also report to the ash. 18 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

M. Pat Skhonde; R. Henry Matjie; J. Reginald Bunt; A. Christien Strydom; H. Schobert [Sasol Technology R& amp; D, Sasolburg (South Africa)

2009-01-15

3

US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas' Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F. (British Gas plc, London (United Kingdom)); Turna, O. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

1991-12-01

4

Identification of reaction zones in a commercial Sasol-Lurgi fixed bed dry bottom gasifier operating on North Dakota lignite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sasol-Lurgi fixed bed dry bottom gasification technology has the biggest market share in the world with 101 gasifiers in operation. To be able to further improve the technology and also to optimise the operating plants, it is important that the fundamentals of the process are understood. The main objective of this study was to determine the reaction zones occurring

S. J. Mangena; J. R. Bunt; F. B. Waanders; G. Baker

2011-01-01

5

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: LURGI OIL SHALE RETORTING WITH OPEN PIT MINING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Lurgi oil shale PCTM addresses the Lurgi retorting technology, developed by Lurgi Kohle and Mineralotechnik GmbH, West Germany, in the manner in which this technology may be applied to the oil shales of the western United States. This manual proceeds through a description of ...

6

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: MODIFIED 'IN SITU' OIL SHALE RETORTING COMBINED WITH LURGI SURFACE RETORTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using L...

7

ASSESSMENT OF DISCHARGES FROM SASOL I LURGI-BASED COAL GASIFICATION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses analytical information, obtained from Sasol I, on the emission and effluent streams analyzed in the normal course of operation and testing. The purpose was to provide EPA with representative information on a commercial-size Lurgi-based coal gasification proje...

8

Environmental assessment: source test and evaluation report. Addendum - Lurgi-type medium-Btu gasification. Volume 2. Appendix B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is an addendum to a 1981 environmental assessment source test and evaluation report (EPA-600\\/7-81-142) on Lurgi-type medium-Btu gasification in Kosovo, Yugoslavia. It contains analytical data on 21 gasification plant streams, not included in the final report. Condensable organics from the plant's major gas, solid-phase, and selected liquid-phase streams were characterized by the EPA protocol for a Level 1

Bombaugh

1986-01-01

9

Environmental assessment: source test and evaluation report. Addendum - Lurgi-type medium-Btu gasification. Volume 1. Technical report and Appendix A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is an addendum to a 1981 environmental assessment source test and evaluation report (EPA-600\\/7-81-142) on Lurgi-type medium-Btu gasification in Kosovo, Yugoslavia. It contains analytical data on 21 gasification plant streams, not included in the final report. Condensable organics from the plant's major gas, solid-phase, and selected liquid-phase streams were characterized by the EPA protocol for a Level 1

Bombaugh

1986-01-01

10

Identification of the reaction zones occurring in a commercial-scale Sasol–Lurgi FBDB gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification behaviour is particle dependent, whilst gasifier (reactor) behaviour is an averaging process of individual responses of each particle. It was hypothesized, that if it were possible to extract and analyze particles from different reaction zones within a gasifier, it may be likely to enhance the understanding of the contribution that these particles make towards gasification. This better understanding of

J. R. Bunt; F. B. Waanders

2008-01-01

11

Surface Gasification Materials Program plan for fiscal years 1985 through 1989. [KRW process, Mountain Fuel Resources Process, KILnGas process, Texaco process, Lurgi process  

SciTech Connect

This program plan for the Department of Energy Surface Gasification Materials Program (SGMP) is intended to identify those research and development needs for materials of construction for coal gasification that are appropriate for funding by the SGMP. The status and plans for research and development activities on the SGMP are discussed. Projects completed in FY 1984, those currently in progress, and those planned for initiation during the period FY 1986 through FY 1989 are discussed. Budget estimates for the projects are also presented. 43 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Judkins, R.R.; Bradley, R.A.

1985-08-01

12

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

1992-06-01

13

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

1992-06-01

14

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

1992-05-04

15

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

1992-05-04

16

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Fourth quarterly report, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

1993-10-08

17

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Third quarterly report, April 1993--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report presents research objectives, discusses activities, and presents technical progress for the period April 1, 1993 through June 31, 1993 on Contract No. DE-FC21-86LC11084 with the Department of Energy, Laramie Project Office. The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

1993-08-11

18

Trace element behaviour in the Sasol–Lurgi MK IV FBDB gasifier. Part 2 – The semi-volatile elements: Cu, Mo, Ni and Zn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification is a coal conversion process that could be considered to be more amenable with regards to environmental impact factors when compared to combustion, as it provides minimum direct emission to the atmosphere due to the opportunity to apply a series of gas cleaning processes. Emissions could be in the form of the well known trace elements labelled as toxic

J. R. Bunt; F. B. Waanders

2009-01-01

19

An understanding of lump coal physical property behaviour (density and particle size effects) impacting on a commercial-scale Sasol-Lurgi FBDB gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal processes which utilize coarse coal, such as fixed-bed gasification and chain grate stoker boilers, are dependant on a stable particle size for stable operation. During coarse coal utilization, thermal fragmentation of lump coal (upon heating) produces hydrodynamic effects (pressure drop fluctuations) manifesting itself in a variety of ways, and include: channel-burning and solids elutriation. Primary thermal fragmentation occurring in

J. R. Bunt; F. B. Waanders

2008-01-01

20

Coal-based direct reduction processes symposium  

SciTech Connect

The broad interest shown by the steel industry in coal-based direct reduction is a result of: (1) the need for a scrap supplement, (a) due to the steadily increasing electric arc furnace capacity in the USA, direct reduced iron (DRI) is required as a substitute in times of scrap shortages, and (b) due to the decreasing quantities of quality scrap, DRI is required as a diluent for residuals in the scrap; (2) the need for an alternative reduction process, that is (a) less capital intensive - has a lower investment cost per unit of annual production - than a modern coke oven, blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace (CO/BF/BOF) system, and is (b) economical at lower increments of capacity and lower initial investment costs than the 4 million tons per year and the high capital investment for a CO/BF/BOF system. (3) the need for a coal-based direct reduction process to reflect the long-term availability of coal in the USA as compared to direct reduction processes which use natural gas (87% of present world DRI capacity) as the source of reductant and energy. The following processes, classified according to the reduction vessel, are discussed: rotary kiln - ACCAR, CODIR, DRC, SL/RN; shaft furnace - CALDERON, ELECTROTHERM, MIDREX-LURGI, MIDREX-TEXACO, PLASMARED; and fluidized bed-ELRED, and PLASMAMELT.

MacRae, D.R.

1980-01-01

21

Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Final report, November 1995  

SciTech Connect

A study is described on the hydrological and geotechnical behavior of an oil shale solid waste. The objective was to obtain information which can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil shale solid waste disposal in the Green River Basin. The spent shale used in this study was combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. Laboratory bench-scale testing included index properties, such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits, and tests for engineering properties including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Large-scale tests were conducted on model spent shale waste embankments to evaluate hydrological response, including infiltration, runoff, and seepage. Large-scale tests were conducted at a field site in western Colorado and in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL)at the University of Wyoming. The ESL tests allowed the investigators to control rainfall and temperature, providing information on the hydrological response of spent shale under simulated severe climatic conditions. All experimental methods, materials, facilities, and instrumentation are described in detail, and results are given and discussed. 34 refs.

NONE

1995-12-31

22

ASPEN simulation of a fixed-bed integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fixed-bed integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant has been modeled using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (ASPEN). The ASPEN simulation is based on a conceptual design of a 509-MW IGCC power plant that uses British Gas Corporation (BGC)\\/Lurgi slagging gasifiers and the Lurgi acid gas removal process. The 39.3-percent thermal efficiency of the plant that was calculated by

1986-01-01

23

Counting process Poisson process  

E-print Network

, 2008 ­ p. 9/1 #12;Compound Poisson Process · Let {N(t)} be a Poisson process with rate · Let Yk(t) = N(t) i=1 Yi · Then {S(t)} is called a compound Poisson process · {S(t)} has stationaryLast Time · Counting process · Poisson process · Equivalent definitions Today's lecture: Sections 6

Ross, Kevin

24

Testing Kentucky Coal to Set Design Criteria for a Lurgi Gasification Plant  

E-print Network

Tri-State Synfuels Company, in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Kentucky, undertook a comprehensive coal testing program to support the development of an indirect coal liquefaction project. One of the major elements of the program was a...

Roeger, A., III; Jones, J. E., Jr.

1983-01-01

25

Identification of the mineral phases responsible for cementation of Lurgi spent oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mineralogical character of the cements that are responsible for the increased strength of the spent oil shale. Several techniques to identify the nature of the cementing agents have been used in this study. X-ray diffraction was used to identify mineral dissolution and formation; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cementing agents; energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) was used to provide information on the elemental composition of both the bulk material and the cementing agents; and differential thermal analyses and thermogravimetric analyses were used to document the presence of suspected minerals that may be involved in formation of the cementing material.

Brown, M.; Huntington, G.; Brown, T.

1991-02-01

26

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios  

SciTech Connect

A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

Not Available

1982-01-01

27

Hydrocarbon Processing`s refining processes `96  

SciTech Connect

The paper compiles information on the following refining processes: alkylation, benzene reduction, benzene saturation, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, coking, crude distillation, deasphalting, deep catalytic cracking, electrical desalting, ethers, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, isomerization, resid catalytic cracking, treating, and visbreaking. The application, products, a description of the process, yield, economics, installation, and licensor are given for each entry.

NONE

1996-11-01

28

Scientific Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from NOVA, expand your understanding of the scientific process. Watch two videos featuring animations and interviews with scientists, and notice how the processes unfold and vary from one investigation to the other.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-01

29

Shuttle Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

Guodace, Kimberly A.

2010-01-01

30

Process Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a webpage with many learning objects concerning Process Control with lessons in Temperature, Level, Pressure, Flow, Analytical, Symbols, Tuning & Calibration, PID Controls and other basic concepts.

2012-10-22

31

Process Fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts presented in this paper are motivated by the assumption that process knowledge is distributed knowledge and not completely known just by one person. Driven by this assumption we deal in this paper with the following questions: How can partial process knowledge be represented? How can this partial knowledge be used to define something more complete? To use higher level artefacts as building blocks to new applications has a long tradition in software engineering to increase flexibility and reduce modeling costs. In this paper we take a first step in applying this concept to processes, by defining process building blocks and operations which compose process building blocks. The building blocks will be referred to as process fragments in the following. The process fragment composition may take place either at design or runtime of the process. The design time approach reduces design costs by reusing artefacts. However the runtime fragment composition approach realizes high flexibility due to the possibility in the dynamic selection of the fragments to be composed. The contribution of this work lies in a fragment definition that enables the fragment modeler to represent his 'local' and fragmentary knowledge in a formal way and which allows fragment models to be composed.

Eberle, Hanna; Unger, Tobias; Leymann, Frank

32

Potato processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of potato processing at the Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. plant in a recent agribusiness study of the Klamath and Western Snake River Basins in Oregon is described. The application of geothermal resources to the process and the economic analysis are included. (MHR)

Lienau

1979-01-01

33

Recovery process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for manufacturing char and hydrocarbons from discarded used tires. The process consists of: introducing the substantially whole tires into a reactor; pyrolyzing the substantially whole tires in a reaction chamber continuously at a temperature and pressure and for a reaction time sufficient to cause the tires to dissociate into a vapor and a solid phase; the pyrolyzing step including directly heating the tires with a radiant heat source at temperatures of 1000{sup 0} to 3000{sup 0}F; producing char from the solid phase; and processing the vapor phase to produce hydrocarbons.

Apffel, F.

1989-06-13

34

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2011)  

E-print Network

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2011) Published online in Wiley Online Library increased flood risk (Alla- mano et al., 2009, but see Wilby et al., 2008). The climate-streamflow trend are sensitive to the start date of the record (e.g. Wilby et al., 2008). These latter issues are not addressed

35

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2009)  

E-print Network

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2009) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www­2004) hydroclimatology. At Quesnel itself, annual mean values of air temperature, precipitation and runoff are 4·6 °C, 517 and 648 mm, respectively. Climate data reveal increases in precipitation, no significant trend

Northern British Columbia, University of

36

Process Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from ATETV, learn about the field of process technology and what it takes to work in the field from the perspectives of a student, a community college professor, and an industry specialist.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-07-11

37

Processive catalysis.  

PubMed

Nature's enzymes are an ongoing source of inspiration for scientists. The complex processes behind their selectivity and efficiency is slowly being unraveled, and these findings have spawned many biomimetic catalysts. However, nearly all focus on the conversion of small molecular substrates. Nature itself is replete with inventive catalytic systems which modify, replicate, or decompose entire polymers, often in a processive fashion. Such processivity can, for example, enhance the rate of catalysis by clamping to the polymer substrate, which imparts a large effective molarity. Reviewed herein are the various strategies for processivity in nature's arsenal and their properties. An overview of what has been achieved by chemists aiming to mimic one of nature's greatest tricks is also included. PMID:25244684

van Dongen, Stijn F M; Elemans, Johannes A A W; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M

2014-10-20

38

Power processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

Schwarz, F. C.

1971-01-01

39

Parallel processing  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a introduction to the fundamental principles and practice of parallel processing. After a general introduction to the many facets of parallelism, the first part of the book is devoted to the development of a coherent theoretical framework. Particular attention is paid to the modeling, semantics and complexity of interacting parallel processes. The second part of the book considers the more practical aspects such as parallel processor architecture, parallel and distributed programming, and concurrent transaction handling in databases.

Krishnamurthy, E.V. (Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand))

1989-01-01

40

Cellulase Processivity  

PubMed Central

There are two types of processive cellulases, exocellulases and processive endoglucanases. There are also two classes of exocellulases, ones that attack the reducing ends of cellulose chains and ones that attack the nonreducing ends. There are a number of ways of assaying processivity but none of them are ideal. It appears that exocellulases, all of which have their active sites in a tunnel, couple movement along a cellulose chain with cleavage of cellobiose from the end of the cellulose molecule. There are two sets of structures that suggest how an exocellulase might move along a cellulose chain. For family 48 exocellulases there are two different ways that a chain can be bound in the active site while for family 6 exocellulases there are several different ligand-bound structures. Site-directed mutagenesis of Thermobifida fusca exocellulases Cel48A and Cel6B and the processive endoglucanase Cel9A have identified some mutations that increase processivity and some that decrease processivity. In addition a mutation in Cel6B was identified that appears to allow the mutant enzyme to move along a cellulose chain in the absence of cleavage. PMID:22843392

Wilson, David B.; Kostylev, Maxim

2014-01-01

41

Recovery process  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for manufacturing carbon black and hydrocarbons from discarded tires, comprising: introducing the tires into a reactor; pyrolyzing the tires in a pyrolysis reaction vessel substantially in the absence of artificially introduced oil heating media at a temperature and pressure and for a reaction time sufficient to cause the tires to dissociate into a vapor phase and a solid phase; the pyrolyzing step including directly, internally heating the tires in the reaction vessel using microwave energy; producing carbon black from the solid phase; and processing the vapor phase to produce hyrocarbons.

Apffel, F.

1987-03-03

42

Election Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After studying Unit 14 about the Election Process of the United States, you all will have to do a small research project that will answer the question: Do we need to have the Electoral College in voting? Each of you will be doing some research about whether or not you feel that we should keep or abolish the Electoral college process when it comes to voting for our nation's president and vice president. 1) First, you will view the Electoral College Video from APTPlus that I will be showing to ...

Waugh, Miss

2009-07-07

43

HEMISPHERIC PROCESSING*  

E-print Network

hemispheres did not l'espond in the same way in the two sexes, and the pattern of these differences in the right hemisphere. For example, among split-brain patients (i.e., those in whom the corpus callosum hasHEMISPHERIC PROCESSING* ASYMMETRIES IN PHONOLOGICAL G. Lukatela,** Claudia Carello,t M. Savic

44

Process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

Bickler, D. B.

1985-01-01

45

Microencapsulation Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microencapsulation by solvent evaporation is a novel technique to enable the controlled delivery of active materials.The controlled release of drugs, for example, is a key challenge in the pharmaceutical industries. Although proposed several decades ago, it remains largely an empirical laboratory process.The Topical Team has considered its critical points and the work required to produce a more effective technology - better control of the process for industrial production, understanding of the interfacial dynamics, determination of the solvent evaporation profile, and establishment of the relation between polymer/microcapsule structures.The Team has also defined how microgravity experiments could help in better understanding microencapsulation by solvent evaporation, and it has proposed a strategy for a collaborative project on the topic.

Whateley, T. L.; Poncelet, D.

2005-06-01

46

Restoration Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

1979-01-01

47

Sulfinol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell Oil Co.'s application of the Sulfinol Process to solve problems with sulfate-reducing bacteria in a large underground natural gas storage reservoir in Chicago resulted in the reduction of the hydrogen sulfide content from 5-20 grains to Vertical Bar3; 0.25 grain; in addition, approx. 1.5Vertical Bar3< of the original 2Vertical Bar3< carbon dioxide content was kept in that gas sent

Fish

1978-01-01

48

Renewal Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this is an online, interactive lesson on the renewal processes. The resource provides examples, exercises, and applets which include renewal equations and renewal limit theorems. This is the fifteenth of seventeen different statistics lessons presented by Siegrist. This site is broken up much like an online textbook. Each lesson is separable, but together, they form a cohesive look at different aspects of statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

2009-02-27

49

Fermentation process  

SciTech Connect

Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

Lutzen, N.W.

1982-02-23

50

Hydropyrolysis process  

DOEpatents

An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

Ullman, Alan Z. (Northridge, CA); Silverman, Jacob (Woodland Hills, CA); Friedman, Joseph (Huntington Beach, CA)

1986-01-01

51

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2010)  

E-print Network

rainfall-runoff concepts (Weiler and McDon- nell, 2004), development (Uhlenbrook et al., 2002b) and testing our concept of streamwater age and origin Michael K. Stewart,1 * Uwe Morgenstern2 and Jeffrey J. Mc production and other water-mediated ecological processes (Kendall and McDonnell, 1998). The use of stable

McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

52

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2008)  

E-print Network

to each sensor as well as traditional total snow depth (TSD) on ground measurements. The comparison for signal processing, snowfall algorithm development and optimal installation in preparation for the 2007 (Brazenec, 2005; Ryan et al., 2008). Snowfall is the accumulation of new snow in a specified amount of time

53

Ceramic Processing  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

EWSUK,KEVIN G.

1999-11-24

54

Materials & Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by National Aerospace Technical Education Center (SpaceTEC), is centered on materials and processes. The document focuses on the material structure of metal. It mainly focuses on the properties, these being: hardness, brittleness, malleability, ductility, elasticity, toughness, density, fusibility, conductivity, contraction and expansion. After the initial discussion of properties, the topic shifts to metalworking, case hardening and corrosion. Corrosion dominates over half of the presentation. Overall, this is thorough examination of this material. It totals nearly seventy slides in length. Instructors could use this either as a study guide or simply to enhance existing curriculum.

2009-10-01

55

Snowmelt Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module helps the student develop an understanding of the contribution of snowmelt in the hydrologic forecasting process. The module first explains the influences of wind, sun, terrain, and vegetation on snow water distribution and then discusses the evolution of snowpack characteristics. From there, the student will learn about energy exchanges between the snow and the atmosphere and how that affects how quickly and how completely snow will melt. Finally, an explanation is presented of water flow through snow and the fate of that water when it reaches the ground surface. The lesson will be highlighted with brief examples of actual snowmelt cases.

Comet

2007-02-02

56

Upstream Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two page PDF, created by Northeast Biomanufacturing Center and Collaborative, discusses the key functions and tasks of a manufacturing technician (upstream). The document focuses mostly on: the work compliance with both EH&S and cGMPS, the cleanliness and maintenance of production areas, maintaining effective communication, the preparation of process materials, the preparation of equipment, performance of basic manufacturing operations, performing upstream manufacturing operations and performance sampling. Each one of these topics contains anywhere from five to fifteen different subtopics. The lists are meant to give a broad overview of each one of these topics.

2009-09-24

57

Downstream Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two page PDF, created by Northeast Biomanufacturing Center and Collaborative, discusses the key functions and tasks of a manufacturing technician (downstream). The document focuses mostly on: the work compliance with both EH&S and cGMPS, the cleanliness and maintenance of production areas, maintaining effective communication, the preparation of process materials, the preparation of equipment, performance of basic manufacturing operations performing downstream manufacturing operations and performance sampling. Each one of these topics contains anywhere from five to fifteen different subtopics. The lists are meant to give a broad overview of each of these topics.

2009-09-24

58

Cracking process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cracking process wherein a hydrocarbon-containing feed is contacted with a zeolite-containing cracking catalyst in a cracking zone under cracking conditions and at least a portion of the zeolite-containing catalyst is removed from the cracking zone, contacted with treating fluid comprising steam, and then recycled back to the cracking zone. The improvement described here comprises employing in the treating fluid an organic compound selected from hydrocarbons containing at least 5 carbon atoms per molecule and a molecular weight of no more than 100, in an amount sufficient to reduce the adverse effect that the steam has on the surface of the cracking catalyst.

Bertus, B.J.; Fu, C.M.

1986-12-30

59

Snowmelt Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module helps the student develop an understanding of the contribution of snowmelt in the hydrologic forecasting process. The module first explains the influences of wind, sun, terrain, and vegetation on snow water distribution and then discusses the evolution of snowpack characteristics. From there, the student will learn about energy exchanges between the snow and the atmosphere and how that affects how quickly and how completely snow will melt. Finally, an explanation is presented of water flow through snow and the fate of that water when it reaches the ground surface. The lesson will be highlighted with brief examples of actual snowmelt cases.

Spangler, Tim

2007-02-02

60

Alkylation process  

SciTech Connect

In one embodiment of this invention, a process for alkylating C[sub 3]--C[sub 6] alkanes (paraffins) with C[sub 3]--C[sub 6] alkenes (monoolefins) employs a catalyst composition which has been prepared by heating a mixture consisting essentially of aluminum chloride, at least one metal sulfate (CuSO[sub 4], FeSO[sub 4], NiSO[sub 4], MgSO[sub 4], CaSO[sub 4] or combinations thereof), at least one inorganic refractory support material (alumina, silica, silica-alumina, aluminum phosphate, aluminum phosphate/oxide or combinations thereof), and at least one chlorinated hydrocarbon (preferably carbon tetrachloride). In another embodiment of this invention, a process for alkylating C[sub 3]--C[sub 6] alkanes with C[sub 3]--C[sub 6] alkenes employs a catalyst which has been prepared by heating a mixture consisting essentially of aluminum chloride, aluminum phosphate, silica, and at least one chlorinated hydrocarbon (preferably carbon tetrachloride).

Wu, A.H.

1994-01-04

61

Lithospheric processes  

SciTech Connect

The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

Baldridge, W. [and others

2000-12-01

62

Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

1993-01-01

63

Oligomerization process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1991-03-26

64

Etherification process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1990-08-21

65

18 POISSON PROCESS 196 18 Poisson Process  

E-print Network

and success probability n , thus converges to Poisson(t - s) as n . Moreover, #12;18 POISSON PROCESS 197 Nn18 POISSON PROCESS 196 18 Poisson Process A counting process is a random process N(t), t 0 the number of events in (s, t]. A Poisson process with rate (or intensity) > 0 is a counting process N

Gravner, Janko

66

Auroral Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini has afforded a number of unique opportunities to understand auroral processes at Saturn and to highlight both differences and similarities with auroral physics at both Earth and Jupiter. A number of campaigns were coordinated with the Hubble Space Telescope such that Cassini could provide either ground truth on the impinging solar wind or in situ measurements of magnetospheric conditions leading to qualitative and sometimes quantitative relationships between the solar wind influence on the intensity, the morphology and evolution of the auroras, and magneto-spheric dynamics. The Hubble UV images are enhanced by Cassini's own remote sensing of the auroras. Cassini's in situ studies of the structure and dynamics of the magnetosphere discussed in other chapters of this book provide the context for understanding the primary drivers of Saturn's auroras and the role of magnetospheric dynamics in their variations. Finally, Cassini's three dimensional prime mission survey of the magnetosphere culminates in high inclination orbits placing it at relatively small radial distances while on auroral field lines, providing the first such in situ observations of auroral particles and fields at a planet other than Earth. The new observations have spawned a number of efforts to model the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere and understand how such dynamics influence the auroras.

Kurth, W. S.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T.; Crary, F. J.; Grodent, D. C.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Dyudina, U. A.; Lamy, L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Persoon, A. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Saur, J.; Stallard, T.

67

Process Technology: Process Maintenance Engineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, youâÂÂll meet Tyrone Walker, who keeps the enormous machines at a Tupperware factory running 24/7/365. Tyrone is a process maintenance engineer. This means he inspects all the parts of a machineâÂÂs electronics system looking for problems, from the tiniest components to the machine as a whole. Tyrone's community college degree in electronic engineering is key to doing this job, which he loves.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

68

Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of disease and personalisation of health care [14].

Grangeat, P.

69

Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

Bubenko, Janis

70

Hydrothermal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater (after C. A. Stein and S. Stein, 1994). The first geochemical evidence for the existence of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor came in the mid-1960s when investigations in the Red Sea revealed deep basins filled with hot, salty water (40-60 °C) and underlain by thick layers of metal-rich sediment (Degens and Ross, 1969). Because the Red Sea represents a young, rifting, ocean basin it was speculated that the phenomena observed there might also prevail along other young MOR spreading centers. An analysis of core-top sediments from throughout the world's oceans ( Figure 2) revealed that such metalliferous sediments did, indeed, appear to be concentrated along the newly recognized global ridge crest (Boström et al., 1969). Another early indication of hydrothermal activity came from the detection of plumes of excess 3He in the Pacific Ocean Basin (Clarke et al., 1969) - notably the >2,000 km wide section in the South Pacific ( Lupton and Craig, 1981) - because 3He present in the deep ocean could only be sourced through some form of active degassing of the Earth's interior, at the seafloor. (62K)Figure 2. Global map of the (Al+Fe+Mn):Al ratio for surficial marine sediments. Highest ratios mimic the trend of the global MOR axis (after Boström et al., 1969). One area where early heat-flow studies suggested hydrothermal activity was likely to occur was along the Galapagos Spreading Center in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (Anderson and Hobart, 1976). In 1977, scientists diving at this location found hydrothermal fluids discharging chemically altered seawater from young volcanic seafloor at elevated temperatures up to 17 °C ( Edmond et al., 1979). Two years later, the first high-temperature (380±30 °C) vent fluids were found at 21° N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (Spiess et al., 1980) - with fluid compositions remarkably close to those predicted from the lower-temperature Galapagos findings ( Edmond et al., 1979). Since that time, hydrothermal activity has been found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlanti

German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

2003-12-01

71

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol[ Process[ 03\\ 04680478 "1999#  

E-print Network

processes discussed herein includes runo}\\ surface and groundwater ~ows\\ evaporation\\ microclimate\\ water processes resulting from water exchanges dictated by climate and landscape factors\\ largely determine

Laval, Université

72

Safety and reliability of large air separation plants. [Oxygen supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large air-separation plants are expected to be in greater demand over the next decade for use in energy-related markets, such as coal gasification. The 1st-generation coal gasification plant may use the Lurgi process, which requires about 6000 tons\\/day of oxygen at about 500 psig. Higher pressures (1500-2000 psig) will be needed in other coal gasification processes under development. A typical

Strecansky

1975-01-01

73

Economics of fuel gas from coal: an update including the British Gas Corporation's slagging gasifier. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an economic screening study for British Gas Corporation's oxygen-blown, slagging, coal gasification process to produce intermediate Btu fuel gas, and an update of the economic sections of an earlier report (EPRI AF-244) which included air and oxygen blown Lurgi moving bed, U-Gas fluidized bed and Combustion Engineering's entrained processes for fuel gas production. This

K. Chandra; B. McElmurry; S. Smelser

1978-01-01

74

Process design Enrich process models with  

E-print Network

Process design · Enrich process models with imposed constraints and instantiate them · Ensure and visualization of constraint violations Semantic Constraints in Adaptive Process-Management-Systems Linh Thao Ly-ulm.de/in/iui-dbis/forschung/projekte/seaflows.html Contact Process evaluation · Use a visual logic-based specification language to model semantic constraints

Ulm, Universität

75

Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96  

SciTech Connect

This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

NONE

1996-06-01

76

Methanation Processes. Interim Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following methanation schemes are currently being evaluated: product recycle methanation process, cold quench process, combined product recycle and cold quench process (IGT Hygas Plant), wet methanation process, tube wall reactor (TWR) system (Bureau ...

V. P. Sirohi

1976-01-01

77

Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent  

DOEpatents

In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Dohee (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

78

ADVANCED PROCESS MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR CONTINUOUS PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a diagnostic and monitoring PC oriented system, based on a unique physical analysis of the process of continuous casting of steel, by utilization of static and dynamic measurements of the monitored process. The basis of the solution is application of an industrial computer with the ability of intranet monitoring of the solidification process in the mould

René Pyszko; Leopold Cudzik; Pavel Fojtík; Michal Adamik

79

PARC process for an advanced PUREX process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced PUREX process, the PARC process, has been developed which aims to reduce the radioactive waste volume containing TRU elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium) and the environmental hazard risk due to long-lived nuclides such as technetium-99, carbon-14 and iodine-129. This paper describes the concept of the PARC process and major results of chemical flow sheet experiments using spent

G. Uchiyama; H. Mineo; S. Hotoku; T. Asakura; K. Kamei; M. Watanabe; Y. Nakano; S. Kimura; S. Fujine

2000-01-01

80

Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe methods for randomly thinning certain classes of\\u000aspatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed\\u000amethod involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process,\\u000awhere clans of ancestors associated with the original points are identified,\\u000aand where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned\\u000aprocess.

Jesper Møller; Frederic Paik Schoenberg

2010-01-01

81

Construction work process management  

E-print Network

(TQM) has received considerable attention in the construction industry. A major tenet of TQM is process improvement. In this study, the work process (or process) concept is used as a means to investigate the effect of TQM on construction...

Soares, Jorge Barbosa

2012-06-07

82

Special parallel processing workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

NONE

1994-12-01

83

Radiochemical Radiochemical Processing Laboratory  

E-print Network

is a critical facility at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, supporting environmental, nuclear, national and environmental remediation researching, testing, and validating process flowsheets designing, installingRadiochemical Processing Laboratory #12;Radiochemical Processing Laboratory Housed within the U

84

Mineral matter transformation during Sasol-Lurgi fixed bed dry bottom gasification – utilization of HT-XRD and FactSage modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is generally accepted to be a heterogeneous resource where coal properties can vary extensively between geographical sites or within a mine. However, detail coal characteristics are essential to predict gasification performance. Mineral matter transformation and slag formation are specific properties of a coal source that provide more information on the suitability for combustion or gasification purposes. Therefore, the chemistry

J. C. van Dyk; S. Melzer; A. Sobiecki

2006-01-01

85

Digital Signal Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

2012-12-26

86

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 15, 29812993 (2001)  

E-print Network

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 15, 2981­2993 (2001) DOI: 10.1002/hyp.386 Post-fire) consuming ground cover, litter, duff, and debris, which increases runoff velocities and reduces interception by various types of deforestation, including fire, have been evaluated using the paired

87

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 20, 35733578 (2006)  

E-print Network

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 20, 3573­3578 (2006) Published online 4 September 2006 in which 18 O values for precipitation, surface- and ground-water samples from the Shingobee River the dataset with precipitation 18 O data from 1990 to 2004, and compare the two approaches to provide a fair

88

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 25, 438447 (2011)  

E-print Network

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 25, 438­447 (2011) Published online 28 December 2010 Abstract: The contribution of intercepted cloud water to precipitation at windward and leeward cloud forest precipitation, adding to the already substantial amount of rainfall. At the leeward dry site, cloud water

89

Coal processing: the Exxon donor solvent process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Exxon coal liquefaction process over 10 years is described. Exxon is using lower temperatures and lower pressures (approximately 100 bar) than were used in the Bergius process. The donor solvent is produced in a separate, fixed bed, catalytic hydrogenation step. Early research was broad in scope including, both hydrogenated and unhydrogenated recycle solvent studies. Alternate solids\\/liquids

L. E. Furlong; E. Effron; L. W. Vernon; E. L. Wilson

1976-01-01

90

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 24, 27382751 (2010)  

E-print Network

wet periods when lateral flow in the duff and infiltration into the mineral soil occur and dry periods and the mineral soil. The processes dominating the duff water budget dur- ing wet periods and what is referred boundary between the soil and atmospheric processes. Here we use both empirical data and a three

Johnson, Edward A.

91

Are software processes business processes too?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are remarkable similarities in research and practice between the software process and business process communities. These similarities are remarkable, not as a result of the degree of similarity, and not as a result of the closeness of purpose motivating the two communities' efforts, but rather because of the significant differences in history, approach, form, mindset and context dividing the

S. Boyd

1994-01-01

92

Gaussian process modulated renewal processes Vinayak Rao  

E-print Network

of nonstationarity. In this work, we take a nonparametric Bayesian approach, modelling this nonstationarity Introduction Renewal processes are stochastic point processes on the real line where intervals between succes to recharge stresses released after an earthquake and an inverse Gaussian distribution is used to model

Rattray, Magnus

93

Conscious processing and the process goal paradox.  

PubMed

The three experiments reported here examined the process goal paradox, which has emerged from the literature on goal setting and conscious processing. We predicted that skilled but anxious performers who adopted a global movement focus using holistic process goals would outperform those who used part-oriented process goals. In line with the conscious processing hypothesis, we also predicted that performers using part process goals would experience performance impairment in test compared with baseline conditions. In all three experiments, participants performed motor tasks in baseline and test conditions. Cognitive state anxiety increased in all of the test conditions. The results confirmed our first prediction; however, we failed to find unequivocal evidence to support our second prediction. The consistent pattern of the results lends support to the suggestion that, for skilled athletes who perform under competitive pressure, using a holistic process goal that focuses attention on global aspects of a motor skill is a more effective attentional focus strategy than using a part process goal. PMID:20587818

Mullen, Richard; Hardy, Lew

2010-06-01

94

Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland  

E-print Network

Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland Department of Computer Science P.O. Box 7534 North Carolina State York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400 USA April 7, 1999 Abstract Process algebra represents a mathematically rigorous framework for modeling con- current systems of interacting processes. The process-algebraic

95

Digital Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the basic technological aspects of Digital Image Processing with special reference to satellite image processing. Basically, all satellite image-processing operations can be grouped into three categories: Image Rectification and Restoration, Enhancement and Information Extraction. The former deals with initial processing of raw image data to correct for geometric distortion, to calibrate the data radiometrically and to eliminate

Minakshi Kumar

1981-01-01

96

Lithographic process optimization using process capability analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A capable process fulfills many requirements on e.g. depth of focus, exposure latitude, and mask error factor. This makes a full optimization complicated. Traditionally only a few parameters are included in the optimization routine, such as the focus-dose process window, while other parameters like the (NA,? ) illumination conditions are fixed at a specified value. In this paper we present an analytical model for describing the effect of variations in dose, focus and mask CD. We optimize the overall CD distribution, both the target value and the CD variation, taking the statistical variations of focus, dose and mask line width variations into account. The improved CD control is measured quantitatively, using the well-known process capability index (Cpk). The results are compared to traditional optimization schemes and brute force Monte Carlo simulations. Process latitudes can be better optimized while calculating the OPC curve. This is achieved by tuning the mask corrections to the process variations and simultaneously optimizing the global mask bias. Furthermore, the optimization method enables a trade off between mask error and process control. Simulated aerial image data is used to determine the optimum mask bias and illumination condition for different levels of process variation, including mask CD variation. The effect of optimizing the global mask bias is calculated. Finally, the results will be compared to experimental data for a number of illumination settings.

van Wingerden, Johannes; Dirksen, Peter; Juffermans, Casper A. H.; Trouiller, Yorick

2003-06-01

97

Process Technology Student: Oil Refinery Process Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, observe how Sandra Garcia is studying to be a process technician, and learn about the field of process technology. Sandra explains how her love of science brought her to community college after years away from school and how she's looking forward to a career in process technology. Also learn about the mysterious refractometer and how it can keep things running smoothly in a refinery.The video runs 2:31 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

98

Selection from poisson processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  There are givenk Poisson processes with mean arrival times 1\\/?1,...1\\/?\\u000a k\\u000a . Let ?[1]??[2]?...??[k] denote the ordered set of values ?1...,?[k]. We consider three procedures for selecting the process corresponding to ?[k]. The processes are observed until there areN arrivals from any of the given processes, when the processes are observed continuously, or until there are at leastN arrivals, when

Khursheed Alam

1971-01-01

99

Thermochemical water decomposition processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermochemical processes which lead to the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water without the consumption of any other material have a number of advantages when compared to other processes such as water electrolysis. It is possible to operate a sequence of chemical steps with net work requirements equal to zero at temperatures well below the temperature required for water dissociation in a single step. Various types of procedures are discussed, giving attention to halide processes, reverse Deacon processes, iron oxide and carbon oxide processes, and metal and alkali metal processes. Economical questions are also considered.

Chao, R. E.

1974-01-01

100

Aerospace Materials and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace materials and processes. Topics discussed include structural materials, metal types, metalworking processes, corrosion and corrosion prevention, fluid lines and composites.

2011-09-22

101

Digital pulse processing  

E-print Network

This thesis develops an exact approach for processing pulse signals from an integrate-and-fire system directly in the time-domain. Processing is deterministic and built from simple asynchronous finite-state machines that ...

McCormick, Martin (Martin Steven)

2012-01-01

102

Gas-separation process  

DOEpatents

A process for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material.

Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1994-01-01

103

INNOVATIVE THERMAL TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper contains discussions of several innovative thermal processes for treating or destroying hazardous wastes. Processes discussed can be included in the categories wet oxidation, molten glass, fluidized bed incineration, pyrolysis, molten salt, electric reactors, and plasma...

104

Process evaluation distributed system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

105

Shores and Coastal Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash animation explores coasts and coastal processes. Animations demonstrate processes involving waves, currents, erosion, and deposition. Students are also able to model the effects of building groins, seawalls, and breakwaters on coastal erosion.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

106

The requirements discovery process  

SciTech Connect

Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-02-01

107

Conventional Thermal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Thermal desalination processes account for about 50% of the entire desalination market. The remaining market share is dominated\\u000a by the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The main thermal desalination processes include multi-stage flash desalination (MSF),\\u000a multiple-effect distillation (MED), and mechanical vapor compression (MVC). Other thermal desalination processes, e.g., solar\\u000a stills, humidification dehumidification, freezing, etc., are only found on a pilot or

Hisham Ettouney

108

Natural gas liquefaction processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquefaction of natural gas using a mixed refrigerant process was first proposed by Kleemenko in 1959 [50]. Mixed refrigerant processes were subsequently adopted for the commercial liquefaction of natural gas nearly 40 years ago. Over 95% of the base-load LNG plants operate on mixed refrigerant processes, with the remaining few operating on conventional cascade processes. The enthalpy of natural gas varies nonlinearly with temperature (at constant pressure), with points of inflection on the enthalpy temperature curve.

Venkatarathnam, Gadhiraju

109

Processes on Complex Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building on their understanding of graphs, students are introduced to random processes on networks. They walk through an illustrative example to see how a random process can be used to represent the spread of an infectious disease, such as the flu, on a social network of students. This demonstrates how scientists and engineers use mathematics to model and simulate random processes on complex networks. Topics covered include random processes and modeling disease spread, specifically the SIR (susceptible, infectious, resistant) model.

Complex Systems Science Laboratory

110

Process mapping: A user-friendly tool for process improvement  

SciTech Connect

Process maps aid administrative process improvement efforts by documenting processes in a rigorous yet understandable way. Icons, graphics, and text support process documentation, analysis, and improvement.

Carson, M.L.; Levine, L.O.

1993-09-01

111

Metallurgical processing: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The items in this compilation, all relating to metallurgical processing, are presented in two sections. The first section includes processes which are general in scope and applicable to a variety of metals or alloys. The second describes the processes that concern specific metals and their alloys.

1973-01-01

112

Dow Coal Liquefaction Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dow Chemical Liquefacion Process uses a unique patented catalyst system, based on emulsion technology, which generates a highly active, effective expendable catalyst and eliminates the problems currently encountered with fixed or ebullated bed processes. Dow has successfully operated a 200 lb\\/day miniplant for over 600 hours. A summary of the distinguishing features of the Dow process are: (1) The

N. G. Moll; G. J. Quarderer; B. C. Peters

1978-01-01

113

Conventional sweetening processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineer faced with a treating problem must give consideration to a number of variables in making his selection of a treating process. Criteria to be considered in selecting a treating process include impurities in the gas concentration of impurities, degree of removal required, and feasibility of sulfur recovery. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly lumped into 2 categories: (1)

Maddox

1970-01-01

114

The Constitutional Amendment Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

Chism, Kahlil

2005-01-01

115

Chemical Process Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process synthesis is the specification of chemical and physical operations and the selection and interconnection of equipment to implement these operations to effect desired chemical processing transformations. Optimization and evolutionary and systematic generation process synthesis approaches are described. (Author/SK)

Siirola, J. J.

1982-01-01

116

Stochastic Processes for Physicists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. A review of probability theory; 2. Differential equations; 3. Stochastic equations with Gaussian noise; 4. Further properties of stochastic processes; 5. Some applications of Gaussian noise; 6. Numerical methods for Gaussian noise; 7. Fokker-Planck equations and reaction-diffusion systems; 8. Jump processes; 9. Levy processes; 10. Modern probability theory; Appendix; References; Index.

Jacobs, Kurt

2010-02-01

117

Basic Observables for Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a general approach for defining behavioural preorders over process terms as the maximal pre-congruences induced by basic observables. We will consider three of these, that provide information about the initial com- munication capabilities of processes and about the possibility that processes get engaged in divergent computations. We show that the pre-congruences induced by our basic observables coincide with

Michele Boreale; Rocco De Nicola; Rosario Pugliese

1997-01-01

118

SRP thorium processing experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the five separate thorium processing campaigns conducted at SRP, thorium was processed in equipment and facilities which had been converted in 1959 to recover highly enriched uranium. Two different flowsheets were used and a total of approximately 240 tons of thorium and 580 kg of uranium was processed. In the first two campaigns (initial campaigns), uranium was recovered with

Orth

1978-01-01

119

Jointly Poisson processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

What constitutes jointly Poisson processes remains an unresolved issue. This report reviews the current state of the theory and indicates how the accepted but unproven model equals that resulting from the small time-interval limit of jointly Bernoulli processes. One intriguing consequence of these models is that jointly Poisson processes can only be positively correlated as measured by the correlation coefficient

D. H. Johnson; I. N. Goodman

2009-01-01

120

Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

Apelian,Diran

2002-01-10

121

The plasma hearth process: Process residuals characterization  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature waste treatment process being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Department of Energy (DOE) that destroys hazardous organics while stabilizing radionuclides and hazardous metals in a vitreous slag waste form. The PHP has potential application for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories. DOE, through the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is conducting a three phase development project to ready the PHP for implementation in the DOE complex.

Leatherman, G.L.; Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Hassel, G.; Wolfe, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carney, K.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-31

122

Fractional Poisson process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fractional non-Markov Poisson stochastic process has been developed based on fractional generalization of the Kolmogorov-Feller equation. We have found the probability of n arrivals by time t for fractional stream of events. The fractional Poisson process captures long-memory effect which results in non-exponential waiting time distribution empirically observed in complex systems. In comparison with the standard Poisson process the developed model includes additional parameter ?. At ?=1 the fractional Poisson becomes the standard Poisson and we reproduce the well known results related to the standard Poisson process. As an application of developed fractional stochastic model we have introduced and elaborated fractional compound Poisson process.

Laskin, Nick

2003-12-01

123

Nonaqueous processing methods  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature process utilizing molten salt extraction from molten metal alloys has been developed for purification of spent power reactor fuels. Experiments with laboratory-scale processing operations show that purification and throughput parameters comparable to the Barnwell Purex process can be achieved by pyrochemical processing in equipment one-tenth the size, with all wastes being discharged as stable metal alloys at greatly reduced volume and disposal cost. This basic technology can be developed for large-scale processing of spent reactor fuels. 13 references, 4 figures.

Coops, M.S.; Bowersox, D.F.

1984-09-01

124

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

1982-01-01

125

Process Technology: Training & Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video excerpted from Pathways to Technology, learn about process technology and career opportunities in this field. Process refers to the steps that chemicals go through to become products, like gasoline or medicine. Process technology is used in just about every manufacturing industry, from pharmaceuticals to automobiles to cosmetics. A process technician keeps the machines that process chemicals running smoothly.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

126

Biomass process handbook  

SciTech Connect

Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

Not Available

1983-01-01

127

An improved plating process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

Askew, John C.

1994-01-01

128

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 19, 33573381 (2005)  

E-print Network

into runoff generation processes in subarctic wetland regions of the Mackenzie River basin, a major freshwater and Mackenzie rivers is characterized by extensive subarctic wetlands containing myriad peatlands (fens and bogs catchments ranging in size from 202 to 2050 km2 situated near the confluence of the Liard and Mackenzie

Edwards, Thomas W.D.

129

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 17, 12131225 (2003)  

E-print Network

in the sub-humid zone of West Africa: rainfall-runoff processes in the M'b´e experimental watershed Mutsa C, Germany 3 West Africa Rice Development Association, 01 B.P. 2551, Bouak´e 01, C^ote d'Ivoire 4 Research. KEY WORDS surface runoff; shallow groundwater; peak flow; inland valleys; West Africa; variable source

Walter, M.Todd

130

Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy

1996-01-01

131

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 22, 36043635 (2008)  

E-print Network

scale electrical and magnetic measurements that can be used to construct a three-dimensional (3D, Temple University, Beury Hall, Philadelphia, PA, USA 10 Green Engineering Inc., 2215 Curtis Street to develop a dialogue between geophysicists and hydrologists interested in synergistically advancing process

Sailhac, Pascal

132

Metallic-resin compounds fuel processing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a demonstration plant for the recycling of post-use electric home appliances, the authors developed a metal-resin compounds fuel processing system for generated plastics and shredder dusts from this recycling plant. In this system, waste plastics and other shredder dust is thermally cracked in an oxygen-free rotary carbonization reactor with a maximum rate of 250 kg\\/h. Most of the plastic

H. Hoshina; T. Hayanose

1999-01-01

133

Spitzer Telemetry Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

2013-01-01

134

Quantum Markov Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

These notes give an introduction to some aspects of quantum Markov processes. Quantum Markov processes come into play whenever\\u000a a mathematical description of irreversible time behaviour of quantum systems is aimed at. Indeed, there is hardly a book on\\u000a quantum optics without having at least a chapter on quantum Markov processes. However, it is not always easy to recognize\\u000a the

Burkhard Kümmerer

2002-01-01

135

Processing Integrity Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Processing Integrity Challenge makes use of game theory to help students learn how to determine relevant application controls for accounting systems to ensure processing integrity is achieved. It specifically addresses source data, data entry, processing, and output controls. The playing format is an adaptation of the television game show, Jeopardy, which is a novel way to reinforce concepts and provide immediate feedback to confirm students' knowledge.

Moncada, Susan

136

Multimedia processing architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia-information processing, in terms of creation and generation, interpretation, enhancement, rendering, and encoding and decoding, has existed for a long time. However, its recent transition to digital processing has increased the demand for it to prodigious levels and placed performance and storage constraints on computational engines. For example, the mainstream multimedia applications of video processing and interactive realistic 3D-image generation

A. Krikelis

1997-01-01

137

A Simulated Metamorphic Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students investigate one aspect of metamorphic activity using an analogous process, and will realize how directed pressure can align mineral grains during metamorphism. They will discover that metamorphism is a complex process with a number of simultaneously interacting and related components; and that heat, pressure, degree and composition of reacting fluids (and chemical composition) all play a role in the metamorphic process.

138

Fractional Poisson process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fractional non-Markov Poisson stochastic process has been developed based on fractional generalization of the Kolmogorov–Feller equation. We have found the probability of n arrivals by time t for fractional stream of events. The fractional Poisson process captures long-memory effect which results in non-exponential waiting time distribution empirically observed in complex systems. In comparison with the standard Poisson process the

Nick Laskin

2003-01-01

139

Jointly Poisson processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

What constitutes jointly Poisson processes remains an unresolved issue. This\\u000areport reviews the current state of the theory and indicates how the accepted\\u000abut unproven model equals that resulting from the small time-interval limit of\\u000ajointly Bernoulli processes. One intriguing consequence of these models is that\\u000ajointly Poisson processes can only be positively correlated as measured by the\\u000acorrelation coefficient

Don H. Johnson; Ilan N. Goodman

2009-01-01

140

Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

1984-01-01

141

Future integrated design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

Meyer, D. D.

1980-01-01

142

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Fletcher, James C. (inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

1992-01-01

143

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

1993-01-01

144

Industrial process surveillance system  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

1998-06-09

145

Compound Poisson process approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compound Poisson processes are often useful as approximate models, when describing the occurrence of rare events. In this paper, we develop a method for showing how close such approximations are. Our approach is to use Stein's method directly, rather than by way of declumping and a marked Poisson process; this has conceptual advantages, but entails technical difficulties. Several applications are

A. D. Barbour; Marianne Månsson

2002-01-01

146

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATED PROCESSES  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATED PROCESSES VOLUME II Part 2 #12;� '�;- py as- b^ Section Research, 7, 288, 1954). #12;PHOTOSYNTHESIS nnd Related Processes By EUGENE I. RABINOWITCH Research Professor, Photosynthesis Research Labora- tory, Department of Botany, University of Illinois. Formerly

Govindjee

147

Algebraic Theory of Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides general and systematic introduction to the semantics of concurrent systems. The author presents his own theory of the behavioral semantics of processes ( testing equivalence ) and original results in example languages for distributed processes. The problems addressed are motivated from the standpoint of computer science, and all the required algebraic concepts are covered.

Matthew Hennessy

1988-01-01

148

The Mentoring Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A powerpoint presentation file from the EB 2002 Mentoring Symposium on the mentoring process: how it starts, how formal it is, how frequently you should be, who can be a mentor/mentee, role of assignments, and whether or not the process should be documented.

Neena Schwartz (Northwestern University)

2002-04-01

149

Unconscious Orientation Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings have shown that certain attributes of visual stimuli, like orientation, are registered in cortical areas when the stimulus is unresolvable or perceptually invisible; however, there is no evidence to show that complex forms of orientation processing (e.g., modulatory effects of orientation on the processing of other features) could occur in the absence of awareness. To address these questions,

Reza Rajimehr

2004-01-01

150

HYDICE postflight data processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hyperspectral digital imagery collection experiment (HYDICE) sensor records instrument counts for scene data, in-flight spectral and radiometric calibration sequences, and dark current levels onto an AMPEX DCRsi data tape. Following flight, the HYDICE ground data processing subsystem (GDPS) transforms selected scene data from digital numbers (DN) to calibrated radiance levels at the sensor aperture. This processing includes: dark current

William S. Aldrich; Mary E. Kappus; Ronald G. Resmini; Peter A. Mitchell

1996-01-01

151

Gas-separation process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material. 6 figures.

Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.; Baker, R.W.

1994-01-25

152

Word Processing Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that people tend to use only five percent of the capabilities available in word processing software. The major objective of this study was to determine to what extent word processing was used by businesses, what competencies were required by those businesses, and how those competencies were being learned in Mid-South states. A…

Gatlin, Rebecca; And Others

153

Laser materials processing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laser materials processing facility and its capabilities are described. A CO2 laser with continuous wave, repetitive pulse, and shaped power-time cycles is employed. The laser heated crystal growth station was used to produce metal and metal oxide single crystals and for cutting and shaping experiments using Si3N4 to displace diamond shaping processes.

Haggerty, J. S.

1982-01-01

154

Process, Product, and Playmaking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines relationships among process, product, and playmaking in a southeastern playwriting and performance program for teen girls, Playmaking for Girls (PFG). The authors have chosen to focus on tensions between process and product. Such tensions are present in the challenges teachers experience when privileging student-centered…

Fisher, Maisha T.; Purcell, Susie Spear; May, Rachel

2009-01-01

155

Software process: a roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software process research deals with the methods and technologies used to assess, support, and improve software development activities. The field has grown up during the 80s to address the increasing complexity and criticality of software development activities. This paper aims to briefly present the history and achievements of software process research, some critical evaluation of the results produced so far,

Alfonso Fuggetta

2000-01-01

156

Process of generating gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process of making fuel gas by passing air in proper regulated quantities through burning fuel to distill and completely oxidize the volatile constituents of the fuel and to render incandescent the nonvolatile constituents. The process involves continuously removing all of the incandescent unoxidized solid constituents of fuel to another location so distinctly separated from the first

Lucke

1909-01-01

157

Information Processing Digital Systems  

E-print Network

. · The process of conversion is known as Digitization or Quantization. · Analog-to-digital-converters (ADC information processing and representation are clarified. These include: 1. "Analog" versus "Digital" parameters and systems. 2. Digitization of "Analog" signals. 3. Digital representation of information. 4

Bouhraoua, Abdelhafid

158

Hepa filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

159

Associative list processing unit  

DOEpatents

An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

2013-01-29

160

Motivational Processes Affecting Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational processes influence a child's acquisition, transfer, and use of knowledge and skills, yet educationally relevant conceptions of motivation have been elusive. Using recent research within the social-cognitive framework, Dweck describes adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns and presents a research-based model of motivational processes. This model shows how the particular goals children pursue on cognitive tasks shape their reactions to

Carol S. Dweck

1986-01-01

161

Runoff Processes: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Runoff Processes module offers a thorough introduction to the runoff processes critical for flood and water supply prediction. This module explains key terminology and concepts including the following: types of runoff, paths through which water becomes runoff, basin and soil properties that influence runoff, and numerical runoff modeling. Examples of popular runoff models are also discussed.

Comet

2010-11-09

162

Electrochemical Processes for Removing  

E-print Network

Introduction Most unit operations for water treatment either add chemicals or produce a saline liquid waste2013 Electrochemical Processes for Removing Dissolved Minerals from Potable Water WATER Minerals from Potable Water 1 Electrochemical Processes for Removing Dissolved Minerals from Potable Water

Fay, Noah

163

Mindfulness: Method and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the processes and principles that underlie mindfulness is a needed step, because this method enters into the armamentarium of empirical clinical psychology. Mindfulness is closely related to several procedures, in- cluding acceptance, cognitive defusion, and exposure. Although each of these procedures seems to target dif- ferent behavioral processes, they are all interrelated, be- cause ultimately all of them target

Steven C. Hayes; Kelly G. Wilson

2003-01-01

164

Foam Processing of Textiles  

E-print Network

Foam processing is an energy-conserving alternative to the conventional wet processing, i.e., dyeing, printing and finishing, of textiles. Where water is ordinarily used as a medium to apply dyes or chemicals to a fabric, up to 75% of the water can...

Bafford, R. A.; Namboodri, C. G.

1984-01-01

165

Dissection of Kinesin's Processivity  

PubMed Central

The protein family of kinesins contains processive motor proteins that move stepwise along microtubules. This mechanism requires the precise coupling of the catalytic steps in the two heads, and their precise mechanical coordination. Here we show that these functionalities can be uncoupled in chimera of processive and non-processive kinesins. A chimera with the motor domain of Kinesin-1 and the dimerization domain of a non-processive Kinesin-3 motor behaves qualitatively as conventional kinesin and moves processively in TIRF and bead motility assays, suggesting that spatial proximity of two Kinein-1 motor domains is sufficient for processive behavior. In the reverse chimera, the non-processive motor domains are unable to step along microtubules, despite the presence of the Kinesin-1 neck coiled coil. Still, ATP-binding to one head of these chimera induces ADP-release from the partner head, a characteristic feature of alternating site catalysis. These results show that processive movement of kinesin dimers requires elements in the motor head that respond to ADP-release and induce stepping, in addition to a proper spacing of the motor heads via the neck coiled coil. PMID:19242550

Adio, Sarah; Jaud, Johann; Ebbing, Bettina; Rief, Matthias; Woehlke, Gunther

2009-01-01

166

Bolt Manufacture: Process Selection  

E-print Network

2009 4 #12;CastingCasting · Sand · Die · Shell · Expendable mold · Centrifugal · Squeeze · Plaster Bolts C ti· Casting · Powder processing · Rolling / Heading · MachiningMachining · Welding head 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 5 #12;Sand CastingSand Casting

Colton, Jonathan S.

167

Digital image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of digital image processing is reviewed with reference to its origins, progress, current status, and prospects for the future. Consideration is given to the evolution of image processor display devices, developments in the functional components of an image processor display system (e.g. memory, data bus, and pipeline central processing unit), and developments in the software. The major future

B. R. Hunt

1981-01-01

168

HEPA filter dissolution process  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1992-12-31

169

Competency Process Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography consists of resource material used in the formulation and development of "competency process," a collaborative approach to designing and implementing competency based teacher education by energizing creative abilities, developing staff commitment, and utilizing group process and problem solving methodology. The bibliography…

Woodward, Lois K.; And Others

170

Cryogenic processing and recycling  

SciTech Connect

This article examines cryogenic processing and recycling of rubber and rubber products. The topics discussed include utilization of cryogenically recycled materials in the rubber industry, current status of the industry, economic benefit, performance advantage, environmental benefit, technology assessment, the future of cryogenic process and recycling.

Leyden, J.J.

1991-03-01

171

Patterns in neural processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a model for neural processing that addresses both the evolutionary and functional aspects of neural systems that are observed in nature, from the simplest neural collections to dense large scale associations such as human brains. We propose both an architecture and a process in which these components interact to create the emergent behavior that we define as the 'mind'.

Engineer, Sunu

2012-03-01

172

Processing of plastics  

PubMed Central

An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed. PMID:1175556

Spaak, Albert

1975-01-01

173

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of Microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2007-09-18

174

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2006-10-24

175

Microwave processing of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

Katz, J.D.

1993-04-01

176

Geophysical signal processing  

SciTech Connect

Draws together a number of areas of knowledge to give unified coverage of the subject: the geophysical applications of digital signal processing. The presentation has a strong applications orientation. The coverage connects and unifies several fields, namely wave propagation, digital signal processing, spectral analysis, and computer methods. The book covers many topics in depth.

Robinson, E.A.; Durrani, T.S.

1986-01-01

177

Shell Higher Olefins Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

Lutz, E. F.

1986-01-01

178

Controllable branching processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we consider a dynamic control and the extinction probability for a certain class of branching processes, including birth and death, emigration and immigration; these processes arise from the modelling of populations with a mixing factor. Theß-optimal strategies are found, and estimates of the extinction probabilities are given.

G. J. Aleškevi?ius

1974-01-01

179

DRUM RECONDITIONING PROCESS OPTIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report completes a three-part EPA program to assess barrel and drum reconditioning processes. The intent of the report is to provide recommendations for upgrading and optimizing drum reconditioning processes to enable facilities to meet rigorous environmental standards. Data...

180

Streamlining the EIS Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new publication service abstracts, indexes, and prepares microfiche of environmental impact statements (EIS). This new service is designed to streamline the EIS process by reducing the cost and time of preparation, by eliminating redundancy of similar statements, and by working with the government to standardize the preparation process. (MA)

Josephson, Julian

1977-01-01

181

A Textbook Selection Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

182

HEPA filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1994-02-22

183

Space processing applications bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

1978-01-01

184

Microwave processing of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

Katz, J.D.

1993-01-01

185

Contaminated nickel scrap processing  

SciTech Connect

The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

1994-12-01

186

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOEpatents

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Hu, Zhicheng (Somerville, MA)

1993-01-01

187

Theory of processes  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis, the author attempts to give a comprehensive theory of processes. He gives a general set-theoretic model of processes that forms the formal basis of his theory. A compositional temporal proof system is defined on the model. This provides a formal language and framework in which processes can be specified and reasoned about. A simple parallel functional language is presented that incorporates most of the programming constructs in the model. The language enables one to describe processes algorithmically. It combines features of functional and concurrent languages and has a general recursion scheme that makes it more expressive than Hoare's CSP (78). The language also demonstrates how communication and concurrency could be handled in a functional language. Finally, a deductive system is given for synthesizing asynchronous networks of deterministic processes.

Nguyen, V.L.

1985-01-01

188

Computational modeling of materials processing and processes  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Anisotropic mechanical properties of densified BSCCO powders are of paramount importance during thermo-mechanical processing of superconducting tapes and wires. Maximum current transport requires high relative density and a high degree of alignment of the single crystal planes of the BSCCO. Unfortunately this configuration causes high stresses that can lead to cracking, and thus reduce the density, and the conductive properties of the tape. The current work develops a micromechanical material mode to model is calibrated and compared to experimental results, and then employed to analyze the effects of initial texture and confinement pressure and shear strains in the core of oxide powder-in-tube (OPIT) processed tapes are calculated by finite-element analysis. The calculated deformations were then applied as boundary conditions to the micromechanical model. Our calculated results were used to interpret a set of prototypical rolling experiments. 11 refs., 5 figs.

Lowe, T.C.; Zhu, Yuntian; Bingert, J.F. [and others

1998-12-31

189

Methanol simplifies gas processing  

SciTech Connect

Recent development of a simple single solvent technology goes far to meet the complete gas processing needs. The use of methanol, as practiced in the IPFEXOL process, where it is used not only as a hydrate inhibitor and antifreeze agent but as an acid gas extraction solvent makes the complete gas processing scheme simple and probably the most cost effective as well. This paper presents several gas processing applications where water, hydrocarbon liquids and acid gases are removed from natural wellhead production gases. Water and hydrocarbon liquids removal is achieved to the extent necessary to make a pipeline transportable gas or meet downstream cryogenic processing demands. These are illustrated with recent applications of the IFPEX-1 process successfully operating today in North America and the Far East. A recent North Sea offshore project is highlighted showing the particular advantages in offshore applications. For the removal of water and hydrocarbon liquids together with a substantial quantity of not only CO{sub 2} but H{sub 2}S, the most complete methanol use scheme is presented. This is illustrated with the development of an advanced version of the IFPEX-2 process containing some innovative but simple equipment concepts which yields high pressure dry acid gases for reinjection or a high quality acid gas destined to Claus type sulfur recovery.

Minkkinen, A.; Jonchere, J.P. [Inst. Francais du Petrole (France)

1997-12-31

190

Processes in Lingua Cosmica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a sequence of papers on the topic of message construction for interstellar communication by means of a cosmic language, representations of various kinds of concepts of reality in a Lingua Cosmica system [1]. Those studied were logic relations of a static character. The present contribution contains an important, fundamental extension: groundwork is done for the purpose of interpreting (dynamic) proc esses of various sorts in the linguistic system. Individual processes are abstracted in a logic sense and provided with basic properties as termination and communication functions. They can be combined into kinds of processes: sequential and parallel ones represented by only one inductive definition in logic. Based on concepts from the so-called process algebra, processes are provided with channel s mapping them to their states. State vectors are introduced to represent states of conglomerates of processes. Communication between processes (locally or globally) is effectuated by means of state transitions. Together with a programmed arb itration function, state vectors play a crucial role in representing communication. With these ingredients possibilities for general interpretations of a wide range of processes in the Lingua Cosmica system come in view.

Ollongren, Alexander

2012-02-01

191

The VISAR Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Video Image Stabilization And Registration (VISAR) process is an award winning video image processing software developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. VISAR has a wide variety of application areas where the refinement of digital video is needed. It is used to correct jitter, rotation, and zoom effects by registering and processing on individual image captures that are a part of normal video capturing. Its most prominent uses were the 1996 Olympic Bombing case and in identifying Saddam Hussein during the Iraq war. Based on first-hand knowledge, this paper describes the VISAR process, which consists of several steps designed to refine digital video using VISAR software. The process determines the differences between two video images so that one, or both, of the images can be changed in ways that make them match as well as possible. Corrections include changes in position (horizontal and vertical image shifts), changes in orientation (image rotation), and changes in magnification (image zoom). While much of the VISAR process is automated, in its current embodiment it requires the user to initially identify the area of interest and to reset a threshold parameter if the default gives unacceptable results. The basic process that is used is an old tried and true method that determines how well the two images match. This process is called cross-correlation. It gives a single number, the correlation coefficient, that is equal to 1.0 if the images are perfectly matched, is equal to 0.0 if the images have nothing in common, and is equal to -1.0 if one image is the negative of the other. This basic process is used by many image stabilization methods. With VISAR we use it in a manner that provides statistical information needed to best determine orientation and magnification.

Hathaway, David; Meyer, Paul; Templeton, Gary F.

2003-01-01

192

Advances in metals processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on metals processing being conducted to develop improved forming and joining methods with the potential of reducing the weight and cost of future aerospace structures is discussed. The approach followed is to assess the state of the art for fabricating a given structural system, define candidate methods for improving processing, evaluate the merits of each, fabricate and test subelement components, and then scale up the process to demonstrate validity. The development and the state of the art of weldbrazing, superplastic forming (SPF), superplastic forming and codiffusion bonding and superplastic forming and weldbrazing for titanium and the SPF of aluminum is discussed.

Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.

1982-01-01

193

Lubricant Coating Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Peen Plating," a NASA developed process for applying molybdenum disulfide, is the key element of Techniblast Co.'s SURFGUARD process for applying high strength solid lubricants. The process requires two machines -- one for cleaning and one for coating. The cleaning step allows the coating to be bonded directly to the substrate to provide a better "anchor." The coating machine applies a half a micron thick coating. Then, a blast gun, using various pressures to vary peening intensities for different applications, fires high velocity "media" -- peening hammers -- ranging from plastic pellets to steel shot. Techniblast was assisted by Rural Enterprises, Inc. Coating service can be performed at either Techniblast's or a customer's facility.

1989-01-01

194

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01

195

Carbon wastewater treatment process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.

Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.

1974-01-01

196

Ultrasonic Processing of Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

2005-06-30

197

Parallel Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to process very high resolution image data from spacecraft sensors, Goddard Space Flight Center commissioned the development of a Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) based upon simultaneous processing of image picture elements (pixels) rather than serial processing. It resulted in a considerable increase in computational speed. MasPar Computer Corporation's MasPar MP-1 incorporates this technology, allowing users to attack a variety of computationally-intensive problems. The MP-1 is no longer manufactured but has been replaced by the MP-2, a more advanced model.

1991-01-01

198

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

199

Robot welding process control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

Romine, Peter L.

1991-07-01

200

The Poisson Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this online, interactive lesson on the Poisson process provides examples, exercises, and applets. Specific topics include the exponential distribution, gamma distribution, Poisson distribution, splitting a Poisson process, analogy with Bernoulli trials, and higher dimensional Poisson processes. Additionally, the author offers external resources for those interested in further study of this statistical concept. Overall, this is a nice resource as it provides students with definitions and then allows them to apply these theories in the form of interactive applets.

Siegrist, Kyle

2009-05-01

201

Robot welding process control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

Romine, Peter L.

1991-01-01

202

Cox Process Learning Gerard Biau  

E-print Network

, and if the jump size of N at time t is, with probability one, either 0 or 1. In more pedestrian terms, the process stochastic Poisson processes). In a word, we say that N is a Cox process with (random) intensity process process with intensity function . Thus, a Cox process is a generalization of a Poisson process where

Boyer, Edmond

203

MODELING TREE LEVEL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

An overview of three main types of simulation approach (explanatory, abstraction, and estimation) is presented, along with a discussion of their capabilities limitations, and the steps required for their validation. A process model being developed through the Forest Response Prog...

204

FDA -- Electronic Submission Process  

Cancer.gov

Food and Drug Administration – E lectronic Submission Process Stephen E. Wilson, DrPH (Biostatistics) Deputy Direct or Division of Biometrics II, CDER, FDA Member, CDER Electronic Submissions Working Group NIH Cancer Imaging Informatics Workshop Bethesda

205

Processes in Lingua Cosmica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper is concerned with the non-trivial matter of representing cooperating sequential processes without reference to time in LINCOS, a linguistic system for interstellar message construction.

Ollongren, A.; Vakoch, D. A.

2010-04-01

206

Data Access Request Process  

Cancer.gov

This page contains instructions for submitting a Data Access Request for dataset(s) under the purview of the Extramural National Cancer Institute (NCI) Data Access Committee (DAC) and an overview of the review process.

207

The Tenure Review Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the tenure review process faced by geographers at U.S. universities from the perspectives of successful and unsuccessful candidates, a department chair, and a member of a tenure review committee. (Author/BSR)

Holcomb, Briavel; And Others

1987-01-01

208

CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

209

Direct coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

Rindt, John R. (Grand Forks, ND); Hetland, Melanie D. (Grand Forks, ND)

1993-01-01

210

Picture Processing by Computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for processing pictorial information by computer are surveyed. The topics covered include efficient encoding and approximation; position-invariant operations and applications; picture properties useful for pattern recognition; picture segmentation and geometrical properties of picture subsets; picture descrlptmn and \\

Azriel Rosenfeld

1969-01-01

211

Markov processes and linguistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Markov Matrix Model of languages, created to explain patterns observed in sequences of data, is briefly reviewed. It is then extended to multiple-stage Markov processes to include the history of the process, to Markov processes with higher connectivities, and to Markov processes with varying transition probabilities. It is found that the simple restricted model produces distributions with all the features of these extended models. Correlations in binary sequences produced by the Markov chain are reviewed and compared to correlations in a related, more restricted chain, which is open to analytical investigation. The analysis on this chain is presented, and conclusions are drawn which may also shed light on the more general case.

Halibard, Moishe; Kanter, Ido

212

Fluidized Bed Biodenitrification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fluidized bed biodenitrification process was operated at bench- scale on simulated high nitrate waste waters. Early results with a cylindrical column were poor but very markedly improved with a change to a conical shaped column. Nitrate reduction effici...

T. M. Wendt, J. P. Heider, A. M. Kaplan

1978-01-01

213

Space processing economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of space processing operations may be considered economically justified; they are manufacturing operations that make profits and experiment operations that provide needed applied research results at lower costs than those of alternative methods. Some examples from the Skylab experiments suggest that applied research should become cost effective soon after the space shuttle and Spacelab become operational. In space manufacturing, the total cost of space operations required to process materials must be repaid by the value added to the materials by the processing. Accurate estimates of profitability are not yet possible because shuttle operational costs are not firmly established and the markets for future products are difficult to estimate. However, approximate calculations show that semiconductor products and biological preparations may be processed on a scale consistent with market requirements and at costs that are at least compatible with profitability using the Shuttle/Spacelab system.

Bredt, J. H.

1974-01-01

214

LIMB PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers basic and applied studies concerned with three Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process objectives: (1) avoiding degradation of collection efficiency in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during LIMB, (2) achieving satisfactory sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

215

Processing composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication of several composite structural articles including DC-10 upper aft rudders, L-1011 vertical fins and composite biomedical appliances are discussed. Innovative composite processing methods are included.

Baucom, R. M.

1982-01-01

216

Petroleum Processing Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

Baker, D. A.

1978-01-01

217

Automating DNA processing  

E-print Network

and resources must be spent in laboratory research to determine the genetic structure of the relevant organisms. DNA processing is riddled with time intensive laboratory techniques that must be improved or replaced if genotyping large numbers of samples...

Wienen, Michael Jan

2012-06-07

218

Dosimetry for radiation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. Several dosimeter systems like calorimetry, perspex, and radiochromic dye films are being improved and new systems have emerged, e.g. spectrophotometry of dichromate solution for reference and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed.

Miller, Arne

219

Device Development Process  

MedlinePLUS

... Public Meetings Comments on Current FDA Draft Guidances Listen to Webinars With FDA Experts About the Patient Representative Program MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program Learn About Drug & Device Approval The Drug Development Process ...

220

Drug Development Process  

MedlinePLUS

... Public Meetings Comments on Current FDA Draft Guidances Listen to Webinars With FDA Experts About the Patient Representative Program MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program Learn About Drug & Device Approval The Drug Development Process ...

221

NASA Hazard Analysis Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: (1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; (2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; (3) The Risk Informed Design Proce...

G. Deckert

2010-01-01

222

Knowledge Management Process Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of research into knowledge management (KM) performed at VTT Electronics, the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Based on literature analysis and prior experiences with software process improvement (SPI) projects, a proc...

T. Kucza

2001-01-01

223

HYDICE postflight data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hyperspectral digital imagery collection experiment (HYDICE) sensor records instrument counts for scene data, in-flight spectral and radiometric calibration sequences, and dark current levels onto an AMPEX DCRsi data tape. Following flight, the HYDICE ground data processing subsystem (GDPS) transforms selected scene data from digital numbers (DN) to calibrated radiance levels at the sensor aperture. This processing includes: dark current correction, spectral and radiometric calibration, conversion to radiance, and replacement of bad detector elements. A description of the algorithms for post-flight data processing is presented. A brief analysis of the original radiometric calibration procedure is given, along with a description of the development of the modified procedure currently used. Example data collected during the 1995 flight season, but uncorrected and processed, are shown to demonstrate the removal of apparent sensor artifacts (e.g., non-uniformities in detector response over the array) as a result of this transformation.

Aldrich, William S.; Kappus, Mary E.; Resmini, Ronald G.; Mitchell, Peter A.

1996-06-01

224

Modeling of ultrasonic processing  

E-print Network

This paper presents a finite element analysis (FEA) of ultrasonic processing of an aerospace-grade carbon-epoxy composite laminate. An ultrasonic (approximately 30 kHz) loading horn is applied to a small region at the ...

Zhao, Wenguang, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

225

The Diffusion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which illustrates the diffusion process. The two models that have been developed to explain the mechanism for the diffusion of dopants into silicon are the Vacancy model and the Interstitial model. It is the different bonding characteristics of the dopants with silicon that determine the diffusion mechanism. Although each model is based on these differences, they are not mutually exclusive. Objective: Explain the difference between the Vacancy and Interstitial diffusion models. You can find this animation under the heading "Process & Equipment III." This simulation is from Module 019 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

2012-11-22

226

Process makes perfect  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a software architecture for developing art and design tools that automatically capture the artist's interaction and records the entire creative process. The software uses the artist's interaction with ...

Schwartz, Marc (Marc S.)

2005-01-01

227

LIDC - Data Collection Process  

Cancer.gov

Slide 2Principle GoalsTo establish standard formats and processes for managing thoracic CT scans and related technical and clinical data for use in the development and testing of computer-aided diagnostic algorithms.

228

LIDC - Reader Marking Process  

Cancer.gov

Slide 1LIDC Radiologists' MarkingsA Multiple Reader/ Multiple Session Process Blinded Read Each Radiologist reads independently (Blinded to other readers' markings) Unblinded Read Each Radiologist re-reads, but is shown their own blinded read markings

229

Microwave processing of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

Katz, J.D.

1989-01-01

230

Sculpture as process  

E-print Network

Sculpture as process is rooted in the historical development of movement as a theme of art in general and of sculpture in particular since 1900. The impact of the industrial revolution and the subsequent scientific/technological ...

Kracke, Bernd

1981-01-01

231

Magnetization Process: Hysteresis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetization process, hysteresis (the difference in the path of magnetization for an increasing and decreasing magnetic field), hysteresis loops, and hard magnetic materials are discussed. The fabrication of classroom projects for demonstrating hyste...

R. Balsamel

1990-01-01

232

A Business Process Explorer: Recovering Business Processes from Business Applications  

E-print Network

1 A Business Process Explorer: Recovering Business Processes from Business Applications Jin Guo A business process contains a set of logically related tasks executed to fulfill business goals. Business applications enable organizations to automatically perform their daily operations. Business processes

Zou, Ying

233

Microcomputers in Process Control  

E-print Network

the process industries continued utilization of microcomputers throughout the plant, even with the current decrease in the price of oil. Full utilization of the process control computer can only be achieved when it performs the function of the best...-possible operator. That means the computer must 1) monitor all important production and performance data; 2) control critical parameters such as purity and pressure at "rock-steady" conditions, not only at steady state, but also during production rate changes...

Vinson, D. R.; Chatterjee, N.

234

Abstract State Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process-algebraic languages offer a rich set of structuring techniques and concurrencypa tterns which allow one to decompose\\u000a complex systems into concurrently interacting simpler component processes. Theyab stract however almost entirely from a notion\\u000a of system state. The method of Abstract State Machines (ASMs) offers powerful abstraction and refinement techniques for specifying\\u000a system dynamics based upon a most general notion of

Tommaso Bolognesi; Egon Börger

2003-01-01

235

Textile composite processing science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-dimensional model of the Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process was developed for the prediction of the infiltration behavior of a resin into an anisotropic fiber preform. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was developed for in-situ monitoring of the RTM process. Flow visualization and mold filling experiments were conducted to verify sensor measurements and model predictions. Test results indicated good agreement between model predictions, sensor readings, and experimental data.

Loos, Alfred C.; Hammond, Vincent H.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Hasko, Gregory H.

1993-01-01

236

Linear Process Algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A linear process is a system of events and states related by an inner product, on which are defined the behaviorally motivated\\u000a operations of tensor product or orthocurrence, sum or concurrence, sequence, and choice. Linear process algebra or LPA is\\u000a the theory of this framework. LPA resembles Girard’s linear logic with the differences attributable to its focus on behavior\\u000a instead

Vaughan Pratt

2011-01-01

237

Separation Process Economics  

E-print Network

separate (secondary) material, and whether the crystals formed are of the pure substances or are clathrates. Indirect Freeze Process Systems of this type have the longest development history, with the first successful batch units being used for ice... of vapors need to be removed in order to freeze the process fluid. On the other hand, early systems were plagued by the difficulties of separating the brine fr m the relatively small ice crystals that formed, and of removing the quantities f...

Barron, T. S.; Wrobel, P. J.

238

Meteorological image processing applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorologists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center are conducting an extensive program of research in weather and climate related phenomena. This paper focuses on meteorological image processing applications directed toward gaining a detailed understanding of severe weather phenomena. In addition, the paper discusses the ground data handling and image processing systems used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to support severe weather research activities and describes three specific meteorological studies which utilized these facilities.

Bracken, P. A.; Dalton, J. T.; Hasler, A. F.; Adler, R. F.

1979-01-01

239

Hydrogen recovery process  

DOEpatents

A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

2000-01-01

240

The Dynamo Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These pages describe a dynamo process that creates the magnetic fields of the Earth and the Sun. Flows of electrically conducting material through existing magnetic fields produces electric currents, which maintain the magnetic field. Dynamos in the Earth's core reverse their north-south polarity, a process recorded by sea-floor magnetization, which confirms the slow motion of continents. Includes translations to Spanish, French and German.

Stern, David

2004-05-19

241

Poisson Processes and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A single theme that binds together a number of important probabilistic concepts and distributions, and is at the same time\\u000a a major tool to the applied probabilist and the applied statistician is the Poisson process. The Poisson process is a probabilistic model of situations where events occur completely at random at intermittent times,\\u000a and we wish to study the number

Anirban DasGupta

242

Advanced Polymer Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-25

243

Electron Beam Materials Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In electron beam processing, a well-defined beam of relatively energetic electrons produced by a high voltage acceleration gap is used to transmit thermal energy into a material in a precise manner. This controlled deposition of heat is employed in a wide variety of industrial applications for precision cutting, drilling, and welding of materials as well as annealing, glazing, and surface hardening. This chapter will describe the equipment used and the most prominent industrial applications for this process.

Powers, Donald E.

2012-06-01

244

Polycrystalline semiconductor processing  

DOEpatents

A process for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by imgingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step.

Glaeser, Andreas M. (Scituate, MA); Haggerty, John S. (Lincoln, MA); Danforth, Stephen C. (Winchester, MA)

1983-01-01

245

Polycrystalline semiconductor processing  

DOEpatents

A process is described for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by impingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step. 10 figs.

Glaeser, A.M.; Haggerty, J.S.; Danforth, S.C.

1983-04-05

246

Helium process cycle  

DOEpatents

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2007-10-09

247

The Kimberley Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past several decades have seen a growing interest among various social justice organizations into investigating the various origins or manufacturing processes used to create various products and their effects on the people who make these products. One such luxury item that has come under close scrutiny is the diamond. In May 2000, Southern African diamond producing states met in Kimberly, South Africa to come up with a way to stop the trade in conflict diamonds and "to ensure consumers that the diamonds that they purchase have not contributed to violent conflict and human rights abuses in their countries of origin." Some two years later, a number of participants (including national governments and the international diamond industry) developed the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme to assure that these conflict diamonds would not enter legitimate trade. On this compelling site, visitors can learn about the process, read news updates about the process, and read documents related to the process from the World Trade Organization and examine a list of participants in the process.

248

A process matching approach for flexible workflow process reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matching between two workflow processes is the key step of workflow process reuse. This paper presents an inexact matching approach for flexible workflow process reuse. A multi-valued process specialization relationship is defined based on the definition of activity specialization and the characteristics of workflow process. The matching degree between two workflow processes is determined by the matching degrees of their

Hai Zhuge

2002-01-01

249

Support for the Process Engineer: The Spearmint Approach to Software Process Definition and Process Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software development process and its related activities are described, implemented, analyzed, and changed by so-called\\u000a Process Engineers. Process Engineers provide descriptions of software development processes to Process Performers. Because\\u000a the processes usually are complex, support is needed for both Process Engineers and Process Performers. This paper reports\\u000a the development and application of the process modeling environment Spearmint1. The architecture

Ulrike Becker-kornstaedt; Dirk Hamann; Ralf Kempkens; Peter Rösch; Martin Verlage; Richard Webby; Jörg Zettel

1999-01-01

250

Ionic liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of regenerating the solubilizing agent from the process stream of a single stage ionic coal liquefaction process wherein the coal liquefaction is accomplished by reaction of the coal with a polar solvent solubilizing agent and an aqueous solution containing inorganic ionic species where major amounts of the solubilizing agent are selected from the group consisting of aromatic alcohols, phenols, polycyclic phenols and substituted phenols; including o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, catechol, resorcinol, naphthol and mixtures and derivatives thereof; and minor amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially-hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fully hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having from 1 to 4 carbon rings such as naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, acenaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, tetralin, gamma-picoline, isoquinoline, dihydronaphthalene, decalin, 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and mixtures and derivatives thereof, as well as carbonaceous material-derived solvents; and (b) the inorganic ionic species are dissolved in water and include a compound having a cation selected from the group consisting of alkali and alkaline-earth metals comprising the steps after ionic liquefaction of: (1) removing non-condensible gases from the process stream; (2) removing immiscible water from the process stream; (3) removing alkaline compound containing solids from the process stream; (4) removing carbonaceous products from the process stream by the use of methanol; (5) separating methanol from the solubilizing agents; (6) separately hydrotreating the carbonaceous products; (7) recovering methanol; and (8) recovering regenerated solubilizing agent capable of being used directly in a single stage ionic coal liquefaction process.

Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.; Farnum, S.A.

1989-07-11

251

NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

2009-05-27

252

Thermal spray processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

1995-01-01

253

Noncolliding Squared Bessel Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a particle system of the squared Bessel processes with index ?>-1 conditioned never to collide with each other, in which if -1process is determinantal in the sense that any multitime correlation function is given by a determinant with a continuous kernel called the correlation kernel. When the number of particles is infinite, we give sufficient conditions for initial configurations so that the system is well defined. There the process with an infinite number of particles is determinantal and the correlation kernel is expressed using an entire function represented by the Weierstrass canonical product, whose zeros on the positive part of the real axis are given by the particle-positions in the initial configuration. From the class of infinite-particle initial configurations satisfying our conditions, we report one example in detail, which is a fixed configuration such that every point of the square of positive zero of the Bessel function J ? is occupied by one particle. The process starting from this initial configuration shows a relaxation phenomenon converging to the stationary process, which is determinantal with the extended Bessel kernel, in the long-term limit.

Katori, Makoto; Tanemura, Hideki

2011-02-01

254

Range Process Simulation Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

2005-01-01

255

Cervical spinous process reconstruction.  

PubMed

Posterior neck deformity with an unsightly crater-like defect may result after cervicothoracic laminectomies. The authors present a new technique, spinous process reconstruction, to address this problem. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive quadriparesis secondary to cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Previously he had undergone multiple neck surgeries including cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy. Postoperatively, he developed severe craniocervical spinal deformity and a large painful concave surgical defect in the neck. The authors performed craniocervical decompression and craniocervicothoracic instrumented stabilization. At the same time, cervicothoracic spinous process reconstruction was performed using titanium mesh to address the defect. Cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy results in varying degrees of neck defect with resulting unsightly and an often painful surgical wound defect despite an appropriate multilayer closure. The presented spinous process reconstruction is a simple technique to address this problem with good clinical outcome. PMID:24206034

Panchal, Ripul R; Duong, Huy T; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Kim, Kee D

2014-01-01

256

Visualizing the Superposition Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the dynamic evolution of superposition effects using two intersecting beams of electromagnetic radiation, to underscore the importance of visualizing interaction processes. Recordable fringes within the volume of superposition have time evolving bright fringe patterns, because the two superposed E-vectors oscillate through zero values while staying locked in phase. If a detector registers steady, stable bright fringes, it must do so by time integration. The QM recipe to model energy exchange by taking the square modulus of the sum of the complex amplitudes has this time integration built into it. We also discuss the importance of assigning proper physical processes to the mathematical relationships whenever possible: the algebraic symbols should represent physical parameters of the interactants and the mathematical operators connecting the symbols should represent allowed physical interaction processes and the guiding force.

Ambroselli, Michael; Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

2011-11-01

257

A process of illumination  

SciTech Connect

The reworking of previously analyzed seismic datasets or reprocessing has always played a significant part in the makeup of a seismic contractor's workload. The type of datasets being reworked runs the gamut from old onshore 2D analog data from central Asia through recently acquired marine 3D surveys from the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea. This activity has always been an important revenue source for geophysical contractors, particularly when new acquisition activity is depressed. It is difficult to generalize what percentage of total processing revenues comes from reprocessing, as temporal and geographic variance is substantial. On average, it probably exceeds 50% of the total processing budgets in the industry. This paper describes why data is reprocessed, depth migration, regional context, reservoir characterization, remediation of infield processing, nonexclusive reprocessing, deepwater hazard surveys, and time-lapse 4D seismic.

Murdoch, C.

2000-05-01

258

Process of timbral composing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

Withrow, Sam

259

COTS software selection process.  

SciTech Connect

Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

2006-05-01

260

Improving Metal Casting Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

1998-01-01

261

Powder treatment process  

DOEpatents

(1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

1988-01-01

262

NTP comparison process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

Corban, Robert

263

NTP comparison process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

Corban, Robert

1993-01-01

264

Statecharts Via Process Algebra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

1999-01-01

265

Reversible brazing process  

DOEpatents

A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, John J. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

266

Processing Texas Broilers.  

E-print Network

for short periods less labor is required to haul and hold them in wooden crates than to transfer and hold them in batteries. The speed of the dressing and eviscerating line generally sets the pace for the en- tire processing operation. Removing... ibmilers in Texas processing plants are: (1) to unlnatl and slaughter the birds immediately, com- monly called "tail gating" and (2) to hold them as long as 2 days in batteries. Most plants hoth methods. With either method, live broil- must be handled...

Mountney, G. J.; Gardner, F. A. (Frederick)

1957-01-01

267

Parastillation Process in Operations  

E-print Network

PARASTII.IMICN PIO:ESS rn OPERATIONS Frank canfield ChenShare Coq:oration Houston, Texas The Parastillation process is a new rrethod for ITU.11ti-stage, counter-current contact between vapor and liquid that results in 33% rrore ideal stages... than distillation for a given tray spaci.n;J. Patents have been granted in the U.S.A., U.K., Europe and other countries. Perfonnance of the process has been confimm aver the past several years by eat1puter siITU.llation, by laboratory tests...

Canfield, F.; Jenkins, O.

268

Crow process modeling  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (wRI) has developed a numerical model (TCROW) to describe CROW{sup TM} processing of contaminated aquifers. CROW is a patented technology for the removal of contaminant organics from water-saturated formations by injection of hot water or low- temperature steam. TCROW is based on a fully implicit, thermal, compositional model (TSRS) previously developed by wRI. TCROW`s formulation represents several enhancements and simplifications over TSRS and results in a model specifically tailored to model the CROW process.

NONE

1997-04-01

269

Sequential elution process  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus are disclosed for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials. 1 fig.

Kingsley, I.S.

1987-01-06

270

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

Sleep is an active recovery process, which is governed by biological rhythms. This rhythmic variation influences almost all bodily functions and dictates the optimal time for sleep. Sleep itself is an inconsistent state mainly characterized by the alteration between REM and NREM sleep. Vital regenerative processes occur during sleep. Sleep is a basic prerequisite for wellbeing, health and performance. If the synchronization between sleep and the biological rhythms is disturbed, malfunctions of the organism have to be expected. Such a state can be found by a sudden shift of local time by travelling across time zones (jet lag). Therapeutic strategies can reduce the symptoms associated with the state of jet lag. PMID:25377286

Zulley, Jürgen

2014-11-01

271

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1981-01-01

272

Image Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) is using a digital image processing system which employs NASA-developed technology. MIR's computer system is the largest radiology system in the world. It is used in diagnostic imaging. Blood vessels are injected with x-ray dye, and the images which are produced indicate whether arteries are hardened or blocked. A computer program developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory known as Mini-VICAR/IBIS was supplied to MIR by COSMIC. The program provides the basis for developing the computer imaging routines for data processing, contrast enhancement and picture display.

1986-01-01

273

Actinide metal processing  

DOEpatents

A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

274

Cooking with Processed Cheese  

E-print Network

processed cheese. It can be sliced and placed on a cracker, on a hamburger or on bread to make a grilled cheese sandwich. You can also add shredded cheese to scrambled eggs and casseroles. How to store it For best taste, store processed American cheese... the margarine or butter in a saucepan. 3. Mix in the flour and salt. 4. Add the milk slowly, stirring all the time, and cook it over a medium heat until the sauce starts to boil. 5. Lower the heat and cook until the sauce thickens, about 3 minutes. 6. Add...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09

275

Retinex Image Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Retinex Image Processing technology, developed by NASA, is used to compensate for the effect of poor lighting in recorded images. Shadows, changes in the color of illumination, and several other factors can cause image quality to be highly variable. Using an advanced system that sharpens images and efficiently renders colors, a much more constant image quality can be achieved regardless of the lighting. Retinex technology is described in several online publications that can be downloaded from this Web site. Additionally, some example pictures of scenes taken with and without the image processing are shown.

276

The Diffusion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. In an orderly and comprehensive set of lectures, lessons, and laboratory activities, MATEC explicates for your learners the complex process of diffusion. Beginning with an overview of diffusion's purpose in altering a wafer's electrical characteristics, the module then drills down to specifics: process parameters, different techniques of diffusion, the use of a hot probe to evaluate diffusion, and wafer handling. Your learners demonstrate their new knowledge by diffusing selected dopants into a silicon wafer.

2012-12-05

277

Biomass Processing Photolibrary  

DOE Data Explorer

Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

278

Teachers' Domain: Scientific Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource features two NOVA videos that depict the scientific process in the framework of two groundbreaking 20th century experiments. The first video depicts the the work of chemist Percy Julian to find a synthetic treatment for glaucoma, and the second features Dr. Judah Folkman's quest to understand how tumors grow. The videos are accompanied by an animated graphic display that shows the steps each scientist is taking along the path of scientific process. The graphics help learners understand that scientists approach and solve problems in unique, non-linear ways. Though both scientists are rigorous and orderly, their approaches do not follow a textbook "scientific method".

2010-10-06

279

Simulating nearshore processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer procedures are presented that simulate sediment transport in coastal environments. More specifically, these procedures simulate erosion, transport, and deposition by waves. A principal objective is to show how nearshore processes can be described mathematically and translated into computer procedures for simulating the formation of sedimentary deposits. The computer procedures, incorporated into a FORTRAN 77 program called [open quotes]WAVE,[close quotes

1992-01-01

280

Image Processing Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT: A brief description of astronomical image software is presented. This software was developed in a Digital Micro Vax II Computer System. : St presenta una somera descripci6n del software para procesamiento de imagenes. Este software fue desarrollado en un equipo Digital Micro Vax II. : DATA ANALYSIS - IMAGE PROCESSING

Bosio, M. A.

1990-11-01

281

Information Processing of Trauma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a neuropsychosocial model of information processing to explain a victimization experience, specifically child sexual abuse. It surveys the relation of sensation, perception, and cognition as a systematic way to provide a framework for studying human behavior and describing human response to traumatic events. (Author/JDD)

Hartman, Carol R.; Burgess, Ann W.

1993-01-01

282

NYS PROCESSING VEGETABLE RESEARCH  

E-print Network

this list to seed companies · Plot maps and packet seed for planting #12;#12;2013 Pea Cultivar Trial · 59 Overview of 2013 Processing Variety Trials 1. English Pea (2009) 2. Snap Bean (1988) 3. Sweet Corn (1986 NY Peas ­ acreage 8-9000 acres overall - sl below ave. Early peas good Late peas drowned #12;Overview

Pawlowski, Wojtek

283

Processing eutectics in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigations of directional solidification have indicated the necessity of establishing a secure foundation in earth-based laboratory processing in order to properly assess low-gravity processing. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the regularity of microstructure of the rod-like eutectic Al-Al3Ni obtained under different conditions of growth involving the parameters of thermal gradient, solidification rate, and interfacial curvature. In the case of Al-Al3Ni, where the Al3Ni phase appears as facets rods, solidification rate was determined to be a controlling parameter. Zone melting of thin eutectic films showed that for films of the order of 10 to 20 micrometers thick, the extra surface energy appears to act to stabilize a regular microstructure. The results suggest that the role of low-gravity as provided in space-laboratory processing of materials is to be sought in the possibility of generating a higher thermal gradient in the solidifying ingot for a given power input-output arrangement than can be obtained under normal one-g processes.

Douglas, F. C.; Galasso, S. F.

1975-01-01

284

Physical process Mechanical mechanisms  

E-print Network

1 Physical process Generation · Mechanical mechanisms F = m·a · Electric/Magnetic mechanisms F = B·i·l · Fluid dynamic/Hydraulic mechanisms q, p, ij · Thermal/Optical #12;2 Source unit and source mechanisms ­ Monopoles......volume fluctuations ­ Dipoles ......pressure fluctuations

Berlin,Technische Universität

285

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical engineering analysis was continued for the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) in which solar cell silicon is produced in a 1,000 MT/yr plant. Progress and status are reported for the primary engineering activities involved in the preliminary process engineering design of the plant base case conditions (96%), reaction chemistry (96%), process flow diagram (85%), material balance (85%), energy balance (60%), property data (60%), equipment design (40%), major equipment list (30%) and labor requirements (10%). Engineering design of the second distillation column (D-02, TCS column) in the process was completed. The design is based on a 97% recovery of the light key (TCS, trichlorosilane) in the distillate and a 97% recovery of the heavy key (TET, silicon tetrachloride) in the bottoms. At a reflux ratio of 2, the specified recovery of TCS and TET is achieved with 20 trays (equilibrium stages, N=20). Respective feed tray locations are 9, 12 and 15 (NF sub 1 = 9, NF sub 2 = 12,, and NF sub 3 = 15). A total condenser is used for the distillation which is conducted at a pressure of 90 psia.

1982-02-01

286

Metamorphic Rocks and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 13 questions on the topic of metamorphic rocks and processes, which covers foliation and grades of metamorphism. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users select an answer and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy

287

Process Metallurgy Course Outline  

E-print Network

MATS4003 Process Metallurgy Advanced Course Outline Session 1, 2014 School of Materials Science Kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions 2-3 4 Mechanisms of carbothermal reduction 3 5 Types;4 Timetable Lectures and Tutorials Day Time Location Wednesday 9:00-11:00am Webster 256 Thursday 12:00-2:00pm

New South Wales, University of

288

Survey of Welding Processes  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current KYTC 'Special Provision No.4 Welding Steel Bridges' prohibits the use of welding processes other than shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW). Nationally, bridge welding is codified under ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1.5:2002 Bri...

T. Hopwood

2003-01-01

289

The Creative Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four Native American poets in easy narrative style tell about some of the aesthetic judgments they make in their work and, in the process, shed some light upon the traditions from which their poetry emerges. Joy Harjo discusses how she wrote "The Woman Hanging from the Thirteenth Floor Window," her use of repetition influenced by music and…

Harjo, Joy; And Others

1985-01-01

290

Melt Processible Fluoropolymer Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of melt processible fluoropolymer resins including ETFE, PVF 2-TFE, ECTFE, PFA, and FEP containing reinforcing glass fiber, milled glass fiber, carbon fiber, minerals, graphite powder, and MoS2 have been prepared and characterized. The mechanical, physical, thermal and tribological properties of these composites have been compared and ranked for suitability in various applications. These composites represent the first comprehensive

J. M. Crosby; J. E. Theberge; K. L. Talley

1981-01-01

291

Information processing and ptsd  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews a series of studies that have utilized information-processing paradigms with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) populations. The review suggests that pre-trauma measures of intelligence (IQ) are predictive of the development of PTSD symptoms following trauma. There is also evidence of impaired performance on standardized tests of memory (independent of IQ) in PTSD populations. PTSD populations are found to

Todd C. Buckley; Edward B. Blanchard; W. Trammell Neill

2000-01-01

292

Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process  

DOEpatents

A process for the production of a mono-olefin from a gaseous paraffinic hydrocarbon having at least two carbon atoms or mixtures thereof comprising reacting said hydrocarbons and molecular oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst. The catalyst consist essentially of platinum supported on alumina or zirconia monolith, preferably zirconia and more preferably in the absence of palladium, rhodium and gold.

Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN); Huff, Marylin (St. Paul, MN)

2002-01-01

293

Engineering in Process Metallurgy  

E-print Network

flow in process vessels. 9 Gas-liquid flow in packed bed reactors, gas-solid flow in fluid bed reactors Modelling of mass and heat flow in packed/fluidised beds 7 Plant Visit (BlueScope Steelworks - Wollongong) 8 10 Multiphase flow: gas-powder-liquid flow in moving bed 11 Powder flow in packed beds, pulverised

New South Wales, University of

294

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

1986-12-02

295

Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

296

Chemical process simulation  

SciTech Connect

This book offers a guide to simulation techniques for chemical engineering. It covers flowsheeting, partitioning and tearing a set of equations and networks of process units, maintaining sparsity of matrices, convergence promotion methods, and available data banks of properties. The book reviews background information on model formulation and numerical methods, and applications of graph theory in synthesising networks.

Husain, A.

1986-01-01

297

Bag molding processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Features, materials, and techniques of vacuum, pressure, and autoclave FRP bag molding processes are described. The bags are used in sealed environments, inflated to flexibly force a curing FRP laminate to conform to a stiff mold form which defines the shape of the finished product. Densification is achieved as the bag presses out the voids and excess resin from the

A. Slobodzinsky

1982-01-01

298

Snowmelt Processes: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Snowmelt is an integral component of the hydrologic forecasting process in many parts of the world. Here, we examine the influences of environmental conditions on snowfall distribution, snowpack structure, snowpack-environment energy exchange, and finally, the rate and amount of snowmelt itself. The fate of snowmelt water after it reaches the ground is also explored.

Comet

2011-01-04

299

Thermal plasma processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given of the fundamental aspects involved in material processing using thermal plasma technology. The description of plasma generating devices covers DC plasma torches, DC transferred arcs, RF inductively coupled plasma torches and hybrid combinations of them. Emphasis is given to the identification of the basic energy coupling mechanism in each case and the principal characteristics of the

Maher I. Boulos

1991-01-01

300

Atmospheric Processes--Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity begins with an explanation of the heat transfer processes in general and then focuses on radiation. In the activity, students investigate how different surfaces absorb heat and apply their experience with the surfaces to interpret real-world situations.

2010-01-01

301

Optical processing. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major part of this work is directed towards development of large arrays of optically bistable gates for parallel-processing applications. An important requirement of such arrays is an efficient system of illumination. Assuming a clear separation between each gate and its neighbors, then it is necessary to break the laser beam, which acts as the power input to the array,

A. C. Walker; W. Taylor

1986-01-01

302

The Process of Scriptmaking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last of four related manuals describing the goals and methods of an established developmental theatre project at the University of Colorado, this manual discusses the processes involved in selecting and adapting scripts for specific audiences. The manual suggests ways to cut longer plays for school audiences, methods for organizing parts of…

Wilcox, Lola

303

Femtosecond laser materials processing  

SciTech Connect

The use femtosecond pulses for materials processing results in very precise cutting and drilling with high efficiency. Energy deposited in the electrons is not coupled into the bulk during the pulse, resulting in negligible shock or thermal loading to adjacent areas.

Stuart, B.C.

1997-02-01

304

Communicating sequential processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When combined with a development of Dijkstra's guarded command, these concepts are surprisingly versatile. Their use is illustrated by sample solutions of a variety of a familiar programming exercises.

C. A. R. Hoare; R. L. Rivest

1978-01-01

305

Radiation Processing -an overview  

E-print Network

1 Radiation Processing - an overview Arne Miller Risø High Dose Reference Laboratory Risø DTU DK irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications ­ radiation hardness testing ­ semiconductors ­ microlitography ­ gem stones · Dosimetry · Quality assurance

306

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

1988-05-24

307

Software Quality, Software Process,  

E-print Network

capable of producing good software. In Europe, the In- ternational Standards Organization ISO-9000 standards address similar concerns. Schemes like \\total quality management" (TQM) extend to the largerSoftware Quality, Software Process, and Software Testing Dick Hamlet Portland State University

Hamlet, Richard

308

Customer requirements process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Customer requirements are presented through three viewgraphs. One graph presents the range of services, which include requirements management, network engineering, operations, and applications support. Another viewgraph presents the project planning process. The third viewgraph presents the programs and/or projects actively supported including life sciences, earth science and applications, solar system exploration, shuttle flight engineering, microgravity science, space physics, and astrophysics.

Russell, Yvonne; Falsetti, Christine M.

1991-01-01

309

Readily Processable Polyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polymer exhibits resistance to hydraulic fluid, excellent processability, and extremely high adhesive strength. Synthesis involves reaction of new diamine, 1,3-bis 2-ethyl ether, with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride to form polyamic acid and subsequent conversion to polyimide.

Hergenrother, Paul M.; Harris, Frank W.; Beltz, Mark W.

1988-01-01

310

Complex Spatial Query Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The user of a Geographical Information System is not limited to conventional spatial selections and joins, but may also pose more complicated and descriptive queries. In this paper we focus on the efficient processing and optimization of complex spatial queries that involve combinations of spatial selections and joins. Our contribution is manifold; we first provide formulae that accurately estimate the

Nikos Mamoulis; Dimitris Papadias; Dinos Arkoumanis

2004-01-01

311

PROBABILITY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESSES  

E-print Network

107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission Probability and Stochastic Processes to Rutgers undergraduates in 1991, we never dreamed we would write, in itself, of minor interest. What the students want most is an intuitive grasp of the basic concepts

Kozick, Richard J.

312

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01

313

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1983-01-01

314

Transaction processing monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transaction processing (TP) application is a program that performs an administrative function by accessing a shared database on behalf of an on-line user. A TP system is an integrated set of products that supports TP applications. These products include both hardware, such as processors, memories, disks and communications controllers, and software such as operating systems (Oss), database management systems

Philip A. Bernstein

1990-01-01

315

Fluctuations and Irreversible Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probability of a given succession of (nonequilibrium) states of a spontaneously fluctuating thermodynamic system is calculated, on the assumption that the macroscopic variables defining a state are Gaussian random variables whose average behavior is given by the laws governing irreversible processes. This probability can be expressed in terms of the dissipation function; the resulting relation, which is an extension

L. Onsager; S. Machlup

1953-01-01

316

Improving scrap tire processing  

SciTech Connect

The market for tire-derived materials is growing rapidly, with the largest market being tire-derived fuels. There is therefore a growing demand for higher quality products. This paper describes the processing and removal of steel from scrap tires.

Astafan, C.G. [Columbus McKinnon Corp., Sarasota, FL (United States)

1997-01-01

317

Processes of Similarity Judgment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

2005-01-01

318

Immunology as Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes the behavior of the immune system from an informationprocessing perspective. It reviews a series of projects conducted at the University of New Mexico and the Santa Fe Institute, which have developed and explored the theme "immunology as information processing." The projects cover the spectrum from serious modeling of real immunological phenomena, such as crossreactive responses in animals

Stephanie Forrest; Steven A. Hofmeyr

2000-01-01

319

Uranium extraction process  

SciTech Connect

Uranium is extracted from wet process phosphoric acid by extraction with a mixture of a diorganophosphate and a neutral phosphorus compound, which is preferably a triorgano phosphine oxide, in the presence of nitrate to form an organic extract layer containing uranium and an aqueous acid layer, which are separated.

Rose, M.A.

1983-05-03

320

The Personal Software Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The Personal Software Process (PSP)TM promises to be a powerful tool for software educators. The author describes the PSP and some results achieved by using it. The author also discusses the principles behind the PSP and the reasons why it is effective as a teaching instrument. The author suggests some implications of the PSP for software

W. S. Humphrey

1997-01-01

321

Nepal's Constitutional Process  

E-print Network

..........................................................................................................3 III. THE INTERIM CONSTITUTION............................................................................... 5 A. THE INTERIM CONSTITUTION DRAFTING COMMITTEE ...........................................................5 1. Process... representations directly to the ICDC. More than 1,400 written submissions and “easily 2,000 to 3,000” verbal submissions were received.53 All political parties made recommendations, as did various international and domestic organisations, with ethnic...

International Crisis Group

2007-02-26

322

Natural gas processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ortloff Corp.'s approach of processing natural gas by expansion in at least two stages through turboexpanders with interstage cooling results in a flexible combination of advantages that include (1) for constant recovery of desired liquids, significantly reduced energy requirements or (2) for a constant energy requirement, significantly improved yields. In addition, both advantages are possible under certain conditions. Furthermore,

R. E. Campbell; J. B. Lawrence; R. R. Tonne

1977-01-01

323

Processing of semicrystalline polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our research group has been interested in the processing-structure-property relationships in semicrystalline polymers and blends for many years. In situ real time x ray scattering at elevated temperatures is being used to monitor the development of structure. An ongoing collaboration with Dr. Malcolm Capel at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source allows the performance of real time wide and small angle x ray scattering to study the phase transformations in semicrystalline polymers. The first part of my presentation will be about our recent use of x ray scattering to study blends of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with polyarylates. The purpose of the next portion of the presentation is to show how we may study effects of self-deformation of polymers during processing in the gravity environment, using real time x ray scattering. In this way, how processing stresses alter the microstructure of semicrystalline polymers was learned, and ultimately microgravity processing strategies that will result in more uniform morphology in these polymers is hoped to be developed.

Cebe, Peggy; Brillhart, Mark V.

1993-01-01

324

Image processing and reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

This talk will examine some mathematical methods for image processing and the solution of underdetermined, linear inverse problems. The talk will have a tutorial flavor, mostly accessible to undergraduates, while still presenting research results. The primary approach is the use of optimization problems. We will find that relaxing the usual assumption of convexity will give us much better results.

Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-15

325

Quantum Markov Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These notes give an introduction to some aspects of quantum Markov processes. Quantum Markov processes come into play whenever a mathematical description of irreversible time behaviour of quantum systems is aimed at. Indeed, there is hardly a book on quantum optics without having at least a chapter on quantum Markov processes. However, it is not always easy to recognize the basic concepts of probability theory in families of creation and annihilation operators on Fock space. Therefore, in these lecture notes much emphasis is put on explaining the intuition behind the mathematical machinery of classical and quantum probability. The lectures start with describing how probabilistic intuition is cast into the mathematical language of classical probability (Sects. 4.1-4.3). Later on, we show how this formulation can be extended such as to incorporate the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics (Sects. 4.4,4.5). Quantum Markov processes are constructed and discussed in Sects. 4.6,4.7, and we add some further discussions and examples in Sects. 4.8-4.11.

Kümmerer, Burkhard

326

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes renewal and repair throughout life through the process of bone remodelling. Skeletal homeostasis is achieved through coupled and balanced bone resorption and bone formation. Several local and systemic factors regulate these processes, including sex hormones. Estrogenes and androgens influence growth, maturation and maintenance of bone mass. Sex homones act on bone through multiple mechansims. Sex hormones influence synthesis and secretion of many growth factors and cytokines, and play therefore a central role in the regulation of bone metabolism. The local and systemic regulation of bone metabolism occurs through fine tuned processes, which are influences by sex hormones and the aging process. This is evidenced by the fact that hypogonadims in both sexes is associated with bone loss an estrogen deficiency at the menopause is an important pathophysiological factor in the developement of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Treatment with aromatese inhibitors for breast cancer and antiandrogen treatment for prostate cancer are associated with an increased fracture risk and warrant increased diagnostic and treatment awareness. PMID:24670602

Kraenzlin, Marius; Meier, Christian

2014-04-01

327

The Oil Refining Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Learning Centre at the New Zealand Refining Company Ltd., hosts a collection of annotated diagrams and pictures of various stages in the oil refining process. Users can click their way through the site to learn somewhat technical details of oil delivery, storage, and refinement.

Company, The N.

328

Processing the therapeutic relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose that if therapists and clients process their therapeutic relationship (i.e., directly address in the here and now feelings about each other and about the inevitable problems that emerge in the therapy relationship), feelings will be expressed and accepted, problems will be resolved, the relationship will be enhanced, and clients will transfer their learning to other relationships outside

Clara E. Hill; Sarah Knox

2009-01-01

329

Image-Processing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

1994-01-01

330

The magnetization process: Hysteresis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetization process, hysteresis (the difference in the path of magnetization for an increasing and decreasing magnetic field), hysteresis loops, and hard magnetic materials are discussed. The fabrication of classroom projects for demonstrating hysteresis and the hysteresis of common magnetic materials is described in detail.

Balsamel, Richard

1990-01-01

331

Gaia downlink data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaia survey mission, operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and launched on 19 December 2013, will survey approximately 109 stars or 1% of the galactic stellar population over a 5.5 year period. The main purpose of this mission is micro-arcsecond astrometry, that would yield important insights into the kinematics of the galaxy, its evolution, as well as provide important additional findings, including a updated coordinate reference system to that provided by the ICRS. Gaia performs its observations using two telescopes with fields of view separated by 106.5 degrees, spinning around an orthogonal axis at about 6 hours per day. The spin axis itself precesses: it is always oriented at 45 degrees from the sun, and precesses around the sun every 63 days. Thus each part of the sky is observed approximately every 63 days. The 6-hour spin, or scan-rate matches the CCD readout rate. The amount of data to process per day - 50-130 Gigabytes - corresponds to over 30 million stellar sources. To perform this processing, the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) have developed approximately 2 million lines of software, divided into subsystems specific to a given functional need, that are run across 6 different Data Processing Centres (DPCs). The final result being a catalog including the 109 stars observed. Most of the daily processing is performed at the DPC in ESAC, Spain (DPCE), which runs 3 main subsystems, the MOC Interface Task (MIT), the Initial Data Treatment (IDT), and First Look (FL). The MIT ingests the initial data provided by the MOC in the form of binary data and writes (amongst other things) `star packets' containing the raw stellar information needed for IDT, which provides a basic level of processing, including stellar positions, photometry, radial velocities, cross match and catalogue updates. FL determines the payload health (e.g, the health for the 106 CCDs, geometric calibration) and astrometric performance via the one day astrometric solution. This presentation provides an overview of the DPAC software as a whole, and focuses on the daily pipeline processing: the systems used, the teams involved, the challenges during development and operations, and lessons learned.

Siddiqui, H.; Els, S. G.; Guerra, R.; Cheek, N.; Mora, A.; O'Mullane, W.

2014-08-01

332

Particle processing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been strong demand for the development of novel devices and equipment that support advanced industries including IT/semiconductors, the environment, energy and aerospace along with the achievement of higher efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Many studies have been conducted on the fabrication of innovative inorganic materials with novel individual properties and/or multifunctional properties including electrical, dielectric, thermal, optical, chemical and mechanical properties through the development of particle processing. The fundamental technologies that are key to realizing such materials are (i) the synthesis of nanoparticles with uniform composition and controlled crystallite size, (ii) the arrangement/assembly and controlled dispersion of nanoparticles with controlled particle size, (iii) the precise structural control at all levels from micrometer to nanometer order and (iv) the nanostructural design based on theoretical/experimental studies of the correlation between the local structure and the functions of interest. In particular, it is now understood that the application of an external stimulus, such as magnetic energy, electrical energy and/or stress, to a reaction field is effective in realizing advanced particle processing [1-3]. This special issue comprises 12 papers including three review papers. Among them, seven papers are concerned with phosphor particles, such as silicon, metals, Si3N4-related nitrides, rare-earth oxides, garnet oxides, rare-earth sulfur oxides and rare-earth hydroxides. In these papers, the effects of particle size, morphology, dispersion, surface states, dopant concentration and other factors on the optical properties of phosphor particles and their applications are discussed. These nanoparticles are classified as zero-dimensional materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are well-known one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials, respectively. This special issue also includes two papers on the fabrication of mechanically reliable nanocomposites by dispersing graphene into a ceramic matrix, and on supercapacitors with high energy densities in a Co(OH)2 system decorated with graphene and carbon nanotubes. As a novel preparation method of oxide films, the fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization is reviewed. Moreover a new type of nanosheet has been fabricated by the exfoliation of layered, ternary transition-metal carbide and nitride compounds, known as Mn + 1AXn phases (or MAX phases) where M is an early transition metal, such as Ti or Nb, A is an A group element, such as Si or Al, X is carbon and/or nitrogen and n = 1-3 [4]. Among the MAX phases, those containing Mo have been theoretically calculated by first-principles calculations to be a source for obtaining Mo2C nanosheets with potentially unique properties. As an example of improving bulk ceramic properties, texturing by using a high magnetic field [5] and sintering by the electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) technology [6] have been demonstrated for ultra-high temperature ceramics with high-temperature strength. A project on the development of materials and particle processing for the field of environment and energy has been ongoing at the National Institute for Materials Science since April 2011. This project employs various core competence technologies for particle processing such as ion beam irradiation for nanoparticle fabrication [7], fullerene nanomaterial processing using liquid-liquid interface precipitation [8], a gas reduction nitridation process to obtain Si3N4-based phosphor materials [9], advanced phosphors via novel processing [10, 11], ultra-high pressure technology for processing and in situ analysis [12, 13], colloidal processing in a high magnetic field to obtain laminated, textured ceramics [1, 3, 5], the ECAS process for nanostructuring ceramics [6] and so forth. Here, I would like to introduce some research achievements that are not covered in this special issue. (1) The evolution of hydrogen by the react

Yoshio, Sakka

2014-02-01

333

Cassini science planning process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission design for Cassini-Huygens calls for a four-year orbital survey of the Saturnian system and the descent into the Titan atmosphere and eventual soft-landing of the Huygens probe. The Cassini orbiter tour consists of 76 orbits around Saturn with 44 close Titan flybys and 8 targeted icy satellite flybys. The Cassini orbiter spacecraft carries twelve scientific instruments that will perform a wide range of observations on a multitude of designated targets. The science opportunities, frequency of encounters, the length of the Tour, and the use of distributed operations pose significant challenges for developing the science plan for the orbiter mission. The Cassini Science Planning Process is the process used to develop and integrate the science and engineering plan that incorporates an acceptable level of science required to meet the primary mission objectives far the orbiter. The bulk of the integrated science and engineering plan will be developed prior to Saturn Orbit Insertion (Sol). The Science Planning Process consists of three elements: 1) the creation of the Tour Atlas, which identifies the science opportunities in the tour, 2) the development of the Science Operations Plan (SOP), which is the conflict-free timeline of all science observations and engineering activities, a constraint-checked spacecraft pointing profile, and data volume allocations to the science instruments, and 3) an Aftermarket and SOP Update process, which is used to update the SOP while in tour with the latest information on spacecraft performance, science opportunities, and ephemerides. This paper will discuss the various elements of the Science Planning Process used on the Cassini Mission to integrate, implement, and adapt the science and engineering activity plans for Tour.

Paczkowski, Brian G.; Ray, Trina L.

2004-01-01

334

On the Approximation of Markov Processes by Compound Poisson Processes  

E-print Network

On the Approximation of Markov Processes by Compound Poisson Processes P.J. Fitzsimmons My process by ``compound Poisson'' (or ``pure jump'') processes. Such approximations have been discussed­step transition kernel Kn . Let \\Pi n = (\\Pi n (t)) tâ??0 be a Poisson process of rate n, independent of Y n

Fitzsimmons, Patrick J.

335

Compound Poisson processes, as modified by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assume that {C(t), 0 ? t < ?} is a compound Poisson stochastic process, which models a collective risk situation. Let {I(t), 0 ? t < ?} be a stochastic process describing the investment performance deviations (from the expected) over time. It is assumed that the I(t) process is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O.U.) process. Such a process is Gaussian (normal) and

John A. Beekman

1975-01-01

336

On the Approximation of Markov Processes by Compound Poisson Processes  

E-print Network

On the Approximation of Markov Processes by Compound Poisson Processes P.J. Fitzsimmons My process by \\compound Poisson" (or \\pure jump") processes. Such approximations have been discussed recently with one-step transition kernel Kn. Let n = ( n(t))t 0 be a Poisson process of rate n, independent of Yn

Fitzsimmons, Patrick J.

337

General-purpose Process Migration (Really Migrating Real Processes)  

E-print Network

General-purpose Process Migration (Really Migrating Real Processes) 1. Introduction This paper takes a new look at an old topic--process migration. Process migration has been heavily studied, prototyped and implemented--often with no real practical benefits. Traditionally, process migration

Dasgupta, Partha

338

A Process Diagnosis Technique for the Problems of Business Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

One process diagnosis technique is proposed to solve the problems in business process. Firstly, on the base of objective view and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a process diagnosis model is founded and the limits of the causes are given by using process business objective view. Then, objective view is converted into a hierarchical structure of AHP to quantitatively calculate the

Xi Huang; Renzhong Tang; Hongtao Tang

2006-01-01

339

Random transformations for poisson processes and sup—integral processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a two dimensional Poisson process with points and mean measure and a predictable random function . Then the randomly transformed point process with points is still Poisson with the same mean measure. Define the sup-integral process by The process may be expressed as a randomly time changed extremal process. We investigate tail probabilities of I(t) and give some circumstances

Laurens de Haan; Sidney Resnick

1994-01-01

340

Vaccine process technology.  

PubMed

The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory perspective, Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) are important initiatives that can be applied effectively to many types of vaccine processes. Universal demand for vaccines requires that a manufacturer plan to supply tens and sometimes hundreds of millions of doses per year at low cost. To enable broader use, there is intense interest in improving temperature stability to allow for excursions from a rigid cold chain supply, especially at the point of vaccination. Finally, there is progress in novel routes of delivery to move away from the traditional intramuscular injection by syringe approach. PMID:22407777

Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

2012-06-01

341

Fuzzy Random Homogeneous Poisson Process and Compound Poisson Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

By dealing with interarrival times as exponentially distributed fuzzy random variables, a fuzzy random homogeneous Poisson process and a fuzzy random compound Poisson process are respectively defined. Several theorems on the two processes are provided, respectively.

Shunqin Li; Ruiqing Zhao; Wansheng Tang

2006-01-01

342

On the Approximation of Markov Processes by Compound Poisson Processes  

E-print Network

On the Approximation of Markov Processes by Compound Poisson Processes P.J. Fitzsimmons My intention in this note is to present a simple approach to the approximat* *ion of a continuous time Markov process by "compound

Fitzsimmons, Patrick J.

343

Process window and variation characterization of the micro embossing process  

E-print Network

The micro embossing process on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is demonstrated experimentally to be a useful process to produce micro fluidic and optical devices. Because this process is a one step thermoplastic deformation ...

Wang, Qi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

344

Behavior of Mercury during DWPF Chemical Process Cell Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mer...

D. Koopman, J. Zamecnik

2012-01-01

345

Instabilities in sensory processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

Balakrishnan, J.

2014-07-01

346

Nucleic acid isolation process  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

347

Processes in relativistic plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The establishment and maintenance of a Boltzmann distribution in particle kinetic energies is investigated for a plasma with theta = KTe/mc-squared much greater than unity, where m is the electron mass. It is shown that thermalization of the electron gas by binary collisions is not sufficiently effective to maintain the equilibrium distribution when other processes that perturb the equilibrium are taken into account. Electron-positron pair production in electron-electron and electron-ion collisions, and perturbations of a Boltzmann distribution by nonthermal processes are evaluated. Thermalization by means of other mechanisms, such as interaction with plasma waves is discussed, and the opacity of a relativistic plasma is computed for Compton scattering, pair production in the fields of electrons and ions, inverse bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron self-absorption.

Gould, R. J.

1982-01-01

348

Processes in relativistic plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The establishment and maintenance of a Boltzmann distribution in particle kinetic energies is investigated for a plasma with theta = KTe/mc-squared much greater than unity, where m is the electron mass. It is shown that thermalization of the electron gas by binary collisions is not sufficiently effective to maintain the equilibrium distribution when other processes that perturb the equilibrium are taken into account. Electron-positron pair production in electron-electron and electron-ion collisions, and perturbations of a Boltzmann distribution by nonthermal processes are evaluated. Thermalization by means of other mechanisms, such as interaction with plasma waves is discussed, and the opacity of a relativistic plasma is computed for Compton scattering, pair production in the fields of electrons and ions, inverse bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron self-absorption.

Gould, R. J.

1982-03-01

349

Femtosecond laser materials processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of femtosecond lasers allows materials processing of practically any material with extremely high precision and minimal collateral damage. Advantages over conventional laser machining (using pulses longer than a few tens of picoseconds) are realized by depositing the laser energy into the electrons of the material on a time scale short compared to the transfer time of this energy to the bulk of the material, resulting in increased ablation efficiency and negligible shock or thermal stress. The improvement in the morphology by using femtosecond pulses rather than nanosecond pulses has been studied in numerous materials from biological materials to dielectrics to metals. During the drilling process, we have observed the onset of small channels which drill faster than the surrounding material.

Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Komashko, Aleksey M.; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Perry, Michael D.

2000-05-01

350

Youpi: YOUr processing PIpeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Youpi is a portable, easy to use web application providing high level functionalities to perform data reduction on scientific FITS images. Built on top of various open source reduction tools released to the community by TERAPIX (http://terapix.iap.fr), Youpi can help organize data, manage processing jobs on a computer cluster in real time (using Condor) and facilitate teamwork by allowing fine-grain sharing of results and data. Youpi is modular and comes with plugins which perform, from within a browser, various processing tasks such as evaluating the quality of incoming images (using the QualityFITS software package), computing astrometric and photometric solutions (using SCAMP), resampling and co-adding FITS images (using SWarp) and extracting sources and building source catalogues from astronomical images (using SExtractor). Youpi is useful for small to medium-sized data reduction projects; it is free and is published under the GNU General Public License.

Monnerville, Mathias; Sémah, Gregory

2012-03-01

351

Coated substrates and process  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a coated substrate and a process for forming films on substrates and for providing a particularly smooth film on a substrate. The method of this invention involves subjecting a surface of a substrate to contact with a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient force and energy to substantially change the surface characteristics of said substrate, and then exposing a film-forming material to a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient energy to vaporize the atoms of said film-forming material and to transmit the vaporized atoms to the substrate surface with sufficient force to form a film bonded to the substrate. This process is particularly useful commercially because it forms strong bonds at room temperature. This invention is particularly useful for adhering a gold film to diamond and forming ohmic electrodes on diamond, but also can be used to bond other films to substrates.

Chu, Wei-kan (Chapel Hill, NC); Childs, Charles B. (Chapel Hill, NC)

1991-01-01

352

Visual Processing Speed  

PubMed Central

Older adults commonly report difficulties in visual tasks of everyday living that involve visual clutter, secondary task demands, and time sensitive responses. These difficulties often cannot be attributed to visual sensory impairment. Techniques for measuring visual processing speed under divided attention conditions and among visual distractors have been developed and have established construct validity in that those older adults performing poorly in these tests are more likely to exhibit daily visual task performance problems. Research suggests that computer-based training exercises can increase visual processing speed in older adults and that these gains transfer to enhancement of health and functioning and a slowing in functional and health decline as people grow older. PMID:23231958

Owsley, Cynthia

2012-01-01

353

Process control for survival  

SciTech Connect

Increasing competition for a decreasing market mandates that the success of a company be determined by the manner in which it embraces quality. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is the most efficient means of dramatically improving quality and is essential to survival in the emerging electronic marketplace. During the three years that industry practitioners assembled to write IPC-PC-90, General Requirements for the Implementation of statistical Process Control, many heated discussions ensued about the actual definition of SPC. Some people view SPC as the application of Control Chart methods, others view it as the use of Statistical Experimental Design. Both are in some ways wrong and are limiting the scope of application. Those companies that have successfully applied SPC view it as a philosophy of statistical principles that will reduce variation in every phase of their business. 2 figs.

Yocom, J.A.

1991-06-01

354

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the fairness of the priority setting process underpinning Swedish kidney transplantation in reference to the Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework, 15 interviews with transplant surgeons, nephrologists, and coordinators were carried out. The factors described by interviewees and the values they rest on satisfy the relevance criterion of the A4R. Two potential sources for unfair inequalities were identified, namely the use of clinical judge-ments and varying institutional policies among dif-ferent centres. It is recommended that factors and values used in the priority process are made more public. Sweden should also consider a national, centralised system for allocation of kidneys and not rely on present day local allocation. PMID:25253609

Welin, Stellan; Omar, Faisal; Tinghög, Gustav; Carlsson, Per

355

The aluminum smelting process.  

PubMed

This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development. PMID:24806722

Kvande, Halvor

2014-05-01

356

Plutonium dissolution process  

SciTech Connect

A two-step process is described for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M--1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M--0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45 C and 70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen. 2 figs.

Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

1996-01-09

357

High Dynamic Range Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep sky astronomical Images are produced by capturing and building up very faint signals over an extended period of time. Although faint, some objects produce a wide range of signal intensity between the very brightest and the dimmest parts of an image. For instance; capturing bright detail of the surface of the Sun and displaying it alongside the exceedingly fainter prominences on the edge of the solar disk demands expert management of the very high dynamic range of brightness values. Currently, modern digital cameras can manage broad dynamic range in terrestrial scenes by taking several images at different exposure settings and then combining these exposures to make a coherent image. High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging and processing are now the catch terms that refer to imaging and processing techniques that effectively manage high dynamic range data to produce images with high visual and informational impact.

Crawford, Ken

358

Improving staff selection processes.  

PubMed

This article, the second in a series of articles on Leading Better Care, describes the actions undertaken in recent years in NHS Lanarkshire to improve selection processes for nursing, midwifery and allied health professional (NMAHP) posts. This is an area of significant interest to these professions, management colleagues and patients given the pivotal importance of NMAHPs to patient care and experience. In recent times the importance of selecting staff not only with the right qualifications but also with the right attributes has been highlighted to ensure patients are well cared for in a safe, effective and compassionate manner. The article focuses on NMAHP selection processes, tracking local, collaborative development work undertaken to date. It presents an overview of some of the work being implemented, highlights a range of important factors, outlines how evaluation is progressing and concludes by recommending further empirical research. PMID:25370266

Cerinus, Marie; Shannon, Marina

2014-11-01

359

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

1977-01-01

360

PREFACE: Quantum information processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microelectronics and the classical information technologies transformed the physics of semiconductors. Photonics has given optical materials a new direction. Quantum information technologies, we believe, will have immense impact on condensed matter physics. The novel systems of quantum information processing need to be designed and made. Their behaviours must be manipulated in ways that are intrinsically quantal and generally nanoscale. Both in this special issue and in previous issues (see e.g., Spiller T P and Munro W J 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 V1-10) we see the emergence of new ideas that link the fundamentals of science to the pragmatism of market-led industry. We hope these papers will be followed by many others on quantum information processing in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.

Briggs, Andrew; Ferry, David; Stoneham, Marshall

2006-05-01

361

Vortices in Atomic Processes  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent Schrodinger equation describes dynamical processes of one-electron species in terms of a complex wave function. The function is inherently complex, therefore zeros occur only when both the real and imaginary parts of the wave function vanish. If this happens at isolated points rather than on a nodal surface one can show the zero must correspond to a vortex. An imaging theorem is given which shows how such vortices can be seen experimentally. Since the theorem requires time propagation from microscopic to macroscopic scales, a method is developed that does just that. Examples of vortices that emerge in dynamical processes are given. The vortices that we nd are linked to the hydrodynamic interpretation of Schrodinger's time-dependent equation.

Macek, Joseph H [ORNL] ORNL

2012-01-01

362

Basic Nanotechnology Processes Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory course is provided by Nano4Me.org, a product of the National Center for Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK Center) which is based at the Penn State College of Engineering and is funded through the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. These twelve labs focus on basic processes in Nanotechnology. Some of the labs are titled Gold Nucleation Analysis, Introduction to LPCVD and PECVD, Introduction to Plasma-based Processing, Liftoff and Surface Modification, and Intro to Scanning Electron Microscopy. These labs can be used in conjunction in a course, or individually as needed by the teacher. Each lab should include an objective, background information, detailed procedure, charts and tables, and follow-up questions. This resource, along with all resources from the NACK Center, require a fast, easy, free log-in to access their materials.

2011-03-08

363

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

1996-01-01

364

Fractal structures and processes  

SciTech Connect

Fractals and chaos are closely related. Many chaotic systems have fractal features. Fractals are self-similar or self-affine structures, which means that they look much of the same when magnified or reduced in scale over a reasonably large range of scales, at least two orders of magnitude and preferably more (Mandelbrot, 1983). The methods for estimating their fractal dimensions or their Hurst coefficients, which summarize the scaling relationships and their correlation structures, are going through a rapid evolutionary phase. Fractal measures can be regarded as providing a useful statistical measure of correlated random processes. They also provide a basis for analyzing recursive processes in biology such as the growth of arborizing networks in the circulatory system, airways, or glandular ducts. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Beard, D.A.; Percival, D.B.; Raymond, G.M. [National Simulation Resource, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

1996-06-01

365

Process for producing ethanol  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

1993-07-27

366

Process air quality data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

1978-01-01

367

Plasma processes in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elementary microscopic interactions in plasmas are described. The importance of plasma physics in space studies is illustrated by examining several phenomena which cannot be explained satisfactorily by MHD theory. These include kinetic instabilities, plasma turbulence in the bow shock, magnetic turbulence near the moon, VLF emissions in the magnetosphere, planetary and solar radio emissions, and interaction of planetary and cometary plasmas with the solar wind. Evidence for the existence of anomalous transport processes in terrestrial and planetary magnetospheres is presented.

Wu, C. S.

1976-01-01

368

Processes and Hyperuniverses  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We show how to define domains of processes, which arisein the denotational semantics of concurrent languages, using hypersets,i.e. non-wellfounded sets. In particular we discuss how to solve recursiveequations involving set-theoretic operators within hyperuniverses withatoms. Hyperuniverses are transitive sets which carry a uniform topologicalstructure and include as a clopen subset their exponential space(i.e. the set of their closed subsets) with

Michael Forti; Furio Honsell; Marina Lenisa

1994-01-01

369

Femtosecond laser materials processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area. Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to making high-aspect ratio cuts in metals with no heat-affected zone are made possible by this technology. For material removal at reasonable rates, we developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

Stuart, B. C.; Banks, P. S.; Perry, M. D.; Feit, M. D.; Lee, R. S.; Roeske, F.; Armstrong, J. P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Sefcik, J. A.

1998-07-01

370

Commissioning : The Total Process  

E-print Network

occupancy. It is more cost- effective to correct any deficiencies (both in design and construction) at that time. *Construction-phase and post-occupancy building commissioning improve the building systems' performance under real, live conditions.... The commissioning process should be described in the Division 1 sections of Construction Specification Institute (CSI) documents. The Division 1 sections should also refer the user to the appropriate technical sections for additional information about each...

Kettler, G. J.

1998-01-01

371

Europa: Processes and Habitability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the known and possible geologic processes of Europa. It shows slides of Europa, with different terrains (ridged plains and molten plains), and a possible view of the interior. Europa's eccentric orbit is reviewed. The presentation also reviews Europa's composition. The possible reasons for Europa's geology are reviewed. Also the possiblity that life exists on Europa is raised. The planned Europa Geophysical Explorer mission is also reviewed.

Pappalardo, Robert T.

2006-01-01

372

Radar signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of clutter in radar signal processing is considered with particular reference to an air-traffic environment. The characteristics of clutter are described, and the use of conventional moving-target indication filters to reduce the effects of clutter is considered. Adaptive clutter suppression schemes are addressed, and the adaptive detection of a moving target in the presence of clutter of unknown statistics is discussed. The use of a parametric spectrum estimation procedure as the basis of clutter classification is described.

Haykin, S.

1985-04-01

373

Sulfur dioxide removal process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for reducing the loss of sodium values in a system for removing sulfur dioxide from a gas by the use of an absorption-desorption cycle employing aqueous sodium sulfite as the essential absorption solution. Sodium sulfate and\\/or sodium thio-sulfate build-up in the system is avoided and the loss of sodium values reduced by subjecting sodium sulfate and\\/or

N. E. Nicholson; J. Scarlett

1978-01-01

374

Femtosecond laser materials processing  

SciTech Connect

Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to making high-aspect ratio cuts in metals with no heat-affected zone are made possible by this technology For material removal at reasonable rates, we developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

Stuart, B. C., LLNL

1998-06-02

375

Processing Poultry at Home.  

E-print Network

be clean, free from flies and have an adequate water supply. The processing procedure includes three steps: 1) New York dressing - kill ing, scalding, picking, and singeing; 2) eviscerating - removing head, feet and internal organs; and 3) chill... water. This lining is the yellow, rough textured, tough inner membrane which protects the giz zard muscles during digestion. To harvest the liver first remove the green gall bladder. Be careful not to rupture the gall bladder. Gall con taminating...

Denton, James H.; Mellor, David B.

1983-01-01

376

Atmospheric Processes : Conduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After participating in this activity, students will be able to explain the process of conduction using a molecular model and explain that different materials conduct at different rates. They will also be able to identify air as a poor heat conductor (an insulator). The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners

2007-12-12

377

Digital Signal Processing Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of seven Java applets and associated tutorials are available on this site from the Signals and Systems Group at the University of Edinburgh. The tools illustrate various concepts of digital signal processing, like convolution, correlation, the Fourier transform, and discrete-time applications of each. Seven other applets that demonstrate more advanced concepts are also available, but no documentation or explanation accompanies them. A few conference publications and reports related to these educational materials are presented.

2000-01-01

378

Digital signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computationally efficient digital signal-processing algorithms over finite fields are developed analytically, and the relationship of these algorithms to algebraic error-correcting codes is explored. A multidisciplinary approach is employed, in an effort to make the results accessible to engineers, mathematicians, and computer scientists. Chapters are devoted to systems of bilinear forms, efficient finite-field algorithms, multidimensional methods, a new class of linear codes, and a new error-control scheme.

Morgera, Salvatore D.; Krishna, Hari

379

Community Ecology Processes, Models,  

E-print Network

and ecosystem processes 69 Matty P. Berg 6.1 Introduction 69 6.2 Soil communities, detrital food webs and soil.3.3 Unresolved issues 16 1.4 Food webs 17 1.4.1 Structural regularities 17 1.4.2 Mechanisms 18 1.4.3 Unresolved 26 2.1.3 Stable limit cycles 26 2.1.4 Chaotic dynamics 26 2.2 Dynamics of food web modules 26 2

Kleyer, Michael

380

Clementine Sensor Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the DSPSE Satellite Controller (DSC) is baselined as a single-string satellite controller. The DSC performs two main functions: health and maintenance of the spacecraft; and image capture, storage, and playback. The DSC contains two processors: a radiation-hardened Mil-Std-1750, and a commercial R3000. The Mil-Std-1750 processor performs all housekeeping operations, while the R3000 is mainly used to perform the image processing functions associated with the navigation functions, as well as performing various experiments. The DSC also contains a data handling unit (DHU) used to interface to various spacecraft imaging sensors and to capture, compress, and store selected images onto the solid-state data recorder. The development of the DSC evolved from several key requirements; the DSPSE satellite was to do the following: (1) have a radiation-hardened spacecraft control system and be immune to single-event upsets (SEU's); (2) use an R3000-based processor to run the star tracker software that was developed by SDIO (due to schedule and cost constraints, there was no time to port the software to a radiation-hardened processor); and (3) fly a commercial processor to verify its suitability for use in a space environment. In order to enhance the DSC reliability, the system was designed with multiple processing paths. These multiple processing paths provide for greater tolerance to various component failures. The DSC was designed so that all housekeeping processing functions are performed by either the Mil-Std-1750 processor or the R3000 processor. The image capture and storage is performed either by the DHU or the R3000 processor.

Feldstein, A. A.

1993-01-01

381

Clementine sensor processing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of the DSPSE Satellite Controller (DSC) is baselined as a single-string satellite controller. The DSC performs two main functions: health and maintenance of the spacecraft; and image capture, storage, and playback. The DSC contains two processors: a radiation-hardened Mil-Std-1750, and a commercial R3000. The Mil-Std-1750 processor performs all housekeeping operations, while the R3000 is mainly used to perform the image processing functions associated with the navigation functions, as well as performing various experiments. The DSC also contains a data handling unit (DHU) used to interface to various spacecraft imaging sensors and to capture, compress, and store selected images onto the solid-state data recorder. The development of the DSC evolved from several key requirements; the DSPSE satellite was to do the following: (1) have a radiation-hardened spacecraft control system and be immune to single-event upsets (SEU's); (2) use an R3000-based processor to run the star tracker software that was developed by SDIO (due to schedule and cost constraints, there was no time to port the software to a radiation-hardened processor); and (3) fly a commercial processor to verify its suitability for use in a space environment. In order to enhance the DSC reliability, the system was designed with multiple processing paths. These multiple processing paths provide for greater tolerance to various component failures. The DSC was designed so that all housekeeping processing functions are performed by either the Mil-Std-1750 processor or the R3000 processor. The image capture and storage is performed either by the DHU or the R3000 processor.

Feldstein, A. A.

382

Butadiene production process overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 95% of butadiene is produced as a by-product of ethylene production from steam crackers. The crude C4 stream isolated from the steam cracking process is fed to butadiene extraction units, where butadiene is separated from the other C4s by extractive distillation. The amount of crude C4s produced in steam cracking is dependent on the composition of the feed to

Wm. Claude White

2007-01-01

383

The Change Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter gives a comprehensive outline of the change process needed for transforming the project manager of yesterday\\u000a into the project leader of tomorrow. Business strategies reinforced by corporate values and new leadership principles drive\\u000a project challenges that are new to most project managers today. New knowledge and enhanced project management skills are required,\\u000a but often rejected by managers claiming

Asbjørn Rolstadås; Per Willy Hetland; George Farage Jergeas; Richard E. Westney

384

Process for producing silicon  

DOEpatents

A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

1982-06-10

385

Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process  

DOEpatents

In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01

386

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

387

Process for producing silicon  

DOEpatents

A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

1984-01-01

388

Image processing technology  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The primary objective of this project was to advance image processing and visualization technologies for environmental characterization. This was effected by developing and implementing analyses of remote sensing data from satellite and airborne platforms, and demonstrating their effectiveness in visualization of environmental problems. Many sources of information were integrated as appropriate using geographic information systems.

Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Balick, L. [and others

1996-07-01

389

Priority in Process Algebras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper surveys the semantic ramifications of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. These enriched formalisms allow one to model system features such as interrupts, prioritized choice, or real-time behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classified according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global pre-emption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of real-time, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of pre-emption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the efficient encoding of real-time semantics. Technically, this paper studies the different models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local pre- emption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modified appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for different process-algebraic settings are discussed.

Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Natarajan, V.

1999-01-01

390

Radiative Processes in Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative Processes in Astrophysics: This clear, straightforward, and fundamental introduction is designed to present-from a physicist's point of view-radiation processes and their applications to astrophysical phenomena and space science. It covers such topics as radiative transfer theory, relativistic covariance and kinematics, bremsstrahlung radiation, synchrotron radiation, Compton scattering, some plasma effects, and radiative transitions in atoms. Discussion begins with first principles, physically motivating and deriving all results rather than merely presenting finished formulae. However, a reasonably good physics background (introductory quantum mechanics, intermediate electromagnetic theory, special relativity, and some statistical mechanics) is required. Much of this prerequisite material is provided by brief reviews, making the book a self-contained reference for workers in the field as well as the ideal text for senior or first-year graduate students of astronomy, astrophysics, and related physics courses. Radiative Processes in Astrophysics also contains about 75 problems, with solutions, illustrating applications of the material and methods for calculating results. This important and integral section emphasizes physical intuition by presenting important results that are used throughout the main text; it is here that most of the practical astrophysical applications become apparent.

Rybicki, George B.; Lightman, Alan P.

1986-06-01

391

RACORO aerosol data processing  

SciTech Connect

The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

Elisabeth Andrews

2011-10-31

392

Laminar Soot Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soot formation within hydrocarbon-fueled flames is an important unresolved problem of combustion science for several reasons: soot emissions are responsible for more deaths than any other combustion pollutant, thermal loads due to continuum radiation from soot limit the durability of combustors, thermal radiation from soot is mainly responsible for the growth and spread of unwanted fires, carbon monoxide associated with soot emissions is responsible for most fire deaths, and limited understanding of soot processes is a major impediment to the development of computational combustion. Thus, soot processes within laminar nonpremixed (diffusion) flames are being studied, emphasizing space-based experiments at microgravity. The study is limited to laminar flames due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of these results to practical flames through laminar flamelet concepts. The microgravity environment is emphasized because buoyancy affects soot processes in laminar diffusion flames whereas effects of buoyancy are small for most practical flames. Results discussed here were obtained from experiments carried out on two flights of the Space Shuttle Columbia. After a brief discussion of experimental methods, results found thus far are described, including soot concentration measurements, laminar flame shapes, laminar smoke points and flame structure. The present discussion is brief.

Lin, K. -C.; Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.

1999-01-01

393

Software Process Assessment (SPA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's environment mirrors the changes taking place in the nation at large, i.e. workers are being asked to do more work with fewer resources. For software developers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the effects of this change are that we must continue to produce quality code that is maintainable and reusable, but we must learn to produce it more efficiently and less expensively. To accomplish this goal, the Data Systems Technology Division (DSTD) at GSFC is trying a variety of both proven and state-of-the-art techniques for software development (e.g., object-oriented design, prototyping, designing for reuse, etc.). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques, the Software Process Assessment (SPA) program was initiated. SPA was begun under the assumption that the effects of different software development processes, techniques, and tools, on the resulting product must be evaluated in an objective manner in order to assess any benefits that may have accrued. SPA involves the collection and analysis of software product and process data. These data include metrics such as effort, code changes, size, complexity, and code readability. This paper describes the SPA data collection and analysis methodology and presents examples of benefits realized thus far by DSTD's software developers and managers.

Rosenberg, Linda H.; Sheppard, Sylvia B.; Butler, Scott A.

1994-01-01

394

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2001) 8: 401417 Nonlinear Processes  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2001) 8: 401­417 Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics c European Geophysical Society 2001 Verification of intense precipitation forecasts from single models and ensemble

Boyer, Edmond

395

Value-driven process management: using value to improve processes.  

PubMed

Every firm can be viewed as consisting of various processes. These processes affect everything that the firm does from accepting orders and designing products to scheduling production. In many firms, the management of processes often reflects considerations of efficiency (cost) rather than effectiveness (value). In this article, we introduce a well-structured process for managing processes that begins not with the process, but rather with the customer and the product and the concept of value. This process progresses through a number of steps which include issues such as defining value, generating the appropriate metrics, identifying the critical processes, mapping and assessing the performance of these processes, and identifying long- and short-term areas for action. What makes the approach presented in this article so powerful is that it explicitly links the customer to the process and that the process is evaluated in term of its ability to effectively serve the customers. PMID:11183388

Melnyk, S A; Christensen, R T

2000-08-01

396

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

communication Introduction 4 Dysarthria #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Automatic speech processing and oral communication Dysarthria Neuro-motor articulatory difficulties resulting Dysarthria and ASR word accuracy Non-dysarthric Dysarthric Background 7 #12;SPOClab signal processing

Penn, Gerald

397

Dynamic control of remelting processes  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of controlling a remelting process by providing measured process variable values to a process controller; estimating process variable values using a process model of a remelting process; and outputting estimated process variable values from the process controller. Feedback and feedforward control devices receive the estimated process variable values and adjust inputs to the remelting process. Electrode weight, electrode mass, electrode gap, process current, process voltage, electrode position, electrode temperature, electrode thermal boundary layer thickness, electrode velocity, electrode acceleration, slag temperature, melting efficiency, cooling water temperature, cooling water flow rate, crucible temperature profile, slag skin temperature, and/or drip short events are employed, as are parameters representing physical constraints of electroslag remelting or vacuum arc remelting, as applicable.

Bertram, Lee A. (Dublin, CA); Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Evans, David G. (Clinton, NY)

2000-01-01

398

Process for purification of solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for purifying solids, especially silicon, by melting and subsequent resolidification, is described. Silicon used in solar cell manufacturing is processed more efficiently and cost effectively.

Herzer, H.; Rath, H. J.; Schmidt, D.

1981-01-01

399

Individual differences in sentence processing  

E-print Network

This thesis aims to elucidate shared mechanisms between retrieval in sentence processing and memory retrieval processes in nonlinguistic domains using an individual differences approach. Prior research in individual ...

Troyer, Melissa L

2012-01-01

400

Discovery as a process  

SciTech Connect

The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

Loehle, C.

1994-05-01

401

Tablet Process Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET is a Tablet Process Simulator in which visitors set up and run a tablet press in a virtual 3D environment. The tool requires the program to be downloaded and installed, and gives helpful installation instructions. Users will start by downloading a zip file to their computer.

2013-07-23

402

Mask fabrication process  

DOEpatents

A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA)

2000-01-01

403

Process for making diamonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of a device and process for making industrial diamonds. The device is composed of an exponential horn tapering from a large end to a small end, with a copper plate against the large end. A magnetic hammer abuts the copper plate. The copper plate and magnetic hammer function together to create a shock wave at the large end of the horn. As the wave propagates to the small end, the extreme pressure and temperature caused by the wave transforms the graphite, present in an anvil pocket at the small end, into diamonds.

Rasquin, J. R.; Estes, M. F. (inventors)

1973-01-01

404

Fusion welding process  

DOEpatents

A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

Thomas, Kenneth C. (Export, PA); Jones, Eric D. (Salem, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1983-01-01

405

Magnetospheric dynamo processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three processes are examined whereby an effective electromotive force and energy input arise in circuits of magnetospheric currents, even in the absence of time-varying magnetic fields. The first involves currents on 'open' field lines, linking the ionosphere with the solar wind, and it underscores the role of polarization currents. The second may exist on the current filament observed in the vicinity of Jupiter's satellite Io. The third may operate along the high-latitude boundary of the earth's magnetic tail, from where it pumps energy into the plasma sheet.

Stern, D. P.

1984-01-01

406

Containerless processing specimen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Typical metal sample that was processed by TEMPUS (Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessieren Unter Schwerelosigkeit), an electromagnetic levitation facility developed by German researchers and flown on the IML-2 and MSL-1 and 1R Spacelab missions. Electromagnetic levitation is used commonly in ground-based experiments to melt and then cool metallic melts below their freezing points without solidification occurring. Sample size is limited in ground-based experiments. Research with TEMPUS aboard Spacelab allowed scientists to study the viscosity, surface tension, and other properties of several metals and alloys while undercooled (i.e., cooled below their normal solidification points). The sample is about 1 cm (2/5 inch) in diameter.

2001-01-01

407

Processing Poultry at Home  

E-print Network

first chill the gizzard in ice water. This lining is the yellow, rough textured, tough inner membrane that protects the gizzard muscles during digestion. To harvest the liver, first remove the green gall bladder. Be careful not to rupture the gall... bladder. Gall contaminating the liver imparts a bit- ter taste. After the giblets have been harvested, wash them and place them in chilled water. If several birds are processed at once, use a sepa- rate chill container for giblets. 9 The lungs usually...

Davis, Michael

2006-01-04

408

Reinventing the process  

SciTech Connect

Reinventing the government is the avowed goal of the Clinton administration. Making the federal government work for the people is the intended product of Vice President Al Gore`s National Performance Review. All federal agencies are expected to participate. How would the world of hydropower licensing look if the goal of all state and federal resource agencies and FERC was a cooperative effort to license good hydropower projects in the best interest of the nation? FERC is working to reinvent the licensing process, but progress is limited by the lack of a clear customer focus and lack of a cooperative attitude and common goal among the resource agencies.

Hunt, R.; Hunt, J.M.

1994-11-01

409

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

Lead is a major public health issue. Its use has been increasing since Neolithic times, climaxing in the Ancient Rome and the nineteenth century. Defining the frequency of plumbism before modern times proves to be a difficult matter because of its various and delayed symptoms, and of diagenetic processes affecting bones. After reviewing various methods of lead measurement in bone and tooth, we will expose ways to ascertain lead measurement interpretation in order to estimate the epidemiology of plumbism in ancient times. PMID:25230524

Bourdieu, Anne

2014-01-01

410

River Ice Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

Spangler, Tim

2006-11-10

411

Chapter 9. Educational process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations\\u000a for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with focus on education of all stakeholders, specifically the emergency executive\\u000a control groups, ICU staff and staff co-opted to assist with patient management.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to

Guy A. Richards; Charles L. Sprung

2010-01-01

412

Space vacuum processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique ultra-vacuum environment of low-earth orbit space is to be utilized for vacuum processing of advanced semiconductor and superconductor materials through epitaxial thin-film growth. The quality of semiconductor single crystal (epitaxial) thin-films can be significantly enhanced in the space ultra-vacuum through the reduction of impurities. This will be accomplished by the development of the free-flying Wake Shield Facility presently being built by the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center in conjunction with industry and NASA under a low-cost, short time commercial approach to space hardware development.

Ignatiev, A.; Shih, H. D.; Daniels, M.; Sega, R.; Bonner, T.

1991-01-01

413

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

This paper describes a low-cost 6809 microprocessor-based system designed for the acquisition, analysis, preprocessing and recording of electrochemical kinetic data. Determination of second-order rate constants involves a preliminary calculation of a characteristic parameter of the electro-chemical system investigated, the value of which, computed and displayed by our apparatus, allows checking of the correctness of the experimental conditions. At the end of the experiment the data are recorded on a magnetic tape cartridge and can be transferred from the tape to a minicomputer for further mathematical processing. PMID:18963289

Fontaine, J C; Levoir, P; Meyer, J J

1982-11-01

414

Coal-deashing process  

SciTech Connect

Natural coal containing inorganic impurities may be deashed by the selective flocculation process using a novel flocculant which is a water-soluble or water-dispersible copolymer having a molecular weight from about 100,000 to about 30,000,000 comprising a hydrophilic monomeric unit having a solubility in water greater than 15% by weight at 20/sup 0/ C. and a hydrophobic monomeric unit having a solubility in water less than 10% by weight at 20/sup 0/ C. in proportions of 99:1 to 20:80% by weight.

Ishizuka, T.; Hotta, H.; Nishimura, Y.

1984-03-20

415

Electromagnetic Processes in ?EFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear electromagnetic currents derived in a chiral-effective-field-theory framework including explicit nucleons, ? isobars, and pions up to N2LO, i.e. ignoring loop corrections, are used in a study of neutron radiative captures on protons and deuterons at thermal energies, and of A=2 and 3 nuclei magnetic moments. With the strengths of the ?-excitation currents determined to reproduce the n-p cross section and isovector combination of the trinucleon magnetic moments, we find that the cross section and photon circular polarization parameter, measured respectively in n-d and /rightarrow n - d processes, are significantly underpredicted by theory.

Pastore, S.; Schiavilla, R.; Goity, J. L.

416

Hydrocarbon conversion process  

SciTech Connect

Processes are claimed for the production of highly aromatic petroleum fractions from various petroleum feedstocks suitable for catalytic cracking in a fluidized catalytic cracking unit and for producing needle coke from various hydrocarbon cracking stocks. The heavy gas oil from a first fluidized catalytic cracking unit is subjected to further catalytic cracking in a separate fluid catalytic cracking unit at temperatures in the range of 565/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/ C producing light olefins and a heavy gas oil consisting essentially of aromatic components suitable for the production of needle coke.

Lionetti, T.A.; Schrader, C.H.

1983-06-14

417

The Water Filtration Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

418

Gas processing in 1982  

SciTech Connect

As gas prices go up throughout the 1980's and gas-plant operators seek to maximize their product, processing technology will trend toward greater flexibility and operating efficiency through different applications of known methods rather than the development of strictly new techniques. Several operating factors will influence gas-conditioning plant designs: dehydration, inhibition, sweetening, liquid recovery, compression, pump selection, power sources, control systems, and computer technology. Final choices will hinge on the need for protection against hydrate and freezing problems, residue or sales gas specifications, analysis and quantity of gas available, the possibility of corrosion and erosion, and liquid recovery economics.

Campbell, J.M.

1982-03-01

419

Laminar Soot Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of the Equipment Module for the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP-2) experiment that fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 (LSP-1 flew on Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997). The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner (yellow ellipse), similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a radiometer or heat sensor (blue circle), and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

2001-01-01

420

Laminar Soot Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment under way during the Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997. LSP-2 will fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001. The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner, similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a temperature sensor, and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

2001-01-01

421

Laminar Soot Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image of soot (smoke) plume made for the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment during the Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997. LSP-2 will fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002. The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner, similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a temperature sensor, and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

2001-01-01

422

Process Energy Retrofits  

E-print Network

as serious as they appear, but all cause the efficiency of the retrofit plant to lag several years behind that of the new optimum desi~. ? What is their impact? ? What are the natural short circuits past them? ? What can we do to aid natural processes... There are possibly some less defensible reasons: ? We didn't know who to call ? We thought we already knew what they would say. ? It is more difficult to arrange for aD outside expendi ture. ? We didn't want the hassle of secrecy agreements. ? Our energy study...

Steinmeyer, D.

423

Process for fullerene functionalization  

DOEpatents

Di-addended and tetra-addended Buckminster fullerenes are synthesized through the use of novel organoborane intermediates. The C.sub.60, C.sub.70, or higher fullerene is reacted with a borane such as BH.sub.3 in a solvent such as toluene to form an organoborane intermediate. Reaction of the organoborane such as hydrolysis with water or alcohol results in the product di-addended and tetra-addended fullerene in up to 30% yields. Dihydrofullerenes and tetrahydrofullerenes are produced by the process of the invention.

Cahill, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Henderson, Craig C. (Dublin, CA)

1995-01-01

424

Electromagnetic Processes in $?$EFT  

E-print Network

Nuclear electromagnetic currents derived in a chiral-effective-field-theory framework including explicit nucleons, $\\Delta$ isobars, and pions up to N$^2$LO, {\\it i.e.} ignoring loop corrections, are used in a study of neutron radiative captures on protons and deuterons at thermal energies, and of $A$=2 and 3 nuclei magnetic moments. With the strengths of the $\\Delta$-excitation currents determined to reproduce the $n$-$p$ cross section and isovector combination of the trinucleon magnetic moments, we find that the cross section and photon circular polarization parameter, measured respectively in $n$-$d$ and $\\vec{n}$-$d$ processes, are significantly underpredicted by theory.

S. Pastore; R. Schiavilla; J. L. Goity

2008-09-15

425

Software process modeling: principles of entity process models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A defined software process is needed to provide organizations with a consistent framework for performing their work and improving the way they do it. An overall framework for modeling simplifies the task of producing process models, permits them to be tailored to individual needs, and facilitates process evolution. This paper outlines the principles of entity process models and suggests ways

Watts S. Humphrey; Marc I. Kellner

1989-01-01

426

Chapter 4: Homogeneous Array Processing Page 39 Homogeneous Array Processing  

E-print Network

Chapter 4: Homogeneous Array Processing Page 39 Chapter 4 Homogeneous Array Processing Since most of individual sensors operating under identical conditions. Homogeneous processing converts the outputs from variations. For example, a simple homogeneous process- ing step might involve the averaging of a cluster

Wilson, Denise

427

Using Process Mining to Analyze and Improve Process Flexibility  

E-print Network

Using Process Mining to Analyze and Improve Process Flexibility - Position Paper - Wil van der. Contemporary information systems struggle with the require- ment to provide flexibility and process support such analysis, we envisage to be able to better support flexibility by understanding when and why process

van der Aalst, Wil

428

Managing Software Process Improvement (SPI) through Statistical Process Control (SPC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement based software process improvement is nowadays a mandatory activity. This implies continuous process monitoring in order to predict its behavior, highlight its performance variations and, if necessary, quickly react to them. Process variations are due to common causes or assignable ones. The former are part of the process itself while the latter are due to exceptional events that result

Maria Teresa Baldassarre; Nicola Boffoli; Danilo Caivano; Giuseppe Visaggio

2004-01-01

429

Tripropellant combustion process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

1988-01-01

430

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-01-01

431

Multiplication in curvature processing.  

PubMed

Multiplication rather than addition of neural signals is believed to underpin a variety of sensory processes, yet the evidence for multiplication is rare. Here we provide psychophysical evidence for neural multiplication in human visual processing of shape. We show that the curvature of a contour is likely detected by a mechanism that multiplies rather than adds the signals from afferent sub-units that detect parts of the curve. Using a novel perceptual after-effect, in which the perceived shape of a sinusoidal-shaped contour is altered following adaptation to a contour of slightly different sinusoidal shape, a pronounced 'dip' in the size of the after-effect is found when the adapting contour is broken into segments of a particular length and spacing. Simulations reveal that the presence and shape of the dip is only expected if the afferent sub-units to curvature detectors are multiplied. The after-effect itself is then best explained in terms of the population response of a range of such curvature detectors tuned to different curvatures. PMID:19271933

Gheorghiu, Elena; Kingdom, Frederick A A

2009-01-01

432

Microwave photonic signal processing.  

PubMed

Photonic signal processing offers the advantages of large time-bandwidth capabilities to overcome inherent electronic limitations. In-fibre signal processors are inherently compatible with fibre optic microwave systems that can integrate with wireless antennas, and can provide connectivity with in-built signal conditioning and electromagnetic interference immunity. Recent methods in wideband and adaptive signal processing, which address the challenge of realising programmable microwave photonic phase shifters and true-time delay elements for phased array beamforming; ultra-wideband Hilbert transformers; single passband, widely tunable, and switchable microwave photonic filters; and ultra-wideband microwave photonic mixers, are described. In addition, a new microwave photonic mixer structure is presented, which is based on using the inherent frequency selectivity of the stimulated Brillouin scattering loss spectrum to suppress the carrier of a dual-phase modulated optical signal. Results for the new microwave photonic mixer demonstrate an extremely wide bandwidth operation of 0.2 to 20 GHz and a large conversion efficiency improvement compared to the conventional microwave photonic mixer. PMID:24104178

Minasian, R A; Chan, E H W; Yi, X

2013-09-23

433

Partial oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

A continuous process for preventing the build-up of metals from the hydrocarbonaceous fuel feed in a partial oxidation system in which about 80-100 wt. % of the carbon-soot produced is recycled to the gas generator. By the subject process a significantly large portion of the metals and metal compounds i.e. ash in the soot-water feed stream to the decanter become concentrated in the grey water that separates out in the decanter in the carbon recovery section. The concentration of ash suspended in the grey water may be then easily reduced in a solids-liquid separator with or without the addition of a flocculant and prior to recycling a portion of the grey water to the gas quench tank and/or gas scrubber. Further, the ash suspended in the carbon-soot-liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel stream from the bottom of the liquid organic extractant still may be optionally reduced in another solids-liquid separator prior to recycling a portion of said stream to the gas generator as part of the hydrocarbonaceous reactant fuel feed.

Dille, R.M.; Estabrook, L.E.; Rhodes, H.A.; Richter, G.N.; Rohner, J.G.P.

1984-08-21

434

Worldwide phase management process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most, if not all projects, whether it is the development of a new product, a new process or fundamental research, if it requires creativity, ingenuity and some luck to meet the project objectives, will be started with a degree of uncertainty. However, in spite of this uncertainty, Project Sponsors and Company Management often require Project Managers to commit to delivery dates, performance metrics, development dollars, capital dollars, etc. Unfortunately, these early commitments are usually not able to be upheld, which leads to one or more iterations of requests for additional funding, changes to functional requirements, schedule extensions and possible compromises in the quality of the project. These "go arounds" between Project Managers and Project Sponsors can lead to much frustration, are time consuming, and often result in a compromise to the project objectives. Through the use of a Phased Development Approach, we have been able to create a more reasonable method for dealing with project risk and uncertainty. Worldwide Phase Management for New Product Development is a process that has significantly improved the establishment of delivery dates, forecasts for funding requirements, communication and understanding of expectations between a Project Team and the Project Sponsor. In addition, a consistent methodology for New Development Projects has resulted in a more productive development environment that results in shorter product development life cycles.

Hapeman, Garry J.

1992-05-01

435

Mindfulness and psychological process.  

PubMed

The author reviews the articles in the Special Section on Mindfulness, starting from the assumption that emotions evolved as signaling systems that need to be sensitive to environmental contingencies. Failure to switch off emotion is due to the activation of mental representations of present, past, and future that are created independently of external contingencies. Mindfulness training can be seen as one way to teach people to discriminate such "simulations" from objects and contingencies as they actually are. The articles in this Special Section show how even brief laboratory training can have effects on processing affective stimuli; that long-term meditation practitioners show distinct reactions to pain; that longer meditation training is associated with differences in brain structure; that 8 weeks' mindfulness practice brings about changes in the way emotion is processed showing that participants can learn to uncouple the sensory, directly experienced self from the "narrative" self; that mindfulness training can affect working memory capacity, and enhance the ability of participants to talk about past crises in a way that enables them to remain specific and yet not be overwhelmed. The implications of these findings for understanding emotion and for further research is discussed. PMID:20141295

Williams, J Mark G

2010-02-01

436

Reward Processing in Autism  

PubMed Central

The social motivation hypothesis of autism posits that infants with autism do not experience social stimuli as rewarding, thereby leading to a cascade of potentially negative consequences for later development. While possible downstream effects of this hypothesis such as altered face and voice processing have been examined, there has not been a direct investigation of social reward processing in autism. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine social and monetary rewarded implicit learning in children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Sixteen males with ASD and sixteen age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) males were scanned while performing two versions of a rewarded implicit learning task. In addition to examining responses to reward, we investigated the neural circuitry supporting rewarded learning and the relationship between these factors and social development. We found diminished neural responses to both social and monetary rewards in ASD, with a pronounced reduction in response to social rewards (SR). Children with ASD also demonstrated a further deficit in frontostriatal response during social, but not monetary, rewarded learning. Moreover, we show a relationship between ventral striatum activity and social reciprocity in TD children. Together, these data support the hypothesis that children with ASD have diminished neural responses to SR, and that this deficit relates to social learning impairments. PMID:20437601

Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; Dapretto, Mirella; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

2011-01-01

437

Resin processing system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a resin processing system for use in chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor primary systems. It comprises a fresh resin supply tank; a batching tank; a fresh resin pump connected to the fresh resin supply tank and the batching tank; a plurality of demineralizers wherein process fluids are demineralized; a resin feed pump connected to the batching tank capable of transporting fresh resin from the batching tank; a movable connection means connecting the resin feed pump to one of the plurality of demineralizers; a sluice water supply tank; a sluice water pump connected to the sluice water supply tank and the plurality of demineralizers; a spent resin storage tank connected to each of the plurality of demineralizers; a recycle pump connected to an outlet of the spent resin storage tank and having a pump outlet connected to the sluice water supply tank; and a screen at the outlet of the spent resin storage tank to retain spent resin within the spent resin storage tank while allowing sluice water to be recycled.

Corpora, G.J.; Schlonski, J.S.; Miller, P.E.; Bauer, F.I.

1992-08-18

438

Beryllium Manufacturing Processes  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61 cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

Goldberg, A

2006-06-30

439

Observations on Modeling Software Processes with SPEM Process Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

OMG's standard for software process modeling (SPEM) con- tains an element, ProcessComponent, that could be used as a reusable element to assemble end-to-end software processes. However the com- position mechanism and the nature of process components is not well defined in SPEM. In addition the organization of process components is not straightforward. In this paper we describe an experiment of

Antero Jarvi; Tuomas Makila

440

Transforming spatial point processes into Poisson processes using random superposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most finite spatial point process models specified by a density are locally\\u000astable, implying that the Papangelou intensity is bounded by some integrable\\u000afunction ? defined on the space for the points of the process. It is\\u000apossible to superpose a locally stable spatial point process X with a\\u000acomplementary spatial point process Y to obtain a Poisson process\\u000aX

Jesper Møller; Kasper K. Berthelsen

2012-01-01

441

Advanced Process Heater  

SciTech Connect

The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future'' met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) Doubling the heat transfer rates (2) Improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) Improving temperature uniformity by 100 degrees F and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH address EERE's mission priority of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. One component of the APH, the SpyroCorTM, was commercialized by STORM Development's partner, Spinworks LLC. Over 2000 SpyrCorsTM were sold in 2004 resulting in 480 million BTU's of energy savings, 20% reduction in NOx and CO2 levels, and 9 jobs in N.W. Pennsylvania. A second component, the HeatCorTM, a low-cost high-temperature heat exchanger will be demonstrated by Spinworks in 2005 in preparation for commercial sales in 2006. The project occurred in the 21st Congressional District of Pennsylvania. Once fully commercialized, the APH energy savings potential is 339 trillion BTUs annually in the U.S. and will process 1.5 million more tons annually without major capital equipment expenditures. Spinworks will commercialize the APH and add over 100 U.S. workers. To accomplish the objective, STORM Development LLC teamed with Penn State University, SyCore, Inc, Spinworks LLC, and Schunk-INEX, Inc. The project consisted of component engineering and integration of the APH followed by parametric testing. All components of the system were tested in a lab furnace that simulates a full scale industrial installation. The target areas for development include: (1) Scale up STORM's Finned Stabilized Combustion, (2) Optimization of SyCore's SiGr Inserts such that the heat transfer on the exhaust leg will match the high luminosity burner leg., (3) Evaluation of the heat transfer characteristics of Schunk-INEX's finned composite tubes as a heat exchanger, and (4) Design of a system to monitor all components of the APH and control its performance such that the objectives are met.

Tom Briselden, Chris Parrish

2005-03-07

442

The Supply Chain Management Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, supply chain management is being recognized as the management of key business processes across the network of organizations that comprise the supply chain. While many have recognized the benefits of a process approach to managing the business and the supply chain, most are vague about what processes are to be considered, what sub-processes and activities are contained in each

Keely L. Croxton; Sebastián J. García-Dastugue; Douglas M. Lambert; Dale S. Rogers

2001-01-01

443

Process Terminator 1.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting rid of an unresponsive program or process on a computer can be frustrating, so it's nice to learn about this application. Process Terminator allows users to list the running processes, examine them, and quickly terminate the processes in question. You can find the program by clicking on "Downloads" from their homepage. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 95 and newer.

2008-01-01

444

Word Processing and Basic Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the effects of word processing on the composing processes of six basic writers. Concludes that quantity and quality of revisions are not likely to increase, that word processing initially causes many interventions in composing, and that better writers are more likely to use word processing programs in advantageous ways. (RS)

Nichols, Randall G.

1986-01-01

445

Integrated flue gas processing method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system and process for flue gas processing to remove both gaseous contaminants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter such as flyash integrates spray scrubbing apparatus and wet electrostatic precipitation apparatus and provides for the advantageous extraction and utilization of heat present in the flue gas which is being processed. The integrated system and process utilizes a spray scrubbing

E. Bakke; H. P. Willett

1982-01-01

446

Integrated decontamination process for metals  

DOEpatents

An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01

447

Modeling Adaptive Media Processing Workflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARIA, ARchitecture for Interactive Arts, is a middleware to process, filter, and fuse sensory inputs and actuate responses in real-time. An ARIA media processing workflow describes how the data sensed through media will be processed and what audio-visual responses will be actuated. Each object streamed between ARIA processing components is subject to transformations, as described by a media workflow graph.

K. Selçuk Candan; Gisik Kwon; Lina Peng; Maria Luisa Sapino

2006-01-01

448

Chemical processing of lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

1979-01-01

449

Structure of Linear Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following P. Lévy, we consider a particular linear process given by [ X(t) = X_B(t) + X_P(t), ] where XB(t) = ? t0 F(t, u) ? {B}(u)du, XP(t) = ? t0 G(t, u) ? {Y}(u)du, and they are independent each other, in which ?(t) and ?(t) are white noise and a compound Poisson noise, respectively. By the effective use of characteristic functional of X(t) and observing the values of X(t), we discuss how to determine the probability structure of X(t), namely, how to identify the kernels F(t,u) and G(t,u).

Si, Si; Htay, Win Win

2006-03-01

450

Field Geology/Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

1996-01-01

451

The process of leukemogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Leukemias are monoclonal diseases that arise from cells in the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment. Consistent with emerging models of carcinogenesis, leukemogenesis is an evolutionary process that involves multiple independent genetic and epigenetic events. Over the last half-century a predominant paradigm has emerged to describe leukemia developing secondary to alkylating drug therapy or exposure to benzene in which progressive dysplastic changes, accompanied by a distinct pattern of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities, give rise to acute myelogenous leukemia. Characterization of these clonal chromosomal aberrations, together with observed alterations in other growth-promoting genes, provides a useful framework for studying chemical leukemogenesis and for use in understanding the origins and development of leukemia in general. 122 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Irons, R.D.; Stillman, W.S. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-12-01

452

Shale oil recovery process  

DOEpatents

A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

1980-01-01

453

Catalyst Alloys Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

Tan, Xincai

2014-10-01

454

River Ice Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The âRiver Ice Processesâ module provides information on flooding associated with river ice jams. In this webcast, Dr. Kate White, nationally-recognized expert on river ice, explores basic river ice processes including the formation, growth, breakup, and transport of river ice and how it can become jammed, triggering floods. In addition, Dr. White covers the current, state-of-the-art ice jam forecasting, and current ice-modeling research and development being conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

Comet

2006-11-10

455

Bag molding processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Features, materials, and techniques of vacuum, pressure, and autoclave FRP bag molding processes are described. The bags are used in sealed environments, inflated to flexibly force a curing FRP laminate to conform to a stiff mold form which defines the shape of the finished product. Densification is achieved as the bag presses out the voids and excess resin from the laminate, and consolidation occurs as the plies and adherends are bonded by the bag pressure. Curing techniques nominally involved room temperature or high temperature, and investigations of alternative techniques, such as induction, dielectric, microwave, xenon flash, UV, electron beam, and gamma radiation heating are proceeding. Polysulfone is the most common thermoplastic. Details are given of mold preparations, peel plies or release films and fabrics, bagging techniques, and reusable venting blankets and silicone rubber bags.

Slobodzinsky, A.

456

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/H/sub 2/ in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form a hydridoalkyl complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/RH; (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform CHX/sub 3/ at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) CpRhPMe/sub 3/RX; and (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex with halogen -60 to 25/sup 0/C to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana-Pillai, R.A.

1984-06-12

457

Optical processing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The major part of this work is directed towards development of large arrays of optically bistable gates for parallel-processing applications. An important requirement of such arrays is an efficient system of illumination. Assuming a clear separation between each gate and its neighbors, then it is necessary to break the laser beam, which acts as the power input to the array, into a corresponding pattern of focused beamlets. Holographic techniques are particularly suited to this purpose. In addition, it is anticipated that holographic interconnects will play an important role in combining numbers of optical-gate arrays to form parallel optical digital processors. With these requirements in mind, a facility was assembled that was dedicated to the production of holographic optical elements (HOEs) for specific use in optical digital circuits. To ensure high-efficiency exploitation of available laser power, Dichromated Gelatin (DCG) was chosen as the (volume) emulsion.

Walker, A.C.; Taylor, W.

1986-06-01

458

Gaia: Processing to Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaia is ESA's ambitious space astrometry mission with a foreseen launch date in late 2012. Its main objective is to perform a stellar census of the 109 brightest objects in our galaxy (completeness to V=20 mag) from which an astrometric catalog of ?as level accuracy will be constructed. We update the viewer briefly on the status of the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution for Gaia. The results of AGIS feed in to the Main Database (MDB) which will be described here also. All results from Gaia processing in fact are in the MDB which is governed by a strict Interface Control Document (ICD). We describe the Distributed Data Model tool developed for Gaia, the Data Dictionary. Finally we mention public access to Gaia data in the archive. We present current plans and thinking on the archive from the ESA/DPAC perspective.

O'Mullane, W.; Lammers, U.; Hernandez, J.

2011-07-01

459

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

1994-01-01

460

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAAâs National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The âFlash Flood Processesâ module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

Comet

2006-11-08

461

Weather Information Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

1991-01-01

462

The process of leukemogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Leukemias are monoclonal diseases that arise from cells in the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment. Consistent with emerging models of carcinogenesis, leukemogenesis is an evolutionary process that involves multiple independent genetic and epigenetic events. Over the last half-century a predominant paradigm has emerged to describe leukemia developing secondary to alkylating drug therapy or exposure to benzene in which progressive dysplastic changes, accompanied by a distinct pattern of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities, give rise to acute myelogenous leukemia. Characterization of these clonal chromosomal aberrations, together with observed alterations in other growth-promoting genes, provides a useful framework for studying chemical leukemogenesis and for use in understanding the origins and development of leukemia in general. PMID:9118899

Irons, R D; Stillman, W S

1996-01-01

463

Hydrocarbon conversion process  

SciTech Connect

1. A combination process is described for producing high octane blending components for gasolines which consists of (a) contacting a mixture of methanol and an olefinic C/sub 4/ cut comprising isobutene, 1-butene, and 2-butenes under etherification conditions to produce methyltertiarybutyl ether and unreacted C/sub 4/ olefinic hydrocarbons, (b) contacting the unreacted C/sub 4/ olefinic hydrocarbons with a molecular sieve to selectively adsorb 2-butenes leaving a stream comprising 1-butene, (c) subjecting at least a portion of the 1-butene stream to skeletal isomerization to form isobutene, (d) subjecting the remainder of the 1-butene stream to double bond isomerization to form 2-butenes, and (e) passing the 2-butenes formed by isomerization and an isoparaffin to alkylation to form alkylate.

Hutson, T. Jr.; Hann, P.D.

1986-04-08

464

California coastal processes study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary findings are presented and applications derived from ERTS-1 satellite imagery of the nearshore coastal processes of the California coast. The objectives were to analyze nearshore currents, sediment transport, and estuarine and river discharges along the California coast through the use of synoptic and repetitive imagery from ERTS as well as aircraft underflights and surface data. The major conclusions are: (1) Distinct seasonal patterns for sediment transport as a function of the oceanic current systems and coastal morphology have been identified. (2) Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers extend offshore to previously unanticipated ranges. (3) Computer generated contouring of radiance levels from computer-compatible tapes result in charts that can be used for determination of surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. (4) Flying spot scanner enhancements result in details of nearshore features. (5) Data is providing significant information for coastal planning and construction projects.

Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D.

1974-01-01

465

Processing coordination ambiguity.  

PubMed

We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel. Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase the pan will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume that interpretations are the result of a constraint-satisfaction process, which predicts that frequency or context can bias the parser to initially pursue a more complex interpretation.The results showed an initial preference for noun-phrase coordination, despite the fact that sentential coordination is more frequent in imperative structures. These data suggest that the parser uses a syntactic simplicity heuristic for building initial structural analyses. PMID:21313991

Engelhardt, Paul E; Ferreira, Fernanda

2010-01-01

466

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

467

Continuous process electrorefiner  

DOEpatents

A new device is provided for the electrorefining of uranium in spent metallic nuclear fuels by the separation of unreacted zirconium, noble metal fission products, transuranic elements, and uranium from spent fuel rods. The process comprises an electrorefiner cell. The cell includes a drum-shaped cathode horizontally immersed about half-way into an electrolyte salt bath. A conveyor belt comprising segmented perforated metal plates transports spent fuel into the salt bath. The anode comprises the conveyor belt, the containment vessel, and the spent fuel. Uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium (Pu) are oxidized at the anode, and, subsequently, the uranium is reduced to uranium metal at the cathode. A mechanical cutter above the surface of the salt bath removes the deposited uranium metal from the cathode.

Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL); Saiveau, James G. (Hickory Hills, IL); Krajtl, Lubomir (Woodridge, IL)

2006-08-29

468

Uncloaking the Scientific Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since April 2008, NSIDC has offered daily updates of sea ice data on our Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis Web page (http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews). The images provide near-real-time data to the general public and policy makers, accompanied by monthly or more frequent analysis updates. In February 2009, a crucial channel of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) sensor on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F15 satellite, from which NSIDC was obtaining near-real-time Arctic sea ice data, suddenly failed. The daily image, which is automatically updated, showed a sudden drop in ice extent of over 50,000 square kilometers. Even after taking the images down, skeptical blogs jumped on the event, posting headlines such as “Errors in publicly presented data - Worth blogging about?” and “NSIDC pulls the plug on sea ice data.” In fact, NSIDC data managers and scientists were well aware that the F15 satellite sensor would eventually fail. NSIDC switched to a previously used back-up sensor, F13, and work to transition to a newer sensor on the F17 satellite had been underway for several weeks. While the deluge of questions from readers and bloggers were frustrating to NSIDC communications staff and scientists, they also presented a chance to give readers a window into the scientific process, and specifically into the collection of satellite data. We decided to publish a clear account of the process used to transition between sensors, as well as a basic explanation of the satellites used to measure sea ice data. While most scientists are familiar with the limitations of near-real-time data, the concept is unfamiliar to many in the general public. The Web page includes links to information on near-real-time data, including notes that images sometimes contain missing or erroneous data, and that delays can occur. However, to a skeptical person, the words that scientists use to describe the processing of final data, including “adjustment,” “bias,” and “correction,” can convey a sinister or political motive. How much information is really necessary for the general public? How much should we share about our processes and motives? This poster/presentation will address some of the dangers and opportunities of presenting near-real-time data to the public, and share some of strategies we used to respond to attacks on our data quality. In order to develop effective responses to climate change, it is important for policymakers to focus on complete data records and not short-term variability in near-real-time data, which may not be indicative of long-term trends or, as in the case presented here, may have errors that need to be corrected. NSIDC clearly states that its near-real-time images and data should not be used for significant conclusions about the long-term state of the climate, but are an initial snapshot for informational purposes. Nonetheless, NSIDC did hear from some policymakers that our data was regularly being used in various briefs within governmental agencies. This has led to greater attention to how our data may be used. However, we hope that our transparency and clear explanations will be valuable in guiding how policymakers employ our data and images in the future.

Leitzell, K.; Meier, W.

2009-12-01

469

Progressing batch hydrolysis process  

DOEpatents

A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

Wright, J.D.

1985-01-10

470

Fluorination process using catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

Hochel, Robert C. (Aiken, SC); Saturday, Kathy A. (Aiken, SC)

1985-01-01

471

BAOlab: Image processing program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BAOlab is an image processing package written in C that should run on nearly any UNIX system with just the standard C libraries. It reads and writes images in standard FITS format; 16- and 32-bit integer as well as 32-bit floating-point formats are supported. Multi-extension FITS files are currently not supported. Among its tools are ishape for size measurements of compact sources, mksynth for generating synthetic images consisting of a background signal including Poisson noise and a number of pointlike sources, imconvol for convolving two images (a “source” and a “kernel”) with each other using fast fourier transforms (FFTs) and storing the output as a new image, and kfit2d for fitting a two-dimensional King model to an image.

Larsen, Søren S.

2014-03-01

472

Gate etch process control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on photomask Cr and MoSi etch processes were carried out and etch kinetics and modeling were performed. The photomasks were etched using an AMAT Centura II DPS and compared with a Unaxis VLE 770 ICP etcher. Mask metrology to support theoretical suppositions was performed on several tools: a KLA-Tencor P-12 profiler was used for depth measurement, while the KLA-Tencor 8250XP-R SEM was used for CD metrology and process characterization. The Toshiba EBM3500 50KeV writing system on positive chemically amplified resist was used for pattern creation. Cr and MoSi loading - etch rate equations were theoretically proposed and experimentally tested. It was found that the calculated Cr and MoSi etch rates agreed well with the experimental results. The equations can be used for etch time calculations and endpoint determinations of extremely low Cr load photomasks. Cr and MoSi local etch rates versus local loading on one photomask were studied and kinetic equations were proposed, showing good agreement with experimental results. Cr and MoSi etch CD movements versus local load on one photomask were also investigated. It was found that load effects on Cr and MoSi etch CD movements could be controlled in opposite directions and then a compensation consideration was proposed in MoSi optimization instead of using a point-to-point 3? as the optimization parameter. By using this compensation method, the final MoSi CD unformity of 100-110 nm technology node photomasks is in the range of 8.5 to 10.1 nm. This final CD uniformity is similar to those etched using VLR 770 ICP etcher.

Krogh, Ole; Freeland, Mark; Mori, Ron; Chowdhury, Tito

2003-05-01

473

Processing polymers with cyclodextrins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic starch molecules that have the unique ability to include a variety of small molecules and polymers inside their cavities, forming "Inclusion Complexes" (ICs). While much work has been done to understand the formation and behavior of these ICs, far less is known about the fundamental property changes that can occur when CD is used to alter polymer chain morphology. The goal of my graduate research has been to discover different ways to improve upon existing polymer properties through CD processing, as well as explore the possibility of creating a novel type of IC using non-traditional forms of cyclodextrin. Poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) was processed with alpha-CD to form an IC. The cyclodextrin was then stripped away to yield a PCL with elongated, unentangled, and constrained polymer chains, a process referred to as coalescence. The physical and rheological property changes resulting from this coalescence were then examined. It was found that reorganizing PCL in this manner resulted in an increase in the melt crystallization temperature of up to 25°C. Coalescence also decreased the tan delta of the material and increased the average hardness and Young's modulus by 33 and 53%, respectively. Non-stoichiometric ICs (NS-ICs), or ICs with at least parts of some polymer chains uncovered, were formed between poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and gamma-CD as well as a synthesized poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(propylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL-PPG-PCL) triblock copolymer and beta-CD. The property changes of the non-complexed polymer chains were then studied. The PMMA/gamma-CD NS-IC samples were determined to be extremely heterogeneous, however glass transition temperature increases of up to 27°C above that of as-received PMMA were observed. Diffraction data for the PMMA NS-ICs suggests slight crystallinity at partial coverage, with a similar crystal structure to that of the fully covered IC. XRD, DSC and FTIR data revealed an almost total disruption of the PCL crystallinity upon complexation of the PCL-PPG-PCL triblock, suggesting possible miscibility of PCL blocks and PPG blocks threaded with beta-CD or partial coverage of the PCL blocks by the beta-CD. A non-crystalline and unreactive modified CD, diethylamine-terminated monochloro-triazinyl-beta-CD (DEAMCT), was synthesized from an industrially available beta-CD derivative. DEAMCT was complexed with poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) as well as a poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene glycol)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PPG-PEG) triblock copolymer (trade name Pluronic). The IC's formed between these polymers and the non-crystalline cyclodextrin derivative were studied with a variety of techniques. Two-dimensional ROESY 1H-NMR demonstrated through-space spin coupling interactions between backbone protons of the PPG and two of the inward-facing cavity protons in the beta-CD cavity, strong evidence for IC formation between these materials. Unexpectedly, these IC's displayed clear X-ray observed crystalline behavior, with long-range order that was comparable for both the DEAMTC- and beta-CD-ICs formed with guest Pluronics. The IC formation with the Pluronic material resulted in the complete disruption of the PEG block crystallinity in a fashion similar to the PCL-PPG-PCL triblock copolymer. Unexpectedly, the aqueous solubility for both the Pluronic and PPG homopolymer decreased upon low-coverage DEAMCT inclusion.

Williamson, Brandon Robert

474

Monitoring autocorrelated process: A geometric Brownian motion process approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autocorrelated process control is common in today's modern industrial process control practice. The current practice of autocorrelated process control is to eliminate the autocorrelation by using an appropriate model such as Box-Jenkins models or other models and then to conduct process control operation based on the residuals. In this paper we show that many time series are governed by a geometric Brownian motion (GBM) process. Therefore, in this case, by using the properties of a GBM process, we only need an appropriate transformation and model the transformed data to come up with the condition needs in traditional process control. An industrial example of cocoa powder production process in a Malaysian company will be presented and discussed to illustrate the advantages of the GBM approach.

Li, Lee Siaw; Djauhari, Maman A.

2013-09-01

475

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2001) 8: 429438 Nonlinear Processes  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2001) 8: 429­438 Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics c European Geophysical Society 2001 Mesoscale predictability under various synoptic regimes W. A. Nuss and D. K. Miller

Boyer, Edmond

476

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2001) 8: 449465 Nonlinear Processes  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2001) 8: 449­465 Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics c European Geophysical Society 2001 The predictability of large-scale wind-driven flows A. Mahadevan1,*, J. Lu2, S. P

Boyer, Edmond

477

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2002) 9: 131138 Nonlinear Processes  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2002) 9: 131­138 Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics c European Geophysical Society 2002 Two-dimensional MHD model of the reconnection diffusion region N. V. Erkaev1, V. S

Boyer, Edmond

478

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2002) 9: 207220 Nonlinear Processes  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2002) 9: 207­220 Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics c European Geophysical Society 2002 Granular flow in equilibrium with the bottom: experimental analysis and theoretical

Boyer, Edmond

479

The task force process  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several {open_quotes}big picture{close_quotes} issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald.

Applegate, J.S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-01-31

480

Joining Processes: An Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joining Processes An Introduction David Brandon and Wayne D. Kaplan Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Israel This is an introductory text for students of materials science and engineering interested in the scientific background to the joining and assembly of components in engineering systems. The principles of joining and the common methods employed to achieve a reliable joint are covered in chapters that all conclude with a summary of the points covered, and a set of problems for individual study, or class discussion. In the first chapters, thorough introductory overviews are given of firstly, the mechanical, chemical and physical phenomena related to surfaces, contacts and joins. In subsequent chapters, any necessary metallurgical or chemical background is adequately covered to enable students to understand the basic principles of a variety of joining methods, microelectronic devices and vacuum assemblies. Contents: Introduction; Surface Science; The Mechanics of Joining; Mechanical Bonding; Welding; Weld Metallurgy; Soldering and Brazing; Metal-ceramic Joints and Diffusion Bonding; Adhesives; Vacuum Seals; Micro-electronic Packaging.

Brandon, David G.; Kaplan, Wayne D.

1997-05-01

481

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: RH where: H represents a hydrogen atom, and R represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 H.sub.2 where: Cp represents a pentamethylated cyclopentadienyl radical, Rh represents a rhodium atom, P represents a phosphorous atom, Me represents a methyl group, H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at a temperature maintained at about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RH (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform of the formula: CHX.sub.3 where: X represents a bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e. ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana-Pillai, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01

482

Epitaxial thinning process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for thinning an epitaxial layer of a wafer that is to be used in producing diodes having a specified breakdown voltage and which also facilitates the thinning process. Current is passed through the epitaxial layer, by connecting a current source between the substrate of the wafer and an electrolyte in which the wafer is immersed. When the wafer is initially immersed, the voltage across the wafer initially drops and then rises at a steep rate. When light is applied to the wafer the voltage drops, and when the light is interrupted the voltage rises again. These changes in voltage, each indicate the breakdown voltage of a Schottky diode that could be prepared from the wafer at that time. The epitaxial layer is thinned by continuing to apply current through the wafer while it is immersed and light is applied, to form an oxide film and when the oxide film is thick the wafer can then be cleaned of oxide and the testing and thinning continued. Uninterrupted thinning can be achieved by first forming an oxide film, and then using an electrolyte that dissolves the oxide about as fast as it is being formed, to limit the thickness of the oxide layer.

Siegel, C. M. (inventor)

1984-01-01

483

MEGARA optical manufacturing process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEGARA is the future visible integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4-m telescope located in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013, and the blanks of the main optics have been already ordered and their manufacturing is in progress. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system will be manufactured in Mexico, shared between the workshops of INAOE and CIO. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms, being all these elements very large and complex. Additionally, the optical tests and the complete assembly of the camera and collimator subsystems will be carried out in Mexico. Here we describe the current status of the optics manufacturing process.

Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Granados, F.; Percino, E.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.

2014-07-01

484

Food Processing Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When NASA started plarning for manned space travel in 1959, the myriad challenges of sustaining life in space included a seemingly mundane but vitally important problem: How and what do you feed an astronaut? There were two main concerns: preventing food crumbs from contaminating the spacecraft's atmosphere or floating into sensitive instruments, and ensuring complete freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria, viruses, and toxins. To solve these concerns, NASA enlisted the help of the Pillsbury Company. Pillsbury quickly solved the first problem by coating bite-size foods to prevent crumbling. They developed the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept to ensure against bacterial contamination. Hazard analysis is a systematic study of product, its ingredients, processing conditions, handling, storage, packing, distribution, and directions for consumer use to identify sensitive areas that might prove hazardous. Hazard analysis provides a basis for blueprinting the Critical Control Points (CCPs) to be monitored. CCPs are points in the chain from raw materials to the finished product where loss of control could result in unacceptable food safety risks. In early 1970, Pillsbury plants were following HACCP in production of food for Earthbound consumers. Pillsbury's subsequent training courses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) personnel led to the incorporation of HACCP in the FDA's Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, set down in the mid-1970s to ensure the safety of all canned food products in the U.S.

1997-01-01

485

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

2003-11-04

486

Pipeline Processing for VISTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VISTA telescope is a 4 metre instrument which has recently been commissioned at Paranal, Chile. Equipped with an infrared camera, 16 2Kx2K Raytheon detectors and a 1.7 square degree field of view, VISTA represents a huge leap in infrared survey capability in the southern hemisphere. Pipeline processing of IR data is far more technically challenging than for optical data. IR detectors are inherently more unstable, while the sky emission is over 100 times brighter than most objects of interest, and varies in a complex spatial and temporal manner. To compensate for this, exposure times are kept short, leading to high nightly data rates. VISTA is expected to generate an average of 250 GB of data per night over the next 5-10 years, which far exceeds the current total data rate of all 8m-class telescopes. In this presentation we discuss the pipelines that have been developed to deal with IR imaging data from VISTA and discuss the primary issues involved in an end-to-end system capable of: robustly removing instrument and night sky signatures; monitoring data quality and system integrity; providing astrometric and photometric calibration; and generating photon noise-limited images and science-ready astronomical catalogues.

Lewis, J. R.; Irwin, M.; Bunclark, P.

2010-12-01

487

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R.sub.1 H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R.sub.1 represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ]H.sub.2 wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical; Rh represents a rhodium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.2 represents a hydrocarbon radical; H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ](R.sub.1)H (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X''X'''X'''' or CHX'X''X''' wherein X', X'', X'", X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e., ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

1988-01-01

488

Processes for water reclamation.  

PubMed

Water treatments fall into two broad classes; those that remove or destroy specific classes of pollutants, i.e. color, metal ions, hardness, sediment, bacteria, etc., and those that remove water from nearly all of the pollutants. The first class includes sedimentation, biological treatment by microbes, chemical precipitation, adsorption on active carbon or ion exchange resins, and disinfection. The second class includes distillation, freezing and reverse osmosis (RO). The first class are the least expensive in terms of energy and have a long history of successful use on a large scale to reclaim water containing sewage. Most of the second group are energy intensive and have been used primarily on a moderate scale. All processes, except disinfection, leave a residual sludge or brine that contains a substantial quantity of water. Many of the problems of treating waste water for reuse on Earth stem from the fact that waste water carries pathogenic organisms from one location to another and may spread disease over long distances. In a closed group, such as in a Space Station, there are so many other routes for transfer of microorganisms, i.e. in the air, on surfaces, by hand-to-mouth, that undue emphasis on disinfection of water is inappropriate. Successful examples of water reuse on Earth are reviewed in terms of their possible application in space. PMID:11537694

Dean, R B

1991-10-01

489

Silicon web process development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; McHugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1980-06-01

490

Microscopy of photoionisation processes  

SciTech Connect

A method is demonstrated which combines the ionisation of free molecules by a sharply focused femtosecond laser beam and projection microscopy in a divergent electric field. The electric field is produced in vacuum between a metallic tip and a flat positionsensitive charged particle detector. The method enables investigation of photoionisation processes in low-density gases with a subdiffraction spatial resolution and can be used as well in profile measurements for sharply focused, intense laser beams. In a demonstration experiment, a femtosecond laser beam with a peak intensity of {approx}10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2} was focused to a 40-{mu}m-diameter waist in vacuum near a millimetre-size tip and {approx}2-{mu}m spatial resolution was achieved. According to our estimates, the use of a sharper tip will ensure a submicron spatial resolution, which is a crucial condition for the spatial diagnostics of sharply focused short-wavelength VUV radiation and X-rays. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Aseyev, S A; Mironov, B N; Minogin, V G; Cherkun, Aleksandr P; Chekalin, Sergei V [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-04-30

491

COSS Lesson Creation Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COSS (Crew On-Orbit System Support) is changing. Designed as computer based in-flight refresher training, it is getting good reviews and the demands on the product can be expected to increase. Last year, the lessons were written using Authorware, which had a number of limitations. The most important one was that the navigation and the layout functions were both in one package that was not easy to learn. The lesson creator had to be good at both programming and design. There were also a number of other problems, as detailed in my report last year. This year the COSS unit made the switch to embrace modularity. The navigation function is handled by a player that was custom-written using Delphi. The layout pages are now standard HTML files that can be created using any number of products. This new system gives new flexibility and unties the process from one product (and one company). The player can be re-written by a programmer without affecting the lesson pages. It is also now possible for anybody with a word-processor to make part of the HTML lesson pages and to use many of the new commercially available tools that are being designed for web pages. This summer I created a computer-based training (CBT) lesson on the IBM ThinkPad 760 ED and 760XD laptop computers that should fly on the International Space Station. I also examined the COSS system, the new player and the other new software products.

Harper, R. Stephen

1999-01-01

492

): laser processing and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substoichiometric silicon oxide SiOx with x < 2 in form of evaporated or sputtered thin films offers a versatile material basis for laser ablation techniques such as film patterning, laser-induced forward transfer, or laser-induced backside dry etching. Applications in the field of (micro-) optics are favoured strongly by the fact that SiOx can be oxidised to UV-transparent SiO2 by thermal treatment (furnace or laser annealing). On the other hand, with x ? 1, SiOx exhibits an absorption coefficient of >105 cm-1 in the deep UV below 250 nm, comparable to strongly absorbing polymers such as polyimide. This enables precise ablation with, e.g., excimer lasers at moderate fluences. For example, UV-transparent diffractive elements or phase masks are made by laser patterning of an appropriate SiOx film and subsequent oxidation to SiO2. Modifications of the basic film ablation process lead to novel surface topographies such as blister or cup arrays with potential non-optical applications, e.g., in micro-/nanofluidics.

Fricke-Begemann, T.; Meinertz, J.; Weichenhain-Schriever, R.; Ihlemann, J.

2014-10-01

493

Developing the JPL Engineering Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper briefly recounts the recent history of process reengineering at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a focus on the engineering processes. The JPL process structure is described and the process development activities of the past several years outlined. The main focus of the paper is on the current process structure, the emphasis on the flight project life cycle, the governance approach that lead to Flight Project Practices, and the remaining effort to capture process knowledge at the detail level of the work group.

Linick, Dave; Briggs, Clark

2004-01-01

494

Modified thin film processing sequence  

SciTech Connect

A modified thin film processing sequence in which tantalum nitride (TA/sub 2/N) resistors are stabilized prior to chromium/gold (Cr/Au) evaporation was investigated, and the effects of subsequent processing on unstabilized Cr/Au films were determined. Thin films evaporated using the modified process yielded results similar to those of films evaporated using the standard processing techniques. Work on the modified process was discontinued because of some metallization adhesion failures at the Cr/Au-to-Ta/sub 2/N interface, higher contact resistance, and the additional steps required in processing.

Baxter, C.R.

1980-06-01

495

Guidance in Business Process Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter shows how process modellers can be supported by guidance. If a telecommunication provider introduces a value-added service, this might involve the establishment of new business processes, whose specification is not trivial. A guidance engine can help a process engineer develop a new business process by stepwise refining, i.e. creating a more concrete version of the process from an abstract version. The guidance engine identifies inconsistencies and proposes possible refinement steps. The topics covered in this chapter range from theoretical foundations of business process refinement over the formalisation of refinement problems in ontologies to implementation issues. The presented solutions were developed in the MOST project.

Bartho, Andreas; Gröner, Gerd; Rahmani, Tirdad; Zhao, Yuting; Zivkovic, Srdjan

496

Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

1996-06-18

497

A Process Model for RFID based Business Process Analysis  

E-print Network

the challenge to continually adapt their business processes. Technologies such as RFID allow companiesA Process Model for RFID based Business Process Analysis Thomas Neubauer, Gernot Goluch, Stefan Jakoubi, Simon Tjoa, Martin Wisser Secure Business Austria Vienna, Austria {neubauer, goluch, jakoubi

498

Word Processing and the Writing Process: Enhancement or Distraction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of a year-long word processing program on learners' holistic writing skills. Based on results of a writing pretest, 80 seventh grade students were designated as relatively high or low in prior writing achievement and assigned to one of two groups: a word processing treatment and a conventional writing process

Dalton, David W.; Watson, James F.

499

An approach for enhancing process and process interaction capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In market globalization environment, the enterprises need respond to customer requirement and increasing customer satisfaction. The enterprises need to be fine appropriate approach that can help to achieve their goal. This encouraged many enterprises to adopt either Six Sigma for improving process throughout process interaction and problem solving or Lean for wastes reduction in processes. However, Six Sigma and Lean

Ch. Chinvigai; A. El Mhamedi

500

DYNAMIC BUSINESS PROCESS MODELLING (BPM) FOR BUSINESS PROCESS CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high failure rates of many business process change deployments are attributed to the inability to predict the outcome of the exercise without actually implementing the change in the physical environment. This restriction could be a result of over 80% of business process change projects adopting a static modelling technique in order to model their business processes. Static modelling enables

NAYNA PATEL; VLATKA HLUPIC